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Sample records for acceptable sensory characteristics

  1. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of decaffeinated green teas.

    PubMed

    Lee, S M; Lee, H-S; Kim, K-H; Kim, K-O

    2009-04-01

    Green tea has been widely consumed for its mild flavors and its health benefits, yet caffeine in green tea has been a limitation for those who want to avoid it. The limitation brought increase in need for decaffeinated products in the green tea market. Most of the conventional decaffeination techniques applied in food use organic solvents. However, supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SC-CO2) method is gaining its intension as one of the future decaffeination methods that overcomes the problems of conventional methods. The purpose of this study was to identify sensory characteristics of decaffeinated green teas applied with SC-CO2 method and to observe the relationship with consumer acceptability to elucidate the potentiality of applying SC-CO2 technique in decaffeinated green tea market. Descriptive analysis was performed on 8 samples: green teas containing 4 caffeine levels (10%, 35%, 60%, and 100%) infused at 2 infusing periods (1 or 2 min). It was found that the SC-CO2 process not only reduced caffeine but also decreased some important features of original tea flavors. Two groups were recruited for consumer acceptability test: one (GP I, N = 52), consuming all types of green teas including hot/cold canned teas; and the other (GP II, N = 40), only consuming the loose type. While GP II liked original green tea the most, GP I liked highly decaffeinated green teas. Although the SC-CO2 method had limitations of losing complex flavors of green teas, it appeared to have future potential in the decaffeinated green tea market within or without the addition of desirable flavors. PMID:19397734

  2. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of bread and cracker products made from red or white wheat.

    PubMed

    Challacombe, Carolyn A; Seetharaman, Koushik; Duizer, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    Whole grain consumption is being promoted due to a number of associated health benefits. However, whole grain consumption is below recommendations possibly due to the presence of characteristic flavors that consumers find unacceptable. The objective of this study was to investigate the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of products made from commercial whole grain flours produced from red or white wheats, and with fine or coarse bran particle sizes. Descriptive analysis and consumer acceptance panels were used to characterize both low (cracker) and intermediate (bread) moisture products made with the flours. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to correlate the descriptive and consumer data. Sensory differences in whole grain products made from red or white wheat with small or large bran particles sizes and product moisture contents were observed. Bran particle size had a greater effect on the sensory properties of the whole grain products, particularly within the cracker; conversely bran particle size had little influence on consumer acceptance. Red wheat products were found to be more acceptable than the white wheat products. However, a number of color × bran particle interactions were observed in both the descriptive and consumer data. PLS regression demonstrated that consumers could be divided into groupings based upon certain attributes and characteristics. PMID:22417450

  3. Simultaneous analysis of consumer variables, acceptability and sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Masahiro; Obiya, Shinichi; Kaneko, Miku; Enomoto, Ayame; Honma, Mayu; Wakayama, Masataka; Tomita, Masaru

    2016-11-01

    We conducted a consumer acceptability analysis of dry-cured ham based on sensory evaluation. Consumer acceptability data are rendered heterogeneous by the diverse backgrounds and assessment abilities of the participants, requiring versatile analytical methods for their interpretation. Totally, 9 sensory attributes of 12 kinds of dry-cured ham samples collected from Japan (n=9), Italy (n=1), Spain (n=1), and Germany (n=1) were tasted by 117 Japanese consumers who showed acceptable evaluation abilities during blind sampling. Common techniques, such as hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis, and external preference mapping, were simultaneously utilized to analyze each characteristics scored in modified hedonic scale. These analyses revealed the relationships between the features and preferences of the assessors. For example, consumers aged 20-30 with smoking and drinking habits preferred sweetness and saltiness, and gave high ratings to Spanish Jómon serrano and Italian prosciutto. Our approach could assist ham marketers to identify potential purchasers and the preferred characteristics of their products. PMID:27343459

  4. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food

    PubMed Central

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Sensory analysis was used to determine the changes due to the storage time on extruded pet food prepared from two different rendered protein meals: (i) beef meat and bone meal (BMBM); (ii) chicken byproduct meal (CPBM). Extrusion is a process where feed is pressed through a die in order to create shapes and increase digestibility. Descriptive sensory analysis using a human panel found an increase in undesirable sensory attributes (e.g., oxidized oil, rancid) in extruded pet food over storage time, especially the one prepared from chicken by product meal without antioxidants. The small increase in oxidized and rancid aromas of BMBM samples did not affect pet owners’ acceptability of the products. CPBM samples without antioxidants showed a notable increase in oxidized and rancid aroma over storage time and, thus, affected product acceptability negatively. This finding indicated that human sensory analysis can be used as a tool to track the changes of pet food characteristics due to storage, as well as estimate the shelf-life of the products. Abstract Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products’ shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners’ acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly

  5. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food.

    PubMed

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products' shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners' acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly trained descriptive panelists for sensory attributes related to oxidation. Samples without preservatives were chosen for the acceptability test, since the differences in sensory characteristics over storage time were more distinguishable in those samples. Pet owners evaluated samples for aroma, appearance and overall liking. Descriptive sensory analysis detected significant changes in oxidized-related sensory characteristics over storage time. However, the differences for CBPM samples were more pronounced and directional. The consumer study showed no differences in pet owners' acceptability for BMBM samples. However, the noticeable increase in aroma characteristics (rancid aroma 0.33-4.21) in CBPM samples over storage time did have a negative effect on consumer's liking (overall liking 5.52-4.95). PMID:27483326

  6. Sensory Characteristics and Consumer Acceptance of Frozen Cooked Rice by a Rapid Freezing Process Compared to Homemade and Aseptic Packaged Cooked Rice

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Han Sub; Kim, Hye-Gyeong; Kim, Hyun Suk; Ahn, Yong Sik; Jung, Kyunghee; Jeong, Hyo-Young; Kim, Tae Hyeong

    2013-01-01

    Descriptive analysis and consumer acceptance tests were conducted with frozen (FCR), homemade (HCR), and aseptic-packaged (ACR) cooked rice products from two cultivars–IM and SD. FCR was prepared using a rapid freezing process, which may provide consumers with a quality similar to that of HCR. The intensity of the flavors of roasted, glutinous rice, rice cake, and rice starch and the textures of glutinousness, moistness, chunkiness, adhesiveness, and squishiness were all greater in the FCR as compared to the HCR and ACR (p<0.05) in IM and SD cultivars. The differences in sensory characteristics between the FCR and ACR were larger than the equivalent differences between the FCR and HCR. Overall consumer acceptance ratings for FCR in overall aspect, appearance, aroma, and texture were not significantly different compared to those for HCR (p>0.05); however, in most cases these factors showed significant differences when compared with ACR (p<0.05). From partial least square regression analysis, cooked rice was positively related to sweet, transparency, glossiness, roasted, glutinousness, chunkiness, moistness, glutinous rice, adhesiveness, rice shape, rice starch, and squishiness attributes but negatively related to raw rice, old rice, old rice aroma, a particle feeling, off-aroma, white color, scatteredness, slickness, size of cooked rice, and firmness attributes. PMID:24471112

  7. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of frozen cooked rice by a rapid freezing process compared to homemade and aseptic packaged cooked rice.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Han Sub; Kim, Hye-Gyeong; Kim, Hyun Suk; Ahn, Yong Sik; Jung, Kyunghee; Jeong, Hyo-Young; Kim, Tae Hyeong

    2013-03-01

    Descriptive analysis and consumer acceptance tests were conducted with frozen (FCR), homemade (HCR), and aseptic-packaged (ACR) cooked rice products from two cultivars-IM and SD. FCR was prepared using a rapid freezing process, which may provide consumers with a quality similar to that of HCR. The intensity of the flavors of roasted, glutinous rice, rice cake, and rice starch and the textures of glutinousness, moistness, chunkiness, adhesiveness, and squishiness were all greater in the FCR as compared to the HCR and ACR (p<0.05) in IM and SD cultivars. The differences in sensory characteristics between the FCR and ACR were larger than the equivalent differences between the FCR and HCR. Overall consumer acceptance ratings for FCR in overall aspect, appearance, aroma, and texture were not significantly different compared to those for HCR (p>0.05); however, in most cases these factors showed significant differences when compared with ACR (p<0.05). From partial least square regression analysis, cooked rice was positively related to sweet, transparency, glossiness, roasted, glutinousness, chunkiness, moistness, glutinous rice, adhesiveness, rice shape, rice starch, and squishiness attributes but negatively related to raw rice, old rice, old rice aroma, a particle feeling, off-aroma, white color, scatteredness, slickness, size of cooked rice, and firmness attributes. PMID:24471112

  8. Effect of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed on antioxidant activity, phytocompounds, physicochemical characteristics, and sensory acceptability of enriched cookies and mango juice.

    PubMed

    Natukunda, Sheilla; Muyonga, John H; Mukisa, Ivan M

    2016-07-01

    Tamarind seeds are not consumed despite their high antioxidative activity. In this study, 0-10% tamarind seed powder (TSP) was incorporated into mango juice and cookies. Total phenolics (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay), flavonoid (aluminum chloride assay), condensed tannins content (Vanillin-HCl assay), and consumer acceptability (n = 50) of the products were determined. TSP increased the pH and viscosity and reduced titratable acidity of juice. Incorporation of TSP increased the: total phenolic content (6.84 ± 0.21 to 88.44 ± 0.8 mg GAE/100 mL); flavonoid (4.64 ± 0.03-21.7 ± 0.36 mg CE/100 mL); condensed tannins (0.24 ± 0.01-21.81 ± 0.08 mg CE/100 mL) and total antioxidant activity (4.65 ± 0.88-21.70 ± 0.03 mg VCE/100 mL) of juice. A similar trend was observed for cookies. Maximum sensorially acceptable TSP levels were 1.5% and 6%, respectively, for juice and cookies. TSP can thus be utilized as a source of natural antioxidants in food products. PMID:27386100

  9. Consumer acceptance and sensory profiling of reengineered kitoza products.

    PubMed

    Pintado, Ana I E; Monteiro, Maria J P; Talon, Régine; Leroy, Sabine; Scislowski, Valérie; Fliedel, Geneviève; Rakoto, Danielle; Maraval, Isabelle; Costa, Ana I A; Silva, Ana P; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Manuela M E

    2016-05-01

    Kitoza refers to a traditional way of preparing beef and pork in Madagascar. However, in order to improve some drawbacks previous identified, the product was submitted to a reengineering process. The acceptance and sensory profiling of improved Kitoza products among Portuguese consumers was investigated. A local smoked loin sausage was selected as basis for comparison. Firstly, a Focus Group study was performed to identify sensory descriptors for Kitoza products and explore product perception. Subsequently, a Flash Profile and a consumer sensory acceptance study were conducted. Flash Profile's results showed that beef- and pork-based Kitoza products investigated differed considerably in all sensory dimensions. The Portuguese sausage was characterized as having a more intense and lasting after taste, as well as displaying a higher degree of (meat) doneness. The acceptance study yielded higher overall liking ratings for pork- than for beef-based Kitoza, although the Portuguese sausage remained the most appreciated product. PMID:26769507

  10. Sensory evaluation ratings and melting characteristics show that okra gum is an acceptable milk-fat ingredient substitute in chocolate frozen dairy dessert.

    PubMed

    Romanchik-Cerpovicz, Joelle E; Costantino, Amanda C; Gunn, Laura H

    2006-04-01

    Reducing dietary fat intake may lower the risk of developing coronary heart disease. This study examined the feasibility of substituting okra gum for 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% milk fat in frozen chocolate dairy dessert. Fifty-six consumers evaluated the frozen dairy desserts using a hedonic scale. Consumers rated color, smell, texture, flavor, aftertaste, and overall acceptability characteristics of all products as acceptable. All ratings were similar among the products except for the aftertaste rating, which was significantly lower for chocolate frozen dairy dessert containing 100% milk-fat replacement with okra gum compared with the control (0% milk-fat replacement) (P<0.05). Whereas melting points of all products were similar, melting rates slowed significantly as milk-fat replacement with okra gum increased, suggesting that okra gum may increase the stability of frozen dairy desserts (P<0.05). Overall, this study shows that okra gum is an acceptable milk-fat ingredient substitute in chocolate frozen dairy dessert. PMID:16567157

  11. Sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of sweetpotato cultivars with varying flesh colors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sensory characteristics of sweet potatoes (n = 12 cultivars) with varying flesh color (orange, purple, yellow) and the impact of flesh colors on consumer acceptance were evaluated. A lexicon was developed for sweet potato flavor followed by consumer acceptance testing conducted with and without ...

  12. Methyl-accepting protein associated with bacterial sensory phodopsin I

    SciTech Connect

    Spudich, E.N.; Hasselbacher, C.A. ); Spudich, J.L. )

    1988-09-01

    In vivo radiolabeling of Halaobacterium halobium phototaxis mutants and revertants with L-(methyl-{sup 3}H) methionine implicated seven methyl-accepting protein bands with apparent molecular masses from 65 to 150 kilodaltons (kDa) in adaptation of the organism to chemo and photo stimuli, and one of these (94 kDa) was specifically implicated in photoaxis. The lability of the radiolabeled bands to mild base treatment indicated the the methyl linkages are carboxylmethylesters, as is the case in the eubacterial chemotaxis receptor-transducers. The 94-kDa protein was present in increased amounts in an overproducer of the apoprotein of sensory rhodopsin I, one of two retinal-containing photoaxis receptors in H. halobium. It was absent in a strain the contained sensory rhodopsin II and that lacked sensory rhodopsin I and was also absent in a mutant that lacked both photoreceptors. Based in the role of methyl-accepting proteins in chemotaxis in other bacteria, we suggest that the 94-kDa protein is the signal transducer for sensory rhodopsin I. By ({sup 3}H)retinal labeling studies, we previously identified a 25-kDa retinal-binding polypeptide that was derived from photochemically reactive sensory rhodopsin I. When H. halobium membranes containing sensory rhodopsin I were treated by a procedure that stably reduced ({sup 3}H) retinal onto the 25-kDa apoprotein, a 94-kDa protein was also found to be radiolabeled. Protease digestion confirmed that the 94-kDa retinal-labeled protein was the same as the methyl-accepting protein that was suggested above to be the siginal transducer for sensory rhodopsin I. Possible models are that the 25- and 94-kDa proteins are tightly interacting components of the photosensory signaling machinery or that both are forms of sensory rhodopsin I.

  13. Sensory acceptability of iron-fortified millet products.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Bhumika; Ravi, R; Prakash, Maya; Platel, Kalpana

    2011-09-01

    Fortification of millet flours with iron might be beneficial in combating iron deficiency. In this investigation, two products prepared from finger millet and sorghum flours fortified with iron and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid and stored for up to 60 days were evaluated for sensory quality attributes using quantitative descriptive analysis, and their texture was measured using a texture analyzer. Fortification did not cause any significant change in the hardness of dumpling or the shearing effect of the roti prepared from either of the millet flours. There was no significant effect of the fortificant on the texture and aroma of the products prepared from the fortified flours up to a period of 60 days. However, a discoloration was perceived in the dumplings prepared from the same flours. The overall quality of the roti prepared was acceptable to the sensory panelists. Finger millet and sorghum flours seem to be suitable as vehicles for fortification with iron. PMID:21568824

  14. Analytical and sensory quality characteristics of twelve blueberry cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The analytical and sensory quality characteristics of twelve blueberry cultivars were evaluated to determine what fruit quality characteristics consumers consider important and to evaluate if sensory quality characteristics were correlated to any analytical quality characteristics. Cultivars evaluat...

  15. Occupational Therapy and Sensory Integration for Children with Autism: A Feasibility, Safety, Acceptability and Fidelity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, Roseann C.; Benevides, Teal W.; Kelly, Donna; Mailloux-Maggio, Zoe

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the feasibility, safety, and acceptability of a manualized protocol of occupational therapy using sensory integration principles for children with autism. Methods: Ten children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder ages 4-8 years received intensive occupational therapy intervention using sensory integration principles…

  16. Relationships between anthocyanins and other compounds and sensory acceptability of Hibiscus drinks.

    PubMed

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Cissé, Mady; Fliedel, Geneviève; Declemy, Anne-Laure; Ayessou, Nicolas; Akissoe, Noel; Touré, Cheikh; Bennett, Ben; Pintado, Manuela; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith I

    2014-04-01

    Chemical composition of Hibiscus drinks (Koor and Vimto varieties, commercial and traditional, infusions and syrups) (n=8) was related to sensory evaluation and acceptance. Significant correlations between chemical composition and sensory perception of drinks were found (i.e. anthocyanin content and Hibiscus taste) (p<0.05). Consumers (n=160) evaluated drink acceptability on a 9-point verbal hedonic scale. Three classes of behaviour were identified: (a) those who preferred syrup (43% of consumers); (b) those who preferred infusion (36%); and (c) those who preferred all of the samples (21%). Acceptability of 'syrup likers' was positively correlated to sweet taste, reducing sugar content and inversely correlated to acidic taste and titratable acidity (p<0.10). Acceptability of 'infusion likers' was positively correlated to the taste of Hibiscus drink and anthocyanin content. The study showed that the distinctions between the acceptability groups are very clear with respect to the chemical composition and rating of sensory attributes. PMID:24262534

  17. Variations in U.S. Consumers' Acceptability of Korean Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, with respect to Sensory Attributes and Nonsensory Factors.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungeun; Yoon, Suk Hoo; Min, Jieun; Lee, Suji; Tokar, Tonya; Lee, Sun-Ok; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Because the Korean rice cake, Seolgitteok, is mainly prepared with rice flour containing no gluten-protein associated with celiac disease, it can be considered for inclusion in a gluten-free diet. However, Western consumers may be unlikely to enjoy the plain flavor and chewy texture of Seolgitteok. This study aimed to determine both sensory and nonsensory factors that might affect U.S. consumers' acceptability of Seolgitteok. A total of 119 U.S. consumers rated 5 Seolgitteok samples, differentiated by descriptive sensory analysis, with respect to hedonic impression and just-about-right aspects of sensory attributes. Nonsensory factors such as demographic profile, innovativeness, social representation, sensation-seeking, and personality traits were also assessed. Addition levels of brown rice flour (0% to 100%) and sugar (5% to 20%) not only enriched flavor, but also lessened chewiness of Seolgitteok, thereby increasing an overall hedonic impression. Moreover, consumer acceptability of Seolgitteok varied with respect to nonsensory factors. Seolgitteok was more appreciated by males, sensation seekers, and individuals constrained by social desirability than by other groups. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that U.S. consumers' acceptability of Seolgitteok varies not only by sensory attributes such as rice flavor, sweetness, and chewiness, but also by nonsensory factors such as gender, sensation-seeking characteristics, and personality traits. PMID:26641741

  18. Evaluation of sensory acceptability and storage stability of frozen carrot based dessert.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Tanushree Maity; Raju, P S; Bawa, A S

    2014-06-01

    In the present study a recipe for frozen carrot based dessert (carrot halwa) was standardized on the basis of sensory characteristics such as appearance, odor, texture, taste and overall acceptability (OAA). The product was developed without addition of pure ghee to improve the storage stability under frozen conditions (-20 °C). Sensory properties of the developed product (OAA score = 8.60) were found to be equally good as compared to the conventional carrot halwa (OAA score = 8.75) which was prepared using pure ghee. From the physico-chemical analysis the developed product was found to have lower amount of fat (ca. 12%) than the conventional one. During the frozen storage, microbial growth in the product was found to be non-significant (P > 0.05). The free fatty acid content, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid content increased during frozen storage of 15 months. But the increase was insignificant. Loss in total carotenoids content of the product was found to be 60.5% from initial value at the end of 15 months frozen storage. PMID:24876657

  19. Perceptual binding of sensory events: the inclusive characteristics model.

    PubMed

    Sergin, V Ya

    2003-10-01

    A conceptual model of a perceptual system is proposed, in which each neural level forms characteristics inclusive of the data held in the underlying level. As a result, the stimulus field can be expressed as a hierarchically ordered set of overlying sensory characteristics: from sensory features to higher inclusive characteristics binding sensory data to form whole images and scenes. Specific patterns of electrical activity reflecting inclusive characteristics are transmitted via reverse projections from the upper neural levels to the lower. This forms a downward excitation transmission cascade, stimulating those neural structures whose signals correspond to the higher inclusive characteristics of the given perceptual act. It is demonstrated that these mechanisms are in good agreement with experimental data obtained from psychological and neurophysiological studies and may support the binding of sensory events at all perceptual levels. PMID:14635989

  20. Effects of different brewing conditions on catechin content and sensory acceptance in Turkish green tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Saklar, Sena; Ertas, Erdal; Ozdemir, Ibrahim S; Karadeniz, Bulent

    2015-10-01

    The optimal brewing conditions for Turkish green tea were determined on the basis of extracted catechins and sensory attributes. Green tea infusions were prepared at 75, 85 and 95 °C with brewing times of 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 45 min. The amounts of epistructured catechins (EGCG, EGC, ECG, EC), non-epistructured catechins (C, GC, GCG) and caffeine in brewed tea samples were analysed. Sensory analyses were performed by nine trained panelists for infusion colour, taste, aroma and overall acceptability. Brewing at 85 °C for 3 min was found to be the optimal condition, where the EGCG content was at a maximum of 50.69 mg/100 ml with the highest sensory scores. It was observed that the yield of epistructured catechins increased rapidly for the first 3-5 min of brewing at 85 °C, and increased brewing time resulted in a decrease in the yield of epistructured catechins. The amount of nonepistructured catechins continued to increase with longer extraction times. Sensory scores for infusion colour, taste, aroma and overall acceptability were highest at 3 and 5 min brewing times at all temperatures. Sensory scores were very low for 30 and 45 min brewing at 85 and 95 °C due to the bitter taste and dark colour. PMID:26396411

  1. Sensory characteristics and consumer liking of sausages with 10% fat and added rye or wheat bran

    PubMed Central

    Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vuholm, Stine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Kristensen, Mette; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Raben, Anne; Kehlet, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Improving the nutritional profile of sausages through the addition of dietary fiber might affect appetite, sensory characteristics, and liking differently depending on the fiber source. This study investigates the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of sausages with 10% (w/w) fat and added rye or wheat bran. Sensory descriptive attributes (odor, appearance, texture, and flavor) of rye bran sausage (RBS) and wheat bran sausage (WBS) were evaluated by a trained sensory panel (n = 9). A sausage with wheat flour (WFS) and two commercial 20% (20%S) and 10% (10%S) (w/w) fat sausages were also included. Liking was investigated in consumer tests with two Danish target groups (49 children aged between six and nine and 24 parents). RBS and WBS were similar with regard to their sensory descriptive attributes, but the structure of these sausages was coarser and the color was more brown than the other sausages. RBS was similar to the commercial 10%S with regard to several sensory attributes and liking, whereas WBS was the least juicy, had a higher intensity of cereal odor and flavor, and the lowest liking. PMID:25473511

  2. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

  3. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

  4. Effect of galactooligosaccharide addition on the physical, optical, and sensory acceptance of vanilla ice cream.

    PubMed

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Celeguini, R M S; Santos, R; Pastore, G M; Junior, C A Conte; Freitas, M Q; Nogueira, L C; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the addition of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the physicochemical, optical, and sensory characteristics of ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice cream was supplemented with 0, 1.5, and 3.0% (wt/wt) GOS and characterized for pH, firmness, color, melting, overrun, as well as subjected to a discriminative sensory test (triangle test). For comparison purposes, ice creams containing fructooligosaccharide were also manufactured. The GOS ice creams were characterized by increased firmness and lower melting rates. Different perceptions were reported in the sensory evaluation for the 3.0% GOS ice cream when compared with the control, which was not observed for the fructooligosaccharide ice cream. Overall, the findings suggest it is possible to produce GOS ice cream with improved stability in relation to the physicochemical parameters and sensory perception. PMID:25912870

  5. Short communication: Sensory profile and acceptability of a cow milk cheese manufactured by adding jenny milk.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, C; Faraone, D; Paolino, R; Freschi, P; Musto, M

    2016-01-01

    The addition of jenny milk during cheesemaking has been recommended as a viable alternative to egg lysozyme for controlling late blowing defects. However, little is known on the sensory properties of the cheeses made with jenny milk. In this study, the effect of the addition of jenny milk during cheesemaking on sensory properties and consumer acceptability of cheese was evaluated. A sensory profile was carried out by 10 trained panelists on 4 cow milk cheese types. Two types of cheeses were made by adding jenny milk to cow milk during cheesemaking; the cheeses were then left to ripen for 45 and 120 d. The remaining 2 cheese types were made with only cow milk and were also left to ripen for 45 and 120 d. The attributes generated by a quantitative descriptive analysis sensory panel were effective for discriminating the 4 products. Among them, added jenny milk samples aged for 45 d had the highest intensity of some appearance descriptors (structure and color uniformity), as well as the highest intensity of sweetness. The analysis of acceptability data obtained from 89 consumers showed that added jenny milk aged for 45 d was the most preferred type of cheese, whereas no significant differences were found among the other products, which had higher intensity of bitter, salty, acid milk, and so on. PMID:26506544

  6. Texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability of gamma-irradiated marinated anchovy fillets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomac, Alejandra; Cova, María C.; Narvaiz, Patricia; Yeannes, María I.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 3 and 4 kGy) on vacuum-packed marinated anchovy fillets was analyzed for their texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability after 10 months under refrigeration. Marinated (3% acetic acid, 10% sodium chloride and 0.2% citric acid) Engraulis anchoita fillets were vacuum-packed and irradiated with a cobalt-60 source at a semi-industrial irradiation facility. The irradiation caused a slight increase in hardness values regardless of the applied dose but maintained a consistent texture over the 10 months, even though the control samples softened, most likely due to degradation. This hardness increase did not affect the textural sensory acceptability. Irradiation did not modify the color but still reduced color changes during storage, benefitting the product's quality. TBARS was increased in every sample throughout storage, but irradiation decreased these values. Sensory acceptability was not affected by gamma irradiation. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be successfully applied to this type of product for the purpose of shelf-life extension.

  7. High amounts of broccoli in pasta-like products: nutritional evaluation and sensory acceptability.

    PubMed

    Silva, E; Gerritsen, L; Dekker, M; van der Linden, E; Scholten, E

    2013-11-01

    Pasta and noodles were enriched with concentrations of broccoli powder (BP) up to 30% (v/v). To ensure the benefits from the broccoli nutrients, their leakage during cooking should be prevented. Such leakage is determined by the microstructure. In a previous study we have shown that the microstructure can change dramatically in such broccoli-enriched products. In this article we investigated the amount of nutrients retained within the product. As a representative of nutrients we have chosen glucosinolates (GLs). Therefore, we have investigated the concentration of these phytochemicals in dried and cooked pasta and noodles. We have found that glucosinolates present in the pasta and noodles increase linearly with the volume fraction of BP up to 20%. At 30% BP the retained amount of GLs was equal to that of 20% BP and did not increase further. Therefore incorporation of 30% BP does not lead to additional health benefits over incorporation of 20% BP. We conclude that the nutritional function of our pasta-like products can be improved by enrichment up to 20% broccoli. This value is much higher than that found in common commercial products (which is a few percent). In this article we also briefly address the sensory acceptability of such products. Up to 20% broccoli the products turned out to remain acceptable. Combining this with our results on texture analysis we conclude that the GLs release, sensory acceptability and textural properties are related via the microstructure. PMID:24108199

  8. Relationships between sensory descriptors, consumer acceptability and volatile flavor compounds of American dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Pham, A J; Schilling, M W; Mikel, W B; Williams, J B; Martin, J M; Coggins, P C

    2008-11-01

    The relationships between volatile flavor compounds, sensory descriptors and consumer acceptability were determined for eight commercial American dry-cured hams using external preference and flavor mapping. The majority of consumers preferred (p<0.05) hams that had more intense caramelized, smoky, savory and molasses aromas as well as more intense sweet and savory flavors. Sixteen aroma impact compounds were identified from the headspace volatiles of dry-cured hams. The majority of consumers preferred (p<0.05) hams that were characterized by 4-methyl-2-methoxyphenol (sweet ham), 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol (sweet ham), 2-methoxyphenol (smoky, cocoa), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (smoky ham, savory) and 2-furanmethanol (burnt meat, vitamin). Fourteen percent of consumers preferred (p<0.05) two hams that were characterized by methional (baked potato). Consumer acceptability scores were lower for hams either characterized by methanethiol (sulfur), carbon disulfide (sulfur), 2-butanone (sweet), 3-methylbutanal (malty, fermented), 2-heptanone (burnt meat, vitamin), hexanal (cut grass), benzeneacetaldehyde (floral), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom) or characterized by benzaldehyde (burnt meat, cooked meat) and limonene (citrus). This study revealed how relationships between sensory descriptors, consumer acceptability and volatile flavor compounds could be determined using external preference mapping and used to comprehend the nature of dry-cured ham flavor as it is perceived by a consumer panel. PMID:22063590

  9. Lipolysis, proteolysis, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of different types of Spanish ostrich salchichon.

    PubMed

    Soriano, A; Garcı A Ruiz, A; Gómez, E; Pardo, R; Galán, F A; González Viñas, M A

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare three different types of salchichon: made of ostrich meat, made of ostrich meat and lean pork, and made of ostrich meat and pork belly, from physicochemical and sensory viewpoints. To evaluate the intensity of lipolysis and proteolysis produced during the ripening process, the profile and content of free fatty acids, the degree of rancidity, the non-protein, water-soluble and aminoacidic nitrogen content were determined. In addition, the composition of the fermented sausages (pH, a(w), moisture, fat, protein, ash, sodium chloride and sodium nitrite content) was analysed. From a sensory viewpoint, the organoleptic characteristics of the different types of salchichon were studied using free choice profiling. The fermented sausages had varying characteristics depending on their formulation (ostrich meat or ostrich meat plus pork) and all of them were well accepted by the panelists. This study helps characterise the different types of ostrich salchichon made in Spain. PMID:22064031

  10. Alternative fat substitutes for beef burger: technological and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Sabrina C; Pimenta, Maria Emília S G; Pimenta, Carlos J; Reis, Tatiana A; Nunes, Cleiton A; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Fabrício, Luís Felipe F; Leal, Renato Silva

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to develop a type of hamburger meat product and evaluate the physical features and sensory formulations of oatmeal flour, flour of green banana pulp, flour of green banana peel, flour of apple peel and pulp of Green Banana as fat substitutes. Regarding color, the formulations containing fat substitutes based on green banana presented lower values for b* and L*. Hamburgers with added oatmeal and apple peel flour obtained high values of a* and low values of L*, producing the reddest burgers. Substitutes based on green banana differed from others, resulting in a higher yield of burgers and water-holding capacity during cooking, besides having lower toughness and less shrinkage. The sensory acceptance test for untrained consumers suggests that the flour of peel and pulp of green banana, and oatmeal flour are excellent choices for fat-substitution in beef burger. Although fat contributes to a series of physical and sensory attributes such as softness, juiciness and yield, it is possible to reduce the lipid content in beef burgers without depreciating the quality of food through the use of the following fat substitutes: oat flour, apple peel flour, green banana pulp flour, green banana peel flour and green banana pulp. PMID:25190862

  11. Sensory acceptability and factors predicting the consumption of grain amaranth in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Macharia-Mutie, Catherine W; Van de Wiel, Anne M; Moreno-Londono, Ana M; Mwangi, Alice M; Brouwer, Inge D

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of adding grain amaranth flour on sensory acceptability of maize porridge in Kenya. Factors influencing the intention of mothers to feed their children on grain amaranth were identified. A significant difference between the various porridge ratios (50:50, 70:30, and 100:0 amaranth:maize) either in unfermented or fermented form could be detected. Preference for the unfermented amaranth enriched maize porridge was observed. Intention significantly correlated and predicted grain amaranth consumption (p < .001). Knowledge and health value significantly predicted health behavior identity. Interaction between barriers and intention negatively influenced behavior. Findings suggest that unfermented amaranth enriched maize porridge is acceptable. Unfermented porridge with 70% amaranth can be considered for use in a program aimed at increasing dietary iron intake among children. Increasing awareness about micronutrient deficiencies and nutritional benefits of grain amaranth could enhance its consumption. PMID:21895418

  12. Relating sensory and chemical properties of sour cream to consumer acceptance.

    PubMed

    Shepard, L; Miracle, R E; Leksrisompong, P; Drake, M A

    2013-09-01

    Sour cream is a widely popular acidified dairy product. Volatile compounds and organic acids and their specific contributions to flavor or acceptance have not been established, nor has a comprehensive study been conducted to characterize drivers of liking for sour cream. The objective of this study was to characterize chemical and sensory properties of sour cream and to determine the drivers of liking for sour cream. Descriptive sensory and instrumental analyses followed by consumer testing were conducted. Flavor and texture attributes of 32 (22 full-fat, 6 reduced-fat, and 4 fat-free) commercial sour creams were evaluated by a trained descriptive sensory panel. Percent solids, percent fat, pH, titratable acidity, and colorimetric measurements were conducted to characterize physical properties of sour creams. Organic acids were evaluated by HPLC and volatile aroma active compounds were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with gas chromatography-olfactometry. Consumer acceptance testing (n=201) was conducted on selected sour creams, followed by external preference mapping. Full-fat sour creams were characterized by the lack of surface gloss and chalky textural attributes, whereas reduced-fat and fat-free samples displayed high intensities of these attributes. Full-fat sour creams were higher in cooked/milky and milk fat flavors than the reduced-fat and fat-free samples. Reduced-fat and fat-free sour creams were characterized by cardboard, acetaldehyde/green, and potato flavors, bitter taste, and astringency. Lactic acid was the prominent organic acid in all sour creams, followed by acetic and citric acids. High aroma-impact volatile compounds in sour creams were 2,3-butanedione, acetic acid, butyric acid, octanal, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 1-octene-3-one, and acetaldehyde. Positive drivers of liking for sour cream were milk fat, cooked/milky and sweet aromatic flavors, opacity, color intensity, and adhesiveness. This comprehensive study established

  13. Pre-cure freezing effect on physicochemical, texture and sensory characteristics of Iberian ham.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Palacios, T; Ruiz, J; Martín, D; Barat, J M; Antequera, T

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of pre-cure freezing on the physicochemical, texture and sensory characteristics of raw and dry-cured hams. Both, refrigerated (R) and pre-cure frozen (F) hams showed the same weight losses during the processing. At the green stage F Iberian hams had lower moisture content, higher values of a* and chroma, lower hardness and chewiness and higher adhesiveness and springiness than R ones. However, at the end of the processing R and F Iberian hams only were different in salt content, F hams showing lower values than R ones. Sensory analysis of Iberian dry-cured ham did not show differences in salty taste. Panelist detected a higher fat hardness and lean pastiness in F than in R hams. The overall acceptability for both groups of dry-cured hams was between average and good. PMID:21441388

  14. Effect of caponisation on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of chickens.

    PubMed

    Amorim, A; Rodrigues, S; Pereira, E; Valentim, R; Teixeira, A

    2016-06-01

    The meat fats content associated to nutritional and sensory characteristics are the most important concerns of consumers. To study the effect of caponisation on the meat quality of two different breed chickens, slaughtered at 18 weeks of age, raised under the same conditions, the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of capons (castrated males at 8 weeks of age) and roosters��� meat of native Amarela Portuguesa and native Pedr��s Portuguesa breeds were evaluated. Forty Amarela (20 roosters and 20 capons), 40 Pedr��s (20 roosters and 20 capons) chickens, and also, six free-range chicken and six broilers were evaluated. The pH, water-holding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear force, moisture content, ash, myoglobin, collagen, CP, total fat and fatty acids profile were evaluated in breast and leg meat, according to standard procedures. Leg meat capon showed greater intramuscular fat content (P���0.05), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and CP (P���0.001) than leg roosters. Caponisation increased the content of myoglobin and MUFA (P���0.05) and reduced the moisture content in the leg (P���0.05). The main fatty acids found were oleic acid (C18:1), palmitic acid (C16:0) and linoleic acid (C18:2). The greatest value of C18:1 was observed in capon���s breast (P���0.01). Sensory analysis was made to compare the Amarela and Pedr��s meat with a free-range chicken and a broiler. The sensory taste panel classified the capon���s meat (Amarela and Pedr��s) as juicier, less fibrous and tougher than rooster���s meat. The broiler was in general juicier, tenderer and less fibrous than the other birds. The results of sensory analysis complement those obtained in physicochemical analysis, suggesting that caponisation promotes an overall improvement in meat quality. PMID:26740012

  15. Consumer sensory acceptance and value of wet-aged and dry-aged beef steaks.

    PubMed

    Sitz, B M; Calkins, C R; Feuz, D M; Umberger, W J; Eskridge, K M

    2006-05-01

    To determine sensory preference and value of fresh beef steak differing in aging technique, strip steaks were evaluated by consumers in Denver (n = 132 consumers) and Chicago (n = 141 consumers). Wet-aged Choice strip loins were matched with dry-aged Choice strip loins, whereas wet-aged Prime strip loins were matched with dry-aged Prime strip loins. Dry-aged strip loins were commercially aged in air in a controlled environment for 30 d and vacuum-aged for 7 d during shipping and storage. Wet-aged strip loins were vacuum-packaged and aged for 37 d in a 1 degrees C cooler. Pairs of strip loins were matched to similar Warner-Bratzler shear force values and marbling scores. Twelve sensory evaluation panels (of 12 scheduled panelists each) were conducted over a 3-d period in each city. Individual samples from a pair of steaks were evaluated by the panelists for sensory traits. Bids were placed on the samples after sensory traits were obtained utilizing a variation of the Vickery auction with silent, sealed bids. No significant differences for sensory traits of flavor, juiciness, tenderness, or overall acceptability were detected between wet-aged Choice samples and dry-aged Choice samples. Although wet-aged Choice samples were numerically superior for all sensory traits, consumers placed similar bid values (P = 0.12) on wet- and dry-aged Choice samples ($3.82 per 0.45 kg and $3.57 per 0.45 kg, respectively). Wet-aged Prime samples were rated more desirable (P < 0.001) for flavor, tenderness, and overall acceptability than dry-aged Prime samples. Wet-aged Prime samples were valued at $4.02 per 0.45 kg, whereas dry-aged Prime samples brought $3.58 per 0.45 kg (P = 0.008). Consumers (29.3%) who preferred the dry-aged Choice samples over the wet-aged Choice samples were willing to pay $1.99/0.45 kg more (P < 0.001) for dry-aged samples. The consumers who preferred the wet-aged Choice over the dry-aged Choice samples (39.2%) were willing to pay $1.77/0.45 kg more (P < 0

  16. Some Rat Sensory Neurons in Culture Express Characteristics of Differentiated Pain Sensory Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccaglini, Paola I.; Hogan, Patrick G.

    1983-01-01

    Sensory neurons were dissociated from trigeminal ganglia or from dorsal root ganglia of rats, grown in culture, and examined for expression of properties of pain sensory cells. Many sensory neurons in culture are excited by low concentrations of capsaicin, reportedly a selective stimulus for pain sensory neurons. Many are excited by bradykinin, sensitized by prostaglandin E2, or specifically stained by an antiserum against substance P. These experiments provide a basis for the study of pain mechanisms in cell culture.

  17. Effects of Edible Seaweed on Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-salt Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ko-Eun; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    The effects of sea tangle, sea mustard, hijiki, and glasswort were investigated based on the proximate composition, salinity, cooking loss, emulsion stability, pH, color, texture profile analysis, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of reduced-salt (NaCl) meat batter and frankfurters. The moisture content, salinity, lightness of the meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of the reduced-salt frankfurters with sea weeds were lower than the control without seaweed (p<0.05). The protein content, springiness, and cohesiveness of the reduced-salt frankfurters were not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05). The moisture content, salinity, cooking loss, lightness, redness, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of treatments with sea tangle and with sea mustard were lower than the control (p<0.05). Among the sensory traits, color was highest in the control (p<0.05). The flavor was also highest in the control. The treatments with sea tangle and with sea mustard samples had high tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores similar to the control (p<0.05). The results of this study show that the combination of low-salt and seaweed in the formulation successfully improved reduced-salt frankfurters, improving sensory characteristics to levels similar to the regular salt control (1.5%). PMID:26877634

  18. Sensory characteristics of high-amylose maize-resistant starch in three food products

    PubMed Central

    Maziarz, Mindy; Sherrard, Melanie; Juma, Shanil; Prasad, Chandan; Imrhan, Victorine; Vijayagopal, Parakat

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) is considered a functional ingredient due to its positive organoleptic and physiochemical modifications associated with food and physiological benefits related to human health. The sensory characteristics of three types of food products (muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry) with and without HAM-RS2 were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry contained 5.50 g/100 g, 13.10 g/100 g, and 8.94 g/100 g RS, respectively, based on lyophilized dry weight. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffin had higher moisture content and was perceived as being significantly moister than the control according to the sensory evaluation. The addition of HAM-RS2 to muffins significantly enhanced all sensory characteristics and resulted in a higher mean overall likeability score. The HAM-RS2-enriched focaccia bread appeared significantly darker in color, was more dense, and had the perception of a well-done crust versus the control. A grainer texture was observed with the chicken curry containing HAM-RS2 which did not significantly affect overall likeability. We concluded that the addition of HAM-RS2 may not significantly alter consumer's acceptability in most food products. PMID:24804020

  19. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly ( p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant ( p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly ( p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

  20. Probiotic fermented sausage: viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, M; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the minimum viable probiotic cells in each gram or milliliter of product till the time of consumption) is their most important characteristic. However, these organisms often show poor viability in fermented products due to their detrimental conditions. Today, the variety of fermented meat products available around the world is nearly equal to that of cheese. With meat products, raw fermented sausages could constitute an appropriate vehicle for such microorganisms into the human gastrointestinal tract. In present article, the viability of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausage, the main factors affect their viability, and the sensorial characteristics of final product are discussed. PMID:23320906

  1. Innovative sensory methods to access acceptability of mixed polymer semisoft ovules for microbicide applications.

    PubMed

    Zaveri, Toral; Running, Cordelia A; Surapaneni, Lahari; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2016-10-01

    Vaginal microbicides are a promising means to prevent the transmission of HIV, empowering women by putting protection under their control. We have been using gel technology to develop microbicides in the intermediate texture space to overcome shortcomings of current solid and liquid forms. We recently formulated semisoft ovules from mixed polymer combinations of carrageenan and Carbopol 940P to overcome some of the flaws with our previous generation of formulations based solely on carrageenan. To determine the user acceptability of the reformulated gels, women first evaluated intact semisoft ovules before evaluating ovules that had been subjected to mechanical crushing to simulate samples that represent post-use discharge. Women then evaluated combinations of intact and discharge samples to understand how ovule textures correlated with texture of the resulting discharge samples. Carbopol concentration directly and inversely correlated with willingness to try for discharge samples and intact samples, respectively. When evaluating intact samples, women focused on the ease of inserting the product and preferred firmer samples; conversely, when evaluating discharge samples, softer samples that resulted in a smooth paste were preferred. Significant differences between samples were lost when evaluating pairs as women made varying trade-offs between their preference for ease of inserting intact ovules and acceptability of discharge appearance. Evaluating samples that represent different stages of the use cycle reveals a more holistic measure of product acceptability. Studying sensory acceptability in parallel with biophysical performance enables an iterative design process that considers what women prefer in terms of insertion as well as possibility of leakage. PMID:27357703

  2. Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Sponge Cakes with Rubus coreanus Powder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-01-01

    To develop new type of sponge cake, the effects of partial (0~40%) replacement with Rubus coreanus powder (RCP) on the quality characteristics of sponge cakes were investigated. The pH level and moisture content ranged from 4.05~8.23 and 28.49~36.59, respectively, and significantly decreased upon addition of RCP (P<0.05). Baking loss rate and cake firmness significantly increased with higher RCP content in the formulation, whereas morphological characteristics of cakes such as height, volume, and symmetry indices significantly decreased (P<0.05). For crumb color values, L*- and b*-values significantly decreased while a*-value significantly increased as a result of RCP substitution (P<0.05). Hedonic sensory results indicated that sponge cakes supplemented with 30~40% RCP showed the most favorable acceptance scores for most of the sensory attributes evaluated. Overall, Rubus coreanus sponge cake could be developed with comparable physicochemical qualities without sacrificing consumer acceptability. PMID:26451358

  3. Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Sponge Cakes with Rubus coreanus Powder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-09-01

    To develop new type of sponge cake, the effects of partial (0~40%) replacement with Rubus coreanus powder (RCP) on the quality characteristics of sponge cakes were investigated. The pH level and moisture content ranged from 4.05~8.23 and 28.49~36.59, respectively, and significantly decreased upon addition of RCP (P<0.05). Baking loss rate and cake firmness significantly increased with higher RCP content in the formulation, whereas morphological characteristics of cakes such as height, volume, and symmetry indices significantly decreased (P<0.05). For crumb color values, L*- and b*-values significantly decreased while a*-value significantly increased as a result of RCP substitution (P<0.05). Hedonic sensory results indicated that sponge cakes supplemented with 30~40% RCP showed the most favorable acceptance scores for most of the sensory attributes evaluated. Overall, Rubus coreanus sponge cake could be developed with comparable physicochemical qualities without sacrificing consumer acceptability. PMID:26451358

  4. Relationships of consumer sensory ratings, marbling score, and shear force value to consumer acceptance of beef strip loin steaks.

    PubMed

    Platter, W J; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E; Chapman, P L; Scanga, J A; Smith, G C

    2003-11-01

    Logistic regression was used to quantify and characterize the effects of changes in marbling score, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and consumer panel sensory ratings for tenderness, juiciness, or flavor on the probability of overall consumer acceptance of strip loin steaks from beef carcasses (n = 550). Consumers (n = 489) evaluated steaks for tenderness, juiciness, and flavor using nine-point hedonic scales (1 = like extremely and 9 = dislike extremely) and for overall steak acceptance (satisfied or not satisfied). Predicted acceptance of steaks by consumers was high (> 85%) when the mean consumer sensory rating for tenderness,juiciness, or flavor for a steak was 3 or lower on the hedonic scale. Conversely, predicted consumer acceptance of steaks was low (< or = 10%) when the mean consumer rating for tenderness, juiciness, or flavor for a steak was 5 or higher on the hedonic scale. As mean consumer sensory ratings for tenderness, juiciness, or flavor decreased from 3 to 5, the probability of acceptance of steaks by consumers diminished rapidly in a linear fashion. These results suggest that small changes in consumer sensory ratings for these sensory traits have dramatic effects on the probability of acceptance of steaks by consumers. Marbling score displayed a weak (adjusted R2 = 0.053), yet significant (P < 0.01), relationship to acceptance of steaks by consumers, and the shape of the predicted probability curve for steak acceptance was approximately linear over the entire range of marbling scores (Traces67 to Slightly Abundant97), suggesting that the likelihood of consumer acceptance of steaks increases approximately 10% for each full marbling score increase between Slight to Slightly Abundant. The predicted probability curve for consumer acceptance of steaks was sigmoidal for the WBSF model, with a steep decline in predicted probability of acceptance as WBSF values increased from 3.0 to 5.5 kg. Changes in WBSF within the high (> 5.5 kg) or low (< 3.0 kg

  5. Glycemic responses and sensory characteristics of whole yellow pea flour added to novel functional foods.

    PubMed

    Marinangeli, Christopher P F; Kassis, Amira N; Jones, Peter J H

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental understanding regarding postprandial glycemic responses to foods containing whole yellow-pea flour (WYPF) remains unknown. This, alongside concerns that WYPF possesses unfavorable sensory characteristics has limited the incorporation of WYPF into new functional food products as a healthy novel ingredient. The objective of this study was to evaluate how WYPF modulates postprandial glycemic responses as well as sensory characteristics in novel foods. In a single-blind crossover trial, the present study assessed postprandial glycemic responses of banana bread, biscotti, and spaghetti containing either WYPF or whole wheat flour (WWF). Boiled yellow peas (BYP) and white bread (WB) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. On day 1, subjects evaluated appearance, taste, texture, smell as well as overall acceptance of each WYPF and WWF food on a 5-point hedonic scale. WYPF banana bread (97.9 +/- 17.8 mmol x min/L) and biscotti (83 +/- 13 mmol x min/L), as well as BYP (112.3 +/- 19.9 mmol x min/L), reduced (P < 0.05) glycemic responses compared to WB (218.1 +/- 29.5 mmol x min/L). The glycemic response of WYPF pasta (160.7 +/- 19.4 mmol x min/L) was comparable to WB. WYPF biscotti produced a lower (P = 0.019) postprandial glycemic response compared to WWF biscotti (117.2 +/- 13.1 mmol x min/L). Hedonic responses between corresponding foods were similar except for the WYPF pasta (2.9 +/- 0.9) which possessed a lower sensory score (P = 0.02) for smell compared to WWF pasta (3.6 +/- 1). WYPF can be used to produce low-glycemic functional foods possessing sensory attributes that are comparable to identical food products containing WWF. PMID:20492127

  6. Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    PubMed

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Shen, Yuchi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Methven, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability. PMID:25156799

  7. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented sheepmeat sausage

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yanjun; Young, Owen A; Brooks, John D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented, cured sausages made from equivalent muscle groups of beef, pork, and sheepmeat. The last has no commercial examples and represents an unexploited opportunity. Using seven replicates of shoulder meat and subcutaneous fat, sausages were made with 64%, 29%, 4%, 2%, 0.2%, and 0.01% of lean meat, fat, NaCl, glucose, sodium pyrophosphate, and lactic culture, respectively. Following anaerobic fermentation (96 h, 30°C), there were no significant differences between the species in mean texture (hardness, springiness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness) and pH, and only minor differences were seen in color. However, although not consumer tested, it is argued that consumers would be able to pick a texture difference due to different fat melting point ranges, highest for sheepmeat. This work was followed by a sensory experiment to find out if characteristic sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. To simulate a very strongly characteristic sheepmeat, beef sausage mixtures (above) were spiked, or not, with 4-methyloctanoic, 4-methylnonanoic acid, and skatole (5.0, 0.35, and 0.08 mg kg−1, respectively). Sodium nitrite (at 0.1 g kg−1) and a garlic/rosemary flavor were variably added to create a 23 factorial design. In a randomized design, 60 consumers found that spiked sheepmeat flavors caused an overall significant decrease in mean liking on a 1–9 scale (5.83 vs. 5.35,P = 0.003), but this was completely negated by the garlic/rosemary addition (5.18 vs. 6.00,P < 0.001). Nitrite had no effect on liking (5.61 vs. 5.58,P = 0.82), although nitrite might be included in commercial examples to minimize fat oxidation and suppress growth of clostridia. Thus, sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. Commercial examples could thus be made for these consumers, but the mandatory use of the name “mutton” in some

  8. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control. PMID:26471676

  9. Improving the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat burger patties using ginger extract and papain.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Naeem, Heba H S; Mohamed, Hussein M H

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to include tenderizing agents in the formulation of camel meat burger patties to improve the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the product. Camel meat burger patties were processed with addition of ginger extract (7%), papain (0.01%) and mixture of ginger extract (5%) and papain (0.005%) in addition to control. Addition of ginger, papain and their mixture resulted in significant (P<0.05) increase of the collagen solubility and sensory scores (juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability) with significant (P<0.05) reduction of the shear force values. Ginger extract resulted in extensive fragmentation of myofibrils; however, papain extract caused noticeable destructive effect on connective tissue. Moreover, ginger and papain resulted in improvement of the lipid stability of treated burger patties during storage. Therefore, addition of ginger extract and papain powder during formulation of camel burger patties can improve their physico-chemical and sensory properties. PMID:27045253

  10. Quantitative and qualitative variation of fat in model vanilla custard desserts: effects on sensory properties and consumer acceptance.

    PubMed

    Tomaschunas, Maja; Köhn, Ehrhard; Bennwitz, Petra; Hinrichs, Jörg; Busch-Stockfisch, Mechthild

    2013-06-01

    The effects of variation in fat content (0.1% to 15.8%) and type of fat, using different types of milk, dairy cream, or vegetable fat cream, on sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of starch-based vanilla model custards were studied. Descriptive analysis with trained panelists and consumer testing with untrained assessors were applied. Descriptive data were related to hedonic data using principal component analysis to determine drivers of liking and disliking. Results demonstrated an increasing effect of fat concerning visual and oral thickness, creamy flavor, and fat-related texture properties, as well as a decreasing effect concerning yellow color and surface shine. A lack of fat caused moderate intensities in pudding-like flavor attributes and an intensive jelly texture. Adding a vegetable fat cream led to lower intensities in attributes yellow color, cooked flavor, thick, and jelly texture, whereas intensities in vegetable fat flavor and fat-related texture properties increased. All consumers favored custards with medium fat contents, being high in pudding-like and vegetable fat flavor as well as in fat-related texture attributes. Nonfat custards were rejected due to jelly texture and moderate intensities in pudding-flavor attributes. High-fat samples were liked by some consumers, but their high intensities in thickness, white color, and creamy flavor also drove disliking for others. PMID:23772708

  11. Effect of supplementation on physicochemical, sensory and nutritional characteristics of bread.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Shfali; Jood, Sudesh

    2002-01-01

    Supplementation of wheat flour with soy flour (full fat and defatted) at 5, 10, 15 and 20% levels was carried out to test the effect on physico-chemical, sensory, nutritional evaluation and shelf life of breads. Adding 10% of soy flour (full fat and defatted) produced breads with good baking and organoleptic characteristics. However, at 15 and 20% levels they were less acceptable. The better breads were further investigated for various nutritional parameters and shelf life. Full fat and defatted soy flour (10%) supplemented bread exhibited 13.66 and 13.81% protein, and 3.02 and 3.05 g/100 g protein total lysine contents as compared to control (wheat) bread (11.47% protein and 2.36 g/100 g protein total lysine). Other nutrients are also increased in supplemented breads as compared to wheat bread. However, for storage, defatted soy supplemented bread exhibited better shelf life than the full fat version. PMID:12617282

  12. Refrigerated poultry breast fillets packed in modified atmosphere and irradiated: bacteriological evaluation, shelf life and sensory acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Mantilla, Samira Pirola Santos; Santos, Érica Barbosa; de Freitas, Mônica Queiroz; de Carvalho Vital, Helio; Mano, Sérgio Borges; Franc, Robson Maia

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the effects on shelf life and sensory acceptance of gamma-irradiated refrigerated poultry breast fillets subjected to modified atmosphere packaging (80% CO2/20% N2 or vacuum) were investigated. After irradiation with 2 kGy, sensory acceptance tests and monitoring of bacterial growth were performed in order to determine the sanitary quality of the samples. It has been found that irradiation, used in combination with modified atmosphere packaging, can double the shelf life of refrigerated poultry breast fillets by reducing the populations of aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, enterobacteria, coliforms, Listeria spp. and Aeromonas spp., without significantly modifying its color or its overall appearance, the lactic acid bacteria being the most resistant to exposure to radiation and carbon dioxide. PMID:24031967

  13. Effects of Various Salts on Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cured Meat

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Hyun-Wook

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of refined, solar, and bamboo salt on the physico-chemical properties and sensory characteristics of cured pork loin. Moisture, protein, fat, and ash content, lightness, yellowness, cooking yield, and color, juiciness, and tenderness of sensory properties on curing pork loin exhibited no significant differences regardless of the nature of salts. The pH of raw and cooked cured pork loin with added bamboo salt was higher that of other salt treatments. However, the cooking loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force of cured pork loin with added refined salt was lower than those of solar and bamboo salt pork loins cured. The flavor and overall acceptability scores of treatments with refined salt was higher than those of solar and bamboo salt treatments. The unique flavor of bamboo salt can render it as a functional material for marinating meat products. In addition, the results of this study reveal potential use of bamboo salt in meat curing. PMID:27194922

  14. Instrumental and sensory quality characteristics of blueberry fruit from twelve cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared the instrumental and sensory quality characteristics of blueberry fruit from ten highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, Chanticleer, Weymouth, Hannah’s Choice, Duke, Bluecrop, Coville, Berkeley, Bluegold, Elliott and Lateblue) and two rabbiteye (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton) cultivars...

  15. Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.

    PubMed

    Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

    2014-09-01

    The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p < 0.05) increased with increase in taro level. Conversely the dough elasticity index (range 59.8-0 %), extensibility (78-22 mm) and strength (range 281-139 × 10(-4) joules) significantly (p < 0.05) diminished with increase in wheat substitution. Up to 10 % substitution with RIN taro flour and 15 % with egg-like taro flour, the composite taro-wheat dough exhibited elasticity indices acceptable for the production of baking products, whereas at all levels of taro substitution, the composite biscuits samples were either acceptable as or better (5-10 % substitution with RIN flour) than 100 % wheat biscuit. PMID:25190844

  16. Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of sausage formulated with surimi powder.

    PubMed

    Santana, Palestina; Huda, Nurul; Yang, Tajul Aris

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of fish sausage made with 100 % threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) surimi powder (SP100), a mix of 50 % surimi powder and 50 % frozen surimi (SP50), and a control (100 % frozen surimi). No significant differences in protein content and folding test results (P > 0.05) were detected among the SP100 and SP50 samples and the control. Gel strength of SP100 was lower (P > 0.05) than that of the control. The texture profile analysis (TPA) values (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) of SP100 were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control. However, the TPA values of SP100 and SP50 were still within the textural range of Malaysian commercial fish sausages. The water holding capacity, and emulsion stability of SP100 were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of SP50 and the control. Of the cooking properties measured, SP100 had lower (P < 0.05) cooking yield, moisture retention, and fat retention than the control. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) performed by 12 trained panelists showed that sensory characteristic (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) scores of SP100 were lower than those of SP50 and the control. The use of surimi powder in fish sausage did not differ with that of control in the term of color, odor, or oiliness scored by panelists. The drying process impacted the texture properties of surimi when it was used in fish sausage. However, the use of surimi powder in fish sausage formulation is still accepted since the TPA values of SP100 and SP50 were still within the textural range of Malaysian commercial fish sausages. PMID:25745219

  17. Changes in sensory properties and consumer acceptance of reduced fat pork Lyon-style and liver sausages containing inulin and citrus fiber as fat replacers.

    PubMed

    Tomaschunas, Maja; Zörb, Rebecca; Fischer, Jürgen; Köhn, Ehrhard; Hinrichs, Jörg; Busch-Stockfisch, Mechthild

    2013-11-01

    The effects of fat reduction in Lyon-style (25% fat) and liver sausages (30% fat) using inulin, citrus fiber and partially rice starch were studied in terms of sensory properties and consumer acceptance. Fat reduced Lyon-style sausages (3 to 17% fat) and liver sausages (3 to 20% fat) were respectively compared to the full-fat controls. Reducing fat in Lyon-style sausages decreased meat flavor, aftertaste meat flavor, greasiness and juiciness, and enhanced color intensity, spiciness, spicy aftertaste, raspy throat, coarseness and firmness scores. But adding inulin and citrus fiber led to sensory characteristics similar to the full-fat reference. Regarding liver sausages, attribute scores in greasiness, creaminess, lumpiness and foamy were decreased with fat reduction and simultaneous addition of fibers. Color intensity, spiciness, firmness and attribute furred tongue were increased. Consumer tests revealed acceptable fat reduced (32 to 90% less than control) and fiber enriched (1.0 to 5.6%) sausages. Drivers of liking were found to relate not only to high-fat but also to low-fat samples. PMID:23811098

  18. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, sensory, fatty acid and storage characteristics of cookies.

    PubMed

    Rangrej, V; Shah, V; Patel, J; Ganorkar, P M

    2015-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid imparted good evidence of health benefits. Flaxseed oil, being the richest vegetarian source of alpha linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid), was incorporated in cookies by replacing shortening at level of 5 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 %. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, textural and sensory attributes were investigated. Spread ratio and breaking strength of cookies increased as flaxseed oil level increased. Sensory score was not significantly affected up to 30 % shortening replacement with flaxseed oil as compared with the control cookies. Above 30 % flaxseed oil, sensory score was adversely affected. Fatty acid profile confirmed the enhancement of omega-3 fatty acid from 0 (control) to 14.14 % (30 % flaxseed oil cookies). The poly-unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S) increased from 0.088 (control) to 0.57 while ω - 6 to ω -3 fatty acid ratio of flaxseed oil cookies decreased from 4.51 (control) to 0.65 in the optimized cookies. The data on storage characteristics of the control and 30 % flaxseed oil cookies showed that there was significant change in the moisture content, Peroxide value (PV) and overall acceptability (OAA) up to 28 days of storage at 45 °C packed in polyethylene bags. Flaxseed oil cookies were acceptable up to 21 days of storage and afterwards noticeable off flavour was perceived. PMID:26028753

  19. Performance of apple cultivars in the 1999-NE-183 regional project planting: III. Fruit sensory characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sensory qualities of a new apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) cultivar are central to its consumer acceptance. This study examined the crispness, juiciness, sweetness, acidity, flavor, attractiveness and commercial desirability of 23 new cultivars and breeding selections at nine locations across t...

  20. Effect of processing methods on nutritional, sensory, and physicochemical characteristics of biofortified bean flour.

    PubMed

    Nkundabombi, Marie Grace; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Muyonga, John H

    2016-05-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are rich nutritious and affordable by vulnerable groups, thus a good choice for biofortification to address malnutrition. However, increasing micronutrients content of beans, without improving micronutrients bioavailability will not improve the micronutrients status of consumers. Effect of different processing methods on the physicochemical characteristics of biofortified bean flour was determined. Processing methods used in this study were malting (48 h), roasting (170°C/45 min), and extrusion cooking using a twin screw extruder with three heating sections, the first set at 60°C, the second at 130°C, and the last one at 150°C. The screw was set at a speed of 35 Hz (123g) and bean flour moisture content was 15%. Mineral extractability, in vitro protein digestibility, pasting properties, and sensory acceptability of porridge and sauce from processed flour were determined. All processing methods significantly increased (P < 0.05) mineral extractability, iron from 38.9% to 79.5% for K131 and from 40.7% to 83.4% for ROBA1, in vitro protein digestibility from 58.2% to 82% for ROBA1 and from 56.2% to 79% for K131. Pasting viscosities of both bean varieties reduced with processing. There was no significant difference (P < 0.05) between sensory acceptability of porridge or sauce from extruded biofortified bean flour and malted/roasted biofortified bean flour. Acceptability was also not affected by the bean variety used. Mineral bioavailability and in vitro protein digestibility increased more for extruded flour than for malted/roasted flours. Sauce and porridge prepared from processed biofortified bean flour had lower viscosity (extruded flour had the lowest viscosity), thus higher nutrient and energy density than those prepared from unprocessed biofortified bean flour. Estimated nutritional contribution of sauce and porridge made from processed ROBA1 flour to daily requirement of children below 5 years and women of

  1. Physico-chemical changes during storage and sensory acceptance of low sodium probiotic Minas cheese added with arginine.

    PubMed

    Felicio, T L; Esmerino, E A; Vidal, V A S; Cappato, L P; Garcia, R K A; Cavalcanti, R N; Freitas, M Q; Conte Junior, C A; Padilha, M C; Silva, M C; Raices, R S L; Arellano, D B; Bollini, H M A; Pollonio, M A R; Cruz, A G

    2016-04-01

    The partial substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride (0%, 25%, and 50%) and addition of arginine (1% w/w) in probiotic Minas cheese was investigated. Microbiological (Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus counts, and functionality of the prebiotics L. acidophilus), physicochemical (pH, proteolysis, organic acids, fatty acids, and volatile profiles), rheological (uniaxial compression) and sensory (hedonic test with 100 consumers) characterizations were carried out. The sodium reduction and addition of arginine did not constitute a hurdle to lactic and probiotic bacteria survival, with presented values of about 9 log CFU/g, ranging from 7.11 to 9.21 log CFU/g, respectively. In addition, lower pH values, higher proteolysis, and a decrease in toughness, elasticity and firmness were observed, as well as an increase in lactic, citric, and acetic acid contents. In contrast, no change was observed in the fatty acid profile. With respect to the sensory acceptance, the probiotic low-sodium Minas cheese presented scores above 6.00 (liked slightly) for the attributes flavor and overall acceptance. The addition of arginine can be a potential alternative for the development of probiotic dairy products with reduced sodium content. PMID:26593536

  2. Influence of oak maturation regimen on composition, sensory properties, quality, and consumer acceptability of cabernet sauvignon wines.

    PubMed

    Crump, Anna M; Johnson, Trent E; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Bastian, Susan E P

    2015-02-11

    Oak barrels have long been the preferred method for oak maturation of wine, but barrels contribute significantly to production costs, so alternate oak maturation regimens have been introduced, particularly for wines at lower price points. To date, few studies have investigated consumers' acceptance of wines made using non-traditional oak treatments. In this study, two Cabernet Sauvignon wines were aged using traditional (i.e., barrel) and/or alternative (i.e., stainless steel or plastic tanks and vats, with oak wood added) maturation regimens. Chemical and sensory analyses were subsequently performed to determine the influence on wine composition and sensory properties, that is, the presence of key oak-derived volatile compounds and perceptible oak aromas and flavor. The quality of a subset of wines was rated by a panel of 10 wine experts using a 20-point scoring system, with all wines considered technically sound. Consumer acceptance of wines was also determined. Hedonic ratings ranged from 5.7 to 5.9 (on a 9-point scale), indicating there was no significant difference in consumers' overall liking of each wine. However, segmentation based on individual liking scores identified three distinct clusters comprising consumers with considerably different wine preferences. These results justify wine producers' use of alternative oak maturation regimens to achieve wine styles that appeal to different segments of their target market. PMID:25584640

  3. Effects of an Oral-Sensory/Oral-Motor Stimulation/Positive Reinforcement Program on the Acceptance of Nonpreferred Foods by Youth with Physical and Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2005-01-01

    This study employed a multiple probe design to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based lunchtime oral-sensory/oral-motor/positive reinforcement program on food acceptance behaviors of three youth with multiple disabilities. Overall dramatic gains in food acceptance behaviors of all participants indicated that trained school personnel were…

  4. Consumer acceptance and sensory evaluation of Monti Dauni Meridionali Caciocavallo cheese.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Ruggieri, D; Marino, R; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2012-08-01

    Twelve Caciocavallo cheeses were collected from 6 factories (A, B, C, D, E, F) located in the Monti Dauni Meridionali area (Southern Italy) that adopted different protocols for cheese production. A total of 160 consumers were involved in the sensory evaluation of Caciocavallo cheese after 180 d of ripening. Cheese attributes were used to describe the flavor, texture, and appearance of cheeses. The highest scores for the shiny attribute were assigned to cheeses B, C, and E, whereas color intensity was the highest in cheeses B, D, and F. Strength, salty, and piquant attributes were higher in cheeses F and A because of the use of raw milk (F), rennet paste (A), and percentage of salt in the brine (A, F). Consumers perceived a more granular structure during the second half of chewing of Caciocavallo cheese F, as evidenced by the highest value for the grainy attribute. A positive correlation was found between overall flavor and odor intensity and water-soluble nitrogen, low molecular weight peptides, and free fatty acids and between piquant and butyric and caproic acids. A principal components analysis applied to the sensory attributes accounted for 65% of the total variance. The score plot showed that cheeses F and A were located in a well-defined zone of the plot, with cheeses in this zone displaying higher levels of strength, piquant, and salty attributes. The preference test assigned 40% of the preference to Caciocavallo cheese A, 38% to cheese F, 9% to cheese E, 8% to cheese D, and 7% to cheeses B and C. Sensory evaluation of Monti Dauni Meridionali Caciocavallo cheeses is a useful analysis to highlight the principal attributes able to influence consumers' liking that are related to biochemical features of the cheese. PMID:22818433

  5. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurts made from goat and cow milk.

    PubMed

    Costa, Roberto Germano; Beltrão Filho, Edvaldo Mesquita; de Sousa, Solange; da Cruz, George Rodrigo Beltrão; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto; da Cruz, Eliel Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Substituting goats' milk for cows' milk could improve the quality of dairy products, because it adds new sensorial characteristics. The aim of this study was to develop a type of yoghurt using goats' milk (25, 50, 75 and 100%) in place of cows' milk and to compare their characteristics. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics were evaluated using a nine-point hedonic scale and purchase intention test. The data obtained in the physicochemical analysis were submitted to regression analysis and the sensory results were evaluated through analysis of variance. Among the physicochemical characteristics of the yoghurts, variation (P < 0.05) of ash, acidity and lactose was observed. Tasters in the sensory analysis indicated that yoghurts up to 50% of goats' milk received favorable averages; with lower scores for higher goats' milk concentrations (75% and 100%). No difference was reported in acidity. Replacing cows' milk with goats' milk in yoghurt preparation promotes variations in the physicochemical characteristics for ash, acidity and lactose. However, it does not cause alterations in the sensory attributes (50% goat milk) and therefore could be considered as an alternative for the production of dairy products. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. PMID:26867520

  6. Sensory Correlates of Difficult Temperament Characteristics in Preschool Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, I-Ching; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Lu, Lu; Shieh, Jeng-Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the rate of co-occurring sensory processing (SP) dysfunction in children with autism who had a difficult temperament characteristics, and the relationship between SP dysfunction and temperament characteristics in preschool children with autism. A total of 111 children aged 48-84 months, 67 children with autism…

  7. Effects of High-Hydrostatic Pressure on Inactivation of Human Norovirus and Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Oysters.

    PubMed

    Ye, Mu; Lingham, Talaysha; Huang, Yaoxin; Ozbay, Gulnihal; Ji, Lin; Karwe, Mukund; Chen, Haiqiang

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on inactivation of human norovirus (HuNoV) in oysters and to evaluate organoleptic characteristics of oysters treated at pressure levels required for HuNoV inactivation. Genogroup I.1 (GI.1) or Genogroup II.4 (GII.4) HuNoV was inoculated into oysters and treated at 300 to 600 MPa at 25 and 0 °C for 2 min. After HHP, viral particles were extracted by porcine gastric mucin-conjugated magnetic beads (PGM-MBs) and viral RNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Lower initial temperature (0 °C) significantly enhanced HHP inactivation of HuNoV compared to ambient temperature (25 °C; P < 0.05). HHP at 350 and 500 MPa at 0 °C could achieve more than 4 log10 reduction of GII.4 and GI.1 HuNoV in oysters, respectively. HHP treatments did not significantly change color or texture of oyster tissue. A 1- to 5-scale hedonic sensory evaluation on appearance, aroma, color, and overall acceptability showed that pressure-treated oysters received significantly higher quality scores than the untreated control (P < 0.05). Elevated pressure levels at 450 and 500 MPa did not significantly affect scores compared to 300 MPa at 0 °C, indicating increasing pressure level did not affect sensory acceptability of oysters. Oysters treated at 0 °C had slightly lower acceptability than the group treated at room temperature on day 1 (P < 0.05), but after 1 wk storage, no significant difference in sensory attributes and consumer desirability was observed (P > 0.05). PMID:25943304

  8. Biofortified Cassava with Pro-Vitamin A Is Sensory and Culturally Acceptable for Consumption by Primary School Children in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Talsma, Elise F.; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; de Kok, Brenda P. H.; Mbera, Gloria N. K.; Mwangi, Alice M.; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Biofortification of cassava with pro-vitamin A can potentially reduce vitamin A deficiency in low-income countries. However, little is known about consumer acceptance of this deep yellow variety of cassava compared to the commonly available white varieties. We aimed to determine the sensory and cultural acceptability of the consumption of pro-vitamin A rich cassava in order to identify key factors predicting the intention to consume pro-vitamin A rich cassava by families with school-aged children in Eastern Kenya. Methods Sensory acceptability was measured by replicated discrimination tests and paired preference tests among 30 children (7–12 yr) and 30 caretakers (18–45 yr) in three primary schools. Cultural acceptability was assessed with a questionnaire based on the combined model of The Theory of Planned Behavior and The Health Belief Model in one primary school among 140 caretakers of children aged 6 to 12 years. Correlations and multivariate analyses were used to determine associations between summed scores for model constructs. Results Caretakers and children perceived a significant difference in taste between white and pro-vitamin A rich cassava. Both preferred pro-vitamin A rich cassava over white cassava because of its soft texture, sweet taste and attractive color. Knowledge about pro-vitamin A rich cassava and it's relation to health (‘Knowledge’ ((β = 0.29, P = <.01)) was a strong predictor of ‘Health behavior identity’. Worries related to bitter taste and color (‘Perceived barriers 1’ (β = −0.21, P = .02)), the belief of the caretaker about having control to prepare cassava (‘Control beliefs’ (β = 0.18, P = .02)) and activities like information sessions about pro-vitamin A rich cassava and recommendations from health workers (‘Cues to action’(β = 0.51, P = <.01)) were the best predictors of intention to consume pro-vitamin A rich cassava. Conclusions Pro-vitamin A rich cassava is

  9. Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptability of a beverage made from malted and fermented cereal: case of gowe from Benin

    PubMed Central

    Adinsi, Laurent; Akissoé, Noël H; Dalodé-Vieira, Générose; Anihouvi, Victor B; Fliedel, Geneviève; Mestres, Christian; Hounhouigan, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Sensory profile of gowe beverage was established with 10 gowe samples by 22 semitrained panelists. Besides, consumer study was performed on four representative gowe samples with 141 African ordinary consumers using a modified quantitative descriptive analysis. Gowe samples significantly differed (P < 0.05) with respect to all the sensory attributes, except for cereal odor and cereal taste (P > 0.05). The principal component analysis plot revealed the effects of raw material and process: Sorghum gowe was differently scored from maize gowe samples (P < 0.05). Gowe types from saccharification step (SSaF, SSaSF) evidenced higher scores with respect to fermented odor (41.7) and acidic taste (47.9), while those without saccharification had lower scores of fermented odor and acidic taste, with values of 18.4 and 16.9, respectively. No significant difference was evidenced with respect to the addition of “non malted flour” before or after saccharification. Regarding consumer testing, three distinct patterns of consumer acceptability were observed, which were grouped as “Sugary gowe likers” (63.1% of consumers) followed by “Sugary and saccharified sorghum gowe likers” (20.6%) and “Pure maize gowe dislikers” (16.3%). Irrespective of the consumers cluster, saccharified malted sorghum gowe without sugar was the unique sample scored more than 6 over 9. PMID:25649142

  10. Effects of prebiotic inulin-type fructans on structure, quality, sensory acceptance and glycemic response of gluten-free breads.

    PubMed

    Capriles, Vanessa D; Arêas, José A G

    2013-01-01

    The effect of adding increasing levels of prebiotic inulin-type fructans (ITFs) (0, 4, 8, 10 and 12%) on the sensory and nutritional quality of gluten-free bread (GFB) was assessed. ITFs can provide structure and gas retention during baking, thus improving GFB quality by yielding better specific volume, softer crumb, improved crust and crumb browning with enhanced sensory acceptance. During baking, approximately one-third of the ITFs was lost. The addition of 12% ITFs to the basic formulation is required in order to obtain GFB enriched with 8% ITFs (4 g of fructans per 50 g bread serving size), levels that can provide health benefits. 12% ITFs-addition level decreased GFB glycemic index (from 71 to 48) and glycemic load (from 12 to 8). Prebiotic ITFs are a promising improver for GFB that can provide nutritional (11% dietary fiber content, low glycemic response) and functional benefits to patients with celiac disease, since ITFs are prebiotic ingredients that can also increase calcium absorption. PMID:23032642

  11. Deans in German Universities: Goal Acceptance and Task Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholkmann, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study which explored how deans at German universities accept their new role as manager, and which factors influence the acceptance of this role. Within a framework referring to Locke and Latham's goal setting theory, the acceptance of operative goals implemented in the faculties served as an indicator of how well…

  12. Effect of Low Salt Concentrations on Microbial Changes During Kimchi Fermentation Monitored by PCR-DGGE and Their Sensory Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Ahmadsah, Lenny S F; Min, Sung-Gi; Han, Seon-Kyeong; Hong, Yeun; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2015-12-28

    Various salt concentrations (1.0%, 1.3%, 1.6%, 1.9%, and 2.1% labeled as sample A, B, C, D, and E, respectively) were investigated for microbial diversity, identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) in salted kimchi cabbage, prepared under laboratory conditions. These samples were stored at 4°C for 5 weeks in proper aluminum-metalized pouch packaging with calcium hydroxide gas absorber. A culture-independent method known as polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was carried out to identify LAB distributions among various salt concentration samples that had identified 2 Weissella (W. confusa and W. soli), 1 Lactobacillus (Lb. sakei), and 3 Leuconostoc (Lc. mesenteroides, Lc. lactis, and Lc. gelidum) in the overall kimchi samples. The pH, titratable acidity, viable cell counts, and coliform counts were not affected by salt variations. In order to assess sensory acceptance, the conducted sensory evaluation using a 9-point hedonic scale had revealed that samples with 1.3% salt concentration (lower than the manufacturer's regular salt concentration) was more preferred, indicating that the use of 1.3% salt concentration was acceptable in normal kimchi fermentation for its quality and safety. Despite similarities in pH, titratable acidity, viable cell counts, coliform counts, and LAB distributions among the various salt concentrations of kimchi samples, the sample with 1.3% salt concentration was shown to be the most preferred, indicating that this salt concentration was suitable in kimchi production in order to reduce salt intake through kimchi consumptions. PMID:26370801

  13. The Effects of Sequential Environmental and Harvest Stressors on the Sensory Characteristics of Cultured Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) Fillets.

    PubMed

    Ciaramella, Michael A; Kim, Taejo; Avery, Jimmy L; Allen, Peter J; Schilling, M Wes

    2016-08-01

    Stress during fish culture alters physiological homeostasis and affects fillet quality. Maintenance of high-quality seafood is important to ensure the production of a marketable product. This study assessed how sequential stressors affect the sensory and quality characteristics of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillets. Three stress trials were conducted where temperature (25 or 33 °C) and dissolved oxygen (DO, approximately 2.5 or >5 mg/L) were manipulated followed by socking and transport stress. After each stage of harvest (environmental stress, socking, and transport), fillet yield, consumer acceptability, descriptive evaluation, cook loss, tenderness, and pH were evaluated. Fillet yield decreased with increasing severity of environmental stress. Fillets from the severe stress treatment (33 °C, approximately 2.5 mg/L) received the highest acceptability scores (P < 0.05). Control fillets (25 °C, >5 mg/L) were the least acceptable (P < 0.05). Increased intensity of less favorable flavor attributes commonly associated with catfish resulted in the differences in acceptability among treatments. As fish progressed through the harvest event, cook loss decreased, tenderness increased, and pH increased, indicating that stress induced textural changes. The data suggest that although environmental stress results in slight changes in flavor attributes, its effects on acceptability are minor with fillets from all treatments still liked (>6 on a 9 point scale). Socking and transport were identified to positively affect textural characteristics of catfish fillets. Although the effects observed were not likely to negatively impact consumer acceptance, a strict management plan should be followed to maintain consistency in the product and avoid changes in stressors that might alter quality more drastically. PMID:27333086

  14. Physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of plain yoghurt from bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and soybeans (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Falade, Kolawole O; Ogundele, Opeolu M; Ogunshe, Adenike O; Fayemi, Olanrewaju E; Ocloo, Fidelis C K

    2015-09-01

    Physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of plain yoghurt from bambara groundnut and soybean milks were studied. Milks were prepared from bambara and soybean and then fermented using Lactobacillus delbruieckii subspp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarus subspp. thermophilus to produce yoghurt. The yoghurts were stored at 7 °C and 27 °C for 9 days and their quality monitored. Results showed that pH of soy and bambara yoghurts decreased during the storage period for both storage temperatures. This decrease in pH was accompanied by simultaneous increase in titratable acidity. Total solids and apparent viscosities of soy and bambara yoghurts increased at 7 °C, but decreased at 27 °C during storage period. Bambara yoghurt received higher sensory acceptability than soy yoghurt. Predominant microorganisms in the stored yoghurts were lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The LAB count in the yoghurts stored at 7 °C decreased but increased at 27 °C during the storage period. Similar trends were followed by total aerobic bacteria, yeast and moulds counts. Pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, Coliform and E. coli were absent in all the yogurt samples. Yoghurts of acceptable quality and safety were produced from bambara groundnut and soybeans. PMID:26345001

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF SALT CONTENT AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF TERASI TO THE SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMBAL TERASI, THE CHILI SAUCE ADDED WITH TERASI.

    PubMed

    Ambarita, N T Damanik; De Meulenaer, B

    2015-01-01

    The type of terasi (the Indonesian seafood fermented paste) and the ingredients used can give sambal terasi (ST), the chili sauce added with terasi, its identity and taste distinction. Inherit from its production, salt content differs the flavor(s) of product added with terasi. This research explored the role of terasi salt content, either from the origin of terasi or by salt adjustment, to the products acceptability and sensory characteristics perceived during subsequent sensorial evaluations. Six types of terasi were characterized based on the proximate and salt content, and prepared as STs with and without salt adjustment at several terasi concentrations. 118 panelists conducted sensory evaluations for overall acceptability at 12.5% terasi; at lower concentration specific tastes (sweet, bitter, salty, sour, umami, fishy and rebon) were characterized by 80 panelists. Results showed that the acceptance of ST is more due to its innate origin salt content and to the suitability saltiness perceived. The specific odor of terasi, combining with other taste(s), when prepared at higher terasi concentration as practiced in restaurant, home and commercial products showed masking effect(s). After saltiness adjusted, different types of terasi showed different taste characteristics. Preferred ST were different between higher and lower concentration. Better tastes characteristics and stronger spices taste were found at lower salt content (and terasi concentration). PMID:26630752

  16. Indigenous and traditional plants: South African parents’ knowledge, perceptions and uses and their children’s sensory acceptance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The dietary shift from indigenous and traditional plants (ITPs) to cash crops and exotic plant food sources increases the risk of malnutrition and other nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, especially in poor rural communities. Farm communities in South Africa have been associated with poor nutritional status and extreme poverty. ITPs have been found to be affordable sources of several micronutrients. However, knowledge of and the use of these plants are declining, and little is known about the child’s acceptance of dishes prepared with ITPs. This knowledge can be used to improve the general acceptance of ITPs. This study aimed to gain insight into parents’ knowledge and perceptions and their use of ITPs in a farming community in the North West Province and to assess children’s acceptance of and preference for dishes made with African leafy vegetables (ALVs) and Swiss chard. Methods Parents (n = 29) responsible for food preparation for children in grade 2 to 4 in two schools were purposively selected for four focus group discussions. A sensory evaluation assessed the children’s (n = 98) acceptance of, preference for and intended consumption of dishes made with leafy vegetables. The dishes were made of Amaranthus spp., Cleome gynandra, Cucurbita maxima, Vigna unguiculata and Beta vulgaris. Results Parents mentioned 30 edible ITPs during the focus group discussions. Parents had knowledge of available ITPs and their use as food. Location, seasonal variation and rainfall affected the availability of and access to ITPs. Sun-dried ITPs were stored in sacks for later use. ITPs were perceived as healthy, affordable and delicious, hence acceptable to the parents. The children also evaluated the dishes made with ALVs as acceptable in terms of colour, smell and taste. Swiss chard was preferred, most likely because of the children’s exposure to this vegetable. Children indicated that they would like to eat these leafy vegetables twice a

  17. Umami Increases Consumer Acceptability, and Perception of Sensory and Emotional Benefits without Compromising Health Benefit Perception.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Takashi; Retiveau-Krogmann, Annlyse; Byrnes, Erin; Takehana, Shunji

    2016-02-01

    This study was undertaken to understand how consumers in the United States perceive umami-rich products, specifically low sodium chicken noodle soup. Results suggest that the addition of monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) at a concentration of 0.1% to 0.5%, alone or in synergy with 5'-ribonucleotides of inosine monophosphate (IMP) at 0.1% not only increases consumer acceptance but also positively impacts other aspects of consumer perception. Regardless of concentration of MSG and IMP, samples enhanced in umami compounds were perceived as more savory, flavorful, and less bland while providing a more homemade, fresh, and healthy wholesome taste than a control sample. From a functional and emotional benefit standpoint, when consuming umami-rich samples, consumers reported feeling significantly higher general satisfaction (they felt more content, relaxed, satisfied, less disappointed, dissatisfied…) and heightened positive emotions (happy, excited, indulgent…) than under the control condition. The feeling of being healthy while consuming the dish was not compromised. Last, when asked how they would feel if serving the soup sample to their family or friends, consumers projected feeling more positively under the umami-rich conditions (more happy, competent, loving, less dissatisfied or disappointed) compared to the control condition. PMID:26720057

  18. The Impact of Ripening Time on Technological Quality Traits, Chemical Change and Sensory Characteristics of Dry-cured Loin

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kyoung Mi; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ripening time on the technological quality traits, fatty acid compositions and sensory characteristics of dry-cured loin was studied. Pork loins (n = 102) at 24 h post-mortem were used to produce dry-cured loins. The dry-cured loins were assessed at 30, 60, and 90 days of ripening for the aforementioned characteristics. Our results showed that the water activity (aw) decreased (p<0.05) up to 60 days and did not change thereafter. The lipid oxidation and weight loss levels significantly (p<0.05) increased with increased ripening time. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) L* decreased for 90 days while CIE a* increased for 60 days and did not increase thereafter. More noticeably, the levels of most of unsaturated fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly decreased as increasing ripening time up to 90 days. The 30 days-ripened loins had lower (p<0.05) color, flavor and overall acceptability scores than the loins ripened for 60 and 90 days, however, no differences in sensory traits occurred between the 60 and 90 day-ripened samples. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it is suggested that the ripening duration between 30 and 60 days could be more appropriate for producing dry-cured loin product with higher quality and economic benefits. PMID:25715685

  19. The synergistic effect of ribose, carnosine, and ascorbic acid on the sensory and physico-chemical characteristics of minced bison meat

    PubMed Central

    Aliani, Michel; Ryland, Donna; Williamson, Jennifer; Rempel, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Ingredients such as ascorbic acid used to preserve redness of the raw meat, and carnosine and ribose used for flavor improvement have been incorporated into minced meats to increase consumer acceptance. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible synergistic effect of ascorbic acid, carnosine, and ribose on the sensory and physico-chemical characteristics of minced bison meat. Samples included control (Co) ±1% carnosine (C), 0.1% ascorbic acid (A), 2% ribose (R) (w/w), and combinations of RC, RA, RCA in the same concentrations as the single ingredient samples. A trained sensory panel (n = 7) measured the intensity of the aromas and flavors of salty, sour, beef, and liver of the bison patties. A consumer acceptance panel (n = 59) evaluated color, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability of the patties. Hunterlab colorimetry, shear force, cook loss, and drip loss percentage were measured on the cooked patties, and color and pH on the raw patties. The sample containing 2% ribose (R), 1% carnosine (C), and 0.1% ascorbic acid (A) in combination (RCA) showed a significantly higher consumer acceptance for aroma, which could possibly be attributed to the high beef aroma intensity measured by the descriptive analysis panel. RCA had the highest color acceptance which may be related to the high a* value for the cooked sample. RCA also had high overall acceptance corresponding to “like slightly.” Raw and cooked color values, shear force, pH, cook loss and drip loss percentages, and aroma and flavor attribute intensities for RCA were not significantly different from the control sample. The synergistic effect of ribose, carnosine, and ascorbic acid may positively affect the aroma and color of minced bison meat leading to higher overall acceptability without compromising sensory and physico-chemical quality. PMID:24804026

  20. Volatile components and sensory characteristics of Thai traditional fermented shrimp pastes during fermentation periods.

    PubMed

    Kleekayai, Thanyaporn; Pinitklang, Surapong; Laohakunjit, Natta; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2016-03-01

    Headspace-volatile components and sensory characteristics, including color, Maillard reaction products and free amino acid profiles, of two types of Thai traditional fermented shrimp paste, Kapi Ta Dam and Kapi Ta Deang, were investigated during the fermentation periods up to 6 months. The results showed that the colors of both products were changed with a decrease in CIELAB values over the fermentation period, except for yellowness of Kapi Ta Deang. Essential amino acids such as lysine and leucine and non-essential amino acids such as glutamic acid and alanine were found to be predominant free-amino acids in the products. After headspace volatile component extraction of the product was carried out using a SPME fiber coated with DVB/CAR/PDMS and analyzed by GC-MS, the main compounds responsible for distinct volatiles in the products were N-containing compounds, especially pyrazines which give roasted nutty odor. The results of sensory evaluation from panelists also suggest that fermentation period had an effect on sensory characteristics of the fermented shrimp pastes. Moreover, the sensory perceptions of the products would associate with their color, the Maillard reaction products, amino acid profiles and volatile compounds. PMID:27570264

  1. Gross composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of Saanen goat milk fed with Cacti varieties.

    PubMed

    Catunda, Karen Luanna Marinho; de Aguiar, Emerson Moreira; de Góes Neto, Pedro Etelvino; da Silva, José Geraldo Medeiros; Moreira, José Aparecido; do Nascimento Rangel, Adriano Henrique; de Lima Júnior, Dorgival Morais

    2016-08-01

    The use of cactus is an alternative for sustainable production systems in Northeast Brazil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of supplying five cacti species from the Brazilian semi-arid northeast region on the physical-chemical sensory characteristics and the profile of fatty acids of Saanen goat milk. Five multiparous goats were used, confined, and distributed in a Latin square 5 × 5 design, with five experimental diets and five periods. Treatments consisted of 473 to 501 g/kg of a cactaceous mix (Pilosocereus gounellei, Cereus jamacaru, Cereus squamosus, Nopalea cochenillifera, or Opuntia stricta) added to 187.8 to 197.9 g/kg of "Sabiá" (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) hay and 311 to 329 g/kg of concentrate. No effects of experimental diets (P > 0.05) were evidenced in the physical and chemical composition of milk for fat, total solids, or salt levels. However, protein, lactose, solids-not-fat levels, and cryoscopy point were influenced by diet (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the profile of fatty acids between treatments for all acids found, except for butyric acid. Diets also did not (P > 0.05) confer sensory changes in milk characteristics. The use of the native cacti in the dairy goats' diet did not influence the sensory characteristics or lipid profile of milk. PMID:27233896

  2. Quantitative trait loci influencing chemical and sensory characteristics of eating quality in sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Azanza, F; Tadmor, Y; Klein, B P; Rocheford, T R; Juvik, J A

    1996-02-01

    This study was conducted to ascertain the chromosomal location and magnitude of effect of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the chemical and sensory properties of sweet corn (Zea mays L.) eating quality. Eighty-eight RFLPs, 3 cloned genes (sh1, sh2, and dhn1), and 2 morphological markers (a2 and se1) distributed throughout the sweet corn genome were scored in 214 F2:3 families derived from a cross between the inbreds W6786su1Se1 and IL731Asu1se1. Kernel properties associated with eating quality (kernel tenderness and starch, phytoglycogen, sucrose, and dimethyl sulfide concentrations) were quantified on F2:3 sib-pollinated ears harvested at 20 days after pollination. Sensory evaluation was conducted on a subset of 103 F2:3 families to determine intensity of attributes associated with sweet corn eating quality (corn aroma, grassy aroma, sweetness, starchiness, grassy flavor, crispness, tenderness, and juiciness) and overall liking. Single factor analysis of variance revealed significant QTL for all these traits, which accounted for from 3 to 42% of the total phenotypic variation. A proportion of the RFLP markers associated with human sensory response were also found to be associated with kernel characteristics. To our knowledge this is the first report of the identification of QTL associated with human flavor preferences in any food crop. Key words : sweet corn, RFLP, quantitative trait loci, eating quality, sensory evaluation. PMID:18469876

  3. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fat-free goat milk yogurt with added stabilizers and skim milk powder fortification.

    PubMed

    Bruzantin, F P; Daniel, J L P; da Silva, P P M; Spoto, M H F

    2016-05-01

    Goat milk yogurt has a less consistent coagulum compared with cow milk yogurt; furthermore, the presence of goat milk in foodstuffs imparts a characteristic flavor that can restrict its acceptance by consumers. This study aimed to assess and compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fat-free goat milk yogurts with added stabilizers or bovine skim milk powder to improve the final product. Four treatment additions were evaluated: (1) a mixture of 0.1% (wt/vol) carrageenan and 0.1% (wt/vol) pectin (treatment CR); (2) 0.5% (wt/vol) pectin (treatment PE); (3) 4.65% (wt/vol) bovine skim milk powder (treatment BM); and (4) control (no stabilizer; treatment CT). The physicochemical parameters were investigated at on d 1 and 5 of storage. The BM treatment presented higher pH and titratable acidity values, resulting in a buffering capacity effect. The total crude protein (CP) and solids-not-fat (SNF) contents were also higher in BM compared with the other evaluated treatments because of the addition of bovine skim milk powder. We detected a reduction in pH values for all treatments. Lower SNF contents were present in the CR and CT treatments, which might be related to a syneresis process during storage; moreover, an increase in total CP was observed for all treatments due to the proteolytic action of the starter culture. Sensory attributes, including appearance (color, consistency, and presence of lumps), texture (consistency, viscosity, and presence of lumps), flavor (bitter, sweet, and characteristic of commercial plain nonfat yogurt), and overall impression were evaluated by quantitative descriptive analysis. The addition of 0.5% (wt/vol) of pectin (PE treatment) strengthened the curd; however, the visual and oral presence of lumps and a higher bitterness score were noted by trained panelists, which resulted in the lowest overall impression score for the PE treatment. In several sensory attributes, the CR treatment was considered similar to the control

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial decontamination, and chemical and sensory characteristic of lycium fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Chung, Hsiao-Ping; Chou, Fong-In; Lin, I.-hsin; Hsieh, Po-Chow

    2006-05-01

    Lycium fruit, popular traditional Chinese medicine and food supplement generally is ingested uncooked, was exposed to several doses of gamma irradiation (0-14 kGy) to evaluate decontamination efficiency, changes in chemical composition, and changes in sensory characteristic. In this study, lycium fruit specimens contained microbial counts of 3.1×10 3-1.7×10 5 CFU/g and 14 kGy was sufficient for microbial decontamination. Before irradiation, the main microbe isolated from lycium fruit was identified as a strain of yeast, Cryptococcus laurentii. After 10 kGy of irradiation, a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus cereus, was the only survivor. The first 90% reduction (LD 90) of C. laurentii and B. cereus was approximately 0.6 and 6.5 kGy, respectively, the D 10 doses of C. laurentii and B. cereus was approximately 0.6 and 1.7 kGy, respectively. After 14 kGy irradiation, except the vitamin C content, other chemical composition (e.g., crude protein, β-carotene, riboflavin, fructose, etc.) and the sensory characteristic of lycium fruit specimens did not have significant changes. In conclusion, 14 kGy is the optimal decontamination dose for lycium fruit for retention of its sensory quality and extension of shelf life.

  5. Effect of fat content on sensory characteristics of marbled beef from Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Iida, Fumiko; Saitou, Kaoru; Kawamura, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Shizuko; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2015-07-01

    To analyze the sensory characteristics of meat samples with a crude fat content between 23.8% and 48.6% taken from 34 Japanese Black steers, we grilled the meat and subjected it to analytical sensory evaluation. We also measured the amounts of moisture, protein, nucleic acid and glutamic acid. An increase in crude fat content increased the tenderness, juiciness, and fattiness in the meat quality evaluation. An increase in crude fat content reduced the crude protein and moisture contents; it also slightly reduced the nucleic acid and glutamic acid contents, although when the reductions in these umami components were assessed relative to the moisture content they changed little. Increasing the fat content up to a certain point greatly enhanced the umami intensity and beef flavor intensity in the meat quality evaluation and raised the overall evaluation score; the peak of the appropriate crude fat content for these purposes was about 36%. PMID:25492124

  6. Influence of extended aging on beef quality characteristics and sensory perception of steaks from the biceps femoris and semimembranosus.

    PubMed

    Colle, M J; Richard, R P; Killinger, K M; Bohlscheid, J C; Gray, A R; Loucks, W I; Day, R N; Cochran, A S; Nasados, J A; Doumit, M E

    2016-09-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of post-fabrication aging (2, 14, 21, 42, and 63days) on beef quality characteristics and consumer sensory perception of biceps femoris (BF) and semimembranosus (SM) steaks. Lipid oxidation and aerobic plate counts increased (P<0.05) with longer aging periods and retail display times. An aging period by day of retail display interaction (P<0.05) was observed for a* and b* values of the BF and SM. Warner-Bratzler shear force values decreased (P<0.05) with longer aging for the SM, while no difference was observed for the BF. Consumer panel results revealed that longer aging periods increased (P<0.05) acceptability of the SM, tenderness of both muscles, and tended to increase (P=0.07) juiciness of the SM. Our results show that extended aging reduces retail color stability yet has positive effects on consumer perception of tenderness of both muscles and overall acceptability of the SM. PMID:27155799

  7. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; Şat, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists. PMID:26604374

  8. The Effects of Fiber Inclusion on Pet Food Sensory Characteristics and Palatability

    PubMed Central

    Koppel, Kadri; Monti, Mariana; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Carciofi, Aulus Cavalieri

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary The results from this research indicate that fibers have an effect on extruded pet food texture and palatability. These results may help pet food companies select ingredients for successful product formulations. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine (a) the influence of fiber on the sensory characteristics of dry dog foods; (b) differences of coated and uncoated kibbles for aroma and flavor characteristics; (c) palatability of these dry dog foods; and (d) potential associations between palatability and sensory attributes. A total of eight fiber treatments were manufactured: a control (no fiber addition), guava fiber (3%, 6%, and 12%), sugar cane fiber (9%; large and small particle size), and wheat bran fiber (32%; large and small particle size). The results indicated significant effects of fibers on both flavor and texture properties of the samples. Bitter taste and iron and stale aftertaste were examples of flavor attributes that differed with treatment, with highest intensity observed for 12% guava fiber and small particle size sugar cane fiber treatments. Fracturability and initial crispness attributes were lowest for the sugar cane fiber treatments. Flavor of all treatments changed after coating with a palatant, increasing in toasted, brothy, and grainy attributes. The coating also had a masking effect on aroma attributes such as stale, flavor attributes such as iron and bitter taste, and appearance attributes such as porosity. Palatability testing results indicated that the control treatment was preferred over the sugar cane or the wheat bran treatment. The treatment with large sugarcane fiber particles was preferred over the treatment with small particles, while both of the wheat bran treatments were eaten at a similar level. Descriptive sensory analysis data, especially textural attributes, were useful in pinpointing the underlying characteristics and were considered to be reasons that may influence palatability of dog foods

  9. The Effects of Fiber Inclusion on Pet Food Sensory Characteristics and Palatability.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri; Monti, Mariana; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Carciofi, Aulus Cavalieri

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (a) the influence of fiber on the sensory characteristics of dry dog foods; (b) differences of coated and uncoated kibbles for aroma and flavor characteristics; (c) palatability of these dry dog foods; and (d) potential associations between palatability and sensory attributes. A total of eight fiber treatments were manufactured: a control (no fiber addition), guava fiber (3%, 6%, and 12%), sugar cane fiber (9%; large and small particle size), and wheat bran fiber (32%; large and small particle size). The results indicated significant effects of fibers on both flavor and texture properties of the samples. Bitter taste and iron and stale aftertaste were examples of flavor attributes that differed with treatment, with highest intensity observed for 12% guava fiber and small particle size sugar cane fiber treatments. Fracturability and initial crispness attributes were lowest for the sugar cane fiber treatments. Flavor of all treatments changed after coating with a palatant, increasing in toasted, brothy, and grainy attributes. The coating also had a masking effect on aroma attributes such as stale, flavor attributes such as iron and bitter taste, and appearance attributes such as porosity. Palatability testing results indicated that the control treatment was preferred over the sugar cane or the wheat bran treatment. The treatment with large sugarcane fiber particles was preferred over the treatment with small particles, while both of the wheat bran treatments were eaten at a similar level. Descriptive sensory analysis data, especially textural attributes, were useful in pinpointing the underlying characteristics and were considered to be reasons that may influence palatability of dog foods manufactured with inclusion of different fibers. PMID:26479141

  10. Effect of Dioscorea opposita Thunb. (yam) supplementation on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yogurt.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Lee, S Y; Palanivel, G; Kwak, H S

    2011-04-01

    A study was conducted to examine the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of yogurt made by supplementing powdered yam Dioscorea opposita Thunb. (YPT) at different concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8%, wt/vol) into milk, which was pasteurized and then fermented at 43°C for 6 h and stored for 16 d. The pH values of all samples decreased, whereas viscosity values and mean microbial counts increased during storage. The L* and a* color values (indicators of lightness and redness, respectively) of yogurt samples were not remarkably influenced by adding YPT, whereas the b* values (indicating yellowness) significantly increased with the addition of YPT at all concentrations at 0 d of storage, probably due to the original yellow color of yam powder. In functional component analyses, when the concentration of YPT increased, the amount of allantoin and diosgenin proportionally increased. The content of allantoin was 3.22 and diosgenin 4.69 μg/mL when 0.2% (wt/vol) YPT was supplemented and did not change quantitatively during the storage period (16 d). The sensory test revealed that the overall acceptability scores of YPT-supplemented yogurt samples (0.2 to 0.6%, wt/vol) were quite similar to those of the control throughout the storage period of 16 d. Based on the data obtained from the present study, it was concluded that the concentrations (0.2 to 0.6%, wt/vol) of YPT could be used to produce YPT-supplemented yogurt without significant adverse effects on physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties, and enhance functional components from the supplementation. PMID:21426958

  11. Sensory characteristics and volatile composition of a cereal beverage fermented with Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702257.

    PubMed

    Salmerón, Ivan; Rozada, Raquel; Thomas, Keith; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique; Pandiella, Severino S

    2014-04-01

    Most of the commercialized lactic acid fermented products are dairy-based. Hence, the development of non-dairy fermented products with probiotic properties draws significant attention within the functional foods industry. The microorganisms used in such products have complex enzyme systems through which they generate diverse metabolites (volatile and non-volatile) that provide significant flavour attributes of importance for fermented foods. The correlation of the volatile flavour compounds of a malt beverage fermented with a Bifidobacterium breve strain with its unique sensory characteristics was performed. The volatile composition analysis exposed the presence of 12 components. Eight of these flavour volatiles were produced through the metabolic activity of the bifidobacteria strain. Notably acetic acid, of reported sour flavour characteristics, exhibited the greatest intensity. Four components of considerable organoleptic characteristics were identified as Maillard-derived products, namely maltol, pyranone, 2 (5H)-furanmethanol and 3-furanmethanol. The sensory evaluation exhibited that the fermented cereal beverage had a sour flavour with mild sweet and malty notes. These results indicate that the volatile compounds identified can be appointed as significant flavour markers of the novel fermented cereal beverage. PMID:23744118

  12. Effect of barley flour on the physical and sensory characteristics of chocolate chip cookies.

    PubMed

    Frost, Diana June; Adhikari, Koushik; Lewis, Douglas S

    2011-10-01

    The present study explored the possibility of using barley flour as an ingredient to incorporate soluble fibre (β-glucan) in chocolate-chip cookies. Some clinical studies have shown that β-glucan might reduce the serum cholesterol levels. The objective of this study was to determine the physical and sensory characteristics of chocolate chip cookies partly substituted with barley flour at different levels. Physical characteristics (water activity and L*a*b* colour) and sensory characteristics (descriptive and consumer analysis) were evaluated on the experimental cookies substituted with 0, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70% barley flour for all-purpose flour. There were increases in the baked-barley aroma and flavour, thickness, colour intensity, dryness and graininess with increasing barley flour content. Consumer data showed that cookies made with 30% (0.5 g β-glucan/serving) and 50% (0.8 g β-glucan/serving) barley flour substitution were comparable in liking to the control (0% substitution) cookie and a commercial cookie. The presence of β-glucan in our chocolate-chip cookies might make them a healthier option for many consumers. PMID:23572789

  13. Color stability and sensory characteristics of fresh and enhanced pork loins from immunologically castrated barrows.

    PubMed

    Jones-Hamlow, K A; Tavárez, M A; Boler, D D; Schroeder, A L; Prusa, K J; Dilger, A C

    2015-02-01

    Our objective was to evaluate color changes during storage of fresh pork chops and enhanced and nonenhanced loin quality from anti-gonadotropin-releasing factor (Improvest) immunologically castrated (IC) barrows. In study 1, treatments evaluated were IC barrows, IC barrows fed ractopamine (IC+RAC), physically castrated (PC) barrows, intact males (IM), and gilts. Fresh loins were evaluated for sensory characteristics and instrumental tenderness including both Warner-Bratzler Shear force (WBSF) and star probe force. In study 2, treatments evaluated were IC barrows fed 0.55% and 0.65% standard ileal digestible (SID) lysine and PC barrows fed 0.55% SID lysine. Loin chops were displayed for 7 d, and color was evaluated. The remaining loin was halved, and one half was enhanced with a 3.5% salt and phosphate solution. Enhanced loins were evaluated for sensory characteristics and instrumental tenderness. In both studies, pen served as the experimental unit for all traits measured. Data from individual animals were averaged by pen and analyzed, per study, as a 1-way ANOVA using the MIXED procedure of SAS. In study 1, there were no differences ( 0.05) between treatments for juiciness, tenderness, chewiness, or off-flavor. Intact males had the most intense ( 0.05) boar aroma. Gilts had the most intense ( < 0.05) pork flavor, whereas IM had the least intense pork flavor; all other treatments were intermediate. Tenderness (WBSF) was similar between treatments at 1 d of aging; however, at 7, 14, and 21 d of aging, loins from IC barrows were more tender ( 0.05) than those from gilts, IM, and IC+RAC but were similar ( 0.05) to those from PC. In study 2, discoloration of fresh loin chops during storage was similar ( 0.42) between PC and IC barrows. Chops from enhanced loins were more tender and juicy but had more off-flavor than nonenhanced loins ( 0.01). Star probe and WBSF were also reduced ( 0.01) in enhanced loins compared with nonenhanced loins. Sensory characteristics and

  14. Changes in Ultrastructure and Sensory Characteristics on Electro-magnetic and Air Blast Freezing of Beef during Frozen Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The ultrastructure in the beef muscle of the electro-magnetic resonance and air blast freezing during the frozen storage, and the changes in the quality characteristics after thawing were evaluated. The size of ice crystal was small and evenly formed in the initial freezing period, and it showed that the size was increased as the storage period was elapsed (p<0.05). The beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing showed the size of ice crystal with a lower rate of increase than the air blast freezing during the frozen storage. The thawing loss of beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was significantly lower than the air blast freezing during frozen storage (p<0.05), and it showed that the thawing loss of the round was higher than the loin. Water holding capacity decreased as the storage period became longer while the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was higher than the air blast on 8 month (p<0.05). As a result of sensory evaluation, the beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing did not show the difference until 4 months, and it showed higher acceptability in comparison with the beef stored by the air blast freezing. Thus, it is considered that the freezing method has an effect on the change in the ultrastructure and quality characteristics of the beef. PMID:26761797

  15. Low-fat frankfurters enriched with n-3 PUFA and edible seaweed: Effects of olive oil and chilled storage on physicochemical, sensory and microbial characteristics.

    PubMed

    López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2009-09-01

    This article reports a study of the physicochemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of low-fat (10%) and n-3 PUFA-enriched frankfurters as affected by addition of seaweed (5% Himanthalia elongata), partial substitution (50%) of animal fat by olive oil and chilled storage (41days at 2°C). The presence of seaweed improved water and fat binding properties, reduced (P<0.05) lightness and redness and increased (P<0.05) the hardness and chewiness of low-fat frankfurters enriched with n-3 PUFA. The effect of olive oil on those characteristics was less pronounced than that of seaweed. Replacing pork backfat with olive oil in frankfurters produced acceptable sensory characteristics, similar to control, while addition of seaweed resulted in less acceptable products, due mainly to the special flavour of the seaweed. Formulation and storage time affected the total viable count and lactic acid bacteria count. Frankfurters containing olive oil and seaweed had the highest total viable count from day 14 of storage, with lactic acid bacteria becoming the predominant microflora. PMID:20416775

  16. Effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on consumer acceptance of fruit juices with different concentrations of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    PubMed

    Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruit juices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruit juices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruit juices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruit juices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruit juices that claim a particular health benefit. PMID:19467277

  17. Sensory Characteristics and Comparison of Commercial Plain Yogurts and 2 New Production Sample Options.

    PubMed

    Brown, Marissa D; Chambers, Delores H

    2015-12-01

    This research determined the sensory characteristics of currently available plain yogurts available in U.S. supermarkets and examined how 3 "more sustainable" prototypes compared. The prototypes, nonfat set-style yogurts pre-acidified after pasteurization with lemon juice or citric acid at 80 ppm to pH 6.2, had shorter fermentation times than the lab-made control. These reduced fermentation times could result in energy reductions and potentially substantiate a "sustainable" marketing claim, a concept gaining traction with consumers. Twenty-six commercial yogurts, varying in percent milk fat, milk source (organic or conventional), and processing (set-style, stirred, or strained/Greek-style), were also included. Using descriptive sensory analysis, a 6-person highly trained panel scored the intensity of 25 flavor and 10 texture attributes on a 15-point scale. Three replications were carried out, and all samples were tested at least 10 d prior to the end of their shelf-lives. The samples differed for 19 flavor and all 10 texture attributes. Cluster analysis indicated approximately 7 flavor and 5 texture clusters. The prototype pre-acidified with lemon juice was similar to category leaders nonfat yogurt varieties. The prototype pre-acidified with citric acid was similar in texture but was less sour. Although no legal definitions exist for "sustainable," the prototypes' sensory characteristics are comparable to those of popular yogurts indicating potential market viability. This research also demonstrates potential for making yogurt that is in line with growing consumer expectations for sustainability. Despite the current diversity, several combinations of flavor and texture were not represented. PMID:26551026

  18. Effect of NaCl/Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) Mixture on the Sensorial Properties and Quality Characteristics of Model Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    Sodium chloride is an important ingredient added to most of foods which contributes to flavor enhancement and food preservation but excess intake of sodium chloride may also cause various diseases such as heart diseases, osteoporosis and so on. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a salty flavor enhancer on the quality and sensorial properties of the NaCl/MSG complex and actual food system. For characterizing the spray-dried NaCl/MSG complex, surface dimension, morphology, rheology, and saltiness intensity were estimated by increasing MSG (0-2.0%) levels at a fixed NaCl concentration (2.0%). MSG levels had no effect of the characteristics of the NaCl/MSG complex, although the addition of MSG increased the surface dimension of the NaCl/MSG complex significantly (p<0.05). Furthermore, the effect of MSG on enhancing the salty flavor was not observed in the solution of the NaCl/MSG complex. In the case of an actual food system, model meat products (pork patties) were prepared by replacing NaCl with MSG. MSG enhanced the salty flavor, thereby increasing overall acceptability of pork patties. Replacement of NaCl with MSG (<1.0%) did not result in negative sensorial properties of pork patties, although quality deterioration such as high cooking loss was found. Nevertheless, MSG had a potential application in meat product formulation as a salty flavor enhancer or a partial NaCl replacer when meat products were supplemented with binding agents. PMID:26761490

  19. Effect of NaCl/Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) Mixture on the Sensorial Properties and Quality Characteristics of Model Meat Products.

    PubMed

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Byong-Soo; Lee, Jung-Gyu; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium chloride is an important ingredient added to most of foods which contributes to flavor enhancement and food preservation but excess intake of sodium chloride may also cause various diseases such as heart diseases, osteoporosis and so on. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a salty flavor enhancer on the quality and sensorial properties of the NaCl/MSG complex and actual food system. For characterizing the spray-dried NaCl/MSG complex, surface dimension, morphology, rheology, and saltiness intensity were estimated by increasing MSG (0-2.0%) levels at a fixed NaCl concentration (2.0%). MSG levels had no effect of the characteristics of the NaCl/MSG complex, although the addition of MSG increased the surface dimension of the NaCl/MSG complex significantly (p<0.05). Furthermore, the effect of MSG on enhancing the salty flavor was not observed in the solution of the NaCl/MSG complex. In the case of an actual food system, model meat products (pork patties) were prepared by replacing NaCl with MSG. MSG enhanced the salty flavor, thereby increasing overall acceptability of pork patties. Replacement of NaCl with MSG (<1.0%) did not result in negative sensorial properties of pork patties, although quality deterioration such as high cooking loss was found. Nevertheless, MSG had a potential application in meat product formulation as a salty flavor enhancer or a partial NaCl replacer when meat products were supplemented with binding agents. PMID:26761490

  20. Determination of furan levels in commercial orange juice products and its correlation to the sensory and quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Kim, Min Yeop; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2016-11-15

    The objective of current study was to determine the furan levels in commercial orange juices (OJs) and relate to the sensory and quality characteristics of OJs. The factors among sensory and quality characteristics that showed high correlation to furan were identified. The furan levels found in 18 commercial OJs ranged from 0.59 to 27.39ng/mL. Freshly-squeezed type OJs (n=4) had significantly lower furan levels (4.68ng/mL) than other OJs treated with heat processing (p<0.05). Vitamin C content, specifically, dehydroascorbic acid showed higher correlation to the furan level in OJs (r=0.833). A descriptive sensory analysis result revealed the different flavor profile of commercial OJs according to the processing method and added ingredient in OJs. Current approach of using sensory analysis for prediction of furan level in food products can be applied to future studies in many other food commodities. PMID:27283680

  1. An Empirical Examination of Individual and System Characteristics on Enhancing E-Learning Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Hsiao, Chan; Purnomo, Sutrisno Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Due to the continued prevalence of e-learning underutilization in Indonesia's higher education context, this study empirically examines individual and system characteristics believed to influence students' acceptance of e-learning systems. The proposed research model is developed to examine the influence of five characteristics of the…

  2. Impact of the hydrodyne process on tenderness, microbial load, and sensory characteristics of pork longissimus muscle.

    PubMed

    Moeller, S; Wulf, D; Meeker, D; Ndife, M; Sundararajan, N; Solomon, M B

    1999-08-01

    Paired, boneless pork loin muscles were obtained from 76 market hogs to evaluate tenderness, meat quality characteristics, sensory attributes, and microbial characterization of pork muscle exposed to the Hydrodyne Process (H) compared with untreated control (C) loin. A subset of 16 paired loins was randomly selected for use in sensory evaluation and microbial characterization. Loins were vacuum packaged and immersed in a heat shrink tank prior to the H treatment. The Hydrodyne treatment exposed the loin to the pressure equivalent of a 150-g explosive, generating a pressure distribution of approximately 703 kg/cm2 at the surface of the samples. Meat quality assessments taken following treatment included subjective color, firmness/wetness, marbling scores (1 to 5 scale), Minolta reflectance and color readings, drip loss, and lipid content. The P-value for statistical significance for main effects and interactions was set at <.05 in all analyses. Administration of H resulted in a 17% improvement in Warner-Bratzler shear force (2.69 vs. 3.24 kg), with the shear force similar at two end-point cooking times (11 and 16 min) corresponding to approximately 75 and 83 degrees C, respectively. No differences between H and C were observed for color score, firmness score, Minolta L, Minolta Y, or drip loss on uncooked samples. The H loins had lower marbling scores (P<.05) and intramuscular lipid (P<.05) content than the paired C loin. Sensory evaluation on the randomly selected (n = 16) paired loins samples showed no improvement in Warner-Bratzler shear force. Sensory panelists were also unable to detect a difference between H and C loins for both initial and sustained tenderness scores. No differences between H and C loins were found for pork flavor, off-flavor, cohesiveness, or number of chews before swallowing, but H loins had a significantly lower juiciness score and more cooking loss than C loins. Microbial analysis results showed no differences in coliform bacteria counts

  3. Carcass Performance, Muscle Fiber, Meat Quality, and Sensory Quality Characteristics of Crossbred Pigs with Different Live Weights

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hee Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In order to attain heavier live weight without impairing pork or sensory quality characteristics, carcass performance, muscle fiber, pork quality, and sensory quality characteristics were compared among the heavy weight (HW, average live weight of 130.5 kg), medium weight (MW, average weight of 111.1 kg), and light weight (LW, average weight of 96.3 kg) pigs at time of slaughter. The loin eye area was 1.47 times greater in the HW group compared to the LW group (64.0 and 43.5 cm2, p<0.001), while carcass percent was similar between the HW and MW groups (p>0.05). This greater performance by the HW group compared to the LW group can be explained by a greater total number (1,436 vs. 1,188, ×103, p<0.001) and larger area (4,452 vs. 3,716 μm2, p<0.001) of muscle fibers. No significant differences were observed in muscle pH45 min, lightness, drip loss, and shear force among the groups (p>0.05), and higher live weights did not influence sensory quality attributes, including tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. Therefore, these findings indicate that increased live weights in this study did not influence the technological and sensory quality characteristics. Moreover, muscles with a higher number of medium or large size fibers tend to exhibit good carcass performance without impairing meat and sensory quality characteristics. PMID:27433110

  4. Carcass Performance, Muscle Fiber, Meat Quality, and Sensory Quality Characteristics of Crossbred Pigs with Different Live Weights.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Min; Oh, Hee Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In order to attain heavier live weight without impairing pork or sensory quality characteristics, carcass performance, muscle fiber, pork quality, and sensory quality characteristics were compared among the heavy weight (HW, average live weight of 130.5 kg), medium weight (MW, average weight of 111.1 kg), and light weight (LW, average weight of 96.3 kg) pigs at time of slaughter. The loin eye area was 1.47 times greater in the HW group compared to the LW group (64.0 and 43.5 cm(2), p<0.001), while carcass percent was similar between the HW and MW groups (p>0.05). This greater performance by the HW group compared to the LW group can be explained by a greater total number (1,436 vs. 1,188, ×10(3), p<0.001) and larger area (4,452 vs. 3,716 μm(2), p<0.001) of muscle fibers. No significant differences were observed in muscle pH45 min, lightness, drip loss, and shear force among the groups (p>0.05), and higher live weights did not influence sensory quality attributes, including tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. Therefore, these findings indicate that increased live weights in this study did not influence the technological and sensory quality characteristics. Moreover, muscles with a higher number of medium or large size fibers tend to exhibit good carcass performance without impairing meat and sensory quality characteristics. PMID:27433110

  5. Efficacy of monitoring the sensory taste characteristics in pomegranate juice with electronic tongue, and chemical measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to flavor attributes, pomegranate juices have sweet, sour, bitter tastes, astringent, and toothetch feeling factors. Many factors influence tastes and feeling factors. Measuring these attributes without a sensory panel makes economic sense. This investigation compares descriptive sensory...

  6. Fatty Acid Composition and Sensory Characteristics of Eggs Obtained from Hens Fed Flaxseed Oil, Dried Whitebait and/or Fructo-oligosaccharide.

    PubMed

    Yi, Haechang; Hwang, Keum Taek; Regenstein, Joe M; Shin, Sung Woo

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of flaxseed oil and dried whitebait as a source of ω-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FA), which could be used to produce eggs enriched with ω-3 FA, and of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) as a source of prebiotics on performance of hens (commercial Hy-Line Brown laying hens), and FA composition, internal quality, and sensory characteristics of the eggs. Dietary FOS increased egg weight. The amounts of α-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) in the eggs from the hens fed the flaxseed oil alone or flaxseed oil+dried whitebait diets were higher than those of the control. Hedonic scores for off-flavor, fishy flavor, buttery taste and overall acceptability of the eggs from the hens fed the diet containing flaxseed oil+ dried whitebait were lower (p<0.05) than those of the control. Overall acceptability of the eggs from the hens fed the diet containing soybean oil+dried whitebait was lower (p<0.05) than that of the control. However, all the sensory attributes of the eggs from the hens fed the diet containing flaxseed oil, dried whitebait and FOS were not significantly different from those of the control. These results confirmed that flaxseed oil increases the ALA content in the eggs and a combination of flaxseed oil and dried whitebait increases EPA and DHA in the eggs. Of significance was that addition of FOS to the flaxseed oil+dried whitebait diet improves the sensory characteristics of the eggs enriched with ω-3 FA. PMID:25050046

  7. Fatty Acid Composition and Sensory Characteristics of Eggs Obtained from Hens Fed Flaxseed Oil, Dried Whitebait and/or Fructo-oligosaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Haechang; Hwang, Keum Taek; Regenstein, Joe M.; Shin, Sung Woo

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of flaxseed oil and dried whitebait as a source of ω-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FA), which could be used to produce eggs enriched with ω-3 FA, and of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) as a source of prebiotics on performance of hens (commercial Hy-Line Brown laying hens), and FA composition, internal quality, and sensory characteristics of the eggs. Dietary FOS increased egg weight. The amounts of α-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) in the eggs from the hens fed the flaxseed oil alone or flaxseed oil+dried whitebait diets were higher than those of the control. Hedonic scores for off-flavor, fishy flavor, buttery taste and overall acceptability of the eggs from the hens fed the diet containing flaxseed oil+ dried whitebait were lower (p<0.05) than those of the control. Overall acceptability of the eggs from the hens fed the diet containing soybean oil+dried whitebait was lower (p<0.05) than that of the control. However, all the sensory attributes of the eggs from the hens fed the diet containing flaxseed oil, dried whitebait and FOS were not significantly different from those of the control. These results confirmed that flaxseed oil increases the ALA content in the eggs and a combination of flaxseed oil and dried whitebait increases EPA and DHA in the eggs. Of significance was that addition of FOS to the flaxseed oil+dried whitebait diet improves the sensory characteristics of the eggs enriched with ω-3 FA. PMID:25050046

  8. Acceptability of Alternatives to Traditional Emergency Care: Patient Characteristics, Alternate Transport Modes, and Alternate Destinations.

    PubMed

    Jones, Courtney Marie Cora; Wasserman, Erin B; Li, Timmy; Shah, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    To determine the acceptability of alternatives to traditional emergency care, we assessed the proportion of subjects willing to consider alternative modes of transportation and alternative destinations. We further identified patient characteristics associated with willingness to consider these alternatives. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study in the emergency department (ED) of an academic medical center. Research assistants screened all non-critically ill ED patients for eligibility and willingness to participate and administered an interview-based survey that included questions on demographic and clinical characteristics, perceived illness severity, and acceptability of alternatives to traditional emergency care for acute illness and injuries. We calculated the proportions and 95% confidence intervals for subjects who found alternative transport modes and destinations acceptable and developed a log-binomial regression model to identify patient characteristics associated with acceptability of alternative modes of transport and alternative destinations. Complete data were available on 1,058 subjects. Forty-two percent of the study sample arrived to the ED via emergency medical services (EMS). Over two-thirds of the study sample (68.2%) was willing to consider transport via either taxi or medical transport van and 69.0% was willing to consider either transportation to an urgent care center or their primary care physician's office. Other alternatives, including delayed EMS response time, were less frequently endorsed as acceptable alternatives. Subject characteristics associated with willingness to accept alternative modes of transportation included younger age, chief complaint, previous ED use, and place of residence (p < 0.05). Subject characteristics associated with willingness to accept alternative destinations included younger age, non-white race, lower patient acuity, and lower self-perceived illness severity (p < 0.05). In our ED, some patients found

  9. Evaluation and Application of the RD50 for Determining Acceptable Exposure Levels of Airborne Sensory Irritants for the General Public

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, Yu; Alexeeff, George V.; Broadwin, Rachel; Salmon, Andrew G.

    2007-01-01

    Background The RD50 (exposure concentration producing a 50% respiratory rate decrease) test evaluates airborne chemicals for sensory irritation and has become an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard method. Past studies reported good correlations (R2) between RD50s and the occupational exposure limits, particularly threshold limit values (TLVs). Objective The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between RD50s and human sensory irritation responses in a quantitative manner, particularly for chemicals that produce burning sensation of the eyes, nose, or throat, based on lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) reported for human subjects. Methods We compared RD50s with LOAELs and acute reference exposure levels (RELs). RELs, developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, represent a level at which no adverse effects are anticipated after exposure. We collected RD50s from the published literature and evaluated them for consistency with ASTM procedures. We identified LOAELs for human irritation and found 25 chemicals with a corresponding RD50 in mice. Discussion We found the relationship between RD50s and LOAELs as log RD50 = 1.16 (log LOAEL) + 0.77 with an R2 value of 0.80. This strong correlation supports the use of the RD50 in establishing exposure limits for the public. We further identified 16 chemical irritants with both RD50s and corresponding acute RELs, and calculated the relationship as log RD50 = 0.71 (log REL) + 2.55 with an R2 value of 0.71. This relationship could be used to identify health protective values for the public to prevent respiratory or sensory irritation. Conclusion Consequently, we believe that the RD50 has benefits for use in setting protective levels for the health of both workers and the general population. PMID:18007993

  10. Effects of intramuscular fat levels on sensory characteristics of duck breast meat.

    PubMed

    Chartrin, P; Méteau, K; Juin, H; Bernadet, M D; Guy, G; Larzul, C; Rémignon, H; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Baéza, E

    2006-05-01

    We conducted a study to evaluate the effects of intramuscular fat levels on the sensory characteristics of duck breast meat. Combining duck genotypes (Muscovy, Pekin, and their crossbreed hinny and mule ducks) and feeding levels (overfeeding between 12 and 14 wk of age vs. ad libitum feeding) enabled us to obtain a wide range of lipid levels in breast muscle. The average values were between 2.55 and 6.40 g per 100 g of muscle. Breast muscle from overfed ducks showed higher lipid and lower water levels than breast muscle from ducks fed ad libitum. Muscle from the overfed ducks was also paler in color and exhibited greater yellowness and cooking loss values. Juiciness was judged lower and flavor more pronounced in overfed ducks. Muscovy ducks exhibited higher breast weight and lower lipid levels than the other genotypes. At the other extreme, Pekin ducks exhibited the highest lipid levels and the lowest breast weights; values for these criteria were intermediate in hinny and mule ducks. Breast muscle of Muscovy ducks was paler, less red, and more yellow than that of other genotypes. Breast muscle of Pekin ducks exhibited the lowest values for lightness, yellowness, and energy necessary to shear meat, as well as the highest cooking loss values, and was judged more tender, juicy and less stringy than that of other genotypes. In contrast, scores for breast muscle of Muscovy ducks were the lowest for tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, and the highest for stringiness. Breast muscle of hinny and mule ducks scored the highest values for redness. Hinny ducks also scored the highest values for flavor. Genotype exerted a higher effect on the sensory quality of breast muscle than did feeding levels. Finally, increasing lipid levels in breast muscle increased lightness, yellowness, cooking loss, tenderness, and flavor, with correlation coefficients of 0.49, 0.47, 0.54, 0.43, and 0.28, respectively. However, breast meat color and tenderness were mainly influenced by genotype

  11. A resistant-starch enriched yogurt: fermentability, sensory characteristics, and a pilot study in children

    PubMed Central

    Aryana, Kayanush; Greenway, Frank; Dhurandhar, Nikhil; Tulley, Richard; Finley, John; Keenan, Michael; Martin, Roy; Pelkman, Christine; Olson, Douglas; Zheng, Jolene

    2015-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity and the vulnerability of the pediatric age group have highlighted the critical need for a careful consideration of effective, safe, remedial and preventive dietary interventions.  Amylose starch (RS2) from high-amylose maize (HAM) ferments in the gut and affects body weight.   One hundred and ten children, of 7-8 (n=91) or 13-14 (n=19) years of age scored the sensory qualities of a yogurt supplemented with either HAM-RS2 or an amylopectin starch.  The amylopectin starch yogurt was preferred to the HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt by 7-8 year old panelists ( P<0.0001).  Appearance, taste, and sandiness scores given by 13- to 14-year-old panelists were more favorable for the amylopectin starch yogurt than for HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt ( P<0.05).  HAM-RS2 supplementation resulted in acceptable (≥6 on a 1-9 scale) sensory and hedonic ratings of the yogurt in 74% of subjects.  Four children consumed a HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt for four weeks to test its fermentability in a clinical trial.  Three adolescents, but not the single pre-pubertal child, had reduced stool pH ( P=0.1) and increased stool short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) ( P<0.05) including increased fecal acetate ( P=0.02), and butyrate ( P=0.089) from resistant starch (RS) fermentation and isobutyrate ( P=0.01) from protein fermentation post-treatment suggesting a favorable change to the gut microbiota.  HAM-RS2 was not modified by pasteurization of the yogurt, and may be a palatable way to increase fiber intake and stimulate colonic fermentation in adolescents.  Future studies are planned to determine the concentration of HAM-RS2 that offers the optimal safe and effective strategy to prevent excessive fat gain in children. PMID:26925221

  12. A resistant-starch enriched yogurt: fermentability, sensory characteristics, and a pilot study in children.

    PubMed

    Aryana, Kayanush; Greenway, Frank; Dhurandhar, Nikhil; Tulley, Richard; Finley, John; Keenan, Michael; Martin, Roy; Pelkman, Christine; Olson, Douglas; Zheng, Jolene

    2015-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity and the vulnerability of the pediatric age group have highlighted the critical need for a careful consideration of effective, safe, remedial and preventive dietary interventions.  Amylose starch (RS2) from high-amylose maize (HAM) ferments in the gut and affects body weight.   One hundred and ten children, of 7-8 (n=91) or 13-14 (n=19) years of age scored the sensory qualities of a yogurt supplemented with either HAM-RS2 or an amylopectin starch.  The amylopectin starch yogurt was preferred to the HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt by 7-8 year old panelists ( P<0.0001).  Appearance, taste, and sandiness scores given by 13- to 14-year-old panelists were more favorable for the amylopectin starch yogurt than for HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt ( P<0.05).  HAM-RS2 supplementation resulted in acceptable (≥6 on a 1-9 scale) sensory and hedonic ratings of the yogurt in 74% of subjects.  Four children consumed a HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt for four weeks to test its fermentability in a clinical trial.  Three adolescents, but not the single pre-pubertal child, had reduced stool pH ( P=0.1) and increased stool short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) ( P<0.05) including increased fecal acetate ( P=0.02), and butyrate ( P=0.089) from resistant starch (RS) fermentation and isobutyrate ( P=0.01) from protein fermentation post-treatment suggesting a favorable change to the gut microbiota.  HAM-RS2 was not modified by pasteurization of the yogurt, and may be a palatable way to increase fiber intake and stimulate colonic fermentation in adolescents.  Future studies are planned to determine the concentration of HAM-RS2 that offers the optimal safe and effective strategy to prevent excessive fat gain in children. PMID:26925221

  13. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of burger made from duck surimi-like material.

    PubMed

    Ramadhan, K; Huda, N; Ahmad, R

    2012-09-01

    Burgers were prepared using duck surimi-like material (DSLM) with polydextrose added (SL) and DSLM with sucrose-sorbitol added (SS), and the properties of these burgers were compared with those of burgers made of chicken meat (CB) and duck meat (DB). Quality characteristics such as chemical composition, cooking loss, diameter shrinkage, color, and texture were measured. The DB had a lower moisture content (55.58%) and higher fat content (21.44%) and cooking loss (11.01%) compared with other samples, whereas CB, SS, and SL did not differ significantly in moisture (65.21-66.10%) and fat (10.42-11.16%) content or cooking loss (5.32-6.15%). The SS and SL were positioned below CB and above DB in terms of hardness, chewiness, and springiness. Ten trained panelists assessed the burgers using quantitative descriptive analysis. Among the burgers, CB had the greatest brightness of color, hardness, springiness, and chewiness. The SS had greater sweetness than the other burgers. Both SL and SS had significantly less animalic odor, meaty flavor, oiliness, juiciness, and saltiness compared with DB. The physicochemical and sensory characteristics of burgers prepared from DSLM approached those of burgers made of chicken. PMID:22912469

  14. Influence of the reformulation of ingredients in bakery products on healthy characteristics and acceptability of consumers.

    PubMed

    Doménech-Asensi, G; Merola, N; López-Fernández, A; Ros-Berruezo, G; Frontela-Saseta, C

    2016-01-01

    Bakery products are highly consumed by children and adults and as cereal-derived foods are considered a fundamental part of a balanced diet, but they are usually high in sugar and saturated and trans fat and low in fibre. This study aimed to develop four different bakery products (cookies, croissants, Spanish muffins and Spanish sponge cake) with healthier properties, such as lower fat and sugar content, healthy fatty acid profile and higher fibre content. Margarine and sunflower oil were replaced with high oleic sunflower oil, and inulin was also added. After the modifications, a significant reduction of fat content and kilocalories in all cases, an increment of monounsaturated fat and a decrease in saturated fatty acids in three products were observed. The sensory analysis resulted similar results in both recipes for cookies and lower acceptability in sponge cake, croissants and muffins. Purchase intention only decreased in sponge cake. PMID:26706903

  15. Evidence for a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein gene (mcp1) that encodes a putative sensory transducer in virulent Treponema pallidum.

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, K E; Porcella, S F; Popova, T G; Norgard, M V

    1997-01-01

    The clinical and histopathological manifestations of syphilis and the invasive behavior of Treponema pallidum in tissue culture systems reflect the propensity for treponemes to migrate through skin, hematogenously disseminate, and invade targeted tissues. Treponemal motility is believed to be essential to this process and thereby an important facet of syphilis pathogenesis. By analogy with other bacterial pathogens, it is plausible that treponemal motility and tissue invasion are modulated by sensory transduction events associated with chemotactic responses. Recent studies have demonstrated the existence in T. pallidum of accessory molecules typically associated with sensory transduction events involving methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs). Intrinsic radiolabeling of T. pallidum in vitro with L-[methyl-3H] methionine revealed one methylated treponemal polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 64 kDa. A degenerate oligonucleotide probe corresponding to a highly conserved C-terminal domain within Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli MCPs was used in Southern blotting of T. pallidum DNA to identify and subsequently clone a putative T. pallidum MCP gene (mcp1). Computer analyses predicted a near-consensus promoter upstream of mcp1, and primer extension analysis employing T. pallidum RNA revealed a transcriptional initiation site. T. pallidum mcp1 encoded a 579-amino-acid (64.6-kDa) polypeptide which was highly homologous to at least 69 other known or putative sensory transducer proteins, with the highest degrees of homology existing between the C terminus of mcp1 and the C-terminal (signaling) domains of the other bacterial MCPs. Other salient features of Mcp1 included (i) six potential membrane-spanning domains at the N terminus, (ii) two predicted alpha-helical coiled coil regions containing at least three putative methylation sites, and (iii) homologies with two ligand-binding domains (LI-1 and LI-2) of the E. coli MCPs Trg and Tar. This study is the

  16. Effects of NaCl Replacement with Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the Quality Characteristics and Sensorial Properties of Model Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of γ-aminobutylic acid (GABA) on the quality and sensorial properties of both the GABA/NaCl complex and model meat products. GABA/NaCl complex was prepared by spray-drying, and the surface dimensions, morphology, rheology, and saltiness were characterized. For model meat products, pork patties were prepared by replacing NaCl with GABA. For characteristics of the complex, increasing GABA concentration increased the surface dimensions of the complex. However, GABA did not affect the rheological properties of solutions containing the complex. The addition of 2% GABA exhibited significantly higher saltiness than the control (no GABA treatment). In the case of pork patties, sensory testing indicated that the addition of GABA decreased the saltiness intensity. Both the intensity of juiciness and tenderness of patties containing GABA also scored lower than the control, based on the NaCl reduction. These results were consistent with the quality characteristics (cooking loss and texture profile analysis). Nevertheless, overall acceptability of the pork patties showed that up to 1.5%, patties containing GABA did not significantly differ from the control. Consequently, the results indicated that GABA has a potential application in meat products, but also manifested a deterioration of quality by the NaCl reduction, which warrants further exploration. PMID:26761294

  17. Effect of variety and processing method on functional properties of traditional sweet potato flour (“elubo”) and sensory acceptability of cooked paste (“amala”)

    PubMed Central

    Fetuga, Ganiyat; Tomlins, Keith; Henshaw, Folake; Idowu, Michael

    2014-01-01

    “Amala” is a generic term in Nigeria, used to describe a thick paste prepared by stirring flour (“elubo”) from yam, cassava or unripe plantain, in hot water, to form a smooth consistency. In order to overcome its high perishability and increase the utilization of sweet potato roots, three varieties of sweet potato roots were processed into flour using two methods. The interactive effect of variety and the processing method had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on all the functional properties of the flour except yellowness, setback viscosity, and peak time. Acceptable sweet potato “amala” with average sensory acceptability score of 7.5 were obtained from yellow-fleshed varieties irrespective of the processing method. Flour that produced acceptable “amala” were characterized by lower values of protein (2.20–3.94%), fiber (1.30–1.65%), total sugar (12.41–38.83 μg/mg), water absorption capacity (168–215 g/100 g), water solubility (8.29–14.65%), swelling power (0.52–0.82 g/g), and higher peak time (6.9–8.7 min). PMID:25493186

  18. Seeing with sound? exploring different characteristics of a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution device.

    PubMed

    Brown, David; Macpherson, Tom; Ward, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Sensory substitution devices convert live visual images into auditory signals, for example with a web camera (to record the images), a computer (to perform the conversion) and headphones (to listen to the sounds). In a series of three experiments, the performance of one such device ('The vOICe') was assessed under various conditions on blindfolded sighted participants. The main task that we used involved identifying and locating objects placed on a table by holding a webcam (like a flashlight) or wearing it on the head (like a miner's light). Identifying objects on a table was easier with a hand-held device, but locating the objects was easier with a head-mounted device. Brightness converted into loudness was less effective than the reverse contrast (dark being loud), suggesting that performance under these conditions (natural indoor lighting, novice users) is related more to the properties of the auditory signal (ie the amount of noise in it) than the cross-modal association between loudness and brightness. Individual differences in musical memory (detecting pitch changes in two sequences of notes) was related to the time taken to identify or recognise objects, but individual differences in self-reported vividness of visual imagery did not reliably predict performance across the experiments. In general, the results suggest that the auditory characteristics of the device may be more important for initial learning than visual associations. PMID:22208131

  19. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of whey protein hydrolysates generated at different total solids levels.

    PubMed

    Spellman, David; O'Cuinn, Gerard; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2005-05-01

    Whey protein hydrolysates were generated at different total solids (TS) levels (50-300 g/l) using the commercially available proteolytic preparation Debitrase HYW20, while enzyme to substrate ratio, pH and temperature were maintained constant. Hydrolysis proceeded at a faster rate at lower TS reaching a degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 16.6% at 300 g TS/l, compared with a DH of 22.7% at 50 g TS/l after 6 h hydrolysis. The slower breakdown of intact whey proteins at high TS was quantified by gel-permeation HPLC. Reversed-phase (RP) HPLC of hydrolysate samples of equivalent DH (approximately 15%) generated at different TS levels indicated that certain hydrophobic peptide peaks were present at higher levels in hydrolysates generated at low TS. Sensory evaluation showed that hydrolysates with equivalent DH values were significantly (P < 0.0005) less bitter when generated at 300 g TS/l (mean bitterness score = 25.4%) than hydrolysates generated at 50 g TS/l (mean bitterness score = 39.9%). A specific hydrophobic peptide peak present at higher concentrations in hydrolysates generated at low TS was isolated and identified as beta-lactoglobulin f(43-57), a fragment having the physical and chemical characteristics of a bitter peptide. PMID:15909678

  20. Effects of extraction conditions on the sensory and instrumental characteristics of fish gelatin gels.

    PubMed

    Boran, G; Lawless, H T; Regenstein, J M

    2010-01-01

    Fish skin gelatin has recently been of interest as a product that eliminates religious concerns (Jewish and Muslim) and could be an alternative value-added product from fish waste. Recent research has shown that extraction conditions affect gelatin quality. In this study, gelatin from Asian silver carp skin and extracted under different conditions have been studied sensory properties using descriptive analysis and time intensity testing to determine how extraction conditions affect gelatin sensory properties. Three pairs of gelatin samples were selected based on their gel strength, viscosity, and melting temperature. The impacts of different extraction conditions on instrumental methods were examined. Some functionality measurements were also done to determine how sensory measurements correlate with instrumental measurements. The gel strength varied between 60 ± 10 g and 590 ± 30 g while the viscosity varied between 1.9 ± 0.0 cP and 7.4 ± 0.2 cP. The hardness, melting and gelling temperature of the samples were well correlated with the gel strength (r > 0.90). The results indicated that the strongest correlation among all the sensory attributes was between firmness and melting temperature, which was a negative correlation (-0.75) suggesting that the firmer the gel samples the slower they melt. The viscosity was found to be very discriminative between samples in terms of sensory properties. The functional measurements were found to be strongly correlated within themselves while the sensory measurements were less so, which might be due to the greater variability when using sensory panelists or sensory parameters simply might not be related. The firmness, melting rate, and aftertaste were those sensory attributes most successfully discriminated by the panelists. PMID:21535620

  1. Fortification with iron chelate and substitution of sucrose by sucralose in light uvaia sherbet (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess): physical, chemical and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Giarola, Tales Márcio de Oliveira; Pereira, Cristina Guimarães; de Resende, Jaime Vilela

    2015-09-01

    In this work, iron fortified light uvaia sherbet, with low sucrose content, was developed and its physical, chemical and sensory characteristics were evaluated. The central composite rotational design (CCRD), applicable to the response surface methodology, was used to analyze the formulations. In the formulations, in addition of iron fortification (9 to 15 mg/100 g), the sucrose was substituted by micronized sucralose in a proportion of 66-94 %. The responses were analyzed with respect to changes in pH, total solids, ash, carbohydrates, proteins, calories, overrun, nucleation and thawing temperatures, rheological parameters and sensory attributes. Protein contents and acidity were similar in all formulations. There was a reduction of over 25 % in the caloric value. The rheological results showed pseudoplastic behavior and significant viscosity differences among the tested sherbets. In the overrun and thawing behavior results the sucrose concentration had a significant influence as the formulations with substitution by 28 g of sucralose/kg of sucrose showed greater air incorporation. In the flavor attribute there was not significance in relation to the iron fortification. Sherbets prepared with substitution of sucrose by sucralose and fortified with iron showed good acceptability, more stability and more resistant to thawing. PMID:26344966

  2. Cognitive, sensory, and psychosocial characteristics in patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brinckman, Danielle D; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M; Blumhorst, Catherine; Biesecker, Leslie G; Sapp, Julie C; Johnston, Jennifer J; Wiggs, Edythe A

    2013-12-01

    Forty-two patients with a clinical diagnosis of Bardet-Biedl syndrome ages 2-61 years were given a neuropsychological test battery to evaluate cognitive, sensory, and behavioral functioning. These tests included the Wechsler scales of intelligence, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Boston Naming Test, D-KEFS Verbal Fluency Test, D-KEFS Color-Word Interference Test, D-KEFS Sorting Test, Wide Range Achievement Test: Math and Reading Subtests, Purdue Pegboard, The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale, and Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, Parent Rating Scale. On the age appropriate Wechsler scale, the mean Verbal Comprehension was 81 (n = 36), Working Memory was 81 (n = 36), Perceptual Reasoning was 78 (n = 24) and Full Scale IQ was 75 (n = 26). Memory for a word list (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test) was in the average range with a mean of 89 (n = 19). Fine motor speed was slow on the Purdue with mean scores 3-4 standard deviations below norms. All subjects were microsmic on the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. Of these 42 patients, only 6 were able to complete all auditory and visual tests; 52% were unable to complete the visual tests due to impaired vision. A wide range of behavioral issues were endorsed on questionnaires given to parents. Most had social skill deficits but no pattern of either externalizing or internalizing problems. We identify a characteristic neuro-behavioral profile in our cohort comprised of reduced IQ, impaired fine-motor function, and decreased olfaction. PMID:24194441

  3. Coherences of instrumental and sensory characteristics: case study on cherry tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Csambalik, László; Divéky-Ertsey, Anna; Pap, Zoltán; Orbán, Csaba; Stégerné Máté, Mónika; Gere, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva; Sipos, László

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 6 cherry tomato varieties in terms of morphological, instrumental, and sensory attributes. Hungarian cherry tomato landraces have not been investigated in comparison with new commercial varieties for these traits. Parameters investigated were water-soluble antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH, and TEAC), and total polyphenol, vitamin C, β-carotene, lycopene, total soluble solids, and acid contents. Colorimetric measurements as well as sensory analyses were conducted. It was concluded that varied antioxidant assays should be used in parallel to overcome the selectivity of any 1 method. Total phenolic content significantly contributed to results of antioxidant assays for the investigated varieties. The sensory profiles of the 6 cherry tomato varieties have been created. The differences between the products based on the 18 attributes were analyzed by Tukey post hoc test. The biplot of the principal component analysis showed that the sensory panel could discriminate the samples along the principal components. No correlation was found between colorimetric data a* and b* measured from pulp and lycopene, but a negative connection of β-carotene and hue was noted. Total polyphenol content showed correlations with colorimetric results, except for b*. The influence of tomato skin color on color perception is significant as in the present study instrumental data measured from pulp did not match that of the panelists evaluating intact fruit. Instrumental results of sugar content were supported by the ratings of the sensory panel. PMID:25319201

  4. Combined effects of Laminaria japonica and transglutaminase on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of semi-dried chicken sausages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-08-01

    The effects of Laminaria japonica, Transglutaminase (TGase) and their combinations were investigated based on the physicochemical properties, textural properties, and sensory characteristics of semi-dried chicken sausages. The moisture content, ash content, and water activity of the semi-dried chicken sausage containing a combination of Laminaria japonica and TGase were higher than the control (P < 0.05). The semi-dried chicken sausage with 1.0% Laminaria japonica and 1.0% TGase (T3) had less cooking loss compared to the control and other treatments (P < 0.05). The protein content and fat content, pH of batters and sausages, springiness, and cohesiveness of the semi-dried chicken sausages were not significantly different between the control and treatments with a combination of Laminaria japonica and TGase (P > 0.05). Among the sensory traits, color score was highest in the control and in the treatment with 2.0% TGase (T5) (P < 0.05). The flavor score was highest in the control, while the treatments with 1.0% Laminaria japonica combined with 1.0% TGase (T3) had the highest tenderness and juiciness scores (P < 0.05). The results of this study show that the combination of Laminaria japonica and TGase successfully improved textural properties and sensory characteristics of the semi-dried chicken sausages, and the combination of 1.0% Laminaria japonica and 1.0% TGase improved quality of the semi-dried chicken sausages the most. PMID:27252369

  5. Sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition.

    PubMed

    Arsa, Supeeraya; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2015-08-01

    The sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition were investigated. Rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) was hydrolyzed by alcalase. Sucrose, glucose or fructose was added to the liquid rice bran protein hydrolysate (LRBPH) and subsequently spray dried. The sensory aroma intensities of the hydrolysates were evaluated. Results showed that after spray drying, the rice bran protein concentrate powder (RBPC-P) had higher sweet and cocoa-like aroma intensities than RBPC (p ≤ 0.05) and hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder (HRBPP) had higher milk powder-like aroma intensities than LRBPH (p ≤ 0.05). The sweet, cocoa-like and milk powder-like aroma intensities in hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with fructose addition (HRBPP-F) were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than those of hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with sucrose or glucose addition (HRBPP-S or HRBPP-G). HRBPP-F had the highest overall aroma liking score. These results also indicate that spray drying and sugar addition could improve the sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed RBPC. PMID:26243954

  6. Ultraviolet-C light effect on physicochemical, bioactive, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics of carrot (Daucus carota) beverages.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Carranza, Paola; Ruiz-López, Irving Israel; Pacheco-Aguirre, Francisco Manuel; Guerrero-Beltrán, José Ángel; Ávila-Sosa, Raúl; Ochoa-Velasco, Carlos Enrique

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of ultraviolet-C light on physicochemical, bioactive, microbial, and sensory characteristics of carrot beverages. Beverages were formulated with different concentrations of carrot juice (60, 80, and 100% [v/v]) and treated with ultraviolet-C light at different flow rates (0, 0.5, 3.9, and 7.9 mL s(-1)) and times (5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min), equivalent to ultraviolet-C dosages of 13.2, 26.4, 39.6, 52.8, and 79.2 J cm(-2) Total soluble solids, pH, and titratable acidity were not affected by the ultraviolet-C light treatment. Ultraviolet-C light significantly affected (p < 0.05) color parameters of pure juice; however, at low concentration of juice, total color change was slightly affected (ΔE = 2.0 ± 0.7). Phenolic compounds (4.1 ± 0.1, 5.2 ± 0.2, and 8.6 ± 0.3 mg of GAE 100 mL(-1) of beverage with 60, 80, and 100% of juice, respectively) and antioxidant capacity (6.1 ± 0.4, 8.5 ± 0.4, and 9.4 ± 0.3 mg of Trolox 100 mL(-1) of beverage with 60, 80, and 100% of juice, respectively) of carrot beverages were not affected by ultraviolet-C light treatment. Microbial kinetics showed that mesophiles were mostly reduced at high flow rates in carrot beverages with 60% of juice. Maximum logarithmic reductions for mesophiles and total coliforms were 3.2 ± 0.1 and 2.6 ± 0.1, respectively, after 30 min of ultraviolet-C light processing. Beverages were well accepted (6-7) by judges who did not perceive the difference between untreated and Ultraviolet-C light treated beverages. PMID:26893153

  7. Effects of types and amounts of stabilizers on physical and sensory characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, Suthida; Tinrat, Sirikhwan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the pH of mulberry juice was optimized for high anthocyanin content and an attractive red color. Mulberry juice pH values of 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 were evaluated. A pH of 2.5 gave an anthocyanin content of 541.39 ± 106.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per liter, and the a* value was 14 ± 1.00. The effects of stabilizers (CMC and xanthan gum) on the physical characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice (via the addition of mulberry fruit pulp at a mass fraction of 5%) during storage (4°C for 1 week) were also determined using different mass fractions of the stabilizers (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%). Increasing the stabilizer mass fraction increased the viscosity, turbidity, stability of turbidity, and h* value. Using xanthan gum as the stabilizer produced better results for these parameters than CMC. The type of stabilizer and its mass fraction had no effect on most sensory characteristics, including appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P ≥ 0.05), but did affect the odor (P ≥ 0.05). Xanthan gum stabilizer gave the juice a better odor than CMC. Cloudy mulberry juice containing 0.5% xanthan gum as the stabilizer had the highest acceptance rate among panelists (average acceptance was 6.90 ± 1.37 points) and produced no precipitate during storage. PMID:25987996

  8. Effects of types and amounts of stabilizers on physical and sensory characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice

    PubMed Central

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, Suthida; Tinrat, Sirikhwan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the pH of mulberry juice was optimized for high anthocyanin content and an attractive red color. Mulberry juice pH values of 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 were evaluated. A pH of 2.5 gave an anthocyanin content of 541.39 ± 106.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per liter, and the a* value was 14 ± 1.00. The effects of stabilizers (CMC and xanthan gum) on the physical characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice (via the addition of mulberry fruit pulp at a mass fraction of 5%) during storage (4°C for 1 week) were also determined using different mass fractions of the stabilizers (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%). Increasing the stabilizer mass fraction increased the viscosity, turbidity, stability of turbidity, and h* value. Using xanthan gum as the stabilizer produced better results for these parameters than CMC. The type of stabilizer and its mass fraction had no effect on most sensory characteristics, including appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P ≥ 0.05), but did affect the odor (P ≥ 0.05). Xanthan gum stabilizer gave the juice a better odor than CMC. Cloudy mulberry juice containing 0.5% xanthan gum as the stabilizer had the highest acceptance rate among panelists (average acceptance was 6.90 ± 1.37 points) and produced no precipitate during storage. PMID:25987996

  9. Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance of naturally and lactic acid bacteria-fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends.

    PubMed

    Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna A; Mwangwela, Agnes M; Schüller, Reidar B; Ostlie, Hilde M; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-03-01

    Fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends were evaluated to determine sensory properties driving consumer liking. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and lactic acid bacteria fermented (LFP). Lactic acid bacteria fermentation was achieved through backslopping using a fermented cereal gruel, thobwa. Ten trained panelists evaluated intensities of 34 descriptors, of which 27 were significantly different (P < 0.05). The LFP were strong in brown color, sourness, umami, roasted soybean-and maize-associated aromas, and sogginess while NFP had high intensities of yellow color, pH, raw soybean, and rancid odors, fried egg, and fermented aromas and softness. Although there was consumer (n = 150) heterogeneity in preference, external preference mapping showed that most consumers preferred NFP. Drivers of liking of NFP samples were softness, pH, fermented aroma, sweetness, fried egg aroma, fried egg-like appearance, raw soybean, and rancid odors. Optimization of the desirable properties of the pastes would increase utilization and acceptance of fermented soybeans. PMID:24804070

  10. Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance of naturally and lactic acid bacteria-fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends

    PubMed Central

    Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna A; Mwangwela, Agnes M; Schüller, Reidar B; Østlie, Hilde M; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-01-01

    Fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends were evaluated to determine sensory properties driving consumer liking. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and lactic acid bacteria fermented (LFP). Lactic acid bacteria fermentation was achieved through backslopping using a fermented cereal gruel, thobwa. Ten trained panelists evaluated intensities of 34 descriptors, of which 27 were significantly different (P < 0.05). The LFP were strong in brown color, sourness, umami, roasted soybean-and maize-associated aromas, and sogginess while NFP had high intensities of yellow color, pH, raw soybean, and rancid odors, fried egg, and fermented aromas and softness. Although there was consumer (n = 150) heterogeneity in preference, external preference mapping showed that most consumers preferred NFP. Drivers of liking of NFP samples were softness, pH, fermented aroma, sweetness, fried egg aroma, fried egg-like appearance, raw soybean, and rancid odors. Optimization of the desirable properties of the pastes would increase utilization and acceptance of fermented soybeans. PMID:24804070

  11. Aroma characteristic and volatile profiling of carrot varieties and quantitative role of terpenoid compounds for carrot sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Tomohiko; Okazaki, Keiki; Shinano, Takuro

    2013-11-01

    The aroma characteristics and volatile profiles of 14 carrot varieties were investigated by sensory evaluations and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry volatile analyses. The sensory map obtained by principal components analysis showed that the sensory attributes comprised 3 categories: sour/green, overall carrot/harsh/ink-like, and fruity/fresh/sweet. The Kuroda type is characterized by lower intensities of overall carrot/harsh/ink-like and fruity/fresh/sweet notes. Furthermore, volatile profiling indicated that this type did not have significantly higher amounts of volatiles. Partial least squares regression analysis determined the quantitative contributions to ink-like, harsh, and fruity carrot aromas; monoterpenes had significant positive correlations with these attributes, while bisabolene isomers had negative correlations. The aroma attribute intensity and contents of volatiles and nutritional compounds are relatively low in the Kuroda type than in other carrot types. This type may be useful for reducing carrot harshness during the development of new carrots with good eating qualities. PMID:24245899

  12. [Suitability study for super sweet corn on the ears hybrids under refrigerated conditions evaluating chemicals microbiological and sensorial characteristics].

    PubMed

    Camacho, C; Alfonzo, B; Ortiz de Bertorelli, L; De Venanzi, F

    2001-06-01

    Krispy King, Víctor and 324, super sweet hybrids (sh2) were cultivated in San Joaquín, estado Carabobo, Venezuela. The scheme was stablished to produce refrigerated fresh ears to be commercialized. The chemistry, microbiology and sensorial characteristics were evaluated at 0; 7; 14; 21 and 28 days of storage. One hundred ears of each hybrid were picked at the ripe fresh stage and packed in polystyrene trays covered with polyethylene. The storage temperature was 4 degrees C +/- 1 degree C. The scheme used was well adapted, allowing a good stability of the ears until 28 days of storing. The plastic cover avoid the lost of humidity. The soluble solids, total sugars and pH went down during the storage. The acidity and the microorganisms increased as expected. The sensorial variables kept the same for Krispy king and Víctor, while the hybrid 324 shown the lowest humidity content, the highest count of microorganisms and the poorest sensorial quality. PMID:11678050

  13. First investigation on ultrasound-assisted preparation of food products: sensory and physicochemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pingret, Daniella; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Canselier, Jean-Paul; Chemat, Farid

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison between manufactured food products using conventional and ultrasound-assisted procedures. Three different foam-type products, chocolate Genoise, basic sponge cake, and chocolate mousse were prepared using both methods with subsequent evaluation of the samples using both sensory and physicochemical methods. Ultrasound-assisted preparations were considered superior according to the sensory analysis, and physicochemical data confirmed this finding. This approach of applying an emerging piece of equipment, with potential industrial application to assist food preparation, consists of a new technique that could be of great interest for the development of not only other food products created by molecular gastronomy but also for practical work carried out by students. PMID:21535748

  14. Effect of reducing and replacing pork fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Arnau, Jacint

    2014-05-01

    The effect of pork fat reduction (from 44% to 20% final fat content) and its partial substitution by sunflower oil (3% addition) on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory properties throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) with reduced sodium content (with partial substitution of NaCl by KCl and K-lactate) and without direct addition of nitrate and nitrite (natural nitrate source used instead) was studied. Results showed that sausages with reduced fat (10% initial fat content) and with acceptable sensory characteristics can be obtained by adding to the shoulder lean (8% fat content) during the grinding, either 3.3% backfat (3% fat content) or 3% sunflower oil, both previously finely comminuted with lean. Furthermore, sunflower oil showed to be suitable for partial pork backfat substitution in very lean fermented sausages, conferring desirable sensory properties similar to those of sausages with standard fat content. The sensory quality of the sausages was maintained after three-month cold storage in modified atmosphere. PMID:24530990

  15. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P < 0.05) leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn (PD) and midday (MD), 2) smaller berry diameter and weight, 3) lower pruning weights, and 4) higher soluble solids (Brix). Strong positive correlations emerged between June ψPD and pre-harvest grape berry diameter (R2 = 0.616 in 2007 and 0.413 in 2008) and similar strong correlations existed for berry weight (R2 = 0.626 in 2007 and 0.554 in 2008). A trained sensory panel performed a sensory analysis and characterized fruit using and a multivariate, principal components, analysis (PCA). This approach indicated that grapes from vines with lowest midday leaf water potential at veraison (< -1.5 MPa) had sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal characteristics, and browner and crunchier

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Tang, Yao; Xiao, Yao; Wan, Sen

    2012-08-01

    Gamma irradiation is highly effective in inactivating microorganisms in various foods and offers a safe alternative method of food decontamination. In the present study, soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill) were treated with 0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 KGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial populations on soybeans, isoflavone, tocopherol contents, raffinose family oligosaccharides, color and sensory properties were evaluated as a function of irradiation dose. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced aerobic bacterial and fungal load. Irradiation at the doses applied did not cause any significant change (p>0.05) in the contents of isoflavone of soybeans, but decreased tocopherol contents. The content of key flatulence-producing raffinose family oligosaccharides in irradiated soybeans (10.0 kGy) decreased by 82.1% compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that the odor of the soybeans was organoleptically acceptable at doses up to 5.0 kGy and no significant differences were observed between irradiated and nonirradiated samples in flavor, texture and color after irradiation.

  17. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. PMID:25839884

  18. Rheological, physico-sensory, nutritional and storage characteristics of bread enriched with roller milled fractions of black gram (Phaseolus mungo L.).

    PubMed

    Indrani, D; Sakhare, Suresh D; Milind; Inamdar, Aashitosh A

    2015-08-01

    Black gram grains were fractionated using roller flour mill. Effect of combination of additives (CA) namely dry gluten powder, sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate, fungal α-amylase on the rheological and bread making characteristics of wheat flour partly replaced with roller milled fractions of black gram was studied. With increase in the addition of straight run flour (SRF), protein rich fraction (PRF), protein and fiber rich fraction (P&FRF) from 0 to 20 %, fiber rich fraction, FRF (0-15 %), the farinograph water absorption increased and dough stability decreased; amylograph pasting temperature increased and peak viscosity decreased; bread volume decreased and crumb firmness value increased indicating adverse effect of these fractions on the rheological and bread making characteristics of wheat flour. Sensory evaluation showed that breads were acceptable only up to the level of 15 % for SRF, PRF & P&FRF and 10 % for FRF. However, when CA containing dry gluten powder, sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate and fungal α-amylase was incorporated the overall quality of the products improved. Use of these fractions increased the protein and fiber contents of bread by 1.24-1.66 and 1.48-3.79 times respectively. The results showed that possibility of utilising roller milled black gram fractions along with CA to improve the taste, texture and nutritional quality of bread. PMID:26243951

  19. Effect of immunological castration management strategy on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions.

    PubMed

    Herrick, R T; Tavárez, M A; Harsh, B N; Mellencamp, M A; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of 1) immunological castration (Improvest, a gonadotropin releasing factor analog-diphtheria toxoid conjugate) management strategy (age at slaughter and time of slaughter after second dose) and 2) sex on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions. For Objective 1, immunological castration management strategies included 24-wk-old immunologically castrated (IC) barrows 4, 6, 8, or 10 wk after the second Improvest dose (ASD); 26-wk-old IC barrows 6 wk ASD; and 28-wk-old IC barrows 8 wk ASD ( = 63). Objective 2 ( = 97) included IC barrows, physically castrated (PC) barrows, and gilts slaughtered at 24, 26, and 28 wks of age. Bellies from 2 slaughter dates were manufactured into bacon under commercial conditions. Bacon slices were laid out on parchment paper, packaged in oxygen-permeable poly-vinyl-lined boxes, and frozen (-33°C) for 1, 4, 8, or 12 wk to simulate food service conditions. At the end of each storage period, bacon was evaluated for lipid oxidation, moisture and lipid content, and sensory characteristics. Data from both objectives were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS with belly as the experimental unit. For both objectives, as storage time increased, lipid oxidation of bacon increased ( < 0.01), regardless of management strategy or sex. Also, there was no sex or management strategy × week of frozen storage interaction for any traits evaluated ( ≥ 0.25). For Objective 1, lipid content of bacon from IC barrows increased as time of slaughter ASD increased ( < 0.05), regardless of age at slaughter. Additionally, there were no differences in sensory attributes of bacon across management strategies. For the evaluation of sex effects in Objective 2, lipid oxidation was greater ( < 0.05) in IC barrows compared with PC barrows but was not different than gilts ( > 0.05). After 12 wk of frozen storage, lipid oxidation values for IC barrows

  20. A comparison of consumer sensory acceptance, purchase intention, and willingness to pay for high quality United States and Spanish beef under different information scenarios.

    PubMed

    Beriain, M J; Sánchez, M; Carr, T R

    2009-10-01

    Tests were performed to identify variation across consumer evaluation ratings for 2 types of beef (Spanish yearling bull beef and US Choice and Prime beef), using 3 information levels (blind scores; muscle fat content + production conditions; and all production data including geographical origin) and 3 consumer evaluation ratings (hedonic rating, willingness to pay, and purchase intention). Further testing was carried out to assess the extent to which expert evaluations converged with those of untrained consumers. Taste panel tests involving 290 consumers were conducted in Navarra, a region in northern Spain. The beef samples were 20 loins of Pyrenean breed yearling bulls that had been born and raised on private farms located in this Spanish region and 20 strip loins from high quality US beef that ranged from high Choice to average Prime US quality grades. The Spanish beef were slaughtered at 507 +/- 51 kg of BW and 366 +/- 23 d of age. The US beef proved more acceptable to consumers and received greater ratings from the trained panel, with greater scores for juiciness (3.33), tenderness (3.33), flavor (3.46), and fat content (5.83) than for Spanish beef (2.77, 2.70, 3.14, 1.17). The differences in sensory variable rating were more pronounced for the Spanish beef than for the US beef, always increasing with the level of information. The variation in the ratings across different information levels was statistically significant in the case of the Spanish beef, whereas the variation observed in the ratings of the US beef was highly significant in the willingness of consumers to pay a premium. Consumers who appreciated greater quality were also more willing to pay for the additional level of quality. PMID:19542506

  1. Phototaxis of Halobacterium salinarium requires a signalling complex of sensory rhodopsin I and its methyl-accepting transducer HtrI.

    PubMed Central

    Krah, M; Marwan, W; Verméglio, A; Oesterhelt, D

    1994-01-01

    Sensory rhodopsin I (SRI) is a photoreceptor that mediates phototaxis in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarium. Receptor excitation is relayed to the motility system of the cell by the methyl-accepting transducer protein HtrI. In membranes prepared from cells that lack HtrI the absorbance difference maximum of SRI was shifted from 587 to 565 nm. The thermal decay of the metastable photocycle intermediate SRI373 was measured as time-dependent recovery of the absorbance at 590 nm. In the absence of HtrI the decay was slowed down by two orders of magnitude. When SRI was overproduced in cells that contained normal levels of HtrI, the decay of SRI373 was biexponential indicating two kinetically distinct species. Spectroscopic measurements on intact cells revealed the same effect of HtrI on SRI photocycling as found in isolated membranes. By transient exposure of membranes from wild-type cells to low ionic strength, the decay of SR373 was slowed to the same value found for untreated membranes in the absence of HtrI. In parallel, the absorbance difference maximum was shifted to 565 nm indicating that a physical interaction of HtrI and SRI had been irreversibly destroyed. Overproduction of SRI in the presence of wild-type amounts of HtrI did not increase the light sensitivity of the cells to orange light step down stimulation. It is concluded that SRI and HtrI form a stable complex in the cell membrane that signals to the flagellar motor and defines absorbance maximum, photocycling rate and photochemical efficiency of SRI. PMID:8187768

  2. Sensory and Flavor Chemistry Characteristics of Australian Beef: Influence of Intramuscular Fat, Feed, and Breed.

    PubMed

    Frank, Damian; Ball, Alex; Hughes, Joanne; Krishnamurthy, Raju; Piyasiri, Udayasika; Stark, Janet; Watkins, Peter; Warner, Robyn

    2016-06-01

    The sensory attributes and flavor chemistry of grilled beef striploins (M. longissimus lumborum, n = 42) varying widely in marbling from commercial production types typical for Southern Australia were extensively characterized. Striploins from Angus grass-fed yearlings (5.2-9.9% intramuscular fat), Angus grain-finished steers (10.2-14.9%), and Wagyu grass-fed heifers (7.8-17.5%) were evaluated. Inherent differences between samples from grass- and grain-fed Angus cattle were minimal when the intramuscular fat content was above ∼5%. After adjusting for intramuscular fat, Wagyu samples had more intense flavor and higher tenderness and juiciness compared to Angus grass-fed samples. Grilled beef flavor, dairy fat, and sweetness increased with the marbling level, and sourness and astringency decreased. Tenderness and juiciness increased with the marbling level and were correlated with Warner-Bratzler peak force measurements. Trained panel sensory differences in flavor corresponded with increases in aroma volatiles and changes in nonvolatile flavor compounds. Unsaturated fatty acids with potential health benefits (vaccenic, oleic, and rumenic acids) increased with the level of marbling. PMID:27118482

  3. Effect of protein concentrates, emulsifiers on textural and sensory characteristics of gluten free cookies and its immunochemical validation.

    PubMed

    Sarabhai, Swati; Indrani, D; Vijaykrishnaraj, M; Milind; Arun Kumar, V; Prabhasankar, P

    2015-06-01

    The effect of 5, 7.5 and 10 % protein concentrates namely soya protein isolate (SPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC) and addition of 0.5 % emulsifiers such as glycerol monostearate (GMS), sodium stearoyl- 2- lactylate (SSL) and lecithin (LEC) on the rheological, sensory and textural characteristics of cookies with rice flour and its immunochemical validation was studied. The results showed that the use of 7.5 % SPI/WPC along with GMS significantly improved the quality characteristics of cookies with rice flour. Dot-Blot and Western-blot studies of cookies with 7.5 % of SPI or WPC confirmed that the anti-gliadin did not recognize these proteins. Carry- through process using ELISA kit confirmed that gluten was within the permissible limit in all the stages of processing and hence these cookies can be consumed by people suffering from celiac disease. PMID:26028761

  4. Quality characteristics and acceptability of 'amala' (yam-based thick paste) as influenced by particle size categorization of yam (Dioscorea rotundata) flour.

    PubMed

    Ayodele, B C; Bolade, M K; Usman, M A

    2013-02-01

    The study was essentially an investigation on the influence of size-categorized yam (Dioscorea rotundata) flour on the quality characteristics and acceptability of amala (yam-based thick paste). Yam flour was separated into three major particle size categories (i.e. 75-150 µm, 150-300 µm and whole meal [<300 µm]), while the physicochemical properties of each category were evaluated and flour samples finally used to prepare amala. Both the protein and ash contents of the yam flours were found to decrease with the decrease in the particle size giving 2.87% and 2.27% in 75-150 µm flour category, respectively. The loose bulk density and packed bulk density of the whole meal (<300 µm) were higher than that of others giving 0.50 g/cm(3) and 0.78 g/cm(3), respectively, while 150-300 µm flour category gave the highest value (2.88 g/g) in water absorption capacity. The colour characteristics of the flour samples showed that the whole meal (<300 µm) had the highest lightness index, L*-value (76.4). The 75-150 µm flour category had the highest chroma, C-value (19.2), while that of 150-300 µm had the lowest value (18.7) with no significant difference at p < 0.05. The pasting characteristics of the flour samples showed that 75-150 µm flour category exhibited highest peak viscosity (257.1 RVU), while the whole meal (<300 µm) exhibited highest breakdown viscosity (40.9 RVU), final viscosity (364.0 RVU) and setback viscosity (99.7 RVU). The amala prepared from 150-300 µm flour category gave the highest softness index (19.6 mm) while that obtained from 75-150 µm flour category gave the lowest value (16.6 mm). The sensory quality rating of amala prepared from the flour samples showed that amala from 150-300 µm flour category was rated the highest in terms of colour, texture (ease of mouldability), aroma and overall acceptability. Both positive and negative correlations were found between some properties of size-categorized yam

  5. Chemical, physical, and sensory characteristics of mozzarella cheese fortified using protein-chelated iron or ferric chloride.

    PubMed

    Rice, W H; McMahon, D J

    1998-02-01

    Mozzarella cheese containing 25 and 50 mg of iron/kg of cheese was manufactured from milk that had been fortified with casein-chelated iron, whey protein-chelated iron, or FeCl3. Chemical, physical, and sensory characteristics were compared with those of a control cheese. Physical properties were assessed by testing melting, apparent viscosity, and browning of heated cheese. Cheeses were evaluated by trained panelists for the presence of metallic flavors, oxidized flavors, and other undesirable flavors. Addition of 25 mg iron/kg of cheese had no effects on the physical properties of Mozzarella cheese. Apparent viscosity of cheese fortified with 50 mg of iron/kg of cheese tended to be slightly higher than the control cheese, although this difference was not statistically significant at all storage times. Cook color was not affected by iron fortification. No increase in chemical oxidation (measured using thiobarbituric acid assay) was observed between the control and iron-fortified cheeses. Slight but statistically significant increases in metallic flavors, oxidized flavors, and off-flavors in the iron-fortified cheese were observed by the trained sensory panel, but the flavor defects were of very low intensity. For metallic flavors, oxidized flavors, and off-flavors, the control cheese scored 1.5, 1.5, and 1.3, respectively; the iron-fortified cheese scored 2.1, 2.0, and 1.6 based on a nine-point scale (where 1 = not perceptible to 3 = slightly perceptible). Sensory scores for iron-fortified cheese made using casein-chelated iron or whey protein-chelated iron was not significantly different from those of cheese made using ferric chloride. When used on pizza, consumer panels rated the iron-fortified cheeses as comparable with the control cheese. PMID:9532487

  6. Precooked bran-enriched wheat flour using extrusion: dietary fiber profile and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gajula, H; Alavi, S; Adhikari, K; Herald, T

    2008-05-01

    The effect of precooking by extrusion processing on the dietary fiber profile of wheat flour substituted with 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% wheat bran was evaluated. Depending on the level of bran, total dietary fiber (TDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) in uncooked flours ranged from 4.2% to 17.2% and 1.5% to 2.4%, respectively. Precooking by extrusion significantly increased SDF in flours (by 22% to 73%); although in most cases it also led to a significant decrease in TDF. Cookies and tortillas produced from uncooked and precooked flours with 0% and 20% substituted bran were evaluated for consumer acceptability using a 9-point hedonic scale. With a few exceptions, all cookies had scores ranging from 6 to 7 ("like slightly" to "like moderately") for each attribute, including overall acceptability, appearance, texture, crumbliness, and flavor. Tortillas were rated for the same attributes except for crumbliness, which was replaced with chewiness. In most cases, tortilla scores ranged from 5 to 7 ("neither like nor dislike" to "like moderately"). Consumer acceptability scores of cookies from uncooked flour did not change significantly with increase in bran substitution from 0% to 20%. However, consumer scores for tortillas did decrease significantly with increase in bran level. Extrusion precooking of the flours did not improve the consumer acceptability of cookies and tortillas; however, it did improve their dietary fiber profile by increasing the SDF significantly. PMID:18460140

  7. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.

    PubMed

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2014-07-01

    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness. PMID:23962381

  8. Effects of dietary oregano and garlic essential oils on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Kirkpinar, F; Ünlü, H B; Serdaroğlu, M; Turp, G Y

    2014-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to determine the individual and combined effects of two essential oils, oregano and garlic, on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat. 2. The diets were supplemented with no essential oil (control), oregano essential oil or garlic essential oil at 300 mg/kg and oregano essential oil at 150 mg/kg + garlic essential oil at 150 mg/kg. 3. Dietary oregano and garlic oil supplementation did not affect carcass yields, the relative weight of carcass parts, breast and thigh meat composition, pH or b* value of breast meat. Oregano + garlic oil supplementation significantly decreased the L* value. The a* value of breast meat in birds given a diet supplemented with oregano oil was lower than that in birds given a diet supplemented with garlic oil and oregano oil + garlic oil. The essential oil addition had no positive effect on the oxidative stability. There was no difference between the treatments in breast appearance. 4. The juiciness, flavour, oxidised flavour and acceptability of breast meat samples were affected by treatments. PMID:24404997

  9. Substituting redberry juniper for oat hay in lamb feedlot diets: Carcass characteristics, adipose tissue fatty acid composition, and sensory panel traits.

    PubMed

    Whitney, T R; Smith, S B

    2015-06-01

    We hypothesized that ground juniper and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to lambs would have no negative effects on end products. Lambs were individually fed diets containing mainly sorghum grain and oat hay (control) or DDGS-based diets consisting mainly of DDGS, sorghum grain, and oat hay (0JUN), or 33% (33JUN), 66% (66JUN), or 100% (100JUN) of the hay replaced by juniper. Lambs fed control had greater (P<0.03) shrunk BW and HCW vs. lambs fed 0JUN, but other carcass characteristics and sensory panel traits were similar (P>0.23). As juniper increased in the DDGS-based diets, HCW increased quadratically (P=0.01) and LM fatty acid composition was altered. Feeding juniper did not negatively affect (P>0.57) off-flavor in chops, but enhanced (linear, P<0.05) juiciness, tenderness, and flavor intensity. Lambs fed diets with a combination of oat hay and ground juniper appeared to produce the most acceptable carcasses and lamb chops. PMID:25678414

  10. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of both.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, A M S; Bezerril, F F; Madruga, M S; Batista, A S M; Magnani, M; Souza, E L; Queiroga, R C R E

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess and compare the nutritional, technological, and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of the two stored in cold conditions for 21d. The yield and centesimal composition of the cheeses were not affected by the type of milk used in their preparation. Reductions were observed in the moisture content, pH, proteolysis index, and instrumental hardness; moreover, increases were observed in the syneresis, acidity index, and depth of proteolysis index in all cheeses. The percentages of caprylic, capric, oleic, and linoleic fatty acids were higher in goat milk cheese and cheese made with a mixture of goat and cow milk compared with cow milk cheese, and a sensory evaluation revealed differences in color, flavor, and aroma between the cheeses. The preparation of Minas fresh cheese with a mixture of goat and cow milk can be a viable alternative for dairy products in the market that can be characterized as high-quality products that meet consumer demands. PMID:24140324

  11. Extraction of espresso coffee by using gradient of temperature. Effect on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of espresso.

    PubMed

    Salamanca, C Alejandra; Fiol, Núria; González, Carlos; Saez, Marc; Villaescusa, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Espresso extraction is generally carried out at a fixed temperature within the range 85-95°C. In this work the extraction of the espressos was made in a new generation coffee machine that enables temperature profiling of the brewing water. The effect of using gradient of temperature to brew espressos on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of the beverage has been investigated. Three different extraction temperature profiles were tested: updrawn gradient (88-93°C), downdrawn gradient (93-88°C) and fixed temperature (90°C). The coffee species investigated were Robusta, Arabica natural and Washed Arabica. Results proved that the use of gradient temperature for brewing espressos allows increasing or decreasing the extraction of some chemical compounds from coffee grounds. Moreover an appropriate gradient of temperature can highlight or hide some sensorial attributes. In conclusion, the possibility of programming gradient of temperature in the coffee machines recently introduced in the market opens new expectations in the field of espresso brewing. PMID:27507518

  12. Effect of moderate inlet temperatures in ultra-high-pressure homogenization treatments on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk.

    PubMed

    Amador-Espejo, G G; Suàrez-Berencia, A; Juan, B; Bárcenas, M E; Trujillo, A J

    2014-02-01

    The effect of ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH) on raw whole milk (3.5% fat) was evaluated to obtain processing conditions for the sterilization of milk. Ultra-high-pressure homogenization treatments of 200 and 300 MPa at inlet temperatures (Ti) of 55, 65, 75, and 85 °C were compared with a UHT treatment (138 °C for 4s) in terms of microbial inactivation, particle size and microstructure, viscosity, color, buffering capacity, ethanol stability, propensity to proteolysis, and sensory evaluation. The UHPH-treated milks presented a high level of microbial reduction, under the detection limit, for treatments at 300 MPa with Ti of 55, 65, 75, and 85 °C, and at 200 MPa with Ti = 85 °C, and few survivors in milks treated at 200 MPa with Ti of 55, 65, and 75 °C. Furthermore, UHPH treatments performed at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 and 85 °C produced sterile milk after sample incubation (30 and 45 °C), obtaining similar or better characteristics than UHT milk in color, particle size, viscosity, buffer capacity, ethanol stability, propensity to protein hydrolysis, and lower scores in sensory evaluation for cooked flavor. PMID:24342690

  13. Phenolic Compounds, Volatiles, and Sensory Characteristics of Twelve Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) Cultivars Grown in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports the phenolic, anthocyanin, and volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of 12 cultivars of sweet cherries including cvs. Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat. Eight individual phenolic compounds were determined by the HPLC-DAD method. Among these cherries, cvs. Bing, Durona di Cesena, and Lambert contained higher levels of total individual phenolic compounds than the other cultivars. Six anthocyanins were detected in cherries and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside was principal and it was the highest level in cv. Bing. The major volatiles found were 1-hexanol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzylalcohol, hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, and benzaldehyde. Sensory evaluation of the cherries showed that cvs. Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, and Summit have higher textural and flavor scores than others. It was concluded that the same compounds for phenolic or volatiles profiles of sweet cherries were similar in qualitative; however, quantitative differences were observed in these cultivars. PMID:26646816

  14. Sensory characterisation and consumer acceptability of potassium chloride and sunflower oil addition in small-caliber non-acid fermented sausages with a reduced content of sodium chloride and fat.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Serra, Xavier; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the simultaneous reduction of fat proportion (from 20% to 10% and 7%) and added salt (from 2.5% to 1.5%) and the subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl and sunflower oil (1.5% and 3.0%) on the physicochemical, instrumental colour and texture, sensory properties and consumer acceptability of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) was studied. This simultaneous reduction of fat and salt increased weight loss, moisture, water activity (aw), redness, instrumental texture parameters (hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness), sensory attributes (darkness, hardness, elasticity) and the consumer acceptability. The subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl to the leanest batch decreased the aw and barely affected instrumental texture parameters and consumer acceptability. Subsequent sunflower oil addition decreased hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness and increased crumbliness and oil flavour which may decrease the consumer acceptability. The simultaneous reduction of fat and NaCl with the addition of 0.64% KCl was the preferred option by the consumers. PMID:26497101

  15. Sensory quality and compositional characteristics of blackcurrant juices produced by different processes.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Oskar; Mäkilä, Leenamaija; Tahvonen, Risto; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2013-06-15

    Effects of enzymatic and non-enzymatic juice pressing on key orosensory and chemical quality factors of blackcurrant juices were studied in laboratory scale using berries of five different cultivars (Mortti, Mikael, Marski, Ola and Breed15). Enzymatic processing increased the juice yield by 10-22% and the content of various phenolic compounds in juice by 4-10-fold as compared to the non-enzymatic process. Higher intensity of the mouth-drying astringency of the enzyme-aided juice was the most significant orosensory difference between the processes. Juices of different blackcurrant cultivars varied in sweetness, sourness and bitterness. The most intensive sensory attributes of the juices were sourness and puckering astringency regardless of processing method. They correlated positively with each other and were contributed by acid content and pH. In enzyme-aided juices, the contents of flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acids were associated with mouth-drying astringency, and sugar/acid ratio correlated with sweetness. These correlations were less clear in non-enzyme juices possibly due to lower content of phenolic compounds and the high content of pectin. PMID:23497904

  16. Short communication: Chemical and sensory characteristics of Canestrato di Moliterno cheese manufactured in spring.

    PubMed

    Trani, A; Gambacorta, G; Loizzo, P; Cassone, A; Faccia, M

    2016-08-01

    Canestrato di Moliterno is an Italian Protected Geographical Indication hard cheese, made in winter and spring from a mixture of ewe and goat milks, that has been poorly investigated. The present study was aimed at characterizing the cheese made in the warm season. Two series of samples, ripened in traditional rooms called fondaco as indicated in the official protocol of production, were taken from the main certified producers. The cheeses were analyzed for gross composition; proteolysis and lipolysis; volatile fraction; and organoleptic features. Gross composition was not completely homogeneous among the samples, but primary proteolysis and lipolysis were quite uniform. We observed variations in secondary proteolysis, likely caused by fluctuations in environmental conditions in the fondaco. The sensory profiles of the samples were homogeneous: the cheese was soluble, greasy, and adhesive, with a sheepfold and buttery odor. The main taste attributes were fermented, pungent, and bitter. Overall, the results of this study provide an initial contribution to the characterization of Canestrato di Moliterno, and could be used to improve marketing strategies. PMID:27179855

  17. Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kuyng Mi; Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2014-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP), crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire)♀×Duroc♂ (LYD), Berkshire (Ber), and Duroc (Du) pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed) were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w) and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (p<0.05). It was observed that the dry-cured ham made from KNP breed had the lowest water activity value and highest salt content, while the LYD dry-cure ham had higher total volatile basic nitrogen content than the Ber and Du hams (p<0.05). Zinc, iron and total monounsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in KNP ham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). Additionally, the KNP dry-cured ham possessed higher Commission International de l’Eclairage (CIE) a* value, while the Du dry-cured ham had higher L*, CIE b* and hue angle values (p<0.05). Furthermore, breed significantly affected the sensory attributes of dry-cured hams with higher scores for color, aroma and taste found in KNP dry-cured ham as compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). The overall outcome of the study is that the breed has a potential effect on the specific chemical composition, texture, color and sensorial properties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams. PMID:25083111

  18. Sensory characteristics and volatile profiles of parsley ( Petroselinum crispum [Mill.] Nym.) in correlation to resistance properties against Septoria Blight ( Septoria petroselini ).

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Detlef; Bruchmüller, Tobias; Krüger, Hans; Marthe, Frank

    2011-10-12

    Sixteen different genotypes of parsley, including two cultivars, six populations, and eight inbred lines, were investigated regarding their sensory characteristics in relation to the volatile patterns and resistance to Septoria petroselini . The sensory quality was determined by a combination of profile analysis and preference test, whereas the volatile patterns were analyzed by headspace-SPME-GC of leaf homogenates with subsequent nontargeted data processing to prevent a possible overlooking of volatile compounds. The more resistant genotypes are characterized by several negative sensory characteristics such as bitter, grassy, herbaceous, pungent, chemical, and harsh. In contrast, the contents of some volatile compounds correlate highly and significantly either with resistance (e.g., hexanal and α-copaene) or with susceptibility (e.g., p-menthenol). Some of these compounds with very strong correlation to resistance are still unidentified and are presumed to act as resistance markers. PMID:21834559

  19. Understanding Learner Acceptance of Learning Objects: The Roles of Learning Object Characteristics and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Siong-Hoe; Woods, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Many organisations and institutions have integrated learning objects into their e-learning systems to make the instructional resources more efficient. Like any other information systems, this trend has made user acceptance of learning objects an increasingly critical issue as a high level of learner satisfaction and acceptance reflects that the…

  20. Food Deserts in Leon County, FL: Disparate Distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Accepting Stores by Neighborhood Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Samantha; Leone, Angela F.; Kim, Hwahwan; Betterley, Connie; Johnson, Mary Ann; Kurtz, Hilda; Lee, Jung Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether neighborhood characteristics of racial composition, income, and rurality were related to distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-accepting stores in Leon County, Florida. Design: Cross-sectional; neighborhood and food store data collected in 2008. Setting and Participants: Forty-eight census…

  1. Microbial Decontamination of Dried Alaska Pollock Shreds Using Corona Discharge Plasma Jet: Effects on Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soee; Puligundla, Pradeep; Mok, Chulkyoon

    2016-04-01

    Nonthermal techniques for microbial decontamination are becoming more common for ensuring food safety. In this study, a corona discharge plasma jet (CDPJ) was used for inactivation of microbial contaminants of dried Alaska pollock shreds. Corona plasma jet was generated at a current strength of 1.5 A, and a span length of 25 mm was maintained between the electrode tip and the sample. Upon the CDPJ treatment (0 to 3 min) of dried shreds, microbial contaminants namely aerobic and marine bacteria, and Staphylococcus aureus were inactivated by 2.5, 1.5, and >1.0 log units, respectively. Also, a one-log reduction of molds and yeasts contaminants was observed. The inactivation patterns are fitted well to the pseudo-first-order kinetics or Singh-Heldman model. The CDPJ treatment did not exert statistically significant (P > 0.05) changes in physicochemical properties, namely color characteristics, volatile basic nitrogen, and peroxide value of dried fish shreds, with some exceptions, as compared to untreated controls. Furthermore, CDPJ treatment had no significant impact on the sensory characteristics of dried fish shreds. PMID:26953810

  2. Effect of almond on technological, nutritional, textural and sensory characteristics of goat meat nuggets.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, V; Das, Arun K; Verma, Arun K

    2014-11-01

    An attempt was made through the present study to develop meat based functional food by incorporating almond nut at two different 2.5 and 5 % (Formulation 1 and 2) levels and observe its impact on the different quality attributes against control goat meat nuggets. Almond improved (P < 0.05) the emulsion stability of formulation 1 and 2. Product with 2.5 % almond had higher (P < 0.05) cooking yield than other two products, whereas expressible water was lower. Emulsion and products pH values increased with the addition of almond. Emulsion and products with almond had higher (P < 0.05) proximate values except moisture content. Textural properties of all the products did not differ significantly. Percent SFAs decreased (P < 0.05) and MUFAs were increased with the addition of almond. The fatty acids C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 were significantly higher in formulation 1 and 2 products. Almond incorporation can be a very good approach to enhance nutritional profile of the meat products without affecting acceptability. PMID:26396321

  3. Cultivar preference and sensory evaluation of vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in Eastern Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preference and acceptability of twelve vegetable pigeon pea genotypes of medium maturity was evaluated in Eastern Kenya based on six seed cultivar parameters of color, appearance, taste, odor, tenderness and overall seed acceptability. The sensory characteristics were scored by consumers and farmers...

  4. Effects of adding red wine on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of uncured frankfurter-type sausage.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xi; Sebranek, Joseph G; Lee, Hyun Yong; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and sensory characteristics of RTE frankfurter-type sausage cured with celery juice powder and including red wine. Four frankfurter treatments including a conventionally cured treatment without red wine (control) and three treatments cured with pre-converted vegetable juice powder and 0%, 5% or 10% (v/w) red wine were prepared. Results showed that adding 5% red wine increased the a*-value, and the textural resilience, cohesiveness and springiness of the frankfurters, as well as decreased lipid/protein oxidation of the final products. Added wine also introduced new volatiles (alcohol and ester compounds) to the frankfurters. The principal component (PC) analysis showed that the pre-converted vegetable juice powder achieved the same effects as the conventional curing agents for typical frankfurter properties. However, the addition of excess amounts of red wine (10%) to the meat batter decreased the pH of meat batter and accelerated lipid oxidation. PMID:27388819

  5. The Impact of Demand Characteristics on Brief Acceptance- and Control-Based Interventions for Pain Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Bryan; Forsyth, John P.; Maher, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    The present analog study compared the effectiveness of an acceptance- and control-based intervention on pain tolerance using a cold pressor task, and is a partial replication and extension of the Hayes, Bissett et al. (Hayes, S. C., Bissett, R.T., Korn, Z., Zettle, R. D., Rosenfarb, I. S., Cooper, L. D., & Grundt, A. M. (1999). "The impact of…

  6. Characteristics of patients with diabetes who accept referrals for care management services

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Bree; Annis, Ann M; Morrish, Wendy; Davis Burns, Jennifer; Krein, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with chronic conditions can improve their health through participation in self-care programs. However, awareness of and enrollment in these programs are generally low. Objective: We sought to identify factors influencing patients’ receptiveness to a referral for programs and services supporting chronic disease management. Methods: We analyzed data from 541 high-risk diabetic patients who completed an assessment between 2010 and 2013 from a computer-based, nurse-led Navigator referral program within a large primary care clinic. We compared patients who accepted a referral to those who declined. Results: A total of 318 patients (75%) accepted 583 referrals, of which 52% were for self-care programs. Patients who accepted a referral had more primary care visits in the previous year, were more likely to be enrolled in another program, expressed more interest in using the phone and family or friends for support, and were more likely to report recent pain than those who declined a referral. Discussion: Understanding what factors influence patients’ decisions to consider and participate in self-care programs has important implications for program design and development of strategies to connect patients to programs. This work informs outreach efforts to identify and engage patients who are likely to benefit from self-care activities. PMID:26835018

  7. Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide: Socioeconomic Characteristics and Landowner Acceptance of Carbon Sequestration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfomak, Elizabeth C.

    This study explores public acceptance of carbon dioxide sequestration sites through a mail survey of 4,001 landowners in central Illinois and Indiana, a region with high sequestration potential and recent siting proposals for FutureGen (an integrated power plant and sequestration demonstration project). The individuals sampled in this study include landowners both informed and uninformed about carbon sequestration, comparing groups based on ecological concern, economic conditions, views about the energy industry, environmental justice, familiarity with sequestration, and demographics. Of the survey respondents, 27% reported an understanding of carbon sequestration prior to receiving the survey, 2.5 times more than would be expected in the general U.S. population. Overall, 47% of survey respondents would oppose a local sequestration site while 30% would support one. The results suggest that greater familiarity with geologic sequestration has little influence on local site acceptance. Multivariate analysis found that landowner acceptance of sequestration sites derives primarily from gender, concern for the local environment, trust in government, experience with industrial activity, and belief in the potential of conservation/renewables. Because views on these issues are persistent, it may be difficult to overcome landowner opposition through education. Policy makers may, therefore, need to lower expectations for sequestration deployment in the United States and revisit other options for meeting the nation's CO2 emissions goals.

  8. The effect of flaxseed supplementation on growth, carcass characteristics, fatty acid profile, retail shelf life, and sensory characteristics of beef from steers finished on grasslands of the northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A trial was conducted to determine if steers that were grown and finished while grazing grasses would have a more healthful fatty acid profile in their muscle, grow faster, have different carcass characteristics, and if steaks from these steers would have improved tenderness and altered sensory pane...

  9. Sensory characterization of bowel cleansing solutions

    PubMed Central

    Sharara, Ala I; Daroub, Hamza; Georges, Camille; Shayto, Rani; Nader, Ralph; Chalhoub, Jean; Olabi, Ammar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercial bowel cleansing preparations. METHODS Samples of 4 commercially available bowel cleansing preparations, namely polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (PEG), PEG + ascorbic acid (PEG-Asc), sodium picosulfate (SPS), and oral sodium sulfate (OSS) were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Descriptive analysis was conducted (n = 14) using a 15-cm line scale with the Compusense at-hand® sensory evaluation software. Acceptability testing (n = 80) was conducted using the 9-point hedonic scale. In addition, a Just-About-Right (JAR) scale was included for the four basic tastes to determine their intensity compatibility with acceptability levels in the products. RESULTS Samples were significantly different, in descriptive analysis, for all attributes (P < 0.05) except for sweetness. SPS received the highest ratings for turbidity, viscosity appearance, orange odor and orange flavor; PEG-Asc for citrus odor and citrus flavor; OSS for sweetener taste, sweet aftertaste, bitterness, astringency, mouthcoating, bitter aftertaste and throatburn, and along with PEG-Asc, the highest ratings for saltiness, sourness and adhesiveness. Acceptability results showed significant differences between the various samples (P < 0.05). SPS received significantly higher ratings for overall acceptability, acceptability of taste, odor and mouthfeel (P < 0.05). JAR ratings showed that PEG and PEG-Asc were perceived as slightly too salty; SPS and OSS were slightly too sweet, while SPS, PEG-Asc and OSS were slightly too sour and OSS slightly too bitter. While using small sample volumes was necessary to avoid unwanted purgative effects, acceptability ratings do not reflect the true effect of large volumes intake thus limiting the generalization of the results. CONCLUSION Further improvements are needed to enhance the sensory profile and to optimize the acceptability for better compliance with these bowel cleansing solutions

  10. Effect of canola oil emulsion injection on processing characteristics and consumer acceptability of three muscles from mature beef.

    PubMed

    Pietrasik, Z; Wang, H; Janz, J A M

    2013-02-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the impact of the combined effect of blade tenderization and canola oil emulsion injection on processing yield and eating quality-related parameters of selected loin and hip muscles (longissimus lumborum, LL, biceps femoris, BF and semimembranosus, SM) from over thirty month (OTM) cattle. Canola oil emulsion injection significantly reduced shear force, increased sensory scores for juiciness and tenderness, and made connective tissue less perceptible. Targeted levels of omega-3 fatty acids can be achieved by the inclusion of canola oil containing marinades/emulsions at levels sufficient to retain omega-3 fatty acids in cooked product. All consumer acceptability attributes of OTM muscles were improved with the use of canola oil emulsion injection treatments without compromising colour although slightly decreasing oxidative stability of BF muscle. Injection of omega-3 oil emulsions in combination with blade tenderization can be effectively utilized to enrich injected products in essential fatty acids and enhance eating quality of OTM beef. PMID:23089241

  11. A comparison of slice characteristics and sensory characteristics of bacon from immunologically castrated barrows with bacon from physically castrated barrows, boars, and gilts.

    PubMed

    Little, K L; Kyle, J M; Bohrer, B M; Schroeder, A L; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K J; Boler, D D

    2014-12-01

    The objectives were to compare slice characteristics and sensory attributes of bacon from immunologically castrated (IC) barrows with bacon from other sexes using a trained sensory panel. Bacon was obtained for sensory evaluation from 3 experiments. In Exp. 1, trimmed and squared bellies (n=180) of IC barrows, IC barrows fed ractopamine hydrochloride (IC+RAC), physically castrated (PC) barrows, intact males (IM), and gilts were used. Data were analyzed as a general linear mixed model and pen (n=48) served as the experimental unit. Treatment (sex or diet) was a fixed effect in all 3 experiments. In Exp. 2, untrimmed, natural fall bellies (n=96) from IC and PC barrows fed 0 or 30% or a withdrawal distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) program when slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose (25 wk of age) were used. In Exp. 3, untrimmed, natural fall bellies (n=96) from IC and PC barrows fed the same experimental diets as in experiment 2 but slaughtered at 7 wk after the second dose (27 wk of age) were used. Data from Exp. 2 and 3 were analyzed as a 2×3 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design and pen was the experimental unit. Bellies from all 3 experiments were processed using the same protocols. In Exp. 1, IM had the greatest (P<0.0001) boar aroma and flavor scores among all treatments. No differences were detected among the other treatment groups for boar aroma or flavor. Intact males had the least (P<0.0001) desirable cured bacon aroma and flavor among all treatments. No differences were detected among the other treatment groups for bacon aroma or flavor. There were no differences in bacon aroma or off-flavor between IC and PC barrows slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose regardless of DDGS feeding program. Bacon from PC barrows was saltier (P<0.01) than bacon from IC barrows when slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose. There were no differences in bacon aroma, off-aroma, bacon flavor, or saltiness between IC and PC barrows

  12. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, José M.; Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness) were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES) were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones. PMID:27006978

  13. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness) were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES) were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones. PMID:27006978

  14. Characteristics and User Acceptance of Peer Rating in EFL Writing Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Hidetoshi; Fujita, Tomoko

    2004-01-01

    Lack of research on the characteristics of peer assessment in EFL writing may inhibit teachers from appreciating the utility of this innovative assessment. This study addressed the following research questions: (1) How similar are peer, self- and teacher ratings of EFL writing?; (2) Do students favour peer ratings?; and (3) Does peer feedback…

  15. The effects of potato and rice starch as substitutes for phosphate in and degree of comminution on the technological, instrumental and sensory characteristics of restructured ham.

    PubMed

    Resconi, Virginia C; Keenan, Derek F; García, Elisa; Allen, Paul; Kerry, Joe P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), two sources of starch (potato starch: PS and rice starch: RS) and comminution degree (CD) on the technological, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reformed hams were studied using response surface methodology. Both starches reduced cook loss and decreased ham flavour intensity, but RS had stronger effects on instrumental measures of texture, while PS was associated with improved juiciness when low/no added STPP was included. Coarsely ground meat, processed 100% with the kidney plate was associated with slightly increased cook loss, reduced texture profile analysis parameters and a more intense ham flavour compared to the other treatment (80% ground with a kidney plate plus 20% with a 9mm plate). STPP was the sole factor affecting overall liking. If starch is included in the formulation, the standard level of STPP (0.3%) can be reduced by half with no increase in cook losses, but some decline in sensory quality cannot be avoided. PMID:27310601

  16. Chemical composition, techno-functional and sensory properties and effects of three dietary fibers on the quality characteristics of Tunisian beef sausage.

    PubMed

    Ktari, Naourez; Smaoui, Slim; Trabelsi, Imen; Nasri, Moncef; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the effects of three dietary fibers namely, VITACEL LC200 powdered cellulose (LC200), barley beta-glucan concentrate (BBC), and VITACEL KF500 potato fiber (KF500), on the techno-functional and sensory properties and quality characteristics of Tunisian beef sausage. The findings revealed interesting functional properties for LC200 fiber. This fiber displayed high water binding capacity (WBC) and oil binding capacity (OBC), values of 16.2 g/g and 10.2 g/g, respectively, which are higher than reported for most fruit and vegetable fiber concentrates. The application of LC200 improved the masticability and elasticity of beef sausage formulations and minimized their hardness and production costs without negatively affecting their sensory properties. Overall, the findings demonstrate the potential functional and economic utility of LC200 fiber as a promising source of dietary fiber. PMID:24013695

  17. Short communication: Chemical composition, fatty acid composition, and sensory characteristics of Chanco cheese from dairy cows supplemented with soybean and hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Fehrmann-Cartes, K; Íñiguez-González, G; Toro-Mujica, P; Garnsworthy, P C

    2015-01-01

    Lipid supplements can be used to alter fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy products. For Chanco cheese, however, little information is available concerning effects of lipid supplements on sensorial properties. The objective of this study was to examine effects of supplementation of dairy cow diets with soybean (SO) and hydrogenated vegetable (HVO) oils on chemical and FA composition of milk and cheese and sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine multiparous Holstein cows averaging 169±24d in milk at the beginning of the study were used in a replicated (n=3) 3×3 Latin square design that included 3 periods of 21d. All cows received a basal diet formulated with a 56:44 forage:concentrate ratio. Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control; no fat supplement), and the basal diet supplemented with SO (unrefined oil; 500g/d per cow) and HVO (manufactured from palm oil; 500g/d per cow). Milk fat yield was lower with HVO compared with control and SO. Cheese chemical composition and sensory profile were not affected by dietary treatment. Vaccenic (C18:1 trans-11) and oleic (C18:1 cis-9) acids were higher for SO than for control and HVO. Compared with control and HVO, SO decreased saturated FA and increased monounsaturated FA. The thrombogenic index of milk and cheese produced when cows were fed SO was lower than when cows were fed on control and HVO. The outcome of this study showed that, compared with control and HVO, supplementing dairy cow diets with SO improves milk and cheese FA profile without detrimental effects on the chemical composition of milk and cheese and the sensory characteristics of cheese. PMID:25465558

  18. [Characteristics on the diagnosis and treatment with acupuncture and moxibustion for the improvement of motor sensory function, urination and defecation in myelitis].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yanjun; Wang, Jia; Zhai, Yanbing; Liu, Zhishun

    2016-01-01

    The literature was analyzed on the improvement of motor sensory function, urination and defecation in myelitis treated with acupuncture and moxibustion and focused on the characteristics of the diagnosis and treatment. The literature on acupuncture and moxibustion treatment for myelitis was collected from CNKI, Wanfang, VIP and PubMed. The analysis included the characteristics of acupoint selection, methods of acupuncture and moxibustion, time of treatment, total treatment period, efficacy, follow-up, safety, etc. Totally, 26 articles were collected. The combined therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion was predominated (12/26, 46. 15%). For the motor and sensory impairment, the acupoints were mainly selected from the four limbs, the yangming meridians of hand and foot and those adjacent to the affected spinal segments and on the governor vessel as well as Jiaji (EX-B 2) points. For urinary impairment, the acupoints were selected mainly from the lower abdominal region on the conception vessel and the lumbosacral region on the bladder meridian. For the intestinal impairment, the acupoints were from the lower limb on the stomach meridian, the lower abdominal region on the conception vessel and the back points on the bladder meridian. The intervention started commonly in the first 3 months after onset. The total treatment period was in the range from 1 to 3 months. The efficacy of acupuncture and moxibustion was 69.19% to 82.56% for the improvement of motor sensory and urination, defecation function. The efficacy in follow-up was stable and the adverse reactions were not reported. It is viewed that on the basis of early diagnosis and active medication, acupuncture and moxibution achieve a certain of efficacy on the impairment of motor sensory function, urination and defecation. A clinical research is expected to further verify the efficacy. PMID:26946755

  19. PREDICTION OF COLOR, TENDERNESS, AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF BEEF STEAKS BY VISIBLE AND NEAR INFRARED REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY. A FEASIBILITY STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color, texture and sensory attributes of 24 beef carcasses at 2, 4, 8, 14, and 21 days post mortem were predicted by visible/near infrared (visible/NIR) reflectance spectroscopy in 400-1080 nm region. Predicting the Hunter a*, b*, and E* values yielded the coefficient of determination (R**2) in cal...

  20. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters. PMID:26642109

  1. Contribution of crosslinking products in the flavour enhancer processing: the new concept of Maillard peptide in sensory characteristics of Maillard reaction systems.

    PubMed

    Karangwa, Eric; Murekatete, Nicole; Habimana, Jean de Dieu; Masamba, Kingsley; Duhoranimana, Emmanuel; Muhoza, Bertrand; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the flavour-enhancing properties of the Maillard reaction products (MRPs) for different systems consisted of different peptides (sunflower, SFP; corn, CP and soyabean SP) with, xylose and cysteine were investigated. Maillard systems from peptides of sunflower, corn and soyabean with xylose and cysteine were designated as PXC, MCP and MSP, respectively. The Maillard systems were prepared at pH of 7.4 using temperature of 120C for 2 h. Results showed that all systems were significantly different in all sensory attributes. The highest scores for mouthfulness and continuity were observed for MCP with the lowest peptides distribution between 1000 and 5000 Da, known as Maillard peptide. This revealed that the MCP with the lowest Maillard peptide content had the strongest "Kokumi" effect compared to the other MRPsand demonstrated that "kokumi effect" of MRPs was contributed by not only the "Maillard peptide" defined by the molecular weight (1000-5000 Da). Results on sensory evaluation after fractionation of PXC followed by enzymatic hydrolysis showed no significant differences between PXC, P-PXC and their hydrolysates. This observation therefore confirmed that the presence of other contributors attributed to the "Kokumi" effect rather than the Maillard peptide. It can be deduced that the unhydrolyzed crosslinking products might have contributed to the "Kokumi" effect of MRPs. The structures of four probable crosslinking compounds were proposed and the findings have provided new insights in the sensory characteristics of xylose, cysteine and sunflower peptide MRPs. PMID:27478243

  2. Sodium metasilicate affects antimicrobial, sensory, physical, and chemical characteristics of fresh commercial chicken breast meat stored at 4° C for 9 days.

    PubMed

    Huang, H; Williams, S K; Sims, C A; Simmone, A

    2011-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate antimicrobial properties of sodium metasilicate (SMS) on fresh boneless and skinless commercial broiler chicken breast fillets, and to ascertain effects of the treatments on sensory, chemical, and physical characteristics of the meat. Fillets were divided into 5 groups, weighed, treated with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4% SMS marinades, vacuum tumbled at 172.32 kPa for 20 min, reweighed, packaged in styrofoam trays, stored at 4°C for 9 d, and analyzed at 0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, and 9 d for marination yield (d 0 only), pH, total psychrotrophic counts, water-holding capacity, purge loss, cooking yield, and objective texture, color, and sensory characteristics. Marination yield and water-holding capacity were similar (P > 0.05) among all SMS treatments and increased by 3 to 4% compared with that in control fillets. Fillets treated with at least 3% SMS had higher (P < 0.05) pH and cooking yields and lower (P < 0.05) purge loss (on d 9) compared with control fillets. The 3 and 4% SMS treatments retarded growth of psychrotrophic organisms for 1 additional day compared with control, 1, and 2% SMS-treated fillets. Color and texture measurements and sensory characteristics of the fillets were not adversely affected by the SMS treatments. The data in this study revealed that at least 3% SMS was necessary to retard growth of spoilage bacteria compared with untreated samples and samples treated with the USDA maximum allowable level of 2% SMS in poultry marinades. PMID:21489963

  3. Lipid oxidation, sensory characteristics, and color of fresh pork sausage from immunologically castrated pigs stored frozen for up to 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Jones-Hamlow, Katelyn A; Tavárez, Marcos A; Schroeder, Aubrey L; Dilger, Anna C

    2016-05-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics of fresh sausage manufactured from immunologically castrated (IC) pigs, an emerging technology in the pork industry. Study 1: Fresh sausage patties from ground Boston butts fabricated from PC (physically castrated) pigs fed 0.55% SID (standard illeal digestible) lysine, IC pigs fed 0.55% SID lysine, and IC pigs fed 0.65% SID lysine were made and not standardized to a similar content of fat content. Study 2: fat and lean trim obtained from IC and PC pigs was made into fresh sausage patties, targeting 25% lipid. Patties (1.25 cm) were placed on trays and assigned to 0, 4, or 12 weeks frozen storage and then, after frozen storage, placed in simulated retail display conditions for 5 days. Patties were evaluated for color stability, sensory and textural properties, and lipid oxidation. Data were analyzed as a one way ANOVA with repeated measures where appropriate. In both studies, sausage discolored with both increased time in frozen storage and with increased time in retail display (P < 0.01). However, within each week of frozen storage, all treatments were equally discolored in both studies. Treatment did not affect the sensory characteristics or textural properties of fresh sausage in either study. Lipid oxidation did not differ by treatment in study 1. In study 2, lipid oxidation was reduced (P < 0.05) in IC compared to PC by approximately 0.1 mg malonaldehyde/kg meat, but there were no differences within each storage week. Increasing frozen storage time increased lipid oxidation an off-flavor scores in both studies (P < 0.05). Overall, immunological castration had no detrimental effects on color stability, sensory characteristics, or textural properties of fresh pork sausage. PMID:27247765

  4. Effects of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties. PMID:27433101

  5. Effects of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Young-Boong; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties. PMID:27433101

  6. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design.

    PubMed

    Brito, Isabelle L; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely; Yamashita, Fábio; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the mixture resulted in darker product. Quinoa flour showed a negative effect on the specific volume, producing less bulky cookies, and quinoa flour and quinoa flakes had a positive synergistic effect on the hardness of the cookies. According the results and considering the desirability profile for colour, hardness and specific volume in gluten-free cookies, the optimized formulation contains 30 % quinoa flour, 25 % quinoa flakes and 45 % corn starch. The quinoa-based cookie obtained was characterized as a product rich in dietary fibre, a good source of essential amino acids, linolenic acid and minerals, with good sensory acceptability. These findings reports for the first time the application of quinoa processed as flour and flakes in mixture with corn starch as an alternative ingredient for formulations of gluten-free cookies-type biscuits. PMID:26345002

  7. Prelaunch self-discharge and charge-acceptance characteristics of the Hubble Space Telescope nickel hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanier, John R., Jr.; Bush, John R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Tests performed at NASA/MSFC on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) nickel-hydrogen batteries (flight spare module and flight spare battery) were used to determine self-discharge and charge-acceptance characteristics when the batteries were exposed to charged wet-stand conditions, pulse charging on the launch pad, and battery capacity at solar array deployment. An equation is presented which was used to predict the capacity that would be available in the HST NiH2 batteries after an extended stand time on the launch pad plus up to 2 days on orbit prior to solar array deployment (either ground power or orbiter power were used to supply HST loads until shortly before the solar arrays were deployed). It is shown that a fairly accurate estimate of the available capacity was made.

  8. Sensory mononeuropathies.

    PubMed

    Massey, E W

    1998-01-01

    The clinical neurologist frequently encounters patients with a variety of focal sensory symptoms and signs. This article reviews the clinical features, etiologies, laboratory findings, and management of the common sensory mononeuropathies including meralgia paresthetica, cheiralgia paresthetica, notalgia paresthetica, gonyalgia paresthetica, digitalgia paresthetica, intercostal neuropathy, and mental neuropathy. PMID:9608615

  9. Effect of farming system and cheesemaking technology on the physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid profile, and sensory properties of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, A; Tornambè, G; Bellina, V; De Pasquale, C; Mazza, F; Maniaci, G; Di Grigoli, A

    2013-01-01

    Caciocavallo Palermitano is a typical stretched-curd cheese that has been produced over the centuries in Sicily according to traditional cheesemaking technology and using raw milk from autochthonous cow breeds reared at pasture. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of the farming system and processing technology on the characteristics of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese, with particular regard to the fatty acid profile. The farming system was either extensive, using autochthonous cows fed a pasture-based diet, or intensive, with specialized dairy cow breeds fed mainly hay and concentrate. The cheese-processing technology was either artisanal, using traditional wooden tools and endemic lactic bacteria, or advanced, using modern steel equipment and selected lactic bacteria. Twelve Caciocavallo Palermitano cheeses, 3 from each of the 4 experimental theses (2 farming systems × 2 cheesemaking technologies), were obtained and aged for 1, 30, 60, and 120 d. Milk of origin and cheeses were analyzed for the main chemical and rheological parameters. Fatty acids were methylated in lyophilized cheese and analyzed by gas chromatography. Sensory analysis was carried out by trained panelists. The PROC GLM of SAS 9.1.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NY) was used for the statistical analysis. The physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese were influenced more by the farming system than by the cheesemaking technology. Compared with cheese produced through intensive farming, cheese from extensive farming was richer in polyunsaturated, n-3, and odd- and branched-chain fatty acids, as well as in conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11 C18:2), with accompanying improved human health benefits. The cheesemaking technology produced variation in the evolution of proteolysis during aging, due presumably to the different active microflora, which influenced the sensory profile of the resulting cheese. Indeed, cheese produced by

  10. Impact of packaging material and storage conditions on polyphenol stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (prunus cerasus var. Marasca).

    PubMed

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Ježek, Damir; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of packaging materials and storage conditions on polyphenols stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Marasca). Freeze-dried sour cherries were packed in high barrier metalized polypropylene and aluminium packaging (PET/PPmet/PE and PET/Al/PE) for up to 12 months at 4, 20 and 37 °C. Characterisation of polyphenol compounds was done by HPLC UV/Vis PDA and in all samples individual anthocyanins (ANTs), flavonol-glycosides (FGs) and hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) were determined. Polyphenol content was not markedly affected by freeze-drying and decreases were amounted 1.5-5 %. Furthermore, obtained results indicated that minimal loss of polyphenol content in freeze dried sour cherries were achieved at 4 °C and 3 months of storage. Regardless of the type of packaging materials, samples stored at lower temperature during 12 months, retained the higher content of FGs (quercetin-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-rutinoside) and HCAs (neochlorogenic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acid) than ANTs (cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside). The same trend was confirmed with kinetic parameters, also. Sour cherry products packed in both type of laminate and stored at lower temperature retained characteristic dark red colour and sensory properties. This study showed that freeze-dried cherry products have pleasant sensory and very good nutritional properties, and storage in both type of laminates at 4 and 20 °C up to 6 months ensured good product quality. PMID:27162405

  11. Relationship between the nutrition status and sensory characteristics of melon fertilized with wine-distillery waste compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requejo, María Isabel; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; González, Miguel Angel; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Villena, Raquel; Cartagena, Maria Carmen; Ribas, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The interest in developing sustainable agriculture is becoming more important day by day. A large quantity of wastes from the wine and distillery industry are produced and constitute a serious problem not only environmental but also economic. The use of exhausted grape marc compost as organic amendment is a management option of the fertility of soils. On the other hand, consumers are increasingly concerned about the type, quality and origin of food production. Flavor and aroma are most often the true indicators of shelf-life from the consumer's point of view. The aim of this study was to relate the nutritional status of melon fertilized with exhausted grape marc compost with the sensory profile of fresh-cut fruits. A field experiment was established with three doses of compost (1, 2 and 3 kg per linear meter) and a control. Melons were harvested at maturity and the sensory evaluation was carried out by an expert panel of melon tasters to describe odour, flavour and texture. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentration was determined in the fruits to calculate nutrient absorption. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01

  12. Acceptability and characteristics of 124 human bioequivalence studies with active substances classified according to the Biopharmaceutic Classification System

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Elena; Laosa, Olga; Guerra, Pedro; Duque, Blanca; Mosquera, Beatriz; Borobia, Alberto M; Lei, Suhua H; Carcas, Antonio J; Frias, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    AIM The aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability of 124 bioequivalence (BE) studies with 80 active substances categorized according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) in order to establish if there were different probabilities of proving BE between the different BCS classes. METHODS We evaluated the differences between pharmaceutical products with active substances from different BCS classes in terms of acceptability, number of subjects in the study (n), the point estimates, and intra- and inter-subject coefficients of variation data from BE studies with generic products. RESULTS Out of 124 BE studies 89 (71.77%) were performed with pharmaceutical products containing active substances classified by the BCS. In all BCS classes there were non-bioequivalent pharmaceutical products: 4 out of 26 (15.38%) in class 1, 14 out of 28 (50%) in class 2, 3 out of 22 (13.63%) in class 3 and 1 out of 13 (7.69%) in class 4. When we removed those pharmaceutical products in which intra-subject variability was higher than predicted (2 in class 1 active substances, 9 in class 2 and 2 in class 3) there were still non-BE pharmaceutical products in classes 1, 2 and 3. CONCLUSIONS Comparisons between pharmaceutical products with active substances from the four BCS classes have not allowed us to define differential characteristics of each class in terms of n, inter and intra-subject variability for Cmax or AUC. Despite the usually employed test dissolution methodology proposed as quality control, pharmaceutical products with active substances from the four classes of BCS showed non-BE studies. PMID:21039763

  13. Applicability of vacuum impregnation to modify physico-chemical, sensory and nutritive characteristics of plant origin products--a review.

    PubMed

    Radziejewska-Kubzdela, Elżbieta; Biegańska-Marecik, Róża; Kidoń, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food. PMID:25244012

  14. Optimization of process conditions for Rohu fish in curry medium in retortable pouches using instrumental and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Ranendra K; Dhar, Bahni; Roy, Deepayan; Saha, Apurba

    2015-09-01

    'Kalia', a popular preparation of Rohu fish, packed in four-layered laminated retort pouch was processed in a steam/air mixture over-pressure retort at 121.1 °C to three different F 0 values of 7, 8 and 9 min. Time-temperature data were collected during heat processing using an Ellab Sterilization Monitoring System. Texture profile such as hardness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness decreased as the F 0 value increased. The L* values decreased whereas a* and b* values increased with increasing F 0 value. Based on the commercial sterility, sensory evaluation, colour and texture profile analysis, F 0 value of 8 min and cook value of 66 min, with a total process time of 41.7 min at 121.1 °C was found satisfactory for the preparation of Rohu fish curry (Kalia) in retort pouches. PMID:26344980

  15. Applicability of Vacuum Impregnation to Modify Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Nutritive Characteristics of Plant Origin Products—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Radziejewska-Kubzdela, Elżbieta; Biegańska-Marecik, Róża; Kidoń, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food. PMID:25244012

  16. Comparison of physical, chemical, and sensorial characteristics between U.S.-imported and Northwestern Mexico retail beef.

    PubMed

    González-Rios, H; Peña-Ramos, A; Valenzuela, M; Zamorano-García, L; Cumplido-Barbeitia, G; González-Méndez, N F; Huerta-Leidenz, N

    2010-01-01

    To compare beef from Northwestern Mexico (NMEX) and that imported from the United States in physical-chemical (PC) and sensory traits, samples of ribeye (m. Longissimus dorsi thoracis, LDT) and knuckle (m. Vastus lateralis, VL) of Mexican (64 LDT; 51 VL) and U.S. (28 LDT; 25 VL) origin were purchased randomly from select retail stores located in 3 cities of NMEX. PC evaluation measured contents of moisture, fat and cholesterol, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), pH, CIE L*, a*, and b*, cooking loss, and normalized fatty acid profile (FAP). Trained panelists evaluated raw and cooked samples for 2 and 6 different organoleptic traits, respectively. Mexican and U.S.-imported LDT steaks did not differ (P>0.05) in PC traits. VL samples differed in L*, b*, hue*, WBSF, and fat content by country of origin (COO). The WBSF for cooked VL samples from the United States was lower (P < 0.05) and fat content was greater (P<0.05) than those for NMEX steaks. The FAP varied between muscles; Mexican LDT had a higher content of C18:0, while VL from the United States had a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a higher PUFA/Saturated ratio (P<0.05). Although sensory traits tended to be rated higher for Mexican LDT and VL steaks, no statistical differences with U.S.-imported samples were detected (P > 0.05). Results indicated that domestic and U.S. retail steaks sold in the NMEX are similar in eating quality and PC, whereas differences observed in FAP deserve further attention from a nutritional standpoint. PMID:21535586

  17. Effects of the Plane of Nutrition on Physicochemical Characteristics and Sensory Quality Traits of the Muscle in Finishing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chai Hyun; Jung, Dae-Yun; Choi, Jung Seok; Jin, Sang-Keun; Lee, Chul Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the feasibility of using the low plane of nutrition (LPN) as a means of improving the meat quality of crossbred finishing pigs with a medium weight gain potential. Twenty-four barrows and 24 gilts weighing approximately 48 kg were placed on LPN [a finisher (2.86 Mcal ME/kg and 0.67% lysine) for 91 d] or on a high plane of nutrition [HPN; a commercial grower for 38 d and a finisher (3.35 Mcal ME/kg and 0.9% lysine) for 46 d]. Five barrows and five gilts per treatment weighing approximately 125 kg were slaughtered after the indicated days on the respective diets, followed by physicochemical analysis and sensory evaluation on their muscles. Overall average daily gain was 12.6% less in the LPN group vs. the HPN group (p<0.05). The redness (a*) of fresh longissimus muscle (LM) from the loin as well as from Boston butt was greater in the LPN group vs. HPN whereas the shear force for fresh LM from these primals and semimembranosus muscle was lower in the former. In sensory evaluation for cooked LM, no treatment effect was detected in any of the quality traits examined, except for a lower color score in the LPN vs. HPN group. Results suggest that meat quality of the finishing pigs can be improved to some extent by using LPN. However, the present pigs, whose backfat thickness was 24 mm at 125 kg, are thought not to be lean enough to be fattened over 120 kg. PMID:26761290

  18. Effect of different aging techniques on the polysaccharide and phenolic composition and sensory characteristics of Syrah red wines fermented using different yeast strains.

    PubMed

    del Barrio-Galán, Rubén; Medel-Marabolí, Marcela; Peña-Neira, Álvaro

    2015-07-15

    The effect of high levels of the polysaccharide Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain (HPS) and another conventional yeast strain (FERM) on the polysaccharide and phenolic composition of Syrah red wines during alcoholic fermentation and subsequent aging on lees, with or without oak wood chips, and on inactive dry yeast was investigated. The HPS yeast released higher amounts of polysaccharides during alcoholic fermentation than FERM yeast (485 g L(-1) and 403 g L(-1), respectively) and after the aging period (516 g L(-1) and 500 g L(-1), respectively). The different aging techniques increased the polysaccharide concentration; the concentration was dependent on the aging technique applied. The interaction of the polysaccharides with the phenolic compounds depended on the yeast strain, aging technique, aging period and compound analysed. The HPS wines exhibited better sensory characteristics than the FERM wines after alcoholic fermentation; however, during the aging period, it was difficult to determine which technique produced the best wine due to the interactions of aging technique, aging period and sensory attribute evaluated. PMID:25722146

  19. The Perceptual Characteristics of Voice-Hallucinations in Deaf People: Insights into the Nature of Subvocal Thought and Sensory Feedback Loops

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Joanna R.

    2006-01-01

    The study of voice-hallucinations in deaf individuals, who exploit the visuomotor rather than auditory modality for communication, provides rare insight into the relationship between sensory experience and how “voices” are perceived. Relatively little is known about the perceptual characteristics of voice-hallucinations in congenitally deaf people who use lip-reading or sign language as their preferred means of communication. The existing literature on hallucinations in deaf people is reviewed, alongside consideration of how such phenomena may fit into explanatory subvocal articulation hypotheses proposed for auditory verbal hallucinations in hearing people. It is suggested that a failure in subvocal articulation processes may account for voice-hallucinations in both hearing and deaf people but that the distinct way in which hallucinations are experienced may be due to differences in a sensory feedback component, which is influenced by both auditory deprivation and language modality. This article highlights how the study of deaf people may inform wider understanding of auditory verbal hallucinations and subvocal processes generally. PMID:16510696

  20. Addition of garlic or onion before irradiation on lipid oxidation, volatiles and sensory characteristics of cooked ground beef.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han Sul; Lee, Eun Joo; Moon, Sun Hee; Paik, Hyun Dong; Ahn, Dong U

    2011-06-01

    Addition of 0.5% onion was effective in reducing lipid oxidation in irradiated cooked ground beef after 7 day storage. Addition of garlic or onion greatly increased the amounts of sulfur volatiles from cooked ground beef. Irradiation and storage both changed the amounts and compositions of sulfur compounds in both garlic- and onion-added cooked ground beef significantly. Although, addition of garlic and onion produced large amounts of sulfur compounds, the intensity of irradiation odor and irradiation flavor in irradiated cooked ground beef was similar to that of the nonirradiated control. Addition of garlic (0.1%) or onion (0.5%) to ground beef produced a garlic/onion aroma and flavor after cooking, and the intensity was stronger with 0.1% garlic than 0.5% onion treatment. Considering the sensory results and the amounts of sulfur compounds produced in cooked ground beef with added garlic or onion, 0.5% of onion or less than 0.1% of garlic is recommended to mask or change irradiation off-odor and off-flavor. PMID:21277693

  1. Effect of the closure type on the evolution of the physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of a Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Rosé wine.

    PubMed

    Guaita, Massimo; Petrozziello, Maurizio; Motta, Silvia; Bonello, Federica; Cravero, Maria Carla; Marulli, Concezio; Bosso, Antonella

    2013-02-01

    The present work studied the effect of the kind of closure (a screw cap, a natural cork, and 2 synthetic closures) on the evolution of the oxygen content and on the physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of a Montepulciano d'Abruzzo rosé wine during the 1st 12 mo of bottle aging. The chemical analyses concerned the parameters more involved in the oxidative reactions (SO(2) , acetaldehyde, phenols, wine color), as well as the main fermentative volatile compounds. The kind of closure influenced the oxygen content in wines, free and total SO(2) concentration, and wine color (color intensity and hue). During bottle aging, free and total SO(2) concentration was significantly and negatively correlated with absorbance at 420 nm (A420), whereas the correlations with A520 were weak. Probably, the limited extent of the variations in red color (A520), when varying SO(2) concentration, were due to the low pH of this rosé wine. No effect of the kind of closure on phenols and the main fermentative volatile compounds was observed. The wines bottled with cork closures (N trials), after 12 mo of storage, had higher color intensity and hue, measured by spectrophotometry, and were visually distinguished from the other trials for the more intense pink reflections. On the whole, under the conditions of this work, all the used closures guaranteed a good preservability to the rosè wines during the 1st year of bottle aging, and the changes in composition did not significantly affect wine sensory characteristics. Therefore, these synthetic closures can represent an alternative to the cork closures for a medium to long term bottle aging of these wines. PMID:23324077

  2. The impact of salt replacers and flavor enhancer on the processing characteristics and consumer acceptance of restructured cooked hams.

    PubMed

    Pietrasik, Z; Gaudette, N J

    2014-03-01

    Two salt replacers (Ocean's Flavor - OF45, OF60) and one flavor enhancer [Fonterra™ 'Savoury Powder' (SP)] were evaluated for their ability to effectively reduce sodium, while maintaining the functional and sensory properties of restructured hams. Product functionality and safety were assessed using instrumental measures (yield, purge, pH, expressible moisture, proximate composition, sodium content, color, texture) and microbiological assessment. Sensory attributes were evaluated using consumer sensory panelists. All alternative formulations resulted in products with sodium contents below the Health Check(TM) Program guidelines, without detrimental effect on water binding and texture in treatments when NaCl was substituted with sea salt replacers (OF45, OF60). Sodium reduction had no effect on the shelf life of the cooked ham with up to 60 days of refrigerated storage. Consumer hedonics for flavor and aftertaste were lower for OF45 and OF60 compared to control, suggesting that these salt replacers may not be appropriate for inclusion in these products. PMID:24334036

  3. Sensory and analytical characteristics of a novel hybrid muskmelon fruit intended for the fresh-cut industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel hybrid muskmelon has been bred specifically for use by the fresh-cut industry in winter. Quality characteristics of fresh-cut chunks from the hybrid were compared to those of its inbred parental lines and to those of a commercial netted muskmelon (cantaloupe) and a non-netted muskmelon (hon...

  4. Sensory analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensory evaluation can answer questions about a product that instruments cannot. The human subject is the instrument, and data can provide a wealth of information for a product developer, or results can be very variable and erroneous if all the precautions to minimize bias and external noise are no...

  5. Sensory Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Web version Sensory Dysfunction Overview Why are smell and taste important? Your senses of smell and taste let you fully enjoy the scents ... bitter and sour. Flavor involves both taste and smell. For example, because a person is able to ...

  6. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea. PMID:23909609

  7. Determination of the effects of different washing processes on aroma characteristics in silver carp mince by MMSE-GC-MS, e-nose and sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuxia; Chong, Yunqing; Ding, Yuting; Gu, Saiqi; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-15

    The present study investigated the volatile compounds of silver carp mince and the effects of washing processes on the integral aroma characteristics and aroma-active compounds (AACs) of the mince. 57 volatile compounds were identified by monolithic material sorptive extraction (MMSE) and GC-MS analysis, and 13 volatile compounds with odor activity values greater than 1 (OAVs > 1) were further selected as AACs contributing primarily to the integral aroma profile of silver carp. Washing methods affected the overall aroma profiles of fish samples by washing away or facilitating the release of AACs but to different extents. Compared with water washing, washing with saline and weak alkaline solution removed more AACs. Washing with water three times (T2) exhibited a relatively stronger removal effect on most AACs compared to washing with water twice (T1). Washing with a high concentration of saline (T4) produced a strong removal effect on AACs. The results of sensory evaluation and electronic nose (e-nose) detection for distinguishing the aroma characteristics of different samples demonstrated good agreement with those obtained by OAV analysis. PMID:27080898

  8. Effect of inulin on textural and sensory characteristics of sorghum based high fibre biscuits using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Chandralekha; Singh, Rakhi; Jha, Alok; Mitra, Jayeeta

    2014-10-01

    Five blends of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) flour (25.0-45.0 %) and whole wheat flour were used to make biscuits using inulin (5.0-10.0 %) and guar gum (1.0-2.0 %). An experimental investigation was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effect of fat replacer (inulin) and sorghum flour on the quality of high fibre and low calorie biscuits. For this purpose, the biscuit dough and the biscuit samples were analyzed. The analysis was based on hardness of the dough, hardness of the biscuit, fracturability and overall acceptability (OAA) scores. Results showed that increasing the amount of sorghum flour in biscuit increased the dough hardness and biscuit hardness, whereas, biscuit fracturability decreased and OAA scores increased up to the level at which sorghum flour ranged from 35.0 to 40.0 % after which it decreased. An increase in the amount of inulin was followed by an increase in biscuit hardness, while, fracturability and OAA scores decreased and there was little effect on the dough hardness. Optimum conditions generated from the analysis was 40.8 % sorghum flour, 6.5 % inulin and 1.0 % guar gum. The predicted response in terms of dough hardness, fracturability, biscuit hardness and OAA were 212.4 g, 36.4 mm, 4.8 kg and 7.06, respectively. The desirability of the optimum condition was 0.827. PMID:25328223

  9. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-01-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat’s unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods. PMID:26104409

  10. Finishing steers with diets based on corn, high-tannin sorghum, or a mix of both: feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and beef sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Larraín, R E; Schaefer, D M; Arp, S C; Claus, J R; Reed, J D

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this work was to compare feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and beef sensory attributes from steers finished with diets based on corn, high-tannin sorghum (HTS), and a mix of both grains. Angus crossbred steers (n = 11 steers per treatment, initial BW = 404 +/- 18 kg) were finished on diets containing 765 g/kg of DM of corn, HTS, or a 1:1 mix of corn and HTS. Final BW (P < 0.01), ADG (P < 0.001), and G:F (P < 0.01) were reduced in steers fed HTS when compared with steers fed corn. Steers fed the mixed diet had greater G:F than the average between corn and HTS diets (P = 0.04), which indicated that mixing corn and HTS had positive associative effects. Estimated NE(m) of HTS was 1.91, and estimated NE(g) was 1.35 Mcal/kg of DM. Hot carcass weight (P < 0.01), trimmed carcass weight (P < 0.01), yield grade (P = 0.04), and 12th-rib fat thickness (P = 0.01) were less in steers fed HTS than in those fed corn. Estimated percentage of HCW as boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts was greater in steers fed HTS compared with those fed corn (P = 0.02) but, due to the decreased HCW, estimated amount of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts was less in steers fed HTS than in those fed corn (P = 0.03). Steers fed HTS had greater pH on LM (P = 0.02) than steers fed corn, but the difference was small (5.42 +/- 0.02 vs. 5.36 +/- 0.02, respectively) and within the range of normal beef pH. Diet had no effect on Warner-Bratzler shear values (P > or = 0.72). Multivariate ANOVA indicated a difference in sensory attributes of beef from corn and HTS steers (Wilks' Lambda, P = 0.04). When evaluating each sensory attribute independently, panelists found beef from steers fed HTS to be less juicy (P < 0.01), less tender (P = 0.03), and more cooked (P < 0.01) than beef from animals fed corn. Data from this study indicated that by using a 1:1 mix of HTS and corn it is possible to finish steers to similar BW and carcass quality as by using a corn-based diet. Also, total

  11. Comparison of sensory and compositions of five selected persimmon cultivars (Diospyros kaki L.) and correlations between chemical components and processing characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyu; Du, Jing; Ge, Zhen-Zhen; Zhu, Wei; Nie, Rongzu; Li, Chun-Mei

    2016-03-01

    Persimmon is one of the most popular and valuable fruits in markets because of its distinguished flavor as well as its significant benefits to health. The present study systematically compared the sensory characteristics and chemical compositions of five commercial persimmon fruits, and the correlations between chemical components and processing characteristics were also included. Our results showed that obvious differences in aroma and taste were found among the cultivars. Likewise, the contents of chemical components including sugar, total phenol, β-carotene and ascorbic acid, varied significantly (p < 0.05) across different persimmon cultivars. The processing characteristics of persimmon fruit closely correlated with the chemical compositions. Pectin (r = 0.76, p < 0.01) and total phenol (r = 0.576, p < 0.05) were found to enhance the viscosity of persimmon pulp, and the colour of persimmon powder was greatly influenced by β-carotene, ascorbic acid and sugar contents (r = 0.823, -0.729 and -0.685, p < 0.01, respectively). Powder recovery of persimmon was positively correlated with pectin content (r = 0.503, p < 0.05) and negatively related to total sugar content (r = -0.668, p < 0.01). Pectin content exerted positive effect (r = 0.719, p < 0.01) on hygroscopicity of persimmon powder, and the powder solubility showed a positive correlation to sugar and a negative relationship to pectin contents (r = 0.662 and -0.716, p < 0.01, respectively). In addition, a positive correlation (r = 0.642, p < 0.01) of the content of ascorbic acid to phenolic retention was also observed. PMID:27570285

  12. Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Calasso, Maria; Campanella, Daniela; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-06-16

    This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, according to traditional protocols that are routinely used for making typical Italian breads. Based on kinetic of acidification and culture-dependent data, the wheat-legume sourdough was further characterized and selected for bread making. As determined by RAPD-PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene analyses, lactic acid bacteria in wheat-legume sourdough included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus coryneformis, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Two breads containing 15% (w/w) of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours were produced using selected wheat-legume sourdough (WLSB) and traditional wheat sourdough (WSB). Compared to wheat yeasted bread (WYB), the level of total free amino acids (FAA) was higher in WSB and WLSB. Phytase and antioxidant activities were the highest in WLSB. Compared to bread WYB, the addition of legume flours decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) (WYB versus WSB). However, the dough fermentation with WSLB favored an increase of IVPD. According to the levels of carbohydrates, dietary fibers and resistant starch, WSB and WLSB showed lower values of hydrolysis index (HI) compared to WYB. As showed by texture and image analyses and sensory evaluation of breads, a good acceptability was found for WSB and, especially, WLSB breads. PMID:24794619

  13. Effect of salmon type, and presence/absence of bone on color, sensory characteristics, and consumer acceptability of pureed and chunked infant food products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salmon type (pink/red), bone (presence/absence) and retort processing on an infant food product. Salmon fillets were cooked (3 min), homogenized (40%) in water (55%) then starch (5%) was added. The product was hot-filled into glass jars then...

  14. Geospatial variation of grapevine water status, soil water availability, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a spatially heterogeneous premium wine grape vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, D. R.; Cosby Hess, S.; Plant, R.; Feihn, O.; Heymann, H.; Ebeler, S.

    2014-11-01

    The geoscience component of terroir in wine grape production continues to be criticized for its quasi-mystical nature, and lack of testable hypotheses. Nonetheless, recent relational investigations are emerging and most involve water availability as captured by available water capacity (AWC, texture) or plant available water (PAW) in the root zone of soil as being a key factor. The second finding emerging may be that the degree of microscale variability in PAW and other soil factors at the vineyard scale renders larger regional characterizations questionable. Cimatic variables like temperature are well mixed, and its influence on wine characteristic is fairly well established. The influence of mesogeology on mesoclimate factors has also been characterized to some extent. To test the hypothesis that vine water status mirrors soil water availability, and controls fruit sensory and chemical properties at the vineyard scale we examined such variables in a iconic, selectively harvested premium winegrape vineyard in the Napa Valley of California during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. Geo-referenced data vines remained as individual study units throughout data gathering and analysis. Cartographic exercises using geographic information systems (GIS) were used to vizualize geospatial variation in soil and vine properties. Highly significant correlations (P < 0.01) emerged for pre-dawn leaf water potential (ΨPD), mid-day leaf water potential (ΨL) and PAW, with berry size, berry weight, pruning weights (canopy size) and soluble solids content (°Brix). Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality had vines with (1) lower leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn and mid-day, (2) smaller berry diameter and weight, (3) lower pruning weights, and (4) higher °Brix. A trained sensory panel found grapes from the more water-stressed vines had significantly sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal character, and browner and crunchier seeds. Metabolomic analysis of

  15. Effect of garlic, onion, and their combination on the quality and sensory characteristics of irradiated raw ground beef.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han Sul; Lee, Eun Joo; Moon, Sun Hee; Paik, Hyun Dong; Nam, Kichang; Ahn, Dong U

    2011-10-01

    Irradiated raw ground beef had lower a*- and b*-values than nonirradiated ones regardless of garlic or onion treatment at 0 d. Irradiation increased TBARS values of control ground beef, but addition of 0.5% onion or 0.1% garlic+0.5% onion reduced oxidative changes during storage. Addition of garlic or onion greatly increased the amounts of sulfur compounds, but the increase was greater with garlic. With irradiation, the profiles and amounts of S-volatiles in raw ground beef changed significantly. However, the intensity of irradiation aroma in irradiated raw ground beef with garlic or onion was similar to that of the nonirradiated control. This indicated that some of the sulfur compounds unique to garlic or onion interacted with common sulfur compounds detected in irradiated meat and masked or changed the odor characteristics of irradiated raw ground beef. It was concluded that >0.5% onion or <0.01% garlic would be needed to mask or prevent irradiation aroma in irradiated raw ground beef. PMID:21600702

  16. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils) on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability.

    PubMed

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes

    2016-01-01

    The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils) on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation) and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale). Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry. PMID:27504957

  17. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils) on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes

    2016-01-01

    The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils) on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation) and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale). Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry. PMID:27504957

  18. Sensory analysis of lipstick.

    PubMed

    Yap, K C S; Aminah, A

    2011-06-01

    Sensory analysis of lipstick product by trained panellists started with recruiting female panels who are lipstick users, in good health condition and willing to be a part of sensory members. This group of people was further scrutinized with duo-trio method using commercial lipstick samples that are commonly used among them. About 40% of the 15 panels recruited were unable to differentiate the lipstick samples they usually use better than chance. The balance of nine panels that were corrected at least with 65% across all trials in panels screening process was formed a working group to develop sensory languages as a means of describing product similarities and differences and a scoring system. Five sessions with each session took about 90 min were carried out using 10 types of lipsticks with different waxes mixture ratio in the formulation together with six commercial lipsticks that are the most common to the panels. First session was focus on listing out the panels' perception towards the characteristic of the lipstick samples after normal application on their lips. Second session was focus on the refining and categorizing the responses gathered from the first session and translated into sensory attributes with its definition. Third session was focus on the scoring system. Fourth and fifth sessions were repetition of the third session to ensure consistency. In a collective effort of the panels, sensory attributes developed for lipstick were Spreadability, Off flavour, Hardness, Smoothness, Moist, Not messy, Glossy and Greasy. Analysis of variance was able to provide ample evidence on gauging the panel performance. A proper panels selecting and training was able to produce a reliable and sensitive trained panel for evaluating the product based on the procedures being trained. PMID:21272038

  19. The effect of child characteristics on teachers' acceptability of classroom-based behavioral strategies and psychostimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Pisecco, S; Huzinec, C; Curtis, D

    2001-09-01

    Studied the effect of student characteristics on teachers' ratings of treatment acceptability for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants (N = 159) included experienced elementary school teachers who read 1 of 6 vignettes describing a child with symptoms representative of ADHD. Vignettes varied by sex and symptom-subtype classification. However, the number and specific type of symptoms described in the vignettes were consistent across all conditions. Next, teachers read a description of a daily report card (DRC), response cost technique, classroom lottery, and medication and rated their levels of agreement to the items of the Behavioral Intervention Rating Scale (BIRS). Teachers preferred the DRC to all other forms of treatment. However, there was a significant interaction between the type of treatment and sex of the student on the 3 factors (Treatment Acceptability, Treatment Effectiveness, and Timeliness) of the BIRS. PMID:11501257

  20. Development of probiotic dairy beverages: rheological properties and application of mathematical models in sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Castro, W F; Cruz, A G; Bisinotto, M S; Guerreiro, L M R; Faria, J A F; Bolini, H M A; Cunha, R L; Deliza, R

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry-flavored probiotic dairy beverages (2% vol/vol Lactobacillus acidophilus) were produced using 0, 20, 35, 50, 65, and 80% (vol/vol) whey in their formulations. Mathematical models (survival analysis, minimal significant difference, and mean global acceptance) were used to identify the optimal (sensorially) whey concentration in probiotic beverages. Fifty-five consumers evaluated acceptance of the beverages using hybrid 9-point hedonic scales. In addition, Lb. acidophilus were enumerated and pH was determined. Rheological behavior is an important characteristic for the processing and sensory acceptance of dairy beverages, varying with the presence of additives, fermentation process (time, bacterial strain), and whey concentrations used. All beverages presented minimal counts of 8 log cfu/mL of Lb. acidophilus, and pH ranged from 4.09 to 4.14. Increasing the whey content increased the fragility of the gel structure, probably because of the replacement of casein by whey proteins, once the concentrations of other ingredients in formulation were fixed. Whey content had a significant effect on acceptance of the probiotic dairy beverages; beverages with whey contents greater than 65% resulted in lower acceptance by consumers. The model of mean global acceptance presented 2 solutions with high sensory scores: beverages with 12 and 65% whey, the latter being of interest because it allows greater use of the whey by-product. The Weibull distribution presented a prediction of whey concentration of 49%, with higher sensory acceptance. The methodologies used in this research were shown to be useful in determining the constituents of food formulations, especially for whey-based probiotic beverages. PMID:23102956

  1. Sensory quality of broiler breast meat influenced by low atmospheric pressure stunning, deboning time and cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Schilling, M W; Radhakrishnan, V; Vizzier-Thaxton, Y; Christensen, K; Williams, J B; Joseph, P

    2015-06-01

    Stunning method (low atmospheric pressure stunning, LAPS and electrical stunning, ES), deboning time (0.75 h and 4 h), and cooking method (baking, frying, and sous vide) were evaluated for their impact on the descriptive sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of breast meat (n=576, 144 birds per stunning × deboning time combination). Sensory evaluation was conducted by trained descriptive (n=8) and consumer (n=185) panels. On average, no differences (P>0.05) existed in the sensory acceptability of fried and sous vide cooked broiler breast treatment combinations. However, for oven-baking, the LAPS treatment that was deboned at 4 h was more acceptable (P<0.05) than other treatments and the ES and LAPS 4 h samples had greater (P<0.05) acceptability for texture than their ES and LAPS 0.75 h counterparts. Since consumers were highly variable in their liking of chicken breast treatments, consumers were grouped into clusters for each cooking method based on liking and preference. Cluster analysis data revealed that the largest groups of consumers liked (score≥6.0) all chicken breast treatments, but a larger proportion of consumers liked the 4 h LAPS and ES treatments when compared to the 0.75 h LAPS and ES treatments for all cooking methods. In addition, the consumers who indicated that baked chicken breast was highly acceptable preferred (P<0.05) 4 h LAPS over the 4 h ES samples. Based on sensory results, chicken breast meat from all stunning and deboning method combinations was highly acceptable to the majority of consumers, but the LAPS 4 h treatment had enhanced sensory characteristics when baked. PMID:25834250

  2. Determining the primary drivers of liking to predict consumers' acceptance of fresh nectarines and peaches.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Claudia; Crisosto, Gayle M; Heymann, Hildegarde; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2013-04-01

    A generic descriptive analysis using 11 judges provided 16 sensory attributes that described the aroma, flavor, and texture characteristics of 7 nectarine and peach cultivars selected for their predominant sensory attributes. Simultaneously, the "in-store" acceptability of these cultivars was evaluated by 120 consumers from northern California. The relationships among instrumental measurements (flesh firmness, ripe soluble solids concentration (RSSC), and ripe titratable acidity (RTA), sensory panel descriptors, and consumer hedonic responses were studied. In these cultivars, RSSC was the only instrumental measurement significantly related to overall liking. Cultivars with medium acidity and/or flavor/aroma were liked "very much," and consumer willingness to pay more was correlated with overall liking without regard to cultivar. Cluster analysis revealed 3 segments that were associated with ethnicity and consumer preferences within each segment. Sweetness was the main driver of liking for 2 consumer clusters; however, for the 3rd cluster, the perception of fruit aromas described as grassy/green fruit and pit aromas were the main drivers of liking. There was a high correlation between instrumental measurements and their sensory perception; however, the sensory attribute measurements explained cultivar characteristics better than instrumental measurements alone. Sweetness correlated positively with overall liking and consumer acceptance. PMID:23464630

  3. Effects of sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives on the quality and sensory characteristics of hot-boned pork sausage patties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives were evaluated for their effects on color retention, microbial growth, and sensory attributes of hot-boned pork sausage patties. Treatments included: (a) sodium lactate (L), (b) buffered vinegar (V), (c) sodium lactate and vinegar mixture (LV), (d) control ...

  4. Effects of grazing cow diet on volatile compounds as well as physicochemical and sensory characteristics of 12-month-ripened Montasio cheese.

    PubMed

    Aprea, E; Romanzin, A; Corazzin, M; Favotto, S; Betta, E; Gasperi, F; Bovolenta, S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pasture type and cow feeding supplementation level on a 12-mo-ripened Montasio protected designation of origin (PDO) cheese, which is one of the most important PDO cheeses produced in northeast Italy. Cheeses were characterized for volatile compounds, color, mechanical variables, and sensory descriptors. Pasture type significantly affected most of the instrumental variables considered and, as a consequence, sensory properties were affected as well. Cheeses from the pasture characterized by a nutrient-rich vegetation type were higher in protein and lower in fat content. Furthermore, such cheeses, evaluated by a sensory panel, were more intense in color with a more pungent and less cow-like odor, in agreement with what found through instrumental analyses. Supplementation level resulted in less pronounced effects, limited to volatile compounds and texture properties, which were not detected by sensory analysis. The characterization of the 12-mo ripened Montasio cheese reported here is an important step for the valorization of this PDO product. PMID:27265179

  5. Degradation kinetics of peroxidase enzyme, phenolic content, and physical and sensorial characteristics in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Italica) during blanching.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Elsa M; Pinheiro, Joaquina; Alegria, Carla; Abreu, Marta; Brandão, Teresa R S; Silva, Cristina L M

    2009-06-24

    The effects of water blanching treatment on peroxidase inactivation, total phenolic content, color parameters [-a*/b* and hue (h degrees*)], texture (maximum shear force), and sensory attributes (color and texture, evaluated by a trained panel) of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Italica) were studied at five temperatures (70, 75, 80, 85, and 90 degrees C). Experimental results showed that all studied broccoli quality parameters suffered significative changes due to blanching treatments. The vegetal total phenolic content showed a marked decline. Degradation on objective color and texture measurements and alterations in sensorial attributes were detected. Correlations between sensory and instrumental measurements have been found. Under the conditions 70 degrees C and 6.5 min or 90 degrees C and 0.4 min, 90% of the initial peroxidase activity was reduced. At these conditions, no significant alterations were detected by panelists, and a small amount of phenolic content was lost (ca. 16 and 10%, respectively). The peroxidase inactivation and phenolic content degradation were found to follow first-order reaction models. The zero-order reaction model showed a good fit to the broccoli color (-a*/b* and h degrees*), texture, and sensory parameters changes. The temperature effect was well-described by the Arrhenius law. PMID:19441787

  6. A combined approach in characterization of an effective w/o hand cream: the influence of emollient on textural, sensorial and in vivo skin performance.

    PubMed

    Lukic, M; Jaksic, I; Krstonosic, V; Cekic, N; Savic, S

    2012-04-01

    To formulate a consumer-acceptable cosmetic product, numerous demands have to be fulfilled, and as the most important, efficacy (both real and perceived), adequate aesthetic (visual perception) and all sensorial characteristics have to be achieved. In this study, four model water-in-oil creams intended for hand care, varying in one emollient component, were submitted to rheological, sensory and textural characterization, and their efficacy was evaluated in in vivo study on human volunteers. Our results indicate that certain alteration restricted to the oil phase induced a change in all investigated characteristics, showing that each instrumental measurement can be used as a sensitive tool in the characterization of cream samples. Regarding the correlation between physical measurements and certain sensory attributes, it is possible to formulate a product with specific sensory characteristics by using pre-defined rheological or textural parameters. To obtain a complete sensory profile of a cosmetic product, a detailed sensory evaluation should be carried out according to the existing standard practices, which are both time- and money-consuming. However, a modified sensory study could be useful for fast in-line screening along with instrumental characterization of a novel cosmetic emulsion product and could be particularly helpful in the process of distinguishing a single formulation from several differing in one component. PMID:22085371

  7. Sensory and Volatile Profiles of Monovarietal North Tunisian Extra Virgin Olive Oils from 'Chétoui' Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Essid, Faten; Sifi, Samira; Beltrán, Gabriel; Sánchez, Sebastián; Raïes, Aly

    2016-07-01

    The quality of olive oil is defined as a combination of characteristics that significantly determine its acceptance by consumers. This study was carried out to compare sensorial and chemical characteristics of sixty 'Chétoui' extra virgin olive oils (EVOOc) samples from six northern areas in Tunisia (Tebourba (EVOOT); Other regions (EVOON): Mornag, Sidi Amor, El Kef, Béjà and Jendouba). Trained panel taste detected ten sensory attributes. EVOOT and EVOON were defined by 'tomato' and 'grass/ leave notes, respectively. Twenty one volatile compounds from EVOOc were extracted and identified by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction followed by Gas Chromatography- Flame Ionization Detector. Principal component and cluster analysis of all studied parameters showed that EVOOT differed from EVOON. Sensory and volatile profiles of EVOOc revealed that the perception of different aromas, in monovarietal olive oil, was the result of synergic effect of oils' various components, whose composition was influenced by the geographical growing area. PMID:27321118

  8. Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat frankfurters with pork back fat replaced by dietary fiber extracted from makgeolli lees.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Ji-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ai; Chung, Hai-Jung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-02-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 30% to 20%, 15%, and 10% by partially substituting pork back fat with a makgeolli lees fiber were investigated regarding approximate composition, energy value, pH, color, cooking loss, emulsion stability, texture profile analysis, apparent viscosity, and sensory evaluation. The moisture and ash contents, redness, and yellowness were higher in reduced-fat frankfurters containing makgeolli lees fiber than in the control with 30% fat. With increasing fat levels, samples displayed higher pH, lightness, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, apparent viscosity, and sensory quality, while displaying lower cooking loss and total expressible fluid. The results show that fat levels of frankfurters with added makgeolli lees fiber can be successfully reduced. Thus, 20% fat frankfurters with the addition of 2% makgeolli lees fiber are similar in quality to regular frankfurters with 30% fat. PMID:24200582

  9. Effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour on the antioxidant potential, nutritional quality, and sensory characteristics of fortified durum wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of carob flour addition from 1% to 5% (w/w) on phenolics content, antioxidant activity, nutritional quality, and sensory attributes of wheat pasta. An increase of about 2-folds, 18-folds and 3-folds in phenolics content, antiradical activity and reducing power for pasta fortified with 5% of carob flour was observed, respectively, compared to the control. Expected glycemic index (eGI) was increased proportionally to the substitution level and ranged between 72.2 and 83.9 for 1-5% of supplement, respectively. Furthermore, pasta fortification affected the in vitro bioaccessibility of nutrients. In case of 5% supplemented pasta, the digestibility of starch and protein decreased by about 9% compared to the control. The replacement of semolina with carob flour from 1% to 5% had no significant effect on pasta sensory attributes. In conclusion, carob flour seems to be a promising functional ingredient for pasta fortification. PMID:26471602

  10. Which perceived characteristics make product innovations appealing to the consumer? A study on the acceptance of fruit innovations using cross-cultural consumer segmentation.

    PubMed

    Onwezen, Marleen C; Bartels, Jos

    2011-08-01

    In general, fruit consumption in the EU does not meet governments' recommended levels, and innovations in the fruit industry are thought to be useful for increasing fruit consumption. Despite the enormous number of product innovations, the majority of new products in the market fail within the first two years, due to a lack of consumer acceptance. Consumer segmentation may be a useful research tool to increase the success rates of new fruit products. The current study aims to identify consumer segments based on individual importance rankings of fruit choice motives. We conducted a cross-national, online panel survey on fresh fruit innovations in four European countries: the Netherlands (n=251), Greece (n=246), Poland (n=250), and Spain (n=250). Our cluster analysis revealed three homogeneous consumer segments: Average Joe, the Naturally conscious consumer, and the Health-oriented consumer. These consumer segments differed with respect to their importance ratings for fruit choice motives. Furthermore, the willingness to buy specific fruit innovations (i.e., genetically modified, functional food and convenience innovation) and the perceived product characteristics that influence this willingness differed across the segments. Our study could lead to more tailored marketing strategies aimed at increasing consumer acceptance of fruit product innovations based on consumer segmentation. PMID:21477633

  11. The effect of feeding native warm-season grasses during the stocker phase on meat composition, quality characteristics, and sensory properties of loin steaks from forage-finished cattle.

    PubMed

    Kurve, V; Joseph, P; Williams, J B; Boland, H T; Riffell, S K; Kim, T; Schilling, M W

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the quality of beef from cattle that were fed native warm-season grass (NWSG) in the stocker phase and forage finished on tall fescue. Seventy-two British crossbred steers were randomly allotted to 9 pasture plots with 3 different forage treatments that included Bermuda grass (BER), Indian grass monoculture (IND), and big bluestem, little bluestem, and Indian grass (MIX) and forage finished on tall fescue. Two steers were randomly selected from each pasture plot for meat quality analyses (n = 18). Carcasses graded 67% Select for IND and 17% for both BER and MIX treatments, respectively. All other carcasses received quality grades of Standard. Steaks from treatments did not differ (P > 0.05) in sensory attributes, average sensory acceptability, color, tenderness, pH, or bacterial counts at each storage time, with limited differences in aroma, flavor, and texture. The IND steaks had lower cooking loss (P < 0.05) than steaks from the MIX and BER treatments. Steaks from the BER treatment had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values (P < 0.05) after 6 d of storage when compared with steaks from the MIX and IND treatments, which indicated a higher susceptibility to lipid oxidation. Cluster analysis was conducted to group consumers on the basis of their preference and liking of steak from the different forage treatments. On the basis of panelists' acceptability scores, consumers were grouped into 4 clusters. The largest group (60% of consumers) liked all treatments between moderately and very much. In addition, 17% of consumers preferred steaks from the IND treatment over the BER treatment, and 11% of consumers preferred steaks from the BER and IND treatments over steaks from the MIX treatment. Overall, results indicate that high-quality forage-fed beef can be produced when cattle are fed mixed NWSG, Indian grass, or Bermuda grass during the stocker phase and then finished on tall fescue. PMID:26020352

  12. Interactions between canola meal and flaxseed oil in the diets of White Lohmann hens on fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of table eggs.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2016-08-01

    The current study was designed to assess the fatty acid composition and sensory attributes of eggs procured from hens consuming diets containing canola meal (CM) and/or flax oil (FO). A total of 96 group-caged White Lohmann hens received 1 of 4 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets for a period of 4 weeks. Diets were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, containing 24% canola meal, 7.5% flax oil, both, or neither (control). All yolk fatty acids were affected by flax oil inclusion, with the exception of stearic acid (SA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Only SA was affected by CM inclusion. Additionally, significant interactions between CM and FO were observed for linoleic acid (LA) and total omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with DPA approaching significance (P = 0.069). Trained panelists (n = 8) evaluated 7 aroma ('egg', 'creamy', 'buttery', 'salty', 'sweet', 'barny', and 'oceanic') and 6 flavor ('egg', 'creamy', 'buttery', 'salty', 'brothy', and 'oceanic') attributes of cooked egg product. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in aroma attributes were found between eggs from different dietary treatments. However, egg, creamy, buttery, and oceanic flavors were significantly different between the dietary treatments (P < 0.05). While oceanic flavor significantly increased with inclusion of FO, egg and creamy flavors showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05). Although CM addition alone did not result in significant sensory changes, the pairing of CM and FO resulted in even greater sensory changes than using FO alone, specifically with regard to egg flavor. Results from partial least squares analyses showed a strong association between oceanic flavor and omega-3 PUFA. Oppositely, egg, creamy, and buttery flavors were more correlated with the presence of omega-6 PUFA and palmitic acid. This experiment provides evidence that the interaction between CM and FO in the White Lohmann hen diet results in sensory changes of cooked eggs associated in

  13. A sensory- and consumer-based approach to optimize cheese enrichment with grape skin powders.

    PubMed

    Torri, L; Piochi, M; Marchiani, R; Zeppa, G; Dinnella, C; Monteleone, E

    2016-01-01

    dispersion in the curd would reduce the effect of powder addition on sensory properties, thereby encouraging the use of these polyphenol-based fortifiers in cheeses. The proposed approach allowed the identification of sensory properties critical for product acceptability by consumers, thus helping the optimization of both fortifier characteristics and new cheese production and composition. PMID:26585476

  14. Changes in Physicochemical, Structural, and Sensory Properties of Irradiated Brown Japonica Rice during Storage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinji; Jiang, Weixin; Jiang, Zhongqing; Chen, Xia; Cao, Jun; Dong, Wen; Dai, Bingye

    2015-05-01

    Brown japonica rice was treated with (60)Co γ irradiation at doses of 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy immediately after harvesting. The effects of irradiation on physicochemical, structural, and sensory properties during long-term storage (18 months) were investigated. The study revealed that the pasting properties, including peak, through, breakdown, final, and setback viscosities, decrease considerably in a dose-dependent manner and vary differently during 18 months of storage. Irradiation reduced the free fatty acid (FFA) content in comparison with unirradiated brown rice with long-term storage (from 12 to 18 months). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation showed that the mean range and shape of starch granules did not vary significantly. However, dark spots developed among starch granules and the narrow cracks became wider with increasing irradiation dose and storage time. During sensory evaluation, extremely low scores for odor and overall acceptability were obtained for medium-dose irradiated rice (1.0 and 2.0 kGy); however, no significant difference was found in acceptability between low-dose irradiated rice (0.2 and 0.5 kGy) and the control rice (0 kGy). Overall, low-dose (0.5 kGy or below) irradiation seems to be a promising alternative treatment to increase brown rice shelf life, without affecting the physicochemical and structural characteristics and sensory acceptability. PMID:25879171

  15. Effect of flaxseed flour incorporation on the physical properties and consumer acceptability of cereal bars.

    PubMed

    Khouryieh, H; Aramouni, F

    2013-12-01

    Extensive research has revealed numerous nutritional and health benefits of flaxseed due primarily to its nutrients content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of flaxseed flour addition on the physical and sensory characteristics of cereal bars. Four formulations of the flaxseed cereal bars were prepared by partially replacing oats with flaxseed flour added at levels of 0 (control), 6%, 12% and 18%. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in water activity, moisture and firmness values between the flaxseed bars and control. Flaxseed addition significantly (p < 0.05) decreased lightness and increased redness of the bars. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the 12% flax cereal bars and the control with respect to sensory attributes and overall acceptability. The overall acceptability for both 12% flax bars and the control was in between 'like moderately' and 'like slightly' on the 9-point hedonic scale. The overall acceptability was most highly correlated with flavor acceptability for both control (r = 0.80) and 12% flax (r = 0.82) cereal bars. Flaxseed bars provided 12% dietary fiber of the daily recommended value. These results indicated that flaxseed flour incorporation up to 12% substantially enhanced the nutritional qualities of the cereal bars without affecting their sensory and quality properties. PMID:23733813

  16. The efficacy of different doses of Midazolam added to Lidocaine for upper extremity Bier block on the sensory and motor block characteristics and postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand, Azim; Safavi, Mohammadreza; Nemati, Koorosh; Oghab, Padideh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of different doses of midazolam on anesthesia and analgesia quality when added to lidocaine during the intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA). Methods: One hundred and forty patients underwent hand surgery were randomly allocated into four groups to receive 3 mg/kg lidocaine 2% diluted with saline to a total volume of 40 mL in the control Group L-C (n = 35), 30 μg/kg midazolam plus 3 mg/kg lidocaine 2% diluted with saline to a total volume of 40 mL in the midazolam Group L-M1 (n = 35), 40 μg/kg midazolam plus 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine diluted with saline to a total volume of 40 mL in the midazolam Group L-M2 (n = 35), and 50 μg/kg midazolam plus 3 mg/kg lidocaine 2% diluted with saline to a total volume of 40 mL in the midazolam Group L-M3 (n = 35). Sensory and motor block and recovery times, tourniquet pain, intra-operative analgesic requirement, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were recorded. Findings: Onset time of sensory and motor block in L-M3 Group was shorter than the L-M2 and L-M1 and L-C Groups (P < 0.001). Furthermore, prolonged sensory (P = 0.005) and motor recovery time (P = 0.001) in L-M3 were longer than the other groups. Intra-operative VAS score and intra-operative fentanyl consumption in L-M3 were lower than the other groups (P < 0.001). The numbers of patients needed to pethidine in Group L-M3 were significantly less compared with the other groups (P = 0.035). VAS scores were significantly lower in Group L-M3 in different time intervals in the postoperative period compared with the other groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Addition of 50 μg/kg midazolam for IVRA (Group L-M3) enhanced intra-operative analgesia and improved anesthesia quality better than other groups receiving lower midazolam doses as well as a control group. PMID:26312256

  17. Partial sodium replacement in tilapia steak without loss of acceptability.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Maria Lúcia G; Mársico, Eliane T; Canto, Anna Carolina V C S; Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Lázaro, César A; Cruz, Adriano G; Conte-Júnior, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate physical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium tilapia steaks restructured with microbial transglutaminase. Polyphosphate (0.4%), condiment mixes-onion powder and garlic powder (2.5%), water (10.0%), transglutaminase (1.0%), and different types of salts (1.5%) were mixed with non-commercial sized fillets. Substitution of NaCl by KCl or MgCl2 (at 50% each) affected quality attributes and decreased (P < 0.05) consumer acceptability. The tri-salt steaks (KCl, MgCl2, and NaCl at 1:1:2 ratio) improved some attributes and increased (P < 0.05) acceptability and purchase intention. We conclude that potassium and magnesium chlorides are possible replacers of salt (NaCl) in restructured tilapia steaks and potentially decrease the risk factor for heart failure associated with high sodium consumption. PMID:24831644

  18. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development. PMID:22416723

  19. Sensory Conversion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medelius, Pedro

    The human body has five basic sensory functions: touch, vision, hearing, taste, and smell. The effectiveness of one or more of these human sensory functions can be impaired as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or the normal ageing process. Converting one type of function into another, or translating a function to a different part of the body, could result in a better quality of life for a person with diminished sensorial capabilities.

  20. Signaling by Sensory Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

  1. The impact of ultimate pH on muscle characteristics and sensory attributes of the longissimus thoracis within the dark cutting (Canada B4) beef carcass grade.

    PubMed

    Holdstock, J; Aalhus, J L; Uttaro, B A; López-Campos, O; Larsen, I L; Bruce, H L

    2014-12-01

    Canada B4 beef carcasses are penalized because the longissimus thoracis (LT) at the grade site (12-13th ribs) is darker than the color threshold for normal bright cherry-red beef. Previous studies have shown that not all B4 carcasses have pH>6.0; therefore, the relationship between LT pH and meat quality was investigated by collecting thirty half-carcasses comprised of the following: ten Canada AA (AA, control), ten B4 with LT pH>6.0 (CL, classic), and ten B4 with LT pH<6.0 (AT, atypical). LT from CL carcasses had the lowest mean lactate level, lowest glucidic potential and highest mean pH value. LT muscle from CL and AT carcasses was dark and had decreased purge, drip loss and cooking loss. Warner-Bratzler shear force values and sensory panel results showed that AT beef was toughest (P<0.0001), substantiating economic penalty. Causal mechanisms for AT carcasses may be inconsistent with traditional DFD theory because of close to normal final muscle pH. PMID:25173716

  2. Influence of different emulsifiers on characteristics of eggless cake containing soy milk: Modeling of physical and sensory properties by mixture experimental design.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Nazanin Fatemeh; Mazaheri Tehrani, Mostafa

    2014-09-01

    Emulsifiers of different structures and functionalities are important ingredients usually used in baking cakes with satisfactory properties. In this study, three emulsifiers including distilled glycerol mono stearate (DGMS), lecithin and sorbitan mono stearate (SMS) were used to bake seven eggless cakes containing soy milk and optimization was performed by using mixture experimental design to produce an eggless cake sample with optimized properties. Physical properties of cake batters (viscosity, specific gravity and stability), cake quality parameters (moisture loss, density, specific volume, volume index, contour, symmetry, color and texture) and sensory attributes of eggless cakes were analyzed to investigate functional potential of the emulsifiers and results were compared with those of control cake containing egg. Almost in all cases emulsifiers, compared to the control cake, changed properties of eggless cakes significantly. Regarding models of different response variables (except for some properties) and their high R(2) (99.51-100), it could be concluded that models obtained by mixture design were significantly fitted for the studied responses. PMID:25190826

  3. Descriptive analysis and U.S. consumer acceptability of 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores H

    2010-03-01

    In the past, green tea has been one of the least popular nonalcoholic beverages for U.S. consumers. However, green tea has been receiving attention because of its potential health benefits. Knowing which green tea flavor attributes contribute to consumer liking will help the fast growing green tea business including green tea importers, tea shops, and beverage companies to understand which characteristics are most accepted by U.S. consumers. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine differences in acceptability of commonly available loose leaf and bagged green teas available from the major exporters to the U.S. (Japan, Korea, and China) and (2) to determine which green tea flavor characteristics are related to consumers' liking. In the study, consumers from the U.S. evaluated 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea for acceptability. A highly trained panel also evaluated the green tea samples to provide descriptive sensory attributes that might be related to acceptability. We found that U.S. consumers liked green tea samples with lower flavor intensity and lower bitterness intensity. Consumers' acceptability of green tea was negatively correlated with spinach and animalic flavor and bitterness and astringency of green teas evaluated using descriptive sensory analysis, but the correlation was only moderate. To learn what green tea flavor characteristics influence consumers' liking, future studies using more green tea samples with different flavor profiles are needed. PMID:20492260

  4. Sensory substitution as an artificially acquired synaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jamie; Wright, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    In this review we explore the relationship between synaesthesia and sensory substitution and argue that sensory substitution does indeed show properties of synaesthesia. Both are associated with atypical perceptual experiences elicited by the processing of a qualitatively different stimulus to that which normally gives rise to that experience. In the most common forms of sensory substitution, perceptual processing of an auditory or tactile signal (which has been converted from a visual signal) is experienced as visual-like in addition to retaining auditory/tactile characteristics. We consider different lines of evidence that support, to varying degrees, the assumption that sensory substitution is associated with visual-like experiences. We then go on to analyse the key similarities and differences between sensory substitution and synaesthesia. Lastly, we propose two testable predictions: firstly that, in an expert user of a sensory substitution device, the substituting modality should not be lost. Secondly that stimulation within the substituting modality, but by means other than a sensory substitution device, should still produce sensation in the normally substituted modality. PMID:22885223

  5. Sensory Correlations in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Johnson, Danny G.; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Savla, Jayshree S.; Mehta, Jyutika A.; Schroeder, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between auditory, visual, touch, and oral sensory dysfunction in autism and their relationship to multisensory dysfunction and severity of autism. The Sensory Profile was completed on 104 persons with a diagnosis of autism, 3 to 56 years of age. Analysis showed a significant correlation between the different…

  6. Descriptive analysis and early-stage consumer acceptance of yogurts fermented with carrot juice.

    PubMed

    Cliff, M A; Fan, L; Sanford, K; Stanich, K; Doucette, C; Raymond, N

    2013-07-01

    This research explored the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of novel probiotic unsweetened yogurts. Yogurts were made with 4 carrot juice levels (8, 16, 24, and 32%), 2 firmness levels (regular, 45g/L milk solids; firm, 90g/L milk solids), and 2 starter cultures (C1, C2). The sensory profile characterized the color intensity (before and after stirring), carrot flavor, sourness, and 7 texture/mouth-feel attributes (astringency, chalkiness, mouth-coating, thickness, smoothness, creaminess, and graininess). The influence of carrot juice level and firmness level were evaluated using ANOVA, polynomial contrasts, and principal component analysis. Mean scores and standard errors were calculated. Consumer acceptance panels in Wolfville, Nova Scotia (n=56), and in Vancouver, British Columbia (Asian n=72, non-Asian n=72), evaluated the hedonic responses to the C1 and C2 formulations, respectively. We observed increases in color intensity, carrot flavor, creaminess, mouth-coating, and chalkiness with increasing carrot juice levels, as well as increases in color intensity, carrot flavor, creaminess, mouth-coating, thickness, and astringency with increasing milk solids concentrations of the C1 and C2 yogurts. Mean hedonic scores for color, appearance, and texture/mouth-feel were greater than hedonic scores for aroma, flavor/taste, and overall liking. This research identified the sensory qualities that need further development and demonstrated the importance of early-stage consumer acceptance research for directing new product development. PMID:23664338

  7. Effect of whey and casein protein hydrolysates on rheological, textural and sensory properties of cookies.

    PubMed

    Gani, Adil; Broadway, A A; Ahmad, Mudasir; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Wani, Ali Abas; Wani, Sajad Mohd; Masoodi, F A; Khatkar, Bupinder Singh

    2015-09-01

    Milk proteins were hydrolyzed by papain and their effect on the rheological, textural and sensory properties of cookies were investigated. Water absorption (%) decreased significantly as the amount of milk protein concentrates and hydrolysates increased up to a level of 15 % in the wheat flour. Dough extensibility decreased with inrease in parental proteins and their hydrolysates in wheat flour, significantly. Similarly, the pasting properties also varied significantly in direct proportion to the quantity added in the wheat flour. The colour difference (ΔE) of cookies supplemented with milk protein concentrates and hydrolysates were significantly higher than cookies prepared from control. Physical and sensory characteristics of cookies at 5 % level of supplementation were found to be acceptable. Also the scores assigned by the judges for texture and colour were in good agreement with the measurements derived from the physical tests. PMID:26344985

  8. Rheological, physical, and sensory attributes of gluten-free rice cakes containing resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Tsatsaragkou, Kleopatra; Papantoniou, Maria; Mandala, Ioanna

    2015-02-01

    In this study the effect of resistant starch (RS) addition on gluten-free cakes from rice flour and tapioca starch physical and sensorial properties was investigated. Increase in RS concentration made cake batters less elastic (drop of G'(ω), G''(ω) values) and thinner (viscosity decreased). Cakes specific volume increased with an increase in RS level and was maximized for 15 g/100 g RS, although porosity values were significantly unaffected by RS content. Crumb grain analysis exhibited a decrease in surface porosity, number of pores and an increase in average pore diameter as RS concentration increased. During storage, cake crumb remained softer in formulations with increasing amounts of RS. Sensory evaluation of cakes demonstrated the acceptance of all formulations, with cake containing 20 g/100 g RS mostly preferred. Gluten-free cakes with improved quality characteristics and high nutritional value can be manufactured by the incorporation of RS. PMID:25604540

  9. STORAGE, NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF HIGH-FAT FISH AND RICE FLOUR COEXTRUDATES

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Sukumar Bandyopadhyay; Amarender Singh Bawa

    2013-10-01

    The present research is on understanding the storage, nutritional and sensory characteristics of high-fat fish (khoira) and rice flour coextrudates at storage temperature of 30C. The extruder processing conditions used are barrel temperature (200C), screw speed (109 rpm), fish content of feed (44%) and feed moisture content (39%). Sorption isotherm data indicated that the safe aw level was about 0.4–0.7. Guggenheim -Anderson -de Boer model described the sorption data adequately with an r2 value of 0.99. During the initial 15 days of storage, there was a loss of vitamin A and total tocopherols by 64.4 and 20.6%, and an increase in peroxides and free fatty acid content by about 116 mg/kg and 21.7%. The nonlinear mathematical model developed has adequately described the changes in nutritional and storage properties. Sensory attributes indicated that the product fried for 15 s was most acceptable.

  10. Chemical and sensory quality of fresh pomegranate fruits exposed to gamma radiation as quarantine treatment.

    PubMed

    Shahbaz, Hafiz Muhammad; Ahn, Jae-Jun; Akram, Kashif; Kim, Hyo-Young; Park, Eun-Joo; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2014-02-15

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture in February 2012 approved the import of fresh pomegranates subjected to irradiation as a quarantine procedure with a minimum absorbed dose of 0.4kGy against different pests. This study evaluated the application of different gamma-irradiation doses (0.4, 1, and 2kGy) in fresh pomegranate fruits and their effect on the chemical and sensory characteristics. The total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and pH values remained unaffected up to 1kGy treatment. Irradiation caused a significant decrease in the total anthocyanins and phenolic content. A strong positive correlation was observed among the antioxidant activities, total phenolics and anthocyanin contents. In general, a stronger preference was shown by sensory panelists for the juice from irradiated fruits. This study provides research-based information about the application of irradiation as a quarantine disinfestation treatment to enhance the marketing and consumer acceptance of pomegranates. PMID:24128483

  11. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant, rheological, physical and sensorial properties of wheat flour dough and cake containing turmeric powder.

    PubMed

    Park, S H; Lim, H S; Hwang, S Y

    2012-10-01

    The effects of addition of turmeric powder (0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%) were examined in order to obtain an antioxidant-enriched cake with good physico-chemical and sensorial properties. The rheological properties of doughs were evaluated using dynamic rheological measurements. Physical properties, curcumin content, radical scavenging activity (RSA-DPPH assay) and sensory analysis (hedonic test) of the supplemented cake were determined. Addition of turmeric powder up to 8% caused significant changes on dough characteristics and on cake rheological properties. The highest curcumin (203 mg/kg) and RSA-DPPH activity (45%) were achieved in the cake having the highest percentage of turmeric powder (8%); however, this sample showed the worst results regarding the rheological properties. Moreover, by sensory evaluation this cake sample was not acceptable. A 6% substitution of wheat flour with turmeric powder showed acceptable sensory scores which were comparable to those of 0-4% turmeric cakes. This indicated that up to 6% level of turmeric powder might be included in cake formulation. PMID:23144239

  13. A Comparison between Older Persons with Down Syndrome and a Control Group: Clinical Characteristics, Functional Status and Sensori-Motor Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmeli, Eli; Kessel, Shlomo; Merrick, Joav; Bar-Chad, Shmuel

    2004-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy within the general population has resulted in an increasing number of elderly adults with intellectual disability, and this is reflected in the increased life expectancy in persons with Down syndrome, currently about 56 years. The aim of this study was to study the clinical characteristics, the functional status and…

  14. Effects of Rice Bran, Flax Seed, and Sunflower Seed on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Fatty Acid Composition, Free Amino Acid and Peptide Contents, and Sensory Evaluations of Native Korean Cattle (Hanwoo)

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chang Bon; Kwon, Hana; Kim, Sung Il; Yang, Un Mok; Lee, Ju Hwan; Park, Eun Kyu

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with rice bran, flax seed, or sunflower seed to finishing native Korean cattle (Hanwoo) on growth performances, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, free amino acid and peptide contents, and sensory evaluations of Longissimus muscle (LM). A total of 39 Hanwoo steers (average age of 22.2 mo and average body weight (BW) of 552.2 kg) were randomly divided into Control, rice bran (RB), flax seed (FS), or Sunflower seed (SS) groups. The steers were group fed for 273 d until they reached an average age of 31.2 mo. Final BW was 768.2, 785.8, 786.2, and 789.0 kg, and average daily gain was 0.79, 0.85, 0.82, and 0.84 kg for the Control, RS, FS, and SS groups, respectively (p>0.05). Fat thickness of the FS group (19.8 mm) was greater (p<0.05) than that of the other groups. Final yield grade converted into numerical values was 2.0 for the RB group, 1.7 for the Control and SS groups, and 1.4 for the FS group. Marbling degrees for the Control, SS, RB, and FS groups were 5.3, 5.1, 4.7, and 4.6, respectively. Percentages of palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and arachidic acid (C20:0) in the LM were not different among the groups. Palmitoleic (C16:1) acid was higher (p<0.05) in the SS group. The concentration of oleic acid was highest (p<0.05) in the Control group (47.73%). The level of linolenic acid (C18:3) was 2.3 times higher (p<0.05) in the FS group compared to the other groups. Methionine concentration was (p<0.05) higher in FS (1.7 mg/100 g) and SS (1.2 mg/100 g) steers than in the Control or RB groups. Glutamic acid and α-aminoadipic acid (α-AAA) contents were (p<0.05) higher in the FS group compared to the other groups. LM from the FS group had numerically higher (p>0.05) scores for flavor, umami, and overall palatability in sensory evaluations. In conclusion, supplementation of flax seed to diets of finishing Hanwoo steers improved sensory evaluations which might have been

  15. Effects of Rice Bran, Flax Seed, and Sunflower Seed on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Fatty Acid Composition, Free Amino Acid and Peptide Contents, and Sensory Evaluations of Native Korean Cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang Bon; Kwon, Hana; Kim, Sung Il; Yang, Un Mok; Lee, Ju Hwan; Park, Eun Kyu

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with rice bran, flax seed, or sunflower seed to finishing native Korean cattle (Hanwoo) on growth performances, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, free amino acid and peptide contents, and sensory evaluations of Longissimus muscle (LM). A total of 39 Hanwoo steers (average age of 22.2 mo and average body weight (BW) of 552.2 kg) were randomly divided into Control, rice bran (RB), flax seed (FS), or Sunflower seed (SS) groups. The steers were group fed for 273 d until they reached an average age of 31.2 mo. Final BW was 768.2, 785.8, 786.2, and 789.0 kg, and average daily gain was 0.79, 0.85, 0.82, and 0.84 kg for the Control, RS, FS, and SS groups, respectively (p>0.05). Fat thickness of the FS group (19.8 mm) was greater (p<0.05) than that of the other groups. Final yield grade converted into numerical values was 2.0 for the RB group, 1.7 for the Control and SS groups, and 1.4 for the FS group. Marbling degrees for the Control, SS, RB, and FS groups were 5.3, 5.1, 4.7, and 4.6, respectively. Percentages of palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and arachidic acid (C20:0) in the LM were not different among the groups. Palmitoleic (C16:1) acid was higher (p<0.05) in the SS group. The concentration of oleic acid was highest (p<0.05) in the Control group (47.73%). The level of linolenic acid (C18:3) was 2.3 times higher (p<0.05) in the FS group compared to the other groups. Methionine concentration was (p<0.05) higher in FS (1.7 mg/100 g) and SS (1.2 mg/100 g) steers than in the Control or RB groups. Glutamic acid and α-aminoadipic acid (α-AAA) contents were (p<0.05) higher in the FS group compared to the other groups. LM from the FS group had numerically higher (p>0.05) scores for flavor, umami, and overall palatability in sensory evaluations. In conclusion, supplementation of flax seed to diets of finishing Hanwoo steers improved sensory evaluations which might have been

  16. The effect of nutrient fortification of sauces on product stability, sensory properties, and subsequent liking by older adults.

    PubMed

    Tsikritzi, Roussa; Wang, Jianqiu; Collins, Vanessa J; Allen, Victoria J; Mavrommatis, Yiannis; Moynihan, Paula J; Gosney, Margot A; Kennedy, Orla B; Methven, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    There are potential nutritional and sensory benefits of adding sauces to hospital meals. The aim of this study was to develop nutrient fortified sauces with acceptable sensory properties suitable for older people at risk of undernutrition. Tomato, gravy, and white sauce were fortified with macro- and micronutrients using food ingredients rich in energy and protein as well as vitamin and mineral premixes. Sensory profile was assessed by a trained panel. Hedonic liking of fortified compared with standard sauces was evaluated by healthy older volunteers. The fortified sauces had higher nutritional value than the conventional ones, for example the energy content of the fortified tomato, white sauce, and gravy formulations were increased between 2.5- and 4-fold compared to their control formulations. Healthy older consumers preferred the fortified tomato sauce compared with unfortified. There were no significant differences in liking between the fortified and standard option for gravy. There were limitations in the extent of fortification with protein, potassium, and magnesium, as excessive inclusion resulted in bitterness, undesired flavors, or textural issues. This was particularly marked in the white sauce to the extent that their sensory characteristics were not sufficiently optimized for hedonic testing. It is proposed that the development of fortified sauces is a simple approach to improving energy intake for hospitalized older people, both through the nutrient composition of the sauce itself and due to the benefits of increasing sensorial taste and lubrication in the mouth. PMID:25854529

  17. Effect of grain type and toasting conditions of barrels on the concentration of the volatile substances released by the wood and on the sensory characteristics of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo.

    PubMed

    Bosso, A; Petrozziello, M; Santini, D; Motta, S; Guaita, M; Marulli, C

    2008-09-01

    We report the results of an aging trial of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo D.O.C. wine in commercially available oak barrels that differed in the type of wood grain (extra fine and fine) and cooperage toasting conditions: medium (EVM), light (EVL), medium for a shorter time (CM), and, finally, a single short-time pretoasting stage at high temperature (ExpT). The chemical-physical composition, the volatile substances released by the wood, and the sensory characteristics of wines after 6 and 12 mo of aging were monitored. The differences observed were mainly in the concentration of volatile substances and the olfactory characteristics of the wines. The volatile compounds that could distinguish among the wines were the cis isomer of beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, the ratio between cis and trans octalactone, vanillin, cyclotene, maltol, 5-methyl guaiacol, and the furfuryl compounds. The concentration of cis octalactone was influenced by the type of grain of the wood, while the cis/trans octalactones ratio varied depending on the toasting conditions used in the production of the barrels (the highest concentration was in EVL). In particular, the length of time (EVM compared with CM) and the temperature (EVM compared with EVL) of the toasting process influenced the concentration of vanillin, furfuryl alcohols, cis octalactone, and 5 methyl guaiacol. Among the olfactory descriptors, statistically significant differences were detected in the notes of caramel, toasty, spicy, green pepper, coconut, and wood. PMID:18803731

  18. Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Whole Soybean Curd Supplemented with Pine Needle Powder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-01-01

    To develop functionally and nutritionally improved whole soybean curd (WSC), the effects of partial (0 ~ 4%) replacement with pine needle powder (PNP) on the quality characteristics of WSC were investigated. The moisture content and pH ranged from 76.96~77.80% (wet basis) and 6.69~6.74, respectively, with no considerable differences. Lightness significantly decreased with higher PNP content in the formulation (P<0.05), as indicated by visual observation that the color of WSC became darker. Redness and yellowness also significantly decreased (P<0.05). The texture profile analysis indicated that WSC containing PNP was softer and less cohesive than control WSC. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging activities significantly increased (P<0.05) with higher substitution of PNP, and they were well correlated. Results from the consumer test revealed that WSC with 1% PLP received the most favorable acceptance scores for sensory attributes, including overall acceptability. The present study indicated that the characteristics of PNP may play a role in improving WSC quality in terms of physicochemical, sensorial, and antioxidant characteristics. PMID:26176004

  19. Role of Cigarette Sensory Cues in Modifying Puffing Topography

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Vaughan W.; Kreslake, Jennifer M.; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; O Connor, Richard J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Human puffing topography promotes tobacco dependence by ensuring nicotine delivery, but the factors that determine puffing behavior are not well explained by existing models. Chemosensory cues generated by variations in cigarette product design features may serve as conditioned cues to allow the smoker to optimize nicotine delivery by adjusting puffing topography. Internal tobacco industry research documents were reviewed to understand the influence of sensory cues on puffing topography, and to examine how the tobacco industry has designed cigarettes, including modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs), to enhance puffing behavior to optimize nicotine delivery and product acceptability. Methods Relevant internal tobacco industry documents were identified using systematic searching with key search terms and phrases, and then snowball sampling method was applied to establish further search terms. Results Modern cigarettes are designed by cigarette manufacturers to provide sensory characteristics that not only maintain appeal, but provide cues which inform puffing intensity. Alterations in the chemosensory cues provided in tobacco smoke play an important role in modifying smoking behavior independently of the central effects of nicotine. Conclusions An associative learning model is proposed to explain the influence of chemosensory cues on variation in puffing topography. These cues are delivered via tobacco smoke and are moderated by design features and additives used in cigarettes. The implications for regulation of design features of modified risk tobacco products, which may act to promote intensive puffing while lowering risk perceptions, are discussed. PMID:22365895

  20. Developing consumer acceptable biscuits enriched with Psyllium fibre.

    PubMed

    Fradinho, Patricia; Nunes, M Cristiana; Raymundo, Anabela

    2015-08-01

    Consumer's demand for functional food is a trend of the last decades. Nowadays, the attention is focused on the development of products with health claims on the label, which can result in value-added products for the producers companies. Cookies are popular staple foods in the human diet in many countries and are generally well accepted by consumers due to their sensory attributes, long shelf life and convenience. The incorporation of solid components on the biscuit dough, such as dietary fibre, could have serious implications on its structure and perceived texture which explains the technological limitations for the fibre incorporation. The aim of this work is to develop an enriched functional biscuit with Psyllium fibre and understand the impact of the new ingredient on physicochemical and sensorial properties of the dough and biscuits. The optimum biscuit's formulation was determined using the response surface methodology (RSM). Effects of wheat flour (48-52 %) and Psyllium (3-9 %) contents on the dimensional features (spread ratio, expansion factor), water activity, colour parameters (L*, a*, b*), texture characteristics (firmness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, springiness) and sensory properties (colour, flavour, texture, overall acceptability) of dough and biscuits were investigated. The most representative parameters evaluated were used to develop biscuits with similar features to commercial references. An optimum formulation was obtained by incorporating 6 % Psyllium and 50 % flour. This biscuit has the enough amount of Psyllium soluble fibre recommended by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent the risk of coronary heart disease and to bear a health claim on the label. PMID:26243903

  1. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which

  2. Sensory Integration Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Healy, Olive; Rispoli, Mandy; Lydon, Helena; Streusand, William; Davis, Tonya; Kang, Soyeon; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Giesbers, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    Intervention studies involving the use of sensory integration therapy (SIT) were systematically identified and analyzed. Twenty-five studies were described in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) assessments used to identify sensory deficits or behavioral functions, (c) dependent variables, (d) intervention procedures, (e) intervention…

  3. Assessing sensory quality of rice to meet industry needs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food industries need consistent supplies of rice that are well-defined in terms of functional, nutritional, and sensory characteristics associated with intrinsic product quality to allow them to be directed to the most appropriate, highest value markets. Defining the sensory quality of rice is prob...

  4. Neurocontrol in sensory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, Jason; Nandi, Anirban; Schroeder, Joseph; Ching, Shinung

    Technology to control neural ensembles is rapidly advancing, but many important challenges remain in applications, such as design of controls (e.g. stimulation patterns) with specificity comparable to natural sensory encoding. We use the rodent whisker tactile system as a model for active touch, in which sensory information is acquired in a closed loop between feedforward encoding of sensory information and feedback guidance of sensing motions. Motivated by this system, we present optimal control strategies that are tailored for underactuation (a large ratio of neurons or degrees of freedom to stimulation channels) and limited observability (absence of direct measurement of the system state), common in available stimulation technologies for freely behaving animals. Using a control framework, we have begun to elucidate the feedback effect of sensory cortex activity on sensing in behaving animals. For example, by optogenetically perturbing primary sensory cortex (SI) activity at varied timing relative to individual whisker motions, we find that SI modulates future sensing behavior within 15 msec, on a whisk by whisk basis, changing the flow of incoming sensory information based on past experience. J.T.R. and S.C. hold Career Awards at the Scientific Interface from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund.

  5. Examining Sensory Quadrants in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Carmody, Thomas; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Mehta, Jyutika A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sensory quadrants in autism based on Dunn's Theory of Sensory Processing. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3-43 years of age, compared to 103 age- and gender-matched community…

  6. Effects of spray-drying conditions on the chemical, physical, and sensory properties of cheese powder.

    PubMed

    Koca, Nurcan; Erbay, Zafer; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2015-05-01

    Dairy powders are produced to increase the shelf life of fresh dairy products and for use as flavoring agents. In this study, 24 cheese powders produced under 7 different conditions were used to investigate the effects of spray-drying parameters (e.g., inlet air temperature, atomization pressure, and outlet air temperature) on the quality of white cheese powder. Composition, color, physical properties, reconstitution, and sensory characteristics of white cheese powders were determined. The results revealed that the white cheese powders produced in this study had low moisture content ratios and water activity values. High outlet air temperatures caused browning and enhanced Maillard reactions. Additionally, high outlet air temperatures increased wettability and dispersibility and decreased the solubility of white cheese powders. Free fat content was positively correlated with inlet air temperature and negatively correlated with outlet air temperature and atomization pressure. Sensory analyses revealed that white cheese powder samples had acceptable sensory characteristics with the exception of the sample produced at an outlet air temperature of 100°C, which had high scores for scorched flavor and color and low scores for cheese flavor. PMID:25771045

  7. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M

    1994-01-01

    In Bangladesh, the assistant administrator of USAID gave an acceptance speech at an awards ceremony on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of oral rehydration solution (ORS). The ceremony celebrated the key role of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) in the discovery of ORS. Its research activities over the last 25 years have brought ORS to every village in the world, preventing more than a million deaths each year. ORS is the most important medical advance of the 20th century. It is affordable and client-oriented, a true appropriate technology. USAID has provided more than US$ 40 million to ICDDR,B for diarrheal disease and measles research, urban and rural applied family planning and maternal and child health research, and vaccine development. ICDDR,B began as the relatively small Cholera Research Laboratory and has grown into an acclaimed international center for health, family planning, and population research. It leads the world in diarrheal disease research. ICDDR,B is the leading center for applied health research in South Asia. It trains public health specialists from around the world. The government of Bangladesh and the international donor community have actively joined in support of ICDDR,B. The government applies the results of ICDDR,B research to its programs to improve the health and well-being of Bangladeshis. ICDDR,B now also studies acute respiratory diseases and measles. Population and health comprise 1 of USAID's 4 strategic priorities, the others being economic growth, environment, and democracy, USAID promotes people's participation in these 4 areas and in the design and implementation of development projects. USAID is committed to the use and improvement of ORS and to complementary strategies that further reduce diarrhea-related deaths. Continued collaboration with a strong user perspective and integrated services will lead to sustainable development. PMID:12345470

  8. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, C K

    1994-01-01

    I am proud and honored to accept this award on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh, and the millions of Bangladeshi children saved by oral rehydration solution. The Government of Bangladesh is grateful for this recognition of its commitment to international health and population research and cost-effective health care for all. The Government of Bangladesh has already made remarkable strides forward in the health and population sector, and this was recognized in UNICEF's 1993 "State of the World's Children". The national contraceptive prevalence rate, at 40%, is higher than that of many developed countries. It is appropriate that Bangladesh, where ORS was discovered, has the largest ORS production capacity in the world. It was remarkable that after the devastating cyclone in 1991, the country was able to produce enough ORS to meet the needs and remain self-sufficient. Similarly, Bangladesh has one of the most effective, flexible and efficient control of diarrheal disease and epidemic response program in the world. Through the country, doctors have been trained in diarrheal disease management, and stores of ORS are maintained ready for any outbreak. Despite grim predictions after the 1991 cyclone and the 1993 floods, relatively few people died from diarrheal disease. This is indicative of the strength of the national program. I want to take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of ICDDR, B and the important role it plays in supporting the Government's efforts in the health and population sector. The partnership between the Government of Bangladesh and ICDDR, B has already borne great fruit, and I hope and believe that it will continue to do so for many years in the future. Thank you. PMID:12345479

  9. Effects of feeding extruded full-fat cottonseed pellets in place of tallow as a fat source for finishing heifers on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, sensory traits, display color, and fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Stelzleni, A M; Froetschel, M A; Pringle, T D

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of supplemental feeding of full-fat extruded cottonseed pellets (FFECS) compared with tallow on carcass characteristics, sensory traits, retail display color, and fatty acid profiles, especially CLA isomers in finishing heifers. Twenty-one Angus heifers (450 ± 5 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 experimental diets: 1) 100% supplemental fat from tallow at 4.1% of ration DM (TAL), 2) a 50:50 ratio of supplemental fat from a combination of tallow at 2.1% and FFECS at 12.8% of ration DM (TAL/ECS), and 3) 100% supplemental fat from FFECS at 25.6% ration DM (ECS). All rations were formulated to contain 7.5% fat on a DM basis. Heifers were individually fed, ad libitum, for 82 d, and BW, G:F, DMI, ADG, and body composition via ultrasound were collected at 3 to 4 wk intervals. After 82 d on feed heifers were slaughtered under federal inspection, and carcass characteristics were measured (at 24 h). The LM was removed for retail display color (1, 3, 6, 10 d), Warner-Bratzler shear force (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 d postmortem aging), sensory analysis (1, 7, 14, 21 d postmortem aging), and fatty acid profile analysis. Subcutaneous fat, including all layers, was removed from the LM for fatty acid profile analysis, and ground beef patties (80:20) were produced with lean from the brisket and fat from the plate for retail color analysis (1, 2, 4, 7 d). Supplemental fat source did not influence feedlot performance for any of the traits measured (P > 0.12) or any carcass traits related to yield, quality, or LM color at the 12th- to 13th-rib interface (P > 0.15). Supplemental fat source did not affect Warner-Bratzler shear force or any sensory traits (P > 0.20), but LM steaks became more tender as postmortem aging time increased up to 14 d (P < 0.01). During retail display of LM steaks and beef patties, the only difference was LM steaks from ECS were darker (lower L* value) than TAL or TAL/ECS steaks (P < 0.02). As display time

  10. Sensory feedback in cockroach locomotion: current knowledge and open questions.

    PubMed

    Ayali, A; Couzin-Fuchs, E; David, I; Gal, O; Holmes, P; Knebel, D

    2015-09-01

    The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, provides a successful model for the study of legged locomotion. Sensory regulation and the relative importance of sensory feedback vs. central control in animal locomotion are key aspects in our understanding of locomotive behavior. Here we introduce the cockroach model and describe the basic characteristics of the neural generation and control of walking and running in this insect. We further provide a brief overview of some recent studies, including mathematical modeling, which have contributed to our knowledge of sensory control in cockroach locomotion. We focus on two sensory mechanisms and sense organs, those providing information related to loading and unloading of the body and the legs, and leg-movement-related sensory receptors, and present evidence for the instrumental role of these sensory signals in inter-leg locomotion control. We conclude by identifying important open questions and indicate future perspectives. PMID:25432627

  11. Comparison of aroma-active compounds and sensory characteristics of durian (Durio zibethinus L.) wines using strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with odor activity values and partial least-squares regression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, JianCai; Chen, Feng; Wang, LingYing; Niu, YunWei; Shu, Chang; Chen, HeXing; Xiao, ZuoBing

    2015-02-25

    The study evaluated the effects of five different strains (GRE, RC212, Lalvin D254, CGMCC2.4, and CGMCC2.23) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the aromatic characteristics of fermented durian musts. In this work, 38 and 43 compounds in durian juices and wines were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-pulsed flame photometric detection (GC-PFPD) with the aid of stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), respectively. According to the measured odor activity values (OAV), only 11 and 15 aroma compounds had OAVs >1 in durian juices or wines, among which 2,3-butanedione, 3-methylbutanol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methyl ethyl disulfide, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, and ethyl octanoate were major contributors to the aroma of juices and wines. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to detect positive correlations between sensory analysis and aroma compounds. The results showed that the attributes were closely related to aroma compounds. PMID:25620380

  12. Effects of grain processing and dietary lipid source on performance, carcass characteristics, plasma fatty acids, and sensory properties of steaks from finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    LaBrune, H J; Reinhardt, C D; Dikeman, M E; Drouillard, J S

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of grain processing and lipid addition to finishing diets on cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Eighty Hereford x Angus steers (384 kg +/- 17 kg of BW) were fed diets containing steam-flaked corn (SFC) or dry-rolled corn (DRC) with and without the addition of tallow (SFC/Fat and DRC/Fat) or steam-flaked corn with ground flaxseed (SFC/Flax). Ribeye steaks from steers fed SFC, SFC/Fat, or SFC/ Flax were used to evaluate the effects of fat source on meat quality. Cattle fed SFC and SFC/Fat tended to have greater ADG, G:F, HCW, and USDA yield grade, compared with those fed DRC and DRC/Fat (P < 0.10). Steaks from steers fed SFC/Flax developed a detectable off-flavor (P < 0.05) compared with steaks from steers fed SFC and SFC/Fat, and steaks from steers fed SFC retained desirable color longer than those from steers fed SFC/Flax (P < 0.05). Feeding SFC/Flax increased deposition of alpha-linolenic acid in muscle tissue compared with feeding SFC or SFC/Fat (P < 0.01). Dietary treatment did not cause differences in tenderness, juiciness, or flavor intensity. Ground flaxseed can replace tallow in finishing diets without loss in performance, but flax may affect flavor and color stability of beef. Feeding flaxseed can effectively alter composition of carcass tissues to yield beef that is high in n-3 fatty acids. PMID:17911237

  13. Proteolysis, lipolysis, volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of Hispánico cheeses made using frozen curd from raw and pasteurized ewe milk.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Rocío; Picon, Antonia; Gaya, Pilar; Nuñez, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    Hispánico cheese, manufactured from a mixture of cow and ewe milk, is representative of cheese varieties made using milk from more than one animal species in Mediterranean countries. The shortage of ewe milk production in autumn hinders the uniformity of Hispánico cheese composition throughout the year. To surmount this inconvenience of ewe milk seasonality, curds made in spring from raw and pasteurized ewe milk were stored frozen and used four months later for the manufacture of Hispánico cheese. Experimental cheeses were made by mixing fresh curd from pasteurized cow milk with thawed curd from raw or pasteurized ewe milk, and control cheese from a mixture of pasteurized cow and ewe milk in the same proportion. Characteristics of experimental and control cheeses throughout a 60-d ripening period were investigated. On the one hand, the experimental cheese containing frozen curd from raw ewe milk showed the highest counts of staphylococci, Gram-negative bacteria and coliforms, the highest levels of aminopeptidase and esterase activity, and the highest concentrations of free amino acids, free fatty acids, alcohols and esters. On the other, the experimental cheese containing frozen curd from pasteurized ewe milk had concentrations of free amino acids, free fatty acids and volatile compounds similar to those of control cheese, with the only exception being a higher level of ketones. Flavour intensity reached the highest scores in the experimental cheese containing frozen curd from raw ewe milk, followed by the experimental cheese containing frozen curd from pasteurized ewe milk. Flavour quality scores of both experimental cheeses were similar, and lower than those of control cheese. PMID:23253470

  14. Identification of sensory attributes that drive the likeability of Korean rice wines by American panelists. [Corrected].

    PubMed

    Kwak, Han Sub; Ahn, Byung-Hak; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2015-01-01

    Six commercial Korean rice wines were described their sensory profiles by trained American panelists, and assessed acceptances by American subjects to identify the drivers of liking and disliking factors. Thirteen statistically different descriptive attributes were defined for Korean rice wines: aromas (apple, pear, earthy, peach, nutty, yeasty, honey), flavor (yeasty, nutty), taste (sweet, sour, bitter), and aftertaste (apricot). Samples A and F were characterized as sweet taste and fruity attributes, and sample C was characterized as being pear flavor and bitter taste. Sample B exhibited a strong earthy aroma, determined as the aroma of ginseng. The American subjects could not identify ginseng aroma due to their lack of experience in ginseng. Samples D and E were described as nutty and yeasty. In consumer test, consumer preference was skewed to sample A, for which the consumer preference revolved around the sweet, sour, and fruity characteristics of the sample by the principal component analysis. Few consumers expressed preference toward samples D and E, as evidenced by the lowest consumer acceptance ratings. Partial least squares regression revealed that the key liking factors of Korean rice wines were sweet, sour, and apricot flavors. Fruity characteristics (peach, apple, and pear) were also positively correlated with overall acceptance. The key disliking factors were yeasty and nutty characteristics. American subjects regarded Korean rice wine as belonging to the wine category, prompting them to grant the highest rank to sample A, which has similar characteristics to semisweet white wine. PMID:25559310

  15. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration

    PubMed Central

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler. PMID:25628523

  16. Asperger Syndrome and Sensory Processing: A Conceptual Model and Guidance for Intervention Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Winnie; Saiter, Jessica; Rinner, Louann

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses sensory processing concepts and their application to children with Asperger syndrome (AS). Basic characteristics of the sensory systems are outlined, a model for sensory processing is described, and a summary of data supporting the model in work with children with AS is presented. Case studies are included. (Contains…

  17. Screening for Sensory Integration Dysfunction. Caught Two, But One Got Away.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranowitz, Carol Stock

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of a screening program to identify possible sensory integration dysfunction. Describes characteristics of sensory integration dysfunction. Updates case studies of three children now in sixth grade who were screened for sensory integration dysfunction in nursery school to illustrate the use of the screening program, evaluation,…

  18. Using Movement-Based Sensory Interventions to Address Self-Stimulatory Behaviors in Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Nicole M.; Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer; Jolivette, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a three-step process to help teachers determine whether or not the function of a student's stereotypical behavior is sensory-based and if so, how to select and monitor an appropriate sensory intervention to promote instructional engagement. In particular, characteristics of students who are seeking to gain sensory input in…

  19. Sensory activity affects sensory axon development in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Peckol, E L; Zallen, J A; Yarrow, J C; Bargmann, C I

    1999-05-01

    The simple nervous system of the nematode C. elegans consists of 302 neurons with highly reproducible morphologies, suggesting a hard-wired program of axon guidance. Surprisingly, we show here that sensory activity shapes sensory axon morphology in C. elegans. A class of mutants with deformed sensory cilia at their dendrite endings have extra axon branches, suggesting that sensory deprivation disrupts axon outgrowth. Mutations that alter calcium channels or membrane potential cause similar defects. Cell-specific perturbations of sensory activity can cause cell-autonomous changes in axon morphology. Although the sensory axons initially reach their targets in the embryo, the mutations that alter sensory activity cause extra axon growth late in development. Thus, perturbations of activity affect the maintenance of sensory axon morphology after an initial pattern of innervation is established. This system provides a genetically tractable model for identifying molecular mechanisms linking neuronal activity to nervous system structure. PMID:10101123

  20. Influence of label information on dark chocolate acceptability.

    PubMed

    Torres-Moreno, M; Tarrega, A; Torrescasana, E; Blanch, C

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to study how the information on product labels influences consumer expectations and their acceptance and purchase intention of dark chocolate. Six samples of dark chocolate, varying in brand (premium and store brand) and in type of product (regular dark chocolate, single cocoa origin dark chocolate and high percentage of cocoa dark chocolate), were evaluated by 109 consumers who scored their liking and purchase intention under three conditions: blind (only tasting the products), expected (observing product label information) and informed (tasting the products together with provision of the label information). In the expected condition, consumer liking was mainly affected by the brand. In the blind condition, differences in liking were due to the type of product; the samples with a high percentage of cocoa were those less preferred by consumers. Under the informed condition, liking of dark chocolates varied depending on both brand and type of product. Premium brand chocolates generated high consumer expectations of chocolate acceptability, which were fulfilled by the sensory characteristics of the products. Store brand chocolates created lower expectations, but when they were tasted they were as acceptable as premium chocolates. Claims of a high percentage of cocoa and single cocoa origin on labels did not generate higher expectations than regular dark chocolates. PMID:22198318

  1. Sensory influences on food intake control: moving beyond palatability.

    PubMed

    McCrickerd, K; Forde, C G

    2016-01-01

    The sensory experience of eating is an important determinant of food intake control, often attributed to the positive hedonic response associated with certain sensory cues. However, palatability is just one aspect of the sensory experience. Sensory cues based on a food's sight, smell, taste and texture are operational before, during and after an eating event. The focus of this review is to look beyond palatability and highlight recent advances in our understanding of how certain sensory characteristics can be used to promote better energy intake control. We consider the role of visual and odour cues in identifying food in the near environment, guiding food choice and memory for eating, and highlight the ways in which tastes and textures influence meal size and the development of satiety after consumption. Considering sensory characteristics as a functional feature of the foods and beverages we consume provides the opportunity for research to identify how sensory enhancements might be combined with energy reduction in otherwise palatable foods to optimize short-term energy intake regulation in the current food environment. Moving forward, the challenge for sensory nutritional science will be to assess the longer-term impact of these principles on weight management. PMID:26662879

  2. Recording Sensory Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    From children's viewpoints, what they experience in the world is what the world is like--for everyone. "What do others experience with their senses when they are in the same situation?" is a question that young children can explore by collecting data as they use a "feely box," or take a "sensory walk." There are many ways to focus the children's…

  3. Studying Sensory Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerly, Spafford C.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the vestibular organ's role in balancing the body and stabilizing the visual world using the example of a hunter. Describes the relationship between sensory perception and learning. Recommends using optical illusions to illustrate the distinctions between external realities and internal perceptions. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  4. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  5. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I

    PubMed Central

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances) are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7) identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra neuropathy, or decaying skin

  6. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Coates, W; Ayerza, R

    2009-11-01

    Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the greatest known plant source of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, was fed at the rate of 10 and 20% to finishing pigs, with the goal to determine if this new crop would increase the n-3 content of the meat as has been reported for other n-3 fatty acid-rich crops. The effects of chia on fatty acid composition of the meat, internal fats, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics were determined. Productive performance was unaffected by dietary treatment. Chia seed modified the fatty acid composition of the meat fat, but not of the internal fat. Significantly (P < 0.05) less palmitic, stearic, and arachidic acids were found with both chia treatments. This is different than trials in which flaxseed, another plant based source of omega-3 fatty acid, has been fed. Alpha-linolenic acid content increased with increasing chia content of the diet; however, only the effect of the 20% ration was significantly (P < 0.05) different from that of the control. Chia seed increased panel member preferences for aroma and flavor of the meat. This study tends to show that chia seems to be a viable feed that can produce healthier pork for human consumption. PMID:19648503

  7. The combine effects of salting and thyme oil on sensory and chemical changes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Pınar Oǧuzhan

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the combine effects of salting and thyme oil on chemical and sensory changes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during storage (4°C) was investigated over a period of 24 days. There groups were constituted: group A-control salted, group B-salted samples with 0.4% of thyme oil and group C-salted samples with 0.8% of thyme oil. Fillets were subject to chemical (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances-TBARS, total volatile base nitrogen-TVB-N) and sensory analyses on certain days (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24th days) of storage. Five experienced panelists, academic staff who were trained in sensory descriptors for fishes, were employed to evaluate the quality of trout fillets during storage. Rainbow trout fillets were assessed on the basis of appearance, taste, texture and odour characteristics using a nine point descriptive scale. TVB-N and TBARS values increased in the duration of storage time in all groups. TVB-N and TBARS values in control groups were higher than other groups. Group C samples were assessed as the most acceptable products by the panellists. Difference in chemical and sensory changes between samples was found to be significant (p<0.05) during storage period.

  8. Understanding the effect of novel approaches based on ultrasound on sensory profile of orange juice.

    PubMed

    Khandpur, Paramjeet; Gogate, Parag R

    2015-11-01

    The present work investigates the effects of novel non thermal processing based on ultrasound on the sensory profile of orange juice and also compares the observed trends with the conventional thermal pasteurization. A novel treatment methodology based on combination of ultrasound and UV irradiations was investigated. The juice quality was assessed in terms of standard parameters (taste, flavor, odor, mouth feel etc.) by panel tests. Physicochemical analysis in terms of color of processed juice (which is an important physical attribute) and oxidation reduction potential (a good indicator of the quantum of oxidants present in the fruit juices) has also been performed. Thermally treated juices had significantly different characteristics that were not very appealing as compared to the ultrasound treated juices or those treated using the combined approach. The sensory properties of the ultrasound treated juices showed that the samples were most acceptable to the consumers and rated at par with the quality parameters of the fresh untreated juices. Overall the present work is the first to report and conclusively establish the usefulness of ultrasound based treatment approaches for maintaining the sensory profile in comparison with the thermally processed juice. PMID:26186824

  9. Influence of particle size on physical and sensory attributes of mango pulp powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Kadam, D. M.; Chadha, S.; Wilson, R. A.; Gupta, R. K.

    2013-09-01

    The present investigation was aimed to observe the effect of particle size on physical, sensory and thermal properties of foam-mat dried mango pulp powder. Mango pulp of Dussehri variety was foam-mat dried using 3% egg white at 65ºC. Dried foam-mats were pulverized and passed through a sieve shaker for obtaining three grades of powder with 50, 60, and 85 mesh size sieves. The particle size of these samples measured using laser diffraction particle size analyzer ranged from 191.26 to 296.19 μm. The data was analysed statistically using ANOVA of SAS. There was a linear increase in lightness (`L' value) with a decrease in particle size, however, `a' value decreased with a decrease in particle size, indicating the decrease in redness. An increase in bulk density and decrease in water solubility index and water absorption index % were observed with a decrease in particle size. Particle size had a significant effect on sensory parameters. Particle size in the range of 258.01 to 264.60μmwas found most acceptable with respect to sensory characteristics. This finding can be exploited for various commercial applicationswhere powder quality is dependent on the particle size and has foremost priority for end users.

  10. Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves.

    PubMed

    Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; Dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M

    2013-09-01

    Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics. PMID:24804041

  11. Effect of irradiation on Brazilian honeys' consistency and their acceptability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, A. H.; Sabato, S. F.

    2004-09-01

    Contamination of bee products may occur during packing or even during the process of collection. Gamma irradiation was found to decrease the number of bacteria and fungi. However, little information is available on the effects of gamma irradiation on viscosity which is an important property of honey. In this work the viscosity of two varieties of Brazilian honey was measured when they were irradiated at 5 and 10 kGy. The viscosity was measured at four temperatures (25°C, 30°C, 35°C and 40°C) for both samples and compared with control and within the doses. The sensory evaluation was carried on for the parameters color, odor, taste and consistency, using a 9-point hedonic scale. All the data were treated with a statistical tool (Statistica 5.1, StatSoft, 1998). The viscosity was not impaired significantly by gamma irradiation in doses 5 and 10 kGy ( p<0.05). The effect of gamma irradiation on sensorial characteristics (odor, color, taste and consistency) is presented. The taste for Parana type indicated a significant difference among irradiation doses ( p<0.05) but the higher value was for 5 kGy dose, demonstrating the acceptability for this case. The Organic honey presented the taste parameter for 10 kGy, significantly lower than the control mean but it did not differ significantly from the 5 kGy value.

  12. Understanding Sensory Integration. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMatties, Marie E.; Sammons, Jennifer H.

    This brief paper summarizes what is known about sensory integration and sensory integration dysfunction (DSI). It outlines evaluation of DSI, treatment approaches, and implications for parents and teachers, including compensatory strategies for minimizing the impact of DSI on a child's life. Review of origins of sensory integration theory in the…

  13. A sensory evaluation of irradiated cookies made from flaxseed meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Flávio T.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Koike, Amanda C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.

    2012-08-01

    The growing consumer demand for food with sensory quality and nutritional has called for research to develop new products with consumer acceptance as cookies made from flaxseed meal, that can be inserted in diet of celiacs. Celiac disease characterized by an inappropriate immune response to dietary proteins found in wheat, rye and barley (gluten and gliadin). It can affect anyone at any age and is more common in women. The celiac disease does not have cure and the only scientifically proven treatment is a gluten free diet. Irradiation as a decontamination method used for a many variety of foodstuffs, being very feasible, useful method to increase the shelf life, effective and environmental friendly without any sensory properties significant change. Sensory analyses were used to assess gluten-free bakery foods subjected to ionizing radiation sensory attributes.

  14. Novel approaches and application of contemporary sensory evaluation practices in iron fortification programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.; Guinard, Jean-Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the leading nutritional deficiency in the U.S. and the rest of the world, with its highest prevalences in the developing world. Iron fortification of food has been proposed as a strategy to reduce the high prevalence of iron deficiency. Poor consumer acceptance, unacceptable taste, and discoloration of the iron-fortified foods have been frequently listed as causes of unsuccessful iron fortification programs. An excellent prospect for improving consumer acceptance of iron-fortified foods is the incorporation of a thorough, organized, and unified approach to sensory evaluation practices into iron fortification programs for product optimization. The information gained from systematic sensory evaluation allows for the manipulation of the sensory attributes, and thus improvement of the sensory properties of the fortified food. However, iron fortification programs have not systematically measured the effect of fortification on the sensory quality of the food. Because sensory evaluation is an important criterion in successful iron fortification, an integrated approach is necessary. Therefore, nutritionists and sensory scientists should work closely with each other to select the most suitable sensory tests and methods. The objectives of this article are to: (1) critically review and discuss some traditional and contemporary approaches and applications of sensory evaluation practices in iron fortification programs, and (2) demonstrate the importance of incorporating a multidisciplinary, systematic sensory evaluation approach in iron fortification programs.

  15. Novel approaches and application of contemporary sensory evaluation practices in iron fortification programs.

    PubMed

    Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C; Guinard, Jean-Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the leading nutritional deficiency in the U.S. and the rest of the world, with its highest prevalences in the developing world. Iron fortification of food has been proposed as a strategy to reduce the high prevalence of iron deficiency. Poor consumer acceptance, unacceptable taste, and discoloration of the iron-fortified foods have been frequently listed as causes of unsuccessful iron fortification programs. An excellent prospect for improving consumer acceptance of iron-fortified foods is the incorporation of a thorough, organized, and unified approach to sensory evaluation practices into iron fortification programs for product optimization. The information gained from systematic sensory evaluation allows for the manipulation of the sensory attributes, and thus improvement of the sensory properties of the fortified food. However, iron fortification programs have not systematically measured the effect of fortification on the sensory quality of the food. Because sensory evaluation is an important criterion in successful iron fortification, an integrated approach is necessary. Therefore, nutritionists and sensory scientists should work closely with each other to select the most suitable sensory tests and methods. The objectives of this article are to: (1) critically review and discuss some traditional and contemporary approaches and applications of sensory evaluation practices in iron fortification programs, and (2) demonstrate the importance of incorporating a multidisciplinary, systematic sensory evaluation approach in iron fortification programs. PMID:12940417

  16. Physical and sensory properties of ready to eat apple chips produced by osmo-convective drying.

    PubMed

    Velickova, Elena; Winkelhausen, Eleonora; Kuzmanova, Slobodanka

    2014-12-01

    The low cost raw material, apple variety Idared, was turned into value-added product, apple chips. The apple chips were produced in a two-step process consisting of osmotic treatment and conventional drying. Osmotic treatment was carried out in 40 % glucose solution at room temperature, followed by convective drying at 105 °C, till reaching water activity of 0.3. Mechanical properties of the apple chips measured by compression and penetration tests were correlated with the sorption properties. The low browning index, 25.5 and high whitening index, 63.7, proved the good retention of the color of the apple chips. The instrumental characteristics of the apple chips were correlated with the sensory characteristics of the product. The new product was accepted by the 95 % of the panelists. The stored apple chips under modified atmosphere showed no significant changes in the quality parameters over 6 month period. PMID:25477635

  17. CRYPTOGENIC SENSORY POLYNEUROPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a common cause for referral to neurologists. Despite extensive diagnostic testing, up to one-third of these patients remain without a known cause. They are referred to as having cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy (CSPN). The age of onset is variable but usually in the sixth to seventh decade of life, affecting men and women equally. CSPN symptoms progress slowly, most patients present with distal leg paresthesias or pain that progressed over years to involve the hands. On examination, there may be additional mild toe flexion and extension weakness. Electrophysiologic testing and histology reveals axonal neuropathy. Prognosis is usually favorable as most patients maintain independent ambulation. Besides patient education and reassurance, management is focused on pharmacotherapy of neuropathic pain (see Treatment of Painful Peripheral Neuropathy chapter) and physical therapy for balance training and occasionally assistive devices. PMID:23642719

  18. “Let’s get Wasted!” and Other Apps: Characteristics, Acceptability, and Use of Alcohol-Related Smartphone Applications

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Emma R; Horyniak, Danielle R; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Dietze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Smartphone applications (“apps”) offer a number of possibilities for health promotion activities. However, young people may also be exposed to apps with incorrect or poor quality information, since, like the Internet, apps are mostly unregulated. Little is known about the quality of alcohol-related apps or what influence they may have on young people’s behavior. Objective To critically review popular alcohol-related smartphone apps and to explore young people’s opinions of these apps, their acceptability, and use for alcohol-related health promotion. Methods First, a content analysis of 500 smartphone apps available via Apple iTunes and Android Google Play stores was conducted. Second, all available blood alcohol concentration (BAC) apps were tested against four individual case profiles of known BAC from a previous study. Third, two focus group discussions explored how young people use alcohol-related apps, particularly BAC apps. Results 384 apps were included; 50% (192) were entertainment apps, 39% (148) were BAC apps, and 11% (44) were health promotion and/or stop drinking–related apps. When testing the BAC apps, there was wide variation in results, with apps tending to overestimate BAC scores compared with recorded scores. Participants were skeptical of the accuracy of BAC apps, and there was an overall concern that these apps would be used as a form of entertainment, further encouraging young people to drink, rather than reduce their drinking and risk taking. Conclusions The majority of popular alcohol-related apps encouraged alcohol consumption. Apps estimating blood alcohol concentration were widely available but were highly unreliable. Health departments and prominent health organizations need to endorse alcohol smartphone apps that are accurate and evidence-based to give specific apps credibility in the ever-expanding market of unregulated apps. PMID:25100681

  19. Ctip1 Controls Acquisition of Sensory Area Identity and Establishment of Sensory Input Fields in the Developing Neocortex.

    PubMed

    Greig, Luciano C; Woodworth, Mollie B; Greppi, Chloé; Macklis, Jeffrey D

    2016-04-20

    While transcriptional controls over the size and relative position of cortical areas have been identified, less is known about regulators that direct acquisition of area-specific characteristics. Here, we report that the transcription factor Ctip1 functions in primary sensory areas to repress motor and activate sensory programs of gene expression, enabling establishment of sharp molecular boundaries defining functional areas. In Ctip1 mutants, abnormal gene expression leads to aberrantly motorized corticocortical and corticofugal output connectivity. Ctip1 critically regulates differentiation of layer IV neurons, and selective loss of Ctip1 in cortex deprives thalamocortical axons of their receptive "sensory field" in layer IV, which normally provides a tangentially and radially defined compartment of dedicated synaptic territory. Therefore, although thalamocortical axons invade appropriate cortical regions, they are unable to organize into properly configured sensory maps. Together, these data identify Ctip1 as a critical control over sensory area development. PMID:27100196

  20. Environmental tobacco smoke: Sensory reactions of occupants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, William S.; Tosun, Tarik; See, Lai-Chu; Leaderer, Brian

    Occupants sat in a thermally-neutral environmental chamber for 2 h at a time and rated the following sensory attributes: magnitude of eye irritation and its acceptability, throat irritation and its acceptability, nose irritation and its acceptability, odor and its acceptability, and overall acceptability. Without the knowledge of the judges, cigarette smoking began at one or another time during occupancy. Smoking rate was tailored to achieve environmentally realistic levels of carbon monoxide, 2 ppm or 5 ppm above ambient background. Although the 2-ppm condition caused significant irritation above baseline, dissatisfaction among the occupants averaged only about 10%. The 5-ppm condition caused steadily increasing irritation and dissatisfaction in excess of 20% over time. Electrostatic precipitation of the paniculate matter diminished the magnitude of irritation and odor consistently, though not dramatically. It had a less consistent effect on dissatisfaction. Blockage of the nose via a noseclip in order to eliminate odor cues had no effect on eye irritation and implied that previous assessments of eye irritation in the presence of the possible biasing cue of odor can be trusted. The degree of dissatisfaction aroused from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) correlates very strongly with perceived intensity of irritation or odor, with overall dissatisfaction deriving almost exclusively from whichever channel (eyes, throat, etc.) is most severely affected.

  1. Relationship between physical properties and sensory attributes of carbonated beverages.

    PubMed

    Kappes, S M; Schmidt, S J; Lee, S-Y

    2007-01-01

    Bulk sweeteners provide functional properties in beverages, including sweet taste, bulking, bitter masking, structure, and mouthfeel. Diet beverages come closer to the taste of regular beverages using a blend of high-intensity sweeteners; however, some properties, including bulking, structure, and mouthfeel, remain significantly different. Relating physical properties to sensory characteristics is an important step in understanding why mouthfeel differences are apparent in beverages sweetened with alternative sweeteners compared to bulk sweeteners. The objectives of this research were to (1) measure sweetener profile, Brix, refractive index, viscosity, a(w), carbonation, titratable acidity, and pH of commercial carbonated beverages; and (2) correlate the physical property measurements to descriptive analysis of the beverages. Correlation analysis, partial least squares, canonical correlation analysis, and cluster analysis were used to analyze the data. Brix, viscosity, and sweet taste were highly correlated among one another and were all negatively correlated to a(w). Carbonated and decarbonated pH were highly correlated to each other and were both negatively correlated to mouthcoating. Numbing, burn, bite, and carbonation were highly correlated to total acidity, citric acid, and ascorbic acid and negatively correlated to phosphoric acid. The mouthfeel difference between diet and regular lemon/lime carbonated beverages is small and may be related to overall differences between flavor, acid, and sweetener types and usage levels. This research is significant because it demonstrates the use of both sensory attributes and physical properties to identify types of ingredients and levels that may decrease the mouthfeel perception differences between regular and diet carbonated beverages, which could consequently lead to higher acceptance of diet beverages by the consumers of regular. PMID:17995891

  2. Effects of 35% corn wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets on animal performance, carcass characteristics, beef fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Buttrey, E K; Jenkins, K H; Lewis, J B; Smith, S B; Miller, R K; Lawrence, T E; McCollum, F T; Pinedo, P J; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2013-04-01

    Fifty-four individually-fed Hereford-Angus cross steers (initial BW = 308 ± 9 kg) were used in an unbalanced randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement to determine effects of corn processing method and corn wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) inclusion in finishing diets on animal performance, carcass and beef characteristics, and sensory attributes. Dietary treatments included steam-flaked corn- (SFC) and dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based finishing diets containing 0 or 35% WDGS (DM basis; 0SFC and 35SFC, 0DRC and 35DRC, respectively). Yellow grease was used to equilibrate fat content of diets. Steers were fed 174 d, and were harvested on a single date when the mean ultrasound fat thickness was estimated to be 1.30 cm. No interactions between corn processing and WDGS were observed for performance or carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.11). Final BW (556 ± 14 kg) and ADG (1.43 ± 0.06 kg) were not affected (P ≥ 0.25) by dietary treatment. Steers fed SFC-based diets consumed less feed, and were 10.6% more efficient (P < 0.01) than those fed DRC-based diets. Including WDGS in finishing diets improved feed efficiency of steers consuming both SFC- and DRC-based diets (P ≤ 0.04). Dietary treatment did not affect HCW, dressing percentage, fat thickness, or yield grade (P ≥ 0.27). Including WDGS in finishing diets decreased the concentration of 16:1cis-9, 18:1cis-9, and 18:1cis-11 fatty acids, and tended (P ≤ 0.10) to increase total fat concentration of steaks compared with diets without WDGS. A corn processing method by WDGS interaction was detected for 18:1trans-11 where steaks from 0DRC diets had decreased concentrations compared with other diets. There were no dietary effects on palatability attributes (P > 0.20). Livery-organy aromatics (P = 0.03) and sweet basic tastes (P = 0.01) in steaks from the 35SFC treatment were more intense than in other treatments, but were barely detectable. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances tended

  3. Volatile and sensory profiling of cocktail bitters.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arielle J; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E

    2015-07-15

    Aromatic cocktail bitters are derived from the alcoholic extraction of a variety of plant materials and are used as additives in mixed drinks to enhance aroma and flavor. In this study sixteen commercial bitters were analyzed using volatile (GC-MS) and sensory profiling and multivariate statistics including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS). The samples differed significantly in their citrus, celery, and spice characteristics. 148 volatile compounds were tentatively identified and the composition varied significantly with the type of bitters sample evaluated. PLS analysis showed that the volatile data correlated well overall to the sensory data, explaining 60% of the overall variability in the dataset. Primary aldehydes and phenylpropanoids were most closely related to green and spice-related sensory descriptors. However, the sensory impact of terpenoid compounds was difficult to predict in many cases. This may be due to the wide range of aroma qualities associated with terpenes as well as to concentration, synergistic or masking effects. PMID:25722175

  4. Measurement in Sensory Modulation: The Sensory Processing Scale Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lucy J.; Sullivan, Jillian C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Sensory modulation issues have a significant impact on participation in daily life. Moreover, understanding phenotypic variation in sensory modulation dysfunction is crucial for research related to defining homogeneous groups and for clinical work in guiding treatment planning. We thus evaluated the new Sensory Processing Scale (SPS) Assessment. METHOD. Research included item development, behavioral scoring system development, test administration, and item analyses to evaluate reliability and validity across sensory domains. RESULTS. Items with adequate reliability (internal reliability >.4) and discriminant validity (p < .01) were retained. Feedback from the expert panel also contributed to decisions about retaining items in the scale. CONCLUSION. The SPS Assessment appears to be a reliable and valid measure of sensory modulation (scale reliability >.90; discrimination between group effect sizes >1.00). This scale has the potential to aid in differential diagnosis of sensory modulation issues. PMID:25184464

  5. Acceptance of Nordic snack bars in children aged 8–11 years

    PubMed Central

    Holmer, Anna; Hausner, Helene; Reinbach, Helene C.; Bredie, Wender L. P.; Wendin, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Background A health promoting diet is suggested to be tailored to regional circumstances to preserve the cultural diversity in eating habits, as well as contribute to more environmentally friendly eating. It may influence consumer acceptance, however, if the components of the diet differs considerably from their habitual food. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether snack bars composed of Nordic ingredients were accepted by 8–11 year-old Danish (n=134) and Swedish (n=109) children. Design A seven-point hedonic scale was used to measure the children's acceptance of five snack bars that varied in their composition of whole grains, berries and nuts. A preference rank ordering of the five bars was also performed. Results The results showed that samples that were rated highest in liking and were most preferred in both countries were a kamut/pumpkin bar and an oat/cranberry bar. The sample with the lowest rating that was also least preferred was a pumpernickel/sea buckthorn bar. Flavour was the most important determinant of overall liking followed by texture, odour and appearance. Conclusions Children's acceptances and preferences were highly influenced by the sensory characteristics of the bars, mainly flavour. In agreement with earlier studies, the novel food ingredients seemed to influence children's preferences. The Nordic snack bars may have a potential to be a snack option for Danish and Swedish school children, but repeated exposures to the products are recommended to increase children's acceptance. PMID:22545034

  6. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  7. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  8. Rheological characterization and sensory evaluation of a typical soft ice cream made with selected food hydrocolloids.

    PubMed

    BahramParvar, M; Razavi, S M A; Khodaparast, M H H

    2010-02-01

    The effect of two novel hydrocolloids known as Balangu seed gum (BSG) and palmate-tuber salep (PTS) with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the rheological characteristics of a typical soft ice cream was studied. The power law model well described the flow behavior of mixes with a high correlation coefficient (r). The flow behavior index was in the range of 0.450-1.154, while the consistency coefficient varied from 0.051 to 6.822 Pa s(n). All mixes showed a pseudoplastic behavior except the mix containing 0.3% PTS, which was found to have a slightly dilatant characteristic. An increase in the concentration was accompanied by an increase in the pseudoplasticity and consistency coefficient. The effect of selected gums on some sensory properties of a soft ice cream such as viscosity, coldness, firmness, degree of smoothness (coarseness), liquefying rate, body and texture and total acceptance has also been investigated in this work. The correlation between the apparent viscosity and sensory attributes has been determined because of the importance of viscosity in the quality evaluation of an ice cream. Taking into account the commercial ice cream properties, a 0.4% BSG gum concentration may be recommended. PMID:21339124

  9. Sensory aspects in myasthenia gravis: A translational approach.

    PubMed

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Leon-Ariza, Juan S; Prada, Diddier; Leon-Ariza, Daniel S; Rizzo-Sierra, Carlos V

    2016-09-15

    Myasthenia gravis is a paradigmatic muscle disorder characterized by abnormal fatigue and muscle weakness that worsens with activities and improves with rest. Clinical and research studies done on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have advanced our knowledge of the muscle involvement in myasthenia. Current views still state that sensory deficits are not "features of myasthenia gravis". This article discusses the gap that exists on sensory neural transmission in myasthenia that has remained after >300years of research in this neurological disorder. We outline the neurobiological characteristics of sensory and motor synapses, reinterpret the nanocholinergic commonalities that exist in both sensory and motor pathways, discuss the clinical findings on altered sensory pathways in myasthenia, and propose a novel way to score anomalies resulting from multineuronal inability associated sensory troubles due to eugenic nanocholinergic instability and autoimmunity. This medicine-based evidence could serve as a template to further identify novel targets for studying new medications that may offer a better therapeutic benefit in both sensory and motor dysfunction for patients. Importantly, this review may help to re-orient current practices in myasthenia. PMID:27538668

  10. Effects of Drying Condition and Binding Agent on the Quality Characteristics of Ground Dried-Pork Meat Products.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Ku, Su-Kyung; Park, Jong-Dae; Kim, Hee-Ju; Jang, Aera; Kim, Young-Boong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of processing conditions (temperature and time) and binding agent types (glutinous rice flour, potato starch, bean flour, and acorn flour) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ground dried-pork meat product. For this purpose, ground dried-pork meat product was produced by adding several binding agents at different drying temperatures and times. The drying time affected moisture content and water activity in all drying temperature. However, under the similar drying conditions, the extent of drying varied depending on the type of binding agents. The results of sensory evaluation for texture degree and overall acceptability indicated the following: overall, higher drying temperatures and longer drying time heightened the degree of texture, and the overall acceptability varied depending on binding agent type. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics were analyzed to determine any possible correlation. The results revealed a high correlation between moisture content, water activity, shear forces, and sensory evaluation (p<0.01). However, there was no correlation with respect to overall acceptability. PMID:26761886

  11. Effects of Drying Condition and Binding Agent on the Quality Characteristics of Ground Dried-Pork Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Ju; Jang, Aera

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of processing conditions (temperature and time) and binding agent types (glutinous rice flour, potato starch, bean flour, and acorn flour) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ground dried-pork meat product. For this purpose, ground dried-pork meat product was produced by adding several binding agents at different drying temperatures and times. The drying time affected moisture content and water activity in all drying temperature. However, under the similar drying conditions, the extent of drying varied depending on the type of binding agents. The results of sensory evaluation for texture degree and overall acceptability indicated the following: overall, higher drying temperatures and longer drying time heightened the degree of texture, and the overall acceptability varied depending on binding agent type. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics were analyzed to determine any possible correlation. The results revealed a high correlation between moisture content, water activity, shear forces, and sensory evaluation (p<0.01). However, there was no correlation with respect to overall acceptability. PMID:26761886

  12. Sensory quality of soymilk and tofu from soybeans lacking lipoxygenases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Aijun; Smyth, Heather; Chaliha, Mridusmita; James, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    The oxidation of unsaturated lipids by lipoxygenases in soybeans causes undesirable flavors in soy foods. Using a traditional and a nontraditional soy food user group, we examined the cultural difference in perceiving the sensory characteristics of soymilk and tofu produced from soybeans with or without lipoxygenases (Lx123). The two groups described the samples using similar terms. The traditional users preferred the control soy milk and lipoxygenase-free tofu while the nontraditional users preferred the lipoxygenase-free soymilk with no preference for tofu. In a separate study, a trained descriptive taste panel compared the odor of soymilk and tofu from control soybeans or those lacking lipoxygenase-1 and lipoxygenase-2 (Lx12) or all three isomers (Lx123). The rancid/grassy odor was rated the lowest in Lx123 products, followed by Lx12 products with the control products given the highest rating. The Lx12 and Lx123 products were also sweeter and less bitter than the controls. Taken together, our results demonstrated that soybeans lacking lipoxygenases can produce soy foods with less undesirable aromas and are therefore likely more acceptable to the consumers. PMID:27004110

  13. Effect of maize based composite flour noodles on functional, sensory, nutritional and storage quality.

    PubMed

    Shobha, D; Vijayalakshmi, D; Puttaramnaik; Asha, K J

    2015-12-01

    To explore the feasibility of utilization of maize flour in noodle preparation, eight different combinations (T1 to T8) with varied amount of maize flour (MF), refined wheat flour (RWF), rice flour (RF), wheat gluten (WG), soya protein isolate (SPI), kansui (Sodium Carbonates), potato starch (PS) were extruded to standardize good quality noodles. Among various combinations tested, the combination T5 (50 %MF + 30 %RWF + 10 %SPI + 7 %RF + 3 %WG) was rated the best for appearance (8.3) colour (8.25) taste (8.5) elasticity (8.3) with an overall acceptability of 8.2 on a nine point hedonic rating sensory scale. There was no significant difference in normal noodle (NN) and Quality protein maize (QPM) noodle (QN) for T5 with respect to sensory characteristics when compared to control noodle (CN) prepared out of refined wheat flour. The cooked yield was more for maize based noodle (234 g NN and 220 g QN) with lower cooking loss of 7.80 and 7.76 respectively for NN & QN. The nutritional composition of maize noodles revealed that addition of 10 % soya protein isolate had increased the protein content of noodles to the tune of 16.6 and 12.7 % in QN and NN respectively. The soluble (3.18NN, 3.76QN) and insoluble fiber (21.67NN, 21.87QN) contents of both NN & QN was significantly more compared to CN (0.15 and 9.3 g).There was non- significant increase in moisture and peroxide values up to 3 months of storage with high overall acceptable sensory scores (4.0, 4.1, & 4.2 respectively for NN, QN and CN but beyond third month of storage the increase was significant. However the noodles were within the acceptable range up to 6 months of storage with an overall acceptability score of 3.0, 3.4 and 3.2 for NN, QN and CN respectively on a five point hedonic scale. PMID:26604375

  14. Sensory optimization of a mayonnaise-type spread made with rice bran oil and soy protein.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Karen; Sriwattana, Sujinda; No, Hong Kyoon; Corredor, Jose Andres Herrera; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2009-08-01

    The optimum formulation for mayonnaise-type spreads containing rice bran oil (RBO) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) was determined based on sensory acceptability. RBO and SPC were used due to their health benefit claims such as lowering risk of heart disease. The effects of the proportions of high-impact ingredients (RBO, SPC, and water) on sensory acceptability of the spreads were determined. The 10 spread formulations, prepared following a 3-component constrained simplex lattice mixture design, were subjected to a consumer acceptance test to identify sensory attributes driving consumer acceptance and purchase intent. Predictive regression models were used to plot mixture response surfaces of the critical sensory attributes (taste, mouthfeel, and overall liking) that influenced purchase intent. Areas within the contour plots of these critical sensory attributes, having acceptability scores > or = 68 ("moderately like" on the 100-mm bidirectional labeled affective magnitude scale) were chosen and superimposed to obtain a predicted optimum formulation range (37% to 43% RBO, 4% to 7% SPC, and 52% to 57% water). The formulation containing 37% RBO, 6% SPC, and 57% water, which was located within the optimum region, was selected as a base for further developing flavored (sour cream & onion, cheddar & sour cream, or Monterrey Jack dried cheese) products. All flavored spreads were significantly more acceptable than the plain formulation. Purchase intent of all flavored products also significantly increased once consumers had been given the information about potential health benefits associated with RBO and SPC in the spreads. PMID:19723230

  15. Sensory Subtypes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Latent Profile Transition Analysis using a National Survey of Sensory Features

    PubMed Central

    Ausderau, Karla K.; Furlong, Melissa; Sideris, John; Bulluck, John; Little, Lauren M.; Watson, Linda R.; Boyd, Brian A.; Belger, Aysenil; Dickie, Virginia A.; Baranek, Grace T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensory features are highly prevalent and heterogeneous among children with ASD. There is a need to identify homogenous groups of children with ASD based on sensory features (i.e., sensory subtypes) to inform research and treatment. Methods Sensory subtypes and their stability over one year were identified through latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) among a national sample of children with ASD. Data were collected from caregivers of children with ASD ages 2-12 years at two time points (Time 1 N=1294; Time 2 N=884). Results Four sensory subtypes (Mild; Sensitive-Distressed; Attenuated-Preoccupied; Extreme-Mixed) were identified, which were supported by fit indices from the LPTA as well as current theoretical models that inform clinical practice. The Mild and Extreme-Mixed subtypes reflected quantitatively different sensory profiles, while the Sensitive-Distressed and Attenuated-Preoccupied subtypes reflected qualitatively different profiles. Further, subtypes reflected differential child (i.e., gender, developmental age, chronological age, autism severity) and family (i.e., income, mother's education) characteristics. Ninety-one percent of participants remained stable in their subtypes over one year. Conclusions Characterizing the nature of homogenous sensory subtypes may facilitate assessment and intervention, as well as potentially inform biological mechanisms. PMID:25039572

  16. Sensory adaptation for timing perception

    PubMed Central

    Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-01-01

    Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception. PMID:25788590

  17. Processing of a novel powdered herbal coffee (Pistacia Terebinthus L. Fruits Coffee) and its sensorial properties.

    PubMed

    Secilmis, S S; Yanık, D Kocak; Gogus, F

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the effects of roasting method, grinding and reduction in oil content on the characteristics of Pistacia terebinthus fruit coffee were investigated. Pistacia terebinthus fruit was roasted by microwave, pan and combined (microwave and convection) methods. The degree of roasting was determined by L*, a*, b* color values. The roasting times were 1,500, 1,900 and 1,620 s for microwave, pan and combined roasting methods, respectively. Cold press was used to reduce the oil content both prior to roasting and after the roasting. The oil content was reduced to around 21.5 % in all roasting methods to approach to that of coffee beans. Powdered Pistacia terebinthus fruit coffee brews were compared with each other and Turkish coffee in terms of aroma, flavor, acidity aftertaste, and overall acceptability. Sensorial analysis results showed that coffee brews prepared by pressing after the roasting process were better than those pressing prior to roasting. PMID:26139935

  18. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  19. Temperament and sensory features of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Brock, M E; Freuler, A; Baranek, G T; Watson, L R; Poe, M D; Sabatino, A

    2012-11-01

    This study sought to characterize temperament traits in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ages 3-7 years old, and to determine the potential association between temperament and sensory features in ASD. Individual differences in sensory processing may form the basis for aspects of temperament and personality, and aberrations in sensory processing may inform why some temperamental traits are characteristic of specific clinical populations. Nine dimensions of temperament from the Behavioral Style Questionnaire (McDevitt and Carey in Manual for the behavioral style questionnaire, Behavioral-Developmental Initiatives, Scottsdale, AZ, 1996) were compared among groups of children with ASD (n = 54), developmentally delayed (DD; n = 33), and the original normative sample of typically developing children (McDevitt and Carey in J Child Psychol Psychiatr 19(3):245-253, 1978; n = 350) using an ANOVA to determine the extent to which groups differed in their temperament profiles. The hypothesized overlap between three sensory constructs (hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsiveness, and seeking) and the nine dimensions of temperament was analyzed in children with ASD using regression analyses. The ASD group displayed temperament scores distinct from norms for typically developing children on most dimensions of temperament (activity, rhythmicity, adaptability, approach, distractibility, intensity, persistence, and threshold) but differed from the DD group on only two dimensions (approach and distractibility). Analyses of associations between sensory constructs and temperament dimensions found that sensory hyporesponsiveness was associated with slowness to adapt, low reactivity, and low distractibility; a combination of increased sensory features (across all three patterns) was associated with increased withdrawal and more negative mood. Although most dimensions of temperament distinguished children with ASD as a group, not all dimensions appear equally

  20. [Sensory characterization of lupin pudding using surface response methodology].

    PubMed

    Villarroel, M; Biolley, E; Miranda, H; Wittig, E; Catalán, M

    1996-09-01

    Full fat sweet lupin flour (Lupinus albus c.v. Multolupa) with 39.6% protein and 13.0% lipid content, and carrageenan were used to incorporate them to commercial pudding formula with the specific purpose to prepare an optimized pudding for diabetic people. Using response surface methodology, several experimental pudding trails were prepared and sensorially assessed to optimize the variables that may influence the overall sensory quality of pudding meals. Different concentrations of lupin flour and carrageenan were tested simultaneously at three levels each parameter, requiring nine combinations to be analyzed for a panel of eleven trained judges. Appearance, aroma, taste, color, texture were tested to determine total sensory quality using a composite scoring test. It was concluded that appropriate concentration of lupin flour range from 7% to 11%, and carrageenan from 0.4% to 0.5% to be added to the pudding formulation. This result was confirmed by hedonic test of acceptability. PMID:9429627

  1. Behavioral guides for sensory neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Konishi, M

    2006-06-01

    The study of natural behavior is important for understanding the coding schemes of sensory systems. The jamming avoidance response of the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia is an excellent example of a bottom-up approach, in which behavioral analyses guided neurophysiological studies. These studies started from the electroreceptive sense organs to the motor output consisting of pacemaker neurons. Going in the opposite direction, from the central nervous system to lower centers, is the characteristic of the top-down approach. Although this approach is perhaps more difficult than the bottom-up approach, it was successfully employed in the neuroethological analysis of sound localization in the barn owl. In the latter studies, high-order neurons selective for complex natural stimuli led to the discovery of neural pathways and networks responsible for the genesis of the stimulus selectivity. Comparison of Eigenmannia and barn owls, and their neural systems, has revealed similarities in network designs, such as parallel pathways and their convergence to produce stimulus selectivity necessary for detection of natural stimuli. PMID:16432726

  2. Influence of sensory and cultural perceptions of white rice, brown rice and beans by Costa Rican adults in their dietary choices.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Mattei, Josiemer; Fuster, Tamara; Willett, Walter; Campos, Hannia

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the distinct perceptions towards rice and beans that may shape the consumption of these main staple foods among Costa Ricans. We aimed to identify barriers and motivators that could change the current staple into a healthier one, and assess the sensory perceptions of these foods in this population. Focus group discussions and sensory tastings of 8 traditional white or brown rice and beans preparations were conducted in 98 Costa Ricans, aged 40-65 years. Traditional habits and family support emerged as the two main drivers for current consumption. Consuming similar amounts of rice and beans, as well as unfamiliarity with brown rice, are habits engrained in the Costa Rican culture, and are reinforced in the family and community environment. Suggested strategies for consuming more brown rice and more beans included introducing them during childhood, disseminating information of their health benefits that take into account the importance of tradition, lowering the cost, increasing availability, engaging women as agents of change and for brown rice masking the perceived unpleasant sensory characteristics by incorporating them into mixed dishes. Plain brown rice received the lowest mean hedonic liking scores. The preparations rated highest for pleasant were the beans: rice 1:1 ratio regardless of the type of rice. This study identified novel strategies to motivate Costa Rican adults to adapt their food choices into healthier ones within their cultural and sensory acceptability. PMID:24973509

  3. Living productively with sensory loss.

    PubMed

    Kinderknecht, C H; Garner, J D

    1993-01-01

    As the avenues for fully perceiving and experiencing life, our sensory organs are the bridge between Self and the outside world. Of the many disorders affecting the senses of the older woman, those that affect vision and hearing have the greatest potential for disrupting her activities of daily living, and diminishing her quality of life and level of independence. While adapting to and coping successfully with sensory loss may require significant effort and adjustment on the part of the afflicted older woman, strategies designed to maximize the older woman's function, her sense of personal control, and her social support system can mediate the negative effects of the sensory loss. PMID:23077999

  4. Determinants of Taste Preference and Acceptability: Quality vs. Hedonics

    PubMed Central

    Loney, Gregory C.; Blonde, Ginger D.; Eckel, Lisa A.; Spector, Alan C.

    2012-01-01

    Several methods exist for reliably determining the motivational valence of a taste stimulus in animals, but few to determine its perceptual quality independent of its apparent affective properties. Individual differences in taste preference and acceptability could result from variance in the perceptual qualities of the stimulus leading to different hedonic evaluations. Alternatively, taste perception might be identical across subjects whereas processing of the sensory signals in reward circuits could differ. Utilizing an operant-based taste cue discrimination/generalization task involving a gustometer, we trained male Long-Evans rats to report the degree to which a test stimulus resembled the taste quality of either sucrose or quinine irrespective of its intensity. The rats, grouped by a characteristic bimodal phenotypic difference in their preference for sucralose, treated this artificial sweetener as qualitatively different with the sucralose-preferring rats finding the stimulus much more perceptually similar to sucrose, relative to sucralose-avoiding rats. Although the possibility that stimulus palatability may have served as a discriminative cue cannot entirely be ruled out, the profile of results suggested otherwise. Subsequent brief-access licking tests revealed that affective licking responses of the same sucralose-avoiding and -preferring rats differed across concentration in a manner roughly similar to that found in the stimulus generalization task. Thus, the perceived taste quality of sucralose alone may be sufficient to drive the observed behavioral avoidance of the compound. By virtue of its potential ability to dissociate the sensory and motivational consequences of a given experimental manipulation on taste-related behavior, this approach could be interpretively valuable. PMID:22815522

  5. Determinants of taste preference and acceptability: quality versus hedonics.

    PubMed

    Loney, Gregory C; Blonde, Ginger D; Eckel, Lisa A; Spector, Alan C

    2012-07-18

    Several methods exist for reliably determining the motivational valence of a taste stimulus in animals, but few to determine its perceptual quality independent of its apparent affective properties. Individual differences in taste preference and acceptability could result from variance in the perceptual qualities of the stimulus leading to different hedonic evaluations. Alternatively, taste perception might be identical across subjects, but the processing of the sensory signals in reward circuits could differ. Using an operant-based taste cue discrimination/generalization task involving a gustometer, we trained male Long-Evans rats to report the degree to which a test stimulus resembled the taste quality of either sucrose or quinine regardless of its intensity. The rats, grouped by a characteristic bimodal phenotypic difference in their preference for sucralose, treated this artificial sweetener as qualitatively different-compared to sucralose-avoiding rats, the sucralose-preferring rats found the stimulus much more perceptually similar to sucrose. Although the possibility that stimulus palatability may have served as a discriminative cue cannot entirely be ruled out, the profile of results suggests otherwise. Subsequent brief-access licking tests revealed that affective licking responses of the same sucralose-avoiding and -preferring rats differed across concentration in a manner approximately similar to that found in the stimulus generalization task. Thus, the perceived taste quality of sucralose alone may be sufficient to drive the observed behavioral avoidance of the compound. By virtue of its potential ability to dissociate the sensory and motivational consequences of a given experimental manipulation on taste-related behavior, this approach could be interpretively valuable. PMID:22815522

  6. Effect of Duck Feet Gelatin on Physicochemical, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Low-fat Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Duck feet gelatin (DFG) gel was added as a fat replacer to low-fat frankfurters and the effect of DFG on physicochemical, textural, and sensory characteristics of low-fat frankfurters was evaluated. DFG gel was prepared with a 20% duck feet gelatin concentration (w/w). Adding DFG decreased lightness and increased yellowness of the low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). However, DFG did not affect redness of low-fat frankfurters (p>0.05). The statistical results indicated that adding DFG improved cooking yield of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In addition, replacing pork back fat with DFG resulted in increased moisture content, protein content, and ash content of low-fat frankfurters, and the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel had the highest moisture content and lowest fat content (p<0.05). Adding of DFG increased all textural parameters including hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and gumminess of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In terms of sensory properties, the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel showed similar satisfaction scores for the flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptance when compared to the regular frankfurters (20% back fat). Therefore, our results suggest that DFG could be an effective novel source, as a fat replacer, for manufacturing of low-fat frankfurters. PMID:26761279

  7. Effects of emulsion gels containing bioactive compounds on sensorial, technological, and structural properties of frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Pintado, T; Herrero, A M; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Triki, M; Carmona, P; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2016-03-01

    Emulsion gels prepared with olive oil, chia, and cold gelling agents (transglutaminase, alginate, or gelatin) were used as fat replacers in reduced-fat frankfurter formulation. Nutritional advantages, sensory analysis, technological properties, and microbiological populations of frankfurters were evaluated along with their lipid structural characteristics over chilled storage. Frankfurters with emulsion gels showed significant improvements in fat content (lower saturated fatty acid, higher mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents) and had good fat and water-binding properties. The presence of an emulsion gel reduced lightness and redness, but increased yellowness. Textural behavior of samples was significantly affected by the presence of emulsion gels and by storage. Sensory properties were not affected by the incorporation of emulsion gels, and all frankfurters were judged acceptable. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed that samples with emulsion gels involve more lipid-protein interactions. Frankfurters with emulsion gels showed good stability to oxidation during storage and contained lower levels of microorganism than reduced-fat control at 85 days. PMID:25788169

  8. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; McCurdy, David A.

    1992-04-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  9. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  10. The effect of chilled conditioning at 4°C on selected water and lipid-soluble flavor precursors in Bison bison longissimus dorsi muscle and their impact on sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Jennifer; Ryland, Donna; Suh, Miyoung; Aliani, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Water and lipid-soluble flavor precursors were monitored using chromatography methods in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of six grain-fed Bison bison, stored at 4°C for 2, 4, 8, 15 and 21 days in order to investigate their potential impact on sensory attributes of cooked bison meat. While pH and lipid-soluble compounds remained mostly unchanged, several changes in water-soluble compounds were observed. The breakdown of inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) led to increases in inosine, hypoxanthine and ribose (7-fold). Non-polar amino acids including valine, leucine and phenylalanine showed the most significant increases over 21 days. Trained panelists (n=8) found a significant increase at day 15 in vinegary/sour aroma, tenderness and juiciness, while chewiness and connective tissue significantly decreased. Although, most flavor attributes were undetectable, partial least squares (PLS) analysis revealed most water-soluble precursors were positively correlated with extended conditioning as well as beef and oily/fatty flavors. Quantitative changes observed in flavor precursors may be responsible for some sensory attributes developed during the heating process. PMID:23896147

  11. Selective conversion of fibroblasts into peripheral sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Joel W; Eade, Kevin T; Szűcs, Attila; Sardo, Valentina Lo; Tsunemoto, Rachel K; Williams, Daniel; Sanna, Pietro Paolo; Baldwin, Kristin K

    2015-01-01

    Humans and mice detect pain, itch, temperature, pressure, stretch and limb position via signaling from peripheral sensory neurons. These neurons are divided into three functional classes (nociceptors/pruritoceptors, mechanoreceptors and proprioceptors) that are distinguished by their selective expression of TrkA, TrkB or TrkC receptors, respectively. We found that transiently coexpressing Brn3a with either Ngn1 or Ngn2 selectively reprogrammed human and mouse fibroblasts to acquire key properties of these three classes of sensory neurons. These induced sensory neurons (iSNs) were electrically active, exhibited distinct sensory neuron morphologies and matched the characteristic gene expression patterns of endogenous sensory neurons, including selective expression of Trk receptors. In addition, we found that calcium-imaging assays could identify subsets of iSNs that selectively responded to diverse ligands known to activate itch- and pain-sensing neurons. These results offer a simple and rapid means for producing genetically diverse human sensory neurons suitable for drug screening and mechanistic studies. PMID:25420069

  12. Deboning time effect on sensory descriptive flavor profiles of cooked broiler pectoralis major

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profiling sensory texture characteristics of cooked chicken pectoralis major (breast fillets) deboned at different postmortem (PM) times has been research interests for decades. However, there is lack of peer-reviewed studies to compare sensory descriptive flavor profiles of hot-deboned versus 2-h c...

  13. Relationship between sensory descriptive juiciness measurements and functionality parameters of broiler breast fillets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relationships between Sensory Descriptive Juiciness Measurements and Functionality Parameters of Broiler Breast Fillets H. Zhuang and E. M. Savage Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit, ARS-USDA, Russell Research Center, P. O. Box 5677, Athens, GA 30604-5677 Sensory moisture characteristics...

  14. Sensory Processing Relates to Attachment to Childhood Comfort Objects of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalpidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The author tested the hypothesis that attachment to comfort objects is based on the sensory processing characteristics of the individual. Fifty-two undergraduate students with and without a childhood comfort object reported sensory responses and performed a tactile threshold task. Those with a comfort object described their object and rated their…

  15. Examining extrinsic factors that influence product acceptance: a review.

    PubMed

    Li, X E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2015-05-01

    Drivers of liking (DOL) studies are useful for product development to formulate acceptable products; however, DOL alone are insufficient for understanding why a product is purchased and repurchased, which is ultimately the indication of a successful product. Ultimately sensory attributes drive product success (that is, repeat and continued purchase). However, ignoring the importance of extrinsic factors may neglect the vital product attributes responsible for the initial purchase, which may in turn, affect repeat purchase. The perception of sensory attributes assessed by DOL is mitigated by external perceptions of quality. If the sensory attributes do not deliver based upon the quality cues, the product will not be acceptable. Four key extrinsic factors that affect DOL are the perceived satiety, brand and labeling, price, and the emotional impact to decision making. In order to more thoroughly understand what the DOL for a product is, these 4 product cues should be considered in conjunction with sensory attribute perception to gain a holistic understanding of product acceptance. PMID:25959688

  16. Meeting the Sensory Needs of Young Children in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Malia; Brittain, Lea Ann; McCathren, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the characteristics of modulation disorders that have been reported with sensory integration dysfunction and provide strategies for supporting positive development and engagement. Although not well understood, scientists are beginning to link structural and chemical imbalances of the brain with responses…

  17. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. COCHRANE; J.V. PARKER; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  18. Sensory properties and drivers of liking for Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Desai, N T; Shepard, L; Drake, M A

    2013-01-01

    Greek yogurt is currently the largest growing sector in the dairy industry. Because no standard of identity exists for Greek yogurts in the United States, and they can be made by a variety of methods, variability in sensory properties is expected. Knowledge of consumer perception and specific drivers of liking will be useful information for product developers. The objective of this study was to document the sensory properties of commercial Greek yogurts and to determine drivers of liking through descriptive profiling and consumer testing. Flavor and texture attributes of commercial Greek yogurts (n = 24) were evaluated in triplicate by a trained descriptive sensory panel. An online survey (n = 520) was used to collect consumer usage and attitude information for Greek yogurts before consumer acceptance testing. Consumer acceptance testing (n = 155) was then conducted on commercial Greek yogurts (n = 10). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used for data analysis. Sensory properties of yogurt differed with fat content and manufacture (Greek vs. fortified Greek). Full-fat yogurts were characterized by firmness and denseness, whereas low- and non-fat yogurts lacked firmness, denseness, cohesiveness, and, after stirring, viscosity. Fortified Greek yogurts generally had more surface shine and jiggle and lower denseness compared with traditional Greek yogurts. Fewer flavor differences were observed among yogurts compared with texture differences. Fortified Greek yogurts displayed a burnt/beefy flavor not documented in traditional Greek yogurts, but this flavor was not evident in all fortified Greek yogurts. Consumer preferred Greek yogurts with firm, dense texture, moderate sweet aromatic, milkfat and dairy sour flavors, and moderate sour taste. Consumers were aware of the increased protein content of Greek yogurts but generally unaware of differences between strained and fortified Greek yogurts; both strained Greek and fortified Greek yogurts received

  19. Sensory Transduction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Austin L.; Ramot, Daniel; Goodman, Miriam B.

    The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has a well-defined and comparatively simple repertoire of sensory-guided behaviors, all of which rely on its ability to detect chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli. In this chapter, we review what is known about the ion channels that mediate sensation in this remarkable model organism. Genetic screens for mutants defective in sensory-guided behaviors have identified genes encoding channel proteins, which are likely transducers of chemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli. Such classical genetic approaches are now being coupled with molecular genetics and in vivo cellular physiology to elucidate how these channels are activated in specific sensory neurons. The ion channel superfamilies implicated in sensory transduction in C. elegans - CNG, TRP, and DEG/ENaC - are conserved across phyla and also appear to contribute to sensory transduction in other organisms, including vertebrates. What we learn about the role of these ion channels in C. elegans sensation is likely to illuminate analogous processes in other animals, including humans.

  20. Sensory neuropeptides and airway function.

    PubMed

    Solway, J; Leff, A R

    1991-12-01

    Sensory nerves synthesize tachykinins and calcitonin-gene related peptide and package these neuropeptides together in synaptic vesicles. Stimulation of these C-fibers by a range of chemical and physical factors results in afferent neuronal conduction that elicits central parasympathetic reflexes and in antidromic conduction that results in local release of neuropeptides through the axon reflex. In the airways, sensory neuropeptides act on bronchial smooth muscle, the mucosal vasculature, and submucosal glands to promote airflow obstruction, hyperemia, microvascular hyperpermeability, and mucus hypersecretion. In addition, tachykinins potentiate cholinergic neurotransmission. Proinflammatory effects of these peptides also promote the recruitment, adherence, and activation of granulocytes that may further exacerbate neurogenic inflammation (i.e., neuropeptide-induced plasma extravasation and vasodilation). Enzymatic degradation limits the physiological effects of tachykinins but may be impaired by respiratory infection or other factors. Given their sensitivity to noxious compounds and physical stimuli and their potent effects on airway function, it is possible that neuropeptide-containing sensory nerves play an important role in mediating airway responses in human disease. Supporting this view are the striking phenomenological similarities between hyperpnea-induced bronchoconstriction (HIB) in guinea pigs and HIB in patients with exercise-induced asthma. Endogenous tachykinins released from airway sensory nerves mediate HIB in guinea pigs and also cause hyperpnea-induced bronchovascular hyperpermeability in these animals. On the basis of these observations, it is reasonable to speculate that sensory neuropeptides participate in the pathogenesis of hyperpnea-induced airflow obstruction in human asthmatic subjects as well. PMID:1663932

  1. Changes in the adult vertebrate auditory sensory epithelium after trauma.

    PubMed

    Oesterle, Elizabeth C

    2013-03-01

    Auditory hair cells transduce sound vibrations into membrane potential changes, ultimately leading to changes in neuronal firing and sound perception. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and repair capabilities of traumatized auditory sensory epithelium in the adult vertebrate ear. Injured mammalian auditory epithelium repairs itself by forming permanent scars but is unable to regenerate replacement hair cells. In contrast, injured non-mammalian vertebrate ear generates replacement hair cells to restore hearing functions. Non-sensory support cells within the auditory epithelium play key roles in the repair processes. PMID:23178236

  2. Reading the World through the Skin and Ears: A New Perspective on Sensory Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Deroy, Ophelia; Auvray, Malika

    2012-01-01

    Sensory substitution devices aim at replacing or assisting one or several functions of a deficient sensory modality by means of another sensory modality. Despite the numerous studies and research programs devoted to their development and integration, sensory substitution devices have failed to live up to their goal of allowing one to “see with the skin” (White et al., 1970) or to “see with the brain” (Bach-y-Rita et al., 2003). These somewhat peremptory claims, as well as the research conducted so far, are based on an implicit perceptual paradigm. Such perceptual assumption accepts the equivalence between using a sensory substitution device and perceiving through a particular sensory modality. Our aim is to provide an alternative model, which defines sensory substitution as being closer to culturally implemented cognitive extensions of existing perceptual skills such as reading. In this article, we will show why the analogy with reading provides a better explanation of the actual findings, that is, both of the positive results achieved and of the limitations noticed across the field of research on sensory substitution. The parallel with the most recent two-route and interactive models of reading (e.g., Dehaene et al., 2005) generates a radically new way of approaching these results, by stressing the dependence of integration on the existing perceptual-semantic route. In addition, the present perspective enables us to generate innovative research questions and specific predictions which set the stage for future work. PMID:23162506

  3. Identifying drivers for consumer acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortilla.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Corredor, J A; Saidu, J E P; Khachatryan, A; Prinyawiwatkul, W; Carballo-Carballo, A; Zepeda-Bautista, R

    2007-11-01

    The traditional production of corn tortilla has been modified by new processing technologies to make possible a commercial-scale production; this practice has resulted in products having sensory properties different from those produced by the traditional method. There is no published information on sensory attributes driving acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortillas. Identifying sensory drivers for acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortillas will help commercially produce products that satisfy consumers' expectations. A consumer study was conducted to evaluate acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortillas and determine drivers of acceptance and purchase intent of the products. Ten samples of corn tortillas were selected to represent a variety of corn tortillas available in the Mexican market. Three hundred Mexican consumers evaluated acceptability of appearance, color, thickness, rollability, resistance to tearing, aroma, chewiness, taste and aftertaste, and overall liking using a 9-point hedonic scale. Overall acceptance and purchase intent were determined with a yes/no scale. Analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance revealed that consumers were able to differentiate differences in sensory acceptability among 10 samples. For example, 2 homemade and 1 small commercial-scale samples, with an overall liking score of 6.6 to 6.7, were more acceptable than others. Rollability, resistance to tearing, and chewiness were attributes underlying overall differences among 10 samples. Attributes determining overall acceptance of corn tortillas were chewiness and overall liking. Purchase intent was influenced by overall appearance, rollability, chewiness, taste, and overall liking. This study revealed critical sensory attributes and their weights given by Mexican consumers when making decisions for acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortilla. PMID:18034760

  4. Sensory axon regeneration: rebuilding functional connections in the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Smith, George M.; Falone, Anthony E.; Frank, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Functional regeneration within the adult spinal cord remains a formidable task. A major barrier to regeneration of sensory axons into the spinal cord is the dorsal root entry zone. This region displays many of the inhibitory features characteristic of other central nervous system injuries. Several experimental treatments, including inactivation of inhibitory molecules (such as Nogo and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans) or administration of neurotrophic factors (such as nerve growth factor, neurotrophin3, glial derived neurotrophic factor and artemin), have been found to promote anatomical and functional regeneration across this barrier. There have been relatively few experiments, however, to determine if regenerating axons project back to their appropriate target areas within the spinal cord. This review focuses on recent advances in sensory axon regeneration, including studies assessing the ability of sensory axons to reconnect with their original synaptic targets. PMID:22137336

  5. Sensory and motor neuropathy in a Border Collie.

    PubMed

    Harkin, Kenneth R; Cash, Walter C; Shelton, G Diane

    2005-10-15

    A 5-month-old female Border Collie was evaluated because of progressive hind limb ataxia. The predominant clinical findings suggested a sensory neuropathy. Sensory nerve conduction velocity was absent in the tibial, common peroneal, and radial nerves and was decreased in the ulnar nerve; motor nerve conduction velocity was decreased in the tibial, common peroneal, and ulnar nerves. Histologic examination of nerve biopsy specimens revealed considerable nerve fiber depletion; some tissue sections had myelin ovoids, foamy macrophages, and axonal degeneration in remaining fibers. Marked depletion of most myelinated fibers within the peroneal nerve (a mixed sensory and motor nerve) supported the electrodiagnostic findings indicative of sensorimotor neuropathy. Progressive deterioration in motor function occurred over the following 19 months until the dog was euthanatized. A hereditary link was not established, but a littermate was similarly affected. The hereditary characteristic of this disease requires further investigation. PMID:16266014

  6. Sensory Neuronopathy and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Alberto R. M.; Nunes, Marcelo B.; Nucci, Anamarli; França, Marcondes C.

    2012-01-01

    Sensory neuronopathies (SNs) are a specific subgroup of peripheral nervous system diseases characterized by primary degeneration of dorsal root ganglia and their projections. Multifocal sensory symptoms often associated to ataxia are the classical features of SN. Several different etiologies have been described for SNs, but immune-mediated damage plays a key role in most cases. SN may herald the onset of some systemic autoimmune diseases, which further emphasizes how important the recognition of SN is in clinical practice. We have thus reviewed available clinical, neurophysiological, and therapeutic data on autoimmune disease-related SN, namely, in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, autoimmune hepatitis, and celiac disease. PMID:22312482

  7. Acceptance, values, and probability.

    PubMed

    Steel, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This essay makes a case for regarding personal probabilities used in Bayesian analyses of confirmation as objects of acceptance and rejection. That in turn entails that personal probabilities are subject to the argument from inductive risk, which aims to show non-epistemic values can legitimately influence scientific decisions about which hypotheses to accept. In a Bayesian context, the argument from inductive risk suggests that value judgments can influence decisions about which probability models to accept for likelihoods and priors. As a consequence, if the argument from inductive risk is sound, then non-epistemic values can affect not only the level of evidence deemed necessary to accept a hypothesis but also degrees of confirmation themselves. PMID:26386533

  8. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Presents the Newbery Medal acceptance speech of Russell Freedman, writer of children's nonfiction. Discusses the place of nonfiction in the world of children's literature, the evolution of children's biographies, and the author's work on "Lincoln." (ARH)

  9. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    Reprints the text of Ms. Cleary's Newbery medal acceptance speech in which she gives personal history concerning her development as a writer and her response to the letters she receives from children. (CRH)

  10. Caldecott Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provensen, Alice; Provensen, Martin

    1984-01-01

    Reprints the text of the Provensens' Caldecott medal acceptance speech in which they describe their early interest in libraries and literature, the collaborative aspect of their work, and their current interest in aviation. (CRH)

  11. Physicochemical and sensory properties of irradiated dry-cured ham

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Kim, Chul-Wook; Chung, Ki-Hwa; Jo, Kwang-Keun; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Hur, In-Chul; Jung, Eun-Young; Joo, Seon-Tea; Yang, Han-Sul

    2012-02-01

    To determine the effect of different irradiation doses on ready-to-eat (RTE) dry-cured shoulder hams, physicochemical and sensory attributes were analyzed during 8 weeks of refrigerated storage. The results show that irradiation reduced the redness value and increased the 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value as well as the irradiation aroma during storage. However, ham samples irradiated with 2.5 and 5.0 kGy did not show significant changes in lightness values compared to the control sample during 8 weeks of storage. TBARS values were lower in the sample irradiated with 2.5 kGy than in the other irradiated samples. The total plate counts of the 5.0 kGy-irradiated samples were not measured after 0 weeks. Sensory panels found that the 2.5- and 5.0 kGy-irradiated samples had better overall acceptability scores than the other irradiated samples. It was concluded that treatments with lower levels of irradiation (≤5.0 kGy) can enhance the microbial safety and sensory acceptance of dry-cured shoulder hams.

  12. Effect of Different Tumbling Marination Treatments on the Quality Characteristics of Prepared Pork Chops

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Tian; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Jiang, Yun; Ma, Ruixue; Song, Lei; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different tumbling marination treatments (control group, CG; conventional static marination, SM; vacuum continuous tumbling marination, CT; vacuum intermittent tumbling marination, IT) on the quality characteristics of prepared pork chops was investigated under simulated commercial conditions. The CT treatment increased (p<0.05) the pH value, b* value, product yield, tenderness, overall flavor, sensory juiciness and overall acceptability in comparison to other treatments for prepared boneless pork chops. The CT treatment decreased (p<0.05) cooking loss, shear force value, hardness, gumminess and chewiness compared with other treatments. In addition, CT treatment effectively improved springiness and sensory color more than other treatments. However, IT treatment achieved the numerically highest (p<0.05) L* and a* values. These results suggested that CT treatment obtained the best quality characteristics of prepared pork chops and should be adopted as the optimal commercial processing method for this prepared boneless pork chops. PMID:25557823

  13. Effect of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the Quality Characteristics of Chicken Patties

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary fiber extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the chemical composition, cooking characteristics, and sensory properties of chicken patties. The chicken patties with Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had significantly higher moisture and ash content, and yellowness than the control sample (p<0.05). Energy value, cooking loss, reduction in diameter, reduction in thickness, lightness, redness, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness of the control samples was significantly higher than chicken patties with Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber (p<0.05). The sensory evaluation indicated that the greatest overall acceptability in chicken patties was achieved at Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber levels of 1% and 2%. Chicken patties supplemented with 2% Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had improved quality characteristics. PMID:26761844

  14. Presynaptic inhibition of spinal sensory feedback ensures smooth movement

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Andrew J. P.; Croce, Katherine R.; Huang, Z. Josh; Abbott, L. F.; Jessell, Thomas M.; Azim, Eiman

    2014-01-01

    The precision of skilled movement depends on sensory feedback and its refinement by local inhibitory microcircuits. One specialized set of spinal GABAergic interneurons forms axo-axonic contacts with the central terminals of sensory afferents, exerting presynaptic inhibitory control over sensory-motor transmission. The inability to achieve selective access to the GABAergic neurons responsible for this unorthodox inhibitory mechanism has left unresolved the contribution of presynaptic inhibition to motor behavior. We used Gad2 as a genetic entry point to manipulate the interneurons that contact sensory terminals, and show that activation of these interneurons in mice elicits the defining physiological characteristics of presynaptic inhibition. Selective genetic ablation of Gad2-expressing interneurons severely perturbs goal-directed reaching movements, uncovering a pronounced and stereotypic forelimb motor oscillation, the core features of which are captured by modeling the consequences of sensory feedback at high gain. Our findings define the neural substrate of a genetically hard-wired gain control system crucial for the smooth execution of movement. PMID:24784215

  15. Sensory evaluation of a novel vegetable in school age children.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Helen; Palfreyman, Zoe; Morizet, David

    2016-05-01

    A behavioural sensory task was undertaken to further understanding into whether children's sensory evaluation of a new vegetable is associated with tasting and food neophobia scores. A sample of ninety-five children, aged 7-11 years, was recruited from a primary school in inner city Birmingham, UK. They were asked to rate the sight, smell and feel of a familiar vegetable (carrot) and an unfamiliar vegetable (celeriac) in a randomised order to control for order effects. They were then asked to try the each vegetable, and rate its taste. It was found that children rated the sensory characteristics of the familiar vegetable more positively than the novel vegetable across all sensory domains (p < 0.05). Refusing to try the novel vegetable was associated with food neophobia scores and olfactory ratings. The ratings of the taste of the novel vegetable were associated with olfactory and tactile ratings. In addition there was a clear developmental shift in the sample with younger children being more likely to rate the novel vegetable as 'looking strange' and older children rating the novel vegetable as 'smelling strange'. This research strengthens the idea that sensory information is important in children deciding to try, and their hedonic evaluation of the taste of a new vegetable. PMID:26809143

  16. Consumer Acceptance of Dry Dog Food Variations

    PubMed Central

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri; Swaney-Stueve, Marianne; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Pet owners evaluated dry dog food samples available in the US market. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Abstract The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Eight dry dog food samples available in the US market were evaluated by pet owners. In this study, consumers evaluated overall liking, aroma, and appearance liking of the products. Consumers were also asked to predict their purchase intent, their dog’s liking, and cost of the samples. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Overall liking clusters were not related to income, age, gender, or education, indicating that general consumer demographics do not appear to play a main role in individual consumer acceptance of dog food products. PMID:26480043

  17. Fatty acid and sensory profiles of Caciocavallo cheese as affected by management system.

    PubMed

    Esposito, G; Masucci, F; Napolitano, F; Braghieri, A; Romano, R; Manzo, N; Di Francia, A

    2014-01-01

    The effect of season of the year associated with changes in feeding and management system (pasture-based vs. confinement) on milk and cheese fatty acid profile and on sensory properties of Caciocavallo cheese was evaluated on 3 mountain dairy farms. Each farm used a pasture-based feeding system from April to June and from September to October (PS), and a confinement system for the rest of the year (CS). As a consequence of grazing, PS milk showed higher percentages of C18:3, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, and trans-11 C18:1, and a reduced percentage of C16:0. The fatty acid profile of cheese largely reflected that of the corresponding raw milk from which cheese was made. This led to a significant decrease of atherogenic index in cheeses produced from cows on pasture. Based on sensory analysis, cheese from animals kept on pasture was more yellow and had a lower intensity of butter and smoked odors than did CS cheese. In addition, grazing induced a lower intensity of bitter and a higher intensity of spicy flavors compared with cheese from CS animals. In regard to texture, pasture feeding resulted in higher intensity of friability and graininess. All cheeses performed well in consumer tests; the panel found all samples more than acceptable for overall liking, and for liking according to appearance, taste/flavor, and texture. Overall liking of Caciocavallo cheese, as assessed by slope analysis, was affected primarily by taste/flavor (raw slope k=0.88) and texture (k=0.97), whereas appearance had a lesser effect (k=0.72). The acidic and sensory profiles of cheese were well discriminated, with healthier cheeses produced by grazing cows. Therefore, wider use of pasture should be promoted to accentuate this favorable feature. Based on the specific nutritional and sensory characteristics of mountain Caciocavallo cheese, particularly that obtained from grazing animals, efforts should be made to indicate the quality of this cheese to the consumer and improve product

  18. Sensor selection and chemo-sensory optimization: toward an adaptable chemo-sensory system.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Alexander; Llobet, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, despite the tremendous research on chemical sensors and machine olfaction to develop micro-sensory systems that will accomplish the growing existent needs in personal health (implantable sensors), environment monitoring (widely distributed sensor networks), and security/threat detection (chemo/bio warfare agents), simple, low-cost molecular sensing platforms capable of long-term autonomous operation remain beyond the current state-of-the-art of chemical sensing. A fundamental issue within this context is that most of the chemical sensors depend on interactions between the targeted species and the surfaces functionalized with receptors that bind the target species selectively, and that these binding events are coupled with transduction processes that begin to change when they are exposed to the messy world of real samples. With the advent of fundamental breakthroughs at the intersection of materials science, micro- and nano-technology, and signal processing, hybrid chemo-sensory systems have incorporated tunable, optimizable operating parameters, through which changes in the response characteristics can be modeled and compensated as the environmental conditions or application needs change. The objective of this article, in this context, is to bring together the key advances at the device, data processing, and system levels that enable chemo-sensory systems to "adapt" in response to their environments. Accordingly, in this review we will feature the research effort made by selected experts on chemical sensing and information theory, whose work has been devoted to develop strategies that provide tunability and adaptability to single sensor devices or sensory array systems. Particularly, we consider sensor-array selection, modulation of internal sensing parameters, and active sensing. The article ends with some conclusions drawn from the results presented and a visionary look toward the future in terms of how the field may evolve. PMID

  19. Sensor Selection and Chemo-Sensory Optimization: Toward an Adaptable Chemo-Sensory System

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Alexander; Llobet, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, despite the tremendous research on chemical sensors and machine olfaction to develop micro-sensory systems that will accomplish the growing existent needs in personal health (implantable sensors), environment monitoring (widely distributed sensor networks), and security/threat detection (chemo/bio warfare agents), simple, low-cost molecular sensing platforms capable of long-term autonomous operation remain beyond the current state-of-the-art of chemical sensing. A fundamental issue within this context is that most of the chemical sensors depend on interactions between the targeted species and the surfaces functionalized with receptors that bind the target species selectively, and that these binding events are coupled with transduction processes that begin to change when they are exposed to the messy world of real samples. With the advent of fundamental breakthroughs at the intersection of materials science, micro- and nano-technology, and signal processing, hybrid chemo-sensory systems have incorporated tunable, optimizable operating parameters, through which changes in the response characteristics can be modeled and compensated as the environmental conditions or application needs change. The objective of this article, in this context, is to bring together the key advances at the device, data processing, and system levels that enable chemo-sensory systems to “adapt” in response to their environments. Accordingly, in this review we will feature the research effort made by selected experts on chemical sensing and information theory, whose work has been devoted to develop strategies that provide tunability and adaptability to single sensor devices or sensory array systems. Particularly, we consider sensor-array selection, modulation of internal sensing parameters, and active sensing. The article ends with some conclusions drawn from the results presented and a visionary look toward the future in terms of how the field may evolve. PMID

  20. Quality assessment and consumer acceptability of bread from wheat and fermented banana flour.

    PubMed

    Adebayo-Oyetoro, Abiodun Omowonuola; Ogundipe, Oladeinde Olatunde; Adeeko, Kehinde Nojeemdeen

    2016-05-01

    Bread was produced from wheat flour and fermented unripe banana using the straight dough method. Matured unripe banana was peeled, sliced, steam blanched, dried and milled, and sieved to obtain flour. The flour was mixed with water and made into slurry and allowed to stand for 24 h after which it was divided into several portions and blended with wheat flour in different ratios. Proximate and mineral compositions as well as functional, pasting, and sensory characteristics of the samples were determined. The results of proximate analysis showed that crude fiber ranged between 1.95% and 3.19%, carbohydrate was between 49.70% and 52.98% and protein was 6.92% and 10.25%, respectively, while iron was between 27.07 mg/100 g and 29.30 mg/100 g. Swelling capacity of the experimental samples showed a significant difference from that of control. Peak viscosity ranged between 97.00RVU and 153.63RVU for experimental samples compared with 392.35RVU obtained for the control. Most of the sensory properties for the experimental samples were significantly different from the control. This study showed that bread with better quality and acceptability can be produced from wheat-unripe banana blends. PMID:27247766

  1. Persistent Pain and Sensory Abnormalities after Abdominoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Finnerup, Kenneth; Andresen, Sven R.; Nikolajsen, Lone; Finnerup, Nanna B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent postsurgical pain is a well-recognized problem after a number of common surgical procedures, such as amputation, thoracotomy, and inguinal hernia repair. Less is known about persistent pain after cosmetic surgical procedures. We, therefore, decided to study the incidence and characteristics of persistent pain after abdominoplasty, which is one of the most frequent cosmetic surgical procedures. Methods: In September 2014, a link to a web-based questionnaire was mailed to 217 patients who had undergone abdominoplasty between 2006 and 2014 at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire included questions about pain and sensory abnormalities located to the abdominal skin, and physical and psychological function; patient satisfaction with surgery was rated on a 4-point scale. Results: One hundred seventy patients answered the questionnaire. Fourteen patients (8.2%) reported pain within the past 7 days related to the abdominoplasty. Abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common and reported by 138 patients (81%). Sensory hypersensitivity was associated with the presence of persistent pain. Satisfaction with the procedure was reported by 149 (88%) patients. The majority of patients reported improvement on all physical and psychological factors. Patients with pain were more often disappointed with the surgery and unwilling to recommend the surgery. Conclusions: Overall, patients were satisfied with the procedure, although abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common. However, there is a risk of developing persistent neuropathic pain after abdominoplasty, and patients should be informed about this before surgery. PMID:26893986

  2. Sensory Aids for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

    The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

  3. Making Sense of Sensory Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Marie

    2010-01-01

    The role of caregivers requires that they continuously assess the needs and performance of children and provide the support necessary for them to achieve their potential. A thorough understanding of child development, including the role and impact of sensory development, is critical for caregivers to properly evaluate and assist these children.…

  4. A review on intelligent sensory modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tham, H. J.; Tang, S. Y.; Teo, K. T. K.; Loh, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    Sensory evaluation plays an important role in the quality control of food productions. Sensory data obtained through sensory evaluation are generally subjective, vague and uncertain. Classically, factorial multivariate methods such as Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square (PLS) method, Multiple Regression (MLR) method and Response Surface Method (RSM) are the common tools used to analyse sensory data. These methods can model some of the sensory data but may not be robust enough to analyse nonlinear data. In these situations, intelligent modelling techniques such as Fuzzy Logic and Artificial neural network (ANNs) emerged to solve the vagueness and uncertainty of sensory data. This paper outlines literature of intelligent sensory modelling on sensory data analysis.

  5. Sensory exploitation and sexual conflict

    PubMed Central

    Arnqvist, Göran

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature on male–female coevolution concerns the processes by which male traits and female preferences for these can coevolve and be maintained by selection. There has been less explicit focus on the origin of male traits and female preferences. Here, I argue that it is important to distinguish origin from subsequent coevolution and that insights into the origin can help us appreciate the relative roles of various coevolutionary processes for the evolution of diversity in sexual dimorphism. I delineate four distinct scenarios for the origin of male traits and female preferences that build on past contributions, two of which are based on pre-existing variation in quality indicators among males and two on exploitation of pre-existing sensory biases among females. Recent empirical research, and theoretical models, suggest that origin by sensory exploitation has been widespread. I argue that this points to a key, but perhaps transient, role for sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) in the subsequent evolutionary elaboration of sexual traits, because (i) sensory exploitation is often likely to be initially costly for individuals of the exploited sex and (ii) the subsequent evolution of resistance to sensory exploitation should often be associated with costs due to selective constraints. A review of a few case studies is used to illustrate these points. Empirical data directly relevant to the costs of being sensory exploited and the costs of evolving resistance is largely lacking, and I stress that such data would help determining the general importance of sexual conflict and SAC for the evolution of sexual dimorphism. PMID:16612895

  6. Effects of Partial Substitutions of NaCl with KCl, CaSO4 and MgSO4 on the Quality and Sensorial Properties of Pork Patties

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of NaCl replacers (KCl, CaSO4, and MgSO4) on the quality and sensorial properties of pork patty. In the characteristics of spray-dried salt particles, KCl showed the largest particle size with low viscosity in solution. Meanwhile CaSO4 treatment resulted in the smallest particle size and the highest viscosity (p<0.05). In comparison of the qualities of pork patties manufactured by varying level of Na replacers, MgSO4 treatment exhibited low cooking loss comparing to control (p<0.05). Textural properties of KCl and MgSO4 treatments showed similar pattern, i.e., low level of the replacers caused harder and less adhesive texture than those of control (p<0.05), whereas the hardness of these products was not different with control when the replacers were added more than 1.0%. The addition of CaSO4 also manifested harder and less adhesive than control (p<0.05), but the textural properties of CaSO4 treatment was not affected by level of Ca-salt. Eventually, sensorial properties indicated that KCl and CaSO4 influenced negative effects on pork patties. In contrast, MgSO4 showed better sensorial properties in juiciness intensity, tenderness intensity as well as overall acceptability than control, reflecting that MgSO4 was an effective Na-replacer in meat product formulation. PMID:26761288

  7. Vacuum-packed ripened sausages: evolution of oxidative and hydrolytic degradation of lipid fraction during long-term storage and influence on the sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Summo, Carmine; Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Pasqualone, Antonella; Gomes, Tommaso

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out with the aim to understand the oxidative and hydrolytic phenomena involving the lipid fraction of vacuum-packed sausages during long-term storage (5 months) and to verify their influence on the sensory characteristics. The data obtained pointed out that the oxidation was more pronounced in the initial stages of storage than in the further period, while the hydrolysis of lipid fraction significantly advanced during the whole storage time, supported by the high moisture level of the product. Both these phenomena resulted to be correlated with the sensory decay of the product. In particular, in the first stage of vacuum storage overall acceptability was found to be negatively correlated (p<0.05) with rancid taste, acid value, and oxidized triacylglycerols. In the further stage the oxidative processes slowed down and affected in a lesser extent the sensory properties, which were more distinctly characterized by the onset of pungent perception attributed to compounds arising from multiple origins such as carbohydrate fermentation. This investigation confirmed the unreliability of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances test and the usefulness of high performance size exclusion chromatography analysis of the polar compounds of the lipid fraction to correctly determine the levels of the oxidative and hydrolytic degradation of the lipid fraction of vacuum-packed ripened sausages during long-term storage. PMID:20374767

  8. [Olfactory sensory perception].

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Aler; Fresno, María Javiera; Santander, Hugo; Valenzuela, Saúl; Gutiérrez, Mario Felipe; Miralles, Rodolfo

    2011-03-01

    The five senses have had a fundamental importance for survival and socialization of human beings. From an evolutionary point of view the sense of smell is the oldest. This sense has a strong representation within the genome, allowing the existence of many types of receptors that allow us to capture multiple volatile odor producing molecules, sending electrical signals to higher centers to report the outside world. Several cortical areas are activated in the brain, which are interconnected to form an extensive and complex neural network, linking for example, areas involved with memory and emotions, thus giving this sense of perceptual richness. While the concept of flavor is largely related to the sense of taste, smell provides the necessary integration with the rest of the senses and higher functions. Fully understanding the sense of smell is relevant to health professionals. Knowing the characteristics of the receptors, the transduction processes and convergence of information in the higher centers involved, we can properly detect olfactory disorders in our patients. PMID:21879170

  9. [Evaluation of consumer's acceptance of a peach palm snack (Bactris gasipaes) and determination of its potential as a functional food].

    PubMed

    López-Calvo, Rebeca; Pérez, Ana M; Ivankovich Guillén, Carmen; Calderón Villaplana, Sandra; Pineda Castro, Maria Lourdes

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' acceptance of a peach palm snack and to determine its potential as a functional food by chemical characterization. An assessment was conducted with 100 consumers to determine the acceptance of different snack formulations and the results were subjected to cluster analysis. This analysis revealed two groups. Group 2 included people that consume snacks and peach palm frequently and showed the highest grades for the snack evaluated characteristics. All the consumers in group 2 and approximately 85% of the consumers in group 1 indicated that they would buy the product suggesting that there is a niche market for the developed peach palm snack. Also, a qualitative evaluation, using mini focus groups, of the two most widely accepted formulas of the snack (chosen according to previously described study) was performed. The sessions considered the opinion of middle class professionals and housewives. It was determined that the combination of tara gum and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) allows a positive synergistic effect on the sensory characteristics of the snack, highlighting natural peach flavor and improving crunchiness. In a dry basis, the snack contains per 100 g: 9 ± 4 g of fat, 14.0 ± 0.3 g of dietary fiber, 15500 ± 32 µg of carotenoids and has an antioxidant capacity of 4700 ± 8 µmol TE, which demonstrates its potential as a functional food. PMID:26320306

  10. Response to Vestibular Sensory Events in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Carmody, Thomas; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Mehta, Jyutika A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the response to vestibular sensory events in persons with autism. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3-43 years of age, compared to age- and gender-matched community controls. The…

  11. Multi-Sensory Intervention Observational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2011-01-01

    An observational research study based on sensory integration theory was conducted to examine the observed impact of student selected multi-sensory experiences within a multi-sensory intervention center relative to the sustained focus levels of students with special needs. A stratified random sample of 50 students with severe developmental…

  12. USE OF SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS IN TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rationale for studying sensory systems as an integral part of neurotoxicological examinations is presented. The role of evoked potentials in assessing brain dysfunction in general and sensory systems in particular is also presented. Four types of sensory evoked potentials (br...

  13. Comparison of Carcass and Sensory Traits and Free Amino Acid Contents among Quality Grades in Loin and Rump of Korean Cattle Steer

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Min Yu; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ko, Jong-Youl; Baik, Myunggi

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to compare carcass traits, sensory characteristics, physiochemical composition, and contents of nucleotides, collagen, and free amino acids among quality grades (QG) and to understand the association between QG and above parameters in loin and rump of Korean cattle steer. Loin and rump samples were obtained from 48 Korean cattle steers with each of four QG (QG 1++, 1+, 1, and 2; average 32 months of age). Carcass weight and marbling score (MS) were highest in QG 1++, whereas texture score measured by a meat grader was highest in QG 2. A correlation analysis revealed that MS (r = 0.98; p<0.01) and fat content (r = 0.73; p<0.01) had strong positive correlations with QG and that texture had a strong negative correlation (r = −0.78) with QG. Fat content in loin was highest but protein and moisture contents were lowest in QG 1++. Our results confirmed that a major determinant of QG is the MS; thus, intramuscular fat content. The International Commission on Illumination L*, a*, and b* values in loin were highest in QG 1++. Numeric values of shear force in loin were lowest in QG 1++, whereas those of tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability tended to be highest in QG 1++ without statistical significance. QG was strongly correlated with juiciness (r = 0.81; p<0.01) and overall acceptability (r = 0.87; p<0.001). All sensory characteristics were higher (p<0.05) in loin than those in rump. Adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP) and inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP) contents in both loin and rump did not differ among QGs. No nucleotide (AMP, IMP, inosine, hypoxanthine) was correlated with any of the sensory traits. Total, soluble, and insoluble collagen contents in loin were higher in QG 1++ than those in QG 1. All three collagens had lower content in loin than that in rump. All three collagens were positively correlated with tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. Glutamic acid content did not significantly differ among the four QGs in

  14. Botanical origin, colour, granulation, and sensory properties of the Harenna forest honey, Bale, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belay, Abera; Solomon, W K; Bultossa, Geremew; Adgaba, Nuru; Melaku, Samuel

    2015-01-15

    In this study, the Harenna forest honey samples were investigated with respect to their botanical origin, granulation, colour and sensory properties. Sixteen honey samples were collected from two representative sites (Chiri, C, and Wabero, W) using random sampling techniques. Botanical origin was investigated using qualitative pollen analysis by counting 500 pollen grains using harmonised methods of melissopalynology. Granulation, colour, and sensory properties of honey were determined by visual observation, using Pfund grader, acceptability and preference tests, respectively. Honey samples were also tested for tetracycline. Honey obtained from Wabero is originated dominantly from Syzygium guineense while Chiri was multifloral. The colour of honey ranged from 34 to 85 with light amber and extra light amber colours. The honey samples were free from tetracycline residue and form coarse granules slowly. Significant variation (p>0.05) in sensory preference and acceptability tests not observed due to hive types and locations. PMID:25148981

  15. Effect of corn bran as dietary fiber addition on baking and sensory quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of wholesome and nutritious fiber rich food products with acceptable functional and sensory quality is a major industrial concern, seeking to capture consumer’s interest in healthy and functional foods. Dietary fiber in corn bran is known for its beneficial effects on human health and n...

  16. A Comparison of Sensory Integrative and Behavioral Therapies as Treatment for Pediatric Feeding Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Laura R.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Patel, Meeta R.; Bachmeyer, Melanie H.; Rivas, Kristi M.; Milnes, Suzanne M.; Oddo, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of escape extinction (EE) plus noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with sensory integration therapy as treatment for the feeding problems of 2 children. Results indicated that EE plus NCR was more effective in increasing acceptance, decreasing inappropriate behavior, and increasing amount consumed relative to sensory…

  17. Accept or divert?

    PubMed

    Angelucci, P A

    1999-09-01

    Stretching scarce resources is more than a managerial issue. Should you accept the patient to an understaffed ICU or divert him to another facility? The intense "medical utility" controversy focuses on a situation that critical care nurses now face every day. PMID:10614370

  18. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  19. 1984 Newbery Acceptance Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    This acceptance speech for an award honoring "Dear Mr. Henshaw," a book about feelings of a lonely child of divorce intended for eight-, nine-, and ten-year-olds, highlights children's letters to author. Changes in society that affect children, the inception of "Dear Mr. Henshaw," and children's reactions to books are highlighted. (EJS)

  20. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  1. UGV acceptance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Robin R.

    2006-05-01

    With over 100 models of unmanned vehicles now available for military and civilian safety, security or rescue applications, it is important to for agencies to establish acceptance testing. However, there appears to be no general guidelines for what constitutes a reasonable acceptance test. This paper describes i) a preliminary method for acceptance testing by a customer of the mechanical and electrical components of an unmanned ground vehicle system, ii) how it has been applied to a man-packable micro-robot, and iii) discusses the value of testing both to ensure that the customer has a workable system and to improve design. The test method automated the operation of the robot to repeatedly exercise all aspects and combinations of components on the robot for 6 hours. The acceptance testing process uncovered many failures consistent with those shown to occur in the field, showing that testing by the user does predict failures. The process also demonstrated that the testing by the manufacturer can provide important design data that can be used to identify, diagnose, and prevent long-term problems. Also, the structured testing environment showed that sensor systems can be used to predict errors and changes in performance, as well as uncovering unmodeled behavior in subsystems.

  2. The Sensory Neurons of Touch

    PubMed Central

    Abraira, Victoria E.; Ginty, David D.

    2013-01-01

    The somatosensory system decodes a wide range of tactile stimuli and thus endows us with a remarkable capacity for object recognition, texture discrimination, sensory-motor feedback and social exchange. The first step leading to perception of innocuous touch is activation of cutaneous sensory neurons called low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). Here, we review the properties and functions of LTMRs, emphasizing the unique tuning properties of LTMR subtypes and the organizational logic of their peripheral and central axonal projections. We discuss the spinal cord neurophysiological representation of complex mechanical forces acting upon the skin and current views of how tactile information is processed and conveyed from the spinal cord to the brain. An integrative model in which ensembles of impulses arising from physiologically distinct LTMRs are integrated and processed in somatotopically aligned mechanosensory columns of the spinal cord dorsal horn underlies the nervous system’s enormous capacity for perceiving the richness of the tactile world. PMID:23972592

  3. Dynamics of the sensory response to urethral flow over multiple time scales in rat

    PubMed Central

    Danziger, Zachary C; Grill, Warren M

    2015-01-01

    The pudendal nerve carries sensory information from the urethra that controls spinal reflexes necessary to maintain continence and achieve efficient micturition. Despite the key role urethral sensory feedback plays in regulation of the lower urinary tract, there is little information about the characteristics of urethral sensory responses to physiological stimuli, and the quantitative relationship between physiological stimuli and the evoked sensory activation is unknown. Such a relation is critical to understanding the neural control of the lower urinary tract and how dysfunction arises in disease states. We systematically quantified pudendal afferent responses to fluid flow in the urethra in vivo in the rat. We characterized the sensory response across a range of stimuli, and describe a previously unreported long-term neural accommodation phenomenon. We developed and validated a compact mechanistic mathematical model capable of reproducing the pudendal sensory activity in response to arbitrary profiles of urethral flows. These results describe the properties and function of urethral afferents that are necessary to understand how sensory disruption manifests in lower urinary tract pathophysiology. Key points Sensory information from the urethra is essential to maintain continence and to achieve efficient micturition and when compromised by disease or injury can lead to substantial loss of function. Despite the key role urethral sensory information plays in the lower urinary tract, the relationship between physiological urethral stimuli, such as fluid flow, and the neural sensory response is poorly understood. This work systematically quantifies pudendal afferent responses to a range of fluid flows in the urethra in vivo and describes a previously unknown long-term neural accommodation phenomenon in these afferents. We present a compact mechanistic mathematical model that reproduces the pudendal sensory activity in response to urethral flow. These results have

  4. Sensory Augmentation for the Blind

    PubMed Central

    Kärcher, Silke M.; Fenzlaff, Sandra; Hartmann, Daniela; Nagel, Saskia K.; König, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Common navigational aids used by blind travelers during large-scale navigation divert attention away from important cues of the immediate environment (i.e., approaching vehicles). Sensory augmentation devices, relying on principles similar to those at work in sensory substitution, can potentially bypass the bottleneck of attention through sub-cognitive implementation of a set of rules coupling motor actions with sensory stimulation. We provide a late blind subject with a vibrotactile belt that continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. The present experimental approach demonstrates the positive potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of handicapped people. PMID:22403535

  5. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials. PMID:19389606

  6. Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

  7. Behavioral, perceptual, and neural alterations in sensory and multisensory function in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Baum, Sarah H; Stevenson, Ryan A; Wallace, Mark T

    2015-11-01

    Although sensory processing challenges have been noted since the first clinical descriptions of autism, it has taken until the release of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) in 2013 for sensory problems to be included as part of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the diagnostic profile. Because sensory information forms the building blocks for higher-order social and cognitive functions, we argue that sensory processing is not only an additional piece of the puzzle, but rather a critical cornerstone for characterizing and understanding ASD. In this review we discuss what is currently known about sensory processing in ASD, how sensory function fits within contemporary models of ASD, and what is understood about the differences in the underlying neural processing of sensory and social communication observed between individuals with and without ASD. In addition to highlighting the sensory features associated with ASD, we also emphasize the importance of multisensory processing in building perceptual and cognitive representations, and how deficits in multisensory integration may also be a core characteristic of ASD. PMID:26455789

  8. Studies on effect of oat and cheese incorporation on sensory and textural quality of short-dough type biscuit.

    PubMed

    Swapna, K S; Rao, K Jayaraj

    2016-03-01

    In view of their growing importance in human nutrition, incorporation of oats and cheese during the manufacture of short-dough type biscuits was studied. Rolled oats were incorporated at 25, 35 and 45 % of refined wheat flour in short-dough type biscuit formulation. Cheddar and processed cheese were used for flavouring purpose at three levels each, viz. 30, 40 and 50 % on flour basis. The dough exhibited less firmness on oats incorporation as indicated by lower firmness value (21.73 N) as against 25.05 N for control dough measured by Texture Analyser. Addition of cheese to the 25 % oat incorporated dough further reduced its firmness and altered its viscoelastic characteristics. Baking conditions for the oats and cheese incorporated biscuits were optimized as 165 °C for 25-27 min. Sensory evaluation results revealed that the biscuit made from 25 % oat incorporated dough scored highest in most of the sensory attributes including overall acceptability. Cheddar cheese and processed cheese levels were optimized at 30 and 40 % in oats-incorporated dough based on the sensory analysis of biscuits prepared from the dough samples. The moisture and β- glucan contents were 3.93 % and 0.62 %; 4.32 % and 0.60 % for cheddar cheese and processed cheese added biscuits, respectively. The spread ratios were higher in cheese incorporated biscuits than in oat incorporated biscuits. It was concluded that good quality cheese flavoured biscuits can be prepared by incorporating rolled oats in biscuit formulation along with cheddar or processed cheese. PMID:27570275

  9. Effects of the applications of oil drip onto surface and of the use of a temperature of 35°C for 4 days on some physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Molinero, F; Arnau, J

    2014-10-01

    The effects of: a) applications of oil drip (from aged salted pork fat) onto dry-cured ham surface and b) application of a temperature of 35°C for 4days after 234days of processing (HTST treatment) were evaluated. The oil application reduced moisture, proteolysis and white film in semimembranosus, microbial counts in adductor and the intensity of hollow extent, toasted flavour, adhesiveness, pastiness (in semimembranosus) and chewiness (in semimembranosus and biceps femoris) and increased the intensity of nutty flavour (in both muscles), aged flavour, hardness, fibrousness and overall liking (in semimembranosus). The HTST did not affect any ham characteristics. PMID:24906185

  10. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  11. Cross-modal plasticity in sensory deprived animal models: From the thalamocortical development point of view.

    PubMed

    Mezzera, Cecilia; López-Bendito, Guillermina

    2016-09-01

    Over recent decades, our understanding of the plasticity of the central nervous system has expanded enormously. Accordingly, it is now widely accepted that the brain can adapt to changes by reorganizing its circuitry, both in response to external stimuli and experience, as well as through intrinsic mechanisms. A clear example of this is the activation of a deprived sensory area and the expansion of spared sensory cortical regions in individuals who suffered peripheral sensory loss. Despite the efforts to understand these neuroplastic changes, the mechanisms underlying such adaptive remodeling remains poorly understood. Progress in understanding these events may be hindered by the highly varied data obtained from the distinct experimental paradigms analyzed, which include different animal models and neuronal systems, as well as studies into the onset of sensory loss. Here, we will establish the current state-of-the-art describing the principal observations made according to the time of sensory deprivation with respect to the development of the thalamocortical connectivity. We will review the experimental data obtained from animal models where sensory deprivation has been induced either before or after thalamocortical axons reach and invade their target cortical areas. The anatomical and functional effects of sensory loss on the primary sensory areas of the cortex will be presented. Indeed, we consider that the comparative approach of this review is a necessary step in order to help deciphering the processes that underlie sensory neuroplasticity, for which studies in animal models have been indispensable. Understanding these mechanisms will then help to develop restorative strategies and prostheses that will overcome the functional loss. PMID:26459021

  12. Evaluation of the Acceptance of Audience Response System by Corporations Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hsing-Hui; Lu, Ta-Jung; Wann, Jong-Wen

    The purpose of this research is to explore enterprises' acceptance of Audience Response System (ARS) using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The findings show that (1) IT characteristics and facilitating conditions could be external variables of TAM. (2) The degree of E-business has positive significant correlation with behavioral intention of employees. (3) TAM is a good model to predict and explain IT acceptance. (4) Demographic variables, industry and firm characteristics have no significant correlation with ARS acceptance. The results provide useful information to managers and ARS providers that (1) ARS providers should focus more on creating different usages to enhance interactivity and employees' using intention. (2) Managers should pay attention to build sound internal facilitating conditions for introducing IT. (3) According to the degree of E-business, managers should set up strategic stages of introducing IT. (4) Providers should increase product promotion and also leverage academic and government to promote ARS.

  13. Influence of filtration on volatile compounds and sensory profile of virgin olive oils.

    PubMed

    Brkić Bubola, Karolina; Koprivnjak, Olivera; Sladonja, Barbara

    2012-05-01

    The influence of filtration through a hydrophilic cotton layer on volatile compounds, sensory characteristics and colour of two monovarietal oils was investigated in this study. Volatiles were evaluated using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography. After the filtration of Buža oils only a slight increase in total alcohols was noticed. In filtered Črna oils a significant decrease of total alcohols and slight changes in total aldehydes, total ketones and total C5 volatile compounds concentration were detected. No significant influence on the sensory scores of oils, but some slight changes in sensorial profiles were noted (slightly higher intensities of sensory characteristics apple and grass, and higher values of the lightness L(∗) in filtered samples). The results point to unequal filtration impact on different monovarietal oils and could be useful in developing targeted technologies for specific monovarietal oils quality improvement. PMID:26434268

  14. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  15. Altered visual sensory fusion in children with reading difficulties.

    PubMed

    González-Castro, P; Rodríguez, C; Núñez, J C; Vallejo, G; González-Pienda, J A

    2014-12-01

    Reading is a multi-sensory and multi-cognitive task, and its difficulties (e.g., dyslexia) are not a unitary disorder. There are probably a variety of manifestations that relate to the actual site of impairment. A randomized, pre-test/post-test nonequivalent-groups design was conducted over 4 months with three groups aged between 6 and 8 years. One group comprised 76 participants (34 boys, 42 girls) with reading difficulties and altered sensory fusion (RD+ASF), a second group was made up of 123 students (59 boys, 64 girls) with reading difficulties but without altered sensory fusion (RD), and a third group comprised 81 participants (39 boys, 42 girls) who were young readers (RL) without reading delay, paired with the RD group on reading level. The experimental groups received intervention in the skills of control, stimulus recognition, and phonological awareness during a 4-month period. Both pre-test and post-test measures of errors in reading mechanics and reading routes (word and pseudo-word) were obtained. Poorer results in mechanics and reading routes of the RD+ASF group suggest that the effectiveness of the intervention depended on the characteristics of the groups and on the presence of sensory fusion deficits in the RD students. PMID:25375826

  16. Sensory evaluation of dry-fermented sausage containing ground deodorized yellow mustard.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuliu; Aliani, Michel; Holley, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Ground deodorized yellow mustard is used as a binder and meat protein substitute in cooked processed meat products. Recent studies have shown that it has the potential to be used in uncooked processed meat products because of its natural antimicrobial properties. In the present study, ground deodorized yellow mustard was added to uncooked dry-fermented sausage during manufacture at 1% to 4% (w/w) and analyzed for its effects on starter cultures, physico-chemical properties, and consumer acceptability. Mustard had a nondose-dependent inhibitory effect on the Staphylococcus starter culture, had no effect on water activity or instrumental texture, and tended to accelerate sausage pH reduction. At 3% and 4% mustard, consumer scores on all sensory attributes as well as overall acceptability were significantly lower. The appearance and color of 3% and 4% mustard-treated sausages were liked slightly, whereas flavor, texture, and overall acceptability scores were reduced. The control without mustard and 1% mustard-treated sausages had similar sensory properties and were the most acceptable, while 2% mustard-treated sausages were given "like moderately" and "like slightly" descriptors. Sensory results mean that at concentrations necessary for mandated regulatory control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dry sausages, mustard may have a negative effect on consumer acceptance. PMID:24025044

  17. Physico-chemical characteristics of burfi prepared by using medium chain triglyceride rich margarines.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Shipra; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Puttaraju, Shashikala; Khatoon, Sakina

    2014-01-01

    Medium chain triglyceride rich margarines were prepared using palm, coconut oil blends in the ratio of 80:20 (Margarine 1) and 60:40 (Margarine 2). The margarines were used to prepare burfi and compared with products prepared using commercial margarine, ghee and butter. The physicochemical characteristics such as texture, color, free fatty acid, peroxide value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition of oils, fats and margarines were carried out. Results showed that 11.0 and 21.9% of medium chain triglycerides were present in margarine 1 and 2 respectively. The texture, colour, moisture content, peroxide value and sensory evaluation were carried out for the burfi samples. Laboratory prepared margarines improved the textural quality of burfi compared to commercial margarine, ghee and butter. The sensory analyses of the burfi samples revealed that burfi prepared from margarine 1 was more acceptable compared to commercial margarine. PMID:24426059

  18. Sensory Motor Coordination in Robonaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Richard Alan, II

    2003-01-01

    As a participant of the year 2000 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, I worked with the engineers of the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center on the Robonaut project. The Robonaut is an articulated torso with two dexterous arms, left and right five-fingered hands, and a head with cameras mounted on an articulated neck. This advanced space robot, now driven only teleoperatively using VR gloves, sensors and helmets, is to be upgraded to a thinking system that can find, interact with and assist humans autonomously, allowing the Crew to work with Robonaut as a (junior) member of their team. Thus, the work performed this summer was toward the goal of enabling Robonaut to operate autonomously as an intelligent assistant to astronauts. Our underlying hypothesis is that a robot can develop intelligence if it learns a set of basic behaviors (i.e., reflexes - actions tightly coupled to sensing) and through experience learns how to sequence these to solve problems or to accomplish higher-level tasks. We describe our approach to the automatic acquisition of basic behaviors as learning sensory-motor coordination (SMC). Although research in the ontogenesis of animals development from the time of conception) supports the approach of learning SMC as the foundation for intelligent, autonomous behavior, we do not know whether it will prove viable for the development of autonomy in robots. The first step in testing the hypothesis is to determine if SMC can be learned by the robot. To do this, we have taken advantage of Robonaut's teleoperated control system. When a person teleoperates Robonaut, the person's own SMC causes the robot to act purposefully. If the sensory signals that the robot detects during teleoperation are recorded over several repetitions of the same task, it should be possible through signal analysis to identify the sensory-motor couplings that accompany purposeful motion. In this report, reasons for suspecting SMC as the basis for

  19. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating.

    PubMed

    Jones, L A; Hills, P J; Dick, K M; Jones, S P; Bright, P

    2016-02-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification. PMID:26716891

  20. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating

    PubMed Central

    Jones, L.A.; Hills, P.J.; Dick, K.M.; Jones, S.P.; Bright, P.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification. PMID:26716891

  1. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  2. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  3. Was cultural deprivation in fact sensory deprivation? Deprivation, retardation and intervention in the USA.

    PubMed

    Raz, Mical

    2011-01-01

    In the 1950s, the term "deprivation" entered American psychiatric discourse. This article examines how the concept of deprivation permeated the field of mental retardation, and became an accepted theory of etiology. It focuses on sensory deprivation and cultural deprivation, and analyzes the interventions developed, based on these theories. It argues that the controversial theory of cultural deprivation derived its scientific legitimization from the theory of sensory deprivation, and was a highly politicized concept that took part in the nature-nurture debate. PMID:21488428

  4. The Effect of Moisture Content on Storage Quality and Sensory Attributes of Oil Roasted Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical characteristics of peanuts may interact with processing conditions to impact quality. This study, examined the effects of preroast moisture content on the chemical and sensory characteristics of oil roasted peanuts. Virginia type peanuts were sequentially dried in-shell to obtain extra la...

  5. Meal Replacement Mass Reduction and Integration Acceptability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirmons, T.; Cooper, M.; Douglas, G.; Barrett, A.; Richardson, M.; Arias, D.; Schneiderman, J.; Slack, K.; Ploutz-Snyder R.

    2016-01-01

    NASA, in planning for long duration missions, has an imperative to provide a food system with the necessary nutrition, acceptability, and safety to ensure sustainment of crew health and performance. The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and future exploration missions are mass constrained; therefore we are challenged to reduce the mass of the food system by 10% while maintaining safety, nutrition, and acceptability for exploration missions. Food bars have previously been used to supplement meals in the Skylab food system, indicating that regular consumption of bars will be acceptable. However, commercially available products do not meet the requirements for a full meal replacement in the spaceflight food system. The purpose of this task is to develop a variety of nutritionally balanced breakfast replacement bars, which meet spaceflight nutritional, microbiological, sensorial, and shelf-life requirements, while enabling a 10% food mass savings. To date, six nutrient-dense meal replacement bars have been developed, using both traditional methods of compression as well as novel ultrasonic compression technologies developed by Creative Resonance Inc. (Phoenix, AZ). All bars will be prioritized based on acceptability and the four top candidates will be evaluated in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) to assess the frequency with which actual meal replacement options may be implemented. Specifically, overall impact to mood, satiety, dietary discomfort, and satisfaction with food will be analyzed to inform successful implementation strategies. In addition, these bars will be evaluated based on final product sensory acceptability, nutritional stability, qualitative stability of analytical measurements (i.e. water activity and texture), and microbiological compliance over two years of storage at room temperature and potential temperature abuse conditions to predict long-term acceptability. It is expected that this work will enable a successful meal

  6. Quality Assessment and Physicochemical Characteristics of Bran Enriched Chapattis

    PubMed Central

    Dar, B. N.; Sharma, Savita; Singh, Baljit; Kaur, Gurkirat

    2014-01-01

    Cereal brans singly and in combination were blended at varying levels (5 and 10%) for development of Chapattis. Cereal bran enriched Chapattis were assessed for quality and physicochemical characteristics. On the basis of quality assessment, 10% enrichment level for Chapatti was the best. Moisture content, water activity, and free fatty acids remained stable during the study period. Quality assessment and physicochemical characteristics of bran enriched Chapattis carried out revealed that dough handling and puffing of bran enriched Chapattis prepared by 5 and 10% level of bran supplementation did not vary significantly. All types of bran enriched Chapattis except rice bran enriched Chapattis showed nonsticky behavior during dough handling. Bran enriched Chapattis exhibited full puffing character during preparation. The sensory attributes showed that both 5 and 10% bran supplemented Chapattis were acceptable. PMID:26904644

  7. Spanish, French and British consumers' acceptability of Uruguayan beef, and consumers' beef choice associated with country of origin, finishing diet and meat price.

    PubMed

    Realini, C E; Font i Furnols, M; Sañudo, C; Montossi, F; Oliver, M A; Guerrero, L

    2013-09-01

    The effect of country of origin (local, Switzerland, Argentina, Uruguay), finishing diet (grass, grass plus concentrate, concentrate), and price (low, medium, high) on consumer's beef choice and segmentation was evaluated in Spain, France and United Kingdom. Sensory acceptability of Uruguayan beef from different production systems was also evaluated and contrasted with consumers' beef choices. Origin was the most important characteristic for the choice of beef with preference for meat produced locally. The second most important factor was animal feed followed by price with preference for beef from grass-fed animals and lowest price. The least preferred product was beef from Uruguay, concentrate-fed animals and highest price. Sensory data showed higher acceptability scores for Uruguayan beef from grass-fed animals with or without concentrate supplementation than animals fed concentrate only. Consumer segments with distinct preferences were identified. Foreign country promotion seems to be fundamental for marketing beef in Europe, as well as the development of different marketing strategies to satisfy each consumer segment. PMID:23644048

  8. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2014-01-01

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system. PMID:24509431

  9. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2014-02-01

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system.

  10. Sensory Sensitivities and Performance on Sensory Perceptual Tasks in High-Functioning Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minshew, Nancy J.; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    Most reports of sensory symptoms in autism are second hand or observational, and there is little evidence of a neurological basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical participants were administered a sensory questionnaire and neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two…

  11. Morphology and Intrinsic Excitability of Regenerating Sensory and Motor Neurons Grown on a Line Micropattern

    PubMed Central

    Benzina, Ouafa; Cloitre, Thierry; Martin, Marta; Raoul, Cédric; Gergely, Csilla; Scamps, Frédérique

    2014-01-01

    Axonal regeneration is one of the greatest challenges in severe injuries of peripheral nerve. To provide the bridge needed for regeneration, biological or synthetic tubular nerve constructs with aligned architecture have been developed. A key point for improving axonal regeneration is assessing the effects of substrate geometry on neuronal behavior. In the present study, we used an extracellular matrix-micropatterned substrate comprising 3 µm wide lines aimed to physically mimic the in vivo longitudinal axonal growth of mice peripheral sensory and motor neurons. Adult sensory neurons or embryonic motoneurons were seeded and processed for morphological and electrical activity analyses after two days in vitro. We show that micropattern-guided sensory neurons grow one or two axons without secondary branching. Motoneurons polarity was kept on micropattern with a long axon and small dendrites. The micro-patterned substrate maintains the growth promoting effects of conditioning injury and demonstrates, for the first time, that neurite initiation and extension could be differentially regulated by conditioning injury among DRG sensory neuron subpopulations. The micro-patterned substrate impacts the excitability of sensory neurons and promotes the apparition of firing action potentials characteristic for a subclass of mechanosensitive neurons. The line pattern is quite relevant for assessing the regenerative and developmental growth of sensory and motoneurons and offers a unique model for the analysis of the impact of geometry on the expression and the activity of mechanosensitive channels in DRG sensory neurons. PMID:25329060

  12. Temporal resolution of general odor pulses by olfactory sensory neurons in American cockroaches

    PubMed

    Lemon; Getz

    1997-01-01

    Behavioral and physiological evidence indicates that insect pheromone sensory neurons are able to resolve pulses of pheromone concentration as they occur downwind from a point source, but the abilities of insect sensory neurons that are sensitive to general odors to respond to pulsatile stimuli are unknown. The temporal response characteristics of olfactory sensory neurons of female American cockroaches Periplaneta americana in response to general odors were measured using a series of short odor pulses (20­400 ms). Odor pulses were delivered to olfactory sensilla in a moving airstream controlled by electromagnetic valves. The responses of sensory neurons were recorded using a tungsten electrode placed at the base of the sensillum. The temporal responses of sensory neurons followed the temporal changes in stimulus concentration, which were estimated by replacing the odorant with oil smoke and measuring the concentration of smoke passing through a light beam. Spike frequency varied with odorant concentration with surprisingly fine temporal resolution. Cockroach olfactory sensory neurons were able reliably to follow 25 ms pulses of the pure odorant 1-hexanol and 50 ms pulses of the complex odor blend coconut oil. Lower concentrations of odorants elicited responses with lower peak spike frequencies that still retained the temporal resolution of the stimulus pulses. Thus, responses of olfactory sensory neurons can reflect the fine structures of non-uniform distributions of general odorants in a turbulent odor plume as well as the average odorant concentration. PMID:9319720

  13. Factors affecting dry-cured ham consumer acceptability.

    PubMed

    Morales, R; Guerrero, L; Aguiar, A P S; Guàrdia, M D; Gou, P

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were (1) to compare the relative importance of price, processing time, texture and intramuscular fat in purchase intention of dry-cured ham through conjoint analysis, (2) to evaluate the effect of dry-cured ham appearance on consumer expectations, and (3) to describe the consumer sensory preferences of dry-cured ham using external preference mapping. Texture and processing time influenced the consumer preferences in conjoint analysis. Red colour intensity, colour uniformity, external fat and white film presence/absence influenced consumer expectations. The consumer disliked hams with bitter and metallic flavour and with excessive saltiness and piquantness. Differences between expected and experienced acceptability were found, which indicates that the visual preference of consumers does not allow them to select a dry-cured ham that satisfies their sensory preferences of flavour and texture. PMID:23816516

  14. Dopaminergic modulation of sucrose acceptance behavior in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Marella, Sunanda; Mann, Kevin; Scott, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    For an animal to survive in a constantly changing environment, its behavior must be shaped by the complex milieu of sensory stimuli it detects, its previous experience and its internal state. Although taste behaviors in the fly are relatively simple, with sugars eliciting acceptance behavior and bitter compounds avoidance, these behaviors are also plastic and modified by intrinsic and extrinsic cues such as hunger and sensory stimuli. Here, we show that dopamine modulates a simple taste behavior, proboscis extension to sucrose. Conditional silencing of dopaminergic neurons reduces proboscis extension probability and increased activation of dopaminergic neurons increases extension to sucrose but not to bitter compounds or water. One dopaminergic neuron with extensive branching in the primary taste relay, the subesophageal ganglion, triggers proboscis extension and its activity is altered by satiety state. These studies demonstrate the marked specificity of dopamine signaling and provide a foundation to examine neural mechanisms of feeding modulation in the fly. PMID:22405204

  15. College Student Invulnerability Beliefs and HIV Vaccine Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravert, Russell D.; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine behavioral history, beliefs, and vaccine characteristics as predictors of HIV vaccine acceptability. Methods: Two hundred forty-five US under graduates were surveyed regarding their sexual history, risk beliefs, and likelihood of accepting hypothetical HIV vaccines. Results: Multivariate regression analysis indicated that…

  16. Predicting Acceptance of Diversity in Pre-Kindergarten Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Kay; Downer, Jason

    2012-01-01

    This study examined classroom-level contributors to an acceptance of diversity in publicly supported pre-kindergarten classrooms across 11 states. Classroom composition, process quality, and teacher characteristics were examined as predictors of diversity-promoting practices as measured by the ECERS-R, acceptance of diversity construct. Findings…

  17. 16 CFR 1616.4 - Sampling and acceptance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consumer, provided such alternate sampling plans have operating characteristics such that the probability of unit acceptance at any percentage defective does not exceed the corresponding probability of unit... lies between 5 and 95 percent acceptance probability. Alternate sampling plans approved for...

  18. Sensory neuropathy in two Border collie puppies.

    PubMed

    Vermeersch, K; Van Ham, L; Braund, K G; Bhatti, S; Tshamala, M; Chiers, K; Schrauwen, E

    2005-06-01

    A peripheral sensory neuropathy was diagnosed in two Border collie puppies. Neurological, electrophysiological and histopathological examinations suggested a purely sensory neuropathy with mainly distal involvement. Urinary incontinence was observed in one of the puppies and histological examination of the vagus nerve revealed degenerative changes. An inherited disorder was suspected. PMID:15971901

  19. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Sensory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metherate, Raju

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine release in sensory neocortex contributes to higher-order sensory function, in part by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Molecular studies have revealed a bewildering array of nAChR subtypes and cellular actions; however, there is some consensus emerging about the major nAChR subtypes and their functions in…

  20. SENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS: MEASURES OF NEUROTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a need for tests of sensory function to be incorporated in laboratory and toxicity testing. t is clear that sensory dysfunction may frequently occur, but go undetected, in standard animal toxicological testing protocols. ensory evoked potential technology can be employed...

  1. [Sensory neuronopathy. Its recognition and early treatment].

    PubMed

    Zuberbuhler, Paz; Young, Pablo; León Cejas, Luciana V; Finn, Bárbara C; Bruetman, Julio E; Calandra, Cristian R; Fulgenzi, Ernesto; Pérez Akly, Manuel; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Pardal, Ana; Reisin, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sensory neuronopathies or ganglionopathies, or dorsal root ganglion disorders, represent a subgroup of peripheral nervous system diseases, frequently associated with dysinmune or neoplastic disorders and with toxic agents. A degeneration of both central and peripheral sensory proyections is present. Patients typically show early ataxia, loss of deep tendon reflexes and positive sensory symptoms present both in proximal and distal sites of the body. We retrospectively studied 10 cases with a final diagnosis of sensory neuronopathy. Sensory neuropathy was the presenting symptom and the course was subacute in all cases. Paresthesias in upper limbs were a predominant manifestation (100%). Other manifestations included: hypoesthesia (10/10), gait ataxia (8/10), autonomic symptoms (3/10) and perioral paresthesias (3/10). Electrophysiology showed sensory axonal neuronal pattern, with normal motor responses. Final diagnosis was acquired sensory neuronopathy in all patients, associated with Sjögren's syndrome in 2, with lupus erythematosus in 1, with rheumatoid arthritis in 1, with a cancer in 2 (paraneoplastic) and idiopathic in 4. In paraneoplastic cases, the tumor was small cell lung cancer in 1 (with positive anti-Hu antibodies), and epidermoid lung cancer in the other. Eight patients were treated with immunotherapy, high dose intravenous methylprednisolone and/or intravenous immunoglobulin; with poor response in 4 cases, neurologic improvement in 5, and without any change in 1 patient. The present work shows the typical clinical and electrophysiological pattern of subacute sensory neuronopathy, and the relevance of early treatment. PMID:26502464

  2. Examination Accommodations for Students with Sensory Defensiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kieran; Nolan, Clodagh

    2013-01-01

    Traditional examination accommodations include extra time, scribes, and/or separate venues for students with disabilities, which have been proven to be successful for the majority of students. For students with non-apparent disabilities such as sensory defensiveness, where sensitivity to a range of sensory information from the environment can…

  3. Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Automated Functions, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    This final report describes the design, development, and testing of the Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST), a computer-based system which enables the evaluation of students with visual impairments to determine the optimal combination of sensory adaptive aids to meet their needs. The system uses multimedia devices in conjunction with customized…

  4. Measuring Sensory Reactivity in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Application and Simplification of a Clinician-Administered Sensory Observation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavassoli, Teresa; Bellesheim, Katherine; Siper, Paige M.; Wang, A. Ting; Halpern, Danielle; Gorenstein, Michelle; Grodberg, David; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory reactivity is a new DSM-5 criterion for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study aims to validate a clinician-administered sensory observation in ASD, the Sensory Processing Scale Assessment (SPS). The SPS and the Short Sensory Profile (SSP) parent-report were used to measure sensory reactivity in children with ASD (n = 35) and…

  5. Sensory functions in chronic neuralgia.

    PubMed Central

    Lindblom, U; Verrillo, R T

    1979-01-01

    Eleven patients with sustained neuralgia, in most cases after traumatic nerve lesion, were subjected to quantitative sensory testing with thermal and non-noxious mechanical stimuli. Measurements were made in the pain area and at a homologous site on the contralateral normal side. All patients were hypoaesthetic with raised thresholds for warm and cold or touch, or both. Thermal pain thresholds were also raised in some patients but lowered in others indicating hypersensitivity of the nociceptor system or dysaesthesia for thermal input. In six patients single mechanical stimuli produced a painful response above the touch detection threshold. Reaction time measurements indicated that this painful response to suprathreshold mechanical pulses was measured by magnitude estimation as a function of stimulus amplitude. The results were fitted by power functions, as in normal skin, but with steeper slopes on the abnormal side. Suprathreshold hyperaesthesia (recruitment) may exist in the presence of normal threshold functioning. PMID:448382

  6. Emperical Tests of Acceptance Sampling Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. Preston, Jr.; Johnson, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance sampling is a quality control procedure applied as an alternative to 100% inspection. A random sample of items is drawn from a lot to determine the fraction of items which have a required quality characteristic. Both the number of items to be inspected and the criterion for determining conformance of the lot to the requirement are given by an appropriate sampling plan with specified risks of Type I and Type II sampling errors. In this paper, we present the results of empirical tests of the accuracy of selected sampling plans reported in the literature. These plans are for measureable quality characteristics which are known have either binomial, exponential, normal, gamma, Weibull, inverse Gaussian, or Poisson distributions. In the main, results support the accepted wisdom that variables acceptance plans are superior to attributes (binomial) acceptance plans, in the sense that these provide comparable protection against risks at reduced sampling cost. For the Gaussian and Weibull plans, however, there are ranges of the shape parameters for which the required sample sizes are in fact larger than the corresponding attributes plans, dramatically so for instances of large skew. Tests further confirm that the published inverse-Gaussian (IG) plan is flawed, as reported by White and Johnson (2011).

  7. Body-scaled affordances in sensory substitution.

    PubMed

    Travieso, David; Gómez-Jordana, Luis; Díaz, Alex; Lobo, Lorena; Jacobs, David M

    2015-12-15

    The research field on sensory substitution devices has strong implications for theoretical work on perceptual consciousness. One of these implications concerns the extent to which the devices allow distal attribution. The present study applies a classic empirical approach on the perception of affordances to the field of sensory substitution. The reported experiment considers the perception of the stair-climbing affordance. Participants judged the climbability of steps apprehended through a vibrotactile sensory substitution device. If measured with standard metric units, climbability judgments of tall and short participants differed, but if measured in units of leg length, judgments did not differ. These results are similar to paradigmatic results in regular visual perception. We conclude that our sensory substitution device allows the perception of affordances. More generally, we argue that the theory of affordances may enrich theoretical debates concerning sensory substitution to a larger extent than has hitherto been the case. PMID:26587958

  8. Sensory sensitivities and performance on sensory perceptual tasks in high-functioning individuals with autism

    PubMed Central

    Minshew, Nancy J.; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive reports of sensory symptoms in autism, there is little empirical support for their neurological basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical comparison participants were administered a sensory questionnaire and standardized neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two per cent of participants with autism endorsed more sensory sensitivity items than any of the participants in the comparison group. On the sensory perceptual exam, both groups made few errors on elementary sensory perception items. Controls made few errors on higher cortical sensory perception items, but 30% of the participants with autism made high numbers of errors, though there was no evidence of the neglect syndrome. There was little correlation between the sensory sensitivities and the sensory perceptual deficits, likely due to the low correspondence between the measures. These results support the common occurrence of disturbances in sensory experiences in high functioning individuals with autism based on first person report, and the presence of neurological abnormalities in higher cortical sensory perception. PMID:18302014

  9. Effect of amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) on the technological and sensory quality of bread wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Cristina S; Ribotta, Pablo D; Añón, María Cristina; León, Alberto E

    2014-03-01

    The technological and sensory quality of pasta made from bread wheat flour substituted with wholemeal amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) at four levels, 15, 30, 40 and 50% w/w was investigated. The quality of the resulted pasta was compared to that of control pasta made from bread wheat flour. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition and pasting properties. Cooking behavior, color, raw and cooked pasta texture, scanning electron microscopy and sensory evaluation were determined on samples. The pasta obtained from amaranth flour showed some detriment of the technological and sensory quality. So, a maximum substitution level of 30% w/w was defined. This is an equilibrium point between an acceptable pasta quality and the improved nutritional and functional properties from the incorporation of amaranth flour. PMID:23733824

  10. Nutritional and sensory profile of two Indian rice varieties with different degrees of polishing.

    PubMed

    Shobana, S; Malleshi, N G; Sudha, V; Spiegelman, D; Hong, B; Hu, F B; Willett, W C; Krishnaswamy, K; Mohan, V

    2011-12-01

    Traditional hand-pounded rice has been replaced today with highly polished white rice in the Asian Indian diets. The study aimed to evaluate the nutritional as well as the sensory differences between the brown (0% polish) and the rice milled to different degrees of polish (2.3, 4.4 and 8.0%). Bapatla and Uma (red pigmented) varieties in both raw and parboiled forms were used. The protein, fat, dietary fibre, γ-oryzanol, polyphenols, vitamin E, total antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging abilities of the brown rice decreased while the available carbohydrates increased with polishing. Sensory attributes of the cooked rice samples (whiteness, grain intactness, fluffiness, firmness, stickiness, chewiness and the cooked rice aroma) were evaluated by trained panelists. Scores for branny taste and chewiness decreased with polishing. On the whole, brown rice of both the varieties was readily accepted by the well-informed sensory trained panelists. PMID:21619458

  11. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V

    MedlinePlus

    ... that primarily affects the sensory nerve cells (sensory neurons), which transmit information about sensations such as pain, ... in the development and survival of nerve cells (neurons), including sensory neurons. The NGFβ protein functions by ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... that primarily affects the sensory nerve cells (sensory neurons), which transmit information about sensations such as pain, ... the sensations of pain, temperature, and touch (sensory neurons). The mutations involved in HSAN2A result in an ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... PDF Open All Close All Description Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA is a condition characterized by nerve ...

  14. Maple syrup-production, composition, chemistry, and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Timothy D; van den Berg, Abby K

    2009-01-01

    Maple syrup is made from sap exuded from stems of the genus Acer during the springtime. Sap is a dilute solution of primarily water and sucrose, with varying amounts of amino and organic acids and phenolic substances. When concentrated, usually by heating, a series of complex reactions produce a wide variety of flavor compounds that vary due to processing and other management factors, seasonal changes in sap chemistry, and microbial contamination. Color also forms during thermal evaporation. Flavor and color together are the primary factors determining maple syrup grade, and syrup can range from very light-colored and delicate-flavored to very dark-colored and strong-flavored. PMID:19389608

  15. Sensory characterization of doda burfi (Indian milk cake) using Principal Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Rekha; Patil, Girdhari Ramdas; Singh, Ashish Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Traditional sweetmeats of various countries hold a great and promising scope in their improvement and in order to tap the potential of the same, several companies and co-operative federations have started their organized production. Doda burfi, a heat desiccated and popular sweetmeat of northern India, is one of the regional specific, unfamiliarized products of India. The typical sweetmeat is characterized by caramelized and nutty flavour and granular texture. The purpose of this study was to determine the close relationship among various sensory attributes of the product collected from renowned manufacturers located in four different cities and to characterize an overall acceptable product. Individuals from academia participated in a round table discussion to generate descriptive terms related to colour and appearance, flavour and texture. Prior to sensory evaluation, sensory panel was trained and briefed about the terminology used to judge the product involving a descriptive intensity scale of 100 points for describing major sensory attributes. Results were analyzed using ANOVA and principal component analysis. Correlation table indicated a good degree of positive association between the attributes such as glossy appearance, dark colour, caramelized and nutty flavour and cohesive and chewy texture with the overall acceptability of the product. PMID:24587532

  16. Emotional influences on food choice: sensory, physiological and psychological pathways.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Edward Leigh

    2006-08-30

    Sensory, physiological and psychological mechanisms are reviewed that underlie emotional influences on food choice. Both moods and emotions are considered. Eating a meal will reliably alter mood and emotional predisposition, typically reducing arousal and irritability, and increasing calmness and positive affect. However, this depends on the meal size and composition being close to the eater's habit, expectations and needs. Unusual meals--e.g. too small, unhealthy--may negatively affect mood. Sweetness, and sensory cues to high energy density, such as fatty texture, can improve mood and mitigate effects of stress via brain opioidergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. However, adaptation in these pathways, perhaps enhanced by inherited sensitivity, with chronic exposure to such sensory qualities, could lead to overeating of energy-dense foods and consequent obesity. Sweet, fatty foods low in protein may also provide alleviation from stress in vulnerable people via enhanced function of the serotonergic system. Moreover, in rats, such foods seem to act as part of a feedback loop, via release of glucocorticoid hormones and insulin, to restrain activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis during stress. However, this effect is also associated with abdominal obesity. In humans, a number of psychological characteristics predict the tendency to choose such foods when stressed, such as restrained or emotional eating, neuroticism, depression and premenstrual dysphoria, all of which could indicate neurophysiological sensitivity to reinforcing effects of such foods. Greater understanding of such predictive traits and the underlying mechanisms could lead to tailoring of diet to meet personal emotional needs. PMID:16545403

  17. Modeling Inhibitory Interneurons in Efficient Sensory Coding Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mengchen; Rozell, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    There is still much unknown regarding the computational role of inhibitory cells in the sensory cortex. While modeling studies could potentially shed light on the critical role played by inhibition in cortical computation, there is a gap between the simplicity of many models of sensory coding and the biological complexity of the inhibitory subpopulation. In particular, many models do not respect that inhibition must be implemented in a separate subpopulation, with those inhibitory interneurons having a diversity of tuning properties and characteristic E/I cell ratios. In this study we demonstrate a computational framework for implementing inhibition in dynamical systems models that better respects these biophysical observations about inhibitory interneurons. The main approach leverages recent work related to decomposing matrices into low-rank and sparse components via convex optimization, and explicitly exploits the fact that models and input statistics often have low-dimensional structure that can be exploited for efficient implementations. While this approach is applicable to a wide range of sensory coding models (including a family of models based on Bayesian inference in a linear generative model), for concreteness we demonstrate the approach on a network implementing sparse coding. We show that the resulting implementation stays faithful to the original coding goals while using inhibitory interneurons that are much more biophysically plausible. PMID:26172289

  18. Cerebellar associative sensory learning defects in five mouse autism models

    PubMed Central

    Kloth, Alexander D; Badura, Aleksandra; Li, Amy; Cherskov, Adriana; Connolly, Sara G; Giovannucci, Andrea; Bangash, M Ali; Grasselli, Giorgio; Peñagarikano, Olga; Piochon, Claire; Tsai, Peter T; Geschwind, Daniel H; Hansel, Christian; Sahin, Mustafa; Takumi, Toru; Worley, Paul F; Wang, Samuel S-H

    2015-01-01

    Sensory integration difficulties have been reported in autism, but their underlying brain-circuit mechanisms are underexplored. Using five autism-related mouse models, Shank3+/ΔC, Mecp2R308/Y, Cntnap2−/−, L7-Tsc1 (L7/Pcp2Cre::Tsc1flox/+), and patDp(15q11-13)/+, we report specific perturbations in delay eyeblink conditioning, a form of associative sensory learning requiring cerebellar plasticity. By distinguishing perturbations in the probability and characteristics of learned responses, we found that probability was reduced in Cntnap2−/−, patDp(15q11-13)/+, and L7/Pcp2Cre::Tsc1flox/+, which are associated with Purkinje-cell/deep-nuclear gene expression, along with Shank3+/ΔC. Amplitudes were smaller in L7/Pcp2Cre::Tsc1flox/+ as well as Shank3+/ΔC and Mecp2R308/Y, which are associated with granule cell pathway expression. Shank3+/ΔC and Mecp2R308/Y also showed aberrant response timing and reduced Purkinje-cell dendritic spine density. Overall, our observations are potentially accounted for by defects in instructed learning in the olivocerebellar loop and response representation in the granule cell pathway. Our findings indicate that defects in associative temporal binding of sensory events are widespread in autism mouse models. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06085.001 PMID:26158416

  19. Modeling Inhibitory Interneurons in Efficient Sensory Coding Models.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mengchen; Rozell, Christopher J

    2015-07-01

    There is still much unknown regarding the computational role of inhibitory cells in the sensory cortex. While modeling studies could potentially shed light on the critical role played by inhibition in cortical computation, there is a gap between the simplicity of many models of sensory coding and the biological complexity of the inhibitory subpopulation. In particular, many models do not respect that inhibition must be implemented in a separate subpopulation, with those inhibitory interneurons having a diversity of tuning properties and characteristic E/I cell ratios. In this study we demonstrate a computational framework for implementing inhibition in dynamical systems models that better respects these biophysical observations about inhibitory interneurons. The main approach leverages recent work related to decomposing matrices into low-rank and sparse components via convex optimization, and explicitly exploits the fact that models and input statistics often have low-dimensional structure that can be exploited for efficient implementations. While this approach is applicable to a wide range of sensory coding models (including a family of models based on Bayesian inference in a linear generative model), for concreteness we demonstrate the approach on a network implementing sparse coding. We show that the resulting implementation stays faithful to the original coding goals while using inhibitory interneurons that are much more biophysically plausible. PMID:26172289

  20. Application of principal component analysis (PCA) as a sensory assessment tool for fermented food products.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debasree; Chattopadhyay, Parimal

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the work was to use the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) to describe the sensory attributes of the fermented food products prepared with the incorporation of lactic cultures. Panellists were selected and trained to evaluate various attributes specially color and appearance, body texture, flavor, overall acceptability and acidity of the fermented food products like cow milk curd and soymilk curd, idli, sauerkraut and probiotic ice cream. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified the six significant principal components that accounted for more than 90% of the variance in the sensory attribute data. Overall product quality was modelled as a function of principal components using multiple least squares regression (R (2) = 0.8). The result from PCA was statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). These findings demonstrate the utility of quantitative descriptive analysis for identifying and measuring the fermented food product attributes that are important for consumer acceptability. PMID:23729852

  1. Flexibility and Stability in Sensory Processing Revealed Using Visual-to-Auditory Sensory Substitution.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Uri; Amedi, Amir

    2015-08-01

    The classical view of sensory processing involves independent processing in sensory cortices and multisensory integration in associative areas. This hierarchical structure has been challenged by evidence of multisensory responses in sensory areas, and dynamic weighting of sensory inputs in associative areas, thus far reported independently. Here, we used a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution algorithm (SSA) to manipulate the information conveyed by sensory inputs while keeping the stimuli intact. During scan sessions before and after SSA learning, subjects were presented with visual images and auditory soundscapes. The findings reveal 2 dynamic processes. First, crossmodal attenuation of sensory cortices changed direction after SSA learning from visual attenuations of the auditory cortex to auditory attenuations of the visual cortex. Secondly, associative areas changed their sensory response profile from strongest response for visual to that for auditory. The interaction between these phenomena may play an important role in multisensory processing. Consistent features were also found in the sensory dominance in sensory areas and audiovisual convergence in associative area Middle Temporal Gyrus. These 2 factors allow for both stability and a fast, dynamic tuning of the system when required. PMID:24518756

  2. Comparative Study on the Effects of Boiling, Steaming, Grilling, Microwaving and Superheated Steaming on Quality Characteristics of Marinated Chicken Steak

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Eun-Mi; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Hyun-Wook

    2016-01-01

    The effects of five different cooking methods (boiling, steaming, grilling, microwaving, and superheated steaming) on proximate composition, pH, color, cooking loss, textural properties, and sensory characteristics of chicken steak were studied. Moisture content and lightness value (L*-value) were higher in superheated steam cooked chicken steak than that of the other cooking treatments such as boiling, steaming, grilling and microwaving cooking (p<0.05), whereas protein content, redness value (a*-value), hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of superheated steam cooked chicken steak was lower than that in the other cooking treatments (p<0.05). Fat content and ash content, springiness, and cohesiveness were not significantly different among the chicken steak cooked using various methods (p>0.05). Among the sensory characteristics, tenderness score, juiciness score and overall acceptability score were the highest for the superheated steam samples (p<0.05), whereas no difference in flavor scores were observed among the other treatments (p>0.05). These results show that marinated chicken steak treated with superheated steam in a preheated 250℃ oven and 380℃ steam for 5 min until core temperature reached 75℃ improved the quality characteristics and sensory properties the best. Therefore, superheated steam was useful to improve cooked chicken steak. PMID:27499656

  3. Comparative Study on the Effects of Boiling, Steaming, Grilling, Microwaving and Superheated Steaming on Quality Characteristics of Marinated Chicken Steak.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Eun-Mi; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effects of five different cooking methods (boiling, steaming, grilling, microwaving, and superheated steaming) on proximate composition, pH, color, cooking loss, textural properties, and sensory characteristics of chicken steak were studied. Moisture content and lightness value (L*-value) were higher in superheated steam cooked chicken steak than that of the other cooking treatments such as boiling, steaming, grilling and microwaving cooking (p<0.05), whereas protein content, redness value (a*-value), hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of superheated steam cooked chicken steak was lower than that in the other cooking treatments (p<0.05). Fat content and ash content, springiness, and cohesiveness were not significantly different among the chicken steak cooked using various methods (p>0.05). Among the sensory characteristics, tenderness score, juiciness score and overall acceptability score were the highest for the superheated steam samples (p<0.05), whereas no difference in flavor scores were observed among the other treatments (p>0.05). These results show that marinated chicken steak treated with superheated steam in a preheated 250℃ oven and 380℃ steam for 5 min until core temperature reached 75℃ improved the quality characteristics and sensory properties the best. Therefore, superheated steam was useful to improve cooked chicken steak. PMID:27499656

  4. Electromagnetic Characterization Of Metallic Sensory Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A.; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

  5. Understanding the sensory irregularities of esophageal disease.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Adam D; Brock, Christina; Frøkjaer, Jens Brøndum; Gregersen, Hans; Khan, Sheeba; Lelic, Dina; Lottrup, Christian; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2016-08-01

    Symptoms relating to esophageal sensory abnormalities can be encountered in the clinical environment. Such sensory abnormalities may be present in demonstrable disease, such as erosive esophagitis, and in the ostensibly normal esophagus, such as non-erosive reflux disease or functional chest pain. In this review, the authors discuss esophageal sensation and the esophageal pain system. In addition, the authors provide a primer concerning the techniques that are available for investigating the autonomic nervous system, neuroimaging and neurophysiology of esophageal sensory function. Such technological advances, whilst not readily available in the clinic may facilitate the stratification and individualization of therapy in disorders of esophageal sensation in the future. PMID:26890720

  6. Electromagnetic characterization of metallic sensory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl; Newman, Andy; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

  7. Quality Characteristics of Stirred Yoghurt Added with Fermented Red Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mi-Sang; Kim, Jeong-Mee; Lee, Chi-Ho; Son, Yoon-Jeong; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Pungency of hot pepper has limited its usage even though it shows various health beneficial effects. This study was conducted to develop the novel yoghurt containing hot pepper with diminishing pungency and aimed to examine the quality characteristics of yoghurt prepared with fermented red pepper. Hot pepper was first fermented with Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 to reduce the pungency of capsaicin. We then examined the quality, sensory characteristics, and antioxidant activity of yoghurt containing the fermented red pepper. The titratable acidity of this yoghurt increased whereas the viscosity decreased with increasing amounts of added red pepper. The total polyphenol content increased in proportion to the amount of added red pepper. The antioxidant activity significantly increased with the addition of red pepper (p<0.05). Color evaluation showed that the L value decreased whereas the a and b values increased significantly with the amount of red pepper added (p<0.05). In the sensory evaluation, yoghurt prepared with higher amounts of fermented red pepper received lower scores. However, yoghurt containing fermented red pepper at a concentration of 0.05% received higher scores for taste, flavor, and overall acceptability than yoghurt prepared with non-fermented pepper. Therefore, it can be concluded that the application of red pepper fermented by Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 gives beneficial feature to the preparation of yoghurt. PMID:26761278

  8. Facial variations in sensory responses.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Marie; Whittle, Ed; Basketter, David A

    2003-11-01

    Subjective effects such as stinging, itching and burning commonly occur in the absence of any visible irritation and give rise to discomfort, which may be enough to deter an individual from using even the most effective of skin care products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of different anatomical regions of the face to determine which region displayed the most intense stinging response to the application of lactic acid. The effect of occlusion on the level of response was also investigated. 45 volunteers were treated with 10% lactic acid on the nasolabial fold, forehead, chin and cheek, occluded and unoccluded for 8 min. Sensory reactions were recorded at 2.5, 5 and 8 min. The response levels on the occluded sites were always significantly lower than on the unoccluded sites, despite the dose per unit area being comparable. Females showed a trend towards being more sensitive to the subjective effects elicited by lactic acid than males, but these results were not conclusive. Interestingly, there was not a complete correlation between individuals who reacted on the nasolabial fold and the other sites, particularly the forehead. A positive stinging response on the nasolabial fold may not necessarily predict subjective responses to a product when used on other areas of the face. PMID:14996043

  9. Primary reactions of sensory rhodopsins

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, I.; Sieg, A.; Wegener, A. A.; Engelhard, M.; Boche, I.; Otsuka, M.; Oesterhelt, D.; Wachtveitl, J.; Zinth, W.

    2001-01-01

    The first steps in the photocycles of the archaeal photoreceptor proteins sensory rhodopsin (SR) I and II from Halobacterium salinarum and SRII from Natronobacterium pharaonis have been studied by ultrafast pump/probe spectroscopy and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. The data for both species of the blue-light receptor SRII suggests that their primary reactions are nearly analogous with a fast decay of the excited electronic state in 300–400 fs and a transition between two red-shifted product states in 4–5 ps. Thus SRII behaves similarly to bacteriorhodopsin. In contrast for SRI at pH 6.0, which absorbs in the orange part of the spectrum, a strongly increased fluorescence quantum yield and a drastically slower and biexponential decay of the excited electronic state occurring on the picosecond time scale (5 ps and 33 ps) is observed. The results suggest that the primary reactions are controlled by the charge distribution in the vicinity of the Schiff base and demonstrate that there is no direct connection between absorption properties and reaction dynamics for the retinal protein family. PMID:11158578

  10. Effect of gamma radiation on the reduction of Salmonella strains, Listeria monocytogenes, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and sensory evaluation of minimally processed spinach (Tetragonia expansa).

    PubMed

    Rezende, Ana Carolina B; Igarashi, Maria Crystina; Destro, Maria Teresa; Franco, Bernadette D G M; Landgraf, Mariza

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of irradiation on the reduction of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Salmonella strains, and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as on the sensory characteristics of minimally processed spinach. Spinach samples were inoculated with a cocktail of three strains each of STEC, Salmonella strains, and L. monocytogenes, separately, and were exposed to gamma radiation doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 kGy. Samples that were exposed to 0.0, 1.0, and 1.5 kGy and kept under refrigeration (4°C) for 12 days were submitted to sensory analysis. D10 -values ranged from 0.19 to 0.20 kGy for Salmonella and from 0.20 to 0.21 for L. monocytogenes; for STEC, the value was 0.17 kGy. Spinach showed good acceptability, even after exposure to 1.5 kGy. Because gamma radiation reduced the selected pathogens without causing significant changes in the quality of spinach leaves, it may be a useful method to improve safety in the fresh produce industry. PMID:25285495

  11. "Chilled" pork--Part II. Consumer perception of sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Ngapo, T M; Riendeau, L; Laberge, C; Fortin, J

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare consumer perception of the sensory quality of grilled Canadian pork destined for Japanese and domestic markets, with particular reference to export selection criteria imposed by Japanese importers and transportation conditions. Consumers from Quebec, Canada tasted local and export quality pork subjected to "chilled" (aged 43 days at -1.7 °C) or conventional ageing (5 days at 3.1 °C). Consumers' scores (out of 10) were higher (P<0.05) in the "chilled" than conventionally aged pork for tenderness (6.8 vs 5.7), juiciness (6.6 vs 6.0), taste liking (6.4 vs 5.9) and overall acceptability (6.7 vs 6.1). When informed that the conventionally aged, domestic quality pork was destined for the domestic market, consumer scores increased significantly (P<0.05). No effect of information was observed on the perception of the 'chilled' export quality meat, perhaps a consequence of the high sensory quality observed prior to labelling. PMID:22647653

  12. An exploration of sensory and movement differences from the perspective of individuals with autism

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, Jodi; Donnellan, Anne M.; Strandt-Conroy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Parents, teachers, and people who themselves experience sensory and movement differences have consistently reported disturbances of sensation and movement associated with autism. Our review of the literature has revealed both historical and recent references to and research about sensory and movement difference characteristics and symptoms for individuals with autism. What is notably infrequent in this literature, however, is research that highlights the perspective of the individual with autism. If we wish to truly understand the experience of sensory and movement differences for individuals with autism, we must explore their experiences and perspectives. This study presents a qualitative analysis of more than 40 h in-depth inquiry into the lives of five individuals with the autism label. Data were sorted into six categories: perception, action, posture, emotion, communication, and cognition. The insights into sensory and movement differences and autism offered by these individuals was illuminating. We found that the data strongly supported the presence of disruption of organization and regulation of sensory and movement differences in the lived experience of these participants with autism. The present data suggests that in autism this disruption of organization and regulation is amplified in terms of quantity, quality, intensity, and may affect everyday life. These data contribute to a more expansive view of autism that incorporates the possibility that autism is a disorder that affects motor planning, behavior, communication, the sensory motor system, and the dynamic interaction of all of these. PMID:23162446

  13. Effect of sex and carcass weight on sensory quality of goat meat of Cabrito Transmontano.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, S; Teixeira, A

    2009-02-01

    The main purpose of this work was the characterization of Cabrito Transmontana goat kid carcass and meat, which is a Protected Origin Designation product. The effects of sex and carcass weight were studied. Sensory attributes of toughness, juiciness, flavor intensity, flavor quality, odor intensity, fiber presence (stringy), sweet intensity, and overall acceptability were evaluated in 60 males and females allocated to 3 carcass weight groups: 4, 6, and 8 kg. Sensory quality of meat was evaluated by a trained taste panel of 11 experts in 5 sessions. Generalized Procrustes analysis was performed, and 93% of total variability was explained by the 2 first factors (axes). Correlation between sensory traits and factors 1 and 2 allowed the factors to be renamed as toughness/aroma and juiciness/acceptability, respectively. Procrustes analysis indicated that a sex effect was detected by experts. Meat from males presented greater juiciness, flavor quality, and general acceptability than did meat from females. Cabrito Transmontano Protected Origin Designation includes animals from 4 to 9 kg of carcass weight. However, differences among them can be important, because the taste panel found differences between animals from distinct carcass weight ranges. Lighter weight carcasses were considered more tender with less flavor and odor intensity than heavier carcasses. PMID:18849382

  14. Specialized Cilia in Mammalian Sensory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Nathalie; Lösl, Marlene; Schröder, Nadja; Gießl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cilia and flagella are highly conserved and important microtubule-based organelles that project from the surface of eukaryotic cells and act as antennae to sense extracellular signals. Moreover, cilia have emerged as key players in numerous physiological, developmental, and sensory processes such as hearing, olfaction, and photoreception. Genetic defects in ciliary proteins responsible for cilia formation, maintenance, or function underlie a wide array of human diseases like deafness, anosmia, and retinal degeneration in sensory systems. Impairment of more than one sensory organ results in numerous syndromic ciliary disorders like the autosomal recessive genetic diseases Bardet-Biedl and Usher syndrome. Here we describe the structure and distinct functional roles of cilia in sensory organs like the inner ear, the olfactory epithelium, and the retina of the mouse. The spectrum of ciliary function in fundamental cellular processes highlights the importance of elucidating ciliopathy-related proteins in order to find novel potential therapies. PMID:26378583

  15. Variance predicts salience in central sensory processing.

    PubMed

    Hermundstad, Ann M; Briguglio, John J; Conte, Mary M; Victor, Jonathan D; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Tkačik, Gašper

    2014-01-01

    Information processing in the sensory periphery is shaped by natural stimulus statistics. In the periphery, a transmission bottleneck constrains performance; thus efficient coding implies that natural signal components with a predictably wider range should be compressed. In a different regime--when sampling limitations constrain performance--efficient coding implies that more resources should be allocated to informative features that are more variable. We propose that this regime is relevant for sensory cortex when it extracts complex features from limited numbers of sensory samples. To test this prediction, we use central visual processing as a model: we show that visual sensitivity for local multi-point spatial correlations, described by dozens of independently-measured parameters, can be quantitatively predicted from the structure of natural images. This suggests that efficient coding applies centrally, where it extends to higher-order sensory features and operates in a regime in which sensitivity increases with feature variability. PMID:25396297

  16. Influence of Subtropical Region Strawberry Cultivars on Jelly Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Curi, Paula Nogueira; de Sousa Tavares, Bruna; de Almeida, Aline Botelho; Pio, Rafael; Peche, Pedro Maranha; de Souza, Vanessa Rios

    2016-06-01

    At the end of the production period of strawberries grown in subtropical regions, postharvest durability is severely diminished due to rising temperatures which compromises the commercialization of fresh fruit. An ideal option would be to process strawberries in the form of preserves, jams, and jellies. Along this line it becomes extremely important to conduct a survey of which cultivars grown in subtropical regions are more suitable for processing in the form of jelly, as well as to understand what the consumer profile is for this product. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different strawberry cultivars grown in subtropical regions of Brazil (Camarosa, Festival, San Andreas, Oso Grande, Camino Real, and Albion) on the physicochemical characteristics, rheological properties and sensory acceptance of the resulting jelly in order to identify cultivars with the greatest potential for industrial use. The strawberry cultivars presented different physicochemical characteristics which resulted in jellies with different physicochemical and rheological characteristics. In this study, however, we verified that all cultivars have potential to be processed in the form of jelly due to good acceptance of all formulations prepared. In general consumers prefer a lighter-colored strawberry jelly, with a less intense red color, more acidic, and less consistent/firm. PMID:27115540

  17. A layered network model of sensory cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated computational approach to modeling sensory systems which couples realistic layered neural models of sensory cortex and midbrain nuclei to detailed models of the sense organs (e.g., retina or cochlea) is described. The approach is applied to the auditory system. Through an exercise of the model, it is shown that spatial location of sounds may be a natural consequence of the way cochlear response is mapped onto the cortex. 31 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Accepters and Rejecters of Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Harriett A.; Elton, Charles F.

    Personality differences between students who accept or reject proffered counseling assistance were investigated by comparing personality traits of 116 male students at the University of Kentucky who accepted or rejected letters of invitation to group counseling. Factor analysis of Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) scores to two groups of 60 and…

  19. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  20. Anthropogenic noise affects behavior across sensory modalities.

    PubMed

    Kunc, Hansjoerg P; Lyons, Gillian N; Sigwart, Julia D; McLaughlin, Kirsty E; Houghton, Jonathan D R

    2014-10-01

    Many species are currently experiencing anthropogenically driven environmental changes. Among these changes, increasing noise levels are specifically a problem for species using acoustic signals (i.e., species relying on signals that use the same sensory modality as anthropogenic noise). Yet many species use other sensory modalities, such as visual and olfactory signals, to communicate. However, we have only little understanding of whether changes in the acoustic environment affect species that use sensory modalities other than acoustic signals. We studied the impact of anthropogenic noise on the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, which uses highly complex visual signals. We showed that cuttlefish adjusted their visual displays by changing their color more frequently during a playback of anthropogenic noise, compared with before and after the playback. Our results provide experimental evidence that anthropogenic noise has a marked effect on the behavior of species that are not reliant on acoustic communication. Thus, interference in one sensory channel, in this case the acoustic one, affects signaling in other sensory channels. By considering sensory channels in isolation, we risk overlooking the broader implications of environmental changes for the behavior of animals. PMID:25226190

  1. 16 CFR 1616.4 - Sampling and acceptance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... color or print pattern to be included in the unit. (3) Garments with different trim and findings may be... except for size, color, and print pattern. (4) For fabrics whose flammability characteristics are not... assure that the design characteristics of the garment are acceptable. Garment production units...

  2. A comparative study of sensory processing in children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder in the home and classroom environments.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Andrés, Ma Inmaculada; Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Sanz-Cervera, Pilar; Tárraga-Mínguez, Raúl

    2015-03-01

    Sensory processing and higher integrative functions impairments are highly prevalent in children with ASD. Context should be considered in analyzing the sensory profile and higher integrative functions. The main objective of this study is to compare sensory processing, social participation and praxis in a group of 79 children (65 males and 14 females) from 5 to 8 years of age (M=6.09) divided into two groups: ASD Group (n=41) and Comparison Group (n=38). The Sensory Processing Measure (SPM) was used to evaluate the sensory profile of the children: parents reported information about their children's characteristics in the home environment, and teachers reported information about the same characteristics in the classroom environment. The ASD Group obtained scores that indicate higher levels of dysfunction on all the assessed measures in both environments, with the greatest differences obtained on the social participation and praxis variables. The most affected sensory modalities in the ASD Group were hearing and touch. Only in the ASD Group were significant differences found between the information reported by parents and what was reported by teachers: specifically, the teachers reported greater dysfunction than the parents in social participation (p=.000), touch (p=.003) and praxis (p=.010). These results suggest that the context-specific qualities found in children with ASD point out the need to receive information from both parents and teachers during the sensory profile assessment process, and use context-specific assessments. PMID:25575284

  3. How the Addition of Spices and Herbs to Virgin Olive Oil to Produce Flavored Oils Affects Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Issaoui, Manel; Flamini, Guido; Souid, Sondess; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Gharbi, Ines; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    With the aim to expand the olive oil market to a larger number of consumers who are not familiar with the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil, the use of novel products known as "flavored olive oils", obtained by adding different kind of spices and aromatic herbs, is spreading in many countries. In order to test consumer acceptability of this type of product, in a country (Tunisia) in which virgin olive oil is regularly consumed, flavored olive oils were prepared by adding aromatic extracts of thyme, oregano, a mix of herbs (used as pizza seasoning), rosemary, and basil to a monovarietal Chemlali virgin olive oil and a consumer test on 206 subjects was performed. Selected quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide number, oxidative stability, specific absorption at K232 nm and K270 nm) were also measured and no significant variations were detected. Slight differences were found concerning the content of minor compounds (chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols). On the other hand, notable differences were seen in the profiles of volatile compounds, which appeared to be responsible for the observed variability in consumer acceptance. Although the unflavored oil was more appreciated than the flavored ones, among the latter, thyme flavored olive oil was the most appreciated. PMID:27534114

  4. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  5. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  6. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  7. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  8. 38 CFR 17.149 - Sensori-neural aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sensori-neural aids. 17... Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.149 Sensori-neural aids. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, VA will furnish needed sensori-neural aids (i.e., eyeglasses, contact...

  9. A comparative analysis of acceptance by Japanese females and price of goat milk from different sources.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Takeyuki; Takada, Ruriko; Nishitani, Jiro; Fujita, Masaru; Blair, Hugh T

    2010-04-01

    A sensory survey was carried out using 4 different types of whole goat milk among middle-class females to investigate consumer acceptability of goat milk and whether there is an opportunity to expand the sale of goat milk products in Japan. Four different types of whole milk powder (domestic concentrate-fed, domestic pasture-fed, USA commercially canned, and New Zealand commercially canned) were used. Fresh cow milk was served as a control. Thirty-one housewives evaluated the 5 liquid milk samples for smell, taste and overall characteristics on a scale of 1 (low) to 3 (high). Chi-square analyses were carried out to detect significant differences between the milk types in each category. The goat milk from the USA was the most preferred goat milk with respect to smell and overall evaluation. Domestic pasture-fed milk received the lowest grade in the evaluation for its 'grassy and goaty' smell. This result shows us that pasture intake affects the taste and smell of powdered milk which gives the lowest evaluation by the participants. If Japanese goat milk producers want to be successful in the domestic goat milk market and compete against goat milk products from other countries, they should improve production methods and flavor of their products. PMID:20438510

  10. Consumers' perception and acceptance of boiled and fermented sausages from strongly boar tainted meat.

    PubMed

    Meier-Dinkel, Lisa; Gertheiss, Jan; Schnäckel, Wolfram; Mörlein, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Characteristic off-flavours may occur in uncastrated male pigs depending on the accumulation of androstenone and skatole. Feasible processing of strongly tainted carcasses is challenging but gains in importance due to the European ban on piglet castration in 2018. This paper investigates consumers' acceptability of two sausage types: (a) emulsion-type (BOILED) and (b) smoked raw-fermented (FERM). Liking (9 point scales) and flavour perception (check-all-that-apply with both, typical and negatively connoted sensory terms) were evaluated by 120 consumers (within-subject design). Proportion of tainted boar meat (0, 50, 100%) affected overall liking of BOILED, F (2, 238)=23.22, P<.001, but not of FERM sausages, F (2, 238)=0.89, P=.414. Consumers described the flavour of BOILED-100 as strong and sweaty. In conclusion, FERM products seem promising for processing of tainted carcasses whereas formulations must be optimized for BOILED in order to eliminate perceptible off-flavours. Boar taint rejection thresholds may be higher for processed than those suggested for unprocessed meat cuts. PMID:27038338

  11. Gluten-free spaghetti with unripe plantain, chickpea and maize: physicochemical, texture and sensory properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the physicochemical, textural and sensorial characteristics of gluten-free spaghetti elaborated with unripe plantain, chickpea and maize flours. Luminosity (L*) of the uncooked gluten-free spaghetti was not significantly different from control sampl...

  12. Prediction of Participation and Sensory Modulation of Late Preterm Infants at 12 Months: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, O.; Shayevits, S.; Gabis, L. V.; Morag, I.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to prospectively assess the differences in participation and sensory modulation between late preterm infants (LPI) and term babies, and to predict it by LPI characteristics. The study population includes 124 late preterm infants at gestational age between 34 and 35 6/7 weeks who were born at the same medical center. The…

  13. Sensory Impairments and Autism: A Re-Examination of Causal Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Sue; Rugg, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Sensory impairments are widely reported in autism, but remain largely unexplained by existing models. This article examines Kanner's causal reasoning and identifies unsupported assumptions implicit in later empirical work. Our analysis supports a heterogeneous causal model for autistic characteristics. We propose that the development of a…

  14. The Applicability of the Short Sensory Profile for Screening Sensory Processing Disorders among Israeli Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel-Yeger, Batya

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the applicability of the short sensory profile (SSP) for screening sensory processing disorders (SPDs) among typical children in Israel, and to evaluate the relationship between SPDs and socio-demographic parameters. Participants were 395 Israeli children, aged 3 years to 10 years 11 months, with typical…

  15. Learning about Sensory Integration Dysfunction: Strategies to Meet Young Children's Sensory Needs at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stacy D.; Rains, Kari W.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners and parents are seeking ways to help children who are not able to integrate sensory information; this has generated recent media attention. A child's inability to integrate sensory information can have implications for the whole family and their everyday routines. Research conducted by occupational therapists has provided a rich…

  16. Microbicide acceptability research: current approaches and future directions.

    PubMed

    Mantell, Joanne E; Myer, Landon; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Stein, Zena; Ramjee, Gita; Morar, Neetha S; Harrison, Polly F

    2005-01-01

    With growing recognition of the potential value of microbicides for HIV/STI prevention, the importance of the acceptability of this brand-new technology has been widely acknowledged. We review the current body of microbicide acceptability research, characterize the limitations in assessment approaches, and suggest strategies for improvement. Electronic databases and abstracts of recent meetings were searched for acceptability data regarding vaginal and rectal products that may be used for HIV prevention. Of the 61 studies reviewed, more than half assessed acceptability based primarily on the description of a hypothetical microbicide, or with the demonstration of a spermicide or lubricant. Physical characteristics of microbicidal products, their effects after insertion, and their effects on sensation during intercourse (for both partners) were the dimensions most frequently assessed (measured in 77%, 49% and 49% of studies, respectively). Attention to the social context of use was inadequate. As acceptability is likely to be a key determinant in the use-effectiveness of microbicides, in-depth understanding of the social processes that shape microbicide acceptability across diverse populations will become increasingly valuable. This includes exploring the effects that sexual partners, health care providers, and key opinion leaders have on the acceptability of microbicides among women and men, including youth and people living with HIV. Future research will benefit from studies of the acceptability of other contraceptive-barrier methods (especially the female condom), use of an agreed-upon operationalization of acceptability, use of acceptability assessments within clinical trials, expansion of measurement domains, and assessment of changes in perceptions of acceptability and use over time. Failure to understand the key factors associated with microbicide acceptability is likely to hinder the adoption and continued use of products that are effective in preventing HIV

  17. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  18. L-286 Acceptance Test Record

    SciTech Connect

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-14

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  19. Transcriptional regulation of cranial sensory placode development.

    PubMed

    Moody, Sally A; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Cranial sensory placodes derive from discrete patches of the head ectoderm and give rise to numerous sensory structures. During gastrulation, a specialized "neural border zone" forms around the neural plate in response to interactions between the neural and nonneural ectoderm and signals from adjacent mesodermal and/or endodermal tissues. This zone subsequently gives rise to two distinct precursor populations of the peripheral nervous system: the neural crest and the preplacodal ectoderm (PPE). The PPE is a common field from which all cranial sensory placodes arise (adenohypophyseal, olfactory, lens, trigeminal, epibranchial, otic). Members of the Six family of transcription factors are major regulators of PPE specification, in partnership with cofactor proteins such as Eya. Six gene activity also maintains tissue boundaries between the PPE, neural crest, and epidermis by repressing genes that specify the fates of those adjacent ectodermally derived domains. As the embryo acquires anterior-posterior identity, the PPE becomes transcriptionally regionalized, and it subsequently becomes subdivided into specific placodes with distinct developmental fates in response to signaling from adjacent tissues. Each placode is characterized by a unique transcriptional program that leads to the differentiation of highly specialized cells, such as neurosecretory cells, sensory receptor cells, chemosensory neurons, peripheral glia, and supporting cells. In this review, we summarize the transcriptional and signaling factors that regulate key steps of placode development, influence subsequent sensory neuron specification, and discuss what is known about mutations in some of the essential PPE genes that underlie human congenital syndromes. PMID:25662264

  20. Sensory reweighting dynamics in human postural control

    PubMed Central

    Peterka, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy humans control balance during stance by using an active feedback mechanism that generates corrective torque based on a combination of movement and orientation cues from visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. Previous studies found that the contribution of each of these sensory systems changes depending on perturbations applied during stance and on environmental conditions. The process of adjusting the sensory contributions to balance control is referred to as sensory reweighting. To investigate the dynamics of reweighting for the sensory modalities of vision and proprioception, 14 healthy young subjects were exposed to six different combinations of continuous visual scene and platform tilt stimuli while sway responses were recorded. Stimuli consisted of two components: 1) a pseudorandom component whose amplitude periodically switched between low and high amplitudes and 2) a low-amplitude sinusoidal component whose amplitude remained constant throughout a trial. These two stimuli were mathematically independent of one another and, thus, permitted separate analyses of sway responses to the two components. For all six stimulus combinations, the sway responses to the constant-amplitude sine were influenced by the changing amplitude of the pseudorandom component in a manner consistent with sensory reweighting. Results show clear evidence of intra- and intermodality reweighting. Reweighting dynamics were asymmetric, with slower reweighting dynamics following a high-to-low transition in the pseudorandom stimulus amplitude compared with low-to-high amplitude shifts, and were also slower for inter- compared with intramodality reweighting. PMID:24501263

  1. Sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Avanzino, Laura; Tinazzi, Michele; Ionta, Silvio; Fiorio, Mirta

    2015-12-01

    Traditional definitions of focal dystonia point to its motor component, mainly affecting planning and execution of voluntary movements. However, focal dystonia is tightly linked also to sensory dysfunction. Accurate motor control requires an optimal processing of afferent inputs from different sensory systems, in particular visual and somatosensory (e.g., touch and proprioception). Several experimental studies indicate that sensory-motor integration - the process through which sensory information is used to plan, execute, and monitor movements - is impaired in focal dystonia. The neural degenerations associated with these alterations affect not only the basal ganglia-thalamic-frontal cortex loop, but also the parietal cortex and cerebellum. The present review outlines the experimental studies describing impaired sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia, establishes their relationship with changes in specific neural mechanisms, and provides new insight towards the implementation of novel intervention protocols. Based on the reviewed state-of-the-art evidence, the theoretical framework summarized in the present article will not only result in a better understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, but it will also lead to the development of new rehabilitation strategies. PMID:26164472

  2. Evolution of sensory structures in basal metazoa.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Dave K; Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Yuan, David; Camara, Anthony; Nichols, Scott A; Hartenstein, Volker

    2007-11-01

    Cnidaria have traditionally been viewed as the most basal animals with complex, organ-like multicellular structures dedicated to sensory perception. However, sponges also have a surprising range of the genes required for sensory and neural functions in Bilateria. Here, we: (1) discuss "sense organ" regulatory genes, including; sine oculis, Brain 3, and eyes absent, that are expressed in cnidarian sense organs; (2) assess the sensory features of the planula, polyp, and medusa life-history stages of Cnidaria; and (3) discuss physiological and molecular data that suggest sensory and "neural" processes in sponges. We then develop arguments explaining the shared aspects of developmental regulation across sense organs and between sense organs and other structures. We focus on explanations involving divergent evolution from a common ancestral condition. In Bilateria, distinct sense-organ types share components of developmental-gene regulation. These regulators are also present in basal metazoans, suggesting evolution of multiple bilaterian organs from fewer antecedent sensory structures in a metazoan ancestor. More broadly, we hypothesize that developmental genetic similarities between sense organs and appendages may reflect descent from closely associated structures, or a composite organ, in the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria, and we argue that such similarities between bilaterian sense organs and kidneys may derive from a multifunctional aggregations of choanocyte-like cells in a metazoan ancestor. We hope these speculative arguments presented here will stimulate further discussion of these and related questions. PMID:21669752

  3. Sensory Coding in Oscillatory Peripheral Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiman, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Rhythmical activity have been observed in several types of peripheral sensory receptors, e.g. in senses of hearing, balance and electroreception. We use two examples of spontaneously oscillating peripheral sensory receptors: bullfrog saccular hair cells and electroreceptors of paddlefish, to discuss how oscillations emerge, how these sensors may utilize oscillations to optimize their sensitivity and information processing. In the hair cell system oscillations occur on two very different levels: first, the mechano-sensory hair bundle itself can undergo spontaneous mechanical oscillations and second, self-sustained voltage oscillations across the membrane of the hair cell have been documented. Modelling show that interaction of these two compartment results in enhanced sensitivity to periodic mechanical stimuli. The second example, a single peripheral electroreceptor, is a complex system comprised of several thousands of sensory epithelial cells innervated by a few primary sensory neurons. It embeds two distinct oscillators: one residing in a population of epithelial cells, synaptically coupled to another oscillator residing in a branched myelinated afferent axon. We show how neuronal oscillations emerge in a complex network of excitable nodes. We further demonstrate that epithelial oscillations results in extended serial correlations of neruonal discharges enhancing coding of external stimuli.

  4. Cellular and Network Mechanisms Underlying Information Processing in a Simple Sensory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Gwen; Henze, Chris; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Realistic, biophysically-based compartmental models were constructed of several primary sensory interneurons in the cricket cercal sensory system. A dynamic atlas of the afferent input to these cells was used to set spatio-temporal parameters for the simulated stimulus-dependent synaptic inputs. We examined the roles of dendritic morphology, passive membrane properties, and active conductances on the frequency tuning of the neurons. The sensitivity of narrow-band low pass interneurons could be explained entirely by the electronic structure of the dendritic arbors and the dynamic sensitivity of the SIZ. The dynamic characteristics of interneurons with higher frequency sensitivity required models with voltage-dependent dendritic conductances.

  5. Bilateral Sensory Abnormalities in Patients with Unilateral Neuropathic Pain; A Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) Study

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Karl-Heinz; Harbers, Marten; Houghton, Andrea; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Vliet, Andre; Timmerman, Wia; den Boer, Johan A.; Struys, Michel M.R.F.; van Wijhe, Marten

    2012-01-01

    In patients who experience unilateral chronic pain, abnormal sensory perception at the non-painful side has been reported. Contralateral sensory changes in these patients have been given little attention, possibly because they are regarded as clinically irrelevant. Still, bilateral sensory changes in these patients could become clinically relevant if they challenge the correct identification of their sensory dysfunction in terms of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Therefore, we have used the standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) to investigate somatosensory function at the painful side and the corresponding non-painful side in unilateral neuropathic pain patients using gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers as a reference cohort. Sensory abnormalities were observed across all QST parameters at the painful side, but also, to a lesser extent, at the contralateral, non-painful side. Similar relative distributions regarding sensory loss/gain for non-nociceptive and nociceptive stimuli were found for both sides. Once a sensory abnormality for a QST parameter at the affected side was observed, the prevalence of an abnormality for the same parameter at the non-affected side was as high as 57% (for Pressure Pain Threshold). Our results show that bilateral sensory dysfunction in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain is more rule than exception. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into account for appropriate diagnostic evaluation in clinical practice. This is particularly true for mechanical stimuli where the 95% Confidence Interval for the prevalence of sensory abnormalities at the non-painful side ranges between 33% and 50%. PMID:22629414

  6. Changes in sugar composition during baking and their effects on sensory attributes of baked sweet potatoes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chin-Feng; Chiang, Chih-Ming; Lai, Yung-Chang; Huang, Che-Lun; Kao, Shu-Chen; Liao, Wayne C

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of sugar composition on the sensory attributes of seven baked sweet potatoes. The sugar composition was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the total sugar content of baked sweet potatoes increased significantly because of the formation of maltose. The maltose content dramatically increased after baking, and became the major sugar component of baked sweet potatoes. On the other hand, baked sweet potatoes were evaluated on a 7-point hedonic scale for sensory analysis. Overall acceptability results showed that the panelists preferred baked CYY95-26 and TNG66 over the other baked varieties. Because the correlation between overall acceptability and sweetness was the highest (r = 0.69, p < 0.01), sweetness was determined as the most important factor determining the overall acceptability of baked sweet potatoes. Although sugar composition changed on baking, the overall acceptability of baked sweet potatoes was highly associated with the sucrose content. PMID:25477683

  7. Reduced fat and sugar vanilla ice creams: sensory profiling and external preference mapping.

    PubMed

    Cadena, R S; Cruz, A G; Faria, J A F; Bolini, H M A

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to map sensory attributes of vanilla ice cream with reduced fat and sugar, and (2) to determine drivers of liking by applying external preference mapping and reveal the relationship between descriptive attributes and hedonic judgments using the partial least squares method. Descriptive sensory profiles (n=11) and consumer test (n=117) of 6 samples of vanilla ice cream (3 traditional and 3 with reduced fat and sugar) were determined. The attributes brightness and sweet aftertaste for sample and creaminess (appearance and texture) and sweet aroma contributed positively to the acceptance of ice cream samples. The attributes aeration, powdered milk aroma and flavor, and white chocolate aroma and flavor contributed positively to the acceptance of the ice creams. The attributes hydrogenated fat aroma and flavor were responsible for the lower acceptance of samples. The reduction in fat and sugar did not necessarily cause a decrease in acceptance. The most important factors were selection of the appropriate sweetener system and the use of good quality raw material. PMID:22916888

  8. Improving the sensory quality of flavored liquid milk by engaging sensory analysis and consumer preference.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Ruicong; Zhao, Lei; Shi, Jingye

    2016-07-01

    Developing innovative products that satisfy various groups of consumers helps a company maintain a leading market share. The hedonic scale and just-about-right (JAR) scale are 2 popular methods for hedonic assessment and product diagnostics. In this paper, we chose to study flavored liquid milk because it is one of the most necessary nutrient sources in China. The hedonic scale and JAR scale methods were combined to provide directional information for flavored liquid milk optimization. Two methods of analysis (penalty analysis and partial least squares regression on dummy variables) were used and the results were compared. This paper had 2 aims: (1) to investigate consumer preferences of basic flavor attributes of milk from various cities in China; and (2) to determine the improvement direction for specific products and the ideal overall liking for consumers in various cities. The results showed that consumers in China have local-specific requirements for characteristics of flavored liquid milk. Furthermore, we provide a consumer-oriented product design method to improve sensory quality according to the preference of particular consumers. PMID:27108179

  9. The Integrated Development of Sensory Organization

    PubMed Central

    Lickliter, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis The natural environment provides a flux of concurrent stimulation to all our senses, and the integration of information from different sensory systems is a fundamental feature of perception and cognition. How information from the different senses is integrated has long been of concern to several scientific disciplines, including psychology, cognitive science, and the neurosciences, each with different questions and methodologies. In recent years, a growing body of evidence drawn from these various disciplines suggests that the development of early sensory organization is much more plastic and experience-dependent than was previously realized. In this article, I briefly explore some of these recent advances in our understanding of the development of sensory integration and organization and discuss implications of these advances for the care and management of the preterm infant. PMID:22107892

  10. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception. PMID:24549293

  11. Primary ciliary dyskinesia and associated sensory ciliopathies

    PubMed Central

    Horani, Amjad; Ferkol, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic disease of motile cilia, which belongs to a group of disorders resulting from dysfunction of cilia, collectively known as ciliopathies. Insights into the genetics and phenotypes of PCD have grown over the last decade, in part propagated by the discovery of a number of novel cilia-related genes. These genes encode proteins that segregate into structural axonemal, regulatory, as well as cytoplasmic assembly proteins. Our understanding of primary (sensory) cilia has also expanded, and an ever-growing list of diverse conditions has been linked to defective function and signaling of the sensory cilium. Recent multicenter clinical and genetic studies have uncovered the heterogeneity of motile and sensory ciliopathies, and in some cases, the overlap between these conditions. In this review, we will describe the genetics and pathophysiology of ciliopathies in children, focusing on PCD, review emerging genotype-phenotype relationships, and diagnostic tools available for the clinician. PMID:26967669

  12. Effects of diet on carcass quality and consumer taste panel acceptance of intact or castrated hair lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty hair-type lambs were examined in a 70-d study to determine the effects of gender (castrate; C vs. intact; I) and forage type on carcass traits and sensory acceptability. Lambs were procured from a single source in Missouri and one-half were randomly castrated. Lambs were randomly assigned to t...

  13. Cortical gating of oropharyngeal sensory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Wheeler-Hegland, Karen; Pitts, Teresa; Davenport, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials provide a measure of cortical neuronal activation in response to various types of sensory stimuli. In order to prevent flooding of the cortex with redundant information various sensory stimuli are gated cortically such that response to stimulus 2 (S2) is significantly reduced in amplitude compared to stimulus 1 (S1). Upper airway protective mechanisms, such as swallowing and cough, are dependent on sensory input for triggering and modifying their motor output. Thus, it was hypothesized that central neural gating would be absent for paired-air puff stimuli applied to the oropharynx. Twenty-three healthy adults (18-35 years) served as research participants. Pharyngeal sensory evoked potentials (PSEPs) were measured via 32-electrode cap (10-20 system) connected to SynAmps(2) Neuroscan EEG System. Paired-pulse air puffs were delivered with an inter-stimulus interval of 500 ms to the oropharynx using a thin polyethylene tube connected to a flexible laryngoscope. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a repeated measures analysis of variance. There were no significant differences found for the amplitudes S1 and S2 for any of the four component PSEP peaks. Mean gating ratios were above 0.90 for each peak. Results supports our hypothesis that sensory central neural gating would be absent for component PSEP peaks with paired-pulse stimuli delivered to the oropharynx. This may be related to the need for constant sensory monitoring necessary for adequate airway protection associated with swallowing and coughing. PMID:21423402

  14. Sensory roles of neuronal cilia: cilia development, morphogenesis, and function in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-Kyung; Barr, Maureen M

    2008-01-01

    In the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, cilia are found on the dendritic endings of sensory neurons. C. elegans cilia are classified as 'primary' or 'sensory' according to the '9+0' axonemal ultrastructure (nine doublet outer microtubules with no central microtubule pair) and lack of motility, characteristics of '9+2' cilia. The C. elegans ciliated nervous system allows the animal to perceive environmental stimuli and make appropriate developmental, physiological, and behavioral decisions. In vertebrates, the biological significance of primary cilia had been largely neglected. Recent findings have placed primary/sensory cilia in the center of cellular signaling and developmental processes. Studies using genetic model organisms such as C. elegans identified the link between ciliary dysfunction and human ciliopathies. Future studies in the worm will address important basic questions regarding ciliary development, morphogenesis, specialization, and signaling functions. PMID:18508635

  15. Effect of dried pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel powder (DPPP) on textural, organoleptic and nutritional characteristics of biscuits.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Prateeti; Indrani, D; Singh, R P

    2014-11-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel is rich source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, hence could be used in the development of functional food formulations. Attempt was made to see the effect of dried pomegranate peel powder (DPPP) and emulsifiers on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of biscuits. Incorporation of DPPP from 0 to 10% increased farinograph water absorption, decreased dough stability, increased amylograph pasting temperature and peak viscosity of wheat flour; increased hardness and decreased cohesiveness of biscuit dough; decreased spread ratio and increased breaking strength of biscuits. Sensory evaluation showed that biscuits incorporated with 7.5% DPPP were acceptable. Among emulsifiers, sodium stearoyl lactylate significantly improved the quality characteristics of 7.5% DPPP incorporated biscuits. Addition of 7.5% DPPP increased the protein, dietary fibre, minerals, anti-oxidant activity and β-carotene contents of biscuits. The studies indicated the possibility of utilizing DPPP to improve the nutritional characteristics of biscuits. PMID:25019979

  16. Quality, microstructure, biochemical and immunochemical characteristics of hypoallergenic pasta.

    PubMed

    Susanna, S; Prabhasankar, P

    2012-08-01

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy, characterized by lifelong intolerance to gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. This study aims to develop hypoallergenic pasta using blends of Triticum durum semolina, 40% of other non-wheat flours and additives. Formulated pasta samples were evaluated for product quality characteristics and also subjected to biochemical analysis. Results showed that cooking loss ranged from 6.9% to 7.4%, which were within the acceptable range of 8%. Color change was low and in vitro protein digestibility of the pasta was found to be insignificant. Pasting characteristics of the hypoallergenic flour showed the increased peak viscosity and decreased gelatinization temperature. The scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated less-affected microstructure of gluten network. Texture profile analysis and descriptive sensory analysis revealed that optimized hypoallergenic pasta with xanthan gum as additive was acceptable and comparable with control. SDS-PAGE pattern showed distinct protein profile and decreased intensity, which was supported by Dot-Blot. In conclusion, the hypoallergenic pasta prepared by replacing T durum flour by 40% of other non-gluten flours could be useful for celiac patients because of its low antigenic activity. PMID:22859651

  17. Effect of radiation processing on nutritional, functional, sensory and antioxidant properties of red kidney beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marathe, S. A.; Deshpande, R.; Khamesra, Arohi; Ibrahim, Geeta; Jamdar, Sahayog N.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study dry red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), irradiated in the dose range of 0.25-10.0 kGy were evaluated for proximate composition, functional, sensory and antioxidant properties. Radiation processing up to 10 kGy did not affect proximate composition, hydration capacity and free fatty acid value. All the sensory attributes were unaffected at 1.0 kGy dose. The dose of 10 kGy, showed lower values for odor and taste, however, they were in acceptable range. Significant improvement in textural quality and reduction in cooking time was observed at dose of 10 kGy. Antioxidant activity of radiation processed samples was also assessed after normal processing such as soaking and pressure cooking. Both phenolic content and antioxidant activity evaluated in terms of DPPH free radical scavenging assay and inhibition in lipid peroxidation using rabbit erythrocyte ghost system, were marginally improved (5-10%) at the dose of 10 kGy in dry and cooked samples. During storage of samples for six months, no significant change was observed in sensory, cooking and antioxidant properties. Thus, radiation treatment of 1 kGy can be applied to get extended shelf life of kidney beans with improved functional properties without impairing bioactivity; nutritional quality and sensory property.

  18. Potential role of estrogen in maintaining the imbalanced sympathetic and sensory innervation in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yanchun; Yao, Shuzhong

    2016-03-15

    Endometriosis, one of the most common benign gynecological diseases, affects millions of women of childbearing age. Endometriosis-associated pain is a major cause of disability and compromised quality of life in women. Neuropathic mechanisms are believed to play an important role. An imbalanced sympathetic and sensory innervation (reduced sympathetic innervation, with unchanged or increased sensory innervation in endometriotic lesions) has been demonstrated in endometriosis in recent studies. And it is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of endometriosis-associated pain. It is primarily considered to be a natural adaptive program to endometriosis-associated inflammation. However, it is important to further clarify whether other potential modulating factors are involved in this dysregulation. It is generally accepted that endometriosis is an estrogen dependent disease. Higher estrogen biosynthesis and lower estrogen inactivation in endometriosis can lead to an excess of local estrogen in endometriotic lesions. In addition to its proliferative and anti-inflammatory actions, local estrogen in endometriosis also exerts potential neuromodulatory effects on the innervation in endometriosis. The aim of this review is to highlight the role of estrogen in mediating this imbalanced sympathetic and sensory innervation in endometriosis, through direct and indirect mechanisms on sympathetic and sensory nerves. Theoretical elaboration of the underlying mechanisms provides new insights in supporting the therapeutic role of estrogen in endometriosis-associated pain. PMID:26777300

  19. Effect of γ-irradiation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of hazelnuts ( Corylus avellana L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mexis, S. F.; Kontominas, M. G.

    2009-06-01

    The present study evaluated the quality of hazelnuts as a function of irradiation dose to determine dose levels causing minimal undesirable changes to hazelnuts. Physicochemical (color, peroxide value (PV), hexanal content, fatty acid composition and volatile compounds) and sensory (color, texture, odor and taste) properties were determined. Results showed a twenty fold increase in peroxide value and twenty-eight fold increase in hexanal content after irradiation at a dose of 7 kGy. An increase was also observed in saturated fatty acids (10%-23%) with a parallel decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (90-77%). Volatile compounds such as ketones, alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes, furans, aromatic hydrocarbons, bicyclic monoterpenes and acids were produced mostly comprising secondary oxidation products of hazelnut lipids after irradiation. Color parameter b* increased ( p<0.05) after irradiation at a dose of ⩾5 kGy, while color parameters L* and a* remained unchanged by irradiation. Sensory evaluation showed that texture and color were not affected by irradiation. Taste, the most sensitive sensory attribute showed that hazelnuts retain acceptable sensory quality when irradiated up to a dose of 1.5 kGy.

  20. Feldenkrais sensory imagery and forward reach.

    PubMed

    Dunn, P A; Rogers, D K

    2000-12-01

    To investigate the effect of sensory imagery on subsequent movement, a unilateral Fleldenkrais lesson of imaging a soft bristle brush passing over one half of the body and in which no movement occurred, was given to 12 naive subjects. Forward flexion for each side of the body was measured at a sit-and-reach box. For 8 and 10 subjects who reported the perception of a side as being longer and lighter following the sensory imagery, there was also a significant increase in the forward flexion range on that side. PMID:11153843