Science.gov

Sample records for acceptable sensory characteristics

  1. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of decaffeinated green teas.

    PubMed

    Lee, S M; Lee, H-S; Kim, K-H; Kim, K-O

    2009-04-01

    Green tea has been widely consumed for its mild flavors and its health benefits, yet caffeine in green tea has been a limitation for those who want to avoid it. The limitation brought increase in need for decaffeinated products in the green tea market. Most of the conventional decaffeination techniques applied in food use organic solvents. However, supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SC-CO2) method is gaining its intension as one of the future decaffeination methods that overcomes the problems of conventional methods. The purpose of this study was to identify sensory characteristics of decaffeinated green teas applied with SC-CO2 method and to observe the relationship with consumer acceptability to elucidate the potentiality of applying SC-CO2 technique in decaffeinated green tea market. Descriptive analysis was performed on 8 samples: green teas containing 4 caffeine levels (10%, 35%, 60%, and 100%) infused at 2 infusing periods (1 or 2 min). It was found that the SC-CO2 process not only reduced caffeine but also decreased some important features of original tea flavors. Two groups were recruited for consumer acceptability test: one (GP I, N = 52), consuming all types of green teas including hot/cold canned teas; and the other (GP II, N = 40), only consuming the loose type. While GP II liked original green tea the most, GP I liked highly decaffeinated green teas. Although the SC-CO2 method had limitations of losing complex flavors of green teas, it appeared to have future potential in the decaffeinated green tea market within or without the addition of desirable flavors. PMID:19397734

  2. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of decaffeinated green teas.

    PubMed

    Lee, S M; Lee, H-S; Kim, K-H; Kim, K-O

    2009-04-01

    Green tea has been widely consumed for its mild flavors and its health benefits, yet caffeine in green tea has been a limitation for those who want to avoid it. The limitation brought increase in need for decaffeinated products in the green tea market. Most of the conventional decaffeination techniques applied in food use organic solvents. However, supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SC-CO2) method is gaining its intension as one of the future decaffeination methods that overcomes the problems of conventional methods. The purpose of this study was to identify sensory characteristics of decaffeinated green teas applied with SC-CO2 method and to observe the relationship with consumer acceptability to elucidate the potentiality of applying SC-CO2 technique in decaffeinated green tea market. Descriptive analysis was performed on 8 samples: green teas containing 4 caffeine levels (10%, 35%, 60%, and 100%) infused at 2 infusing periods (1 or 2 min). It was found that the SC-CO2 process not only reduced caffeine but also decreased some important features of original tea flavors. Two groups were recruited for consumer acceptability test: one (GP I, N = 52), consuming all types of green teas including hot/cold canned teas; and the other (GP II, N = 40), only consuming the loose type. While GP II liked original green tea the most, GP I liked highly decaffeinated green teas. Although the SC-CO2 method had limitations of losing complex flavors of green teas, it appeared to have future potential in the decaffeinated green tea market within or without the addition of desirable flavors.

  3. Impacts of glutathione Maillard reaction products on sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup.

    PubMed

    Hong, J H; Jung, D W; Kim, Y S; Lee, S M; Kim, K O

    2010-10-01

    The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) were investigated to examine the effects of the GMRPs on beef-soup flavor compared to soups made with glutathione (GSH) and monosodium glutamate (MSG), a control (CON), or a control soup made with 150% beef content (CON150). The sensory characteristics of the beef soups were examined by descriptive analysis. The overall acceptabilities of the beef soups were rated by consumers. Principal component analysis was performed on descriptive data as explanatory variables with overall acceptability as a supplementary variable to observe the relationships between the descriptive data and consumer acceptability, as well as the relationships between the beef-soup samples and their sensory attributes. The samples containing GMRPs had "beef flavor" that was stronger than the CON and MSG samples, and comparable to that of the GSH sample and CON150. The GMRP samples had stronger "green onion flavor,"garlic flavor," and "boiled egg white flavor" than the other samples. The beef soup containing MSG was preferred to CON, CON150, and GSH. The samples with GMRPs were least favored because of their pronounced metallic and astringent notes. The results of this study imply the feasibility of GMRPs as a flavor enhancer since the soups containing these compounds showed more complex flavor profiles than GSH. However, future studies are required to optimize the MR conditions that produce GMRPs without undesirable characteristics. Practical Application: This study examined the practicability of the Maillard reaction products between glutathione (GSH) and glucose (GP) or fructose (FP) as a flavor enhancer by investigating the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability evoked by them in a beef-soup system. This study helps flavor and food industry to develop a new flavor enhancer by providing practical information, such as beef flavor-enhancing effect of FP and

  4. Simultaneous analysis of consumer variables, acceptability and sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Masahiro; Obiya, Shinichi; Kaneko, Miku; Enomoto, Ayame; Honma, Mayu; Wakayama, Masataka; Tomita, Masaru

    2016-11-01

    We conducted a consumer acceptability analysis of dry-cured ham based on sensory evaluation. Consumer acceptability data are rendered heterogeneous by the diverse backgrounds and assessment abilities of the participants, requiring versatile analytical methods for their interpretation. Totally, 9 sensory attributes of 12 kinds of dry-cured ham samples collected from Japan (n=9), Italy (n=1), Spain (n=1), and Germany (n=1) were tasted by 117 Japanese consumers who showed acceptable evaluation abilities during blind sampling. Common techniques, such as hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis, and external preference mapping, were simultaneously utilized to analyze each characteristics scored in modified hedonic scale. These analyses revealed the relationships between the features and preferences of the assessors. For example, consumers aged 20-30 with smoking and drinking habits preferred sweetness and saltiness, and gave high ratings to Spanish Jómon serrano and Italian prosciutto. Our approach could assist ham marketers to identify potential purchasers and the preferred characteristics of their products.

  5. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione and/or MSG.

    PubMed

    Jung, D W; Hong, J H; Kim, K O

    2010-01-01

    The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione (GSH) and/or monosodium glutamate (MSG) were investigated to examine the feasibility of GSH as a flavor enhancer. The sensory characteristics of beef soup samples, containing only GSH or MSG at different levels or a mixture of these, were examined by descriptive analysis. Principle component analysis was conducted to summarize the relationships between the beef soup samples and the attributes. In consumer testing, separate groups of consumers evaluated overall liking as well as the flavor intensities of beef, seasoning, and MSG. Partial least square regression was conducted to observe the relationships between the descriptive data and consumer data. The samples containing GSH had stronger "beef flavor,"garlic flavor," and "green onion flavor" while the samples containing MSG had stronger "salty taste,"sweet taste,"MSG taste," and "potato flavor." The consumers preferred samples containing both GSH and MSG, which had higher perceived flavor intensities of beef, seasonings, MSG. This study indicates that GSH has potential as a flavor enhancer, but more tests in different food systems with additions of GSH at varying levels are required to elucidate its effectiveness as a flavor enhancer more clearly. PMID:20492200

  6. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food

    PubMed Central

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Sensory analysis was used to determine the changes due to the storage time on extruded pet food prepared from two different rendered protein meals: (i) beef meat and bone meal (BMBM); (ii) chicken byproduct meal (CPBM). Extrusion is a process where feed is pressed through a die in order to create shapes and increase digestibility. Descriptive sensory analysis using a human panel found an increase in undesirable sensory attributes (e.g., oxidized oil, rancid) in extruded pet food over storage time, especially the one prepared from chicken by product meal without antioxidants. The small increase in oxidized and rancid aromas of BMBM samples did not affect pet owners’ acceptability of the products. CPBM samples without antioxidants showed a notable increase in oxidized and rancid aroma over storage time and, thus, affected product acceptability negatively. This finding indicated that human sensory analysis can be used as a tool to track the changes of pet food characteristics due to storage, as well as estimate the shelf-life of the products. Abstract Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products’ shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners’ acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly

  7. Influence of sensory characteristics on the acceptability of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J; García, C; Muriel, E; Andrés, A I; Ventanas, J

    2002-08-01

    The influence of different sensory attributes on the acceptability of dry-cured Iberian ham was studied. Partial least squares regression analysis showed that juiciness and several flavour traits were the major attributes positively influencing acceptability of dry-cured Iberian ham, whereas yellowness of the fat, dryness and fibrousness showed a negative influence. Using stepwise multivariate regression, juiciness and flavour intensity were the two traits that better explained the acceptability of dry-cured ham, the linear model obtained showing a regression coefficient of 0.526. The regression coefficient of acceptability with juiciness and flavour intensity was higher using a piecewise linear regression model (R(2)=0.759) showing, therefore, a discontinuous relationship between these variables. However, results on product acceptability have been obtained using trained panellists and it might be possible that the use of a consumer panel would change these conclusions.

  8. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food.

    PubMed

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products' shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners' acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly trained descriptive panelists for sensory attributes related to oxidation. Samples without preservatives were chosen for the acceptability test, since the differences in sensory characteristics over storage time were more distinguishable in those samples. Pet owners evaluated samples for aroma, appearance and overall liking. Descriptive sensory analysis detected significant changes in oxidized-related sensory characteristics over storage time. However, the differences for CBPM samples were more pronounced and directional. The consumer study showed no differences in pet owners' acceptability for BMBM samples. However, the noticeable increase in aroma characteristics (rancid aroma 0.33-4.21) in CBPM samples over storage time did have a negative effect on consumer's liking (overall liking 5.52-4.95). PMID:27483326

  9. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef stock containing glutathione Maillard reaction products prepared at various conditions.

    PubMed

    Kwon, G Y; Hong, J H; Kim, Y S; Lee, S M; Kim, K O

    2011-01-01

    The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup samples containing 9 types of glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) were investigated to examine the effects of the GMRPs produced under different reaction conditions on the flavor of the beef soup. The sensory characteristics of the beef stocks were examined using descriptive analysis. In consumer testing, 50 consumers evaluated the overall acceptability and flavor intensities of beef odor, salty taste, beef flavor, and seasoning flavor in the beef soup samples. It was found that the reaction conditions, including sugar type and pH, affected the sensory characteristics of the beef stock containing the GMRPs. The samples containing the GMRPs reacted at pH 7 were characterized with strong beef flavor, chestnut flavor, and cooked rice flavor. However, the GMRP reacted with xylose at pH 7 (XM7) was significantly stronger in beef-related sensory characteristics than the GMRPs reacted with glucose or fructose at pH 7 (GM7 and FM7). The samples containing the GMRPs reacted at pH 3 had strong acid-related attributes whereas the GMRPs reacted at pH 11 exhibited strong sulfur-related attributes and a bitter taste. Overall, the beef soup containing XM7, which was perceived as having a strong beef odor and flavor, was rated the highest consumer acceptability score. This suggests that XM7 has feasibility as a flavor enhancer. To elucidate its effectiveness further, it is required to apply XM7 in various food systems at varying levels and to compare its flavor enhancing effects with other flavor enhancers such as monosodium L-glutamate in future studies. Practical Application: This study characterized sensory attributes of glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) reacted under various conditions and evaluated their potential as a flavor enhancer by examining consumer acceptability of beef stock containing the GMRPs. This study showed that the GMRP reacted with xylose at pH 7 had strong 71 beef

  10. Effect of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed on antioxidant activity, phytocompounds, physicochemical characteristics, and sensory acceptability of enriched cookies and mango juice.

    PubMed

    Natukunda, Sheilla; Muyonga, John H; Mukisa, Ivan M

    2016-07-01

    Tamarind seeds are not consumed despite their high antioxidative activity. In this study, 0-10% tamarind seed powder (TSP) was incorporated into mango juice and cookies. Total phenolics (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay), flavonoid (aluminum chloride assay), condensed tannins content (Vanillin-HCl assay), and consumer acceptability (n = 50) of the products were determined. TSP increased the pH and viscosity and reduced titratable acidity of juice. Incorporation of TSP increased the: total phenolic content (6.84 ± 0.21 to 88.44 ± 0.8 mg GAE/100 mL); flavonoid (4.64 ± 0.03-21.7 ± 0.36 mg CE/100 mL); condensed tannins (0.24 ± 0.01-21.81 ± 0.08 mg CE/100 mL) and total antioxidant activity (4.65 ± 0.88-21.70 ± 0.03 mg VCE/100 mL) of juice. A similar trend was observed for cookies. Maximum sensorially acceptable TSP levels were 1.5% and 6%, respectively, for juice and cookies. TSP can thus be utilized as a source of natural antioxidants in food products.

  11. Effect of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed on antioxidant activity, phytocompounds, physicochemical characteristics, and sensory acceptability of enriched cookies and mango juice.

    PubMed

    Natukunda, Sheilla; Muyonga, John H; Mukisa, Ivan M

    2016-07-01

    Tamarind seeds are not consumed despite their high antioxidative activity. In this study, 0-10% tamarind seed powder (TSP) was incorporated into mango juice and cookies. Total phenolics (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay), flavonoid (aluminum chloride assay), condensed tannins content (Vanillin-HCl assay), and consumer acceptability (n = 50) of the products were determined. TSP increased the pH and viscosity and reduced titratable acidity of juice. Incorporation of TSP increased the: total phenolic content (6.84 ± 0.21 to 88.44 ± 0.8 mg GAE/100 mL); flavonoid (4.64 ± 0.03-21.7 ± 0.36 mg CE/100 mL); condensed tannins (0.24 ± 0.01-21.81 ± 0.08 mg CE/100 mL) and total antioxidant activity (4.65 ± 0.88-21.70 ± 0.03 mg VCE/100 mL) of juice. A similar trend was observed for cookies. Maximum sensorially acceptable TSP levels were 1.5% and 6%, respectively, for juice and cookies. TSP can thus be utilized as a source of natural antioxidants in food products. PMID:27386100

  12. Consumer acceptance and sensory profiling of reengineered kitoza products.

    PubMed

    Pintado, Ana I E; Monteiro, Maria J P; Talon, Régine; Leroy, Sabine; Scislowski, Valérie; Fliedel, Geneviève; Rakoto, Danielle; Maraval, Isabelle; Costa, Ana I A; Silva, Ana P; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Manuela M E

    2016-05-01

    Kitoza refers to a traditional way of preparing beef and pork in Madagascar. However, in order to improve some drawbacks previous identified, the product was submitted to a reengineering process. The acceptance and sensory profiling of improved Kitoza products among Portuguese consumers was investigated. A local smoked loin sausage was selected as basis for comparison. Firstly, a Focus Group study was performed to identify sensory descriptors for Kitoza products and explore product perception. Subsequently, a Flash Profile and a consumer sensory acceptance study were conducted. Flash Profile's results showed that beef- and pork-based Kitoza products investigated differed considerably in all sensory dimensions. The Portuguese sausage was characterized as having a more intense and lasting after taste, as well as displaying a higher degree of (meat) doneness. The acceptance study yielded higher overall liking ratings for pork- than for beef-based Kitoza, although the Portuguese sausage remained the most appreciated product.

  13. Consumer acceptance and sensory profiling of reengineered kitoza products.

    PubMed

    Pintado, Ana I E; Monteiro, Maria J P; Talon, Régine; Leroy, Sabine; Scislowski, Valérie; Fliedel, Geneviève; Rakoto, Danielle; Maraval, Isabelle; Costa, Ana I A; Silva, Ana P; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Manuela M E

    2016-05-01

    Kitoza refers to a traditional way of preparing beef and pork in Madagascar. However, in order to improve some drawbacks previous identified, the product was submitted to a reengineering process. The acceptance and sensory profiling of improved Kitoza products among Portuguese consumers was investigated. A local smoked loin sausage was selected as basis for comparison. Firstly, a Focus Group study was performed to identify sensory descriptors for Kitoza products and explore product perception. Subsequently, a Flash Profile and a consumer sensory acceptance study were conducted. Flash Profile's results showed that beef- and pork-based Kitoza products investigated differed considerably in all sensory dimensions. The Portuguese sausage was characterized as having a more intense and lasting after taste, as well as displaying a higher degree of (meat) doneness. The acceptance study yielded higher overall liking ratings for pork- than for beef-based Kitoza, although the Portuguese sausage remained the most appreciated product. PMID:26769507

  14. Effect of salmon type and presence/absence of bone on color, sensory characteristics, and consumer acceptability of pureed and chunked infant food products.

    PubMed

    DeSantos, F A; Ramamoorthi, L; Bechtel, P; Smiley, S; Brewer, M S

    2010-08-01

    Salmon-based infant food (puree) and toddler food (puree plus chunks) were manufactured from pink salmon, with and without bone, and from Sockeye salmon, with and without bone, to contain 45% salmon, 55% water, and 5% starch. Products were retort processed at 118 to 121 degrees C for 55 min in a steam-jacketed still retort. A trained descriptive panel (n = 7) evaluated infant and toddler foods separately. Instrumental color, pH, and water activity were also determined. Infant and toddler foods were also evaluated by a consumer panel (n = 104) of parents for product acceptability. During the manufacturing process (cooking, homogenization, retort processing), salmon infant food from pink salmon lost much of its characteristic pink color while that from sockeye salmon retained a greater amount. Bitterness was more evident in samples with bones. In the toddler food formulation containing chunks, the odor and flavor characteristics were influenced primarily by the type of salmon. The presence of bone affected visual pink color and lightness, and salmon odor only. Consumers scored products made with sockeye salmon as more acceptable despite the fact that they had more off-flavor than products from pink salmon. The appearance and thickness of the pureed infant food was more acceptable than the toddler food with chunks despite the chunky toddler product having more acceptable salmon flavor. This indicates that the color and appearance of the prototypes were the main drivers for liking. Of the total number of parents surveyed, 73% would feed this salmon product to their children. PMID:20722949

  15. Sensory evaluation ratings and melting characteristics show that okra gum is an acceptable milk-fat ingredient substitute in chocolate frozen dairy dessert.

    PubMed

    Romanchik-Cerpovicz, Joelle E; Costantino, Amanda C; Gunn, Laura H

    2006-04-01

    Reducing dietary fat intake may lower the risk of developing coronary heart disease. This study examined the feasibility of substituting okra gum for 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% milk fat in frozen chocolate dairy dessert. Fifty-six consumers evaluated the frozen dairy desserts using a hedonic scale. Consumers rated color, smell, texture, flavor, aftertaste, and overall acceptability characteristics of all products as acceptable. All ratings were similar among the products except for the aftertaste rating, which was significantly lower for chocolate frozen dairy dessert containing 100% milk-fat replacement with okra gum compared with the control (0% milk-fat replacement) (P<0.05). Whereas melting points of all products were similar, melting rates slowed significantly as milk-fat replacement with okra gum increased, suggesting that okra gum may increase the stability of frozen dairy desserts (P<0.05). Overall, this study shows that okra gum is an acceptable milk-fat ingredient substitute in chocolate frozen dairy dessert.

  16. Methyl-accepting protein associated with bacterial sensory phodopsin I

    SciTech Connect

    Spudich, E.N.; Hasselbacher, C.A. ); Spudich, J.L. )

    1988-09-01

    In vivo radiolabeling of Halaobacterium halobium phototaxis mutants and revertants with L-(methyl-{sup 3}H) methionine implicated seven methyl-accepting protein bands with apparent molecular masses from 65 to 150 kilodaltons (kDa) in adaptation of the organism to chemo and photo stimuli, and one of these (94 kDa) was specifically implicated in photoaxis. The lability of the radiolabeled bands to mild base treatment indicated the the methyl linkages are carboxylmethylesters, as is the case in the eubacterial chemotaxis receptor-transducers. The 94-kDa protein was present in increased amounts in an overproducer of the apoprotein of sensory rhodopsin I, one of two retinal-containing photoaxis receptors in H. halobium. It was absent in a strain the contained sensory rhodopsin II and that lacked sensory rhodopsin I and was also absent in a mutant that lacked both photoreceptors. Based in the role of methyl-accepting proteins in chemotaxis in other bacteria, we suggest that the 94-kDa protein is the signal transducer for sensory rhodopsin I. By ({sup 3}H)retinal labeling studies, we previously identified a 25-kDa retinal-binding polypeptide that was derived from photochemically reactive sensory rhodopsin I. When H. halobium membranes containing sensory rhodopsin I were treated by a procedure that stably reduced ({sup 3}H) retinal onto the 25-kDa apoprotein, a 94-kDa protein was also found to be radiolabeled. Protease digestion confirmed that the 94-kDa retinal-labeled protein was the same as the methyl-accepting protein that was suggested above to be the siginal transducer for sensory rhodopsin I. Possible models are that the 25- and 94-kDa proteins are tightly interacting components of the photosensory signaling machinery or that both are forms of sensory rhodopsin I.

  17. Casein peptization, functional properties, and sensory acceptance of processed cheese spreads made with different emulsifying salts.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Clarissa R; Viotto, Walkiria H

    2010-01-01

    "Requeijão cremoso" is a traditional Brazilian processed cheese spread, showing ample acceptance on the national market. Emulsifying salts (ES) are an important factor influencing the characteristics of processed cheeses, but the literature presents conflicting results about their action on cheese functionality. Requeijão cremoso obtained from anhydrous ingredients allows the study of the influence of each type of ES on the cheese properties, since it can be treated as a model system where the variables are limited and well known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different types of ES (TSC-sodium citrate, SHMP-sodium hexametaphosphate, STPP-sodium tripolyphosphate, and TSPP-tetrasodium pyrophosphate) on the sensory and functional characteristics of requeijão cremoso-processed cheeses obtained from anhydrous ingredients. The physicochemical composition, degree of casein dissociation, fat particle size, melting index, color, texture profile, and sensory acceptance of the cheeses were determined. The functional behavior of processed cheeses was strongly influenced by the type of ES and its physicochemical properties including its ability to bind Ca, the casein dispersion during cooking, and the possible creation of cross-links with casein during cooling. The cheese made with SHMP was the one most differentiated from the others, presenting lower melting index, whiter color, and higher values for hardness, gumminess, and adhesiveness. The differences in texture had an impact on sensory acceptance: with the exception of the sample manufactured with sodium hexametaphosphate, all the samples presented good sensory acceptance.

  18. Consumers' sensory acceptability of pork from immunocastrated male pigs.

    PubMed

    Font I Furnols, M; Gispert, M; Guerrero, L; Velarde, A; Tibau, J; Soler, J; Hortós, M; García-Regueiro, J A; Pérez, J; Suárez, P; Oliver, M A

    2008-12-01

    Boar taint is the off-odour or off flavour of cooked pork. Currently, the most common method of controlling boar taint is surgical castration. However, immunocastration has been used in some parts of the world as an alternative to surgical castration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory acceptability of meat from immunocastrated pigs (IM) compared with meat from females (FE), surgically castrated (CM) and entire males (EM). Twenty animals of each type were evaluated by 201 consumers in 20 sessions. Longissimus thoracis muscle of the different animals was cooked in an oven at 180°C for 10min. Consumers scored the odour and the flavour of the meat in a 9-point category scale without an intermediate level. There were no significant differences in consumer's evaluation of meat from IM, CM, and FE. In contrast, EM meat presented a higher percentage of dissatisfied scores and was significantly (P<0.05) less accepted than meat from CM, IM and FE. Consumers' acceptability of EM meat was always lower, independently of its androstenone levels. However meat with low levels of androstenone was more accepted that meat with medium or high levels of this substance. It can be concluded that immunocastration produced pork that was accepted by the consumers, and was indistinguishable from pork from CM or FE. PMID:22063830

  19. Occupational Therapy and Sensory Integration for Children with Autism: A Feasibility, Safety, Acceptability and Fidelity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, Roseann C.; Benevides, Teal W.; Kelly, Donna; Mailloux-Maggio, Zoe

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the feasibility, safety, and acceptability of a manualized protocol of occupational therapy using sensory integration principles for children with autism. Methods: Ten children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder ages 4-8 years received intensive occupational therapy intervention using sensory integration principles…

  20. Relationships between anthocyanins and other compounds and sensory acceptability of Hibiscus drinks.

    PubMed

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Cissé, Mady; Fliedel, Geneviève; Declemy, Anne-Laure; Ayessou, Nicolas; Akissoe, Noel; Touré, Cheikh; Bennett, Ben; Pintado, Manuela; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith I

    2014-04-01

    Chemical composition of Hibiscus drinks (Koor and Vimto varieties, commercial and traditional, infusions and syrups) (n=8) was related to sensory evaluation and acceptance. Significant correlations between chemical composition and sensory perception of drinks were found (i.e. anthocyanin content and Hibiscus taste) (p<0.05). Consumers (n=160) evaluated drink acceptability on a 9-point verbal hedonic scale. Three classes of behaviour were identified: (a) those who preferred syrup (43% of consumers); (b) those who preferred infusion (36%); and (c) those who preferred all of the samples (21%). Acceptability of 'syrup likers' was positively correlated to sweet taste, reducing sugar content and inversely correlated to acidic taste and titratable acidity (p<0.10). Acceptability of 'infusion likers' was positively correlated to the taste of Hibiscus drink and anthocyanin content. The study showed that the distinctions between the acceptability groups are very clear with respect to the chemical composition and rating of sensory attributes. PMID:24262534

  1. Irradiated vacuum-packed lamb meat stored under refrigeration: microbiology, physicochemical stability and sensory acceptance.

    PubMed

    Fregonesi, R P; Portes, R G; Aguiar, A M M; Figueira, L C; Gonçalves, C B; Arthur, V; Lima, C G; Fernandes, A M; Trindade, M A

    2014-06-01

    Reducing spoilage and indicator bacteria is important for microbiological stability in meat and meat products. The objective was to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the shelf-life of lamb meat, vacuum-packed and stored under refrigeration, by assessing the microbiological safety, physicochemical stability and sensory quality. Lamb loin cuts (Longissimus dorsi) were irradiated with 1.5kGy and 3.0kGy. The samples, including control, were stored at 1±1°C during 56days. Samples were analyzed on zero, 14, 28, 42 and 56days by their microbiological and physicochemical characteristics. Sensory quality was carried out on day zero. The results showed a reduction (p<0.05) in the microbial load of the irradiated samples. The acceptance of lamb loins was not affected (p>0.05) by the radiation doses. Thus gamma irradiation at 3.0kGy was effective in reducing the content of microorganisms, without harming the physicochemical characteristics evaluated. PMID:24583322

  2. Variations in U.S. Consumers' Acceptability of Korean Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, with respect to Sensory Attributes and Nonsensory Factors.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungeun; Yoon, Suk Hoo; Min, Jieun; Lee, Suji; Tokar, Tonya; Lee, Sun-Ok; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Because the Korean rice cake, Seolgitteok, is mainly prepared with rice flour containing no gluten-protein associated with celiac disease, it can be considered for inclusion in a gluten-free diet. However, Western consumers may be unlikely to enjoy the plain flavor and chewy texture of Seolgitteok. This study aimed to determine both sensory and nonsensory factors that might affect U.S. consumers' acceptability of Seolgitteok. A total of 119 U.S. consumers rated 5 Seolgitteok samples, differentiated by descriptive sensory analysis, with respect to hedonic impression and just-about-right aspects of sensory attributes. Nonsensory factors such as demographic profile, innovativeness, social representation, sensation-seeking, and personality traits were also assessed. Addition levels of brown rice flour (0% to 100%) and sugar (5% to 20%) not only enriched flavor, but also lessened chewiness of Seolgitteok, thereby increasing an overall hedonic impression. Moreover, consumer acceptability of Seolgitteok varied with respect to nonsensory factors. Seolgitteok was more appreciated by males, sensation seekers, and individuals constrained by social desirability than by other groups. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that U.S. consumers' acceptability of Seolgitteok varies not only by sensory attributes such as rice flavor, sweetness, and chewiness, but also by nonsensory factors such as gender, sensation-seeking characteristics, and personality traits.

  3. Variations in U.S. Consumers' Acceptability of Korean Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, with respect to Sensory Attributes and Nonsensory Factors.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungeun; Yoon, Suk Hoo; Min, Jieun; Lee, Suji; Tokar, Tonya; Lee, Sun-Ok; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Because the Korean rice cake, Seolgitteok, is mainly prepared with rice flour containing no gluten-protein associated with celiac disease, it can be considered for inclusion in a gluten-free diet. However, Western consumers may be unlikely to enjoy the plain flavor and chewy texture of Seolgitteok. This study aimed to determine both sensory and nonsensory factors that might affect U.S. consumers' acceptability of Seolgitteok. A total of 119 U.S. consumers rated 5 Seolgitteok samples, differentiated by descriptive sensory analysis, with respect to hedonic impression and just-about-right aspects of sensory attributes. Nonsensory factors such as demographic profile, innovativeness, social representation, sensation-seeking, and personality traits were also assessed. Addition levels of brown rice flour (0% to 100%) and sugar (5% to 20%) not only enriched flavor, but also lessened chewiness of Seolgitteok, thereby increasing an overall hedonic impression. Moreover, consumer acceptability of Seolgitteok varied with respect to nonsensory factors. Seolgitteok was more appreciated by males, sensation seekers, and individuals constrained by social desirability than by other groups. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that U.S. consumers' acceptability of Seolgitteok varies not only by sensory attributes such as rice flavor, sweetness, and chewiness, but also by nonsensory factors such as gender, sensation-seeking characteristics, and personality traits. PMID:26641741

  4. Carbohydrate composition, viscosity, solubility, and sensory acceptance of sweetpotato- and maize-based complementary foods

    PubMed Central

    Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Mutukumira, Anthony N.; Brough, Louise; Weber, Janet L.; Hardacre, Allan; Coad, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background Cereal-based complementary foods from non-malted ingredients form a relatively high viscous porridge. Therefore, excessive dilution, usually with water, is required to reduce the viscosity to be appropriate for infant feeding. The dilution invariably leads to energy and nutrient thinning, that is, the reduction of energy and nutrient densities. Carbohydrate is the major constituent of food that significantly influences viscosity when heated in water. Objectives To compare the sweetpotato-based complementary foods (extrusion-cooked ComFa, roller-dried ComFa, and oven-toasted ComFa) and enriched Weanimix (maize-based formulation) regarding their 1) carbohydrate composition, 2) viscosity and water solubility index (WSI), and 3) sensory acceptance evaluated by sub-Sahara African women as model caregivers. Methods The level of simple sugars/carbohydrates was analysed by spectrophotometry, total dietary fibre by enzymatic-gravimetric method, and total carbohydrate and starch levels estimated by calculation. A Rapid Visco™ Analyser was used to measure viscosity. WSI was determined gravimetrically. A consumer sensory evaluation was used to evaluate the product acceptance of the roller-dried ComFa, oven-toasted ComFa, and enriched Weanimix. Results The sweetpotato-based complementary foods were, on average, significantly higher in maltose, sucrose, free glucose and fructose, and total dietary fibre, but they were markedly lower in starch content compared with the levels in the enriched Weanimix. Consequently, the sweetpotato-based complementary foods had relatively low apparent viscosity, and high WSI, than that of enriched Weanimix. The scores of sensory liking given by the caregivers were highest for the roller-dried ComFa, followed by the oven-toasted ComFa, and, finally, the enriched Weanimix. Conclusion The sweetpotato-based formulations have significant advantages as complementary food due to the high level of endogenous sugars and low starch content that

  5. Short communication: Influence of long-chain inulin and Lactobacillus paracasei subspecies paracasei on the sensory profile and acceptance of a traditional yogurt.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, T C; Cruz, A G; Prudencio, S H

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of the addition of long-chain inulin as a fat replacer and prebiotic agent (20g/L) and (or) probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei on the sensory profile and acceptance of yogurts, and to assess the influence of descriptive attributes on the sensory acceptance of the products. The addition of inulin to low-fat yogurt improved its brightness and firmness, which was similar to the full-fat yogurt. However, the use of long-chain inulin increased the separation of serum and no influence on creaminess was observed. Regarding the product's acceptability, the low-fat yogurt with added inulin presented similar acceptance compared with the full-fat yogurt. The addition of Lb. paracasei ssp. paracasei did not affect the sensory profile and acceptance of the low-fat yogurt. Using external preference mapping, it was possible to verify that the sensory acceptance was driven positively by the sweetness and creaminess and negatively driven by firmness (appearance and texture) and homogeneity (appearance). It was possible to formulate low-fat yogurts with added probiotics that presented similar sensory characteristics to those of full-fat yogurts, and this was due to the addition of the long-chain inulin as a fat replacer.

  6. Sensory acceptance and survival of probiotic bacteria in ice cream produced with different overrun levels.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Juliana L; Cruz, Adriano G; Cadena, Rafael S; Freitas, Monica Q; Pinto, Uelinton M; Carvalho, Celio C; Faria, Jose A F; Bolini, Helena M A

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different overrun levels on the sensory acceptance and survival of probiotic bacteria in ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice creams supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus were processed with overruns of 45%, 60%, and 90%. Viable probiotic bacterial counts and sensory acceptance were assessed. All the ice creams presented a minimum count of 6 log CFU/g at the end of 60 d of frozen storage. However, higher overrun levels negatively influenced cell viability, being reported a decrease of 2 log CFU/g for the 90% overrun treatment. In addition, it was not reported an influence about acceptability with respect to appearance, aroma, and taste of the ice creams (P > 0.05). Overall, the results suggest that lower overrun levels should be adopted during the manufacture of ice cream in order to maintain its probiotic status through the shelf life.

  7. Effects of different brewing conditions on catechin content and sensory acceptance in Turkish green tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Saklar, Sena; Ertas, Erdal; Ozdemir, Ibrahim S; Karadeniz, Bulent

    2015-10-01

    The optimal brewing conditions for Turkish green tea were determined on the basis of extracted catechins and sensory attributes. Green tea infusions were prepared at 75, 85 and 95 °C with brewing times of 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 45 min. The amounts of epistructured catechins (EGCG, EGC, ECG, EC), non-epistructured catechins (C, GC, GCG) and caffeine in brewed tea samples were analysed. Sensory analyses were performed by nine trained panelists for infusion colour, taste, aroma and overall acceptability. Brewing at 85 °C for 3 min was found to be the optimal condition, where the EGCG content was at a maximum of 50.69 mg/100 ml with the highest sensory scores. It was observed that the yield of epistructured catechins increased rapidly for the first 3-5 min of brewing at 85 °C, and increased brewing time resulted in a decrease in the yield of epistructured catechins. The amount of nonepistructured catechins continued to increase with longer extraction times. Sensory scores for infusion colour, taste, aroma and overall acceptability were highest at 3 and 5 min brewing times at all temperatures. Sensory scores were very low for 30 and 45 min brewing at 85 and 95 °C due to the bitter taste and dark colour. PMID:26396411

  8. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

  9. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

  10. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice.

  11. Effect of galactooligosaccharide addition on the physical, optical, and sensory acceptance of vanilla ice cream.

    PubMed

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Celeguini, R M S; Santos, R; Pastore, G M; Junior, C A Conte; Freitas, M Q; Nogueira, L C; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the addition of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the physicochemical, optical, and sensory characteristics of ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice cream was supplemented with 0, 1.5, and 3.0% (wt/wt) GOS and characterized for pH, firmness, color, melting, overrun, as well as subjected to a discriminative sensory test (triangle test). For comparison purposes, ice creams containing fructooligosaccharide were also manufactured. The GOS ice creams were characterized by increased firmness and lower melting rates. Different perceptions were reported in the sensory evaluation for the 3.0% GOS ice cream when compared with the control, which was not observed for the fructooligosaccharide ice cream. Overall, the findings suggest it is possible to produce GOS ice cream with improved stability in relation to the physicochemical parameters and sensory perception.

  12. Effect of galactooligosaccharide addition on the physical, optical, and sensory acceptance of vanilla ice cream.

    PubMed

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Celeguini, R M S; Santos, R; Pastore, G M; Junior, C A Conte; Freitas, M Q; Nogueira, L C; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the addition of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the physicochemical, optical, and sensory characteristics of ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice cream was supplemented with 0, 1.5, and 3.0% (wt/wt) GOS and characterized for pH, firmness, color, melting, overrun, as well as subjected to a discriminative sensory test (triangle test). For comparison purposes, ice creams containing fructooligosaccharide were also manufactured. The GOS ice creams were characterized by increased firmness and lower melting rates. Different perceptions were reported in the sensory evaluation for the 3.0% GOS ice cream when compared with the control, which was not observed for the fructooligosaccharide ice cream. Overall, the findings suggest it is possible to produce GOS ice cream with improved stability in relation to the physicochemical parameters and sensory perception. PMID:25912870

  13. Sensory characteristics and consumer liking of sausages with 10% fat and added rye or wheat bran

    PubMed Central

    Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vuholm, Stine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Kristensen, Mette; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Raben, Anne; Kehlet, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Improving the nutritional profile of sausages through the addition of dietary fiber might affect appetite, sensory characteristics, and liking differently depending on the fiber source. This study investigates the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of sausages with 10% (w/w) fat and added rye or wheat bran. Sensory descriptive attributes (odor, appearance, texture, and flavor) of rye bran sausage (RBS) and wheat bran sausage (WBS) were evaluated by a trained sensory panel (n = 9). A sausage with wheat flour (WFS) and two commercial 20% (20%S) and 10% (10%S) (w/w) fat sausages were also included. Liking was investigated in consumer tests with two Danish target groups (49 children aged between six and nine and 24 parents). RBS and WBS were similar with regard to their sensory descriptive attributes, but the structure of these sausages was coarser and the color was more brown than the other sausages. RBS was similar to the commercial 10%S with regard to several sensory attributes and liking, whereas WBS was the least juicy, had a higher intensity of cereal odor and flavor, and the lowest liking. PMID:25473511

  14. Short communication: Sensory profile and acceptability of a cow milk cheese manufactured by adding jenny milk.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, C; Faraone, D; Paolino, R; Freschi, P; Musto, M

    2016-01-01

    The addition of jenny milk during cheesemaking has been recommended as a viable alternative to egg lysozyme for controlling late blowing defects. However, little is known on the sensory properties of the cheeses made with jenny milk. In this study, the effect of the addition of jenny milk during cheesemaking on sensory properties and consumer acceptability of cheese was evaluated. A sensory profile was carried out by 10 trained panelists on 4 cow milk cheese types. Two types of cheeses were made by adding jenny milk to cow milk during cheesemaking; the cheeses were then left to ripen for 45 and 120 d. The remaining 2 cheese types were made with only cow milk and were also left to ripen for 45 and 120 d. The attributes generated by a quantitative descriptive analysis sensory panel were effective for discriminating the 4 products. Among them, added jenny milk samples aged for 45 d had the highest intensity of some appearance descriptors (structure and color uniformity), as well as the highest intensity of sweetness. The analysis of acceptability data obtained from 89 consumers showed that added jenny milk aged for 45 d was the most preferred type of cheese, whereas no significant differences were found among the other products, which had higher intensity of bitter, salty, acid milk, and so on. PMID:26506544

  15. Texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability of gamma-irradiated marinated anchovy fillets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomac, Alejandra; Cova, María C.; Narvaiz, Patricia; Yeannes, María I.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 3 and 4 kGy) on vacuum-packed marinated anchovy fillets was analyzed for their texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability after 10 months under refrigeration. Marinated (3% acetic acid, 10% sodium chloride and 0.2% citric acid) Engraulis anchoita fillets were vacuum-packed and irradiated with a cobalt-60 source at a semi-industrial irradiation facility. The irradiation caused a slight increase in hardness values regardless of the applied dose but maintained a consistent texture over the 10 months, even though the control samples softened, most likely due to degradation. This hardness increase did not affect the textural sensory acceptability. Irradiation did not modify the color but still reduced color changes during storage, benefitting the product's quality. TBARS was increased in every sample throughout storage, but irradiation decreased these values. Sensory acceptability was not affected by gamma irradiation. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be successfully applied to this type of product for the purpose of shelf-life extension.

  16. Effect of technique variation on sensory nerve conduction characteristics.

    PubMed

    Stone, L A

    1984-04-01

    The impact of technique variation on the wave-form characteristics of the evoked sensory potential was determined from the median and ulnar nerves of healthy subjects. The conduction characteristics of latency, amplitude, and duration were determined for orthodromic and antidromic techniques of stimulation as measured under each of three recording modes: 1) single evoked response, 2) superimposition, and 3) electronic averaging. Variation in the technique of stimulation significantly affected each of the three wave-form characteristics. Peak latency and duration of the evoked sensory potential were longer in antidromic stimulation. The amplitude of the sensory potential varied significantly with both recording and stimulating techniques. The amplitude of the sensory response was larger in antidromic stimulation than in orthodromic stimulation and also was found to be smaller with electronic averaging than with the other recording modes in both antidromic and orthodromic conduction techniques. This degree of variation requires that standardized techniques of methodology be established with the development of normal values for the particular laboratory.

  17. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk from goats supplemented with castor or licuri oil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R A G; Oliveira, C J B; Medeiros, A N; Costa, R G; Bomfim, M A D; Queiroga, R C R E

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor and licuri palm oils supplemented to milking goats on the physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of milk. A double Latin square experimental design (5x5) using 10 confined crossbred Moxotó-Alpine goats was performed according to the following treatments: nonsupplemented (control), 3% castor oil, 5% castor oil, 3% licuri oil, and 5% licuri oil. Oils in each treatment were supplemented in the dry matter. Castor oil supplementation reduced the fat content and increased the lactose and density of milk. Considering the sensory analysis, a lower acceptability was observed for milk from goats supplemented with castor oil. On the other hand, licuri oil supplementation led to higher acceptability scores for flavor and odor of goat milk.

  18. High amounts of broccoli in pasta-like products: nutritional evaluation and sensory acceptability.

    PubMed

    Silva, E; Gerritsen, L; Dekker, M; van der Linden, E; Scholten, E

    2013-11-01

    Pasta and noodles were enriched with concentrations of broccoli powder (BP) up to 30% (v/v). To ensure the benefits from the broccoli nutrients, their leakage during cooking should be prevented. Such leakage is determined by the microstructure. In a previous study we have shown that the microstructure can change dramatically in such broccoli-enriched products. In this article we investigated the amount of nutrients retained within the product. As a representative of nutrients we have chosen glucosinolates (GLs). Therefore, we have investigated the concentration of these phytochemicals in dried and cooked pasta and noodles. We have found that glucosinolates present in the pasta and noodles increase linearly with the volume fraction of BP up to 20%. At 30% BP the retained amount of GLs was equal to that of 20% BP and did not increase further. Therefore incorporation of 30% BP does not lead to additional health benefits over incorporation of 20% BP. We conclude that the nutritional function of our pasta-like products can be improved by enrichment up to 20% broccoli. This value is much higher than that found in common commercial products (which is a few percent). In this article we also briefly address the sensory acceptability of such products. Up to 20% broccoli the products turned out to remain acceptable. Combining this with our results on texture analysis we conclude that the GLs release, sensory acceptability and textural properties are related via the microstructure.

  19. Sensory acceptability and factors predicting the consumption of grain amaranth in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Macharia-Mutie, Catherine W; Van de Wiel, Anne M; Moreno-Londono, Ana M; Mwangi, Alice M; Brouwer, Inge D

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of adding grain amaranth flour on sensory acceptability of maize porridge in Kenya. Factors influencing the intention of mothers to feed their children on grain amaranth were identified. A significant difference between the various porridge ratios (50:50, 70:30, and 100:0 amaranth:maize) either in unfermented or fermented form could be detected. Preference for the unfermented amaranth enriched maize porridge was observed. Intention significantly correlated and predicted grain amaranth consumption (p < .001). Knowledge and health value significantly predicted health behavior identity. Interaction between barriers and intention negatively influenced behavior. Findings suggest that unfermented amaranth enriched maize porridge is acceptable. Unfermented porridge with 70% amaranth can be considered for use in a program aimed at increasing dietary iron intake among children. Increasing awareness about micronutrient deficiencies and nutritional benefits of grain amaranth could enhance its consumption.

  20. Sensory characteristics and antioxidant capacity of red raspberry extract as a preservative in fruity flavoured beverages.

    PubMed

    Ozarda, Ozlem; Barla Demirkoz, Asli; Özdemir, Murat

    2015-10-01

    Sensory evaluation is a critical process in product development and consumer research. It is a fastly growing field due to innovation of novel techniques. The objective of this study was determination of sensory properties of red raspberry extract in fruity flavoured beverages comparison to the synthetic preservatives. For this purpose, an organoleptic stability study on fruity flavoured beverages was conducted storing them at several temperatures (room temperature, 2 ± 2 °C and 40 ± 2 °C) in the dark for 3 months. Sensory quality of beverages was analysed. Difference in pH and data obtained from °Brix measurements during storage was evaluated statistically. Room temperature and 40 ± 2 °C were detected to affect sensory characteristics of beverages. Highest variations were observed at 40 ± 2 °C. Beverages stored at 2 ± 2 °C displayed most acceptable appearance in organoleptic evaluation and insignificant change occured. It was also found that red raspberry extract provided stable sensory effects, color, flavour and taste, in beverages compared to synthetic preservatives at 2 ± 2 °C.

  1. Alternative fat substitutes for beef burger: technological and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Sabrina C; Pimenta, Maria Emília S G; Pimenta, Carlos J; Reis, Tatiana A; Nunes, Cleiton A; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Fabrício, Luís Felipe F; Leal, Renato Silva

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to develop a type of hamburger meat product and evaluate the physical features and sensory formulations of oatmeal flour, flour of green banana pulp, flour of green banana peel, flour of apple peel and pulp of Green Banana as fat substitutes. Regarding color, the formulations containing fat substitutes based on green banana presented lower values for b* and L*. Hamburgers with added oatmeal and apple peel flour obtained high values of a* and low values of L*, producing the reddest burgers. Substitutes based on green banana differed from others, resulting in a higher yield of burgers and water-holding capacity during cooking, besides having lower toughness and less shrinkage. The sensory acceptance test for untrained consumers suggests that the flour of peel and pulp of green banana, and oatmeal flour are excellent choices for fat-substitution in beef burger. Although fat contributes to a series of physical and sensory attributes such as softness, juiciness and yield, it is possible to reduce the lipid content in beef burgers without depreciating the quality of food through the use of the following fat substitutes: oat flour, apple peel flour, green banana pulp flour, green banana peel flour and green banana pulp. PMID:25190862

  2. Alternative fat substitutes for beef burger: technological and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Sabrina C; Pimenta, Maria Emília S G; Pimenta, Carlos J; Reis, Tatiana A; Nunes, Cleiton A; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Fabrício, Luís Felipe F; Leal, Renato Silva

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to develop a type of hamburger meat product and evaluate the physical features and sensory formulations of oatmeal flour, flour of green banana pulp, flour of green banana peel, flour of apple peel and pulp of Green Banana as fat substitutes. Regarding color, the formulations containing fat substitutes based on green banana presented lower values for b* and L*. Hamburgers with added oatmeal and apple peel flour obtained high values of a* and low values of L*, producing the reddest burgers. Substitutes based on green banana differed from others, resulting in a higher yield of burgers and water-holding capacity during cooking, besides having lower toughness and less shrinkage. The sensory acceptance test for untrained consumers suggests that the flour of peel and pulp of green banana, and oatmeal flour are excellent choices for fat-substitution in beef burger. Although fat contributes to a series of physical and sensory attributes such as softness, juiciness and yield, it is possible to reduce the lipid content in beef burgers without depreciating the quality of food through the use of the following fat substitutes: oat flour, apple peel flour, green banana pulp flour, green banana peel flour and green banana pulp.

  3. Pre-cure freezing effect on physicochemical, texture and sensory characteristics of Iberian ham.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Palacios, T; Ruiz, J; Martín, D; Barat, J M; Antequera, T

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of pre-cure freezing on the physicochemical, texture and sensory characteristics of raw and dry-cured hams. Both, refrigerated (R) and pre-cure frozen (F) hams showed the same weight losses during the processing. At the green stage F Iberian hams had lower moisture content, higher values of a* and chroma, lower hardness and chewiness and higher adhesiveness and springiness than R ones. However, at the end of the processing R and F Iberian hams only were different in salt content, F hams showing lower values than R ones. Sensory analysis of Iberian dry-cured ham did not show differences in salty taste. Panelist detected a higher fat hardness and lean pastiness in F than in R hams. The overall acceptability for both groups of dry-cured hams was between average and good. PMID:21441388

  4. Physical and sensory characteristics of marinated broiler drumsticks treated with lactoperoxidase system and thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Tan, F J; Ockerman, H W

    2006-06-01

    1. The lactoperoxidase system (LPS) and thermal treatments have been shown to inactivate some micro-organisms in foods. However, further studies are needed to evaluate whether these treatments influenced the physical and sensory characteristics of treated samples. 2. A solution that contained 1% acetic acid and 3% salt with pH adjusted to 4 was developed as a standard marinade. The LPS consisting of 1 microg/ml lactoperoxidase (LP), 5.9 mM potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) and 2.5 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was added to the marinade for the LPS treatments. 3. In the thermal treatment, samples were heated with the marinade solution at 58 degrees C for 2 min and then marinated at 4 degrees C for 18 h, while the non-thermal treatments were marinated at 4 degrees C for 18 h. 4. For sensory evaluation, flavouring agents including 0.3% black pepper and 0.15% garlic powder were added to the marinade. For physical evaluation, no flavouring agents were added. 5. The results showed that combined LPS and thermal treatment did not impair the physical or sensory qualities of the samples. 6. In conclusion, marinated broiler drumsticks treated with LPS and thermal treatment had acceptable physical and sensory qualities.

  5. Physical and sensory characteristics of marinated broiler drumsticks treated with lactoperoxidase system and thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Tan, F J; Ockerman, H W

    2006-06-01

    1. The lactoperoxidase system (LPS) and thermal treatments have been shown to inactivate some micro-organisms in foods. However, further studies are needed to evaluate whether these treatments influenced the physical and sensory characteristics of treated samples. 2. A solution that contained 1% acetic acid and 3% salt with pH adjusted to 4 was developed as a standard marinade. The LPS consisting of 1 microg/ml lactoperoxidase (LP), 5.9 mM potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) and 2.5 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was added to the marinade for the LPS treatments. 3. In the thermal treatment, samples were heated with the marinade solution at 58 degrees C for 2 min and then marinated at 4 degrees C for 18 h, while the non-thermal treatments were marinated at 4 degrees C for 18 h. 4. For sensory evaluation, flavouring agents including 0.3% black pepper and 0.15% garlic powder were added to the marinade. For physical evaluation, no flavouring agents were added. 5. The results showed that combined LPS and thermal treatment did not impair the physical or sensory qualities of the samples. 6. In conclusion, marinated broiler drumsticks treated with LPS and thermal treatment had acceptable physical and sensory qualities. PMID:16787851

  6. Influence of lactation stage and some flock management practices on sensory characteristics of goat milk from Brazilian Saanen breed.

    PubMed

    de Cássia Ramos do Egypto Queiroga, Rita; Costa, Roberto Germano; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Dos Santos Garruti, Deborah; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of lactation stage (early, middle, late) and management practices (milking hygiene and buck presence) on the sensory attributes of Saanen goat milk. Goats were randomly divided in four groups in respect of different milking sanitary procedures and the presence/absence of the buck in the barn. Milk samples were analyzed for sensory attributes including quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and acceptance. The milking hygiene practice caused no significant influence on microbiological parameters. Results of QDA revealed that the buck presence increased the characteristic odor of milk at the middle and late lactation stages. The off-odor and off-flavor descriptors showed a distinct response since a higher intensity of these sensory characteristics was noted in the samples obtained from goats maintained without the buck. Odor and flavor contributed most in characterizing the different samples regardless of the management practice and lactation stage. The acceptance of odor showed to be influenced only by the lactation stage, while the acceptance of flavor was only through the presence of the buck. Odor acceptance correlated negatively to off-odor and off-flavor, suggesting that these two sensory attributes impaired the preference for the aroma of the milk samples. PMID:26497816

  7. Some Rat Sensory Neurons in Culture Express Characteristics of Differentiated Pain Sensory Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccaglini, Paola I.; Hogan, Patrick G.

    1983-01-01

    Sensory neurons were dissociated from trigeminal ganglia or from dorsal root ganglia of rats, grown in culture, and examined for expression of properties of pain sensory cells. Many sensory neurons in culture are excited by low concentrations of capsaicin, reportedly a selective stimulus for pain sensory neurons. Many are excited by bradykinin, sensitized by prostaglandin E2, or specifically stained by an antiserum against substance P. These experiments provide a basis for the study of pain mechanisms in cell culture.

  8. Effects of Edible Seaweed on Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-salt Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ko-Eun; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    The effects of sea tangle, sea mustard, hijiki, and glasswort were investigated based on the proximate composition, salinity, cooking loss, emulsion stability, pH, color, texture profile analysis, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of reduced-salt (NaCl) meat batter and frankfurters. The moisture content, salinity, lightness of the meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of the reduced-salt frankfurters with sea weeds were lower than the control without seaweed (p<0.05). The protein content, springiness, and cohesiveness of the reduced-salt frankfurters were not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05). The moisture content, salinity, cooking loss, lightness, redness, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of treatments with sea tangle and with sea mustard were lower than the control (p<0.05). Among the sensory traits, color was highest in the control (p<0.05). The flavor was also highest in the control. The treatments with sea tangle and with sea mustard samples had high tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores similar to the control (p<0.05). The results of this study show that the combination of low-salt and seaweed in the formulation successfully improved reduced-salt frankfurters, improving sensory characteristics to levels similar to the regular salt control (1.5%). PMID:26877634

  9. Sensory characteristics of high-amylose maize-resistant starch in three food products

    PubMed Central

    Maziarz, Mindy; Sherrard, Melanie; Juma, Shanil; Prasad, Chandan; Imrhan, Victorine; Vijayagopal, Parakat

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) is considered a functional ingredient due to its positive organoleptic and physiochemical modifications associated with food and physiological benefits related to human health. The sensory characteristics of three types of food products (muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry) with and without HAM-RS2 were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry contained 5.50 g/100 g, 13.10 g/100 g, and 8.94 g/100 g RS, respectively, based on lyophilized dry weight. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffin had higher moisture content and was perceived as being significantly moister than the control according to the sensory evaluation. The addition of HAM-RS2 to muffins significantly enhanced all sensory characteristics and resulted in a higher mean overall likeability score. The HAM-RS2-enriched focaccia bread appeared significantly darker in color, was more dense, and had the perception of a well-done crust versus the control. A grainer texture was observed with the chicken curry containing HAM-RS2 which did not significantly affect overall likeability. We concluded that the addition of HAM-RS2 may not significantly alter consumer's acceptability in most food products. PMID:24804020

  10. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly ( p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant ( p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly ( p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

  11. Sensory characteristics of high-amylose maize-resistant starch in three food products.

    PubMed

    Maziarz, Mindy; Sherrard, Melanie; Juma, Shanil; Prasad, Chandan; Imrhan, Victorine; Vijayagopal, Parakat

    2013-03-01

    Type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) is considered a functional ingredient due to its positive organoleptic and physiochemical modifications associated with food and physiological benefits related to human health. The sensory characteristics of three types of food products (muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry) with and without HAM-RS2 were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry contained 5.50 g/100 g, 13.10 g/100 g, and 8.94 g/100 g RS, respectively, based on lyophilized dry weight. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffin had higher moisture content and was perceived as being significantly moister than the control according to the sensory evaluation. The addition of HAM-RS2 to muffins significantly enhanced all sensory characteristics and resulted in a higher mean overall likeability score. The HAM-RS2-enriched focaccia bread appeared significantly darker in color, was more dense, and had the perception of a well-done crust versus the control. A grainer texture was observed with the chicken curry containing HAM-RS2 which did not significantly affect overall likeability. We concluded that the addition of HAM-RS2 may not significantly alter consumer's acceptability in most food products.

  12. Probiotic fermented sausage: viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, M; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the minimum viable probiotic cells in each gram or milliliter of product till the time of consumption) is their most important characteristic. However, these organisms often show poor viability in fermented products due to their detrimental conditions. Today, the variety of fermented meat products available around the world is nearly equal to that of cheese. With meat products, raw fermented sausages could constitute an appropriate vehicle for such microorganisms into the human gastrointestinal tract. In present article, the viability of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausage, the main factors affect their viability, and the sensorial characteristics of final product are discussed.

  13. Probiotic fermented sausage: viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, M; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the minimum viable probiotic cells in each gram or milliliter of product till the time of consumption) is their most important characteristic. However, these organisms often show poor viability in fermented products due to their detrimental conditions. Today, the variety of fermented meat products available around the world is nearly equal to that of cheese. With meat products, raw fermented sausages could constitute an appropriate vehicle for such microorganisms into the human gastrointestinal tract. In present article, the viability of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausage, the main factors affect their viability, and the sensorial characteristics of final product are discussed. PMID:23320906

  14. Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    PubMed

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Shen, Yuchi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Methven, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability. PMID:25156799

  15. Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    PubMed

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Shen, Yuchi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Methven, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability.

  16. Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Sponge Cakes with Rubus coreanus Powder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-01-01

    To develop new type of sponge cake, the effects of partial (0~40%) replacement with Rubus coreanus powder (RCP) on the quality characteristics of sponge cakes were investigated. The pH level and moisture content ranged from 4.05~8.23 and 28.49~36.59, respectively, and significantly decreased upon addition of RCP (P<0.05). Baking loss rate and cake firmness significantly increased with higher RCP content in the formulation, whereas morphological characteristics of cakes such as height, volume, and symmetry indices significantly decreased (P<0.05). For crumb color values, L*- and b*-values significantly decreased while a*-value significantly increased as a result of RCP substitution (P<0.05). Hedonic sensory results indicated that sponge cakes supplemented with 30~40% RCP showed the most favorable acceptance scores for most of the sensory attributes evaluated. Overall, Rubus coreanus sponge cake could be developed with comparable physicochemical qualities without sacrificing consumer acceptability. PMID:26451358

  17. Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Sponge Cakes with Rubus coreanus Powder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-09-01

    To develop new type of sponge cake, the effects of partial (0~40%) replacement with Rubus coreanus powder (RCP) on the quality characteristics of sponge cakes were investigated. The pH level and moisture content ranged from 4.05~8.23 and 28.49~36.59, respectively, and significantly decreased upon addition of RCP (P<0.05). Baking loss rate and cake firmness significantly increased with higher RCP content in the formulation, whereas morphological characteristics of cakes such as height, volume, and symmetry indices significantly decreased (P<0.05). For crumb color values, L*- and b*-values significantly decreased while a*-value significantly increased as a result of RCP substitution (P<0.05). Hedonic sensory results indicated that sponge cakes supplemented with 30~40% RCP showed the most favorable acceptance scores for most of the sensory attributes evaluated. Overall, Rubus coreanus sponge cake could be developed with comparable physicochemical qualities without sacrificing consumer acceptability.

  18. Glycemic responses and sensory characteristics of whole yellow pea flour added to novel functional foods.

    PubMed

    Marinangeli, Christopher P F; Kassis, Amira N; Jones, Peter J H

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental understanding regarding postprandial glycemic responses to foods containing whole yellow-pea flour (WYPF) remains unknown. This, alongside concerns that WYPF possesses unfavorable sensory characteristics has limited the incorporation of WYPF into new functional food products as a healthy novel ingredient. The objective of this study was to evaluate how WYPF modulates postprandial glycemic responses as well as sensory characteristics in novel foods. In a single-blind crossover trial, the present study assessed postprandial glycemic responses of banana bread, biscotti, and spaghetti containing either WYPF or whole wheat flour (WWF). Boiled yellow peas (BYP) and white bread (WB) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. On day 1, subjects evaluated appearance, taste, texture, smell as well as overall acceptance of each WYPF and WWF food on a 5-point hedonic scale. WYPF banana bread (97.9 +/- 17.8 mmol x min/L) and biscotti (83 +/- 13 mmol x min/L), as well as BYP (112.3 +/- 19.9 mmol x min/L), reduced (P < 0.05) glycemic responses compared to WB (218.1 +/- 29.5 mmol x min/L). The glycemic response of WYPF pasta (160.7 +/- 19.4 mmol x min/L) was comparable to WB. WYPF biscotti produced a lower (P = 0.019) postprandial glycemic response compared to WWF biscotti (117.2 +/- 13.1 mmol x min/L). Hedonic responses between corresponding foods were similar except for the WYPF pasta (2.9 +/- 0.9) which possessed a lower sensory score (P = 0.02) for smell compared to WWF pasta (3.6 +/- 1). WYPF can be used to produce low-glycemic functional foods possessing sensory attributes that are comparable to identical food products containing WWF.

  19. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control. PMID:26471676

  20. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control.

  1. Microwave drying of selected greens and their sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fathima, A; Begum, K; Rajalakshmi, D

    2001-01-01

    Green leafy vegetables which supply minerals and vitamins to the diet, are highly perishable. Therefore, post harvest losses are extremely high. Limited studies are available in the literature with regard to preservation of greens. The effect of microwave drying and storage on physical and sensory properties of selected greens (coriander, mint, fenugreek, amaranth and shepu) were therefore studied. Microwave drying was carried out at 100% power and a frequency of 2450 mHz. The drying time varied from 10 to 16 min for different greens. Microwave drying affected color, appearance and odor of all the greens. The relative reconstitution capacity (RRC) for different greens was coriander-10.3, mint-10.3, amaranth-38.3, fenugreek-31.7 and shepu-32.8. The RRC appeared to influence acceptability. Coriander and mint, which exhibited the lowest RRC (10.3%), had the lowest scores for flavor and color while amaranth, with the highest RRC (38.3%), had scores similar to those of fresh amaranth. Scores for the products prepared with dried fenugreek and shepu, although low, were not statistically significant. Microwave drying was highly suitable for greens such as amaranth; moderately suitable for shepu and fenugreek and less suitable for coriander and mint.

  2. Quality and sensory acceptability of a chilled functional apple ready-dessert.

    PubMed

    Keenan, D F; Brunton, N P; Gormley, T R; Butler, F

    2012-04-01

    An apple and dairy based ready-dessert with an added prebiotic was stored and chill temperatures and number of quality attributes were monitored during chill (4 °C) storage for 30 days. All ready-desserts were thermally processed by sous vide (P (90) > 10 min). The stability of the dairy component in ready-desserts was monitored by measuring volatile free fatty acids. Changes in these components were more evident in prebiotic-enriched samples compared to controls. However, no significant differences were observed over storage in control and prebiotic-enriched ready-desserts. This was supported by sensory analysis that showed no significant changes over storage in control or prebiotic-enriched samples. Of the other quality parameters, the addition of prebiotic inclusions resulted in lower L and b values and dry matter (p < 0.05), while increasing (p < 0.05) soluble solids content compared to control samples. Fluctuations in some of the quality parameters were also observed over storage. Rheological characteristics, i.e. flow behaviour (n), consistency index (K), storage (G'), loss (G″) and complex (G*) moduli were unaffected by prebiotic inclusion. However, storage affected the rheological characteristics of ready-desserts. A decrease (p < 0.05) in flow behaviour (n) led to concomitant increases in consistency index (K) and complex modulus (G*) values in control samples. PMID:22407955

  3. Quantitative and qualitative variation of fat in model vanilla custard desserts: effects on sensory properties and consumer acceptance.

    PubMed

    Tomaschunas, Maja; Köhn, Ehrhard; Bennwitz, Petra; Hinrichs, Jörg; Busch-Stockfisch, Mechthild

    2013-06-01

    The effects of variation in fat content (0.1% to 15.8%) and type of fat, using different types of milk, dairy cream, or vegetable fat cream, on sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of starch-based vanilla model custards were studied. Descriptive analysis with trained panelists and consumer testing with untrained assessors were applied. Descriptive data were related to hedonic data using principal component analysis to determine drivers of liking and disliking. Results demonstrated an increasing effect of fat concerning visual and oral thickness, creamy flavor, and fat-related texture properties, as well as a decreasing effect concerning yellow color and surface shine. A lack of fat caused moderate intensities in pudding-like flavor attributes and an intensive jelly texture. Adding a vegetable fat cream led to lower intensities in attributes yellow color, cooked flavor, thick, and jelly texture, whereas intensities in vegetable fat flavor and fat-related texture properties increased. All consumers favored custards with medium fat contents, being high in pudding-like and vegetable fat flavor as well as in fat-related texture attributes. Nonfat custards were rejected due to jelly texture and moderate intensities in pudding-flavor attributes. High-fat samples were liked by some consumers, but their high intensities in thickness, white color, and creamy flavor also drove disliking for others.

  4. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented sheepmeat sausage

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yanjun; Young, Owen A; Brooks, John D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented, cured sausages made from equivalent muscle groups of beef, pork, and sheepmeat. The last has no commercial examples and represents an unexploited opportunity. Using seven replicates of shoulder meat and subcutaneous fat, sausages were made with 64%, 29%, 4%, 2%, 0.2%, and 0.01% of lean meat, fat, NaCl, glucose, sodium pyrophosphate, and lactic culture, respectively. Following anaerobic fermentation (96 h, 30°C), there were no significant differences between the species in mean texture (hardness, springiness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness) and pH, and only minor differences were seen in color. However, although not consumer tested, it is argued that consumers would be able to pick a texture difference due to different fat melting point ranges, highest for sheepmeat. This work was followed by a sensory experiment to find out if characteristic sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. To simulate a very strongly characteristic sheepmeat, beef sausage mixtures (above) were spiked, or not, with 4-methyloctanoic, 4-methylnonanoic acid, and skatole (5.0, 0.35, and 0.08 mg kg−1, respectively). Sodium nitrite (at 0.1 g kg−1) and a garlic/rosemary flavor were variably added to create a 23 factorial design. In a randomized design, 60 consumers found that spiked sheepmeat flavors caused an overall significant decrease in mean liking on a 1–9 scale (5.83 vs. 5.35,P = 0.003), but this was completely negated by the garlic/rosemary addition (5.18 vs. 6.00,P < 0.001). Nitrite had no effect on liking (5.61 vs. 5.58,P = 0.82), although nitrite might be included in commercial examples to minimize fat oxidation and suppress growth of clostridia. Thus, sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. Commercial examples could thus be made for these consumers, but the mandatory use of the name “mutton” in some

  5. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented sheepmeat sausage.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanjun; Young, Owen A; Brooks, John D

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented, cured sausages made from equivalent muscle groups of beef, pork, and sheepmeat. The last has no commercial examples and represents an unexploited opportunity. Using seven replicates of shoulder meat and subcutaneous fat, sausages were made with 64%, 29%, 4%, 2%, 0.2%, and 0.01% of lean meat, fat, NaCl, glucose, sodium pyrophosphate, and lactic culture, respectively. Following anaerobic fermentation (96 h, 30°C), there were no significant differences between the species in mean texture (hardness, springiness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness) and pH, and only minor differences were seen in color. However, although not consumer tested, it is argued that consumers would be able to pick a texture difference due to different fat melting point ranges, highest for sheepmeat. This work was followed by a sensory experiment to find out if characteristic sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. To simulate a very strongly characteristic sheepmeat, beef sausage mixtures (above) were spiked, or not, with 4-methyloctanoic, 4-methylnonanoic acid, and skatole (5.0, 0.35, and 0.08 mg kg(-1), respectively). Sodium nitrite (at 0.1 g kg(-1)) and a garlic/rosemary flavor were variably added to create a 2(3) factorial design. In a randomized design, 60 consumers found that spiked sheepmeat flavors caused an overall significant decrease in mean liking on a 1-9 scale (5.83 vs. 5.35,P = 0.003), but this was completely negated by the garlic/rosemary addition (5.18 vs. 6.00,P < 0.001). Nitrite had no effect on liking (5.61 vs. 5.58,P = 0.82), although nitrite might be included in commercial examples to minimize fat oxidation and suppress growth of clostridia. Thus, sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. Commercial examples could thus be made for these consumers, but the mandatory use of the name "mutton" in some markets

  6. Improving the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat burger patties using ginger extract and papain.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Naeem, Heba H S; Mohamed, Hussein M H

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to include tenderizing agents in the formulation of camel meat burger patties to improve the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the product. Camel meat burger patties were processed with addition of ginger extract (7%), papain (0.01%) and mixture of ginger extract (5%) and papain (0.005%) in addition to control. Addition of ginger, papain and their mixture resulted in significant (P<0.05) increase of the collagen solubility and sensory scores (juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability) with significant (P<0.05) reduction of the shear force values. Ginger extract resulted in extensive fragmentation of myofibrils; however, papain extract caused noticeable destructive effect on connective tissue. Moreover, ginger and papain resulted in improvement of the lipid stability of treated burger patties during storage. Therefore, addition of ginger extract and papain powder during formulation of camel burger patties can improve their physico-chemical and sensory properties.

  7. Improving the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat burger patties using ginger extract and papain.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Naeem, Heba H S; Mohamed, Hussein M H

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to include tenderizing agents in the formulation of camel meat burger patties to improve the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the product. Camel meat burger patties were processed with addition of ginger extract (7%), papain (0.01%) and mixture of ginger extract (5%) and papain (0.005%) in addition to control. Addition of ginger, papain and their mixture resulted in significant (P<0.05) increase of the collagen solubility and sensory scores (juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability) with significant (P<0.05) reduction of the shear force values. Ginger extract resulted in extensive fragmentation of myofibrils; however, papain extract caused noticeable destructive effect on connective tissue. Moreover, ginger and papain resulted in improvement of the lipid stability of treated burger patties during storage. Therefore, addition of ginger extract and papain powder during formulation of camel burger patties can improve their physico-chemical and sensory properties. PMID:27045253

  8. Refrigerated poultry breast fillets packed in modified atmosphere and irradiated: bacteriological evaluation, shelf life and sensory acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Mantilla, Samira Pirola Santos; Santos, Érica Barbosa; de Freitas, Mônica Queiroz; de Carvalho Vital, Helio; Mano, Sérgio Borges; Franc, Robson Maia

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the effects on shelf life and sensory acceptance of gamma-irradiated refrigerated poultry breast fillets subjected to modified atmosphere packaging (80% CO2/20% N2 or vacuum) were investigated. After irradiation with 2 kGy, sensory acceptance tests and monitoring of bacterial growth were performed in order to determine the sanitary quality of the samples. It has been found that irradiation, used in combination with modified atmosphere packaging, can double the shelf life of refrigerated poultry breast fillets by reducing the populations of aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, enterobacteria, coliforms, Listeria spp. and Aeromonas spp., without significantly modifying its color or its overall appearance, the lactic acid bacteria being the most resistant to exposure to radiation and carbon dioxide. PMID:24031967

  9. Refrigerated poultry breast fillets packed in modified atmosphere and irradiated: bacteriological evaluation, shelf life and sensory acceptance.

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Samira Pirola Santos; Santos, Erica Barbosa; de Freitas, Mônica Queiroz; de Carvalho Vital, Helio; Mano, Sérgio Borges; Franc, Robson Maia

    2012-10-01

    In the present study the effects on shelf life and sensory acceptance of gamma-irradiated refrigerated poultry breast fillets subjected to modified atmosphere packaging (80% CO2/20% N2 or vacuum) were investigated. After irradiation with 2 kGy, sensory acceptance tests and monitoring of bacterial growth were performed in order to determine the sanitary quality of the samples. It has been found that irradiation, used in combination with modified atmosphere packaging, can double the shelf life of refrigerated poultry breast fillets by reducing the populations of aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, enterobacteria, coliforms, Listeria spp. and Aeromonas spp., without significantly modifying its color or its overall appearance, the lactic acid bacteria being the most resistant to exposure to radiation and carbon dioxide.

  10. Evaluation of poultry protein isolate as a food ingredient: physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of marinated chicken breasts.

    PubMed

    Khiari, Zied; Omana, Dileep A; Pietrasik, Zeb; Betti, Mirko

    2013-07-01

    The possibilities of replacing soy protein isolate (SPI) and reducing the amount of phosphate in marinated chicken breasts using poultry protein isolate (PPI) were investigated. PPI, prepared from mechanically separated turkey meat through the pH-shift technology, was used as a marinade ingredient for chicken breasts at 2 different concentrations (1.0% and 1.5%, w/w on a dry weight basis). Product characteristics were compared to samples marinated with salt, phosphate, or SPI. All the 5 treatments were subjected to instrumental and sensory analyses. Tumbling yield, drip, and cooking losses as well as expressible moisture showed that PPI can be used as a substitute for SPI in brine. The sensory analysis revealed that there were no differences among treatments in terms of appearance, color, flavor, saltiness, juiciness, tenderness, and overall acceptability of the marinated chicken breasts. However, chicken breasts marinated with phosphate had significantly higher aroma acceptability scores than those treated with 1% PPI. PMID:23772877

  11. Evaluation of poultry protein isolate as a food ingredient: physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of marinated chicken breasts.

    PubMed

    Khiari, Zied; Omana, Dileep A; Pietrasik, Zeb; Betti, Mirko

    2013-07-01

    The possibilities of replacing soy protein isolate (SPI) and reducing the amount of phosphate in marinated chicken breasts using poultry protein isolate (PPI) were investigated. PPI, prepared from mechanically separated turkey meat through the pH-shift technology, was used as a marinade ingredient for chicken breasts at 2 different concentrations (1.0% and 1.5%, w/w on a dry weight basis). Product characteristics were compared to samples marinated with salt, phosphate, or SPI. All the 5 treatments were subjected to instrumental and sensory analyses. Tumbling yield, drip, and cooking losses as well as expressible moisture showed that PPI can be used as a substitute for SPI in brine. The sensory analysis revealed that there were no differences among treatments in terms of appearance, color, flavor, saltiness, juiciness, tenderness, and overall acceptability of the marinated chicken breasts. However, chicken breasts marinated with phosphate had significantly higher aroma acceptability scores than those treated with 1% PPI.

  12. Effect of fat quality on sausage processing, texture, and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Baer, Arica A; Dilger, Anna C

    2014-03-01

    Fresh pork sausage was manufactured to determine the effects of animal diet (unsaturated or control) and inclusion of corn oil during processing (0% and 14% fat replacement). Bologna was manufactured to investigate only diet effects. Processing, textural, sensory, visual, and storage characteristics were evaluated. Processing yield was improved 2.9 percentage units in fresh sausage but reduced 1.8 units in bologna in unsaturated compared with control diets. Break strength of fresh sausage was reduced 0.6 kg by oil inclusion. Both unsaturated fat and including oil during processing resulted in softer texture of fresh sausage, while increased unsaturation in bologna resulted in firmer or unchanged textural properties. Fresh sausage with oil was lighter colored (5.3 L* units increased) with more fat smearing. In fresh sausage, lipid oxidation remained below 1mg/kg MDA during 12 weeks frozen storage. Overall, changes in fat quality minimally affected sausage quality, likely providing acceptable products to consumers.

  13. Effects of Various Salts on Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cured Meat

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Hyun-Wook

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of refined, solar, and bamboo salt on the physico-chemical properties and sensory characteristics of cured pork loin. Moisture, protein, fat, and ash content, lightness, yellowness, cooking yield, and color, juiciness, and tenderness of sensory properties on curing pork loin exhibited no significant differences regardless of the nature of salts. The pH of raw and cooked cured pork loin with added bamboo salt was higher that of other salt treatments. However, the cooking loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force of cured pork loin with added refined salt was lower than those of solar and bamboo salt pork loins cured. The flavor and overall acceptability scores of treatments with refined salt was higher than those of solar and bamboo salt treatments. The unique flavor of bamboo salt can render it as a functional material for marinating meat products. In addition, the results of this study reveal potential use of bamboo salt in meat curing. PMID:27194922

  14. The rheology, microstructure and sensory characteristics of a gluten-free bread formulation enhanced with orange pomace.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Norah; Doran, Linda; Auty, Mark; Arendt, Elke; Gallagher, Eimear

    2013-12-01

    The present manuscript studied a previously optimised gluten-free bread formulation containing 5.5% orange pomace (OP) in relation to the batter characteristics (i.e. pre-baking), microstructure (of the flours, batter and bread) and sensory characteristics of the bread. Rheology, RVA and mixolab results illustrated that orange pomace improved the robustness of the gluten-free batter and decreased the occurrence of starch gelatinisation. This was confirmed from the confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images, which showed potato starch granules to be more expanded in the control batter when compared to the sample containing orange pomace. Starch granules were also observed to be more enlarged and swollen in the CLSM bread images, suggesting a higher level of gelatinisation occurred in the control sample. Sensory analysis was carried out on the optimised and control bread; panellists scored the flavour, crumb appearance and overall acceptability of the OP-containing breads comparable to the control.

  15. The rheology, microstructure and sensory characteristics of a gluten-free bread formulation enhanced with orange pomace.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Norah; Doran, Linda; Auty, Mark; Arendt, Elke; Gallagher, Eimear

    2013-12-01

    The present manuscript studied a previously optimised gluten-free bread formulation containing 5.5% orange pomace (OP) in relation to the batter characteristics (i.e. pre-baking), microstructure (of the flours, batter and bread) and sensory characteristics of the bread. Rheology, RVA and mixolab results illustrated that orange pomace improved the robustness of the gluten-free batter and decreased the occurrence of starch gelatinisation. This was confirmed from the confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images, which showed potato starch granules to be more expanded in the control batter when compared to the sample containing orange pomace. Starch granules were also observed to be more enlarged and swollen in the CLSM bread images, suggesting a higher level of gelatinisation occurred in the control sample. Sensory analysis was carried out on the optimised and control bread; panellists scored the flavour, crumb appearance and overall acceptability of the OP-containing breads comparable to the control. PMID:24212437

  16. Effect of marinating time and low pH on marinade performance and sensory acceptability of poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Yusop, Salma M; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Kerry, John F; Kerry, Joseph P

    2010-08-01

    The effects of marinating time (30, 60, 120 and 180 min) and acidic marinade pH (3.0, 3.2, 3.4, 3.6, 3.8, 4.0 and 4.2) on the instrumental and sensory properties of cooked Chinese-style marinated chicken were investigated. With increasing marinating time up to 180 min, a significant (P<0.05) increase in surface redness (a* value) and the dark pink sensory attribute was observed, along with a corresponding decrease in lightness (L* value) and colour penetration. Increased marinating times of 120-180 min were found to produce more acceptable end products with increased scores for colour, aroma and flavour attributes. Marinade uptake was greater at higher marinade pH levels of 3.8, 4.0 and 4.2, with the highest marinade uptake (3.34%) recorded at pH 4.0. As changes to core meat pH were not observed, the effect of marinating time (up to 180 min) and marinade pH on the instrumental and sensory properties of Chinese-style marinated chicken were located principally at the surface of samples. Consumers considered surface colour as contributing to acceptability of marinated chicken to a greater degree compared to colour penetration. PMID:20416811

  17. Effect of marinating time and low pH on marinade performance and sensory acceptability of poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Yusop, Salma M; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Kerry, John F; Kerry, Joseph P

    2010-08-01

    The effects of marinating time (30, 60, 120 and 180 min) and acidic marinade pH (3.0, 3.2, 3.4, 3.6, 3.8, 4.0 and 4.2) on the instrumental and sensory properties of cooked Chinese-style marinated chicken were investigated. With increasing marinating time up to 180 min, a significant (P<0.05) increase in surface redness (a* value) and the dark pink sensory attribute was observed, along with a corresponding decrease in lightness (L* value) and colour penetration. Increased marinating times of 120-180 min were found to produce more acceptable end products with increased scores for colour, aroma and flavour attributes. Marinade uptake was greater at higher marinade pH levels of 3.8, 4.0 and 4.2, with the highest marinade uptake (3.34%) recorded at pH 4.0. As changes to core meat pH were not observed, the effect of marinating time (up to 180 min) and marinade pH on the instrumental and sensory properties of Chinese-style marinated chicken were located principally at the surface of samples. Consumers considered surface colour as contributing to acceptability of marinated chicken to a greater degree compared to colour penetration.

  18. Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.

    PubMed

    Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

    2014-09-01

    The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p < 0.05) increased with increase in taro level. Conversely the dough elasticity index (range 59.8-0 %), extensibility (78-22 mm) and strength (range 281-139 × 10(-4) joules) significantly (p < 0.05) diminished with increase in wheat substitution. Up to 10 % substitution with RIN taro flour and 15 % with egg-like taro flour, the composite taro-wheat dough exhibited elasticity indices acceptable for the production of baking products, whereas at all levels of taro substitution, the composite biscuits samples were either acceptable as or better (5-10 % substitution with RIN flour) than 100 % wheat biscuit.

  19. Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.

    PubMed

    Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

    2014-09-01

    The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p < 0.05) increased with increase in taro level. Conversely the dough elasticity index (range 59.8-0 %), extensibility (78-22 mm) and strength (range 281-139 × 10(-4) joules) significantly (p < 0.05) diminished with increase in wheat substitution. Up to 10 % substitution with RIN taro flour and 15 % with egg-like taro flour, the composite taro-wheat dough exhibited elasticity indices acceptable for the production of baking products, whereas at all levels of taro substitution, the composite biscuits samples were either acceptable as or better (5-10 % substitution with RIN flour) than 100 % wheat biscuit. PMID:25190844

  20. Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of sausage formulated with surimi powder.

    PubMed

    Santana, Palestina; Huda, Nurul; Yang, Tajul Aris

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of fish sausage made with 100 % threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) surimi powder (SP100), a mix of 50 % surimi powder and 50 % frozen surimi (SP50), and a control (100 % frozen surimi). No significant differences in protein content and folding test results (P > 0.05) were detected among the SP100 and SP50 samples and the control. Gel strength of SP100 was lower (P > 0.05) than that of the control. The texture profile analysis (TPA) values (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) of SP100 were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control. However, the TPA values of SP100 and SP50 were still within the textural range of Malaysian commercial fish sausages. The water holding capacity, and emulsion stability of SP100 were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of SP50 and the control. Of the cooking properties measured, SP100 had lower (P < 0.05) cooking yield, moisture retention, and fat retention than the control. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) performed by 12 trained panelists showed that sensory characteristic (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) scores of SP100 were lower than those of SP50 and the control. The use of surimi powder in fish sausage did not differ with that of control in the term of color, odor, or oiliness scored by panelists. The drying process impacted the texture properties of surimi when it was used in fish sausage. However, the use of surimi powder in fish sausage formulation is still accepted since the TPA values of SP100 and SP50 were still within the textural range of Malaysian commercial fish sausages.

  1. Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of sausage formulated with surimi powder.

    PubMed

    Santana, Palestina; Huda, Nurul; Yang, Tajul Aris

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of fish sausage made with 100 % threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) surimi powder (SP100), a mix of 50 % surimi powder and 50 % frozen surimi (SP50), and a control (100 % frozen surimi). No significant differences in protein content and folding test results (P > 0.05) were detected among the SP100 and SP50 samples and the control. Gel strength of SP100 was lower (P > 0.05) than that of the control. The texture profile analysis (TPA) values (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) of SP100 were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control. However, the TPA values of SP100 and SP50 were still within the textural range of Malaysian commercial fish sausages. The water holding capacity, and emulsion stability of SP100 were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of SP50 and the control. Of the cooking properties measured, SP100 had lower (P < 0.05) cooking yield, moisture retention, and fat retention than the control. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) performed by 12 trained panelists showed that sensory characteristic (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) scores of SP100 were lower than those of SP50 and the control. The use of surimi powder in fish sausage did not differ with that of control in the term of color, odor, or oiliness scored by panelists. The drying process impacted the texture properties of surimi when it was used in fish sausage. However, the use of surimi powder in fish sausage formulation is still accepted since the TPA values of SP100 and SP50 were still within the textural range of Malaysian commercial fish sausages. PMID:25745219

  2. Influence of oak maturation regimen on composition, sensory properties, quality, and consumer acceptability of cabernet sauvignon wines.

    PubMed

    Crump, Anna M; Johnson, Trent E; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Bastian, Susan E P

    2015-02-11

    Oak barrels have long been the preferred method for oak maturation of wine, but barrels contribute significantly to production costs, so alternate oak maturation regimens have been introduced, particularly for wines at lower price points. To date, few studies have investigated consumers' acceptance of wines made using non-traditional oak treatments. In this study, two Cabernet Sauvignon wines were aged using traditional (i.e., barrel) and/or alternative (i.e., stainless steel or plastic tanks and vats, with oak wood added) maturation regimens. Chemical and sensory analyses were subsequently performed to determine the influence on wine composition and sensory properties, that is, the presence of key oak-derived volatile compounds and perceptible oak aromas and flavor. The quality of a subset of wines was rated by a panel of 10 wine experts using a 20-point scoring system, with all wines considered technically sound. Consumer acceptance of wines was also determined. Hedonic ratings ranged from 5.7 to 5.9 (on a 9-point scale), indicating there was no significant difference in consumers' overall liking of each wine. However, segmentation based on individual liking scores identified three distinct clusters comprising consumers with considerably different wine preferences. These results justify wine producers' use of alternative oak maturation regimens to achieve wine styles that appeal to different segments of their target market.

  3. Physico-chemical changes during storage and sensory acceptance of low sodium probiotic Minas cheese added with arginine.

    PubMed

    Felicio, T L; Esmerino, E A; Vidal, V A S; Cappato, L P; Garcia, R K A; Cavalcanti, R N; Freitas, M Q; Conte Junior, C A; Padilha, M C; Silva, M C; Raices, R S L; Arellano, D B; Bollini, H M A; Pollonio, M A R; Cruz, A G

    2016-04-01

    The partial substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride (0%, 25%, and 50%) and addition of arginine (1% w/w) in probiotic Minas cheese was investigated. Microbiological (Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus counts, and functionality of the prebiotics L. acidophilus), physicochemical (pH, proteolysis, organic acids, fatty acids, and volatile profiles), rheological (uniaxial compression) and sensory (hedonic test with 100 consumers) characterizations were carried out. The sodium reduction and addition of arginine did not constitute a hurdle to lactic and probiotic bacteria survival, with presented values of about 9 log CFU/g, ranging from 7.11 to 9.21 log CFU/g, respectively. In addition, lower pH values, higher proteolysis, and a decrease in toughness, elasticity and firmness were observed, as well as an increase in lactic, citric, and acetic acid contents. In contrast, no change was observed in the fatty acid profile. With respect to the sensory acceptance, the probiotic low-sodium Minas cheese presented scores above 6.00 (liked slightly) for the attributes flavor and overall acceptance. The addition of arginine can be a potential alternative for the development of probiotic dairy products with reduced sodium content.

  4. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, sensory, fatty acid and storage characteristics of cookies.

    PubMed

    Rangrej, V; Shah, V; Patel, J; Ganorkar, P M

    2015-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid imparted good evidence of health benefits. Flaxseed oil, being the richest vegetarian source of alpha linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid), was incorporated in cookies by replacing shortening at level of 5 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 %. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, textural and sensory attributes were investigated. Spread ratio and breaking strength of cookies increased as flaxseed oil level increased. Sensory score was not significantly affected up to 30 % shortening replacement with flaxseed oil as compared with the control cookies. Above 30 % flaxseed oil, sensory score was adversely affected. Fatty acid profile confirmed the enhancement of omega-3 fatty acid from 0 (control) to 14.14 % (30 % flaxseed oil cookies). The poly-unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S) increased from 0.088 (control) to 0.57 while ω - 6 to ω -3 fatty acid ratio of flaxseed oil cookies decreased from 4.51 (control) to 0.65 in the optimized cookies. The data on storage characteristics of the control and 30 % flaxseed oil cookies showed that there was significant change in the moisture content, Peroxide value (PV) and overall acceptability (OAA) up to 28 days of storage at 45 °C packed in polyethylene bags. Flaxseed oil cookies were acceptable up to 21 days of storage and afterwards noticeable off flavour was perceived.

  5. Performance of apple cultivars in the 1999-NE-183 regional project planting: III. Fruit sensory characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sensory qualities of a new apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) cultivar are central to its consumer acceptance. This study examined the crispness, juiciness, sweetness, acidity, flavor, attractiveness and commercial desirability of 23 new cultivars and breeding selections at nine locations across t...

  6. Consumer acceptance and sensory evaluation of Monti Dauni Meridionali Caciocavallo cheese.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Ruggieri, D; Marino, R; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2012-08-01

    Twelve Caciocavallo cheeses were collected from 6 factories (A, B, C, D, E, F) located in the Monti Dauni Meridionali area (Southern Italy) that adopted different protocols for cheese production. A total of 160 consumers were involved in the sensory evaluation of Caciocavallo cheese after 180 d of ripening. Cheese attributes were used to describe the flavor, texture, and appearance of cheeses. The highest scores for the shiny attribute were assigned to cheeses B, C, and E, whereas color intensity was the highest in cheeses B, D, and F. Strength, salty, and piquant attributes were higher in cheeses F and A because of the use of raw milk (F), rennet paste (A), and percentage of salt in the brine (A, F). Consumers perceived a more granular structure during the second half of chewing of Caciocavallo cheese F, as evidenced by the highest value for the grainy attribute. A positive correlation was found between overall flavor and odor intensity and water-soluble nitrogen, low molecular weight peptides, and free fatty acids and between piquant and butyric and caproic acids. A principal components analysis applied to the sensory attributes accounted for 65% of the total variance. The score plot showed that cheeses F and A were located in a well-defined zone of the plot, with cheeses in this zone displaying higher levels of strength, piquant, and salty attributes. The preference test assigned 40% of the preference to Caciocavallo cheese A, 38% to cheese F, 9% to cheese E, 8% to cheese D, and 7% to cheeses B and C. Sensory evaluation of Monti Dauni Meridionali Caciocavallo cheeses is a useful analysis to highlight the principal attributes able to influence consumers' liking that are related to biochemical features of the cheese.

  7. Consumer acceptance and sensory evaluation of Monti Dauni Meridionali Caciocavallo cheese.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Ruggieri, D; Marino, R; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2012-08-01

    Twelve Caciocavallo cheeses were collected from 6 factories (A, B, C, D, E, F) located in the Monti Dauni Meridionali area (Southern Italy) that adopted different protocols for cheese production. A total of 160 consumers were involved in the sensory evaluation of Caciocavallo cheese after 180 d of ripening. Cheese attributes were used to describe the flavor, texture, and appearance of cheeses. The highest scores for the shiny attribute were assigned to cheeses B, C, and E, whereas color intensity was the highest in cheeses B, D, and F. Strength, salty, and piquant attributes were higher in cheeses F and A because of the use of raw milk (F), rennet paste (A), and percentage of salt in the brine (A, F). Consumers perceived a more granular structure during the second half of chewing of Caciocavallo cheese F, as evidenced by the highest value for the grainy attribute. A positive correlation was found between overall flavor and odor intensity and water-soluble nitrogen, low molecular weight peptides, and free fatty acids and between piquant and butyric and caproic acids. A principal components analysis applied to the sensory attributes accounted for 65% of the total variance. The score plot showed that cheeses F and A were located in a well-defined zone of the plot, with cheeses in this zone displaying higher levels of strength, piquant, and salty attributes. The preference test assigned 40% of the preference to Caciocavallo cheese A, 38% to cheese F, 9% to cheese E, 8% to cheese D, and 7% to cheeses B and C. Sensory evaluation of Monti Dauni Meridionali Caciocavallo cheeses is a useful analysis to highlight the principal attributes able to influence consumers' liking that are related to biochemical features of the cheese. PMID:22818433

  8. Effects of an Oral-Sensory/Oral-Motor Stimulation/Positive Reinforcement Program on the Acceptance of Nonpreferred Foods by Youth with Physical and Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2005-01-01

    This study employed a multiple probe design to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based lunchtime oral-sensory/oral-motor/positive reinforcement program on food acceptance behaviors of three youth with multiple disabilities. Overall dramatic gains in food acceptance behaviors of all participants indicated that trained school personnel were…

  9. Effect of processing methods on nutritional, sensory, and physicochemical characteristics of biofortified bean flour.

    PubMed

    Nkundabombi, Marie Grace; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Muyonga, John H

    2016-05-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are rich nutritious and affordable by vulnerable groups, thus a good choice for biofortification to address malnutrition. However, increasing micronutrients content of beans, without improving micronutrients bioavailability will not improve the micronutrients status of consumers. Effect of different processing methods on the physicochemical characteristics of biofortified bean flour was determined. Processing methods used in this study were malting (48 h), roasting (170°C/45 min), and extrusion cooking using a twin screw extruder with three heating sections, the first set at 60°C, the second at 130°C, and the last one at 150°C. The screw was set at a speed of 35 Hz (123g) and bean flour moisture content was 15%. Mineral extractability, in vitro protein digestibility, pasting properties, and sensory acceptability of porridge and sauce from processed flour were determined. All processing methods significantly increased (P < 0.05) mineral extractability, iron from 38.9% to 79.5% for K131 and from 40.7% to 83.4% for ROBA1, in vitro protein digestibility from 58.2% to 82% for ROBA1 and from 56.2% to 79% for K131. Pasting viscosities of both bean varieties reduced with processing. There was no significant difference (P < 0.05) between sensory acceptability of porridge or sauce from extruded biofortified bean flour and malted/roasted biofortified bean flour. Acceptability was also not affected by the bean variety used. Mineral bioavailability and in vitro protein digestibility increased more for extruded flour than for malted/roasted flours. Sauce and porridge prepared from processed biofortified bean flour had lower viscosity (extruded flour had the lowest viscosity), thus higher nutrient and energy density than those prepared from unprocessed biofortified bean flour. Estimated nutritional contribution of sauce and porridge made from processed ROBA1 flour to daily requirement of children below 5 years and women of

  10. Effect of processing methods on nutritional, sensory, and physicochemical characteristics of biofortified bean flour.

    PubMed

    Nkundabombi, Marie Grace; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Muyonga, John H

    2016-05-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are rich nutritious and affordable by vulnerable groups, thus a good choice for biofortification to address malnutrition. However, increasing micronutrients content of beans, without improving micronutrients bioavailability will not improve the micronutrients status of consumers. Effect of different processing methods on the physicochemical characteristics of biofortified bean flour was determined. Processing methods used in this study were malting (48 h), roasting (170°C/45 min), and extrusion cooking using a twin screw extruder with three heating sections, the first set at 60°C, the second at 130°C, and the last one at 150°C. The screw was set at a speed of 35 Hz (123g) and bean flour moisture content was 15%. Mineral extractability, in vitro protein digestibility, pasting properties, and sensory acceptability of porridge and sauce from processed flour were determined. All processing methods significantly increased (P < 0.05) mineral extractability, iron from 38.9% to 79.5% for K131 and from 40.7% to 83.4% for ROBA1, in vitro protein digestibility from 58.2% to 82% for ROBA1 and from 56.2% to 79% for K131. Pasting viscosities of both bean varieties reduced with processing. There was no significant difference (P < 0.05) between sensory acceptability of porridge or sauce from extruded biofortified bean flour and malted/roasted biofortified bean flour. Acceptability was also not affected by the bean variety used. Mineral bioavailability and in vitro protein digestibility increased more for extruded flour than for malted/roasted flours. Sauce and porridge prepared from processed biofortified bean flour had lower viscosity (extruded flour had the lowest viscosity), thus higher nutrient and energy density than those prepared from unprocessed biofortified bean flour. Estimated nutritional contribution of sauce and porridge made from processed ROBA1 flour to daily requirement of children below 5 years and women of

  11. Sodium chloride concentration affects yield, quality, and sensory acceptability of vacuum-tumbled marinated broiler breast fillets.

    PubMed

    Lopez, K; Schilling, M W; Armstrong, T W; Smith, B S; Corzo, A

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of sodium chloride concentration on yield, instrumental quality, and sensory acceptability of broiler breast meat that was vacuum tumbled with a 15% solution (over green weight) for 30 min. Different concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, and 1.50%) of NaCl (salt) and 0.35% sodium tripolyphosphate were included in the marinade solution. After marinating, breast fillets were evaluated for marination yields, pH, surface color, cooking loss, tenderness, expressible moisture, proximate composition, purge loss, sodium content, and sensory acceptability. As salt concentration increased, CIE L* decreased linearly, with a concentration of 0.75% having lower (P < 0.05) CIE L* values when compared with the control, 0, and 0.25% NaCl treatments. In addition, there was a linear and quadratic decrease (P < 0.05) in shear force as salt concentration increased, with no further decrease (P < 0.05) when greater than 0.75% NaCl was used. Cooking yield increased (P < 0.05) as the salt concentration increased to 1.0%. All marinated treatments were preferred (P < 0.05) over the control treatment, and all treatments marinated with at least 0.50% sodium chloride had an average rating of like moderately. Cluster analysis indicated that consumer groups varied in their preference of broiler breast meat treatments and that samples that were marinated with between 0.5 to 1.0% NaCl were acceptable to the majority of consumers. Marination with 0.75% NaCl was sufficient to maximize yields and decrease lightness (L*) in vacuum-tumbled, marinated broiler breast that is sold raw, but 1.0% NaCl could be used in a precooked product because it minimizes cook loss. In addition, use of 0.50% NaCl had minimal effects on yields, color, and sensory acceptability when compared with products that were marinated with greater concentrations of NaCl.

  12. Food sensory characteristics: their unconsidered roles in the feeding behaviour of domestic ruminants.

    PubMed

    Favreau-Peigné, A; Baumont, R; Ginane, C

    2013-05-01

    When domestic ruminants are faced with food diversity, they can use pre-ingestive information (i.e. food sensory characteristics perceived by the animal before swallowing the food) and post-ingestive information (i.e. digestive and metabolic consequences, experienced by the animal after swallowing the food) to evaluate the food and make decisions to select a suitable diet. The concept of palatability is essential to understand how pre- and post-ingestive information are interrelated. It refers to the hedonic value of the food without any immediate effect of post-ingestive consequences and environmental factors, but with the influence of individual characteristics, such as animal's genetic background, internal state and previous experiences. In the literature, the post-ingestive consequences are commonly considered as the main force that influences feeding behaviour whereas food sensory characteristics are only used as discriminatory agents. This discriminatory role is indeed important for animals to be aware of their feeding environment, and ruminants are able to use their different senses either singly or in combination to discriminate between different foods. However, numerous studies on ruminants' feeding behaviour demonstrate that the role of food sensory characteristics has been underestimated or simplified; they could play at least two other roles. First, some sensory characteristics also possess a hedonic value which influences ruminants' intake, preferences and food learning independently of any immediate post-ingestive consequences. Further, diversity of food sensory characteristics has a hedonic value, as animals prefer an absence of monotony in food sensory characteristics at similar post-ingestive consequences. Second, some of these food sensory characteristics become an indicator of post-ingestive consequences after their initial hedonic value has acquired a positive or a negative value via previous individual food learning or evolutionary processes

  13. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurts made from goat and cow milk.

    PubMed

    Costa, Roberto Germano; Beltrão Filho, Edvaldo Mesquita; de Sousa, Solange; da Cruz, George Rodrigo Beltrão; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto; da Cruz, Eliel Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Substituting goats' milk for cows' milk could improve the quality of dairy products, because it adds new sensorial characteristics. The aim of this study was to develop a type of yoghurt using goats' milk (25, 50, 75 and 100%) in place of cows' milk and to compare their characteristics. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics were evaluated using a nine-point hedonic scale and purchase intention test. The data obtained in the physicochemical analysis were submitted to regression analysis and the sensory results were evaluated through analysis of variance. Among the physicochemical characteristics of the yoghurts, variation (P < 0.05) of ash, acidity and lactose was observed. Tasters in the sensory analysis indicated that yoghurts up to 50% of goats' milk received favorable averages; with lower scores for higher goats' milk concentrations (75% and 100%). No difference was reported in acidity. Replacing cows' milk with goats' milk in yoghurt preparation promotes variations in the physicochemical characteristics for ash, acidity and lactose. However, it does not cause alterations in the sensory attributes (50% goat milk) and therefore could be considered as an alternative for the production of dairy products. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. PMID:26867520

  14. Sensory Correlates of Difficult Temperament Characteristics in Preschool Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, I-Ching; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Lu, Lu; Shieh, Jeng-Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the rate of co-occurring sensory processing (SP) dysfunction in children with autism who had a difficult temperament characteristics, and the relationship between SP dysfunction and temperament characteristics in preschool children with autism. A total of 111 children aged 48-84 months, 67 children with autism…

  15. Effect of Low Salt Concentrations on Microbial Changes During Kimchi Fermentation Monitored by PCR-DGGE and Their Sensory Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Ahmadsah, Lenny S F; Min, Sung-Gi; Han, Seon-Kyeong; Hong, Yeun; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2015-12-28

    Various salt concentrations (1.0%, 1.3%, 1.6%, 1.9%, and 2.1% labeled as sample A, B, C, D, and E, respectively) were investigated for microbial diversity, identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) in salted kimchi cabbage, prepared under laboratory conditions. These samples were stored at 4°C for 5 weeks in proper aluminum-metalized pouch packaging with calcium hydroxide gas absorber. A culture-independent method known as polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was carried out to identify LAB distributions among various salt concentration samples that had identified 2 Weissella (W. confusa and W. soli), 1 Lactobacillus (Lb. sakei), and 3 Leuconostoc (Lc. mesenteroides, Lc. lactis, and Lc. gelidum) in the overall kimchi samples. The pH, titratable acidity, viable cell counts, and coliform counts were not affected by salt variations. In order to assess sensory acceptance, the conducted sensory evaluation using a 9-point hedonic scale had revealed that samples with 1.3% salt concentration (lower than the manufacturer's regular salt concentration) was more preferred, indicating that the use of 1.3% salt concentration was acceptable in normal kimchi fermentation for its quality and safety. Despite similarities in pH, titratable acidity, viable cell counts, coliform counts, and LAB distributions among the various salt concentrations of kimchi samples, the sample with 1.3% salt concentration was shown to be the most preferred, indicating that this salt concentration was suitable in kimchi production in order to reduce salt intake through kimchi consumptions. PMID:26370801

  16. Deans in German Universities: Goal Acceptance and Task Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholkmann, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study which explored how deans at German universities accept their new role as manager, and which factors influence the acceptance of this role. Within a framework referring to Locke and Latham's goal setting theory, the acceptance of operative goals implemented in the faculties served as an indicator of how well…

  17. Effects of High-Hydrostatic Pressure on Inactivation of Human Norovirus and Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Oysters.

    PubMed

    Ye, Mu; Lingham, Talaysha; Huang, Yaoxin; Ozbay, Gulnihal; Ji, Lin; Karwe, Mukund; Chen, Haiqiang

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on inactivation of human norovirus (HuNoV) in oysters and to evaluate organoleptic characteristics of oysters treated at pressure levels required for HuNoV inactivation. Genogroup I.1 (GI.1) or Genogroup II.4 (GII.4) HuNoV was inoculated into oysters and treated at 300 to 600 MPa at 25 and 0 °C for 2 min. After HHP, viral particles were extracted by porcine gastric mucin-conjugated magnetic beads (PGM-MBs) and viral RNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Lower initial temperature (0 °C) significantly enhanced HHP inactivation of HuNoV compared to ambient temperature (25 °C; P < 0.05). HHP at 350 and 500 MPa at 0 °C could achieve more than 4 log10 reduction of GII.4 and GI.1 HuNoV in oysters, respectively. HHP treatments did not significantly change color or texture of oyster tissue. A 1- to 5-scale hedonic sensory evaluation on appearance, aroma, color, and overall acceptability showed that pressure-treated oysters received significantly higher quality scores than the untreated control (P < 0.05). Elevated pressure levels at 450 and 500 MPa did not significantly affect scores compared to 300 MPa at 0 °C, indicating increasing pressure level did not affect sensory acceptability of oysters. Oysters treated at 0 °C had slightly lower acceptability than the group treated at room temperature on day 1 (P < 0.05), but after 1 wk storage, no significant difference in sensory attributes and consumer desirability was observed (P > 0.05).

  18. Dry-fermented chicken sausage produced with inulin and corn oil: physicochemical, microbiological, and textural characteristics and acceptability during storage.

    PubMed

    Menegas, Léia Zenaide; Pimentel, Tatiana Colombo; Garcia, Sandra; Prudencio, Sandra Helena

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oil content reduction and the addition of inulin as a partial oil substitute on the physicochemical, microbiological, and textural characteristics and acceptability during the storage (4 °C for 45 days) of dry-fermented chicken sausage produced with corn oil. Reducing the oil content did not influence the characteristics evaluated but tended to produce sausage with a dark reddish coloration. The addition of inulin did not change the physicochemical and microbiological parameters or the acceptability of the products, but resulted in an altered texture profile and a tendency toward lighter and less reddish coloration, similar to products with standard oil content. Fermented chicken sausages produced with standard amounts of corn oil, reduced amounts of corn oil, and inulin as a partial oil replacement remained stable without a significant loss of physical, chemical, microbiological, or sensory attributes during storage at 4 °C for 45 days.

  19. The Effects of Sequential Environmental and Harvest Stressors on the Sensory Characteristics of Cultured Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) Fillets.

    PubMed

    Ciaramella, Michael A; Kim, Taejo; Avery, Jimmy L; Allen, Peter J; Schilling, M Wes

    2016-08-01

    Stress during fish culture alters physiological homeostasis and affects fillet quality. Maintenance of high-quality seafood is important to ensure the production of a marketable product. This study assessed how sequential stressors affect the sensory and quality characteristics of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillets. Three stress trials were conducted where temperature (25 or 33 °C) and dissolved oxygen (DO, approximately 2.5 or >5 mg/L) were manipulated followed by socking and transport stress. After each stage of harvest (environmental stress, socking, and transport), fillet yield, consumer acceptability, descriptive evaluation, cook loss, tenderness, and pH were evaluated. Fillet yield decreased with increasing severity of environmental stress. Fillets from the severe stress treatment (33 °C, approximately 2.5 mg/L) received the highest acceptability scores (P < 0.05). Control fillets (25 °C, >5 mg/L) were the least acceptable (P < 0.05). Increased intensity of less favorable flavor attributes commonly associated with catfish resulted in the differences in acceptability among treatments. As fish progressed through the harvest event, cook loss decreased, tenderness increased, and pH increased, indicating that stress induced textural changes. The data suggest that although environmental stress results in slight changes in flavor attributes, its effects on acceptability are minor with fillets from all treatments still liked (>6 on a 9 point scale). Socking and transport were identified to positively affect textural characteristics of catfish fillets. Although the effects observed were not likely to negatively impact consumer acceptance, a strict management plan should be followed to maintain consistency in the product and avoid changes in stressors that might alter quality more drastically. PMID:27333086

  20. Umami Increases Consumer Acceptability, and Perception of Sensory and Emotional Benefits without Compromising Health Benefit Perception.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Takashi; Retiveau-Krogmann, Annlyse; Byrnes, Erin; Takehana, Shunji

    2016-02-01

    This study was undertaken to understand how consumers in the United States perceive umami-rich products, specifically low sodium chicken noodle soup. Results suggest that the addition of monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) at a concentration of 0.1% to 0.5%, alone or in synergy with 5'-ribonucleotides of inosine monophosphate (IMP) at 0.1% not only increases consumer acceptance but also positively impacts other aspects of consumer perception. Regardless of concentration of MSG and IMP, samples enhanced in umami compounds were perceived as more savory, flavorful, and less bland while providing a more homemade, fresh, and healthy wholesome taste than a control sample. From a functional and emotional benefit standpoint, when consuming umami-rich samples, consumers reported feeling significantly higher general satisfaction (they felt more content, relaxed, satisfied, less disappointed, dissatisfied…) and heightened positive emotions (happy, excited, indulgent…) than under the control condition. The feeling of being healthy while consuming the dish was not compromised. Last, when asked how they would feel if serving the soup sample to their family or friends, consumers projected feeling more positively under the umami-rich conditions (more happy, competent, loving, less dissatisfied or disappointed) compared to the control condition.

  1. Physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of plain yoghurt from bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and soybeans (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Falade, Kolawole O; Ogundele, Opeolu M; Ogunshe, Adenike O; Fayemi, Olanrewaju E; Ocloo, Fidelis C K

    2015-09-01

    Physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of plain yoghurt from bambara groundnut and soybean milks were studied. Milks were prepared from bambara and soybean and then fermented using Lactobacillus delbruieckii subspp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarus subspp. thermophilus to produce yoghurt. The yoghurts were stored at 7 °C and 27 °C for 9 days and their quality monitored. Results showed that pH of soy and bambara yoghurts decreased during the storage period for both storage temperatures. This decrease in pH was accompanied by simultaneous increase in titratable acidity. Total solids and apparent viscosities of soy and bambara yoghurts increased at 7 °C, but decreased at 27 °C during storage period. Bambara yoghurt received higher sensory acceptability than soy yoghurt. Predominant microorganisms in the stored yoghurts were lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The LAB count in the yoghurts stored at 7 °C decreased but increased at 27 °C during the storage period. Similar trends were followed by total aerobic bacteria, yeast and moulds counts. Pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, Coliform and E. coli were absent in all the yogurt samples. Yoghurts of acceptable quality and safety were produced from bambara groundnut and soybeans. PMID:26345001

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF SALT CONTENT AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF TERASI TO THE SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMBAL TERASI, THE CHILI SAUCE ADDED WITH TERASI.

    PubMed

    Ambarita, N T Damanik; De Meulenaer, B

    2015-01-01

    The type of terasi (the Indonesian seafood fermented paste) and the ingredients used can give sambal terasi (ST), the chili sauce added with terasi, its identity and taste distinction. Inherit from its production, salt content differs the flavor(s) of product added with terasi. This research explored the role of terasi salt content, either from the origin of terasi or by salt adjustment, to the products acceptability and sensory characteristics perceived during subsequent sensorial evaluations. Six types of terasi were characterized based on the proximate and salt content, and prepared as STs with and without salt adjustment at several terasi concentrations. 118 panelists conducted sensory evaluations for overall acceptability at 12.5% terasi; at lower concentration specific tastes (sweet, bitter, salty, sour, umami, fishy and rebon) were characterized by 80 panelists. Results showed that the acceptance of ST is more due to its innate origin salt content and to the suitability saltiness perceived. The specific odor of terasi, combining with other taste(s), when prepared at higher terasi concentration as practiced in restaurant, home and commercial products showed masking effect(s). After saltiness adjusted, different types of terasi showed different taste characteristics. Preferred ST were different between higher and lower concentration. Better tastes characteristics and stronger spices taste were found at lower salt content (and terasi concentration). PMID:26630752

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF SALT CONTENT AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF TERASI TO THE SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMBAL TERASI, THE CHILI SAUCE ADDED WITH TERASI.

    PubMed

    Ambarita, N T Damanik; De Meulenaer, B

    2015-01-01

    The type of terasi (the Indonesian seafood fermented paste) and the ingredients used can give sambal terasi (ST), the chili sauce added with terasi, its identity and taste distinction. Inherit from its production, salt content differs the flavor(s) of product added with terasi. This research explored the role of terasi salt content, either from the origin of terasi or by salt adjustment, to the products acceptability and sensory characteristics perceived during subsequent sensorial evaluations. Six types of terasi were characterized based on the proximate and salt content, and prepared as STs with and without salt adjustment at several terasi concentrations. 118 panelists conducted sensory evaluations for overall acceptability at 12.5% terasi; at lower concentration specific tastes (sweet, bitter, salty, sour, umami, fishy and rebon) were characterized by 80 panelists. Results showed that the acceptance of ST is more due to its innate origin salt content and to the suitability saltiness perceived. The specific odor of terasi, combining with other taste(s), when prepared at higher terasi concentration as practiced in restaurant, home and commercial products showed masking effect(s). After saltiness adjusted, different types of terasi showed different taste characteristics. Preferred ST were different between higher and lower concentration. Better tastes characteristics and stronger spices taste were found at lower salt content (and terasi concentration).

  4. Resistance of a crayfish sensory interneurone to hyperinnervation by acceptable afferents.

    PubMed Central

    Krasne, F B; Lee, S H

    1982-01-01

    1. Intact normal innervation of muscle fibres and other peripheral targets usually prevents regenerating nerves from forming synapses with the targets. Whether intact innervation similarly prevents synapse formation on central target neurones has rarely been tested. This question was examined here for interneurone A of the crayfish last abdominal ganglion. 2. Interneurone A normally receives synaptic input from mechanoreceptor neurones distributed over the side of the tailfan ipsilateral to interneurone A's axon and unilateral dendrites. When the five nerve roots carrying mechanoreceptor axons of one side are cut and central and peripheral ends of one or more are sutured together, regeneration and reinnervation of interneurone A occurs over some two to six weeks. If peripheral ends of roots from the 'wrong' (contralateral) side of the body are sutured to ipsilateral central stumps, they also form connexions with interneurone A. When roots from the two sides of the body are simultaneously tied to a central stump, functional connexion formation occurs equally well for afferents from both sides. Therefore, roots of the two sides seem to be equivalent in their ability to reinnervate interneurone A. 3. If peripheral ends of roots from one side of the tailfan are tied to roots on the intact opposite side of the body, the cut axons appear to grow into the last ganglion but usually do not form functional synapses there. The intact innervation therefore seems to exclude further innervation by other acceptable afferents. 4. It is known that mechanoreceptors are added to the tailfan at moult. Exclusion of extra innervation often broke down partially in animals that moulted during the present experiments. This suggests the possibility that synapse formation or exchange may be controlled by moult-inducing hormones. PMID:7153906

  5. Learning Sensory Modalities and Educational Characteristics of Greek Dyslexic and Non-Dyslexic University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Antonopoulou, Ekaterini; Zenakou, Elena; Kouvava, Sofia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Dyslexia has been shown to affect the learning ability of individuals who experience difficulties in processing written information and developing effective study skills. Method: In the present study we assessed the relationship between dyslexia, the learning sensory modalities and educational characteristics in 20 dyslexic and 40…

  6. The Impact of Ripening Time on Technological Quality Traits, Chemical Change and Sensory Characteristics of Dry-cured Loin

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kyoung Mi; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ripening time on the technological quality traits, fatty acid compositions and sensory characteristics of dry-cured loin was studied. Pork loins (n = 102) at 24 h post-mortem were used to produce dry-cured loins. The dry-cured loins were assessed at 30, 60, and 90 days of ripening for the aforementioned characteristics. Our results showed that the water activity (aw) decreased (p<0.05) up to 60 days and did not change thereafter. The lipid oxidation and weight loss levels significantly (p<0.05) increased with increased ripening time. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) L* decreased for 90 days while CIE a* increased for 60 days and did not increase thereafter. More noticeably, the levels of most of unsaturated fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly decreased as increasing ripening time up to 90 days. The 30 days-ripened loins had lower (p<0.05) color, flavor and overall acceptability scores than the loins ripened for 60 and 90 days, however, no differences in sensory traits occurred between the 60 and 90 day-ripened samples. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it is suggested that the ripening duration between 30 and 60 days could be more appropriate for producing dry-cured loin product with higher quality and economic benefits. PMID:25715685

  7. Effect of oxygen on volatile and sensory characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon during secondary shelf life.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Kang, Bo-Sik; Park, Hyun-Jin

    2011-11-01

    The oxidation of Cabernet Sauvignon wines during secondary shelf life was studied by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS) and sensory tests, with the support of multivariate statistical analyses such as OPLS-DA loading plot and PCA score plot. Four different oxidation conditions were established during a 1-week secondary shelf life. Samples collected on a regular basis were analyzed to determine the changes of volatile chemicals, with sensory characteristics evaluated through pattern recognition models. During secondary shelf life the separation among collected samples depended on the degree of oxidation in wine. Isoamyl acetate, ethyl decanoate, nonanoic acid, n-decanoic acid, undecanoic acid, 2-furancarboxylic acid, dodecanoic acid, and phenylacetaldehyde were determined to be associated with the oxidation of the wine. PCA sensory evaluation revealed that least oxidized wine and fresh wine was well-separated from more oxidized wines, demonstrating that sensory characteristics of less oxidized wines tend toward "fruity", "citrous", and "sweetness", while those of more oxidized wines are positively correlated with "animal", "bitterness", and "dairy". The study also demonstrates that OPLS-DA and PCA are very useful statistical tools for the understanding of wine oxidation. PMID:21954937

  8. Volatile components and sensory characteristics of Thai traditional fermented shrimp pastes during fermentation periods.

    PubMed

    Kleekayai, Thanyaporn; Pinitklang, Surapong; Laohakunjit, Natta; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2016-03-01

    Headspace-volatile components and sensory characteristics, including color, Maillard reaction products and free amino acid profiles, of two types of Thai traditional fermented shrimp paste, Kapi Ta Dam and Kapi Ta Deang, were investigated during the fermentation periods up to 6 months. The results showed that the colors of both products were changed with a decrease in CIELAB values over the fermentation period, except for yellowness of Kapi Ta Deang. Essential amino acids such as lysine and leucine and non-essential amino acids such as glutamic acid and alanine were found to be predominant free-amino acids in the products. After headspace volatile component extraction of the product was carried out using a SPME fiber coated with DVB/CAR/PDMS and analyzed by GC-MS, the main compounds responsible for distinct volatiles in the products were N-containing compounds, especially pyrazines which give roasted nutty odor. The results of sensory evaluation from panelists also suggest that fermentation period had an effect on sensory characteristics of the fermented shrimp pastes. Moreover, the sensory perceptions of the products would associate with their color, the Maillard reaction products, amino acid profiles and volatile compounds. PMID:27570264

  9. Physical and sensory characteristics of pork sausages from enzymatically modified blends of lard and rapeseed oil during storage.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Zhang, Hong; Nersting, Lise; Jensen, Kirsten; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Xu, Xuebing

    2010-08-01

    Physical and sensory characteristic of pork sausages produced from enzymatic interesterified blends of lard and rapeseed oil during storage were evaluated. All three enzymatic interesterified blends (IE90, IE70 and IE50) had ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids within the range of 1.47-2.84 which is favourable for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Blends of IE90 and IE70 were found to have suitable solid fat content, melting and crystallization profile suitable for sausages production. Sausages were produced from blends of IE90 and IE70 with different muscle types (musculus longissimus dorsi and musculus sternomandibularis) and processing conditions such as cooling rates and final processing temperature. Cooling rate was found to have no significant (P>0.05) effect on hardness of the sausages throughout storage. Both musculus longissimus dorsi and high final processing temperature of 20 degrees C increased the hardness of the sausages during storage. In terms of fat particle size distribution, it was found that sausages IE70 had significantly (P<0.05) lower amount of small fat particles (<4 microm) and higher amount of big fat particles (4-500 microm). This is in agreement with the findings on softer texture of sausages IE70. All the sausages produced from interesterified blends of lard and rapeseed oil had no apparent fat excretion and were rated as having acceptable sensory attributes as compared to reference sausage which was produced from pure lard.

  10. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid from extruded linseed influences the fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham from heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Musella, M; Cannata, S; Rossi, R; Mourot, J; Baldini, P; Corino, C

    2009-11-01

    Twenty-four barrows (78.1 +/- 1.7 kg of initial BW) were fed a control diet (2.5% sunflower oil) or an experimental diet containing 5% whole extruded linseed. Both diets were supplemented with 170 mg of vitamin E/kg of feed. At slaughter (160 +/- 9.2 kg of BW), 6 hams were collected per group and delivered to Stazione Sperimentale per l'Industria delle Conserve Alimentari of Parma for seasoning. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of diet on the physicochemical characteristics of dry-cured ham. The linseed diet increased (P < 0.05) the content of n-3 PUFA in trimmed fat (green ham), semimembranosus muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and the whole slice (dry-cured ham). Moreover, there was a decrease in the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio from 12 to 3 in all of those tissues. In contrast, the greater alpha-linolenic acid content in linseed caused an increase in the iodine value of green hams to a value that is not accepted by the Parma Ham Consortium. A sensory consumer test indicated that linseed-enriched dry-cured ham had the least acceptance score for odor, taste, and overall acceptability descriptors. These data suggest that the use of extruded linseed for pig feed is an acceptable way to improve the nutritional quality of long-cured pork products but could be limited by negative effects on the sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham.

  11. Gross composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of Saanen goat milk fed with Cacti varieties.

    PubMed

    Catunda, Karen Luanna Marinho; de Aguiar, Emerson Moreira; de Góes Neto, Pedro Etelvino; da Silva, José Geraldo Medeiros; Moreira, José Aparecido; do Nascimento Rangel, Adriano Henrique; de Lima Júnior, Dorgival Morais

    2016-08-01

    The use of cactus is an alternative for sustainable production systems in Northeast Brazil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of supplying five cacti species from the Brazilian semi-arid northeast region on the physical-chemical sensory characteristics and the profile of fatty acids of Saanen goat milk. Five multiparous goats were used, confined, and distributed in a Latin square 5 × 5 design, with five experimental diets and five periods. Treatments consisted of 473 to 501 g/kg of a cactaceous mix (Pilosocereus gounellei, Cereus jamacaru, Cereus squamosus, Nopalea cochenillifera, or Opuntia stricta) added to 187.8 to 197.9 g/kg of "Sabiá" (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) hay and 311 to 329 g/kg of concentrate. No effects of experimental diets (P > 0.05) were evidenced in the physical and chemical composition of milk for fat, total solids, or salt levels. However, protein, lactose, solids-not-fat levels, and cryoscopy point were influenced by diet (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the profile of fatty acids between treatments for all acids found, except for butyric acid. Diets also did not (P > 0.05) confer sensory changes in milk characteristics. The use of the native cacti in the dairy goats' diet did not influence the sensory characteristics or lipid profile of milk. PMID:27233896

  12. Quantitative trait loci influencing chemical and sensory characteristics of eating quality in sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Azanza, F; Tadmor, Y; Klein, B P; Rocheford, T R; Juvik, J A

    1996-02-01

    This study was conducted to ascertain the chromosomal location and magnitude of effect of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the chemical and sensory properties of sweet corn (Zea mays L.) eating quality. Eighty-eight RFLPs, 3 cloned genes (sh1, sh2, and dhn1), and 2 morphological markers (a2 and se1) distributed throughout the sweet corn genome were scored in 214 F2:3 families derived from a cross between the inbreds W6786su1Se1 and IL731Asu1se1. Kernel properties associated with eating quality (kernel tenderness and starch, phytoglycogen, sucrose, and dimethyl sulfide concentrations) were quantified on F2:3 sib-pollinated ears harvested at 20 days after pollination. Sensory evaluation was conducted on a subset of 103 F2:3 families to determine intensity of attributes associated with sweet corn eating quality (corn aroma, grassy aroma, sweetness, starchiness, grassy flavor, crispness, tenderness, and juiciness) and overall liking. Single factor analysis of variance revealed significant QTL for all these traits, which accounted for from 3 to 42% of the total phenotypic variation. A proportion of the RFLP markers associated with human sensory response were also found to be associated with kernel characteristics. To our knowledge this is the first report of the identification of QTL associated with human flavor preferences in any food crop. Key words : sweet corn, RFLP, quantitative trait loci, eating quality, sensory evaluation. PMID:18469876

  13. Fish filleting residues for enrichment of wheat bread: chemical and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Tavares, Tássia; de Sousa Gomes Pimenta, Maria Emília; Leal, Renato; Fabrício, Luís Felipe; Pimenta, Carlos José; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2014-09-01

    The fish processing industry generates a large amount of materials discarded as residue. It is known that fish and its residue are a source of essential nutrients. Conversely, bread is a food accessible to different social classes but is deficient in protein, minerals, and fatty acids. Thus, this study aimed to develop bread products based on the addition of flour from Red-tailed Brycon (Brycon cephalus) processing residue and then evaluate the chemical and sensory qualities of the products. In relation to a standard bread formulation without fish flour, the addition of fish flour to bread formulations resulted in products with not only higher contents of protein, essential fatty acids, and minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus, but also lower contents of carbohydrates. The breads with fish flour received sensory acceptance better than or as good as that of a bread formulation without fish flour. Hence, the addition of fish processing residue to breads is a way to provide essential nutrients to the population through a well-accepted, accessible, and low-cost product.

  14. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fat-free goat milk yogurt with added stabilizers and skim milk powder fortification.

    PubMed

    Bruzantin, F P; Daniel, J L P; da Silva, P P M; Spoto, M H F

    2016-05-01

    Goat milk yogurt has a less consistent coagulum compared with cow milk yogurt; furthermore, the presence of goat milk in foodstuffs imparts a characteristic flavor that can restrict its acceptance by consumers. This study aimed to assess and compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fat-free goat milk yogurts with added stabilizers or bovine skim milk powder to improve the final product. Four treatment additions were evaluated: (1) a mixture of 0.1% (wt/vol) carrageenan and 0.1% (wt/vol) pectin (treatment CR); (2) 0.5% (wt/vol) pectin (treatment PE); (3) 4.65% (wt/vol) bovine skim milk powder (treatment BM); and (4) control (no stabilizer; treatment CT). The physicochemical parameters were investigated at on d 1 and 5 of storage. The BM treatment presented higher pH and titratable acidity values, resulting in a buffering capacity effect. The total crude protein (CP) and solids-not-fat (SNF) contents were also higher in BM compared with the other evaluated treatments because of the addition of bovine skim milk powder. We detected a reduction in pH values for all treatments. Lower SNF contents were present in the CR and CT treatments, which might be related to a syneresis process during storage; moreover, an increase in total CP was observed for all treatments due to the proteolytic action of the starter culture. Sensory attributes, including appearance (color, consistency, and presence of lumps), texture (consistency, viscosity, and presence of lumps), flavor (bitter, sweet, and characteristic of commercial plain nonfat yogurt), and overall impression were evaluated by quantitative descriptive analysis. The addition of 0.5% (wt/vol) of pectin (PE treatment) strengthened the curd; however, the visual and oral presence of lumps and a higher bitterness score were noted by trained panelists, which resulted in the lowest overall impression score for the PE treatment. In several sensory attributes, the CR treatment was considered similar to the control

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial decontamination, and chemical and sensory characteristic of lycium fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Chung, Hsiao-Ping; Chou, Fong-In; Lin, I.-hsin; Hsieh, Po-Chow

    2006-05-01

    Lycium fruit, popular traditional Chinese medicine and food supplement generally is ingested uncooked, was exposed to several doses of gamma irradiation (0-14 kGy) to evaluate decontamination efficiency, changes in chemical composition, and changes in sensory characteristic. In this study, lycium fruit specimens contained microbial counts of 3.1×10 3-1.7×10 5 CFU/g and 14 kGy was sufficient for microbial decontamination. Before irradiation, the main microbe isolated from lycium fruit was identified as a strain of yeast, Cryptococcus laurentii. After 10 kGy of irradiation, a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus cereus, was the only survivor. The first 90% reduction (LD 90) of C. laurentii and B. cereus was approximately 0.6 and 6.5 kGy, respectively, the D 10 doses of C. laurentii and B. cereus was approximately 0.6 and 1.7 kGy, respectively. After 14 kGy irradiation, except the vitamin C content, other chemical composition (e.g., crude protein, β-carotene, riboflavin, fructose, etc.) and the sensory characteristic of lycium fruit specimens did not have significant changes. In conclusion, 14 kGy is the optimal decontamination dose for lycium fruit for retention of its sensory quality and extension of shelf life.

  16. Influence of extended aging on beef quality characteristics and sensory perception of steaks from the biceps femoris and semimembranosus.

    PubMed

    Colle, M J; Richard, R P; Killinger, K M; Bohlscheid, J C; Gray, A R; Loucks, W I; Day, R N; Cochran, A S; Nasados, J A; Doumit, M E

    2016-09-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of post-fabrication aging (2, 14, 21, 42, and 63days) on beef quality characteristics and consumer sensory perception of biceps femoris (BF) and semimembranosus (SM) steaks. Lipid oxidation and aerobic plate counts increased (P<0.05) with longer aging periods and retail display times. An aging period by day of retail display interaction (P<0.05) was observed for a* and b* values of the BF and SM. Warner-Bratzler shear force values decreased (P<0.05) with longer aging for the SM, while no difference was observed for the BF. Consumer panel results revealed that longer aging periods increased (P<0.05) acceptability of the SM, tenderness of both muscles, and tended to increase (P=0.07) juiciness of the SM. Our results show that extended aging reduces retail color stability yet has positive effects on consumer perception of tenderness of both muscles and overall acceptability of the SM. PMID:27155799

  17. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; Şat, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists.

  18. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; Şat, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists. PMID:26604374

  19. Effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on consumer acceptance of fruit juices with different concentrations of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    PubMed

    Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruit juices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruit juices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruit juices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruit juices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruit juices that claim a particular health benefit. PMID:19467277

  20. The Effects of Fiber Inclusion on Pet Food Sensory Characteristics and Palatability

    PubMed Central

    Koppel, Kadri; Monti, Mariana; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Carciofi, Aulus Cavalieri

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary The results from this research indicate that fibers have an effect on extruded pet food texture and palatability. These results may help pet food companies select ingredients for successful product formulations. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine (a) the influence of fiber on the sensory characteristics of dry dog foods; (b) differences of coated and uncoated kibbles for aroma and flavor characteristics; (c) palatability of these dry dog foods; and (d) potential associations between palatability and sensory attributes. A total of eight fiber treatments were manufactured: a control (no fiber addition), guava fiber (3%, 6%, and 12%), sugar cane fiber (9%; large and small particle size), and wheat bran fiber (32%; large and small particle size). The results indicated significant effects of fibers on both flavor and texture properties of the samples. Bitter taste and iron and stale aftertaste were examples of flavor attributes that differed with treatment, with highest intensity observed for 12% guava fiber and small particle size sugar cane fiber treatments. Fracturability and initial crispness attributes were lowest for the sugar cane fiber treatments. Flavor of all treatments changed after coating with a palatant, increasing in toasted, brothy, and grainy attributes. The coating also had a masking effect on aroma attributes such as stale, flavor attributes such as iron and bitter taste, and appearance attributes such as porosity. Palatability testing results indicated that the control treatment was preferred over the sugar cane or the wheat bran treatment. The treatment with large sugarcane fiber particles was preferred over the treatment with small particles, while both of the wheat bran treatments were eaten at a similar level. Descriptive sensory analysis data, especially textural attributes, were useful in pinpointing the underlying characteristics and were considered to be reasons that may influence palatability of dog foods

  1. The Effects of Fiber Inclusion on Pet Food Sensory Characteristics and Palatability.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri; Monti, Mariana; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Carciofi, Aulus Cavalieri

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (a) the influence of fiber on the sensory characteristics of dry dog foods; (b) differences of coated and uncoated kibbles for aroma and flavor characteristics; (c) palatability of these dry dog foods; and (d) potential associations between palatability and sensory attributes. A total of eight fiber treatments were manufactured: a control (no fiber addition), guava fiber (3%, 6%, and 12%), sugar cane fiber (9%; large and small particle size), and wheat bran fiber (32%; large and small particle size). The results indicated significant effects of fibers on both flavor and texture properties of the samples. Bitter taste and iron and stale aftertaste were examples of flavor attributes that differed with treatment, with highest intensity observed for 12% guava fiber and small particle size sugar cane fiber treatments. Fracturability and initial crispness attributes were lowest for the sugar cane fiber treatments. Flavor of all treatments changed after coating with a palatant, increasing in toasted, brothy, and grainy attributes. The coating also had a masking effect on aroma attributes such as stale, flavor attributes such as iron and bitter taste, and appearance attributes such as porosity. Palatability testing results indicated that the control treatment was preferred over the sugar cane or the wheat bran treatment. The treatment with large sugarcane fiber particles was preferred over the treatment with small particles, while both of the wheat bran treatments were eaten at a similar level. Descriptive sensory analysis data, especially textural attributes, were useful in pinpointing the underlying characteristics and were considered to be reasons that may influence palatability of dog foods manufactured with inclusion of different fibers. PMID:26479141

  2. Effect of Dioscorea opposita Thunb. (yam) supplementation on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yogurt.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Lee, S Y; Palanivel, G; Kwak, H S

    2011-04-01

    A study was conducted to examine the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of yogurt made by supplementing powdered yam Dioscorea opposita Thunb. (YPT) at different concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8%, wt/vol) into milk, which was pasteurized and then fermented at 43°C for 6 h and stored for 16 d. The pH values of all samples decreased, whereas viscosity values and mean microbial counts increased during storage. The L* and a* color values (indicators of lightness and redness, respectively) of yogurt samples were not remarkably influenced by adding YPT, whereas the b* values (indicating yellowness) significantly increased with the addition of YPT at all concentrations at 0 d of storage, probably due to the original yellow color of yam powder. In functional component analyses, when the concentration of YPT increased, the amount of allantoin and diosgenin proportionally increased. The content of allantoin was 3.22 and diosgenin 4.69 μg/mL when 0.2% (wt/vol) YPT was supplemented and did not change quantitatively during the storage period (16 d). The sensory test revealed that the overall acceptability scores of YPT-supplemented yogurt samples (0.2 to 0.6%, wt/vol) were quite similar to those of the control throughout the storage period of 16 d. Based on the data obtained from the present study, it was concluded that the concentrations (0.2 to 0.6%, wt/vol) of YPT could be used to produce YPT-supplemented yogurt without significant adverse effects on physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties, and enhance functional components from the supplementation.

  3. Effect of barley flour on the physical and sensory characteristics of chocolate chip cookies.

    PubMed

    Frost, Diana June; Adhikari, Koushik; Lewis, Douglas S

    2011-10-01

    The present study explored the possibility of using barley flour as an ingredient to incorporate soluble fibre (β-glucan) in chocolate-chip cookies. Some clinical studies have shown that β-glucan might reduce the serum cholesterol levels. The objective of this study was to determine the physical and sensory characteristics of chocolate chip cookies partly substituted with barley flour at different levels. Physical characteristics (water activity and L*a*b* colour) and sensory characteristics (descriptive and consumer analysis) were evaluated on the experimental cookies substituted with 0, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70% barley flour for all-purpose flour. There were increases in the baked-barley aroma and flavour, thickness, colour intensity, dryness and graininess with increasing barley flour content. Consumer data showed that cookies made with 30% (0.5 g β-glucan/serving) and 50% (0.8 g β-glucan/serving) barley flour substitution were comparable in liking to the control (0% substitution) cookie and a commercial cookie. The presence of β-glucan in our chocolate-chip cookies might make them a healthier option for many consumers.

  4. Changes in Ultrastructure and Sensory Characteristics on Electro-magnetic and Air Blast Freezing of Beef during Frozen Storage.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Ku, Su-Kyung; Jeong, Ji-Yun; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Young-Boong

    2015-01-01

    The ultrastructure in the beef muscle of the electro-magnetic resonance and air blast freezing during the frozen storage, and the changes in the quality characteristics after thawing were evaluated. The size of ice crystal was small and evenly formed in the initial freezing period, and it showed that the size was increased as the storage period was elapsed (p<0.05). The beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing showed the size of ice crystal with a lower rate of increase than the air blast freezing during the frozen storage. The thawing loss of beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was significantly lower than the air blast freezing during frozen storage (p<0.05), and it showed that the thawing loss of the round was higher than the loin. Water holding capacity decreased as the storage period became longer while the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was higher than the air blast on 8 month (p<0.05). As a result of sensory evaluation, the beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing did not show the difference until 4 months, and it showed higher acceptability in comparison with the beef stored by the air blast freezing. Thus, it is considered that the freezing method has an effect on the change in the ultrastructure and quality characteristics of the beef.

  5. Sensory characteristics of antioxidant extracts from Uruguayan native plants: influence of deodorization by steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Miraballes, Marcelo; Gámbaro, Adriana; Ares, Gastón

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenolic-rich antioxidant extracts from native plants have potential applications as ingredients in functional foods; however, their intense characteristic flavour is a major limitation to their application. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of steam distillation on the sensory and physicochemical characteristics of extracts of five native Uruguayan plants (Acca sellowiana, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia gratisima, Baccharis trimera and Mikania guaco). Aqueous extracts from the five native plants were obtained. Steam distillation was used to produce two types of deodorized extracts: extracts from deodorized leaves and extracts deodorized after the extraction. The extracts were characterized in terms of their total polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity (using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid methods). A trained assessor panel evaluated characteristic odour, characteristic flavour, bitterness and astringency of the extracts. The total polyphenolic content of the extracts ranged from 112.4 to 974.4 mg/100 mL, whereas their antioxidant capacity ranged from 9.6 to 1008.7 mg vitamin C equivalents/100 mL, depending on the type of extract and the method being considered. Steam distillation was effective in reducing the characteristic odour and flavour of the extracts, without causing large changes in their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. In general, in terms of sensory characteristics, steam distillation performed on the extracts gave better results than when performed on the leaves; whereas the opposite trend was found for polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Results suggested that steam distillation could be a promising low-cost procedure for the production of antioxidant extracts for food products.

  6. Sensory characteristics of antioxidant extracts from Uruguayan native plants: influence of deodorization by steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Miraballes, Marcelo; Gámbaro, Adriana; Ares, Gastón

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenolic-rich antioxidant extracts from native plants have potential applications as ingredients in functional foods; however, their intense characteristic flavour is a major limitation to their application. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of steam distillation on the sensory and physicochemical characteristics of extracts of five native Uruguayan plants (Acca sellowiana, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia gratisima, Baccharis trimera and Mikania guaco). Aqueous extracts from the five native plants were obtained. Steam distillation was used to produce two types of deodorized extracts: extracts from deodorized leaves and extracts deodorized after the extraction. The extracts were characterized in terms of their total polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity (using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid methods). A trained assessor panel evaluated characteristic odour, characteristic flavour, bitterness and astringency of the extracts. The total polyphenolic content of the extracts ranged from 112.4 to 974.4 mg/100 mL, whereas their antioxidant capacity ranged from 9.6 to 1008.7 mg vitamin C equivalents/100 mL, depending on the type of extract and the method being considered. Steam distillation was effective in reducing the characteristic odour and flavour of the extracts, without causing large changes in their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. In general, in terms of sensory characteristics, steam distillation performed on the extracts gave better results than when performed on the leaves; whereas the opposite trend was found for polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Results suggested that steam distillation could be a promising low-cost procedure for the production of antioxidant extracts for food products. PMID:23733811

  7. Low-fat frankfurters enriched with n-3 PUFA and edible seaweed: Effects of olive oil and chilled storage on physicochemical, sensory and microbial characteristics.

    PubMed

    López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2009-09-01

    This article reports a study of the physicochemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of low-fat (10%) and n-3 PUFA-enriched frankfurters as affected by addition of seaweed (5% Himanthalia elongata), partial substitution (50%) of animal fat by olive oil and chilled storage (41days at 2°C). The presence of seaweed improved water and fat binding properties, reduced (P<0.05) lightness and redness and increased (P<0.05) the hardness and chewiness of low-fat frankfurters enriched with n-3 PUFA. The effect of olive oil on those characteristics was less pronounced than that of seaweed. Replacing pork backfat with olive oil in frankfurters produced acceptable sensory characteristics, similar to control, while addition of seaweed resulted in less acceptable products, due mainly to the special flavour of the seaweed. Formulation and storage time affected the total viable count and lactic acid bacteria count. Frankfurters containing olive oil and seaweed had the highest total viable count from day 14 of storage, with lactic acid bacteria becoming the predominant microflora. PMID:20416775

  8. Sensory Characteristics and Comparison of Commercial Plain Yogurts and 2 New Production Sample Options.

    PubMed

    Brown, Marissa D; Chambers, Delores H

    2015-12-01

    This research determined the sensory characteristics of currently available plain yogurts available in U.S. supermarkets and examined how 3 "more sustainable" prototypes compared. The prototypes, nonfat set-style yogurts pre-acidified after pasteurization with lemon juice or citric acid at 80 ppm to pH 6.2, had shorter fermentation times than the lab-made control. These reduced fermentation times could result in energy reductions and potentially substantiate a "sustainable" marketing claim, a concept gaining traction with consumers. Twenty-six commercial yogurts, varying in percent milk fat, milk source (organic or conventional), and processing (set-style, stirred, or strained/Greek-style), were also included. Using descriptive sensory analysis, a 6-person highly trained panel scored the intensity of 25 flavor and 10 texture attributes on a 15-point scale. Three replications were carried out, and all samples were tested at least 10 d prior to the end of their shelf-lives. The samples differed for 19 flavor and all 10 texture attributes. Cluster analysis indicated approximately 7 flavor and 5 texture clusters. The prototype pre-acidified with lemon juice was similar to category leaders nonfat yogurt varieties. The prototype pre-acidified with citric acid was similar in texture but was less sour. Although no legal definitions exist for "sustainable," the prototypes' sensory characteristics are comparable to those of popular yogurts indicating potential market viability. This research also demonstrates potential for making yogurt that is in line with growing consumer expectations for sustainability. Despite the current diversity, several combinations of flavor and texture were not represented.

  9. Sensory Characteristics and Comparison of Commercial Plain Yogurts and 2 New Production Sample Options.

    PubMed

    Brown, Marissa D; Chambers, Delores H

    2015-12-01

    This research determined the sensory characteristics of currently available plain yogurts available in U.S. supermarkets and examined how 3 "more sustainable" prototypes compared. The prototypes, nonfat set-style yogurts pre-acidified after pasteurization with lemon juice or citric acid at 80 ppm to pH 6.2, had shorter fermentation times than the lab-made control. These reduced fermentation times could result in energy reductions and potentially substantiate a "sustainable" marketing claim, a concept gaining traction with consumers. Twenty-six commercial yogurts, varying in percent milk fat, milk source (organic or conventional), and processing (set-style, stirred, or strained/Greek-style), were also included. Using descriptive sensory analysis, a 6-person highly trained panel scored the intensity of 25 flavor and 10 texture attributes on a 15-point scale. Three replications were carried out, and all samples were tested at least 10 d prior to the end of their shelf-lives. The samples differed for 19 flavor and all 10 texture attributes. Cluster analysis indicated approximately 7 flavor and 5 texture clusters. The prototype pre-acidified with lemon juice was similar to category leaders nonfat yogurt varieties. The prototype pre-acidified with citric acid was similar in texture but was less sour. Although no legal definitions exist for "sustainable," the prototypes' sensory characteristics are comparable to those of popular yogurts indicating potential market viability. This research also demonstrates potential for making yogurt that is in line with growing consumer expectations for sustainability. Despite the current diversity, several combinations of flavor and texture were not represented. PMID:26551026

  10. Effect of NaCl/Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) Mixture on the Sensorial Properties and Quality Characteristics of Model Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    Sodium chloride is an important ingredient added to most of foods which contributes to flavor enhancement and food preservation but excess intake of sodium chloride may also cause various diseases such as heart diseases, osteoporosis and so on. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a salty flavor enhancer on the quality and sensorial properties of the NaCl/MSG complex and actual food system. For characterizing the spray-dried NaCl/MSG complex, surface dimension, morphology, rheology, and saltiness intensity were estimated by increasing MSG (0-2.0%) levels at a fixed NaCl concentration (2.0%). MSG levels had no effect of the characteristics of the NaCl/MSG complex, although the addition of MSG increased the surface dimension of the NaCl/MSG complex significantly (p<0.05). Furthermore, the effect of MSG on enhancing the salty flavor was not observed in the solution of the NaCl/MSG complex. In the case of an actual food system, model meat products (pork patties) were prepared by replacing NaCl with MSG. MSG enhanced the salty flavor, thereby increasing overall acceptability of pork patties. Replacement of NaCl with MSG (<1.0%) did not result in negative sensorial properties of pork patties, although quality deterioration such as high cooking loss was found. Nevertheless, MSG had a potential application in meat product formulation as a salty flavor enhancer or a partial NaCl replacer when meat products were supplemented with binding agents. PMID:26761490

  11. Determination of furan levels in commercial orange juice products and its correlation to the sensory and quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Kim, Min Yeop; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2016-11-15

    The objective of current study was to determine the furan levels in commercial orange juices (OJs) and relate to the sensory and quality characteristics of OJs. The factors among sensory and quality characteristics that showed high correlation to furan were identified. The furan levels found in 18 commercial OJs ranged from 0.59 to 27.39ng/mL. Freshly-squeezed type OJs (n=4) had significantly lower furan levels (4.68ng/mL) than other OJs treated with heat processing (p<0.05). Vitamin C content, specifically, dehydroascorbic acid showed higher correlation to the furan level in OJs (r=0.833). A descriptive sensory analysis result revealed the different flavor profile of commercial OJs according to the processing method and added ingredient in OJs. Current approach of using sensory analysis for prediction of furan level in food products can be applied to future studies in many other food commodities. PMID:27283680

  12. An Empirical Examination of Individual and System Characteristics on Enhancing E-Learning Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Hsiao, Chan; Purnomo, Sutrisno Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Due to the continued prevalence of e-learning underutilization in Indonesia's higher education context, this study empirically examines individual and system characteristics believed to influence students' acceptance of e-learning systems. The proposed research model is developed to examine the influence of five characteristics of the…

  13. Evaluation of sensory irritation of delta3-carene and turpentine, and acceptable levels of monoterpenes in occupational and indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Kasanen, J P; Pasanen, A L; Pasanen, P; Liesivuori, J; Kosma, V M; Alarie, Y

    1999-05-28

    The standard mouse bioassay was used for obtaining the RD50 (i.e., the concentration that causes a 50% decrease in respiratory frequency) and for estimating the irritation properties of d-delta3-carene (i.e., (+)-delta3-carene) and commercial turpentine. The chemicals studied possess mainly sensory irritation properties similar to the previously studied monoterpenes, pinenes. The irritation potency of d-delta3-carene (RD50 = 1345 ppm) was almost equal to that of d-pinenes. Thus, d-delta3-carene was about four times more potent as a sensory irritant than I-beta-pinene, whereas the difference with I-alpha-pinene was more marked; as a sensory irritant, I-alpha-pinene is almost inactive. Based on sensory irritation potency and physicochemical and structural properties of pinenes and delta3-carene, the potency of a closely related monoterpene, limonene, is discussed. For commercial turpentine, a mixture of monoterpenes (mainly d-delta3-carene, I-beta-pinene, alpha-pinenes, and limonenes), the RD50 (1173 ppm) was the same order of magnitude as those of d-pinenes and d-delta3-carene. Apparently, d-monoterpenes are responsible for the sensory irritation caused by turpentine. In the wood industry and in the indoor air of nonindustrial environments, monoterpenes are thought to be one of the causative agents for irritation symptoms. The occupational exposure limit (OEL) of turpentine (100 ppm in Finland and the United States) is also used for individual monoterpenes, excluding limonene. Using results from this and our previous study, proposed OELs and recommended indoor levels (RILs) for selected monoterpenes and turpentine were determined based on their RD50 values. According to our studies, the present OEL of turpentine (100 ppm; 560 mg/m3) in Finland and in the United States seems to be suitable only for I-pinenes. For d-monoterpenes and turpentine, an OEL about three times lower is suggested. Our results show that recommended indoor levels (RILs) for monoterpenes are high

  14. Acceptability of Alternatives to Traditional Emergency Care: Patient Characteristics, Alternate Transport Modes, and Alternate Destinations.

    PubMed

    Jones, Courtney Marie Cora; Wasserman, Erin B; Li, Timmy; Shah, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    To determine the acceptability of alternatives to traditional emergency care, we assessed the proportion of subjects willing to consider alternative modes of transportation and alternative destinations. We further identified patient characteristics associated with willingness to consider these alternatives. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study in the emergency department (ED) of an academic medical center. Research assistants screened all non-critically ill ED patients for eligibility and willingness to participate and administered an interview-based survey that included questions on demographic and clinical characteristics, perceived illness severity, and acceptability of alternatives to traditional emergency care for acute illness and injuries. We calculated the proportions and 95% confidence intervals for subjects who found alternative transport modes and destinations acceptable and developed a log-binomial regression model to identify patient characteristics associated with acceptability of alternative modes of transport and alternative destinations. Complete data were available on 1,058 subjects. Forty-two percent of the study sample arrived to the ED via emergency medical services (EMS). Over two-thirds of the study sample (68.2%) was willing to consider transport via either taxi or medical transport van and 69.0% was willing to consider either transportation to an urgent care center or their primary care physician's office. Other alternatives, including delayed EMS response time, were less frequently endorsed as acceptable alternatives. Subject characteristics associated with willingness to accept alternative modes of transportation included younger age, chief complaint, previous ED use, and place of residence (p < 0.05). Subject characteristics associated with willingness to accept alternative destinations included younger age, non-white race, lower patient acuity, and lower self-perceived illness severity (p < 0.05). In our ED, some patients found

  15. Sensory characteristics of Iberian dry-cured loins: Influence of crossbreeding and rearing system.

    PubMed

    Ventanas, Sonia; Ventanas, Jesús; Ruiz, Jorge

    2007-02-01

    The sensory characteristics of Iberian dry-cured loins and the influence of crossbreeding (pure Iberian - IB, Iberian female×Duroc male - IB×D and Duroc female×Iberian male - D×IB) and rearing system (outdoors fed on acorns and pasture - MON, indoors fed on concentrates high in oleic acid sunflower oil and supplemented with 250mg/kg of α-tocopherol acetate -HOVE- and indoors fed on control concentrates - CON) on sensory attributes were studied. Dry-cured loins from IB-MON and IB-HOVE pigs, which showed the highest intramuscular fat (IMF) content (p<0.01), reached higher scores for brightness, marbling traits (intensity, size and shape) and juiciness, and lower for hardness, dryness and fibrousness than loins from crossbred pigs (IB×D-HOVE, IB×D-CON and D×IB-HOVE). In fact, IMF content was positively linked to juiciness and marbling attributes and negatively to dryness, hardness and fibrousness, which was also observed in the principal component analysis (PCA). Neither the crossbreeding nor the rearing system seemed to influence odour, flavour and taste features. The PCA evidenced that dry-cured loins from IB-MON and IB-HOVE batches gathered together and were placed near to marbling attributes, juiciness and IMF content.

  16. Effect of thermosonication on physicochemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of ayran during storage.

    PubMed

    Erkaya, Tuba; Başlar, Mehmet; Şengül, Mustafa; Ertugay, Mustafa Fatih

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether thermosonication extends the shelf life of ayran, an acidic milk drink. The effect of thermosonication at different temperatures (60, 70 and 80 °C) and times (1, 3 and 5 min) on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics, and sensorial properties of ayran during storage were investigated. According to the results, thermosonication applied at 60 °C decreased lower the bacteria counts, although the Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus counts decreased as the temperature and time increased. The yeast and mold levels in samples treated with thermosonication were <1 log CFU mL(-1) during storage period. The ayran samples had non-Newtonian behavior, and the consistency coefficients of the thermosonicated samples were significantly higher than that of the heat-treated samples. Regarding serum separation, the most effective thermosonication treatment was applied at 70 °C for 3 min. The sensory properties of the thermosonicated samples were better than the thermal-treated samples after storage.

  17. Carcass Performance, Muscle Fiber, Meat Quality, and Sensory Quality Characteristics of Crossbred Pigs with Different Live Weights.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Min; Oh, Hee Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In order to attain heavier live weight without impairing pork or sensory quality characteristics, carcass performance, muscle fiber, pork quality, and sensory quality characteristics were compared among the heavy weight (HW, average live weight of 130.5 kg), medium weight (MW, average weight of 111.1 kg), and light weight (LW, average weight of 96.3 kg) pigs at time of slaughter. The loin eye area was 1.47 times greater in the HW group compared to the LW group (64.0 and 43.5 cm(2), p<0.001), while carcass percent was similar between the HW and MW groups (p>0.05). This greater performance by the HW group compared to the LW group can be explained by a greater total number (1,436 vs. 1,188, ×10(3), p<0.001) and larger area (4,452 vs. 3,716 μm(2), p<0.001) of muscle fibers. No significant differences were observed in muscle pH45 min, lightness, drip loss, and shear force among the groups (p>0.05), and higher live weights did not influence sensory quality attributes, including tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. Therefore, these findings indicate that increased live weights in this study did not influence the technological and sensory quality characteristics. Moreover, muscles with a higher number of medium or large size fibers tend to exhibit good carcass performance without impairing meat and sensory quality characteristics. PMID:27433110

  18. Carcass Performance, Muscle Fiber, Meat Quality, and Sensory Quality Characteristics of Crossbred Pigs with Different Live Weights

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hee Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In order to attain heavier live weight without impairing pork or sensory quality characteristics, carcass performance, muscle fiber, pork quality, and sensory quality characteristics were compared among the heavy weight (HW, average live weight of 130.5 kg), medium weight (MW, average weight of 111.1 kg), and light weight (LW, average weight of 96.3 kg) pigs at time of slaughter. The loin eye area was 1.47 times greater in the HW group compared to the LW group (64.0 and 43.5 cm2, p<0.001), while carcass percent was similar between the HW and MW groups (p>0.05). This greater performance by the HW group compared to the LW group can be explained by a greater total number (1,436 vs. 1,188, ×103, p<0.001) and larger area (4,452 vs. 3,716 μm2, p<0.001) of muscle fibers. No significant differences were observed in muscle pH45 min, lightness, drip loss, and shear force among the groups (p>0.05), and higher live weights did not influence sensory quality attributes, including tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. Therefore, these findings indicate that increased live weights in this study did not influence the technological and sensory quality characteristics. Moreover, muscles with a higher number of medium or large size fibers tend to exhibit good carcass performance without impairing meat and sensory quality characteristics. PMID:27433110

  19. Efficacy of monitoring the sensory taste characteristics in pomegranate juice with electronic tongue, and chemical measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to flavor attributes, pomegranate juices have sweet, sour, bitter tastes, astringent, and toothetch feeling factors. Many factors influence tastes and feeling factors. Measuring these attributes without a sensory panel makes economic sense. This investigation compares descriptive sensory...

  20. Fatty Acid Composition and Sensory Characteristics of Eggs Obtained from Hens Fed Flaxseed Oil, Dried Whitebait and/or Fructo-oligosaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Haechang; Hwang, Keum Taek; Regenstein, Joe M.; Shin, Sung Woo

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of flaxseed oil and dried whitebait as a source of ω-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FA), which could be used to produce eggs enriched with ω-3 FA, and of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) as a source of prebiotics on performance of hens (commercial Hy-Line Brown laying hens), and FA composition, internal quality, and sensory characteristics of the eggs. Dietary FOS increased egg weight. The amounts of α-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) in the eggs from the hens fed the flaxseed oil alone or flaxseed oil+dried whitebait diets were higher than those of the control. Hedonic scores for off-flavor, fishy flavor, buttery taste and overall acceptability of the eggs from the hens fed the diet containing flaxseed oil+ dried whitebait were lower (p<0.05) than those of the control. Overall acceptability of the eggs from the hens fed the diet containing soybean oil+dried whitebait was lower (p<0.05) than that of the control. However, all the sensory attributes of the eggs from the hens fed the diet containing flaxseed oil, dried whitebait and FOS were not significantly different from those of the control. These results confirmed that flaxseed oil increases the ALA content in the eggs and a combination of flaxseed oil and dried whitebait increases EPA and DHA in the eggs. Of significance was that addition of FOS to the flaxseed oil+dried whitebait diet improves the sensory characteristics of the eggs enriched with ω-3 FA. PMID:25050046

  1. Effect of low dose irradiation on the microbial and sensory characteristics of fresh pork loins. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.; Rust, R.E.; Kraft, A.A.; Walker, H.W.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of low dose (100 krad) irradiation on microflora, sensory characteristics, and development of oxidative rancidity of vacuum packed pork loins was investigated after irradiation and during low temperature (4/sup 0/C) storage up to 21 days. Irradiation reduced numbers of mesophiles, psychrotrophs, anaerobic bacteria (P<0.01), and staphylococci (P<0.05), with the effect on mesophiles and psychrotrophic spoilage organisms the greatest. Effect of irradiation on sensory characteristics of pork loin was minimal with no detectable differences between irradiated and nonirradiated pork after 14 days of storage. Irradiation of pork did not affect cooking loss or thiobarbituric acid values. 18 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Technology, Demographic Characteristics and E-Learning Acceptance: A Conceptual Model Based on Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarhini, Ali; Elyas, Tariq; Akour, Mohammad Ali; Al-Salti, Zahran

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to develop an amalgamated conceptual model of technology acceptance that explains how individual, social, cultural and organizational factors affect the students' acceptance and usage behaviour of the Web-based learning systems. More specifically, the proposed model extends the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to…

  3. Influence of the reformulation of ingredients in bakery products on healthy characteristics and acceptability of consumers.

    PubMed

    Doménech-Asensi, G; Merola, N; López-Fernández, A; Ros-Berruezo, G; Frontela-Saseta, C

    2016-01-01

    Bakery products are highly consumed by children and adults and as cereal-derived foods are considered a fundamental part of a balanced diet, but they are usually high in sugar and saturated and trans fat and low in fibre. This study aimed to develop four different bakery products (cookies, croissants, Spanish muffins and Spanish sponge cake) with healthier properties, such as lower fat and sugar content, healthy fatty acid profile and higher fibre content. Margarine and sunflower oil were replaced with high oleic sunflower oil, and inulin was also added. After the modifications, a significant reduction of fat content and kilocalories in all cases, an increment of monounsaturated fat and a decrease in saturated fatty acids in three products were observed. The sensory analysis resulted similar results in both recipes for cookies and lower acceptability in sponge cake, croissants and muffins. Purchase intention only decreased in sponge cake.

  4. Influence of the reformulation of ingredients in bakery products on healthy characteristics and acceptability of consumers.

    PubMed

    Doménech-Asensi, G; Merola, N; López-Fernández, A; Ros-Berruezo, G; Frontela-Saseta, C

    2016-01-01

    Bakery products are highly consumed by children and adults and as cereal-derived foods are considered a fundamental part of a balanced diet, but they are usually high in sugar and saturated and trans fat and low in fibre. This study aimed to develop four different bakery products (cookies, croissants, Spanish muffins and Spanish sponge cake) with healthier properties, such as lower fat and sugar content, healthy fatty acid profile and higher fibre content. Margarine and sunflower oil were replaced with high oleic sunflower oil, and inulin was also added. After the modifications, a significant reduction of fat content and kilocalories in all cases, an increment of monounsaturated fat and a decrease in saturated fatty acids in three products were observed. The sensory analysis resulted similar results in both recipes for cookies and lower acceptability in sponge cake, croissants and muffins. Purchase intention only decreased in sponge cake. PMID:26706903

  5. Carcass, meat quality, and sensory characteristics of heavy body weight pigs fed ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Dueñas, D M; Myers, A J; Scramlin, S M; Parks, C W; Carr, S N; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K

    2008-12-01

    Carcass characteristics, meat quality traits, and sensory attributes were evaluated in late-finishing barrows and gilts, weighing between 100 to 130 kg of BW, fed 0, 5, or 7.4 mg/kg of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) for the final 21 to 28 d before slaughter. Carcass data were collected from carcasses from barrows and gilts (n = 168), and all primal cuts from the right sides of these carcasses were fabricated to calculate primal yields as a percentage of the HCW. Subjective (National Pork Producers Council and Japanese) color, firmness, and marbling scores were determined on the LM of each loin and the semimembranosus muscle (SM) of the ham, whereas the moisture, extractable lipid, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and trained sensory evaluations (juiciness, tenderness, and pork flavor) were measured on the LM samples only. Gilts produced heavier (P < 0.05) HCW than barrows, whereas feeding RAC increased (P < 0.05) HCW over pigs fed diets devoid of RAC. Carcasses from gilts also had greater (P < 0.02) primal cut and lean cut (P < 0.01) yields than barrows, and dietary inclusion of 5 mg/kg of RAC increased (P < 0.05) total boneless cut and lean cut yields when compared with carcass from pigs fed 0 or 7.4 mg/kg of RAC. Warner-Bratzler shear forces values were greater (P < 0.05) in the LM of gilts than barrows, but only juiciness scores were greater (P < 0.03) in LM chops from barrows than gilts. The LM from barrows had greater intramuscular lipid (P < 0.001) than the LM from gilts, and even though the LM from pigs fed 5 mg/kg of RAC had greater (P < 0.04) WBSF values than the LM from pigs fed 0 or 7.4 mg/kg of RAC, including RAC in the late-finishing diets for 21 or 28 d did not affect sensory panel rating or percentages of moisture and intramuscular lipid. In summary, addition of RAC in the late-finishing diet improved carcass and primal cut yields when it was fed at 5 and 7.4 mg/kg without altering pork quality traits regardless of whether RAC was fed for 21 or

  6. Effect of variety and processing method on functional properties of traditional sweet potato flour ("elubo") and sensory acceptability of cooked paste ("amala").

    PubMed

    Fetuga, Ganiyat; Tomlins, Keith; Henshaw, Folake; Idowu, Michael

    2014-11-01

    "Amala" is a generic term in Nigeria, used to describe a thick paste prepared by stirring flour ("elubo") from yam, cassava or unripe plantain, in hot water, to form a smooth consistency. In order to overcome its high perishability and increase the utilization of sweet potato roots, three varieties of sweet potato roots were processed into flour using two methods. The interactive effect of variety and the processing method had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on all the functional properties of the flour except yellowness, setback viscosity, and peak time. Acceptable sweet potato "amala" with average sensory acceptability score of 7.5 were obtained from yellow-fleshed varieties irrespective of the processing method. Flour that produced acceptable "amala" were characterized by lower values of protein (2.20-3.94%), fiber (1.30-1.65%), total sugar (12.41-38.83 μg/mg), water absorption capacity (168-215 g/100 g), water solubility (8.29-14.65%), swelling power (0.52-0.82 g/g), and higher peak time (6.9-8.7 min).

  7. Effect of variety and processing method on functional properties of traditional sweet potato flour ("elubo") and sensory acceptability of cooked paste ("amala").

    PubMed

    Fetuga, Ganiyat; Tomlins, Keith; Henshaw, Folake; Idowu, Michael

    2014-11-01

    "Amala" is a generic term in Nigeria, used to describe a thick paste prepared by stirring flour ("elubo") from yam, cassava or unripe plantain, in hot water, to form a smooth consistency. In order to overcome its high perishability and increase the utilization of sweet potato roots, three varieties of sweet potato roots were processed into flour using two methods. The interactive effect of variety and the processing method had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on all the functional properties of the flour except yellowness, setback viscosity, and peak time. Acceptable sweet potato "amala" with average sensory acceptability score of 7.5 were obtained from yellow-fleshed varieties irrespective of the processing method. Flour that produced acceptable "amala" were characterized by lower values of protein (2.20-3.94%), fiber (1.30-1.65%), total sugar (12.41-38.83 μg/mg), water absorption capacity (168-215 g/100 g), water solubility (8.29-14.65%), swelling power (0.52-0.82 g/g), and higher peak time (6.9-8.7 min). PMID:25493186

  8. A resistant-starch enriched yogurt: fermentability, sensory characteristics, and a pilot study in children.

    PubMed

    Aryana, Kayanush; Greenway, Frank; Dhurandhar, Nikhil; Tulley, Richard; Finley, John; Keenan, Michael; Martin, Roy; Pelkman, Christine; Olson, Douglas; Zheng, Jolene

    2015-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity and the vulnerability of the pediatric age group have highlighted the critical need for a careful consideration of effective, safe, remedial and preventive dietary interventions.  Amylose starch (RS2) from high-amylose maize (HAM) ferments in the gut and affects body weight.   One hundred and ten children, of 7-8 (n=91) or 13-14 (n=19) years of age scored the sensory qualities of a yogurt supplemented with either HAM-RS2 or an amylopectin starch.  The amylopectin starch yogurt was preferred to the HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt by 7-8 year old panelists ( P<0.0001).  Appearance, taste, and sandiness scores given by 13- to 14-year-old panelists were more favorable for the amylopectin starch yogurt than for HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt ( P<0.05).  HAM-RS2 supplementation resulted in acceptable (≥6 on a 1-9 scale) sensory and hedonic ratings of the yogurt in 74% of subjects.  Four children consumed a HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt for four weeks to test its fermentability in a clinical trial.  Three adolescents, but not the single pre-pubertal child, had reduced stool pH ( P=0.1) and increased stool short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) ( P<0.05) including increased fecal acetate ( P=0.02), and butyrate ( P=0.089) from resistant starch (RS) fermentation and isobutyrate ( P=0.01) from protein fermentation post-treatment suggesting a favorable change to the gut microbiota.  HAM-RS2 was not modified by pasteurization of the yogurt, and may be a palatable way to increase fiber intake and stimulate colonic fermentation in adolescents.  Future studies are planned to determine the concentration of HAM-RS2 that offers the optimal safe and effective strategy to prevent excessive fat gain in children. PMID:26925221

  9. A resistant-starch enriched yogurt: fermentability, sensory characteristics, and a pilot study in children.

    PubMed

    Aryana, Kayanush; Greenway, Frank; Dhurandhar, Nikhil; Tulley, Richard; Finley, John; Keenan, Michael; Martin, Roy; Pelkman, Christine; Olson, Douglas; Zheng, Jolene

    2015-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity and the vulnerability of the pediatric age group have highlighted the critical need for a careful consideration of effective, safe, remedial and preventive dietary interventions.  Amylose starch (RS2) from high-amylose maize (HAM) ferments in the gut and affects body weight.   One hundred and ten children, of 7-8 (n=91) or 13-14 (n=19) years of age scored the sensory qualities of a yogurt supplemented with either HAM-RS2 or an amylopectin starch.  The amylopectin starch yogurt was preferred to the HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt by 7-8 year old panelists ( P<0.0001).  Appearance, taste, and sandiness scores given by 13- to 14-year-old panelists were more favorable for the amylopectin starch yogurt than for HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt ( P<0.05).  HAM-RS2 supplementation resulted in acceptable (≥6 on a 1-9 scale) sensory and hedonic ratings of the yogurt in 74% of subjects.  Four children consumed a HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt for four weeks to test its fermentability in a clinical trial.  Three adolescents, but not the single pre-pubertal child, had reduced stool pH ( P=0.1) and increased stool short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) ( P<0.05) including increased fecal acetate ( P=0.02), and butyrate ( P=0.089) from resistant starch (RS) fermentation and isobutyrate ( P=0.01) from protein fermentation post-treatment suggesting a favorable change to the gut microbiota.  HAM-RS2 was not modified by pasteurization of the yogurt, and may be a palatable way to increase fiber intake and stimulate colonic fermentation in adolescents.  Future studies are planned to determine the concentration of HAM-RS2 that offers the optimal safe and effective strategy to prevent excessive fat gain in children.

  10. Blue-green algae (Arthrospira platensis) as an ingredient in pasta: free radical scavenging activity, sensory and cooking characteristics evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zouari, Nacim; Abid, Mouna; Fakhfakh, Nahed; Ayadi, M A; Zorgui, Lazhar; Ayadi, Moez; Attia, Hamadi

    2011-12-01

    The effects of semolina enrichment with blue-green algae (Arthrospira platensis) at three different levels (1, 2 and 3 g/100 g of semolina) on the colour, cooking properties, firmness, free radical scavenging activity and sensory characteristics of pasta are reported. Microalgae addition resulted in higher swelling index and lower cooking loss than the control sample. A significant increase in pasta firmness was evidenced with an increase of added microalgae due to structural reinforcement. In addition to colouring, the use of A. platensis (2 g/100 g of semolina) can enhance the sensory quality and nutraceutical potential as evaluated by free radical scavenging activity of pasta. PMID:21568819

  11. Effects of NaCl Replacement with Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the Quality Characteristics and Sensorial Properties of Model Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of γ-aminobutylic acid (GABA) on the quality and sensorial properties of both the GABA/NaCl complex and model meat products. GABA/NaCl complex was prepared by spray-drying, and the surface dimensions, morphology, rheology, and saltiness were characterized. For model meat products, pork patties were prepared by replacing NaCl with GABA. For characteristics of the complex, increasing GABA concentration increased the surface dimensions of the complex. However, GABA did not affect the rheological properties of solutions containing the complex. The addition of 2% GABA exhibited significantly higher saltiness than the control (no GABA treatment). In the case of pork patties, sensory testing indicated that the addition of GABA decreased the saltiness intensity. Both the intensity of juiciness and tenderness of patties containing GABA also scored lower than the control, based on the NaCl reduction. These results were consistent with the quality characteristics (cooking loss and texture profile analysis). Nevertheless, overall acceptability of the pork patties showed that up to 1.5%, patties containing GABA did not significantly differ from the control. Consequently, the results indicated that GABA has a potential application in meat products, but also manifested a deterioration of quality by the NaCl reduction, which warrants further exploration. PMID:26761294

  12. Effects of Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoera batatas Cultivar Ayamurasaki) Powder Addition on Color and Texture Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Kim, Yeong-Jung; Park, Jae Hong; Hur, In-Chul; Nam, Sang-Hae; Shin, Daekeun

    2012-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFP) powder on the texture properties and sensory characteristics of cooked pork sausage. Sodium nitrite alone and sodium nitrite in combination with PFP were added to five different treatments sausages (CON (control) = 0.01% sodium nitrite, SP25 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, SP50 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, PP25 = 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder, PP50 = 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder). The sausages were cooked to 74°C, stored at 4°C for 6 wks, and used for chemical analysis, textural properties, and a sensory evaluation on 0, 2, 4 and 6 wks of storage, respectively. Similar CIE a* and b* values were determined in sausages from CON, SP25 and SP50 at the end of storage, and they were higher in CIE a* but lower in CIE b* than that of the PP25 and PP50 sausages. Significant differences were observed for brittleness and hardness when PFP was added to the sausages but were not confirmed after 4 wks of storage. The objective color score was influenced by adding PFP; however, the effect was not dose dependent. In overall acceptability, panelists favored the CON, SP25, SP50, and PP50 sausages but did not prefer PP25 sausages at the end of storage. Therefore, adding PFP to cooked pork sausages improved color and texture properties and sensory characteristics, but further study is needed to determine the proper ratio of sodium nitrite and PFP.

  13. Seeing with sound? exploring different characteristics of a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution device.

    PubMed

    Brown, David; Macpherson, Tom; Ward, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Sensory substitution devices convert live visual images into auditory signals, for example with a web camera (to record the images), a computer (to perform the conversion) and headphones (to listen to the sounds). In a series of three experiments, the performance of one such device ('The vOICe') was assessed under various conditions on blindfolded sighted participants. The main task that we used involved identifying and locating objects placed on a table by holding a webcam (like a flashlight) or wearing it on the head (like a miner's light). Identifying objects on a table was easier with a hand-held device, but locating the objects was easier with a head-mounted device. Brightness converted into loudness was less effective than the reverse contrast (dark being loud), suggesting that performance under these conditions (natural indoor lighting, novice users) is related more to the properties of the auditory signal (ie the amount of noise in it) than the cross-modal association between loudness and brightness. Individual differences in musical memory (detecting pitch changes in two sequences of notes) was related to the time taken to identify or recognise objects, but individual differences in self-reported vividness of visual imagery did not reliably predict performance across the experiments. In general, the results suggest that the auditory characteristics of the device may be more important for initial learning than visual associations. PMID:22208131

  14. Shelf life and sensory characteristics of baby spinach subjected to electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Neal, Jack A; Booren, Betsy; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Miller, Rhonda K; Lucia, Lisa M; Maxim, Joseph E; Castillo, Alejandro

    2010-08-01

    The use of ionizing radiation for the control of foodborne pathogens and extending the shelf life of fresh iceberg lettuce and fresh spinach has recently been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The efficacy of electron beam irradiation for controlling foodborne pathogens has been reported. For this experiment, the effectiveness of electron beam irradiation on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of fresh spinach was studied. Total aerobic plate counts were reduced by 2.6 and 3.2 log CFU/g at 0.7 and 1.4 kGy, respectively. Lactic acid bacteria were reduced at both doses of e-beam but grew slowly over the 35 d of the experiment. Yeasts and molds were not reduced in samples exposed to 0.7 kGy whereas 1.4 kGy significantly reduced microbial counts. Gas compositions (O(2) and CO(2)) were significantly different than controls. Oxygen levels inside the spinach sample bags decreased over time; however, O(2) levels did not drop below 1% that can induce anaerobic fermentation. CO(2) levels for all treatments increased through day 4; yet 7 d after irradiation, CO(2) level differences were not significant in both control and irradiated samples. Irradiation dose did not affect the basic tastes, aromatics, or mouth feels of fresh spinach, however; hardness attributes decreased as irradiated dose increased and slimy attributes of fresh spinach were higher in control samples compared to irradiated samples.

  15. Sensory characteristics of Iberian ham: Influence of salt content and processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Andrés, A I; Cava, R; Ventanas, J; Thovar, V; Ruiz, J

    2004-09-01

    Sensory characteristics of Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris muscles from 24 dry-cured Iberian hams were assessed. Hams were salted with different amounts of salt (6% and 3% w/w) and then ripened at different temperature conditions (traditional processing vs. modified processing). Hams manufactured using modified processing showed higher scores for dryness (P<0.05), hardness (P<0.05) and rancid flavour (P<0.001) in the Semimembranosus muscle than those processed in a traditional way. The Biceps femoris muscle of hams salted with 6% of salt was drier (P<0.05), harder (P<0.05) and more fibrous (P<0.01) than in hams salted with 3% salt. Salty taste was more intense in the Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris from hams with a higher level of salt (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). A more intense rancidity in hams ripened in modified processing could affect the overall aroma. A decrease in salt content produces less salty hams, but the changes in texture traits should be also considered.

  16. Seeing with sound? exploring different characteristics of a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution device.

    PubMed

    Brown, David; Macpherson, Tom; Ward, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Sensory substitution devices convert live visual images into auditory signals, for example with a web camera (to record the images), a computer (to perform the conversion) and headphones (to listen to the sounds). In a series of three experiments, the performance of one such device ('The vOICe') was assessed under various conditions on blindfolded sighted participants. The main task that we used involved identifying and locating objects placed on a table by holding a webcam (like a flashlight) or wearing it on the head (like a miner's light). Identifying objects on a table was easier with a hand-held device, but locating the objects was easier with a head-mounted device. Brightness converted into loudness was less effective than the reverse contrast (dark being loud), suggesting that performance under these conditions (natural indoor lighting, novice users) is related more to the properties of the auditory signal (ie the amount of noise in it) than the cross-modal association between loudness and brightness. Individual differences in musical memory (detecting pitch changes in two sequences of notes) was related to the time taken to identify or recognise objects, but individual differences in self-reported vividness of visual imagery did not reliably predict performance across the experiments. In general, the results suggest that the auditory characteristics of the device may be more important for initial learning than visual associations.

  17. Effects of extraction conditions on the sensory and instrumental characteristics of fish gelatin gels.

    PubMed

    Boran, G; Lawless, H T; Regenstein, J M

    2010-01-01

    Fish skin gelatin has recently been of interest as a product that eliminates religious concerns (Jewish and Muslim) and could be an alternative value-added product from fish waste. Recent research has shown that extraction conditions affect gelatin quality. In this study, gelatin from Asian silver carp skin and extracted under different conditions have been studied sensory properties using descriptive analysis and time intensity testing to determine how extraction conditions affect gelatin sensory properties. Three pairs of gelatin samples were selected based on their gel strength, viscosity, and melting temperature. The impacts of different extraction conditions on instrumental methods were examined. Some functionality measurements were also done to determine how sensory measurements correlate with instrumental measurements. The gel strength varied between 60 ± 10 g and 590 ± 30 g while the viscosity varied between 1.9 ± 0.0 cP and 7.4 ± 0.2 cP. The hardness, melting and gelling temperature of the samples were well correlated with the gel strength (r > 0.90). The results indicated that the strongest correlation among all the sensory attributes was between firmness and melting temperature, which was a negative correlation (-0.75) suggesting that the firmer the gel samples the slower they melt. The viscosity was found to be very discriminative between samples in terms of sensory properties. The functional measurements were found to be strongly correlated within themselves while the sensory measurements were less so, which might be due to the greater variability when using sensory panelists or sensory parameters simply might not be related. The firmness, melting rate, and aftertaste were those sensory attributes most successfully discriminated by the panelists.

  18. Effects of extraction conditions on the sensory and instrumental characteristics of fish gelatin gels.

    PubMed

    Boran, G; Lawless, H T; Regenstein, J M

    2010-01-01

    Fish skin gelatin has recently been of interest as a product that eliminates religious concerns (Jewish and Muslim) and could be an alternative value-added product from fish waste. Recent research has shown that extraction conditions affect gelatin quality. In this study, gelatin from Asian silver carp skin and extracted under different conditions have been studied sensory properties using descriptive analysis and time intensity testing to determine how extraction conditions affect gelatin sensory properties. Three pairs of gelatin samples were selected based on their gel strength, viscosity, and melting temperature. The impacts of different extraction conditions on instrumental methods were examined. Some functionality measurements were also done to determine how sensory measurements correlate with instrumental measurements. The gel strength varied between 60 ± 10 g and 590 ± 30 g while the viscosity varied between 1.9 ± 0.0 cP and 7.4 ± 0.2 cP. The hardness, melting and gelling temperature of the samples were well correlated with the gel strength (r > 0.90). The results indicated that the strongest correlation among all the sensory attributes was between firmness and melting temperature, which was a negative correlation (-0.75) suggesting that the firmer the gel samples the slower they melt. The viscosity was found to be very discriminative between samples in terms of sensory properties. The functional measurements were found to be strongly correlated within themselves while the sensory measurements were less so, which might be due to the greater variability when using sensory panelists or sensory parameters simply might not be related. The firmness, melting rate, and aftertaste were those sensory attributes most successfully discriminated by the panelists. PMID:21535620

  19. Fortification with iron chelate and substitution of sucrose by sucralose in light uvaia sherbet (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess): physical, chemical and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Giarola, Tales Márcio de Oliveira; Pereira, Cristina Guimarães; de Resende, Jaime Vilela

    2015-09-01

    In this work, iron fortified light uvaia sherbet, with low sucrose content, was developed and its physical, chemical and sensory characteristics were evaluated. The central composite rotational design (CCRD), applicable to the response surface methodology, was used to analyze the formulations. In the formulations, in addition of iron fortification (9 to 15 mg/100 g), the sucrose was substituted by micronized sucralose in a proportion of 66-94 %. The responses were analyzed with respect to changes in pH, total solids, ash, carbohydrates, proteins, calories, overrun, nucleation and thawing temperatures, rheological parameters and sensory attributes. Protein contents and acidity were similar in all formulations. There was a reduction of over 25 % in the caloric value. The rheological results showed pseudoplastic behavior and significant viscosity differences among the tested sherbets. In the overrun and thawing behavior results the sucrose concentration had a significant influence as the formulations with substitution by 28 g of sucralose/kg of sucrose showed greater air incorporation. In the flavor attribute there was not significance in relation to the iron fortification. Sherbets prepared with substitution of sucrose by sucralose and fortified with iron showed good acceptability, more stability and more resistant to thawing.

  20. Chemical, microbiological, textural, color, and sensory characteristics of pressed ewe milk cheeses with saffron (Crocus sativus L.) during ripening.

    PubMed

    Licón, C C; Carmona, M; Molina, A; Berruga, M I

    2012-08-01

    Adding saffron to dairy products represents an innovative practice to introduce them to niche markets. This paper represents a contribution to this field, as few studies have evaluated the influence of this spice on general aspects and ripening parameters of cheese. In this work, pasteurized ewe milk pressed cheeses with saffron were made to study compositional, microbiological, color, textural, and sensory characteristics in relation to saffron concentration and ripening time. The main changes were observed on sensory characteristics and color. In addition, compositional, textural, and microbiological changes could be observed; among them, saffron cheeses were firmer and more elastic but less prone to fracture. A remarkable result that could lead to further studies is that saffron addition slightly slowed down growth of total and lactic acid bacteria. This resulted in a slightly lower rate of pH decrease during pressing and, as a consequence, lower salt and water content. Compositional differences were not evident by the end of the ripening period.

  1. Cognitive, sensory, and psychosocial characteristics in patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brinckman, Danielle D; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M; Blumhorst, Catherine; Biesecker, Leslie G; Sapp, Julie C; Johnston, Jennifer J; Wiggs, Edythe A

    2013-12-01

    Forty-two patients with a clinical diagnosis of Bardet-Biedl syndrome ages 2-61 years were given a neuropsychological test battery to evaluate cognitive, sensory, and behavioral functioning. These tests included the Wechsler scales of intelligence, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Boston Naming Test, D-KEFS Verbal Fluency Test, D-KEFS Color-Word Interference Test, D-KEFS Sorting Test, Wide Range Achievement Test: Math and Reading Subtests, Purdue Pegboard, The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale, and Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, Parent Rating Scale. On the age appropriate Wechsler scale, the mean Verbal Comprehension was 81 (n = 36), Working Memory was 81 (n = 36), Perceptual Reasoning was 78 (n = 24) and Full Scale IQ was 75 (n = 26). Memory for a word list (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test) was in the average range with a mean of 89 (n = 19). Fine motor speed was slow on the Purdue with mean scores 3-4 standard deviations below norms. All subjects were microsmic on the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. Of these 42 patients, only 6 were able to complete all auditory and visual tests; 52% were unable to complete the visual tests due to impaired vision. A wide range of behavioral issues were endorsed on questionnaires given to parents. Most had social skill deficits but no pattern of either externalizing or internalizing problems. We identify a characteristic neuro-behavioral profile in our cohort comprised of reduced IQ, impaired fine-motor function, and decreased olfaction.

  2. Cognitive, sensory, and psychosocial characteristics in patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brinckman, Danielle D; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M; Blumhorst, Catherine; Biesecker, Leslie G; Sapp, Julie C; Johnston, Jennifer J; Wiggs, Edythe A

    2013-12-01

    Forty-two patients with a clinical diagnosis of Bardet-Biedl syndrome ages 2-61 years were given a neuropsychological test battery to evaluate cognitive, sensory, and behavioral functioning. These tests included the Wechsler scales of intelligence, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Boston Naming Test, D-KEFS Verbal Fluency Test, D-KEFS Color-Word Interference Test, D-KEFS Sorting Test, Wide Range Achievement Test: Math and Reading Subtests, Purdue Pegboard, The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale, and Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, Parent Rating Scale. On the age appropriate Wechsler scale, the mean Verbal Comprehension was 81 (n = 36), Working Memory was 81 (n = 36), Perceptual Reasoning was 78 (n = 24) and Full Scale IQ was 75 (n = 26). Memory for a word list (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test) was in the average range with a mean of 89 (n = 19). Fine motor speed was slow on the Purdue with mean scores 3-4 standard deviations below norms. All subjects were microsmic on the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. Of these 42 patients, only 6 were able to complete all auditory and visual tests; 52% were unable to complete the visual tests due to impaired vision. A wide range of behavioral issues were endorsed on questionnaires given to parents. Most had social skill deficits but no pattern of either externalizing or internalizing problems. We identify a characteristic neuro-behavioral profile in our cohort comprised of reduced IQ, impaired fine-motor function, and decreased olfaction. PMID:24194441

  3. Coherences of instrumental and sensory characteristics: case study on cherry tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Csambalik, László; Divéky-Ertsey, Anna; Pap, Zoltán; Orbán, Csaba; Stégerné Máté, Mónika; Gere, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva; Sipos, László

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 6 cherry tomato varieties in terms of morphological, instrumental, and sensory attributes. Hungarian cherry tomato landraces have not been investigated in comparison with new commercial varieties for these traits. Parameters investigated were water-soluble antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH, and TEAC), and total polyphenol, vitamin C, β-carotene, lycopene, total soluble solids, and acid contents. Colorimetric measurements as well as sensory analyses were conducted. It was concluded that varied antioxidant assays should be used in parallel to overcome the selectivity of any 1 method. Total phenolic content significantly contributed to results of antioxidant assays for the investigated varieties. The sensory profiles of the 6 cherry tomato varieties have been created. The differences between the products based on the 18 attributes were analyzed by Tukey post hoc test. The biplot of the principal component analysis showed that the sensory panel could discriminate the samples along the principal components. No correlation was found between colorimetric data a* and b* measured from pulp and lycopene, but a negative connection of β-carotene and hue was noted. Total polyphenol content showed correlations with colorimetric results, except for b*. The influence of tomato skin color on color perception is significant as in the present study instrumental data measured from pulp did not match that of the panelists evaluating intact fruit. Instrumental results of sugar content were supported by the ratings of the sensory panel.

  4. Coherences of instrumental and sensory characteristics: case study on cherry tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Csambalik, László; Divéky-Ertsey, Anna; Pap, Zoltán; Orbán, Csaba; Stégerné Máté, Mónika; Gere, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva; Sipos, László

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 6 cherry tomato varieties in terms of morphological, instrumental, and sensory attributes. Hungarian cherry tomato landraces have not been investigated in comparison with new commercial varieties for these traits. Parameters investigated were water-soluble antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH, and TEAC), and total polyphenol, vitamin C, β-carotene, lycopene, total soluble solids, and acid contents. Colorimetric measurements as well as sensory analyses were conducted. It was concluded that varied antioxidant assays should be used in parallel to overcome the selectivity of any 1 method. Total phenolic content significantly contributed to results of antioxidant assays for the investigated varieties. The sensory profiles of the 6 cherry tomato varieties have been created. The differences between the products based on the 18 attributes were analyzed by Tukey post hoc test. The biplot of the principal component analysis showed that the sensory panel could discriminate the samples along the principal components. No correlation was found between colorimetric data a* and b* measured from pulp and lycopene, but a negative connection of β-carotene and hue was noted. Total polyphenol content showed correlations with colorimetric results, except for b*. The influence of tomato skin color on color perception is significant as in the present study instrumental data measured from pulp did not match that of the panelists evaluating intact fruit. Instrumental results of sugar content were supported by the ratings of the sensory panel. PMID:25319201

  5. Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance of naturally and lactic acid bacteria-fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends.

    PubMed

    Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna A; Mwangwela, Agnes M; Schüller, Reidar B; Ostlie, Hilde M; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-03-01

    Fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends were evaluated to determine sensory properties driving consumer liking. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and lactic acid bacteria fermented (LFP). Lactic acid bacteria fermentation was achieved through backslopping using a fermented cereal gruel, thobwa. Ten trained panelists evaluated intensities of 34 descriptors, of which 27 were significantly different (P < 0.05). The LFP were strong in brown color, sourness, umami, roasted soybean-and maize-associated aromas, and sogginess while NFP had high intensities of yellow color, pH, raw soybean, and rancid odors, fried egg, and fermented aromas and softness. Although there was consumer (n = 150) heterogeneity in preference, external preference mapping showed that most consumers preferred NFP. Drivers of liking of NFP samples were softness, pH, fermented aroma, sweetness, fried egg aroma, fried egg-like appearance, raw soybean, and rancid odors. Optimization of the desirable properties of the pastes would increase utilization and acceptance of fermented soybeans.

  6. Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance of naturally and lactic acid bacteria-fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends

    PubMed Central

    Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna A; Mwangwela, Agnes M; Schüller, Reidar B; Østlie, Hilde M; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-01-01

    Fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends were evaluated to determine sensory properties driving consumer liking. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and lactic acid bacteria fermented (LFP). Lactic acid bacteria fermentation was achieved through backslopping using a fermented cereal gruel, thobwa. Ten trained panelists evaluated intensities of 34 descriptors, of which 27 were significantly different (P < 0.05). The LFP were strong in brown color, sourness, umami, roasted soybean-and maize-associated aromas, and sogginess while NFP had high intensities of yellow color, pH, raw soybean, and rancid odors, fried egg, and fermented aromas and softness. Although there was consumer (n = 150) heterogeneity in preference, external preference mapping showed that most consumers preferred NFP. Drivers of liking of NFP samples were softness, pH, fermented aroma, sweetness, fried egg aroma, fried egg-like appearance, raw soybean, and rancid odors. Optimization of the desirable properties of the pastes would increase utilization and acceptance of fermented soybeans. PMID:24804070

  7. Sensory evaluation of and acceptability trials on biscuits prepared from raw and malted wheat (Triticum aestivum)-Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) mixes with or without a green leafy vegetable.

    PubMed

    Goyle, A; Gujral, S

    1992-10-01

    Biscuits were prepared by varying the amounts of the basic ingredients to arrive at the most acceptable recipe. The final recipe contained 40 g of mix, 40 g of jaggery and 20 g of ghee. Sensory evaluation of biscuits containing 5 or 10% colocasia leaf powder by composite scoring test and hedonic scale showed that the former type of biscuit was preferred over the latter. The acceptability trial conducted on 42, 3 to 6 year old children showed that biscuits from either malted mix with or without 7.5% colocasia leaf powder and raw mix were equally acceptable as shown by the analysis of variance.

  8. Ultraviolet-C light effect on physicochemical, bioactive, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics of carrot (Daucus carota) beverages.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Carranza, Paola; Ruiz-López, Irving Israel; Pacheco-Aguirre, Francisco Manuel; Guerrero-Beltrán, José Ángel; Ávila-Sosa, Raúl; Ochoa-Velasco, Carlos Enrique

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of ultraviolet-C light on physicochemical, bioactive, microbial, and sensory characteristics of carrot beverages. Beverages were formulated with different concentrations of carrot juice (60, 80, and 100% [v/v]) and treated with ultraviolet-C light at different flow rates (0, 0.5, 3.9, and 7.9 mL s(-1)) and times (5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min), equivalent to ultraviolet-C dosages of 13.2, 26.4, 39.6, 52.8, and 79.2 J cm(-2) Total soluble solids, pH, and titratable acidity were not affected by the ultraviolet-C light treatment. Ultraviolet-C light significantly affected (p < 0.05) color parameters of pure juice; however, at low concentration of juice, total color change was slightly affected (ΔE = 2.0 ± 0.7). Phenolic compounds (4.1 ± 0.1, 5.2 ± 0.2, and 8.6 ± 0.3 mg of GAE 100 mL(-1) of beverage with 60, 80, and 100% of juice, respectively) and antioxidant capacity (6.1 ± 0.4, 8.5 ± 0.4, and 9.4 ± 0.3 mg of Trolox 100 mL(-1) of beverage with 60, 80, and 100% of juice, respectively) of carrot beverages were not affected by ultraviolet-C light treatment. Microbial kinetics showed that mesophiles were mostly reduced at high flow rates in carrot beverages with 60% of juice. Maximum logarithmic reductions for mesophiles and total coliforms were 3.2 ± 0.1 and 2.6 ± 0.1, respectively, after 30 min of ultraviolet-C light processing. Beverages were well accepted (6-7) by judges who did not perceive the difference between untreated and Ultraviolet-C light treated beverages. PMID:26893153

  9. Ultraviolet-C light effect on physicochemical, bioactive, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics of carrot (Daucus carota) beverages.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Carranza, Paola; Ruiz-López, Irving Israel; Pacheco-Aguirre, Francisco Manuel; Guerrero-Beltrán, José Ángel; Ávila-Sosa, Raúl; Ochoa-Velasco, Carlos Enrique

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of ultraviolet-C light on physicochemical, bioactive, microbial, and sensory characteristics of carrot beverages. Beverages were formulated with different concentrations of carrot juice (60, 80, and 100% [v/v]) and treated with ultraviolet-C light at different flow rates (0, 0.5, 3.9, and 7.9 mL s(-1)) and times (5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min), equivalent to ultraviolet-C dosages of 13.2, 26.4, 39.6, 52.8, and 79.2 J cm(-2) Total soluble solids, pH, and titratable acidity were not affected by the ultraviolet-C light treatment. Ultraviolet-C light significantly affected (p < 0.05) color parameters of pure juice; however, at low concentration of juice, total color change was slightly affected (ΔE = 2.0 ± 0.7). Phenolic compounds (4.1 ± 0.1, 5.2 ± 0.2, and 8.6 ± 0.3 mg of GAE 100 mL(-1) of beverage with 60, 80, and 100% of juice, respectively) and antioxidant capacity (6.1 ± 0.4, 8.5 ± 0.4, and 9.4 ± 0.3 mg of Trolox 100 mL(-1) of beverage with 60, 80, and 100% of juice, respectively) of carrot beverages were not affected by ultraviolet-C light treatment. Microbial kinetics showed that mesophiles were mostly reduced at high flow rates in carrot beverages with 60% of juice. Maximum logarithmic reductions for mesophiles and total coliforms were 3.2 ± 0.1 and 2.6 ± 0.1, respectively, after 30 min of ultraviolet-C light processing. Beverages were well accepted (6-7) by judges who did not perceive the difference between untreated and Ultraviolet-C light treated beverages.

  10. Effects of types and amounts of stabilizers on physical and sensory characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice

    PubMed Central

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, Suthida; Tinrat, Sirikhwan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the pH of mulberry juice was optimized for high anthocyanin content and an attractive red color. Mulberry juice pH values of 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 were evaluated. A pH of 2.5 gave an anthocyanin content of 541.39 ± 106.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per liter, and the a* value was 14 ± 1.00. The effects of stabilizers (CMC and xanthan gum) on the physical characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice (via the addition of mulberry fruit pulp at a mass fraction of 5%) during storage (4°C for 1 week) were also determined using different mass fractions of the stabilizers (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%). Increasing the stabilizer mass fraction increased the viscosity, turbidity, stability of turbidity, and h* value. Using xanthan gum as the stabilizer produced better results for these parameters than CMC. The type of stabilizer and its mass fraction had no effect on most sensory characteristics, including appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P ≥ 0.05), but did affect the odor (P ≥ 0.05). Xanthan gum stabilizer gave the juice a better odor than CMC. Cloudy mulberry juice containing 0.5% xanthan gum as the stabilizer had the highest acceptance rate among panelists (average acceptance was 6.90 ± 1.37 points) and produced no precipitate during storage. PMID:25987996

  11. The effect of extended sensory range via the EyeCane sensory substitution device on the characteristics of visionless virtual navigation.

    PubMed

    Maidenbaum, Shachar; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Chebat, Daniel Robert; Namer-Furstenberg, Rinat; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Mobility training programs for helping the blind navigate through unknown places with a White-Cane significantly improve their mobility. However, what is the effect of new assistive technologies, offering more information to the blind user, on the underlying premises of these programs such as navigation patterns? We developed the virtual-EyeCane, a minimalistic sensory substitution device translating single-point-distance into auditory cues identical to the EyeCane's in the real world. We compared performance in virtual environments when using the virtual-EyeCane, a virtual-White-Cane, no device and visual navigation. We show that the characteristics of virtual-EyeCane navigation differ from navigation with a virtual-White-Cane or no device, and that virtual-EyeCane users complete more levels successfully, taking shorter paths and with less collisions than these groups, and we demonstrate the relative similarity of virtual-EyeCane and visual navigation patterns. This suggests that additional distance information indeed changes navigation patterns from virtual-White-Cane use, and brings them closer to visual navigation.

  12. A comparison of consumer sensory acceptance, purchase intention, and willingness to pay for high quality United States and Spanish beef under different information scenarios.

    PubMed

    Beriain, M J; Sánchez, M; Carr, T R

    2009-10-01

    Tests were performed to identify variation across consumer evaluation ratings for 2 types of beef (Spanish yearling bull beef and US Choice and Prime beef), using 3 information levels (blind scores; muscle fat content + production conditions; and all production data including geographical origin) and 3 consumer evaluation ratings (hedonic rating, willingness to pay, and purchase intention). Further testing was carried out to assess the extent to which expert evaluations converged with those of untrained consumers. Taste panel tests involving 290 consumers were conducted in Navarra, a region in northern Spain. The beef samples were 20 loins of Pyrenean breed yearling bulls that had been born and raised on private farms located in this Spanish region and 20 strip loins from high quality US beef that ranged from high Choice to average Prime US quality grades. The Spanish beef were slaughtered at 507 +/- 51 kg of BW and 366 +/- 23 d of age. The US beef proved more acceptable to consumers and received greater ratings from the trained panel, with greater scores for juiciness (3.33), tenderness (3.33), flavor (3.46), and fat content (5.83) than for Spanish beef (2.77, 2.70, 3.14, 1.17). The differences in sensory variable rating were more pronounced for the Spanish beef than for the US beef, always increasing with the level of information. The variation in the ratings across different information levels was statistically significant in the case of the Spanish beef, whereas the variation observed in the ratings of the US beef was highly significant in the willingness of consumers to pay a premium. Consumers who appreciated greater quality were also more willing to pay for the additional level of quality. PMID:19542506

  13. Aroma characteristic and volatile profiling of carrot varieties and quantitative role of terpenoid compounds for carrot sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Tomohiko; Okazaki, Keiki; Shinano, Takuro

    2013-11-01

    The aroma characteristics and volatile profiles of 14 carrot varieties were investigated by sensory evaluations and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry volatile analyses. The sensory map obtained by principal components analysis showed that the sensory attributes comprised 3 categories: sour/green, overall carrot/harsh/ink-like, and fruity/fresh/sweet. The Kuroda type is characterized by lower intensities of overall carrot/harsh/ink-like and fruity/fresh/sweet notes. Furthermore, volatile profiling indicated that this type did not have significantly higher amounts of volatiles. Partial least squares regression analysis determined the quantitative contributions to ink-like, harsh, and fruity carrot aromas; monoterpenes had significant positive correlations with these attributes, while bisabolene isomers had negative correlations. The aroma attribute intensity and contents of volatiles and nutritional compounds are relatively low in the Kuroda type than in other carrot types. This type may be useful for reducing carrot harshness during the development of new carrots with good eating qualities. PMID:24245899

  14. [Suitability study for super sweet corn on the ears hybrids under refrigerated conditions evaluating chemicals microbiological and sensorial characteristics].

    PubMed

    Camacho, C; Alfonzo, B; Ortiz de Bertorelli, L; De Venanzi, F

    2001-06-01

    Krispy King, Víctor and 324, super sweet hybrids (sh2) were cultivated in San Joaquín, estado Carabobo, Venezuela. The scheme was stablished to produce refrigerated fresh ears to be commercialized. The chemistry, microbiology and sensorial characteristics were evaluated at 0; 7; 14; 21 and 28 days of storage. One hundred ears of each hybrid were picked at the ripe fresh stage and packed in polystyrene trays covered with polyethylene. The storage temperature was 4 degrees C +/- 1 degree C. The scheme used was well adapted, allowing a good stability of the ears until 28 days of storing. The plastic cover avoid the lost of humidity. The soluble solids, total sugars and pH went down during the storage. The acidity and the microorganisms increased as expected. The sensorial variables kept the same for Krispy king and Víctor, while the hybrid 324 shown the lowest humidity content, the highest count of microorganisms and the poorest sensorial quality. PMID:11678050

  15. First investigation on ultrasound-assisted preparation of food products: sensory and physicochemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pingret, Daniella; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Canselier, Jean-Paul; Chemat, Farid

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison between manufactured food products using conventional and ultrasound-assisted procedures. Three different foam-type products, chocolate Genoise, basic sponge cake, and chocolate mousse were prepared using both methods with subsequent evaluation of the samples using both sensory and physicochemical methods. Ultrasound-assisted preparations were considered superior according to the sensory analysis, and physicochemical data confirmed this finding. This approach of applying an emerging piece of equipment, with potential industrial application to assist food preparation, consists of a new technique that could be of great interest for the development of not only other food products created by molecular gastronomy but also for practical work carried out by students.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of licorice root product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Al-Adawi, M. A.; Al-Kaid, A.

    2004-03-01

    Licorice root products were irradiated at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy in a 60Co package irradiator. Irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored at room temperatures. Microbial population on product, chemical changes and sensory properties of produced solution of licorice root products were evaluated after 0 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced the counts of microorganisms on licorice root products. D10 of total count and klebsiella spp. were about 1.4 and 0.7 kGy, respectively. The mineral ions (Na, Ca and K) concentration in solution produced from irradiated products were lower than non-irradiated ones. Glycyrrhezinic acid and maltose concentration in solution produced from irradiated products were higher than non-irradiated ones. Sensory evaluation indicated that no significant differences ( P<0.05) were found between solution produced from irradiated and unirradiated products in color, flavor, texture, or taste.

  17. Effect of reducing and replacing pork fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Arnau, Jacint

    2014-05-01

    The effect of pork fat reduction (from 44% to 20% final fat content) and its partial substitution by sunflower oil (3% addition) on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory properties throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) with reduced sodium content (with partial substitution of NaCl by KCl and K-lactate) and without direct addition of nitrate and nitrite (natural nitrate source used instead) was studied. Results showed that sausages with reduced fat (10% initial fat content) and with acceptable sensory characteristics can be obtained by adding to the shoulder lean (8% fat content) during the grinding, either 3.3% backfat (3% fat content) or 3% sunflower oil, both previously finely comminuted with lean. Furthermore, sunflower oil showed to be suitable for partial pork backfat substitution in very lean fermented sausages, conferring desirable sensory properties similar to those of sausages with standard fat content. The sensory quality of the sausages was maintained after three-month cold storage in modified atmosphere.

  18. Effect of reducing and replacing pork fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Arnau, Jacint

    2014-05-01

    The effect of pork fat reduction (from 44% to 20% final fat content) and its partial substitution by sunflower oil (3% addition) on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory properties throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) with reduced sodium content (with partial substitution of NaCl by KCl and K-lactate) and without direct addition of nitrate and nitrite (natural nitrate source used instead) was studied. Results showed that sausages with reduced fat (10% initial fat content) and with acceptable sensory characteristics can be obtained by adding to the shoulder lean (8% fat content) during the grinding, either 3.3% backfat (3% fat content) or 3% sunflower oil, both previously finely comminuted with lean. Furthermore, sunflower oil showed to be suitable for partial pork backfat substitution in very lean fermented sausages, conferring desirable sensory properties similar to those of sausages with standard fat content. The sensory quality of the sausages was maintained after three-month cold storage in modified atmosphere. PMID:24530990

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Tang, Yao; Xiao, Yao; Wan, Sen

    2012-08-01

    Gamma irradiation is highly effective in inactivating microorganisms in various foods and offers a safe alternative method of food decontamination. In the present study, soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill) were treated with 0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 KGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial populations on soybeans, isoflavone, tocopherol contents, raffinose family oligosaccharides, color and sensory properties were evaluated as a function of irradiation dose. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced aerobic bacterial and fungal load. Irradiation at the doses applied did not cause any significant change (p>0.05) in the contents of isoflavone of soybeans, but decreased tocopherol contents. The content of key flatulence-producing raffinose family oligosaccharides in irradiated soybeans (10.0 kGy) decreased by 82.1% compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that the odor of the soybeans was organoleptically acceptable at doses up to 5.0 kGy and no significant differences were observed between irradiated and nonirradiated samples in flavor, texture and color after irradiation.

  20. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. PMID:25839884

  1. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages.

  2. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P < 0.05) leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn (PD) and midday (MD), 2) smaller berry diameter and weight, 3) lower pruning weights, and 4) higher soluble solids (Brix). Strong positive correlations emerged between June ψPD and pre-harvest grape berry diameter (R2 = 0.616 in 2007 and 0.413 in 2008) and similar strong correlations existed for berry weight (R2 = 0.626 in 2007 and 0.554 in 2008). A trained sensory panel performed a sensory analysis and characterized fruit using and a multivariate, principal components, analysis (PCA). This approach indicated that grapes from vines with lowest midday leaf water potential at veraison (< -1.5 MPa) had sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal characteristics, and browner and crunchier

  3. Injury reduction and bounce characteristics of safety baseballs and acceptability by youth leagues.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, L G; Inaba, A S; Okamura, D M; Yamamoto, J A; Yamamoto, J B

    2001-04-01

    The only reasonable way to reduce the potential for ball-related youth baseball injuries sustained by the defensive players (the majority of ball-related injuries) is to make the ball less injurious. The American Academy of Pediatrics' 1994 statement on youth baseball injuries in this regard reads, "Consideration should be given to utilizing low-impact NOCSAE-approved baseballs and softballs for children 5 to 14 years of age, if these balls demonstrate satisfactory playing characteristics and reduce injury risk. A variety of studies should be undertaken to determine the efficacy of low-impact balls in reducing serious impact injuries." The purpose of this study, in accordance with this AAP policy, is to investigate the following: A) injury reduction potential of softer baseballs, B) their bounce characteristics, and C) their acceptability by youth leagues. Six simple injury models were studied, baseball bounce characteristics were analyzed, and attitudes of safety baseballs among statewide Little League district presidents were surveyed. Injury models demonstrated less injury potential with safety baseballs compared to that with standard hard baseballs. Safety baseballs bounced higher after vertical drops and slow throws, but during fast throws (with the greatest injury potential), the bounce heights were similar for all ball types. Of 27 survey cards sent out, 13 were returned. While 9 respondents indicated that they were already using safety baseballs for the younger players, none of the 13 respondents indicated that they were planning to expand the use of safety baseballs in their leagues. In conclusion, safety baseballs are less injurious in these models. The bounce characteristics of safety baseballs are satisfactory. Youth baseball league officials are not very willing to expand the use of safety baseballs. We recommend using safety baseballs as a standard for all youth baseball leagues because these balls are safer.

  4. Effect of immunological castration management strategy on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions.

    PubMed

    Herrick, R T; Tavárez, M A; Harsh, B N; Mellencamp, M A; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of 1) immunological castration (Improvest, a gonadotropin releasing factor analog-diphtheria toxoid conjugate) management strategy (age at slaughter and time of slaughter after second dose) and 2) sex on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions. For Objective 1, immunological castration management strategies included 24-wk-old immunologically castrated (IC) barrows 4, 6, 8, or 10 wk after the second Improvest dose (ASD); 26-wk-old IC barrows 6 wk ASD; and 28-wk-old IC barrows 8 wk ASD ( = 63). Objective 2 ( = 97) included IC barrows, physically castrated (PC) barrows, and gilts slaughtered at 24, 26, and 28 wks of age. Bellies from 2 slaughter dates were manufactured into bacon under commercial conditions. Bacon slices were laid out on parchment paper, packaged in oxygen-permeable poly-vinyl-lined boxes, and frozen (-33°C) for 1, 4, 8, or 12 wk to simulate food service conditions. At the end of each storage period, bacon was evaluated for lipid oxidation, moisture and lipid content, and sensory characteristics. Data from both objectives were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS with belly as the experimental unit. For both objectives, as storage time increased, lipid oxidation of bacon increased ( < 0.01), regardless of management strategy or sex. Also, there was no sex or management strategy × week of frozen storage interaction for any traits evaluated ( ≥ 0.25). For Objective 1, lipid content of bacon from IC barrows increased as time of slaughter ASD increased ( < 0.05), regardless of age at slaughter. Additionally, there were no differences in sensory attributes of bacon across management strategies. For the evaluation of sex effects in Objective 2, lipid oxidation was greater ( < 0.05) in IC barrows compared with PC barrows but was not different than gilts ( > 0.05). After 12 wk of frozen storage, lipid oxidation values for IC barrows

  5. Transglutaminase cross-linking effect on sensory characteristics and antioxidant activities of Maillard reaction products from soybean protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Song, Na; Tan, Chen; Huang, Meigui; Liu, Ping; Eric, Karangwa; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xia, Shuqin; Jia, Chengsheng

    2013-01-01

    To improve the yield of Maillard peptides, a microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) was used to increase the content of 1000-5000Da peptides in soybean protein hydrolysates by using a cross-linking reaction. The sensory characteristics and antioxidant activities of corresponding Maillard Reaction Products (MSPC) was then evaluated. After cross-linking treatment the content of 1000-5000Da peptides in protein hydrolysates and the yield of Maillard peptides increased by 21.19% and 8.71%, respectively, which contributed to the improved mouthfulness of MSPC. The bitter amino acids were significantly decreased and the umami acids were markedly increased in MSPC. Volatile compounds identified by GC-MS analysis showed that the content of the important meaty flavour compounds (such as 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulfide) of MSPC were dramatically higher than that of MRPs from uncross-linking peptides. Combined with sensory evaluation, it was confirmed that MTGase cross-linking improved the flavour Characteristics and did not affect the antioxidant activity of MSPC.

  6. Sensory and Flavor Chemistry Characteristics of Australian Beef: Influence of Intramuscular Fat, Feed, and Breed.

    PubMed

    Frank, Damian; Ball, Alex; Hughes, Joanne; Krishnamurthy, Raju; Piyasiri, Udayasika; Stark, Janet; Watkins, Peter; Warner, Robyn

    2016-06-01

    The sensory attributes and flavor chemistry of grilled beef striploins (M. longissimus lumborum, n = 42) varying widely in marbling from commercial production types typical for Southern Australia were extensively characterized. Striploins from Angus grass-fed yearlings (5.2-9.9% intramuscular fat), Angus grain-finished steers (10.2-14.9%), and Wagyu grass-fed heifers (7.8-17.5%) were evaluated. Inherent differences between samples from grass- and grain-fed Angus cattle were minimal when the intramuscular fat content was above ∼5%. After adjusting for intramuscular fat, Wagyu samples had more intense flavor and higher tenderness and juiciness compared to Angus grass-fed samples. Grilled beef flavor, dairy fat, and sweetness increased with the marbling level, and sourness and astringency decreased. Tenderness and juiciness increased with the marbling level and were correlated with Warner-Bratzler peak force measurements. Trained panel sensory differences in flavor corresponded with increases in aroma volatiles and changes in nonvolatile flavor compounds. Unsaturated fatty acids with potential health benefits (vaccenic, oleic, and rumenic acids) increased with the level of marbling. PMID:27118482

  7. Effect of protein concentrates, emulsifiers on textural and sensory characteristics of gluten free cookies and its immunochemical validation.

    PubMed

    Sarabhai, Swati; Indrani, D; Vijaykrishnaraj, M; Milind; Arun Kumar, V; Prabhasankar, P

    2015-06-01

    The effect of 5, 7.5 and 10 % protein concentrates namely soya protein isolate (SPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC) and addition of 0.5 % emulsifiers such as glycerol monostearate (GMS), sodium stearoyl- 2- lactylate (SSL) and lecithin (LEC) on the rheological, sensory and textural characteristics of cookies with rice flour and its immunochemical validation was studied. The results showed that the use of 7.5 % SPI/WPC along with GMS significantly improved the quality characteristics of cookies with rice flour. Dot-Blot and Western-blot studies of cookies with 7.5 % of SPI or WPC confirmed that the anti-gliadin did not recognize these proteins. Carry- through process using ELISA kit confirmed that gluten was within the permissible limit in all the stages of processing and hence these cookies can be consumed by people suffering from celiac disease.

  8. Precooked bran-enriched wheat flour using extrusion: dietary fiber profile and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gajula, H; Alavi, S; Adhikari, K; Herald, T

    2008-05-01

    The effect of precooking by extrusion processing on the dietary fiber profile of wheat flour substituted with 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% wheat bran was evaluated. Depending on the level of bran, total dietary fiber (TDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) in uncooked flours ranged from 4.2% to 17.2% and 1.5% to 2.4%, respectively. Precooking by extrusion significantly increased SDF in flours (by 22% to 73%); although in most cases it also led to a significant decrease in TDF. Cookies and tortillas produced from uncooked and precooked flours with 0% and 20% substituted bran were evaluated for consumer acceptability using a 9-point hedonic scale. With a few exceptions, all cookies had scores ranging from 6 to 7 ("like slightly" to "like moderately") for each attribute, including overall acceptability, appearance, texture, crumbliness, and flavor. Tortillas were rated for the same attributes except for crumbliness, which was replaced with chewiness. In most cases, tortilla scores ranged from 5 to 7 ("neither like nor dislike" to "like moderately"). Consumer acceptability scores of cookies from uncooked flour did not change significantly with increase in bran substitution from 0% to 20%. However, consumer scores for tortillas did decrease significantly with increase in bran level. Extrusion precooking of the flours did not improve the consumer acceptability of cookies and tortillas; however, it did improve their dietary fiber profile by increasing the SDF significantly.

  9. Sensory characterisation and consumer acceptability of potassium chloride and sunflower oil addition in small-caliber non-acid fermented sausages with a reduced content of sodium chloride and fat.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Serra, Xavier; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the simultaneous reduction of fat proportion (from 20% to 10% and 7%) and added salt (from 2.5% to 1.5%) and the subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl and sunflower oil (1.5% and 3.0%) on the physicochemical, instrumental colour and texture, sensory properties and consumer acceptability of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) was studied. This simultaneous reduction of fat and salt increased weight loss, moisture, water activity (aw), redness, instrumental texture parameters (hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness), sensory attributes (darkness, hardness, elasticity) and the consumer acceptability. The subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl to the leanest batch decreased the aw and barely affected instrumental texture parameters and consumer acceptability. Subsequent sunflower oil addition decreased hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness and increased crumbliness and oil flavour which may decrease the consumer acceptability. The simultaneous reduction of fat and NaCl with the addition of 0.64% KCl was the preferred option by the consumers.

  10. Sensory characterisation and consumer acceptability of potassium chloride and sunflower oil addition in small-caliber non-acid fermented sausages with a reduced content of sodium chloride and fat.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Serra, Xavier; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the simultaneous reduction of fat proportion (from 20% to 10% and 7%) and added salt (from 2.5% to 1.5%) and the subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl and sunflower oil (1.5% and 3.0%) on the physicochemical, instrumental colour and texture, sensory properties and consumer acceptability of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) was studied. This simultaneous reduction of fat and salt increased weight loss, moisture, water activity (aw), redness, instrumental texture parameters (hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness), sensory attributes (darkness, hardness, elasticity) and the consumer acceptability. The subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl to the leanest batch decreased the aw and barely affected instrumental texture parameters and consumer acceptability. Subsequent sunflower oil addition decreased hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness and increased crumbliness and oil flavour which may decrease the consumer acceptability. The simultaneous reduction of fat and NaCl with the addition of 0.64% KCl was the preferred option by the consumers. PMID:26497101

  11. Chemical, physical, and sensory characteristics of mozzarella cheese fortified using protein-chelated iron or ferric chloride.

    PubMed

    Rice, W H; McMahon, D J

    1998-02-01

    Mozzarella cheese containing 25 and 50 mg of iron/kg of cheese was manufactured from milk that had been fortified with casein-chelated iron, whey protein-chelated iron, or FeCl3. Chemical, physical, and sensory characteristics were compared with those of a control cheese. Physical properties were assessed by testing melting, apparent viscosity, and browning of heated cheese. Cheeses were evaluated by trained panelists for the presence of metallic flavors, oxidized flavors, and other undesirable flavors. Addition of 25 mg iron/kg of cheese had no effects on the physical properties of Mozzarella cheese. Apparent viscosity of cheese fortified with 50 mg of iron/kg of cheese tended to be slightly higher than the control cheese, although this difference was not statistically significant at all storage times. Cook color was not affected by iron fortification. No increase in chemical oxidation (measured using thiobarbituric acid assay) was observed between the control and iron-fortified cheeses. Slight but statistically significant increases in metallic flavors, oxidized flavors, and off-flavors in the iron-fortified cheese were observed by the trained sensory panel, but the flavor defects were of very low intensity. For metallic flavors, oxidized flavors, and off-flavors, the control cheese scored 1.5, 1.5, and 1.3, respectively; the iron-fortified cheese scored 2.1, 2.0, and 1.6 based on a nine-point scale (where 1 = not perceptible to 3 = slightly perceptible). Sensory scores for iron-fortified cheese made using casein-chelated iron or whey protein-chelated iron was not significantly different from those of cheese made using ferric chloride. When used on pizza, consumer panels rated the iron-fortified cheeses as comparable with the control cheese.

  12. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.

    PubMed

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2014-07-01

    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness.

  13. Substituting redberry juniper for oat hay in lamb feedlot diets: Carcass characteristics, adipose tissue fatty acid composition, and sensory panel traits.

    PubMed

    Whitney, T R; Smith, S B

    2015-06-01

    We hypothesized that ground juniper and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to lambs would have no negative effects on end products. Lambs were individually fed diets containing mainly sorghum grain and oat hay (control) or DDGS-based diets consisting mainly of DDGS, sorghum grain, and oat hay (0JUN), or 33% (33JUN), 66% (66JUN), or 100% (100JUN) of the hay replaced by juniper. Lambs fed control had greater (P<0.03) shrunk BW and HCW vs. lambs fed 0JUN, but other carcass characteristics and sensory panel traits were similar (P>0.23). As juniper increased in the DDGS-based diets, HCW increased quadratically (P=0.01) and LM fatty acid composition was altered. Feeding juniper did not negatively affect (P>0.57) off-flavor in chops, but enhanced (linear, P<0.05) juiciness, tenderness, and flavor intensity. Lambs fed diets with a combination of oat hay and ground juniper appeared to produce the most acceptable carcasses and lamb chops.

  14. Effects of dietary oregano and garlic essential oils on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Kirkpinar, F; Ünlü, H B; Serdaroğlu, M; Turp, G Y

    2014-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to determine the individual and combined effects of two essential oils, oregano and garlic, on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat. 2. The diets were supplemented with no essential oil (control), oregano essential oil or garlic essential oil at 300 mg/kg and oregano essential oil at 150 mg/kg + garlic essential oil at 150 mg/kg. 3. Dietary oregano and garlic oil supplementation did not affect carcass yields, the relative weight of carcass parts, breast and thigh meat composition, pH or b* value of breast meat. Oregano + garlic oil supplementation significantly decreased the L* value. The a* value of breast meat in birds given a diet supplemented with oregano oil was lower than that in birds given a diet supplemented with garlic oil and oregano oil + garlic oil. The essential oil addition had no positive effect on the oxidative stability. There was no difference between the treatments in breast appearance. 4. The juiciness, flavour, oxidised flavour and acceptability of breast meat samples were affected by treatments.

  15. Phenolic Compounds, Volatiles, and Sensory Characteristics of Twelve Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) Cultivars Grown in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports the phenolic, anthocyanin, and volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of 12 cultivars of sweet cherries including cvs. Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat. Eight individual phenolic compounds were determined by the HPLC-DAD method. Among these cherries, cvs. Bing, Durona di Cesena, and Lambert contained higher levels of total individual phenolic compounds than the other cultivars. Six anthocyanins were detected in cherries and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside was principal and it was the highest level in cv. Bing. The major volatiles found were 1-hexanol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzylalcohol, hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, and benzaldehyde. Sensory evaluation of the cherries showed that cvs. Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, and Summit have higher textural and flavor scores than others. It was concluded that the same compounds for phenolic or volatiles profiles of sweet cherries were similar in qualitative; however, quantitative differences were observed in these cultivars. PMID:26646816

  16. Impact of feeding and rearing systems of Iberian pigs on volatile profile and sensory characteristics of dry-cured loin.

    PubMed

    Soto, E; Hoz, L; Ordóñez, J A; Hierro, E; Herranz, B; López-Bote, C; Cambero, M I

    2008-08-01

    The effect of growing pigs on free-range (FR) or in confinement with three different diets [acorn (A), acorn and grass (A-G) and formulated diet (FD)] on composition, volatile profile and sensory characteristics of dry-cured loin was studied. The FR, A and A-G diets, in comparison with FD, induce a higher α- and γ-tocopherol concentration, which limits the TBARs values at 24h of air exposure. Sixty volatile compounds were identified in the headspace, including 14 aldehydes, 10 hydrocarbons, eight alcohols, five ketones, four furans, four pyrazines, four sulphur compounds, three acids, three esters, three phenols, one pyridine and one pyrrole. Volatiles from amino acid catabolism stressed the difference among batches FR being the batch with the highest level of these compounds. Products from FD showed the lowest fat content and L(∗) value. FR loins obtained the highest scores for appearance, odour and flavour in the rank order test sensory analysis. PMID:22063028

  17. Effect of moderate inlet temperatures in ultra-high-pressure homogenization treatments on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk.

    PubMed

    Amador-Espejo, G G; Suàrez-Berencia, A; Juan, B; Bárcenas, M E; Trujillo, A J

    2014-02-01

    The effect of ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH) on raw whole milk (3.5% fat) was evaluated to obtain processing conditions for the sterilization of milk. Ultra-high-pressure homogenization treatments of 200 and 300 MPa at inlet temperatures (Ti) of 55, 65, 75, and 85 °C were compared with a UHT treatment (138 °C for 4s) in terms of microbial inactivation, particle size and microstructure, viscosity, color, buffering capacity, ethanol stability, propensity to proteolysis, and sensory evaluation. The UHPH-treated milks presented a high level of microbial reduction, under the detection limit, for treatments at 300 MPa with Ti of 55, 65, 75, and 85 °C, and at 200 MPa with Ti = 85 °C, and few survivors in milks treated at 200 MPa with Ti of 55, 65, and 75 °C. Furthermore, UHPH treatments performed at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 and 85 °C produced sterile milk after sample incubation (30 and 45 °C), obtaining similar or better characteristics than UHT milk in color, particle size, viscosity, buffer capacity, ethanol stability, propensity to protein hydrolysis, and lower scores in sensory evaluation for cooked flavor.

  18. Extraction of espresso coffee by using gradient of temperature. Effect on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of espresso.

    PubMed

    Salamanca, C Alejandra; Fiol, Núria; González, Carlos; Saez, Marc; Villaescusa, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Espresso extraction is generally carried out at a fixed temperature within the range 85-95°C. In this work the extraction of the espressos was made in a new generation coffee machine that enables temperature profiling of the brewing water. The effect of using gradient of temperature to brew espressos on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of the beverage has been investigated. Three different extraction temperature profiles were tested: updrawn gradient (88-93°C), downdrawn gradient (93-88°C) and fixed temperature (90°C). The coffee species investigated were Robusta, Arabica natural and Washed Arabica. Results proved that the use of gradient temperature for brewing espressos allows increasing or decreasing the extraction of some chemical compounds from coffee grounds. Moreover an appropriate gradient of temperature can highlight or hide some sensorial attributes. In conclusion, the possibility of programming gradient of temperature in the coffee machines recently introduced in the market opens new expectations in the field of espresso brewing.

  19. Extraction of espresso coffee by using gradient of temperature. Effect on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of espresso.

    PubMed

    Salamanca, C Alejandra; Fiol, Núria; González, Carlos; Saez, Marc; Villaescusa, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Espresso extraction is generally carried out at a fixed temperature within the range 85-95°C. In this work the extraction of the espressos was made in a new generation coffee machine that enables temperature profiling of the brewing water. The effect of using gradient of temperature to brew espressos on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of the beverage has been investigated. Three different extraction temperature profiles were tested: updrawn gradient (88-93°C), downdrawn gradient (93-88°C) and fixed temperature (90°C). The coffee species investigated were Robusta, Arabica natural and Washed Arabica. Results proved that the use of gradient temperature for brewing espressos allows increasing or decreasing the extraction of some chemical compounds from coffee grounds. Moreover an appropriate gradient of temperature can highlight or hide some sensorial attributes. In conclusion, the possibility of programming gradient of temperature in the coffee machines recently introduced in the market opens new expectations in the field of espresso brewing. PMID:27507518

  20. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of both.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, A M S; Bezerril, F F; Madruga, M S; Batista, A S M; Magnani, M; Souza, E L; Queiroga, R C R E

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess and compare the nutritional, technological, and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of the two stored in cold conditions for 21d. The yield and centesimal composition of the cheeses were not affected by the type of milk used in their preparation. Reductions were observed in the moisture content, pH, proteolysis index, and instrumental hardness; moreover, increases were observed in the syneresis, acidity index, and depth of proteolysis index in all cheeses. The percentages of caprylic, capric, oleic, and linoleic fatty acids were higher in goat milk cheese and cheese made with a mixture of goat and cow milk compared with cow milk cheese, and a sensory evaluation revealed differences in color, flavor, and aroma between the cheeses. The preparation of Minas fresh cheese with a mixture of goat and cow milk can be a viable alternative for dairy products in the market that can be characterized as high-quality products that meet consumer demands.

  1. Tasco supplementation: effects on carcass characteristics, sensory attributes, and retail display shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Braden, K W; Blanton, J R; Montgomery, J L; van Santen, E; Allen, V G; Miller, M F

    2007-03-01

    Two hundred crossbred cattle (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) were supplemented with 2% Tasco (Ascophyllum nodosum) in a commercial finishing facility to evaluate marbling score, USDA quality grade, sensory traits, and retail display shelf life. Treatment animals (n = 100) received a steam-rolled corn (Zea mays)-based diet containing 2% Tasco meal (DM basis), for 14 d beginning at d 45 of the finishing period and again 14 d before slaughter. Control animals (n = 100) received a steam-rolled corn (Zea mays)-based diet without Tasco at identical feeding periods. Carcasses from Tasco-fed cattle exhibited greater marbling scores (P = 0.003) than controls. There were no treatment effects (P > 0.05) on sensory, shear, or purge attributes of striploin or inside round steaks with the exception of inside round steaks from Tasco animals having a greater initial tenderness (P = 0.03) and lower off-flavor score (P = 0.002) than control steaks. The LM samples from Tasco-fed cattle had a greater percentage of ether extractable fat (P = 0.001) and lower percentage of protein (P = 0.001) than controls. Inside round samples from treated animals exhibited a greater percentage of moisture (P = 0.03) than control steaks. Visual lean color of striploin steaks was not affected by Tasco supplementation (P = 0.26); however, steaks from Tasco-treated animals were more uniform and had less discoloration and browning than those from controls (P = 0.005, 0.04, and 0.05, respectively). Inside round visual scores and instrument values reflected similar treatment responses (P < 0.05), with a majority of the effects on muscle redness (CIE a*, hue angle) and measures of discoloration. Tasco steaks were generally more red and less discolored during extended postmortem aging and retail exposure (P < 0.05). The results from this study indicate that short-term supplementation of 2% Tasco meal in feedlot cattle increases carcass quality and prolonged retail shelf life.

  2. Effects of adding red wine on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of uncured frankfurter-type sausage.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xi; Sebranek, Joseph G; Lee, Hyun Yong; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and sensory characteristics of RTE frankfurter-type sausage cured with celery juice powder and including red wine. Four frankfurter treatments including a conventionally cured treatment without red wine (control) and three treatments cured with pre-converted vegetable juice powder and 0%, 5% or 10% (v/w) red wine were prepared. Results showed that adding 5% red wine increased the a*-value, and the textural resilience, cohesiveness and springiness of the frankfurters, as well as decreased lipid/protein oxidation of the final products. Added wine also introduced new volatiles (alcohol and ester compounds) to the frankfurters. The principal component (PC) analysis showed that the pre-converted vegetable juice powder achieved the same effects as the conventional curing agents for typical frankfurter properties. However, the addition of excess amounts of red wine (10%) to the meat batter decreased the pH of meat batter and accelerated lipid oxidation.

  3. Influence of salt content and processing time on sensory characteristics of cooked "lacón".

    PubMed

    Purriños, Laura; Bermúdez, Roberto; Temperán, Sara; Franco, Daniel; Carballo, Javier; Lorenzo, José M

    2011-04-01

    The influence of salt content and processing time on the sensory properties of cooked "lacón" were determined. "Lacón" is a traditional dry-cured and ripened meat product made in the north-west of Spain from the fore leg of the pig, following a similar process to that of dry-cured ham. Six batches of "lacón" were salted with different amounts of salt (LS (3 days of salting), MS (4 days of salting) and HS (5 days of salting)) and ripened during two times (56 and 84 days of dry-ripening). Cured odour in all batches studied, red colour and rancid odour in MS and HS batches, flavour intensity in MS batch and fat yellowness, rancid flavour and hardness in the HS batch were significantly different with respect to the time of processing. Appearance, odour, flavour and texture were not significantly affected by the salt content (P>0.05). However, the saltiness score showed significant differences with respect to the salt levels in all studied batches (56 and 84 days of process). The principal component analysis showed that physicochemical traits were the most important ones concerning the quality of dry-cured "lacón" and offered a good separation of the mean samples according to the dry ripening days and salt level. PMID:21168978

  4. Short communication: Chemical and sensory characteristics of Canestrato di Moliterno cheese manufactured in spring.

    PubMed

    Trani, A; Gambacorta, G; Loizzo, P; Cassone, A; Faccia, M

    2016-08-01

    Canestrato di Moliterno is an Italian Protected Geographical Indication hard cheese, made in winter and spring from a mixture of ewe and goat milks, that has been poorly investigated. The present study was aimed at characterizing the cheese made in the warm season. Two series of samples, ripened in traditional rooms called fondaco as indicated in the official protocol of production, were taken from the main certified producers. The cheeses were analyzed for gross composition; proteolysis and lipolysis; volatile fraction; and organoleptic features. Gross composition was not completely homogeneous among the samples, but primary proteolysis and lipolysis were quite uniform. We observed variations in secondary proteolysis, likely caused by fluctuations in environmental conditions in the fondaco. The sensory profiles of the samples were homogeneous: the cheese was soluble, greasy, and adhesive, with a sheepfold and buttery odor. The main taste attributes were fermented, pungent, and bitter. Overall, the results of this study provide an initial contribution to the characterization of Canestrato di Moliterno, and could be used to improve marketing strategies. PMID:27179855

  5. Volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of various instant teas produced from black tea.

    PubMed

    Kraujalytė, Vilma; Pelvan, Ebru; Alasalvar, Cesarettin

    2016-03-01

    Various instant teas produced differently from black tea [freeze-dried instant tea (FDIT), spray-dried instant tea (SDIT), and decaffeinated instant tea (DCIT)], were compared for their differences in volatile compounds as well as descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). A total of 63 volatile compounds in all tea samples (eight aldehydes, ten alcohols, nine ketones, five esters, eight acids, ten terpenes/terpenoids, ten furans/furanones, two pyrroles, and one miscellaneous compound) were tentatively identified. Black tea, FDIT, SDIT, and DCIT contained 60, 55, 47, and 40 volatile compounds, respectively. Ten flavour attributes such as after taste, astringency, bitter, caramel-like, floral/sweet, green/grassy, hay-like, malty, roasty, and seaweed were identified. Intensities for a number of flavour attributes (except for caramel-like in SDIT and bitter and after taste in DCIT) were not significantly different (p>0.05) among tea samples. The present study suggests that instant teas can also be used as good alternative to black tea.

  6. Short communication: Chemical and sensory characteristics of Canestrato di Moliterno cheese manufactured in spring.

    PubMed

    Trani, A; Gambacorta, G; Loizzo, P; Cassone, A; Faccia, M

    2016-08-01

    Canestrato di Moliterno is an Italian Protected Geographical Indication hard cheese, made in winter and spring from a mixture of ewe and goat milks, that has been poorly investigated. The present study was aimed at characterizing the cheese made in the warm season. Two series of samples, ripened in traditional rooms called fondaco as indicated in the official protocol of production, were taken from the main certified producers. The cheeses were analyzed for gross composition; proteolysis and lipolysis; volatile fraction; and organoleptic features. Gross composition was not completely homogeneous among the samples, but primary proteolysis and lipolysis were quite uniform. We observed variations in secondary proteolysis, likely caused by fluctuations in environmental conditions in the fondaco. The sensory profiles of the samples were homogeneous: the cheese was soluble, greasy, and adhesive, with a sheepfold and buttery odor. The main taste attributes were fermented, pungent, and bitter. Overall, the results of this study provide an initial contribution to the characterization of Canestrato di Moliterno, and could be used to improve marketing strategies.

  7. Understanding Learner Acceptance of Learning Objects: The Roles of Learning Object Characteristics and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Siong-Hoe; Woods, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Many organisations and institutions have integrated learning objects into their e-learning systems to make the instructional resources more efficient. Like any other information systems, this trend has made user acceptance of learning objects an increasingly critical issue as a high level of learner satisfaction and acceptance reflects that the…

  8. Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham.

    PubMed

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kuyng Mi; Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2014-08-01

    The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP), crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire)♀×Duroc♂ (LYD), Berkshire (Ber), and Duroc (Du) pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed) were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w) and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (p<0.05). It was observed that the dry-cured ham made from KNP breed had the lowest water activity value and highest salt content, while the LYD dry-cure ham had higher total volatile basic nitrogen content than the Ber and Du hams (p<0.05). Zinc, iron and total monounsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in KNP ham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). Additionally, the KNP dry-cured ham possessed higher Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) a* value, while the Du dry-cured ham had higher L*, CIE b* and hue angle values (p<0.05). Furthermore, breed significantly affected the sensory attributes of dry-cured hams with higher scores for color, aroma and taste found in KNP dry-cured ham as compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). The overall outcome of the study is that the breed has a potential effect on the specific chemical composition, texture, color and sensorial properties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams. PMID:25083111

  9. Food Deserts in Leon County, FL: Disparate Distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Accepting Stores by Neighborhood Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Samantha; Leone, Angela F.; Kim, Hwahwan; Betterley, Connie; Johnson, Mary Ann; Kurtz, Hilda; Lee, Jung Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether neighborhood characteristics of racial composition, income, and rurality were related to distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-accepting stores in Leon County, Florida. Design: Cross-sectional; neighborhood and food store data collected in 2008. Setting and Participants: Forty-eight census…

  10. Investigation of sensory and volatile characteristics of farmed and wild barramundi (Lates calcarifer) using gas chromatography-olfactometry mass spectrometry and descriptive sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Frank, Damian; Poole, Sue; Kirchhoff, Stephanie; Forde, Ciarán

    2009-11-11

    Australian aquacultured and wild-caught barramundi (Lates calcarifer) were obtained for sensory evaluation and analysis by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) with simultaneous mass spectrometry. Aquacultured barramundi were sourced from commercial farms representing some typical Australian production methods: above-ground recirculation tank, in-ground lined pond, and in-ground earth pond cultivation. Wild barramundi were sourced from three river-mouth sites in Northern Australia: the Gulf of Carpentaria, the Arafura Sea in the Northern Territory, and the Coral Sea, Northern Queensland. Fish were filleted, minced into a homogeneous sample, and blast frozen for subsequent cooking and sensory and volatile analysis. Barramundi mince portions were grilled using a standardized method for sensory descriptive profiling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry analysis. Volatiles from grilled fish were collected using dynamic headspace, and the extracts were subjected to direct-intensity olfactometry analysis by trained assessors. More than 30 odor-active compounds were present in the barramundi extracts, mostly with the same odor-active compounds detected in both wild and aquacultured samples. On average, the perceived GC-O odor intensities of most aroma volatiles were higher in aquacultured samples. This was also reflected by instrumental data, where most volatiles were present at higher concentrations in the aquacultured samples. Additional "muddy", "earthy", and "musty" flavor notes perceived in the lined and earth pond aquacultured samples were related to the presence of 2-methyl isoborneol and geosmin in these samples. Multivariate modeling was used to relate the sensory, olfactometry, and instrumental data; overall, there was good agreement between the data sets.

  11. Sensory characteristics and volatile profiles of parsley ( Petroselinum crispum [Mill.] Nym.) in correlation to resistance properties against Septoria Blight ( Septoria petroselini ).

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Detlef; Bruchmüller, Tobias; Krüger, Hans; Marthe, Frank

    2011-10-12

    Sixteen different genotypes of parsley, including two cultivars, six populations, and eight inbred lines, were investigated regarding their sensory characteristics in relation to the volatile patterns and resistance to Septoria petroselini . The sensory quality was determined by a combination of profile analysis and preference test, whereas the volatile patterns were analyzed by headspace-SPME-GC of leaf homogenates with subsequent nontargeted data processing to prevent a possible overlooking of volatile compounds. The more resistant genotypes are characterized by several negative sensory characteristics such as bitter, grassy, herbaceous, pungent, chemical, and harsh. In contrast, the contents of some volatile compounds correlate highly and significantly either with resistance (e.g., hexanal and α-copaene) or with susceptibility (e.g., p-menthenol). Some of these compounds with very strong correlation to resistance are still unidentified and are presumed to act as resistance markers.

  12. Effects of sodium chloride, phosphate type and concentration, and pump rate on beef biceps femoris quality and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Baublits, R T; Pohlman, F W; Brown, A H; Johnson, Z B

    2005-06-01

    Beef biceps femoris muscles (n=45) were used to evaluate the effect of enhancement with solutions comprising 2.0% sodium chloride and either sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), or tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) at either 0.2% or 0.4% of product weight. All solutions were injected into muscle samples at either 112% (12% pump) or 118% (18% pump) of raw product weight. Muscles treated with all three phosphate types had decreased (P<0.05) free water compared to untreated muscles (CNT), and while TSPP-treated muscles were able to bind greater (P<0.05) additional water than CNT, STPP- and SHMP-treated muscles did not differ (P>0.05) from CNT. Disregarding phosphate type, steaks with 0.4% phosphate inclusion bound more (P<0.05) water than those with 0.2% phosphate inclusion. Steaks treated with STPP or TSPP had decreased (P<0.05) cooking losses than CNT, while SHMP-treated steaks did not differ (P>0.05) from CNT. Steaks injected at 18% pump had greater (P<0.05) percent moisture, and did not differ (P>0.05) in free water, water binding, or cooking losses from steaks injected at 12% pump. Although there were no differences (P>0.05) in Warner-Bratzler shear force in this study, steaks with SHMP, STPP, and TSPP all were rated more tender, and juicier (P<0.05) by sensory panelists than CNT steaks or steaks enhanced only with sodium chloride. Regardless of phosphate type, steaks enhanced with 0.4% phosphate and those steaks at 18% pump received improved (P<0.05) sensory tenderness ratings compared to 0.2% phosphate and 12% pump, respectively. These results suggest that enhancing biceps femoris muscles with STPP or TSPP can improve water retention, yield, and palatability characteristics. Additionally, enhancement with a phosphate/salt solution at an 18% pump rate, compared to a 12% pump rate, can allow for improved sensory tenderness perceptions without decreasing product yields.

  13. Effect of almond on technological, nutritional, textural and sensory characteristics of goat meat nuggets.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, V; Das, Arun K; Verma, Arun K

    2014-11-01

    An attempt was made through the present study to develop meat based functional food by incorporating almond nut at two different 2.5 and 5 % (Formulation 1 and 2) levels and observe its impact on the different quality attributes against control goat meat nuggets. Almond improved (P < 0.05) the emulsion stability of formulation 1 and 2. Product with 2.5 % almond had higher (P < 0.05) cooking yield than other two products, whereas expressible water was lower. Emulsion and products pH values increased with the addition of almond. Emulsion and products with almond had higher (P < 0.05) proximate values except moisture content. Textural properties of all the products did not differ significantly. Percent SFAs decreased (P < 0.05) and MUFAs were increased with the addition of almond. The fatty acids C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 were significantly higher in formulation 1 and 2 products. Almond incorporation can be a very good approach to enhance nutritional profile of the meat products without affecting acceptability. PMID:26396321

  14. Microbial Decontamination of Dried Alaska Pollock Shreds Using Corona Discharge Plasma Jet: Effects on Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soee; Puligundla, Pradeep; Mok, Chulkyoon

    2016-04-01

    Nonthermal techniques for microbial decontamination are becoming more common for ensuring food safety. In this study, a corona discharge plasma jet (CDPJ) was used for inactivation of microbial contaminants of dried Alaska pollock shreds. Corona plasma jet was generated at a current strength of 1.5 A, and a span length of 25 mm was maintained between the electrode tip and the sample. Upon the CDPJ treatment (0 to 3 min) of dried shreds, microbial contaminants namely aerobic and marine bacteria, and Staphylococcus aureus were inactivated by 2.5, 1.5, and >1.0 log units, respectively. Also, a one-log reduction of molds and yeasts contaminants was observed. The inactivation patterns are fitted well to the pseudo-first-order kinetics or Singh-Heldman model. The CDPJ treatment did not exert statistically significant (P > 0.05) changes in physicochemical properties, namely color characteristics, volatile basic nitrogen, and peroxide value of dried fish shreds, with some exceptions, as compared to untreated controls. Furthermore, CDPJ treatment had no significant impact on the sensory characteristics of dried fish shreds. PMID:26953810

  15. Microstructural, textural, and sensory characteristics of probiotic yogurts fortified with sodium calcium caseinate or whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Akalın, A S; Unal, G; Dinkci, N; Hayaloglu, A A

    2012-07-01

    The influence of milk protein-based ingredients on the textural characteristics, sensory properties, and microstructure of probiotic yogurt during a refrigerated storage period of 28 d was studied. Milk was fortified with 2% (wt/vol) skim milk powder as control, 2% (wt/vol) sodium calcium caseinate (SCaCN), 2% (wt/vol) whey protein concentrate (WPC) or a blend of 1% (wt/vol) SCaCN and 1% (wt/vol) WPC. A commercial yogurt starter culture and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 as probiotic bacteria were used for the production. The fortification with SCaCN improved the firmness and adhesiveness. Higher values of viscosity were also obtained in probiotic yogurts with SCaCN during storage. However, WPC enhanced water-holding capacity more than the caseinate. Addition of SCaCN resulted in a coarse, smooth, and more compact protein network; however, WPC gave finer and bunched structures in the scanning electron microscopy micrographs. The use of SCaCN decreased texture scores in probiotic yogurt; probably due to the lower water-holding capacity and higher syneresis values in the caseinate-added yogurt sample. Therefore, the textural characteristics of probiotic yogurts improved depending on the ingredient variety. PMID:22720919

  16. Cultivar preference and sensory evaluation of vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in Eastern Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preference and acceptability of twelve vegetable pigeon pea genotypes of medium maturity was evaluated in Eastern Kenya based on six seed cultivar parameters of color, appearance, taste, odor, tenderness and overall seed acceptability. The sensory characteristics were scored by consumers and farmers...

  17. The Impact of Demand Characteristics on Brief Acceptance- and Control-Based Interventions for Pain Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Bryan; Forsyth, John P.; Maher, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    The present analog study compared the effectiveness of an acceptance- and control-based intervention on pain tolerance using a cold pressor task, and is a partial replication and extension of the Hayes, Bissett et al. (Hayes, S. C., Bissett, R.T., Korn, Z., Zettle, R. D., Rosenfarb, I. S., Cooper, L. D., & Grundt, A. M. (1999). "The impact of…

  18. Loneliness, Peer Acceptance, and Family Functioning of Chinese Children with Learning Disabilities: Characteristics and Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Guoliang; Zhang, Yaming; Yan, Rong

    2005-01-01

    Although children with learning disabilities are often considered to be a heterogeneous group, they are always situated in specific social surroundings such as schools and families with which they interact dynamically in everyday life. Therefore, peer acceptance and family functioning may be related to the loneliness experienced by children with…

  19. Contribution of beef base to aroma characteristics of beeflike process flavour assessed by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography olfactometry and partial least squares regression.

    PubMed

    Song, Shiqing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Hayat, Khizar; Huang, Meigui; Liu, Ping; Karangwa, Eric; Gu, Fenglin; Jia, Chengsheng; Xia, Shuqin; Xiao, Zuobing; Niu, Yunwei

    2010-12-01

    Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis were conducted to investigate changes in aroma characteristics of beeflike process flavours (BPFs) prepared from enzymatically hydrolyzed beef (beef base) of different DH (degree of hydrolysis) with other ingredients. Five attributes (beefy, meaty, simulate, mouthful and roasted) were selected to assess BPFs. The results of descriptive sensory analysis confirmed that BPF2 from beef base of moderate DH 29.13% was strongest in beefy, meaty and simulate characteristics; BPF4 and BPF5 from beef base of higher DH (40.43% and 44.22%, respectively) were superior in mouthful and roasted attributes respectively; while BPF0 without beef base gave weaker odour for all attributes. Twenty six compounds from GC-MS were selected as specific compounds to represent beef odour based on their odour-active properties assessed by a detection frequency method of GC-O and correlation of their contents with sensory attributes intensity. Correlation analysis of molecular weight (MW) of peptides, odour-active compounds and sensory attributes through partial least squares regression (PLSR) further explained that beef base with DH of 29.13% was a desirable precursor for imparting aroma characteristics of beeflike process flavour. PMID:21055762

  20. Contribution to aroma characteristics of mutton process flavor from the enzymatic hydrolysate of sheep bone protein assessed by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ping; Tian, Honglei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wang, Liping

    2013-03-15

    Changes in the aroma characteristics of mutton process flavors (MPFs) prepared from sheep bone protein hydrolysates (SBPHs) with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). Five attributes (muttony, meaty, roasted, mouthful, and simulate) were selected to assess MPFs. The results of DSA showed a distinct difference among the control sample MPF0 and other MPF samples with added SBPHs for different DHs of almost all sensory attributes. MPF5 (DH 25.92%) was the strongest in the muttony, meaty, and roasted attributes, whereas MPF6 (DH 30.89%) was the strongest in the simulate and roasted attributes. Thirty-six compounds were identified as odor-active compounds for the evaluation of the sensory characteristics of MPFs via GC-MS-O analysis. The results of correlation analysis among odor-active compounds, molecular weight, and DSA further confirmed that the SBPH with a DH range of 25.92-30.89% may be a desirable precursor for the sensory characteristics of MPF. PMID:23416288

  1. Effects of adding red wine on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of uncured frankfurter-type sausage.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xi; Sebranek, Joseph G; Lee, Hyun Yong; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and sensory characteristics of RTE frankfurter-type sausage cured with celery juice powder and including red wine. Four frankfurter treatments including a conventionally cured treatment without red wine (control) and three treatments cured with pre-converted vegetable juice powder and 0%, 5% or 10% (v/w) red wine were prepared. Results showed that adding 5% red wine increased the a*-value, and the textural resilience, cohesiveness and springiness of the frankfurters, as well as decreased lipid/protein oxidation of the final products. Added wine also introduced new volatiles (alcohol and ester compounds) to the frankfurters. The principal component (PC) analysis showed that the pre-converted vegetable juice powder achieved the same effects as the conventional curing agents for typical frankfurter properties. However, the addition of excess amounts of red wine (10%) to the meat batter decreased the pH of meat batter and accelerated lipid oxidation. PMID:27388819

  2. Combined effect of ascorbic acid and gamma irradiation on microbial and sensorial characteristics of beef patties during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Giroux, M; Ouattara, B; Yefsah, R; Smoragiewicz, W; Saucier, L; Lacroix, M

    2001-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of ascorbic acid concentrations (0.03 to 0.5%) and irradiation doses (0.5 to 4 kGy) on microbial growth, color coordinates (L, a, and b), and sensory characteristics (taste and odor) of beef patties during storage at 4 +/- 1 degrees C. Ascorbic acid was also compared to citric acid at a similar pH value in order to differentiate the effects of ascorbic acid from those of pH reduction. Results showed significant reduction (p< or = 0.05) of aerobic plate counts (APCs) and total coliforms, and a significant interaction (p< or = 0.05) between ascorbic acid and irradiation dose was observed. The irradiation treatment had detrimental effects on redness, yellowness, and hue angle values of meat. However, incorporation of ascorbic acid into the meat before irradiation resulted in significant (p< or = 0.05) stabilization of color parameters. The color improvement obtained with ascorbic acid was not related to the pH reduction. Also, no significant detrimental effect on taste or odor was found in irradiated samples containing ascorbic acid. PMID:11262050

  3. Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide: Socioeconomic Characteristics and Landowner Acceptance of Carbon Sequestration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfomak, Elizabeth C.

    This study explores public acceptance of carbon dioxide sequestration sites through a mail survey of 4,001 landowners in central Illinois and Indiana, a region with high sequestration potential and recent siting proposals for FutureGen (an integrated power plant and sequestration demonstration project). The individuals sampled in this study include landowners both informed and uninformed about carbon sequestration, comparing groups based on ecological concern, economic conditions, views about the energy industry, environmental justice, familiarity with sequestration, and demographics. Of the survey respondents, 27% reported an understanding of carbon sequestration prior to receiving the survey, 2.5 times more than would be expected in the general U.S. population. Overall, 47% of survey respondents would oppose a local sequestration site while 30% would support one. The results suggest that greater familiarity with geologic sequestration has little influence on local site acceptance. Multivariate analysis found that landowner acceptance of sequestration sites derives primarily from gender, concern for the local environment, trust in government, experience with industrial activity, and belief in the potential of conservation/renewables. Because views on these issues are persistent, it may be difficult to overcome landowner opposition through education. Policy makers may, therefore, need to lower expectations for sequestration deployment in the United States and revisit other options for meeting the nation's CO2 emissions goals.

  4. Characteristics of patients with diabetes who accept referrals for care management services

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Bree; Annis, Ann M; Morrish, Wendy; Davis Burns, Jennifer; Krein, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with chronic conditions can improve their health through participation in self-care programs. However, awareness of and enrollment in these programs are generally low. Objective: We sought to identify factors influencing patients’ receptiveness to a referral for programs and services supporting chronic disease management. Methods: We analyzed data from 541 high-risk diabetic patients who completed an assessment between 2010 and 2013 from a computer-based, nurse-led Navigator referral program within a large primary care clinic. We compared patients who accepted a referral to those who declined. Results: A total of 318 patients (75%) accepted 583 referrals, of which 52% were for self-care programs. Patients who accepted a referral had more primary care visits in the previous year, were more likely to be enrolled in another program, expressed more interest in using the phone and family or friends for support, and were more likely to report recent pain than those who declined a referral. Discussion: Understanding what factors influence patients’ decisions to consider and participate in self-care programs has important implications for program design and development of strategies to connect patients to programs. This work informs outreach efforts to identify and engage patients who are likely to benefit from self-care activities. PMID:26835018

  5. Sensory characterization of bowel cleansing solutions

    PubMed Central

    Sharara, Ala I; Daroub, Hamza; Georges, Camille; Shayto, Rani; Nader, Ralph; Chalhoub, Jean; Olabi, Ammar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercial bowel cleansing preparations. METHODS Samples of 4 commercially available bowel cleansing preparations, namely polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (PEG), PEG + ascorbic acid (PEG-Asc), sodium picosulfate (SPS), and oral sodium sulfate (OSS) were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Descriptive analysis was conducted (n = 14) using a 15-cm line scale with the Compusense at-hand® sensory evaluation software. Acceptability testing (n = 80) was conducted using the 9-point hedonic scale. In addition, a Just-About-Right (JAR) scale was included for the four basic tastes to determine their intensity compatibility with acceptability levels in the products. RESULTS Samples were significantly different, in descriptive analysis, for all attributes (P < 0.05) except for sweetness. SPS received the highest ratings for turbidity, viscosity appearance, orange odor and orange flavor; PEG-Asc for citrus odor and citrus flavor; OSS for sweetener taste, sweet aftertaste, bitterness, astringency, mouthcoating, bitter aftertaste and throatburn, and along with PEG-Asc, the highest ratings for saltiness, sourness and adhesiveness. Acceptability results showed significant differences between the various samples (P < 0.05). SPS received significantly higher ratings for overall acceptability, acceptability of taste, odor and mouthfeel (P < 0.05). JAR ratings showed that PEG and PEG-Asc were perceived as slightly too salty; SPS and OSS were slightly too sweet, while SPS, PEG-Asc and OSS were slightly too sour and OSS slightly too bitter. While using small sample volumes was necessary to avoid unwanted purgative effects, acceptability ratings do not reflect the true effect of large volumes intake thus limiting the generalization of the results. CONCLUSION Further improvements are needed to enhance the sensory profile and to optimize the acceptability for better compliance with these bowel cleansing solutions

  6. Sensory characterization of bowel cleansing solutions

    PubMed Central

    Sharara, Ala I; Daroub, Hamza; Georges, Camille; Shayto, Rani; Nader, Ralph; Chalhoub, Jean; Olabi, Ammar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercial bowel cleansing preparations. METHODS Samples of 4 commercially available bowel cleansing preparations, namely polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (PEG), PEG + ascorbic acid (PEG-Asc), sodium picosulfate (SPS), and oral sodium sulfate (OSS) were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Descriptive analysis was conducted (n = 14) using a 15-cm line scale with the Compusense at-hand® sensory evaluation software. Acceptability testing (n = 80) was conducted using the 9-point hedonic scale. In addition, a Just-About-Right (JAR) scale was included for the four basic tastes to determine their intensity compatibility with acceptability levels in the products. RESULTS Samples were significantly different, in descriptive analysis, for all attributes (P < 0.05) except for sweetness. SPS received the highest ratings for turbidity, viscosity appearance, orange odor and orange flavor; PEG-Asc for citrus odor and citrus flavor; OSS for sweetener taste, sweet aftertaste, bitterness, astringency, mouthcoating, bitter aftertaste and throatburn, and along with PEG-Asc, the highest ratings for saltiness, sourness and adhesiveness. Acceptability results showed significant differences between the various samples (P < 0.05). SPS received significantly higher ratings for overall acceptability, acceptability of taste, odor and mouthfeel (P < 0.05). JAR ratings showed that PEG and PEG-Asc were perceived as slightly too salty; SPS and OSS were slightly too sweet, while SPS, PEG-Asc and OSS were slightly too sour and OSS slightly too bitter. While using small sample volumes was necessary to avoid unwanted purgative effects, acceptability ratings do not reflect the true effect of large volumes intake thus limiting the generalization of the results. CONCLUSION Further improvements are needed to enhance the sensory profile and to optimize the acceptability for better compliance with these bowel cleansing solutions.

  7. Correlation of fresh muscle firmness with sensory characteristics of pork loins destined for a quality focused market.

    PubMed

    Arkfeld, E K; Mancini, S; Fields, B; Dilger, A C; Boler, D D

    2015-10-01

    Production of pork for quality-driven export markets offers economic incentive. Pork processors use subjective firmness as a sorting tool for loins intended for high-quality export. The objectives of this study were to determine 1) durometer efficacy in muscle, 2) if firmness on one portion of the loin is indicative of other locations, 3) if 1 d firmness is related to export quality traits, and 4) if variation in firmness is explained by mechanistic measures. Subjective firmness scores (1 = extremely soft and 5 = extremely firm) were determined by a trained individual 1 d (initial time point) postmortem. Loins (North American Meat Processors number 414 Canadian back; = 154) were wet aged for 28 d at 1.7°C. On d 28, a panel of 4 individuals assigned firmness scores on the ventral side of the loin at the area of the 10th rib, the anterior half, and the posterior half of the loin. Durometer readings were collected at the area of the 10th rib on the dorsal and ventral side of the loin. Spearman correlation coefficients were computed in SAS (version 9.3) to account for nonnormality of categorical data. Subjective firmness measurements at d 28 at the 10th rib and on the anterior portion of the loin were not correlated ( ≥ 0.21) with whole loin durometer readings on the dorsal or ventral portion of the loin or the average of the whole loin values. Subjective firmness (d 28) at the 10th rib accounted for 38.44 ( = 0.620) and 48.30% ( = 0.695) of the variation in firmness at the anterior portion of the loin and the posterior portion of the loin, respectively ( ≤ 0.05). One-day subjective firmness measurements were correlated with 28-d Warner-Bratzler shear force measurements ( = 0.174, = 0.03) but were not significantly correlated with sensory characteristics ( ≥ 0.08). Purge tended to be correlated with 1 d firmness ( = 0.136, = 0.10); however, drip and cooking loss, 24-h and 28-d pH, and soluble and insoluble collagen content were not correlated ( ≥ 0

  8. Electron-Accepting π-Conjugated Molecules with Fluorine-Containing Dicyanovinylidene as Terminal Groups: Synthesis, Properties, and Semiconducting Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ie, Yutaka; Uchida, Ayana; Kawaguchi, Nana; Nitani, Masashi; Tada, Hirokazu; Kakiuchi, Fumitoshi; Aso, Yoshio

    2016-09-01

    A series of electron-accepting π-conjugated molecules having fluorine-containing dicyanovinylidene as terminal groups has been synthesized for the application to electron-transporting semiconductors. This terminal group can be easily incorporated into π-conjugated frameworks. Electrochemical measurements indicated that these compounds showed low-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy levels, which could be fine-tuned by the combination of central unit. The thin films fabricated by solution process showed typical electron-transporting characteristics in field-effect transistors. PMID:27542071

  9. Effect of the type of fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Miklos, Rikke; Lametsch, René; Arnau, Jacint

    2013-03-01

    Four batches of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages were manufactured with pork-ham lean, and the addition of no fat (Lean), 5% pork backfat (BF), 5% sunflower oil (SO) and 5% diacylglycerols (DAGs). The effect of the type of fat as pork-fat substitute on some physicochemical parameters, instrumental color and texture and sensory attributes of the sausages was studied. Results showed that reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages containing less than 12.5% of fat (BF, SO and DAGs) had a good overall sensory quality. This means a fat reduction of more than 70% compared with the average fat content of standard fermented sausages of similar characteristics. Sausages with SO showed higher sensory ratings in desirable ripened odor and flavor attributes and improved texture defined by lower hardness and chewiness (both sensory and instrumental) and higher crumbliness. Sausages with DAGs showed a similar behavior to that of BF, so they could be a good alternative to produce healthier reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages.

  10. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, José M.; Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness) were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES) were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones. PMID:27006978

  11. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness) were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES) were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones. PMID:27006978

  12. Nano spray-dried sodium chloride and its effects on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of surface-salted cheese crackers.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Marvin; Astete, Carlos; Sabliov, Cristina; Olson, Douglas; Boeneke, Charles; Aryana, Kayanush J

    2015-09-01

    Reducing particle size of salt to approximately 1.5 µm would increase its surface area, leading to increased dissolution rate in saliva and more efficient transfer of ions to taste buds, and hence, perhaps, a saltier perception of foods. This has a potential for reducing the salt level in surface-salted foods. Our objective was to develop a salt using a nano spray-drying method, to use the developed nano spray-dried salt in surface-salted cheese cracker manufacture, and to evaluate the microbiological and sensory characteristics of cheese crackers. Sodium chloride solution (3% wt/wt) was sprayed through a nano spray dryer. Particle sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering, and particle shapes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Approximately 80% of the salt particles produced by the nano spray dryer, when drying a 3% (wt/wt) salt solution, were between 500 and 1,900 nm. Cheese cracker treatments consisted of 3 different salt sizes: regular salt with an average particle size of 1,500 µm; a commercially available Microsized 95 Extra Fine Salt (Cargill Salt, Minneapolis, MN) with an average particle size of 15 µm; and nano spray-dried salt with an average particle size of 1.5 µm, manufactured in our laboratory and 3 different salt concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2% wt/wt). A balanced incomplete block design was used to conduct consumer analysis of cheese crackers with nano spray-dried salt (1, 1.5, and 2%), Microsized salt (1, 1.5, and 2%) and regular 2% (control, as used by industry) using 476 participants at 1wk and 4mo. At 4mo, nano spray-dried salt treatments (1, 1.5, and 2%) had significantly higher preferred saltiness scores than the control (regular 2%). Also, at 4mo, nano spray-dried salt (1.5 and 2%) had significantly more just-about-right saltiness scores than control (regular 2%). Consumers' purchase intent increased by 25% for the nano spray-dried salt at 1.5% after they were notified about the 25% reduction in sodium content of the

  13. The effect of a diet containing grasshoppers and access to free-range on carcase and meat physicochemical and sensory characteristics in broilers.

    PubMed

    Sun, T; Long, R J; Liu, Z Y

    2013-01-01

    1. Research was conducted to evaluate the impact of a diet containing grasshoppers on the carcase, physicochemical and sensory characteristics in a free-range, grassland-based broiler production system. 2. A total of 80, 28-d-old male broilers were reared on grassland containing a large population of grasshoppers (treatment PB). Control birds were reared intensively on a maize-soybean diet (treatment CB). At 91 d of age, 24 birds from each treatment were slaughtered to evaluate carcase, meat and sensory characteristics. 3. Treatment PB produced birds with significantly lower live weights, breast, wing, thigh and drum weights, and higher dressing percentage and breast percentage of carcase, compared with CB. Treatment PB produced breast meat with significantly higher redness values, shear force and protein content, and lower pH values, cooking loss, moisture and fat content compared with CB. Sensory panel results for breast and thigh meats showed no treatment effect on colour and juiciness, but significantly higher scores for chewiness, flavour, aroma and overall appreciation, and lower scores for tenderness from treatment PB compared with CB. 4. Rearing chickens on rangeland may provide an alternative way to produce poultry meat which is considered superior by modern consumers.

  14. Effects of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid on Salmonella Typhimurium survival, shelf-life, and sensory characteristics of ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Stelzleni, Alexander M; Ponrajan, Amudhan; Harrison, Mark A

    2013-09-01

    The inclusion of two sources of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid were studied as interventions for Salmonella Typhimurium and for their effect on shelf-life and sensory characteristics of ground beef. For the Salmonella challenge, beef trimmings (80/20) were inoculated then treated with 2% (w/v) liquid buffered vinegar (LVIN), 2.5% (w/w) powdered buffered vinegar (PVIN), a solution containing 1.0% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDLA) at 10% (w/v), or had no intervention applied (CNT). The same trim source and production methods were followed during production of patties for shelf-life and sensory testing without inoculation. SDLA patties had the largest reduction (P<0.05; 0.70 log CFU/g) of Salmonella. However, LVIN and PVIN had the least (P<0.05) psychrotrophic growth. SDLA patties had more purge (P<0.05) and lower (P<0.05) subjective color scores. There were not large differences in sensory characteristics, except PVIN exhibited stronger off-flavor (P<0.05).

  15. Effect of pasteurization of Ewe's milk and use of a native starter culture on the volatile components and sensory characteristics of roncal cheese.

    PubMed

    Ortigosa, M; Torre, P; Izco, J M

    2001-06-01

    The effect of pasteurization of milk and use of a native starter culture on the volatile components and sensory characteristics of a Spanish ewe's-milk cheese were examined. Three cheese batches were made, one from raw milk, another from pasteurized milk, and a third from pasteurized milk with an added native starter culture in addition to the commercial starter. Cheeses were analyzed at 1, 120, and 240 d of ripening. Analysis of the volatile components was by purge and trap connected to a gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer and disclosed a total of 76 components belonging to the following chemical families: hydrocarbons, fatty acids, esters, sulfur and carbonyl compounds, and, in particular, alcohols. Pasteurization lowered the levels of certain volatile components, especially alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. The cheeses made from pasteurized milk showed lower scores for attributes of characteristic taste and aftertaste, as well as a characteristic aroma at 240 d of ripening. These results suggest that the components present in higher concentrations in the cheeses made from the raw milk were necessary for development of characteristic Roncal cheese aroma. The new native starter culture tested did not exert a significant effect on any of the parameters considered, with the exception of certain isolated components, for which higher or lower quantities were recorded in the cheeses made with that starter culture, although the differences did not have a definite effect on the sensory characteristics of the cheeses.

  16. Enhancement with varying phosphate types, concentrations, and pump rates, without sodium chloride on beef biceps femoris quality and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Baublits, R T; Pohlman, F W; Brown, A H; Johnson, Z B

    2006-03-01

    Beef biceps femoris muscles (n=45) were used to evaluate the effect of enhancement with solutions containing sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), or tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) at either 0.2% or 0.4% of product weight, without sodium chloride. All solutions were injected into muscle samples at either 112% (12% pump) or 118% (18% pump) of raw product weight. Muscles enhanced with STPP or TSPP had a higher (P<0.05) pH than SHMP or untreated muscles (CNT), whereas there was no difference (P>0.05) in pH between SHMP and CNT. Muscles enhanced with STPP had less (P<0.05) free water than CNT, whereas SHMP and TSPP did not differ from CNT. However, direct comparison of phosphate types revealed no difference (P>0.05) in free water. Steaks enhanced with SHMP had greater (P<0.05) cooking losses than CNT, whereas steaks treated with STPP or TSPP did not differ (P>0.05) from CNT. Phosphate inclusion at 0.2% allowed for greater (P<0.05) cooking losses than CNT, whereas 0.4% phosphate inclusion exhibited similar (P>0.05) cooking losses as CNT. Although there were no differences (P>0.05) in cooking loss between pump rates, steaks enhanced at an 18% pump rate had greater (P<0.05) cooking losses than CNT, whereas those enhanced at 12% had similar (P>0.05) cooking losses as CNT. Enhancement with any of the three phosphate types or either concentration did not improve (P>0.05) sensory tenderness or juiciness characteristics compared to CNT, but enhancement at an 18% pump rate allowed for improved (P<0.05) overall tenderness, compared to a 12% pump rate. These results suggest that while phosphate enhancement independent of sodium chloride generally did not improve water retention, cooked yields and palatability compared to untreated samples, utilizing higher phosphate concentrations or utilizing STPP or TSPP effectively retained the additional water associated with solution enhancement, allowing for similar free water and cook yields as untreated

  17. Lipolysis, proteolysis and sensory characteristics of a Spanish fermented dry-cured meat product (salchichón) with oregano essential oil used as surface mold inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sánchez, Ana María; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Sendra, Esther; Sayas, Estrella; Fenández-López, Juana; Pérez-Álvarez, José Ángel

    2011-09-01

    The superficial antifungal activity of oregano essential oil (OEO) in Spanish fermented dry-cured sausages ("salchichón"), and its effects on lipolysis, proteolysis and sensory characteristics were evaluated. The surface application of OEO reduced mold contamination on the surface, without significantly affecting the drying process. To evaluate the intensity of lipolysis during the ripening process, the profile and content of free fatty acids were determined. The addition of OEO led to a higher amount of unsaturated fatty acids, but lipolysis was not greatly affected. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), which was used to qualitatively assess the proteolytic changes in the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins during the process, pointed to very similar patterns in all the sausages. OEO did not significantly affect the sensory properties, but increased hardness, resulting in a better texture. Therefore, a shorter ripening time may be necessary for sausages treated with OEO. PMID:21497448

  18. The effects of potato and rice starch as substitutes for phosphate in and degree of comminution on the technological, instrumental and sensory characteristics of restructured ham.

    PubMed

    Resconi, Virginia C; Keenan, Derek F; García, Elisa; Allen, Paul; Kerry, Joe P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), two sources of starch (potato starch: PS and rice starch: RS) and comminution degree (CD) on the technological, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reformed hams were studied using response surface methodology. Both starches reduced cook loss and decreased ham flavour intensity, but RS had stronger effects on instrumental measures of texture, while PS was associated with improved juiciness when low/no added STPP was included. Coarsely ground meat, processed 100% with the kidney plate was associated with slightly increased cook loss, reduced texture profile analysis parameters and a more intense ham flavour compared to the other treatment (80% ground with a kidney plate plus 20% with a 9mm plate). STPP was the sole factor affecting overall liking. If starch is included in the formulation, the standard level of STPP (0.3%) can be reduced by half with no increase in cook losses, but some decline in sensory quality cannot be avoided.

  19. The effects of potato and rice starch as substitutes for phosphate in and degree of comminution on the technological, instrumental and sensory characteristics of restructured ham.

    PubMed

    Resconi, Virginia C; Keenan, Derek F; García, Elisa; Allen, Paul; Kerry, Joe P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), two sources of starch (potato starch: PS and rice starch: RS) and comminution degree (CD) on the technological, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reformed hams were studied using response surface methodology. Both starches reduced cook loss and decreased ham flavour intensity, but RS had stronger effects on instrumental measures of texture, while PS was associated with improved juiciness when low/no added STPP was included. Coarsely ground meat, processed 100% with the kidney plate was associated with slightly increased cook loss, reduced texture profile analysis parameters and a more intense ham flavour compared to the other treatment (80% ground with a kidney plate plus 20% with a 9mm plate). STPP was the sole factor affecting overall liking. If starch is included in the formulation, the standard level of STPP (0.3%) can be reduced by half with no increase in cook losses, but some decline in sensory quality cannot be avoided. PMID:27310601

  20. Lipolysis, proteolysis and sensory characteristics of a Spanish fermented dry-cured meat product (salchichón) with oregano essential oil used as surface mold inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sánchez, Ana María; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Sendra, Esther; Sayas, Estrella; Fenández-López, Juana; Pérez-Álvarez, José Ángel

    2011-09-01

    The superficial antifungal activity of oregano essential oil (OEO) in Spanish fermented dry-cured sausages ("salchichón"), and its effects on lipolysis, proteolysis and sensory characteristics were evaluated. The surface application of OEO reduced mold contamination on the surface, without significantly affecting the drying process. To evaluate the intensity of lipolysis during the ripening process, the profile and content of free fatty acids were determined. The addition of OEO led to a higher amount of unsaturated fatty acids, but lipolysis was not greatly affected. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), which was used to qualitatively assess the proteolytic changes in the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins during the process, pointed to very similar patterns in all the sausages. OEO did not significantly affect the sensory properties, but increased hardness, resulting in a better texture. Therefore, a shorter ripening time may be necessary for sausages treated with OEO.

  1. Chemical composition, techno-functional and sensory properties and effects of three dietary fibers on the quality characteristics of Tunisian beef sausage.

    PubMed

    Ktari, Naourez; Smaoui, Slim; Trabelsi, Imen; Nasri, Moncef; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the effects of three dietary fibers namely, VITACEL LC200 powdered cellulose (LC200), barley beta-glucan concentrate (BBC), and VITACEL KF500 potato fiber (KF500), on the techno-functional and sensory properties and quality characteristics of Tunisian beef sausage. The findings revealed interesting functional properties for LC200 fiber. This fiber displayed high water binding capacity (WBC) and oil binding capacity (OBC), values of 16.2 g/g and 10.2 g/g, respectively, which are higher than reported for most fruit and vegetable fiber concentrates. The application of LC200 improved the masticability and elasticity of beef sausage formulations and minimized their hardness and production costs without negatively affecting their sensory properties. Overall, the findings demonstrate the potential functional and economic utility of LC200 fiber as a promising source of dietary fiber.

  2. Microbial, instrumental color and sensory characteristics of inoculated ground beef produced using potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate or peroxyacetic acid as multiple antimicrobial interventions.

    PubMed

    Quilo, S A; Pohlman, F W; Dias-Morse, P N; Brown, A H; Crandall, P G; Story, R P

    2010-03-01

    Effectiveness of multiple antimicrobial interventions on ground beef microbial, instrumental color and sensory attributes through display was evaluated. Beef trimmings were inoculated with Escherichia coli (EC) and Salmonella typhimurium (ST) then treated with either: (1) 3% potassium lactate followed by 4% sodium metasilicate (KN); (2) 4% sodium metasilicate followed by 3% potassium lactate (NK); (3) 200-ppm peroxyacetic acid followed by 3% potassium lactate (PK); (4) 200-ppm peroxyacetic acid followed by 4% sodium metasilicate (PN); or control (CON). Trimmings were ground, packaged and sampled on days 0-7 of display for EC, ST, coliforms, aerobic plate count, instrumental color and sensory characteristics. Only PK reduced (P<0.05) all bacterial types evaluated. The PN treatment remained (P<0.05) redder (a*), contained more (P<0.05) oxymyoglobin and had less (P<0.05) discoloration than CON by days 3-7 of display. All treatments maintained or improved odor attributes. PMID:20374812

  3. Short communication: Chemical composition, fatty acid composition, and sensory characteristics of Chanco cheese from dairy cows supplemented with soybean and hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Fehrmann-Cartes, K; Íñiguez-González, G; Toro-Mujica, P; Garnsworthy, P C

    2015-01-01

    Lipid supplements can be used to alter fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy products. For Chanco cheese, however, little information is available concerning effects of lipid supplements on sensorial properties. The objective of this study was to examine effects of supplementation of dairy cow diets with soybean (SO) and hydrogenated vegetable (HVO) oils on chemical and FA composition of milk and cheese and sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine multiparous Holstein cows averaging 169±24d in milk at the beginning of the study were used in a replicated (n=3) 3×3 Latin square design that included 3 periods of 21d. All cows received a basal diet formulated with a 56:44 forage:concentrate ratio. Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control; no fat supplement), and the basal diet supplemented with SO (unrefined oil; 500g/d per cow) and HVO (manufactured from palm oil; 500g/d per cow). Milk fat yield was lower with HVO compared with control and SO. Cheese chemical composition and sensory profile were not affected by dietary treatment. Vaccenic (C18:1 trans-11) and oleic (C18:1 cis-9) acids were higher for SO than for control and HVO. Compared with control and HVO, SO decreased saturated FA and increased monounsaturated FA. The thrombogenic index of milk and cheese produced when cows were fed SO was lower than when cows were fed on control and HVO. The outcome of this study showed that, compared with control and HVO, supplementing dairy cow diets with SO improves milk and cheese FA profile without detrimental effects on the chemical composition of milk and cheese and the sensory characteristics of cheese.

  4. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters.

  5. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters. PMID:26642109

  6. Contribution of crosslinking products in the flavour enhancer processing: the new concept of Maillard peptide in sensory characteristics of Maillard reaction systems.

    PubMed

    Karangwa, Eric; Murekatete, Nicole; Habimana, Jean de Dieu; Masamba, Kingsley; Duhoranimana, Emmanuel; Muhoza, Bertrand; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the flavour-enhancing properties of the Maillard reaction products (MRPs) for different systems consisted of different peptides (sunflower, SFP; corn, CP and soyabean SP) with, xylose and cysteine were investigated. Maillard systems from peptides of sunflower, corn and soyabean with xylose and cysteine were designated as PXC, MCP and MSP, respectively. The Maillard systems were prepared at pH of 7.4 using temperature of 120C for 2 h. Results showed that all systems were significantly different in all sensory attributes. The highest scores for mouthfulness and continuity were observed for MCP with the lowest peptides distribution between 1000 and 5000 Da, known as Maillard peptide. This revealed that the MCP with the lowest Maillard peptide content had the strongest "Kokumi" effect compared to the other MRPsand demonstrated that "kokumi effect" of MRPs was contributed by not only the "Maillard peptide" defined by the molecular weight (1000-5000 Da). Results on sensory evaluation after fractionation of PXC followed by enzymatic hydrolysis showed no significant differences between PXC, P-PXC and their hydrolysates. This observation therefore confirmed that the presence of other contributors attributed to the "Kokumi" effect rather than the Maillard peptide. It can be deduced that the unhydrolyzed crosslinking products might have contributed to the "Kokumi" effect of MRPs. The structures of four probable crosslinking compounds were proposed and the findings have provided new insights in the sensory characteristics of xylose, cysteine and sunflower peptide MRPs. PMID:27478243

  7. Sodium metasilicate affects antimicrobial, sensory, physical, and chemical characteristics of fresh commercial chicken breast meat stored at 4° C for 9 days.

    PubMed

    Huang, H; Williams, S K; Sims, C A; Simmone, A

    2011-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate antimicrobial properties of sodium metasilicate (SMS) on fresh boneless and skinless commercial broiler chicken breast fillets, and to ascertain effects of the treatments on sensory, chemical, and physical characteristics of the meat. Fillets were divided into 5 groups, weighed, treated with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4% SMS marinades, vacuum tumbled at 172.32 kPa for 20 min, reweighed, packaged in styrofoam trays, stored at 4°C for 9 d, and analyzed at 0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, and 9 d for marination yield (d 0 only), pH, total psychrotrophic counts, water-holding capacity, purge loss, cooking yield, and objective texture, color, and sensory characteristics. Marination yield and water-holding capacity were similar (P > 0.05) among all SMS treatments and increased by 3 to 4% compared with that in control fillets. Fillets treated with at least 3% SMS had higher (P < 0.05) pH and cooking yields and lower (P < 0.05) purge loss (on d 9) compared with control fillets. The 3 and 4% SMS treatments retarded growth of psychrotrophic organisms for 1 additional day compared with control, 1, and 2% SMS-treated fillets. Color and texture measurements and sensory characteristics of the fillets were not adversely affected by the SMS treatments. The data in this study revealed that at least 3% SMS was necessary to retard growth of spoilage bacteria compared with untreated samples and samples treated with the USDA maximum allowable level of 2% SMS in poultry marinades. PMID:21489963

  8. Lipid oxidation, sensory characteristics, and color of fresh pork sausage from immunologically castrated pigs stored frozen for up to 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Jones-Hamlow, Katelyn A; Tavárez, Marcos A; Schroeder, Aubrey L; Dilger, Anna C

    2016-05-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics of fresh sausage manufactured from immunologically castrated (IC) pigs, an emerging technology in the pork industry. Study 1: Fresh sausage patties from ground Boston butts fabricated from PC (physically castrated) pigs fed 0.55% SID (standard illeal digestible) lysine, IC pigs fed 0.55% SID lysine, and IC pigs fed 0.65% SID lysine were made and not standardized to a similar content of fat content. Study 2: fat and lean trim obtained from IC and PC pigs was made into fresh sausage patties, targeting 25% lipid. Patties (1.25 cm) were placed on trays and assigned to 0, 4, or 12 weeks frozen storage and then, after frozen storage, placed in simulated retail display conditions for 5 days. Patties were evaluated for color stability, sensory and textural properties, and lipid oxidation. Data were analyzed as a one way ANOVA with repeated measures where appropriate. In both studies, sausage discolored with both increased time in frozen storage and with increased time in retail display (P < 0.01). However, within each week of frozen storage, all treatments were equally discolored in both studies. Treatment did not affect the sensory characteristics or textural properties of fresh sausage in either study. Lipid oxidation did not differ by treatment in study 1. In study 2, lipid oxidation was reduced (P < 0.05) in IC compared to PC by approximately 0.1 mg malonaldehyde/kg meat, but there were no differences within each storage week. Increasing frozen storage time increased lipid oxidation an off-flavor scores in both studies (P < 0.05). Overall, immunological castration had no detrimental effects on color stability, sensory characteristics, or textural properties of fresh pork sausage.

  9. Lipid oxidation, sensory characteristics, and color of fresh pork sausage from immunologically castrated pigs stored frozen for up to 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Jones-Hamlow, Katelyn A; Tavárez, Marcos A; Schroeder, Aubrey L; Dilger, Anna C

    2016-05-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics of fresh sausage manufactured from immunologically castrated (IC) pigs, an emerging technology in the pork industry. Study 1: Fresh sausage patties from ground Boston butts fabricated from PC (physically castrated) pigs fed 0.55% SID (standard illeal digestible) lysine, IC pigs fed 0.55% SID lysine, and IC pigs fed 0.65% SID lysine were made and not standardized to a similar content of fat content. Study 2: fat and lean trim obtained from IC and PC pigs was made into fresh sausage patties, targeting 25% lipid. Patties (1.25 cm) were placed on trays and assigned to 0, 4, or 12 weeks frozen storage and then, after frozen storage, placed in simulated retail display conditions for 5 days. Patties were evaluated for color stability, sensory and textural properties, and lipid oxidation. Data were analyzed as a one way ANOVA with repeated measures where appropriate. In both studies, sausage discolored with both increased time in frozen storage and with increased time in retail display (P < 0.01). However, within each week of frozen storage, all treatments were equally discolored in both studies. Treatment did not affect the sensory characteristics or textural properties of fresh sausage in either study. Lipid oxidation did not differ by treatment in study 1. In study 2, lipid oxidation was reduced (P < 0.05) in IC compared to PC by approximately 0.1 mg malonaldehyde/kg meat, but there were no differences within each storage week. Increasing frozen storage time increased lipid oxidation an off-flavor scores in both studies (P < 0.05). Overall, immunological castration had no detrimental effects on color stability, sensory characteristics, or textural properties of fresh pork sausage. PMID:27247765

  10. Nutritional quality of fermented defatted soya and flaxseed flours and their effect on texture and sensory characteristics of wheat sourdough bread.

    PubMed

    Bartkiene, Elena; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva

    2012-09-01

    The use of soya and flaxseed flours fermented with Pediococcus acidilactici for wheat sourdough bread production was investigated. The protein digestibility, biogenic amine contents of soya and flaxseed sourdoughs, texture and sensory features of bread were studied. The fermentation with P. acidilactici significantly improved soya and flaxseed protein extraction and increased protein digestibility on an average by 13.5%. The concentrations of histamine (3.8 ± 2.3 and 4.0 ± 0.2 mg/kg), tyramine (4.6 ± 0.7 and 19.3 ± 1.8 mg/kg) and putrescine (66.4 ± 1.3 and 11.3 ± 3.0 mg/kg) do not present a health risk for consumers due to their relatively low levels in fermented plant products. The flaxseed sourdoughs influenced a 17.5% higher specific volume and a 4.6% lower crumb hardness of bread than those of soya sourdoughs, and did not disimprove sensory properties of bread. However, the fermented soya additives decreased acceptability of bread because of intensive taste and odour.

  11. Effects of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties. PMID:27433101

  12. Effects of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Young-Boong; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties.

  13. Effects of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Young-Boong; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties. PMID:27433101

  14. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design.

    PubMed

    Brito, Isabelle L; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely; Yamashita, Fábio; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the mixture resulted in darker product. Quinoa flour showed a negative effect on the specific volume, producing less bulky cookies, and quinoa flour and quinoa flakes had a positive synergistic effect on the hardness of the cookies. According the results and considering the desirability profile for colour, hardness and specific volume in gluten-free cookies, the optimized formulation contains 30 % quinoa flour, 25 % quinoa flakes and 45 % corn starch. The quinoa-based cookie obtained was characterized as a product rich in dietary fibre, a good source of essential amino acids, linolenic acid and minerals, with good sensory acceptability. These findings reports for the first time the application of quinoa processed as flour and flakes in mixture with corn starch as an alternative ingredient for formulations of gluten-free cookies-type biscuits.

  15. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design.

    PubMed

    Brito, Isabelle L; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely; Yamashita, Fábio; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the mixture resulted in darker product. Quinoa flour showed a negative effect on the specific volume, producing less bulky cookies, and quinoa flour and quinoa flakes had a positive synergistic effect on the hardness of the cookies. According the results and considering the desirability profile for colour, hardness and specific volume in gluten-free cookies, the optimized formulation contains 30 % quinoa flour, 25 % quinoa flakes and 45 % corn starch. The quinoa-based cookie obtained was characterized as a product rich in dietary fibre, a good source of essential amino acids, linolenic acid and minerals, with good sensory acceptability. These findings reports for the first time the application of quinoa processed as flour and flakes in mixture with corn starch as an alternative ingredient for formulations of gluten-free cookies-type biscuits. PMID:26345002

  16. Sensory mononeuropathies.

    PubMed

    Massey, E W

    1998-01-01

    The clinical neurologist frequently encounters patients with a variety of focal sensory symptoms and signs. This article reviews the clinical features, etiologies, laboratory findings, and management of the common sensory mononeuropathies including meralgia paresthetica, cheiralgia paresthetica, notalgia paresthetica, gonyalgia paresthetica, digitalgia paresthetica, intercostal neuropathy, and mental neuropathy. PMID:9608615

  17. Impact of packaging material and storage conditions on polyphenol stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (prunus cerasus var. Marasca).

    PubMed

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Ježek, Damir; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of packaging materials and storage conditions on polyphenols stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Marasca). Freeze-dried sour cherries were packed in high barrier metalized polypropylene and aluminium packaging (PET/PPmet/PE and PET/Al/PE) for up to 12 months at 4, 20 and 37 °C. Characterisation of polyphenol compounds was done by HPLC UV/Vis PDA and in all samples individual anthocyanins (ANTs), flavonol-glycosides (FGs) and hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) were determined. Polyphenol content was not markedly affected by freeze-drying and decreases were amounted 1.5-5 %. Furthermore, obtained results indicated that minimal loss of polyphenol content in freeze dried sour cherries were achieved at 4 °C and 3 months of storage. Regardless of the type of packaging materials, samples stored at lower temperature during 12 months, retained the higher content of FGs (quercetin-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-rutinoside) and HCAs (neochlorogenic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acid) than ANTs (cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside). The same trend was confirmed with kinetic parameters, also. Sour cherry products packed in both type of laminate and stored at lower temperature retained characteristic dark red colour and sensory properties. This study showed that freeze-dried cherry products have pleasant sensory and very good nutritional properties, and storage in both type of laminates at 4 and 20 °C up to 6 months ensured good product quality. PMID:27162405

  18. Effect of farming system and cheesemaking technology on the physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid profile, and sensory properties of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, A; Tornambè, G; Bellina, V; De Pasquale, C; Mazza, F; Maniaci, G; Di Grigoli, A

    2013-01-01

    Caciocavallo Palermitano is a typical stretched-curd cheese that has been produced over the centuries in Sicily according to traditional cheesemaking technology and using raw milk from autochthonous cow breeds reared at pasture. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of the farming system and processing technology on the characteristics of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese, with particular regard to the fatty acid profile. The farming system was either extensive, using autochthonous cows fed a pasture-based diet, or intensive, with specialized dairy cow breeds fed mainly hay and concentrate. The cheese-processing technology was either artisanal, using traditional wooden tools and endemic lactic bacteria, or advanced, using modern steel equipment and selected lactic bacteria. Twelve Caciocavallo Palermitano cheeses, 3 from each of the 4 experimental theses (2 farming systems × 2 cheesemaking technologies), were obtained and aged for 1, 30, 60, and 120 d. Milk of origin and cheeses were analyzed for the main chemical and rheological parameters. Fatty acids were methylated in lyophilized cheese and analyzed by gas chromatography. Sensory analysis was carried out by trained panelists. The PROC GLM of SAS 9.1.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NY) was used for the statistical analysis. The physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese were influenced more by the farming system than by the cheesemaking technology. Compared with cheese produced through intensive farming, cheese from extensive farming was richer in polyunsaturated, n-3, and odd- and branched-chain fatty acids, as well as in conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11 C18:2), with accompanying improved human health benefits. The cheesemaking technology produced variation in the evolution of proteolysis during aging, due presumably to the different active microflora, which influenced the sensory profile of the resulting cheese. Indeed, cheese produced by

  19. Acceptability and characteristics of 124 human bioequivalence studies with active substances classified according to the Biopharmaceutic Classification System

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Elena; Laosa, Olga; Guerra, Pedro; Duque, Blanca; Mosquera, Beatriz; Borobia, Alberto M; Lei, Suhua H; Carcas, Antonio J; Frias, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    AIM The aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability of 124 bioequivalence (BE) studies with 80 active substances categorized according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) in order to establish if there were different probabilities of proving BE between the different BCS classes. METHODS We evaluated the differences between pharmaceutical products with active substances from different BCS classes in terms of acceptability, number of subjects in the study (n), the point estimates, and intra- and inter-subject coefficients of variation data from BE studies with generic products. RESULTS Out of 124 BE studies 89 (71.77%) were performed with pharmaceutical products containing active substances classified by the BCS. In all BCS classes there were non-bioequivalent pharmaceutical products: 4 out of 26 (15.38%) in class 1, 14 out of 28 (50%) in class 2, 3 out of 22 (13.63%) in class 3 and 1 out of 13 (7.69%) in class 4. When we removed those pharmaceutical products in which intra-subject variability was higher than predicted (2 in class 1 active substances, 9 in class 2 and 2 in class 3) there were still non-BE pharmaceutical products in classes 1, 2 and 3. CONCLUSIONS Comparisons between pharmaceutical products with active substances from the four BCS classes have not allowed us to define differential characteristics of each class in terms of n, inter and intra-subject variability for Cmax or AUC. Despite the usually employed test dissolution methodology proposed as quality control, pharmaceutical products with active substances from the four classes of BCS showed non-BE studies. PMID:21039763

  20. Combined effects of potassium lactate and calcium ascorbate as sodium chloride substitutes on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y M; Jung, K C; Jo, H M; Nam, K W; Choe, J H; Rhee, M S; Kim, B C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) substitutes, including potassium lactate (K-lactate) and calcium ascorbate (Ca-ascorbate), on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage (1.2% content of NaCl). Sausages produced with 40% substitution of NaCl with combined K-lactate and Ca-ascorbate showed a higher value of lightness (P<0.001) than sausages containing 2.0% content of NaCl (control). However, the sensory panels were unable to distinguish a difference in color intensity between the control and treatment groups. Frankfurter sausages produced with 30% K-lactate and 10% Ca-ascorbate exhibited similar water-holding capacity, textural properties, and organoleptic characteristics (P>0.05) when compared to control sausages. Thus, the use of these salt mixtures is a good way to reduce the NaCl content in meat products while maintaining the quality of meat products. These results may be useful in developing low-sodium meat products. PMID:23896133

  1. Combined effects of potassium lactate and calcium ascorbate as sodium chloride substitutes on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y M; Jung, K C; Jo, H M; Nam, K W; Choe, J H; Rhee, M S; Kim, B C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) substitutes, including potassium lactate (K-lactate) and calcium ascorbate (Ca-ascorbate), on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage (1.2% content of NaCl). Sausages produced with 40% substitution of NaCl with combined K-lactate and Ca-ascorbate showed a higher value of lightness (P<0.001) than sausages containing 2.0% content of NaCl (control). However, the sensory panels were unable to distinguish a difference in color intensity between the control and treatment groups. Frankfurter sausages produced with 30% K-lactate and 10% Ca-ascorbate exhibited similar water-holding capacity, textural properties, and organoleptic characteristics (P>0.05) when compared to control sausages. Thus, the use of these salt mixtures is a good way to reduce the NaCl content in meat products while maintaining the quality of meat products. These results may be useful in developing low-sodium meat products.

  2. Relationship between the nutrition status and sensory characteristics of melon fertilized with wine-distillery waste compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requejo, María Isabel; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; González, Miguel Angel; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Villena, Raquel; Cartagena, Maria Carmen; Ribas, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The interest in developing sustainable agriculture is becoming more important day by day. A large quantity of wastes from the wine and distillery industry are produced and constitute a serious problem not only environmental but also economic. The use of exhausted grape marc compost as organic amendment is a management option of the fertility of soils. On the other hand, consumers are increasingly concerned about the type, quality and origin of food production. Flavor and aroma are most often the true indicators of shelf-life from the consumer's point of view. The aim of this study was to relate the nutritional status of melon fertilized with exhausted grape marc compost with the sensory profile of fresh-cut fruits. A field experiment was established with three doses of compost (1, 2 and 3 kg per linear meter) and a control. Melons were harvested at maturity and the sensory evaluation was carried out by an expert panel of melon tasters to describe odour, flavour and texture. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentration was determined in the fruits to calculate nutrient absorption. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01

  3. Optimization of process conditions for Rohu fish in curry medium in retortable pouches using instrumental and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Ranendra K; Dhar, Bahni; Roy, Deepayan; Saha, Apurba

    2015-09-01

    'Kalia', a popular preparation of Rohu fish, packed in four-layered laminated retort pouch was processed in a steam/air mixture over-pressure retort at 121.1 °C to three different F 0 values of 7, 8 and 9 min. Time-temperature data were collected during heat processing using an Ellab Sterilization Monitoring System. Texture profile such as hardness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness decreased as the F 0 value increased. The L* values decreased whereas a* and b* values increased with increasing F 0 value. Based on the commercial sterility, sensory evaluation, colour and texture profile analysis, F 0 value of 8 min and cook value of 66 min, with a total process time of 41.7 min at 121.1 °C was found satisfactory for the preparation of Rohu fish curry (Kalia) in retort pouches. PMID:26344980

  4. Applicability of Vacuum Impregnation to Modify Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Nutritive Characteristics of Plant Origin Products—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Radziejewska-Kubzdela, Elżbieta; Biegańska-Marecik, Róża; Kidoń, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food. PMID:25244012

  5. Comparison of physical, chemical, and sensorial characteristics between U.S.-imported and Northwestern Mexico retail beef.

    PubMed

    González-Rios, H; Peña-Ramos, A; Valenzuela, M; Zamorano-García, L; Cumplido-Barbeitia, G; González-Méndez, N F; Huerta-Leidenz, N

    2010-01-01

    To compare beef from Northwestern Mexico (NMEX) and that imported from the United States in physical-chemical (PC) and sensory traits, samples of ribeye (m. Longissimus dorsi thoracis, LDT) and knuckle (m. Vastus lateralis, VL) of Mexican (64 LDT; 51 VL) and U.S. (28 LDT; 25 VL) origin were purchased randomly from select retail stores located in 3 cities of NMEX. PC evaluation measured contents of moisture, fat and cholesterol, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), pH, CIE L*, a*, and b*, cooking loss, and normalized fatty acid profile (FAP). Trained panelists evaluated raw and cooked samples for 2 and 6 different organoleptic traits, respectively. Mexican and U.S.-imported LDT steaks did not differ (P>0.05) in PC traits. VL samples differed in L*, b*, hue*, WBSF, and fat content by country of origin (COO). The WBSF for cooked VL samples from the United States was lower (P < 0.05) and fat content was greater (P<0.05) than those for NMEX steaks. The FAP varied between muscles; Mexican LDT had a higher content of C18:0, while VL from the United States had a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a higher PUFA/Saturated ratio (P<0.05). Although sensory traits tended to be rated higher for Mexican LDT and VL steaks, no statistical differences with U.S.-imported samples were detected (P > 0.05). Results indicated that domestic and U.S. retail steaks sold in the NMEX are similar in eating quality and PC, whereas differences observed in FAP deserve further attention from a nutritional standpoint. PMID:21535586

  6. Effects of the Plane of Nutrition on Physicochemical Characteristics and Sensory Quality Traits of the Muscle in Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chai Hyun; Jung, Dae-Yun; Choi, Jung Seok; Jin, Sang-Keun

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the feasibility of using the low plane of nutrition (LPN) as a means of improving the meat quality of crossbred finishing pigs with a medium weight gain potential. Twenty-four barrows and 24 gilts weighing approximately 48 kg were placed on LPN [a finisher (2.86 Mcal ME/kg and 0.67% lysine) for 91 d] or on a high plane of nutrition [HPN; a commercial grower for 38 d and a finisher (3.35 Mcal ME/kg and 0.9% lysine) for 46 d]. Five barrows and five gilts per treatment weighing approximately 125 kg were slaughtered after the indicated days on the respective diets, followed by physicochemical analysis and sensory evaluation on their muscles. Overall average daily gain was 12.6% less in the LPN group vs. the HPN group (p<0.05). The redness (a*) of fresh longissimus muscle (LM) from the loin as well as from Boston butt was greater in the LPN group vs. HPN whereas the shear force for fresh LM from these primals and semimembranosus muscle was lower in the former. In sensory evaluation for cooked LM, no treatment effect was detected in any of the quality traits examined, except for a lower color score in the LPN vs. HPN group. Results suggest that meat quality of the finishing pigs can be improved to some extent by using LPN. However, the present pigs, whose backfat thickness was 24 mm at 125 kg, are thought not to be lean enough to be fattened over 120 kg. PMID:26761290

  7. Marination with natural curing ingredients, storage time, and serving temperature effects on the sensory characteristics of forage-finished or commercially-sourced beef roasts.

    PubMed

    McMurtrie, K E; Kerth, C R; Bratcher, C L; Curtis, P A; Smith, B

    2012-03-01

    Beef inside round roasts (n=144) were cut from rounds obtained from both forage-finished cattle (n=72) and commercially-sourced beef (n=72). Roasts were portioned to weigh 0.45-0.68kg each. Each roast was then randomly assigned one of the following treatments: control, injected-no cure, or injected-cured. Additionally, roasts were assigned a serving temperature (hot or cold) and storage treatments (0d or 28d post cooking). Roasts from forage-fed beef had a more red interior color and higher shear values, and also retained more brine than commercially-sourced beef (P<0.05). Curing roasts improved TBARS values in roasts served hot and significantly reduced sensory warmed-over and grassy flavors (P<0.05). Marinating forage-finished beef roasts significantly improves tenderness and flavor characteristics.

  8. Sodium diacetate and sodium lactate affect microbiology and sensory and objective characteristics of a restructured turkey breast product formulated with a fibrin cold-set binding system.

    PubMed

    Mohammed Shafit, H; Williams, S K

    2010-03-01

    Research was conducted to manufacture and evaluate a restructured turkey breast product using the Fibrimex cold-set binding system, sodium diacetate (NaD), and sodium lactate (NaL) and to ascertain effects of the treatments on proximate composition, pH, psychrotrophic organisms, water activity, onset of rancidity (TBA), thaw loss, cooking yields, and objective color, and sensory characteristics. Whole turkey breasts were cut into 5-cm-thick strips; treated with either water only (control), 1.5% NaL, 2.0% NaL, 0.1% NaD, 1.5% NaL + 0.1% NaD, or 2.0% NaL + 0.1% NaD; blended with Fibrimex ingredients; stuffed into casings; and stored at -30 degrees C for 0, 1, 2, and 3 mo. After each storage period, frozen chubs were tempered at 4 degrees C, sliced into 1-cm-thick steaks, packaged in retail trays, stored at 0 degrees C to simulate retail storage, and analyzed after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 d. Sodium diacetate used alone or in combination with NaL reduced (P < 0.05) growth of psychrotrophic organisms and had no adverse effects on water activity, pH, cooking yield, fat, moisture, protein, objective color, onset of rancidity, and sensory characteristics (juiciness, turkey flavor intensity, and tenderness). Panelists reported slight off-flavor in all steaks treated with NaL. Treating steaks with NaL alone or in combination with NaD resulted in increased (P < 0.05) ash content. Sodium lactate also functioned to minimize thaw loss in the frozen restructured turkey product. PMID:20181879

  9. Effects of electron-beam irradiation on the shelf life, microbial populations and sensory characteristics of summer truffles (Tuber aestivum) packaged under modified atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Carmen Susana; Blanco, Domingo; Marco, Pedro; Oria, Rosa; Venturini, María Eugenia

    2011-02-01

    The effects of two doses of electron-beam irradiation (1.5 kGy and 2.5 kGy) on the microbial populations (total mesophilic aerobes, Pseudomonas genus, Enterobacteriaceae family, molds and yeasts) and sensory characteristics of Tuber aestivum packaged under modified atmospheres were monitored immediately after treatment, and weekly during 42 days of storage at 4 °C. Treatment with 1.5 and 2.5 kGy reduced the pseudomonads populations by 4.3 and 5.5 logs, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae counts decreased by 5.4 logs with the 1.5 kGy dose and counts below the detection limit (<1.0 log cfu/g) were obtained with the 2.5 kGy dose. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were less affected by the ionizing radiation treatments and they became the dominant microbial populations throughout storage with microbial counts up to 7.1 log cfu/g. The carbon dioxide levels inside the packages containing irradiated truffles were lower than those of the non-irradiated ones, suggesting a decrease in the respiration rate of the treated ascocarps. The treatments with 1.5 and 2.5 kGy e-beam did not negatively affect the sensory characteristics of truffles, but a visible superficial yeast growth was detected in truffles irradiated with 1.5 kGy at the end of their shelf life (day 28). Treatment with 2.5 kGy e-beam has prolonged the shelf life to 42 days, compared with 21 days for the untreated samples.

  10. Influence of somatic cell counts and breed on physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of hard ewes'-milk cheeses.

    PubMed

    Revilla, Isabel; Lurueña-Martínez, Miguel A; Vivar-Quintana, Ana M

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present work was to perform a physico-chemical, descriptive quantitative and consumer-preference analysis of hard ewes'-milk cheeses that had been matured for one year and to determine the correlations between the variables studied. The cheeses were elaborated with milk from three breeds of sheep (Castellana, Churra and Assaf) with different somatic cell counts (lower than 500,000 cells ml-1; between 1,000,000 and 1,500,000 cells ml-1, and more than 2,500,000 cells ml-1). The results show that the cheeses elaborated with milk with high SCC had lower values of dry extract and fat and high values of pH and fat acidity and were described as pungent, granulose and less creamy. Regarding the effect of breed, the cheeses made with milk from the Churra breed had lower values for fat and those made with Assaf breed milk were significantly more rancid. The study of correlations showed that creaminess was positively correlated with the dry extract and total fat content and negatively correlated with ash and fat acidity, indeed grainy texture and pungency had the opposite sign in their correlation with these latter variables. The yellow colour was positively correlated with ash and negatively with protein. Finally, the consumer preferences reveals that the less accepted cheeses showed the higher values for rancidness and pungency and they were less likely to accept the cheeses made with Assaf breed milk.

  11. Correlating consumer perception and consumer acceptability of traditional Doenjang in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2014-11-01

    Doenjang is a traditional Korean food and is widely used for many Korean foods. Consumer perception and consumer acceptability on the typical sensory characteristics of traditional Doenjang remain unknown. The objective of the current study was to determine the consumer perception on traditional Doenjang characteristics and how preexisting consumer perception influenced the consumer liking for traditionally and commercially manufactured Doenjang. A consumer survey was conducted by presenting 26 sensory descriptions to consumers (n = 82) for check-all-that-apply measurement. Then, a consumer acceptance test was conducted over 2 d on 2 Doenjang samples representing commercially produced Doenjang and traditionally produced Doenjang: Day 1 consumers evaluated without any information (n = 182), and day 2 consumers evaluated samples informed that both samples were made by the "traditional" method (n = 109). Two-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses were conducted. Consumers' preexisting perceptions on the typical sensory characteristics of traditionally made Doenjang were similar in that they associate "gu-soo flavor," "dark color," "flavorful," and "well-fermented flavor" regardless of consumer demographics and Doenjang user status. However, these consumer perceptions on sensory attributes of traditional Doenjang did not agree with desirable sensory attributes for consumer liking, in that consumers preferred the commercially made Doenjang regardless of the evaluation condition and consumer user status. Findings from the current study therefore suggested a discrepancy between the preexisting current consumer perception and actual consumer acceptability of traditional Doenjang products.

  12. Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Calasso, Maria; Campanella, Daniela; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-06-16

    This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, according to traditional protocols that are routinely used for making typical Italian breads. Based on kinetic of acidification and culture-dependent data, the wheat-legume sourdough was further characterized and selected for bread making. As determined by RAPD-PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene analyses, lactic acid bacteria in wheat-legume sourdough included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus coryneformis, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Two breads containing 15% (w/w) of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours were produced using selected wheat-legume sourdough (WLSB) and traditional wheat sourdough (WSB). Compared to wheat yeasted bread (WYB), the level of total free amino acids (FAA) was higher in WSB and WLSB. Phytase and antioxidant activities were the highest in WLSB. Compared to bread WYB, the addition of legume flours decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) (WYB versus WSB). However, the dough fermentation with WSLB favored an increase of IVPD. According to the levels of carbohydrates, dietary fibers and resistant starch, WSB and WLSB showed lower values of hydrolysis index (HI) compared to WYB. As showed by texture and image analyses and sensory evaluation of breads, a good acceptability was found for WSB and, especially, WLSB breads.

  13. Sensory analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensory evaluation can answer questions about a product that instruments cannot. The human subject is the instrument, and data can provide a wealth of information for a product developer, or results can be very variable and erroneous if all the precautions to minimize bias and external noise are no...

  14. Sensory Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Web version Sensory Dysfunction Overview Why are smell and taste important? Your senses of smell and taste let you fully enjoy the scents ... bitter and sour. Flavor involves both taste and smell. For example, because a person is able to ...

  15. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea. PMID:23909609

  16. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea.

  17. Effect of inulin on textural and sensory characteristics of sorghum based high fibre biscuits using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Chandralekha; Singh, Rakhi; Jha, Alok; Mitra, Jayeeta

    2014-10-01

    Five blends of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) flour (25.0-45.0 %) and whole wheat flour were used to make biscuits using inulin (5.0-10.0 %) and guar gum (1.0-2.0 %). An experimental investigation was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effect of fat replacer (inulin) and sorghum flour on the quality of high fibre and low calorie biscuits. For this purpose, the biscuit dough and the biscuit samples were analyzed. The analysis was based on hardness of the dough, hardness of the biscuit, fracturability and overall acceptability (OAA) scores. Results showed that increasing the amount of sorghum flour in biscuit increased the dough hardness and biscuit hardness, whereas, biscuit fracturability decreased and OAA scores increased up to the level at which sorghum flour ranged from 35.0 to 40.0 % after which it decreased. An increase in the amount of inulin was followed by an increase in biscuit hardness, while, fracturability and OAA scores decreased and there was little effect on the dough hardness. Optimum conditions generated from the analysis was 40.8 % sorghum flour, 6.5 % inulin and 1.0 % guar gum. The predicted response in terms of dough hardness, fracturability, biscuit hardness and OAA were 212.4 g, 36.4 mm, 4.8 kg and 7.06, respectively. The desirability of the optimum condition was 0.827.

  18. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-07-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat's unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods.

  19. A study of relationship between background characteristics, media exposure and acceptance of family planning in rural Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Apte, J M

    1988-10-01

    On the basis of data taken from a National Study on the Subject of Reach and Effectiveness of Mass Media in the family welfare program (1980, this paper analyzes the interplay of variables at different levels and their effect on the acceptance of family planning. The level of education is related to exposure to media as well as the use of family planning methods, and negatively related to the degree of apprehension. The higher the level of exposure to media, the greater the acceptance of family planning. However, the relationship between the level of media exposure and degree of apprehension does not show a conclusive trend. The number of living sons is found to be very closely associated with the acceptance of family planning. It is clear that any communication effort which does not attack the problems of sex preference or apprehension will not yield desirable results in terms of acceptance. It is also clear that the proverbial gap between awareness and practice can be better filled by an appropriate use of inter-personal channels.

  20. Evaluation of the chemical quality traits of soybean seeds, as related to sensory attributes of soymilk.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Li, Bin; Han, Fenxia; Yan, Shurong; Wang, Lianzheng; Sun, Junming

    2015-04-15

    The soybean seed chemical quality traits (including protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, isoflavone content, and protein subunits), soymilk chemical character (soluble solid), and soymilk sensory attributes were evaluated among 70 genotypes to determine the correlation between seed chemical quality traits and soymilk sensory attributes. Six sensory parameters (i.e., soymilk aroma, smoothness in the mouth, thickness in the mouth, sweetness, colour and appearance, and overall acceptability) and a seven-point hedonic scale for each parameter were developed. Significant positive correlations were observed between overall acceptability and the other five evaluation parameters, suggesting that overall acceptability is an ideal parameter for evaluating soymilk flavour. The soymilk sensory attributes were significantly positively correlated with the characteristics of the glycinin (11S)/beta-conglycinin (7S) protein ratio, soluble solid, and oil content but negatively correlated with glycitein and protein content. Our results indicated that soymilk sensory attributes could be improved by selecting the desirable seed chemical quality traits in practical soybean breeding programs.

  1. Comparison of sensory and compositions of five selected persimmon cultivars (Diospyros kaki L.) and correlations between chemical components and processing characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyu; Du, Jing; Ge, Zhen-Zhen; Zhu, Wei; Nie, Rongzu; Li, Chun-Mei

    2016-03-01

    Persimmon is one of the most popular and valuable fruits in markets because of its distinguished flavor as well as its significant benefits to health. The present study systematically compared the sensory characteristics and chemical compositions of five commercial persimmon fruits, and the correlations between chemical components and processing characteristics were also included. Our results showed that obvious differences in aroma and taste were found among the cultivars. Likewise, the contents of chemical components including sugar, total phenol, β-carotene and ascorbic acid, varied significantly (p < 0.05) across different persimmon cultivars. The processing characteristics of persimmon fruit closely correlated with the chemical compositions. Pectin (r = 0.76, p < 0.01) and total phenol (r = 0.576, p < 0.05) were found to enhance the viscosity of persimmon pulp, and the colour of persimmon powder was greatly influenced by β-carotene, ascorbic acid and sugar contents (r = 0.823, -0.729 and -0.685, p < 0.01, respectively). Powder recovery of persimmon was positively correlated with pectin content (r = 0.503, p < 0.05) and negatively related to total sugar content (r = -0.668, p < 0.01). Pectin content exerted positive effect (r = 0.719, p < 0.01) on hygroscopicity of persimmon powder, and the powder solubility showed a positive correlation to sugar and a negative relationship to pectin contents (r = 0.662 and -0.716, p < 0.01, respectively). In addition, a positive correlation (r = 0.642, p < 0.01) of the content of ascorbic acid to phenolic retention was also observed. PMID:27570285

  2. Comparison of sensory and compositions of five selected persimmon cultivars (Diospyros kaki L.) and correlations between chemical components and processing characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyu; Du, Jing; Ge, Zhen-Zhen; Zhu, Wei; Nie, Rongzu; Li, Chun-Mei

    2016-03-01

    Persimmon is one of the most popular and valuable fruits in markets because of its distinguished flavor as well as its significant benefits to health. The present study systematically compared the sensory characteristics and chemical compositions of five commercial persimmon fruits, and the correlations between chemical components and processing characteristics were also included. Our results showed that obvious differences in aroma and taste were found among the cultivars. Likewise, the contents of chemical components including sugar, total phenol, β-carotene and ascorbic acid, varied significantly (p < 0.05) across different persimmon cultivars. The processing characteristics of persimmon fruit closely correlated with the chemical compositions. Pectin (r = 0.76, p < 0.01) and total phenol (r = 0.576, p < 0.05) were found to enhance the viscosity of persimmon pulp, and the colour of persimmon powder was greatly influenced by β-carotene, ascorbic acid and sugar contents (r = 0.823, -0.729 and -0.685, p < 0.01, respectively). Powder recovery of persimmon was positively correlated with pectin content (r = 0.503, p < 0.05) and negatively related to total sugar content (r = -0.668, p < 0.01). Pectin content exerted positive effect (r = 0.719, p < 0.01) on hygroscopicity of persimmon powder, and the powder solubility showed a positive correlation to sugar and a negative relationship to pectin contents (r = 0.662 and -0.716, p < 0.01, respectively). In addition, a positive correlation (r = 0.642, p < 0.01) of the content of ascorbic acid to phenolic retention was also observed.

  3. Geospatial variation of grapevine water status, soil water availability, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a spatially heterogeneous premium wine grape vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, D. R.; Cosby Hess, S.; Plant, R.; Feihn, O.; Heymann, H.; Ebeler, S.

    2014-11-01

    The geoscience component of terroir in wine grape production continues to be criticized for its quasi-mystical nature, and lack of testable hypotheses. Nonetheless, recent relational investigations are emerging and most involve water availability as captured by available water capacity (AWC, texture) or plant available water (PAW) in the root zone of soil as being a key factor. The second finding emerging may be that the degree of microscale variability in PAW and other soil factors at the vineyard scale renders larger regional characterizations questionable. Cimatic variables like temperature are well mixed, and its influence on wine characteristic is fairly well established. The influence of mesogeology on mesoclimate factors has also been characterized to some extent. To test the hypothesis that vine water status mirrors soil water availability, and controls fruit sensory and chemical properties at the vineyard scale we examined such variables in a iconic, selectively harvested premium winegrape vineyard in the Napa Valley of California during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. Geo-referenced data vines remained as individual study units throughout data gathering and analysis. Cartographic exercises using geographic information systems (GIS) were used to vizualize geospatial variation in soil and vine properties. Highly significant correlations (P < 0.01) emerged for pre-dawn leaf water potential (ΨPD), mid-day leaf water potential (ΨL) and PAW, with berry size, berry weight, pruning weights (canopy size) and soluble solids content (°Brix). Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality had vines with (1) lower leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn and mid-day, (2) smaller berry diameter and weight, (3) lower pruning weights, and (4) higher °Brix. A trained sensory panel found grapes from the more water-stressed vines had significantly sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal character, and browner and crunchier seeds. Metabolomic analysis of

  4. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils) on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability.

    PubMed

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes

    2016-01-01

    The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils) on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation) and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale). Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry. PMID:27504957

  5. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils) on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes

    2016-01-01

    The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils) on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation) and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale). Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry. PMID:27504957

  6. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils) on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability.

    PubMed

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes

    2016-01-01

    The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils) on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation) and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale). Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry.

  7. Advanced glycation end products, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of cooked lamb loins affected by cooking method and addition of flavour precursors.

    PubMed

    Roldan, Mar; Loebner, Jürgen; Degen, Julia; Henle, Thomas; Antequera, Teresa; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge

    2015-02-01

    The influence of the addition of a flavour enhancer solution (FES) (d-glucose, d-ribose, l-cysteine and thiamin) and of sous-vide cooking or roasting on moisture, cooking loss, instrumental colour, sensory characteristics and formation of Maillard reaction (MR) compounds in lamb loins was studied. FES reduced cooking loss and increased water content in sous-vide samples. FES and cooking method showed a marked effect on browning development, both on the meat surface and within. FES led to tougher and chewier texture in sous-vide cooked lamb, and enhanced flavour scores of sous-vide samples more markedly than in roasted ones. FES added meat showed higher contents of furosine; 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural did not reach detectable levels. N-ε-carboxymethyllysine amounts were rather low and not influenced by the studied factors. Cooked meat seems to be a minor dietary source of MR products, regardless the presence of reducing sugars and the cooking method. PMID:25172739

  8. Advanced glycation end products, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of cooked lamb loins affected by cooking method and addition of flavour precursors.

    PubMed

    Roldan, Mar; Loebner, Jürgen; Degen, Julia; Henle, Thomas; Antequera, Teresa; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge

    2015-02-01

    The influence of the addition of a flavour enhancer solution (FES) (d-glucose, d-ribose, l-cysteine and thiamin) and of sous-vide cooking or roasting on moisture, cooking loss, instrumental colour, sensory characteristics and formation of Maillard reaction (MR) compounds in lamb loins was studied. FES reduced cooking loss and increased water content in sous-vide samples. FES and cooking method showed a marked effect on browning development, both on the meat surface and within. FES led to tougher and chewier texture in sous-vide cooked lamb, and enhanced flavour scores of sous-vide samples more markedly than in roasted ones. FES added meat showed higher contents of furosine; 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural did not reach detectable levels. N-ε-carboxymethyllysine amounts were rather low and not influenced by the studied factors. Cooked meat seems to be a minor dietary source of MR products, regardless the presence of reducing sugars and the cooking method.

  9. Sensory analysis of lipstick.

    PubMed

    Yap, K C S; Aminah, A

    2011-06-01

    Sensory analysis of lipstick product by trained panellists started with recruiting female panels who are lipstick users, in good health condition and willing to be a part of sensory members. This group of people was further scrutinized with duo-trio method using commercial lipstick samples that are commonly used among them. About 40% of the 15 panels recruited were unable to differentiate the lipstick samples they usually use better than chance. The balance of nine panels that were corrected at least with 65% across all trials in panels screening process was formed a working group to develop sensory languages as a means of describing product similarities and differences and a scoring system. Five sessions with each session took about 90 min were carried out using 10 types of lipsticks with different waxes mixture ratio in the formulation together with six commercial lipsticks that are the most common to the panels. First session was focus on listing out the panels' perception towards the characteristic of the lipstick samples after normal application on their lips. Second session was focus on the refining and categorizing the responses gathered from the first session and translated into sensory attributes with its definition. Third session was focus on the scoring system. Fourth and fifth sessions were repetition of the third session to ensure consistency. In a collective effort of the panels, sensory attributes developed for lipstick were Spreadability, Off flavour, Hardness, Smoothness, Moist, Not messy, Glossy and Greasy. Analysis of variance was able to provide ample evidence on gauging the panel performance. A proper panels selecting and training was able to produce a reliable and sensitive trained panel for evaluating the product based on the procedures being trained.

  10. Sensory analysis of lipstick.

    PubMed

    Yap, K C S; Aminah, A

    2011-06-01

    Sensory analysis of lipstick product by trained panellists started with recruiting female panels who are lipstick users, in good health condition and willing to be a part of sensory members. This group of people was further scrutinized with duo-trio method using commercial lipstick samples that are commonly used among them. About 40% of the 15 panels recruited were unable to differentiate the lipstick samples they usually use better than chance. The balance of nine panels that were corrected at least with 65% across all trials in panels screening process was formed a working group to develop sensory languages as a means of describing product similarities and differences and a scoring system. Five sessions with each session took about 90 min were carried out using 10 types of lipsticks with different waxes mixture ratio in the formulation together with six commercial lipsticks that are the most common to the panels. First session was focus on listing out the panels' perception towards the characteristic of the lipstick samples after normal application on their lips. Second session was focus on the refining and categorizing the responses gathered from the first session and translated into sensory attributes with its definition. Third session was focus on the scoring system. Fourth and fifth sessions were repetition of the third session to ensure consistency. In a collective effort of the panels, sensory attributes developed for lipstick were Spreadability, Off flavour, Hardness, Smoothness, Moist, Not messy, Glossy and Greasy. Analysis of variance was able to provide ample evidence on gauging the panel performance. A proper panels selecting and training was able to produce a reliable and sensitive trained panel for evaluating the product based on the procedures being trained. PMID:21272038

  11. The effect of child characteristics on teachers' acceptability of classroom-based behavioral strategies and psychostimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Pisecco, S; Huzinec, C; Curtis, D

    2001-09-01

    Studied the effect of student characteristics on teachers' ratings of treatment acceptability for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants (N = 159) included experienced elementary school teachers who read 1 of 6 vignettes describing a child with symptoms representative of ADHD. Vignettes varied by sex and symptom-subtype classification. However, the number and specific type of symptoms described in the vignettes were consistent across all conditions. Next, teachers read a description of a daily report card (DRC), response cost technique, classroom lottery, and medication and rated their levels of agreement to the items of the Behavioral Intervention Rating Scale (BIRS). Teachers preferred the DRC to all other forms of treatment. However, there was a significant interaction between the type of treatment and sex of the student on the 3 factors (Treatment Acceptability, Treatment Effectiveness, and Timeliness) of the BIRS.

  12. Sensory/mixability preference evaluation of cholestyramine powder formulations.

    PubMed

    Shaefer, M S; Jungnickel, P W; Miwa, L J; Marquis, N R; Hutton, G D

    1990-05-01

    This double-blind, crossover trial compared the sensory and product preparation characteristics of two cholestyramine powder preparations. The study involved 100 healthy volunteers, aged 22-65 (mean 42 years). Questran, a currently marketed product containing sucrose as a sweetener, was compared with Questran Light, a new formulation substituting aspartame for 90 percent of the sucrose. Comparisons were conducted with the two products mixed in water and orange juice. The subjects expressed a significant overall preference for the new formulation mixed in either water (77 percent) or orange juice (80 percent) (p less than 0.01 in both comparisons). Subjects expressed an overwhelming preference for the old product (99 percent) with respect to ease of preparation, although the ratings of the new product were generally neutral rather than negative. The new product is somewhat more difficult to prepare compared with the old cholestyramine preparation, but offers significantly increased patient acceptance based on sensory evaluations.

  13. Impact of Gram-negative bacteria in interaction with a complex microbial consortium on biogenic amine content and sensory characteristics of an uncooked pressed cheese.

    PubMed

    Delbès-Paus, Céline; Pochet, Sylvie; Helinck, Sandra; Veisseire, Philippe; Bord, Cécile; Lebecque, Annick; Coton, Monika; Desmasures, Nathalie; Coton, Emmanuel; Irlinger, Françoise; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2012-05-01

    The impact of Gram-negative bacteria on sensory characteristics and production of volatile compounds as well as biogenic amines (BA) in the core of an uncooked pressed type model cheese was investigated in the presence of a defined complex microbial consortium. Eleven strains of Gram-negative bacteria, selected on the basis of their biodiversity and in vitro BA-production ability, were individually tested in a model cheese. Four out of 6 strains of Enterobacteriaceae (Citrobacter freundii UCMA 4217, Klebsiella oxytoca 927, Hafnia alvei B16 and Proteus vulgaris UCMA 3780) reached counts close to 6 log CFU g⁻¹ in the model cheese. In core of cheeses inoculated with Gram-negative bacteria, only slight differences were observed for microbial counts (Enterococcus faecalis or Lactobacillus plantarum count differences below 1 log CFU g⁻¹), acetate concentration (differences below 200 mg kg⁻¹) and texture (greater firmness) in comparison to control cheeses. Cheese core colour, odour and volatile compound composition were not modified. Although ornithine, the precursor of putrescine, was present in all cheeses, putrescine was only detected in cheeses inoculated with H. alvei B16 and never exceeded 2.18 mmol kg⁻¹ cheese dry matter. Cadaverine was only detected in cheeses inoculated with H. alvei B16, K. oxytoca 927, Halomonas venusta 4C1A or Morganella morganii 3A2A but at lower concentrations (<1.05 mmol kg⁻¹ cheese dry matter), although lysine was available. Only insignificant amounts of the detrimental BA histamine and tyramine, as well as isopentylamine, tryptamine or phenylethylamine, were produced in the cheese model by any of the Gram-negative strains, including those which produced these BA at high levels in vitro. PMID:22265286

  14. Sensory quality of broiler breast meat influenced by low atmospheric pressure stunning, deboning time and cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Schilling, M W; Radhakrishnan, V; Vizzier-Thaxton, Y; Christensen, K; Williams, J B; Joseph, P

    2015-06-01

    Stunning method (low atmospheric pressure stunning, LAPS and electrical stunning, ES), deboning time (0.75 h and 4 h), and cooking method (baking, frying, and sous vide) were evaluated for their impact on the descriptive sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of breast meat (n=576, 144 birds per stunning × deboning time combination). Sensory evaluation was conducted by trained descriptive (n=8) and consumer (n=185) panels. On average, no differences (P>0.05) existed in the sensory acceptability of fried and sous vide cooked broiler breast treatment combinations. However, for oven-baking, the LAPS treatment that was deboned at 4 h was more acceptable (P<0.05) than other treatments and the ES and LAPS 4 h samples had greater (P<0.05) acceptability for texture than their ES and LAPS 0.75 h counterparts. Since consumers were highly variable in their liking of chicken breast treatments, consumers were grouped into clusters for each cooking method based on liking and preference. Cluster analysis data revealed that the largest groups of consumers liked (score≥6.0) all chicken breast treatments, but a larger proportion of consumers liked the 4 h LAPS and ES treatments when compared to the 0.75 h LAPS and ES treatments for all cooking methods. In addition, the consumers who indicated that baked chicken breast was highly acceptable preferred (P<0.05) 4 h LAPS over the 4 h ES samples. Based on sensory results, chicken breast meat from all stunning and deboning method combinations was highly acceptable to the majority of consumers, but the LAPS 4 h treatment had enhanced sensory characteristics when baked. PMID:25834250

  15. Sensory quality of broiler breast meat influenced by low atmospheric pressure stunning, deboning time and cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Schilling, M W; Radhakrishnan, V; Vizzier-Thaxton, Y; Christensen, K; Williams, J B; Joseph, P

    2015-06-01

    Stunning method (low atmospheric pressure stunning, LAPS and electrical stunning, ES), deboning time (0.75 h and 4 h), and cooking method (baking, frying, and sous vide) were evaluated for their impact on the descriptive sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of breast meat (n=576, 144 birds per stunning × deboning time combination). Sensory evaluation was conducted by trained descriptive (n=8) and consumer (n=185) panels. On average, no differences (P>0.05) existed in the sensory acceptability of fried and sous vide cooked broiler breast treatment combinations. However, for oven-baking, the LAPS treatment that was deboned at 4 h was more acceptable (P<0.05) than other treatments and the ES and LAPS 4 h samples had greater (P<0.05) acceptability for texture than their ES and LAPS 0.75 h counterparts. Since consumers were highly variable in their liking of chicken breast treatments, consumers were grouped into clusters for each cooking method based on liking and preference. Cluster analysis data revealed that the largest groups of consumers liked (score≥6.0) all chicken breast treatments, but a larger proportion of consumers liked the 4 h LAPS and ES treatments when compared to the 0.75 h LAPS and ES treatments for all cooking methods. In addition, the consumers who indicated that baked chicken breast was highly acceptable preferred (P<0.05) 4 h LAPS over the 4 h ES samples. Based on sensory results, chicken breast meat from all stunning and deboning method combinations was highly acceptable to the majority of consumers, but the LAPS 4 h treatment had enhanced sensory characteristics when baked.

  16. Yield, changes in proteolysis, and sensory quality of Prato cheese produced with different coagulants.

    PubMed

    Alves, L S; Merheb-Dini, C; Gomes, E; da Silva, R; Gigante, M L

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the effect of 2 fungal proteases, one that is already commercially established as a milk-clotting agent and another produced at the laboratory scale, on Prato cheese composition, protein and fat recovery, yield, and sensory characteristics. Cheeses were produced according to the traditional protocol, using protease from the fungus Thermomucor indicae-seudaticae N31 and commercial coagulant from Rhizomucor spp. as clotting agents. A 2×6 factorial design with 3 replications was performed: 2 levels of coagulants and 6 levels of storage time. After 5, 12, 19, 33, 43, and 53d of refrigerated storage (12°C), cheeses were monitored for proteolysis, firmness, and casein degradation by capillary electrophoresis. Sensory acceptance was evaluated after 29d of manufacturing. The different coagulants did not statistically affect Prato cheese composition, protein and fat recovery, and yield. Both cheeses presented good sensory acceptance. Proteolysis increased and firmness decreased for both cheeses during the storage time, as expected for Prato cheese. Caseins were well separated by capillary electrophoresis and the results showed, with good resolution, that the cheeses exhibited similar protein hydrolysis profile. Both cheeses presented good sensory acceptance. The gathered data showed that the protease from T. indicae-seudaticae N31 presented similar action compared with the commercial enzyme, indicating its efficiency as clotting agent for Prato cheese manufacture.

  17. Effects of grazing cow diet on volatile compounds as well as physicochemical and sensory characteristics of 12-month-ripened Montasio cheese.

    PubMed

    Aprea, E; Romanzin, A; Corazzin, M; Favotto, S; Betta, E; Gasperi, F; Bovolenta, S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pasture type and cow feeding supplementation level on a 12-mo-ripened Montasio protected designation of origin (PDO) cheese, which is one of the most important PDO cheeses produced in northeast Italy. Cheeses were characterized for volatile compounds, color, mechanical variables, and sensory descriptors. Pasture type significantly affected most of the instrumental variables considered and, as a consequence, sensory properties were affected as well. Cheeses from the pasture characterized by a nutrient-rich vegetation type were higher in protein and lower in fat content. Furthermore, such cheeses, evaluated by a sensory panel, were more intense in color with a more pungent and less cow-like odor, in agreement with what found through instrumental analyses. Supplementation level resulted in less pronounced effects, limited to volatile compounds and texture properties, which were not detected by sensory analysis. The characterization of the 12-mo ripened Montasio cheese reported here is an important step for the valorization of this PDO product. PMID:27265179

  18. Degradation kinetics of peroxidase enzyme, phenolic content, and physical and sensorial characteristics in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Italica) during blanching.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Elsa M; Pinheiro, Joaquina; Alegria, Carla; Abreu, Marta; Brandão, Teresa R S; Silva, Cristina L M

    2009-06-24

    The effects of water blanching treatment on peroxidase inactivation, total phenolic content, color parameters [-a*/b* and hue (h degrees*)], texture (maximum shear force), and sensory attributes (color and texture, evaluated by a trained panel) of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Italica) were studied at five temperatures (70, 75, 80, 85, and 90 degrees C). Experimental results showed that all studied broccoli quality parameters suffered significative changes due to blanching treatments. The vegetal total phenolic content showed a marked decline. Degradation on objective color and texture measurements and alterations in sensorial attributes were detected. Correlations between sensory and instrumental measurements have been found. Under the conditions 70 degrees C and 6.5 min or 90 degrees C and 0.4 min, 90% of the initial peroxidase activity was reduced. At these conditions, no significant alterations were detected by panelists, and a small amount of phenolic content was lost (ca. 16 and 10%, respectively). The peroxidase inactivation and phenolic content degradation were found to follow first-order reaction models. The zero-order reaction model showed a good fit to the broccoli color (-a*/b* and h degrees*), texture, and sensory parameters changes. The temperature effect was well-described by the Arrhenius law.

  19. Effects of sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives on the quality and sensory characteristics of hot-boned pork sausage patties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives were evaluated for their effects on color retention, microbial growth, and sensory attributes of hot-boned pork sausage patties. Treatments included: (a) sodium lactate (L), (b) buffered vinegar (V), (c) sodium lactate and vinegar mixture (LV), (d) control ...

  20. Effects of grazing cow diet on volatile compounds as well as physicochemical and sensory characteristics of 12-month-ripened Montasio cheese.

    PubMed

    Aprea, E; Romanzin, A; Corazzin, M; Favotto, S; Betta, E; Gasperi, F; Bovolenta, S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pasture type and cow feeding supplementation level on a 12-mo-ripened Montasio protected designation of origin (PDO) cheese, which is one of the most important PDO cheeses produced in northeast Italy. Cheeses were characterized for volatile compounds, color, mechanical variables, and sensory descriptors. Pasture type significantly affected most of the instrumental variables considered and, as a consequence, sensory properties were affected as well. Cheeses from the pasture characterized by a nutrient-rich vegetation type were higher in protein and lower in fat content. Furthermore, such cheeses, evaluated by a sensory panel, were more intense in color with a more pungent and less cow-like odor, in agreement with what found through instrumental analyses. Supplementation level resulted in less pronounced effects, limited to volatile compounds and texture properties, which were not detected by sensory analysis. The characterization of the 12-mo ripened Montasio cheese reported here is an important step for the valorization of this PDO product.

  1. Which perceived characteristics make product innovations appealing to the consumer? A study on the acceptance of fruit innovations using cross-cultural consumer segmentation.

    PubMed

    Onwezen, Marleen C; Bartels, Jos

    2011-08-01

    In general, fruit consumption in the EU does not meet governments' recommended levels, and innovations in the fruit industry are thought to be useful for increasing fruit consumption. Despite the enormous number of product innovations, the majority of new products in the market fail within the first two years, due to a lack of consumer acceptance. Consumer segmentation may be a useful research tool to increase the success rates of new fruit products. The current study aims to identify consumer segments based on individual importance rankings of fruit choice motives. We conducted a cross-national, online panel survey on fresh fruit innovations in four European countries: the Netherlands (n=251), Greece (n=246), Poland (n=250), and Spain (n=250). Our cluster analysis revealed three homogeneous consumer segments: Average Joe, the Naturally conscious consumer, and the Health-oriented consumer. These consumer segments differed with respect to their importance ratings for fruit choice motives. Furthermore, the willingness to buy specific fruit innovations (i.e., genetically modified, functional food and convenience innovation) and the perceived product characteristics that influence this willingness differed across the segments. Our study could lead to more tailored marketing strategies aimed at increasing consumer acceptance of fruit product innovations based on consumer segmentation. PMID:21477633

  2. Which perceived characteristics make product innovations appealing to the consumer? A study on the acceptance of fruit innovations using cross-cultural consumer segmentation.

    PubMed

    Onwezen, Marleen C; Bartels, Jos

    2011-08-01

    In general, fruit consumption in the EU does not meet governments' recommended levels, and innovations in the fruit industry are thought to be useful for increasing fruit consumption. Despite the enormous number of product innovations, the majority of new products in the market fail within the first two years, due to a lack of consumer acceptance. Consumer segmentation may be a useful research tool to increase the success rates of new fruit products. The current study aims to identify consumer segments based on individual importance rankings of fruit choice motives. We conducted a cross-national, online panel survey on fresh fruit innovations in four European countries: the Netherlands (n=251), Greece (n=246), Poland (n=250), and Spain (n=250). Our cluster analysis revealed three homogeneous consumer segments: Average Joe, the Naturally conscious consumer, and the Health-oriented consumer. These consumer segments differed with respect to their importance ratings for fruit choice motives. Furthermore, the willingness to buy specific fruit innovations (i.e., genetically modified, functional food and convenience innovation) and the perceived product characteristics that influence this willingness differed across the segments. Our study could lead to more tailored marketing strategies aimed at increasing consumer acceptance of fruit product innovations based on consumer segmentation.

  3. Correlation between sensory and instrumental measurements of standard and crisp-texture southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. interspecific hybrids)

    PubMed Central

    Blaker, Kendra M; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Olmstead, James W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fruit texture is a primary selection trait in southern highbush blueberry (SHB) breeding to increase fresh fruit postharvest quality and consumer acceptance. A novel crisp fruit texture has recently been identified among SHB germplasm. In this study, we developed a common set of descriptors that align sensory evaluation of blueberry fruit texture with instrumental measures that could be used for quantitative measurements during pre- and postharvest evaluation. RESULTS Sensory and instrumental characteristics were measured in 36 and 49 genotypes in 2010 and 2011, respectively. A trained sensory panel evaluated fresh fruit based on five common textural attributes in 2010 and 2011: bursting energy, flesh firmness, skin toughness, juiciness and mealiness. Instrumental measures of compression and bioyield forces were significantly different among cultivars and correlated with sensory scores for bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness (R > 0.7, except skin toughness in 2011), but correlations with sensory scores for juiciness and mealiness were low (R < 0.4). CONCLUSION The results of sensory and instrumental measures supported the use of both compression and bioyield force measures in distinguishing crisp from standard-texture genotypes, and suggest that crisp texture in SHB is related to the sensory perception of bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness. PMID:24619938

  4. Inulin and erythritol as sucrose replacers in short-dough cookies: sensory, fracture, and acoustic properties.

    PubMed

    Laguna, Laura; Primo-Martín, Cristina; Salvador, Ana; Sanz, Teresa

    2013-05-01

    The effect of sucrose replacement by erythritol and inulin was studied in short-dough cookies using instrumental and sensory analysis. Two levels of replacement were used (25% and 50% of total sucrose content). Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the sucrose replacement affects visual and texture cookies characteristics, being the differences perceived by mouth greater than by hand. In general, sucrose substitutes produced a less crispy cookie and lower consumer acceptability, with the exception of 25% sucrose replacement by inulin. Matrix aeration attributes such as open and crumbly obtained by trained panel were important properties, and correlated positively with consumer acceptance and negatively with maximum force at break (hardness). Inulin cookies sensory properties were more similar to the control than the erythritol cookies. Also, consumer overall acceptance decreased significantly with sucrose replacement by erythritol. The analysis of texture and sound revealed that inulin cookies were softer whereas erythritol cookies were harder in comparison with control cookies; despite this difference, inulin cookies had similar sound characteristics to erythritol cookies.

  5. Religious/spiritual characteristics of indian and indonesian physicians and their acceptance of spirituality in health care: a cross-cultural comparison.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, P; Karimah, A; Kuntaman, K; Shukla, A; Ansari, B K M; Rao, P H; Ahmed, M; Tribulato, A; Agarwal, A K; Koenig, H G; Murthy, P

    2015-04-01

    Religious/spiritual (r/s) characteristics of physicians influence their attitude toward integrative medicine and spiritual care. Indonesia physicians collaborate with traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM) professionals within modern healthcare system, while Indian physicians are not reported to do so. The aim of the study was to understand the r/s characteristics and their influence on Indian and Indonesian physicians' acceptance of TCAM/spirituality in modern healthcare system. An exploratory, pilot, cross-cultural, cross-sectional study, using Religion and Spirituality in Medicine, and Physician Perspectives (RSMPP) survey questionnaire, compared r/s characteristics and perspectives on integrative medicine of 169 physicians from two allopathic, Sweekar-Osmania University (Sweekar-OU), India, University of Airlanga (UNAIR), Indonesia, and a TCAM/Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine (CRIUM) institute from India. More physicians from UNAIR and CRIUM (89.1 %) described themselves as "very"/"moderately" religious, compared to 63.5 % Sweekar-OU (p = 0.0000). Greater number of (84.6 %) UNAIR physicians described themselves as "very" spiritual and also significantly high (p < 0.05) in intrinsic religiosity as compared to Sweekar-OU and TCAM physicians; 38.6 % of UNAIR and 32.6 % of CRIUM participants reported life-changing spiritual experiences in clinical settings as against 19.7 % of Sweekar-OU; 92.3 % of UNAIR, compared to CRIUM (78.3 %) and Sweekar-OU (62 %), felt comfortable attending to patients' spiritual needs, (p = 0.0001). Clinical comfort and not r/s characteristics of participants was the significant (p = 0.05) variable in full regression models, predictive of primary outcome criteria; "TCAM or r/s healing as complementary to allopathic treatment." In conclusion, mainstreaming TCAM into healthcare system may be an initial step toward both integrative medicine and also improving r/s care interventions by allopathic physicians.

  6. Effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour on the antioxidant potential, nutritional quality, and sensory characteristics of fortified durum wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of carob flour addition from 1% to 5% (w/w) on phenolics content, antioxidant activity, nutritional quality, and sensory attributes of wheat pasta. An increase of about 2-folds, 18-folds and 3-folds in phenolics content, antiradical activity and reducing power for pasta fortified with 5% of carob flour was observed, respectively, compared to the control. Expected glycemic index (eGI) was increased proportionally to the substitution level and ranged between 72.2 and 83.9 for 1-5% of supplement, respectively. Furthermore, pasta fortification affected the in vitro bioaccessibility of nutrients. In case of 5% supplemented pasta, the digestibility of starch and protein decreased by about 9% compared to the control. The replacement of semolina with carob flour from 1% to 5% had no significant effect on pasta sensory attributes. In conclusion, carob flour seems to be a promising functional ingredient for pasta fortification.

  7. Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat frankfurters with pork back fat replaced by dietary fiber extracted from makgeolli lees.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Ji-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ai; Chung, Hai-Jung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-02-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 30% to 20%, 15%, and 10% by partially substituting pork back fat with a makgeolli lees fiber were investigated regarding approximate composition, energy value, pH, color, cooking loss, emulsion stability, texture profile analysis, apparent viscosity, and sensory evaluation. The moisture and ash contents, redness, and yellowness were higher in reduced-fat frankfurters containing makgeolli lees fiber than in the control with 30% fat. With increasing fat levels, samples displayed higher pH, lightness, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, apparent viscosity, and sensory quality, while displaying lower cooking loss and total expressible fluid. The results show that fat levels of frankfurters with added makgeolli lees fiber can be successfully reduced. Thus, 20% fat frankfurters with the addition of 2% makgeolli lees fiber are similar in quality to regular frankfurters with 30% fat. PMID:24200582

  8. Effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour on the antioxidant potential, nutritional quality, and sensory characteristics of fortified durum wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of carob flour addition from 1% to 5% (w/w) on phenolics content, antioxidant activity, nutritional quality, and sensory attributes of wheat pasta. An increase of about 2-folds, 18-folds and 3-folds in phenolics content, antiradical activity and reducing power for pasta fortified with 5% of carob flour was observed, respectively, compared to the control. Expected glycemic index (eGI) was increased proportionally to the substitution level and ranged between 72.2 and 83.9 for 1-5% of supplement, respectively. Furthermore, pasta fortification affected the in vitro bioaccessibility of nutrients. In case of 5% supplemented pasta, the digestibility of starch and protein decreased by about 9% compared to the control. The replacement of semolina with carob flour from 1% to 5% had no significant effect on pasta sensory attributes. In conclusion, carob flour seems to be a promising functional ingredient for pasta fortification. PMID:26471602

  9. The effect of feeding native warm-season grasses during the stocker phase on meat composition, quality characteristics, and sensory properties of loin steaks from forage-finished cattle.

    PubMed

    Kurve, V; Joseph, P; Williams, J B; Boland, H T; Riffell, S K; Kim, T; Schilling, M W

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the quality of beef from cattle that were fed native warm-season grass (NWSG) in the stocker phase and forage finished on tall fescue. Seventy-two British crossbred steers were randomly allotted to 9 pasture plots with 3 different forage treatments that included Bermuda grass (BER), Indian grass monoculture (IND), and big bluestem, little bluestem, and Indian grass (MIX) and forage finished on tall fescue. Two steers were randomly selected from each pasture plot for meat quality analyses (n = 18). Carcasses graded 67% Select for IND and 17% for both BER and MIX treatments, respectively. All other carcasses received quality grades of Standard. Steaks from treatments did not differ (P > 0.05) in sensory attributes, average sensory acceptability, color, tenderness, pH, or bacterial counts at each storage time, with limited differences in aroma, flavor, and texture. The IND steaks had lower cooking loss (P < 0.05) than steaks from the MIX and BER treatments. Steaks from the BER treatment had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values (P < 0.05) after 6 d of storage when compared with steaks from the MIX and IND treatments, which indicated a higher susceptibility to lipid oxidation. Cluster analysis was conducted to group consumers on the basis of their preference and liking of steak from the different forage treatments. On the basis of panelists' acceptability scores, consumers were grouped into 4 clusters. The largest group (60% of consumers) liked all treatments between moderately and very much. In addition, 17% of consumers preferred steaks from the IND treatment over the BER treatment, and 11% of consumers preferred steaks from the BER and IND treatments over steaks from the MIX treatment. Overall, results indicate that high-quality forage-fed beef can be produced when cattle are fed mixed NWSG, Indian grass, or Bermuda grass during the stocker phase and then finished on tall fescue.

  10. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Appenzeller Cheese Supplemented with Shrimp Powder

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Chun, Soon-Sil

    2015-01-01

    The effects of adding shrimp (Periclimenes imperator) powder to Appenzeller cheese on quality and characteristics during ripening were investigated. Cheese samples were prepared containing 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% shrimp powder. Changes in the lactic acid bacterial populations, pH, water-soluble nitrogen concentrations, consumer acceptability, colour and texture were monitored during ripening. The addition of shrimp powder did not affect the appearance or consumer sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Likewise, cheese cohesiveness, fracturability, and springiness were not significantly altered. It was concluded that the quality of the Appenzeller cheese was not affected by adding shrimp powder. PMID:26761833

  11. Incorporation of Mg and Ca into nanostructured Fe2O3 improves Fe solubility in dilute acid and sensory characteristics in foods.

    PubMed

    Hilty, Florentine M; Knijnenburg, Jesper T N; Teleki, Alexandra; Krumeich, Frank; Hurrell, Richard F; Pratsinis, Sotiris E; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies worldwide. Food fortification can be an effective and sustainable strategy to reduce Fe deficiency but selection of iron fortificants remains a challenge. Water-soluble compounds, for example, FeSO(4), usually demonstrate high bioavailability but they often cause unacceptable sensory changes in foods. On the other hand, poorly acid-soluble Fe compounds, for example FePO(4), may cause fewer adverse sensory changes in foods but are usually not well bioavailable since they need to be dissolved in the stomach prior to absorption. The solubility and the bioavailability of poorly acid-soluble Fe compounds can be improved by decreasing their primary particle size and thereby increasing their specific surface area. Here, Fe oxide-based nanostructured compounds with added Mg or Ca were produced by scalable flame aerosol technology. The compounds were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fe solubility in dilute acid. Sensory properties of the Fe-based compounds were tested in 2 highly reactive, polyphenol-rich food matrices: chocolate milk and fruit yoghurt. The Fe solubility of nanostructured Fe(2)O(3) doped with Mg or Ca was higher than that of pure Fe(2)O(3). Since good solubility in dilute acid was obtained despite the inhomogeneity of the powders, inexpensive precursors, for example Fe- and Ca-nitrates, can be used for their manufacture. Adding Mg or Ca lightened powder color, while sensory changes when added to foods were less pronounced than for FeSO(4). The combination of high Fe solubility and low reactivity in foods makes these flame-made nanostructured compounds promising for food fortification. Practical Application: The nanostructured iron-containing compounds presented here may prove useful for iron fortification of certain foods; they are highly soluble in dilute acid and likely to be well absorbed in the gut but cause less severe

  12. Interactions between canola meal and flaxseed oil in the diets of White Lohmann hens on fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of table eggs.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2016-08-01

    The current study was designed to assess the fatty acid composition and sensory attributes of eggs procured from hens consuming diets containing canola meal (CM) and/or flax oil (FO). A total of 96 group-caged White Lohmann hens received 1 of 4 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets for a period of 4 weeks. Diets were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, containing 24% canola meal, 7.5% flax oil, both, or neither (control). All yolk fatty acids were affected by flax oil inclusion, with the exception of stearic acid (SA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Only SA was affected by CM inclusion. Additionally, significant interactions between CM and FO were observed for linoleic acid (LA) and total omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with DPA approaching significance (P = 0.069). Trained panelists (n = 8) evaluated 7 aroma ('egg', 'creamy', 'buttery', 'salty', 'sweet', 'barny', and 'oceanic') and 6 flavor ('egg', 'creamy', 'buttery', 'salty', 'brothy', and 'oceanic') attributes of cooked egg product. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in aroma attributes were found between eggs from different dietary treatments. However, egg, creamy, buttery, and oceanic flavors were significantly different between the dietary treatments (P < 0.05). While oceanic flavor significantly increased with inclusion of FO, egg and creamy flavors showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05). Although CM addition alone did not result in significant sensory changes, the pairing of CM and FO resulted in even greater sensory changes than using FO alone, specifically with regard to egg flavor. Results from partial least squares analyses showed a strong association between oceanic flavor and omega-3 PUFA. Oppositely, egg, creamy, and buttery flavors were more correlated with the presence of omega-6 PUFA and palmitic acid. This experiment provides evidence that the interaction between CM and FO in the White Lohmann hen diet results in sensory changes of cooked eggs associated in

  13. Effect of flaxseed flour incorporation on the physical properties and consumer acceptability of cereal bars.

    PubMed

    Khouryieh, H; Aramouni, F

    2013-12-01

    Extensive research has revealed numerous nutritional and health benefits of flaxseed due primarily to its nutrients content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of flaxseed flour addition on the physical and sensory characteristics of cereal bars. Four formulations of the flaxseed cereal bars were prepared by partially replacing oats with flaxseed flour added at levels of 0 (control), 6%, 12% and 18%. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in water activity, moisture and firmness values between the flaxseed bars and control. Flaxseed addition significantly (p < 0.05) decreased lightness and increased redness of the bars. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the 12% flax cereal bars and the control with respect to sensory attributes and overall acceptability. The overall acceptability for both 12% flax bars and the control was in between 'like moderately' and 'like slightly' on the 9-point hedonic scale. The overall acceptability was most highly correlated with flavor acceptability for both control (r = 0.80) and 12% flax (r = 0.82) cereal bars. Flaxseed bars provided 12% dietary fiber of the daily recommended value. These results indicated that flaxseed flour incorporation up to 12% substantially enhanced the nutritional qualities of the cereal bars without affecting their sensory and quality properties.

  14. Effect of flaxseed flour incorporation on the physical properties and consumer acceptability of cereal bars.

    PubMed

    Khouryieh, H; Aramouni, F

    2013-12-01

    Extensive research has revealed numerous nutritional and health benefits of flaxseed due primarily to its nutrients content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of flaxseed flour addition on the physical and sensory characteristics of cereal bars. Four formulations of the flaxseed cereal bars were prepared by partially replacing oats with flaxseed flour added at levels of 0 (control), 6%, 12% and 18%. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in water activity, moisture and firmness values between the flaxseed bars and control. Flaxseed addition significantly (p < 0.05) decreased lightness and increased redness of the bars. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the 12% flax cereal bars and the control with respect to sensory attributes and overall acceptability. The overall acceptability for both 12% flax bars and the control was in between 'like moderately' and 'like slightly' on the 9-point hedonic scale. The overall acceptability was most highly correlated with flavor acceptability for both control (r = 0.80) and 12% flax (r = 0.82) cereal bars. Flaxseed bars provided 12% dietary fiber of the daily recommended value. These results indicated that flaxseed flour incorporation up to 12% substantially enhanced the nutritional qualities of the cereal bars without affecting their sensory and quality properties. PMID:23733813

  15. A sensory- and consumer-based approach to optimize cheese enrichment with grape skin powders.

    PubMed

    Torri, L; Piochi, M; Marchiani, R; Zeppa, G; Dinnella, C; Monteleone, E

    2016-01-01

    dispersion in the curd would reduce the effect of powder addition on sensory properties, thereby encouraging the use of these polyphenol-based fortifiers in cheeses. The proposed approach allowed the identification of sensory properties critical for product acceptability by consumers, thus helping the optimization of both fortifier characteristics and new cheese production and composition.

  16. Sensory receptors in the equine foot.

    PubMed

    Bowker, R M; Brewer, A M; Vex, K B; Guida, L A; Linder, K E; Sonea, I M; Stinson, A W

    1993-11-01

    Two types of sensory receptors were located in the equine foot, using anatomic techniques. Histologic examination of stained hoof sections revealed lamellated corpuscles in the hoof dermis, which had many of the morphologic characteristics of Pacinian corpuscles. These sensory receptors were restricted to the palmar (caudal) aspects of the solar dermis of the heel. A second type of receptor was detected by use of immunocytochemistry, indicating apparently naked nerve endings containing the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity in skin, solar dermal tubules, and the digital cushion. This peptide is an example of a sensory neurotransmitter contained in dorsal root ganglion cells and is believed to exist only in unmyelinated sensory nerve fibers. These 2 morphologic structures may be used for detection of sensory stimuli, such as pressure (or vibratory senses) and pain, respectively, in horses during various locomotory gaits.

  17. Identification of characteristic flavour precursors from enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation tallow by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-olfactometry and partial least squares regression.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Xiaoming; Song, Shiqing; Tan, Chen; Jia, Chengsheng; Xia, Shuqin

    2013-01-15

    The "enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation" method was employed to obtain oxidized tallow. Nine beeflike flavours (BFs) were prepared through Maillard reaction with oxidized tallow and other ingredients. Volatile compounds of oxidized tallow and beeflike flavours were analysed by SPME/GC-MS. Six sensory attributes (meaty, beefy, tallowy, simulate, burnt and off-flavour) were selected to assess BFs. Thirty four odour-active compounds were identified to represent beef odour through GC-O analysis based on detection frequency method. GC-MS profiles of oxidized tallow were correlated with GC-O responses and sensory attributes of BFs using partial least squares regression modelling (PLSR). Twenty nine compounds were considered as the potential precursors of oxidized tallow. Among them, tetradecanoic acid, d-limonene, 1,7-heptandiol, 2-butyltetrahydrofuran, (Z)-4-undecenal, (Z)-4-decenal, (E)-4-nonenal and 5-pentyl-2(3H)-furanone were unique products generated from enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation of tallow, while hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, pentanal, acetic acid, butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol, 3-methylbutanal, 2-pentylfuran, γ-nonalactone, 2-undecenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-decenal and (Z)-2-heptenal were common products generated from thermal oxidation of tallow. PMID:23270941

  18. The effect of thermal processing condition on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented sausages dried by Quick-Dry-Slice process®.

    PubMed

    Ferrini, G; Arnau, J; Guàrdia, M D; Comaposada, J

    2014-02-01

    The effect of different thermal processing conditions just after fermentation on physicochemical parameters and sensory attributes of salami and chorizo slices dried by Quick-Dry-Slice process®, was evaluated. Meat and common additives were mixed, stuffed and fermented. Previous to drying the sausages were subjected to thermal treatment at 53 °C at different exposure times (0, 50, 65, 80, 95 and 110 min). Finally, the sausages were sliced and dried using QDS process®. Color, instrumental texture and sensory analysis were performed. Lightness (L*) after fermentation increased with thermal processing in both products while redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) decreased only in salami. Thermal treatment after fermentation increased the initial force (F0). Cooked appearance, cooked fat odor, cooked flavor and stringiness increased when the thermal processing time was increased. Thermal processing of salami and chorizo at 53 °C for 50 min and drying up to 30% of weight loss resulted in a similar product to that obtained without thermal processing.

  19. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development.

  20. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development. PMID:22416723

  1. Partial sodium replacement in tilapia steak without loss of acceptability.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Maria Lúcia G; Mársico, Eliane T; Canto, Anna Carolina V C S; Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Lázaro, César A; Cruz, Adriano G; Conte-Júnior, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate physical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium tilapia steaks restructured with microbial transglutaminase. Polyphosphate (0.4%), condiment mixes-onion powder and garlic powder (2.5%), water (10.0%), transglutaminase (1.0%), and different types of salts (1.5%) were mixed with non-commercial sized fillets. Substitution of NaCl by KCl or MgCl2 (at 50% each) affected quality attributes and decreased (P < 0.05) consumer acceptability. The tri-salt steaks (KCl, MgCl2, and NaCl at 1:1:2 ratio) improved some attributes and increased (P < 0.05) acceptability and purchase intention. We conclude that potassium and magnesium chlorides are possible replacers of salt (NaCl) in restructured tilapia steaks and potentially decrease the risk factor for heart failure associated with high sodium consumption. PMID:24831644

  2. Partial sodium replacement in tilapia steak without loss of acceptability.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Maria Lúcia G; Mársico, Eliane T; Canto, Anna Carolina V C S; Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Lázaro, César A; Cruz, Adriano G; Conte-Júnior, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate physical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium tilapia steaks restructured with microbial transglutaminase. Polyphosphate (0.4%), condiment mixes-onion powder and garlic powder (2.5%), water (10.0%), transglutaminase (1.0%), and different types of salts (1.5%) were mixed with non-commercial sized fillets. Substitution of NaCl by KCl or MgCl2 (at 50% each) affected quality attributes and decreased (P < 0.05) consumer acceptability. The tri-salt steaks (KCl, MgCl2, and NaCl at 1:1:2 ratio) improved some attributes and increased (P < 0.05) acceptability and purchase intention. We conclude that potassium and magnesium chlorides are possible replacers of salt (NaCl) in restructured tilapia steaks and potentially decrease the risk factor for heart failure associated with high sodium consumption.

  3. Effect of Dietary Treatment with Olive Oil By-Product (Olive Cake) on Physicochemical, Sensory and Microbial Characteristics of Beef During Storage

    PubMed Central

    Ranucci, David; Miraglia, Dino; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Servili, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the use of natural preservatives through animal diets could increase the shelf life of meat and meat products since many plant-derived substances show antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of olive cake dietary supplementation on beef oxidative stability and antimicrobial activity during storage. Beef cattle were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups that were assigned to one of the three diets: a commercial unified based diet administered for 90 days until slaughter (CTR), CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake administered for 90 days until slaughter (OC1), and CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake and administered for 60 days followed by the administration of the CTR diet for 30 days until slaughter (OC2). Beefsteaks were overwrapped with oxygen-permeable packaging and analysed at four different storage times (zero, three, six and nine days). At the four sampling times considered from all of the samples, total viable count (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae counts, colour coordinates (CIE L*a*b* colour system), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARs) determinations and descriptive sensory analyses were performed. No differences in TVC and Enterobacteriaceae count were detected among the groups over all of the sampling times considered. Differences were recorder among groups for PV, TBARS, colour and sensory analysis. The addition of olive cake in the animal diet had an effect on lipid oxidation reducing the level of PV, TBARS and retarding colour deterioration and the development of off odour in OC meat during storage. PMID:27800420

  4. Algal sensory photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Hegemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Only five major types of sensory photoreceptors (BLUF-proteins, cryptochromes, phototropins, phytochromes, and rhodopsins) are used in nature to regulate developmental processes, photosynthesis, photoorientation, and control of the circadian clock. Sensory photoreceptors of algae and protists are exceptionally rich in structure and function; light-gated ion channels and photoactivated adenylate cyclases are unique examples. During the past ten years major progress has been made with respect to understanding the function, photochemistry, and structure of key sensory players of the algal kingdom.

  5. Descriptive analysis and U.S. consumer acceptability of 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores H

    2010-03-01

    In the past, green tea has been one of the least popular nonalcoholic beverages for U.S. consumers. However, green tea has been receiving attention because of its potential health benefits. Knowing which green tea flavor attributes contribute to consumer liking will help the fast growing green tea business including green tea importers, tea shops, and beverage companies to understand which characteristics are most accepted by U.S. consumers. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine differences in acceptability of commonly available loose leaf and bagged green teas available from the major exporters to the U.S. (Japan, Korea, and China) and (2) to determine which green tea flavor characteristics are related to consumers' liking. In the study, consumers from the U.S. evaluated 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea for acceptability. A highly trained panel also evaluated the green tea samples to provide descriptive sensory attributes that might be related to acceptability. We found that U.S. consumers liked green tea samples with lower flavor intensity and lower bitterness intensity. Consumers' acceptability of green tea was negatively correlated with spinach and animalic flavor and bitterness and astringency of green teas evaluated using descriptive sensory analysis, but the correlation was only moderate. To learn what green tea flavor characteristics influence consumers' liking, future studies using more green tea samples with different flavor profiles are needed.

  6. Signaling by Sensory Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

  7. The impact of ultimate pH on muscle characteristics and sensory attributes of the longissimus thoracis within the dark cutting (Canada B4) beef carcass grade.

    PubMed

    Holdstock, J; Aalhus, J L; Uttaro, B A; López-Campos, O; Larsen, I L; Bruce, H L

    2014-12-01

    Canada B4 beef carcasses are penalized because the longissimus thoracis (LT) at the grade site (12-13th ribs) is darker than the color threshold for normal bright cherry-red beef. Previous studies have shown that not all B4 carcasses have pH>6.0; therefore, the relationship between LT pH and meat quality was investigated by collecting thirty half-carcasses comprised of the following: ten Canada AA (AA, control), ten B4 with LT pH>6.0 (CL, classic), and ten B4 with LT pH<6.0 (AT, atypical). LT from CL carcasses had the lowest mean lactate level, lowest glucidic potential and highest mean pH value. LT muscle from CL and AT carcasses was dark and had decreased purge, drip loss and cooking loss. Warner-Bratzler shear force values and sensory panel results showed that AT beef was toughest (P<0.0001), substantiating economic penalty. Causal mechanisms for AT carcasses may be inconsistent with traditional DFD theory because of close to normal final muscle pH. PMID:25173716

  8. Influence of different emulsifiers on characteristics of eggless cake containing soy milk: Modeling of physical and sensory properties by mixture experimental design.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Nazanin Fatemeh; Mazaheri Tehrani, Mostafa

    2014-09-01

    Emulsifiers of different structures and functionalities are important ingredients usually used in baking cakes with satisfactory properties. In this study, three emulsifiers including distilled glycerol mono stearate (DGMS), lecithin and sorbitan mono stearate (SMS) were used to bake seven eggless cakes containing soy milk and optimization was performed by using mixture experimental design to produce an eggless cake sample with optimized properties. Physical properties of cake batters (viscosity, specific gravity and stability), cake quality parameters (moisture loss, density, specific volume, volume index, contour, symmetry, color and texture) and sensory attributes of eggless cakes were analyzed to investigate functional potential of the emulsifiers and results were compared with those of control cake containing egg. Almost in all cases emulsifiers, compared to the control cake, changed properties of eggless cakes significantly. Regarding models of different response variables (except for some properties) and their high R(2) (99.51-100), it could be concluded that models obtained by mixture design were significantly fitted for the studied responses.

  9. A COMPARISON OF SENSORY INTEGRATIVE AND BEHAVIORAL THERAPIES AS TREATMENT FOR PEDIATRIC FEEDING DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Addison, Laura R; Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Bachmeyer, Melanie H; Rivas, Kristi M; Milnes, Suzanne M; Oddo, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of escape extinction (EE) plus noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with sensory integration therapy as treatment for the feeding problems of 2 children. Results indicated that EE plus NCR was more effective in increasing acceptance, decreasing inappropriate behavior, and increasing amount consumed relative to sensory integration for both children. The results are discussed in terms of the challenges of evaluating sensory-integration-based treatments, and the reasons why component analyses of multicomponent treatments like sensory integration are important. PMID:23060661

  10. Rheological, physical, and sensory attributes of gluten-free rice cakes containing resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Tsatsaragkou, Kleopatra; Papantoniou, Maria; Mandala, Ioanna

    2015-02-01

    In this study the effect of resistant starch (RS) addition on gluten-free cakes from rice flour and tapioca starch physical and sensorial properties was investigated. Increase in RS concentration made cake batters less elastic (drop of G'(ω), G''(ω) values) and thinner (viscosity decreased). Cakes specific volume increased with an increase in RS level and was maximized for 15 g/100 g RS, although porosity values were significantly unaffected by RS content. Crumb grain analysis exhibited a decrease in surface porosity, number of pores and an increase in average pore diameter as RS concentration increased. During storage, cake crumb remained softer in formulations with increasing amounts of RS. Sensory evaluation of cakes demonstrated the acceptance of all formulations, with cake containing 20 g/100 g RS mostly preferred. Gluten-free cakes with improved quality characteristics and high nutritional value can be manufactured by the incorporation of RS. PMID:25604540

  11. Effect of whey and casein protein hydrolysates on rheological, textural and sensory properties of cookies.

    PubMed

    Gani, Adil; Broadway, A A; Ahmad, Mudasir; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Wani, Ali Abas; Wani, Sajad Mohd; Masoodi, F A; Khatkar, Bupinder Singh

    2015-09-01

    Milk proteins were hydrolyzed by papain and their effect on the rheological, textural and sensory properties of cookies were investigated. Water absorption (%) decreased significantly as the amount of milk protein concentrates and hydrolysates increased up to a level of 15 % in the wheat flour. Dough extensibility decreased with inrease in parental proteins and their hydrolysates in wheat flour, significantly. Similarly, the pasting properties also varied significantly in direct proportion to the quantity added in the wheat flour. The colour difference (ΔE) of cookies supplemented with milk protein concentrates and hydrolysates were significantly higher than cookies prepared from control. Physical and sensory characteristics of cookies at 5 % level of supplementation were found to be acceptable. Also the scores assigned by the judges for texture and colour were in good agreement with the measurements derived from the physical tests.

  12. Rheological, physical, and sensory attributes of gluten-free rice cakes containing resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Tsatsaragkou, Kleopatra; Papantoniou, Maria; Mandala, Ioanna

    2015-02-01

    In this study the effect of resistant starch (RS) addition on gluten-free cakes from rice flour and tapioca starch physical and sensorial properties was investigated. Increase in RS concentration made cake batters less elastic (drop of G'(ω), G''(ω) values) and thinner (viscosity decreased). Cakes specific volume increased with an increase in RS level and was maximized for 15 g/100 g RS, although porosity values were significantly unaffected by RS content. Crumb grain analysis exhibited a decrease in surface porosity, number of pores and an increase in average pore diameter as RS concentration increased. During storage, cake crumb remained softer in formulations with increasing amounts of RS. Sensory evaluation of cakes demonstrated the acceptance of all formulations, with cake containing 20 g/100 g RS mostly preferred. Gluten-free cakes with improved quality characteristics and high nutritional value can be manufactured by the incorporation of RS.

  13. STORAGE, NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF HIGH-FAT FISH AND RICE FLOUR COEXTRUDATES

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Sukumar Bandyopadhyay; Amarender Singh Bawa

    2013-10-01

    The present research is on understanding the storage, nutritional and sensory characteristics of high-fat fish (khoira) and rice flour coextrudates at storage temperature of 30C. The extruder processing conditions used are barrel temperature (200C), screw speed (109 rpm), fish content of feed (44%) and feed moisture content (39%). Sorption isotherm data indicated that the safe aw level was about 0.4–0.7. Guggenheim -Anderson -de Boer model described the sorption data adequately with an r2 value of 0.99. During the initial 15 days of storage, there was a loss of vitamin A and total tocopherols by 64.4 and 20.6%, and an increase in peroxides and free fatty acid content by about 116 mg/kg and 21.7%. The nonlinear mathematical model developed has adequately described the changes in nutritional and storage properties. Sensory attributes indicated that the product fried for 15 s was most acceptable.

  14. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  15. Evaluation of antioxidant, rheological, physical and sensorial properties of wheat flour dough and cake containing turmeric powder.

    PubMed

    Park, S H; Lim, H S; Hwang, S Y

    2012-10-01

    The effects of addition of turmeric powder (0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%) were examined in order to obtain an antioxidant-enriched cake with good physico-chemical and sensorial properties. The rheological properties of doughs were evaluated using dynamic rheological measurements. Physical properties, curcumin content, radical scavenging activity (RSA-DPPH assay) and sensory analysis (hedonic test) of the supplemented cake were determined. Addition of turmeric powder up to 8% caused significant changes on dough characteristics and on cake rheological properties. The highest curcumin (203 mg/kg) and RSA-DPPH activity (45%) were achieved in the cake having the highest percentage of turmeric powder (8%); however, this sample showed the worst results regarding the rheological properties. Moreover, by sensory evaluation this cake sample was not acceptable. A 6% substitution of wheat flour with turmeric powder showed acceptable sensory scores which were comparable to those of 0-4% turmeric cakes. This indicated that up to 6% level of turmeric powder might be included in cake formulation.

  16. A Comparison between Older Persons with Down Syndrome and a Control Group: Clinical Characteristics, Functional Status and Sensori-Motor Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmeli, Eli; Kessel, Shlomo; Merrick, Joav; Bar-Chad, Shmuel

    2004-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy within the general population has resulted in an increasing number of elderly adults with intellectual disability, and this is reflected in the increased life expectancy in persons with Down syndrome, currently about 56 years. The aim of this study was to study the clinical characteristics, the functional status and…

  17. Effects of Rice Bran, Flax Seed, and Sunflower Seed on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Fatty Acid Composition, Free Amino Acid and Peptide Contents, and Sensory Evaluations of Native Korean Cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang Bon; Kwon, Hana; Kim, Sung Il; Yang, Un Mok; Lee, Ju Hwan; Park, Eun Kyu

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with rice bran, flax seed, or sunflower seed to finishing native Korean cattle (Hanwoo) on growth performances, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, free amino acid and peptide contents, and sensory evaluations of Longissimus muscle (LM). A total of 39 Hanwoo steers (average age of 22.2 mo and average body weight (BW) of 552.2 kg) were randomly divided into Control, rice bran (RB), flax seed (FS), or Sunflower seed (SS) groups. The steers were group fed for 273 d until they reached an average age of 31.2 mo. Final BW was 768.2, 785.8, 786.2, and 789.0 kg, and average daily gain was 0.79, 0.85, 0.82, and 0.84 kg for the Control, RS, FS, and SS groups, respectively (p>0.05). Fat thickness of the FS group (19.8 mm) was greater (p<0.05) than that of the other groups. Final yield grade converted into numerical values was 2.0 for the RB group, 1.7 for the Control and SS groups, and 1.4 for the FS group. Marbling degrees for the Control, SS, RB, and FS groups were 5.3, 5.1, 4.7, and 4.6, respectively. Percentages of palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and arachidic acid (C20:0) in the LM were not different among the groups. Palmitoleic (C16:1) acid was higher (p<0.05) in the SS group. The concentration of oleic acid was highest (p<0.05) in the Control group (47.73%). The level of linolenic acid (C18:3) was 2.3 times higher (p<0.05) in the FS group compared to the other groups. Methionine concentration was (p<0.05) higher in FS (1.7 mg/100 g) and SS (1.2 mg/100 g) steers than in the Control or RB groups. Glutamic acid and α-aminoadipic acid (α-AAA) contents were (p<0.05) higher in the FS group compared to the other groups. LM from the FS group had numerically higher (p>0.05) scores for flavor, umami, and overall palatability in sensory evaluations. In conclusion, supplementation of flax seed to diets of finishing Hanwoo steers improved sensory evaluations which might have been

  18. Effects of Rice Bran, Flax Seed, and Sunflower Seed on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Fatty Acid Composition, Free Amino Acid and Peptide Contents, and Sensory Evaluations of Native Korean Cattle (Hanwoo)

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chang Bon; Kwon, Hana; Kim, Sung Il; Yang, Un Mok; Lee, Ju Hwan; Park, Eun Kyu

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with rice bran, flax seed, or sunflower seed to finishing native Korean cattle (Hanwoo) on growth performances, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, free amino acid and peptide contents, and sensory evaluations of Longissimus muscle (LM). A total of 39 Hanwoo steers (average age of 22.2 mo and average body weight (BW) of 552.2 kg) were randomly divided into Control, rice bran (RB), flax seed (FS), or Sunflower seed (SS) groups. The steers were group fed for 273 d until they reached an average age of 31.2 mo. Final BW was 768.2, 785.8, 786.2, and 789.0 kg, and average daily gain was 0.79, 0.85, 0.82, and 0.84 kg for the Control, RS, FS, and SS groups, respectively (p>0.05). Fat thickness of the FS group (19.8 mm) was greater (p<0.05) than that of the other groups. Final yield grade converted into numerical values was 2.0 for the RB group, 1.7 for the Control and SS groups, and 1.4 for the FS group. Marbling degrees for the Control, SS, RB, and FS groups were 5.3, 5.1, 4.7, and 4.6, respectively. Percentages of palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and arachidic acid (C20:0) in the LM were not different among the groups. Palmitoleic (C16:1) acid was higher (p<0.05) in the SS group. The concentration of oleic acid was highest (p<0.05) in the Control group (47.73%). The level of linolenic acid (C18:3) was 2.3 times higher (p<0.05) in the FS group compared to the other groups. Methionine concentration was (p<0.05) higher in FS (1.7 mg/100 g) and SS (1.2 mg/100 g) steers than in the Control or RB groups. Glutamic acid and α-aminoadipic acid (α-AAA) contents were (p<0.05) higher in the FS group compared to the other groups. LM from the FS group had numerically higher (p>0.05) scores for flavor, umami, and overall palatability in sensory evaluations. In conclusion, supplementation of flax seed to diets of finishing Hanwoo steers improved sensory evaluations which might have been

  19. Developing consumer acceptable biscuits enriched with Psyllium fibre.

    PubMed

    Fradinho, Patricia; Nunes, M Cristiana; Raymundo, Anabela

    2015-08-01

    Consumer's demand for functional food is a trend of the last decades. Nowadays, the attention is focused on the development of products with health claims on the label, which can result in value-added products for the producers companies. Cookies are popular staple foods in the human diet in many countries and are generally well accepted by consumers due to their sensory attributes, long shelf life and convenience. The incorporation of solid components on the biscuit dough, such as dietary fibre, could have serious implications on its structure and perceived texture which explains the technological limitations for the fibre incorporation. The aim of this work is to develop an enriched functional biscuit with Psyllium fibre and understand the impact of the new ingredient on physicochemical and sensorial properties of the dough and biscuits. The optimum biscuit's formulation was determined using the response surface methodology (RSM). Effects of wheat flour (48-52 %) and Psyllium (3-9 %) contents on the dimensional features (spread ratio, expansion factor), water activity, colour parameters (L*, a*, b*), texture characteristics (firmness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, springiness) and sensory properties (colour, flavour, texture, overall acceptability) of dough and biscuits were investigated. The most representative parameters evaluated were used to develop biscuits with similar features to commercial references. An optimum formulation was obtained by incorporating 6 % Psyllium and 50 % flour. This biscuit has the enough amount of Psyllium soluble fibre recommended by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent the risk of coronary heart disease and to bear a health claim on the label. PMID:26243903

  20. The effect of nutrient fortification of sauces on product stability, sensory properties, and subsequent liking by older adults.

    PubMed

    Tsikritzi, Roussa; Wang, Jianqiu; Collins, Vanessa J; Allen, Victoria J; Mavrommatis, Yiannis; Moynihan, Paula J; Gosney, Margot A; Kennedy, Orla B; Methven, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    There are potential nutritional and sensory benefits of adding sauces to hospital meals. The aim of this study was to develop nutrient fortified sauces with acceptable sensory properties suitable for older people at risk of undernutrition. Tomato, gravy, and white sauce were fortified with macro- and micronutrients using food ingredients rich in energy and protein as well as vitamin and mineral premixes. Sensory profile was assessed by a trained panel. Hedonic liking of fortified compared with standard sauces was evaluated by healthy older volunteers. The fortified sauces had higher nutritional value than the conventional ones, for example the energy content of the fortified tomato, white sauce, and gravy formulations were increased between 2.5- and 4-fold compared to their control formulations. Healthy older consumers preferred the fortified tomato sauce compared with unfortified. There were no significant differences in liking between the fortified and standard option for gravy. There were limitations in the extent of fortification with protein, potassium, and magnesium, as excessive inclusion resulted in bitterness, undesired flavors, or textural issues. This was particularly marked in the white sauce to the extent that their sensory characteristics were not sufficiently optimized for hedonic testing. It is proposed that the development of fortified sauces is a simple approach to improving energy intake for hospitalized older people, both through the nutrient composition of the sauce itself and due to the benefits of increasing sensorial taste and lubrication in the mouth.

  1. Hereditary sensory neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2004-05-01

    Hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSNs) are a group of genetically determined peripheral neuropathies with prominent disturbance of the peripheral sensory neurons. They are characterized by sensory loss, insensitivity to pain, a variable degree of muscle weakness and wasting, as well as autonomic features. Frequent complications are foot ulcerations and infections that may lead to osteomyelitis, followed by necrosis and amputations. Consequently, the hereditary sensory neuropathies have also been termed ulceromutilating neuropathies. On the other hand, in the presence of additional motor weakness, they have been subclassified among the group of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disorders. Sporadic and familial cases with different modes of inheritance are known to affect both children and adults. The most prevalent forms of the autosomal dominantly inherited hereditary sensory neuropathies are HSN I and CMT 2b. HSN I is associated with mutations in the SPTLC1 gene, whereas mutations in the RAB7 gene have been identified in CMT 2b. However, at least one more hitherto unknown gene responsible for autosomal-dominant hereditary sensory neuropathies must exist. Autosomal-recessive hereditary sensory neuropathies types III and IV, and probably also type V, result from mutations in the IKBKAP and NTRK1 genes. Very recently, the gene in HSN II (HSN2) has been identified. A spontaneous autosomal-recessive mutation in the Cct4 gene has been reported in the Sprague-Dawley rat strain with early onset sensory neuropathy. Although no curative treatment is available so far, and current therapy is limited to symptom relief, these molecular genetic advances in knowledge about the hereditary sensory neuropathies can be translated into clinical practice by improving diagnosis and genetic counseling. They will also be the basis for functional studies in the future. PMID:15319794

  2. Dissolution test acceptance sampling plans.

    PubMed

    Tsong, Y; Hammerstrom, T; Lin, K; Ong, T E

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) general monograph provides a standard for dissolution compliance with the requirements as stated in the individual USP monograph for a tablet or capsule dosage form. The acceptance rules recommended by USP have important roles in the quality control process. The USP rules and their modifications are often used as an industrial lot release sampling plan, where a lot is accepted when the tablets or capsules sampled are accepted as proof of compliance with the requirement. In this paper, the operating characteristics of the USP acceptance rules are reviewed and compared to a selected modification. The operating characteristics curves show that the USP acceptance rules are sensitive to the true mean dissolution and do not reject a lot or batch that has a large percentage of tablets that dissolve with less than the dissolution specification.

  3. Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Whole Soybean Curd Supplemented with Pine Needle Powder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-01-01

    To develop functionally and nutritionally improved whole soybean curd (WSC), the effects of partial (0 ~ 4%) replacement with pine needle powder (PNP) on the quality characteristics of WSC were investigated. The moisture content and pH ranged from 76.96~77.80% (wet basis) and 6.69~6.74, respectively, with no considerable differences. Lightness significantly decreased with higher PNP content in the formulation (P<0.05), as indicated by visual observation that the color of WSC became darker. Redness and yellowness also significantly decreased (P<0.05). The texture profile analysis indicated that WSC containing PNP was softer and less cohesive than control WSC. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging activities significantly increased (P<0.05) with higher substitution of PNP, and they were well correlated. Results from the consumer test revealed that WSC with 1% PLP received the most favorable acceptance scores for sensory attributes, including overall acceptability. The present study indicated that the characteristics of PNP may play a role in improving WSC quality in terms of physicochemical, sensorial, and antioxidant characteristics. PMID:26176004

  4. Sensory and instrumental texture assessment of roasted pistachio nut/kernel by partial least square (PLS) regression analysis: effect of roasting conditions.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi Moghaddam, Toktam; Razavi, Seyed M A; Taghizadeh, Masoud; Sazgarnia, Ameneh

    2016-01-01

    Roasting is an important step in the processing of pistachio nuts. The effect of hot air roasting temperature (90, 120 and 150 °C), time (20, 35 and 50 min) and air velocity (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m/s) on textural and sensory characteristics of pistachio nuts and kernels were investigated. The results showed that increasing the roasting temperature decreased the fracture force (82-25.54 N), instrumental hardness (82.76-37.59 N), apparent modulus of elasticity (47-21.22 N/s), compressive energy (280.73-101.18 N.s) and increased amount of bitterness (1-2.5) and the hardness score (6-8.40) of pistachio kernels. Higher roasting time improved the flavor of samples. The results of the consumer test showed that the roasted pistachio kernels have good acceptability for flavor (score 5.83-8.40), color (score 7.20-8.40) and hardness (score 6-8.40) acceptance. Moreover, Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis of instrumental and sensory data provided important information for the correlation of objective and subjective properties. The univariate analysis showed that over 93.87 % of the variation in sensory hardness and almost 87 % of the variation in sensory acceptability could be explained by instrumental texture properties. PMID:26787956

  5. Examining extrinsic factors that influence product acceptance: a review.

    PubMed

    Li, X E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2015-05-01

    Drivers of liking (DOL) studies are useful for product development to formulate acceptable products; however, DOL alone are insufficient for understanding why a product is purchased and repurchased, which is ultimately the indication of a successful product. Ultimately sensory attributes drive product success (that is, repeat and continued purchase). However, ignoring the importance of extrinsic factors may neglect the vital product attributes responsible for the initial purchase, which may in turn, affect repeat purchase. The perception of sensory attributes assessed by DOL is mitigated by external perceptions of quality. If the sensory attributes do not deliver based upon the quality cues, the product will not be acceptable. Four key extrinsic factors that affect DOL are the perceived satiety, brand and labeling, price, and the emotional impact to decision making. In order to more thoroughly understand what the DOL for a product is, these 4 product cues should be considered in conjunction with sensory attribute perception to gain a holistic understanding of product acceptance.

  6. Neurocontrol in sensory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, Jason; Nandi, Anirban; Schroeder, Joseph; Ching, Shinung

    Technology to control neural ensembles is rapidly advancing, but many important challenges remain in applications, such as design of controls (e.g. stimulation patterns) with specificity comparable to natural sensory encoding. We use the rodent whisker tactile system as a model for active touch, in which sensory information is acquired in a closed loop between feedforward encoding of sensory information and feedback guidance of sensing motions. Motivated by this system, we present optimal control strategies that are tailored for underactuation (a large ratio of neurons or degrees of freedom to stimulation channels) and limited observability (absence of direct measurement of the system state), common in available stimulation technologies for freely behaving animals. Using a control framework, we have begun to elucidate the feedback effect of sensory cortex activity on sensing in behaving animals. For example, by optogenetically perturbing primary sensory cortex (SI) activity at varied timing relative to individual whisker motions, we find that SI modulates future sensing behavior within 15 msec, on a whisk by whisk basis, changing the flow of incoming sensory information based on past experience. J.T.R. and S.C. hold Career Awards at the Scientific Interface from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund.

  7. Examining Sensory Quadrants in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Carmody, Thomas; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Mehta, Jyutika A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sensory quadrants in autism based on Dunn's Theory of Sensory Processing. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3-43 years of age, compared to 103 age- and gender-matched community…

  8. Sensory Integration Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Healy, Olive; Rispoli, Mandy; Lydon, Helena; Streusand, William; Davis, Tonya; Kang, Soyeon; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Giesbers, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    Intervention studies involving the use of sensory integration therapy (SIT) were systematically identified and analyzed. Twenty-five studies were described in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) assessments used to identify sensory deficits or behavioral functions, (c) dependent variables, (d) intervention procedures, (e) intervention…

  9. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    PubMed

    Teng, Ya-Ling; Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which

  10. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    PubMed

    Teng, Ya-Ling; Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which

  11. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which

  12. Effects of spray-drying conditions on the chemical, physical, and sensory properties of cheese powder.

    PubMed

    Koca, Nurcan; Erbay, Zafer; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2015-05-01

    Dairy powders are produced to increase the shelf life of fresh dairy products and for use as flavoring agents. In this study, 24 cheese powders produced under 7 different conditions were used to investigate the effects of spray-drying parameters (e.g., inlet air temperature, atomization pressure, and outlet air temperature) on the quality of white cheese powder. Composition, color, physical properties, reconstitution, and sensory characteristics of white cheese powders were determined. The results revealed that the white cheese powders produced in this study had low moisture content ratios and water activity values. High outlet air temperatures caused browning and enhanced Maillard reactions. Additionally, high outlet air temperatures increased wettability and dispersibility and decreased the solubility of white cheese powders. Free fat content was positively correlated with inlet air temperature and negatively correlated with outlet air temperature and atomization pressure. Sensory analyses revealed that white cheese powder samples had acceptable sensory characteristics with the exception of the sample produced at an outlet air temperature of 100°C, which had high scores for scorched flavor and color and low scores for cheese flavor.

  13. Effects of spray-drying conditions on the chemical, physical, and sensory properties of cheese powder.

    PubMed

    Koca, Nurcan; Erbay, Zafer; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2015-05-01

    Dairy powders are produced to increase the shelf life of fresh dairy products and for use as flavoring agents. In this study, 24 cheese powders produced under 7 different conditions were used to investigate the effects of spray-drying parameters (e.g., inlet air temperature, atomization pressure, and outlet air temperature) on the quality of white cheese powder. Composition, color, physical properties, reconstitution, and sensory characteristics of white cheese powders were determined. The results revealed that the white cheese powders produced in this study had low moisture content ratios and water activity values. High outlet air temperatures caused browning and enhanced Maillard reactions. Additionally, high outlet air temperatures increased wettability and dispersibility and decreased the solubility of white cheese powders. Free fat content was positively correlated with inlet air temperature and negatively correlated with outlet air temperature and atomization pressure. Sensory analyses revealed that white cheese powder samples had acceptable sensory characteristics with the exception of the sample produced at an outlet air temperature of 100°C, which had high scores for scorched flavor and color and low scores for cheese flavor. PMID:25771045

  14. Sensory and Microbiological Evaluation of Traditional Ovine Ricotta Cheese in Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Isabella; Cardamone, Cinzia; Fiorenza, Gerlando; Macaluso, Giusi; Arcuri, Luigi; Miraglia, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    Ovine ricotta cheese is a traditional Sicilian dairy product characterised by high humidity and a short shelf life (2-4 days when refrigerated). The increasing demand for fresh food has prompted manufacturers to develop special packaging techniques, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), that can extend the shelf life and maintain the organoleptic characteristics of ovine ricotta cheese. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the shelf life of fresh MAP-packed ovine ricotta cheese by monitoring the microbiological, chemical, physical and organoleptic characteristics of the product. Samples of a single batch were packed in MAP or vacuum packed and stored at 4°C for 24 and 7 days, respectively. Water activity, pH, physicochemical parameters and microbiological characteristics were examined. A sensory panel rated the product’s main organoleptic characteristics (colour, odour, flavour and texture). Results showed that MAP controlled the development of any unwanted microflora, but did not affect the development of intrinsic lactic floras or chemical parameters. Sensory analysis revealed that overall the MAP-packed ricotta remained acceptable for up to 15 days of storage. The vacuum-packed ricotta cheese, however, showed a progressive deterioration in organoleptic characteristics from day 5 onward and therefore had a shorter shelf life. In conclusion, the ability of MAP to extend the shelf life of a traditional regional product (such as fresh ovine ricotta cheese) guarantees consumers a quality product and provides opportunities for manufacturers to expand their markets beyond national boundaries. PMID:27800345

  15. Colour of fat, and colour, fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of muscle from heifers offered alternative forages to grass silage in a finishing ration.

    PubMed

    Moloney, A P; Mooney, M T; Kerry, J P; Stanton, C; O'Kiely, P

    2013-11-01

    The effect of type of silage offered to beef heifers during the finishing period on aspects of beef quality was determined. In two experiments, a diet based on grass silage (GS) was compared with a diet based on maize silage (MS) or whole-crop wheat silage (WCW). Compared to the GS-based diet, increasing the amount of MS linearly increased fat whiteness while the increase in fat whiteness due to WCW was dependent on the stage of crop maturity at harvesting. There was no effect of diet on muscle colour or on muscle pH measured at 48h post-mortem, drip loss, taste panel traits after 14days ageing or shear force values at 2, 7 or 14days ageing. The alternative silages decreased the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion and increased the linoleic:linolenic acid ratio in intramuscular lipid. It is concluded that type of silage affects fat colour and fatty acid composition of muscle but not the other muscle characteristics examined.

  16. Identification of sensory attributes that drive the likeability of Korean rice wines by American panelists. [Corrected].

    PubMed

    Kwak, Han Sub; Ahn, Byung-Hak; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2015-01-01

    Six commercial Korean rice wines were described their sensory profiles by trained American panelists, and assessed acceptances by American subjects to identify the drivers of liking and disliking factors. Thirteen statistically different descriptive attributes were defined for Korean rice wines: aromas (apple, pear, earthy, peach, nutty, yeasty, honey), flavor (yeasty, nutty), taste (sweet, sour, bitter), and aftertaste (apricot). Samples A and F were characterized as sweet taste and fruity attributes, and sample C was characterized as being pear flavor and bitter taste. Sample B exhibited a strong earthy aroma, determined as the aroma of ginseng. The American subjects could not identify ginseng aroma due to their lack of experience in ginseng. Samples D and E were described as nutty and yeasty. In consumer test, consumer preference was skewed to sample A, for which the consumer preference revolved around the sweet, sour, and fruity characteristics of the sample by the principal component analysis. Few consumers expressed preference toward samples D and E, as evidenced by the lowest consumer acceptance ratings. Partial least squares regression revealed that the key liking factors of Korean rice wines were sweet, sour, and apricot flavors. Fruity characteristics (peach, apple, and pear) were also positively correlated with overall acceptance. The key disliking factors were yeasty and nutty characteristics. American subjects regarded Korean rice wine as belonging to the wine category, prompting them to grant the highest rank to sample A, which has similar characteristics to semisweet white wine. PMID:25559310

  17. Temporal dominance of sensations sensory profile and drivers of liking of artisanal Minas cheese produced in the region of Serra da Canastra, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bemfeito, Raquel M; Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Silva, Jonas G E; Abreu, Luiz R

    2016-10-01

    The Serra da Canastra region, located in southwestern Minas Gerais, Brazil, is recognized worldwide for its tradition of producing artisanal cheeses. However, as production is done by hand, great variability exists in the characteristics of artisanal Minas cheese. Thus, it is important to characterize the sensory profile of these products and verify the quality attributes that lead to their acceptance. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the dynamic sensorial profile of artisanal Minas cheese produced in the Serra da Canastra region through temporal dominance of sensations and sensory acceptance tests and verify the attributes that lead to product quality. We observed that the texture and flavor profile varied among the evaluated artisanal Minas cheeses from Serra da Canastra, some cheeses being more characterized by creamy and soft or hard and firm sensations, whereas others had high dominance rates for crumbly texture. In relation to flavor, salty and bitter tastes were dominant in most cheeses, some also being characterized by a sour taste, and others by buttery and rancid attributes, which indicates a lack of product standardization. However, all samples obtained scores between 6 (liked slightly) and 7 (liked moderately), indicating good acceptability in relation to the texture and flavor of the evaluated cheeses. Moreover, it is possible to infer that creamy and soft or hard and firm are positive attributes for cheese texture, and bitter, buttery, salty, and acid taste drive cheese acceptance. This study provides important information for product standardization, quality improvement, and process origin indications, besides providing quality attributes that meet consumer desires.

  18. Proteolysis, lipolysis, volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of Hispánico cheeses made using frozen curd from raw and pasteurized ewe milk.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Rocío; Picon, Antonia; Gaya, Pilar; Nuñez, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    Hispánico cheese, manufactured from a mixture of cow and ewe milk, is representative of cheese varieties made using milk from more than one animal species in Mediterranean countries. The shortage of ewe milk production in autumn hinders the uniformity of Hispánico cheese composition throughout the year. To surmount this inconvenience of ewe milk seasonality, curds made in spring from raw and pasteurized ewe milk were stored frozen and used four months later for the manufacture of Hispánico cheese. Experimental cheeses were made by mixing fresh curd from pasteurized cow milk with thawed curd from raw or pasteurized ewe milk, and control cheese from a mixture of pasteurized cow and ewe milk in the same proportion. Characteristics of experimental and control cheeses throughout a 60-d ripening period were investigated. On the one hand, the experimental cheese containing frozen curd from raw ewe milk showed the highest counts of staphylococci, Gram-negative bacteria and coliforms, the highest levels of aminopeptidase and esterase activity, and the highest concentrations of free amino acids, free fatty acids, alcohols and esters. On the other, the experimental cheese containing frozen curd from pasteurized ewe milk had concentrations of free amino acids, free fatty acids and volatile compounds similar to those of control cheese, with the only exception being a higher level of ketones. Flavour intensity reached the highest scores in the experimental cheese containing frozen curd from raw ewe milk, followed by the experimental cheese containing frozen curd from pasteurized ewe milk. Flavour quality scores of both experimental cheeses were similar, and lower than those of control cheese.

  19. Comparison of aroma-active compounds and sensory characteristics of durian (Durio zibethinus L.) wines using strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with odor activity values and partial least-squares regression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, JianCai; Chen, Feng; Wang, LingYing; Niu, YunWei; Shu, Chang; Chen, HeXing; Xiao, ZuoBing

    2015-02-25

    The study evaluated the effects of five different strains (GRE, RC212, Lalvin D254, CGMCC2.4, and CGMCC2.23) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the aromatic characteristics of fermented durian musts. In this work, 38 and 43 compounds in durian juices and wines were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-pulsed flame photometric detection (GC-PFPD) with the aid of stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), respectively. According to the measured odor activity values (OAV), only 11 and 15 aroma compounds had OAVs >1 in durian juices or wines, among which 2,3-butanedione, 3-methylbutanol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methyl ethyl disulfide, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, and ethyl octanoate were major contributors to the aroma of juices and wines. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to detect positive correlations between sensory analysis and aroma compounds. The results showed that the attributes were closely related to aroma compounds.

  20. Comparison of aroma-active compounds and sensory characteristics of durian (Durio zibethinus L.) wines using strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with odor activity values and partial least-squares regression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, JianCai; Chen, Feng; Wang, LingYing; Niu, YunWei; Shu, Chang; Chen, HeXing; Xiao, ZuoBing

    2015-02-25

    The study evaluated the effects of five different strains (GRE, RC212, Lalvin D254, CGMCC2.4, and CGMCC2.23) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the aromatic characteristics of fermented durian musts. In this work, 38 and 43 compounds in durian juices and wines were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-pulsed flame photometric detection (GC-PFPD) with the aid of stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), respectively. According to the measured odor activity values (OAV), only 11 and 15 aroma compounds had OAVs >1 in durian juices or wines, among which 2,3-butanedione, 3-methylbutanol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methyl ethyl disulfide, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, and ethyl octanoate were major contributors to the aroma of juices and wines. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to detect positive correlations between sensory analysis and aroma compounds. The results showed that the attributes were closely related to aroma compounds. PMID:25620380

  1. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Coates, W; Ayerza, R

    2009-11-01

    Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the greatest known plant source of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, was fed at the rate of 10 and 20% to finishing pigs, with the goal to determine if this new crop would increase the n-3 content of the meat as has been reported for other n-3 fatty acid-rich crops. The effects of chia on fatty acid composition of the meat, internal fats, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics were determined. Productive performance was unaffected by dietary treatment. Chia seed modified the fatty acid composition of the meat fat, but not of the internal fat. Significantly (P < 0.05) less palmitic, stearic, and arachidic acids were found with both chia treatments. This is different than trials in which flaxseed, another plant based source of omega-3 fatty acid, has been fed. Alpha-linolenic acid content increased with increasing chia content of the diet; however, only the effect of the 20% ration was significantly (P < 0.05) different from that of the control. Chia seed increased panel member preferences for aroma and flavor of the meat. This study tends to show that chia seems to be a viable feed that can produce healthier pork for human consumption.

  2. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration

    PubMed Central

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler. PMID:25628523

  3. Influence of label information on dark chocolate acceptability.

    PubMed

    Torres-Moreno, M; Tarrega, A; Torrescasana, E; Blanch, C

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to study how the information on product labels influences consumer expectations and their acceptance and purchase intention of dark chocolate. Six samples of dark chocolate, varying in brand (premium and store brand) and in type of product (regular dark chocolate, single cocoa origin dark chocolate and high percentage of cocoa dark chocolate), were evaluated by 109 consumers who scored their liking and purchase intention under three conditions: blind (only tasting the products), expected (observing product label information) and informed (tasting the products together with provision of the label information). In the expected condition, consumer liking was mainly affected by the brand. In the blind condition, differences in liking were due to the type of product; the samples with a high percentage of cocoa were those less preferred by consumers. Under the informed condition, liking of dark chocolates varied depending on both brand and type of product. Premium brand chocolates generated high consumer expectations of chocolate acceptability, which were fulfilled by the sensory characteristics of the products. Store brand chocolates created lower expectations, but when they were tasted they were as acceptable as premium chocolates. Claims of a high percentage of cocoa and single cocoa origin on labels did not generate higher expectations than regular dark chocolates.

  4. Influence of label information on dark chocolate acceptability.

    PubMed

    Torres-Moreno, M; Tarrega, A; Torrescasana, E; Blanch, C

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to study how the information on product labels influences consumer expectations and their acceptance and purchase intention of dark chocolate. Six samples of dark chocolate, varying in brand (premium and store brand) and in type of product (regular dark chocolate, single cocoa origin dark chocolate and high percentage of cocoa dark chocolate), were evaluated by 109 consumers who scored their liking and purchase intention under three conditions: blind (only tasting the products), expected (observing product label information) and informed (tasting the products together with provision of the label information). In the expected condition, consumer liking was mainly affected by the brand. In the blind condition, differences in liking were due to the type of product; the samples with a high percentage of cocoa were those less preferred by consumers. Under the informed condition, liking of dark chocolates varied depending on both brand and type of product. Premium brand chocolates generated high consumer expectations of chocolate acceptability, which were fulfilled by the sensory characteristics of the products. Store brand chocolates created lower expectations, but when they were tasted they were as acceptable as premium chocolates. Claims of a high percentage of cocoa and single cocoa origin on labels did not generate higher expectations than regular dark chocolates. PMID:22198318

  5. Cryptogenic sensory polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    Chronic sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a common cause for referral to neurologists. Despite extensive diagnostic testing, up to one-third of these patients remain without a known cause, and are referred to as having cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms progress slowly. On examination, there may be additional mild toe flexion and extension weakness. Electrophysiologic testing and histology reveals axonal neuropathy. Prognosis is usually favorable, as most patients maintain independent ambulation. Besides patient education and reassurance, management is focused on pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain and physical therapy for balance training, and, occasionally, assistive devices.

  6. Consumer acceptability of stiff porridge based on various composite flour proportions of sorghum, maize and cassava.

    PubMed

    Bangu, N T; Mtebe, K; Nzallawahe, T S

    1994-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine consumer acceptable proportions of flours in sorghum (var. serena) and maize or sorghum, maize and cassava composite flours. Breeder's serena flour extracted at 75 percent was mixed at various proportions with maize or with maize and cassava to constitute composite flours. The various composite flours were made into stiff porridge and presented to a group of panellists for sensory evaluation. The evaluation was conducted by scoring on a hedonic scale of 0-5 for poor to excellent, respectively, for the parameters colour, texture, flavour, taste and overall acceptability. The responses were analysed statistically. Alternatively the panellists were allowed to eat ad-lib any of the presented samples which appealed to them. The results demonstrated that slight incorporation (< 10%) of sorghum (var. serena) to maize flour leads to reduction in consumer acceptability. However, increased incorporation of sorghum in excess of 10 percent leads to no significant decrease in consumer acceptability until a level of 30 percent incorporation is exceeded. In sorghum, maize, cassava composite flours the formulation of 30:40:30, respectively, was found to be most acceptable. It is suggested that at this combination of flours desirable textural characteristics of the porridge overrides other factors in contributing to its acceptability.

  7. A point process analysis of sensory encoding.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Garrett B; Webber, Roxanna M

    2003-01-01

    Nowhere is the sparse nature of neuronal coding more evident than in the sensory cortex, where neuronal response becomes increasingly tuned to specific features of the sensory environment. For such situations, where rate modulation schemes do not accurately describe the neuronal response to sensory stimuli, statistical descriptions based on point process events are particularly appropriate. Here, intensity measures derived from experimental data in the rat somatosensory cortex enable the direct analysis of statistical structure within spike trains, as well as inter-relationships between tactile stimuli and neuronal response. Intensity measures capture structure in spontaneous as well as driven activity, reflecting the interplay between excitatory and suppressive influences on neuronal firing. Second-order intensity estimates reveal strong dependencies upon patterns of tactile stimulation, which define the neuronal response characteristics to temporally structured stimuli.

  8. Using Movement-Based Sensory Interventions to Address Self-Stimulatory Behaviors in Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Nicole M.; Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer; Jolivette, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a three-step process to help teachers determine whether or not the function of a student's stereotypical behavior is sensory-based and if so, how to select and monitor an appropriate sensory intervention to promote instructional engagement. In particular, characteristics of students who are seeking to gain sensory input in…

  9. Sparsity and Compressed Coding in Sensory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Barranca, Victor J.; Kovačič, Gregor; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2014-01-01

    Considering that many natural stimuli are sparse, can a sensory system evolve to take advantage of this sparsity? We explore this question and show that significant downstream reductions in the numbers of neurons transmitting stimuli observed in early sensory pathways might be a consequence of this sparsity. First, we model an early sensory pathway using an idealized neuronal network comprised of receptors and downstream sensory neurons. Then, by revealing a linear structure intrinsic to neuronal network dynamics, our work points to a potential mechanism for transmitting sparse stimuli, related to compressed-sensing (CS) type data acquisition. Through simulation, we examine the characteristics of networks that are optimal in sparsity encoding, and the impact of localized receptive fields beyond conventional CS theory. The results of this work suggest a new network framework of signal sparsity, freeing the notion from any dependence on specific component-space representations. We expect our CS network mechanism to provide guidance for studying sparse stimulus transmission along realistic sensory pathways as well as engineering network designs that utilize sparsity encoding. PMID:25144745

  10. Effect of irradiation on Brazilian honeys' consistency and their acceptability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, A. H.; Sabato, S. F.

    2004-09-01

    Contamination of bee products may occur during packing or even during the process of collection. Gamma irradiation was found to decrease the number of bacteria and fungi. However, little information is available on the effects of gamma irradiation on viscosity which is an important property of honey. In this work the viscosity of two varieties of Brazilian honey was measured when they were irradiated at 5 and 10 kGy. The viscosity was measured at four temperatures (25°C, 30°C, 35°C and 40°C) for both samples and compared with control and within the doses. The sensory evaluation was carried on for the parameters color, odor, taste and consistency, using a 9-point hedonic scale. All the data were treated with a statistical tool (Statistica 5.1, StatSoft, 1998). The viscosity was not impaired significantly by gamma irradiation in doses 5 and 10 kGy ( p<0.05). The effect of gamma irradiation on sensorial characteristics (odor, color, taste and consistency) is presented. The taste for Parana type indicated a significant difference among irradiation doses ( p<0.05) but the higher value was for 5 kGy dose, demonstrating the acceptability for this case. The Organic honey presented the taste parameter for 10 kGy, significantly lower than the control mean but it did not differ significantly from the 5 kGy value.

  11. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  12. Recording Sensory Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    From children's viewpoints, what they experience in the world is what the world is like--for everyone. "What do others experience with their senses when they are in the same situation?" is a question that young children can explore by collecting data as they use a "feely box," or take a "sensory walk." There are many ways to focus the children's…

  13. Studying Sensory Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerly, Spafford C.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the vestibular organ's role in balancing the body and stabilizing the visual world using the example of a hunter. Describes the relationship between sensory perception and learning. Recommends using optical illusions to illustrate the distinctions between external realities and internal perceptions. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  14. Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Marian

    Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

  15. Mechanosensitive currents in the neurites of cultured mouse sensory neurones

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing; Lewin, Gary R

    2006-01-01

    Almost all sensory neurones in the dorsal root ganglia have a mechanosensory function. The transduction of mechanical stimuli in vivo takes place exclusively at the sensory ending. For cutaneous sensory receptors it has so far proved impossible to directly record the mechanically gated receptor potential because of the small size and inaccessibility of the sensory ending. Here we investigate whether mechanosensitive currents are present in the neurites of freshly isolated adult mouse sensory neurones in culture. Amost all sensory neurone neurites possess currents gated by submicrometre displacement stimuli (92%). Three types of mechanically activated conductance were characterized based on different inactivation kinetics. A rapidly adapting conductance was found in larger sensory neurones with narrow action potentials characteristic of mechanoreceptors. Slowly and intermediate adapting conductances were found exclusively in putative nociceptive neurones. Mechanically activated currents with similar kinetics were found also after stimulating the cell soma. However, soma currents were only observed in around 60% of cells tested and the displacement threshold was several times larger than for the neurite (∼6 μm). The reversal potential of the rapidly adapting current indicated that this current is largely selective for sodium ions whereas the slowly adapting current is non-selective. It is likely that distinct ion channel entities underlie these two currents. In summary, our data suggest that the high sensitivity and robustness of mechanically gated currents in the sensory neurite make this a useful in vitro model for the mechanosensitive sensory endings in vivo. PMID:17038434

  16. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I

    PubMed Central

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances) are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7) identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra neuropathy, or decaying skin

  17. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I.

    PubMed

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances) are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7) identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra neuropathy, or decaying skin

  18. Effects of repeated consumption on sensory-enhanced satiety.

    PubMed

    Yeomans, Martin R; McCrickerd, Keri; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Chambers, Lucy

    2014-03-28

    Previous research has suggested that sensory characteristics of a drink modify the acute satiating effects of its nutrients, with enhanced satiety being evident when a high-energy drink was thicker and tasted creamier. The present study tested whether this modulation of satiety by sensory context was altered by repeated consumption. Participants (n 48) consumed one of four drinks mid-morning on seven non-consecutive days, with satiety responses being measured pre-exposure (day 1), post-exposure (day 6) and at a 1-month follow-up. The drinks combined two levels of energy (lower energy (LE), 326 kJ and higher energy, 1163 kJ) with two levels of satiety-predictive sensory characteristics (low sensory (LS) or enhanced sensory). Test lunch intake 90 min after drink consumption depended on both the energy content and sensory characteristics of the drink before exposure, but on the energy content alone after exposure and at the follow-up. The largest change was an increase in test meal intake over time in the LE/LS condition. The effects on intake were reflected in appetite ratings, with rated hunger and expected filling affected by sensory characteristics and energy content pre-exposure, but were largely determined by energy content post-exposure and at the follow-up. In contrast, a measure of expected satiety reflected sensory characteristics regardless of energy content on all the three test days. Overall, these data suggest that some aspects of the sensory modulation of satiety are changed by repeated consumption, with covert energy becoming more effective in suppressing appetite over time, but also suggest that these behavioural changes are not readily translated into expectations of satiety.

  19. Sensory influences on food intake control: moving beyond palatability.

    PubMed

    McCrickerd, K; Forde, C G

    2016-01-01

    The sensory experience of eating is an important determinant of food intake control, often attributed to the positive hedonic response associated with certain sensory cues. However, palatability is just one aspect of the sensory experience. Sensory cues based on a food's sight, smell, taste and texture are operational before, during and after an eating event. The focus of this review is to look beyond palatability and highlight recent advances in our understanding of how certain sensory characteristics can be used to promote better energy intake control. We consider the role of visual and odour cues in identifying food in the near environment, guiding food choice and memory for eating, and highlight the ways in which tastes and textures influence meal size and the development of satiety after consumption. Considering sensory characteristics as a functional feature of the foods and beverages we consume provides the opportunity for research to identify how sensory enhancements might be combined with energy reduction in otherwise palatable foods to optimize short-term energy intake regulation in the current food environment. Moving forward, the challenge for sensory nutritional science will be to assess the longer-term impact of these principles on weight management. PMID:26662879

  20. Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves.

    PubMed

    Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; Dos Santos, Edna R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U O; Moura, Luciana S M

    2013-09-01

    Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to cassava paste for preparation of flour in three parts 2.5, 5, and 10%. The acceptance test was done by 93 consumers of flour, using hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate characteristics like color, scent, flavor, bitterness, texture, and overall score. By the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), eight trained tasters evaluated the following characteristics: whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness, raw texture, leaf scent, and cassava scent. The acceptability test indicated that flour cassava with 2.5 was preferred. Whitish color, greenish color, cassava flavor, bitter flavor, salty flavor, characteristic flavor, lumpiness texture, raw texture, and the smell of the leaves and cassava flour were the main descriptors defined for flour cassava with CPML has better characteristics.

  1. The combine effects of salting and thyme oil on sensory and chemical changes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Pınar Oǧuzhan

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the combine effects of salting and thyme oil on chemical and sensory changes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during storage (4°C) was investigated over a period of 24 days. There groups were constituted: group A-control salted, group B-salted samples with 0.4% of thyme oil and group C-salted samples with 0.8% of thyme oil. Fillets were subject to chemical (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances-TBARS, total volatile base nitrogen-TVB-N) and sensory analyses on certain days (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24th days) of storage. Five experienced panelists, academic staff who were trained in sensory descriptors for fishes, were employed to evaluate the quality of trout fillets during storage. Rainbow trout fillets were assessed on the basis of appearance, taste, texture and odour characteristics using a nine point descriptive scale. TVB-N and TBARS values increased in the duration of storage time in all groups. TVB-N and TBARS values in control groups were higher than other groups. Group C samples were assessed as the most acceptable products by the panellists. Difference in chemical and sensory changes between samples was found to be significant (p<0.05) during storage period.

  2. Understanding the effect of novel approaches based on ultrasound on sensory profile of orange juice.

    PubMed

    Khandpur, Paramjeet; Gogate, Parag R

    2015-11-01

    The present work investigates the effects of novel non thermal processing based on ultrasound on the sensory profile of orange juice and also compares the observed trends with the conventional thermal pasteurization. A novel treatment methodology based on combination of ultrasound and UV irradiations was investigated. The juice quality was assessed in terms of standard parameters (taste, flavor, odor, mouth feel etc.) by panel tests. Physicochemical analysis in terms of color of processed juice (which is an important physical attribute) and oxidation reduction potential (a good indicator of the quantum of oxidants present in the fruit juices) has also been performed. Thermally treated juices had significantly different characteristics that were not very appealing as compared to the ultrasound treated juices or those treated using the combined approach. The sensory properties of the ultrasound treated juices showed that the samples were most acceptable to the consumers and rated at par with the quality parameters of the fresh untreated juices. Overall the present work is the first to report and conclusively establish the usefulness of ultrasound based treatment approaches for maintaining the sensory profile in comparison with the thermally processed juice.

  3. Influence of particle size on physical and sensory attributes of mango pulp powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Kadam, D. M.; Chadha, S.; Wilson, R. A.; Gupta, R. K.

    2013-09-01

    The present investigation was aimed to observe the effect of particle size on physical, sensory and thermal properties of foam-mat dried mango pulp powder. Mango pulp of Dussehri variety was foam-mat dried using 3% egg white at 65ºC. Dried foam-mats were pulverized and passed through a sieve shaker for obtaining three grades of powder with 50, 60, and 85 mesh size sieves. The particle size of these samples measured using laser diffraction particle size analyzer ranged from 191.26 to 296.19 μm. The data was analysed statistically using ANOVA of SAS. There was a linear increase in lightness (`L' value) with a decrease in particle size, however, `a' value decreased with a decrease in particle size, indicating the decrease in redness. An increase in bulk density and decrease in water solubility index and water absorption index % were observed with a decrease in particle size. Particle size had a significant effect on sensory parameters. Particle size in the range of 258.01 to 264.60μmwas found most acceptable with respect to sensory characteristics. This finding can be exploited for various commercial applicationswhere powder quality is dependent on the particle size and has foremost priority for end users.

  4. A sensory evaluation of irradiated cookies made from flaxseed meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Flávio T.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Koike, Amanda C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.

    2012-08-01

    The growing consumer demand for food with sensory quality and nutritional has called for research to develop new products with consumer acceptance as cookies made from flaxseed meal, that can be inserted in diet of celiacs. Celiac disease characterized by an inappropriate immune response to dietary proteins found in wheat, rye and barley (gluten and gliadin). It can affect anyone at any age and is more common in women. The celiac disease does not have cure and the only scientifically proven treatment is a gluten free diet. Irradiation as a decontamination method used for a many variety of foodstuffs, being very feasible, useful method to increase the shelf life, effective and environmental friendly without any sensory properties significant change. Sensory analyses were used to assess gluten-free bakery foods subjected to ionizing radiation sensory attributes.

  5. Investigations into the organization of information in sensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Mathew E; Petersen, Rasmus S; Harris, Justin A; Panzeri, Stefano

    2003-01-01

    One might take the exploration of sensory cortex in the first decades of the last century as the opening chapter of modern neuroscience. The combined approaches of (i) measuring effects of restricted ablation on functional capacities, both in the clinic and the laboratory, together with (ii) anatomical investigations of cortical lamination, arealization, and connectivity, and (iii) the early physiological probing of sensory representations, led to a fundamental body of knowledge that remains relevant to this day. In our time, there can be little doubt that its organization as a mosaic of columnar modules is the pervasive functional property of mammalian sensory cortex [Brain 120 (1997) 701]. If one accepts the assertion that columns and maps must improve the functioning of the brain (why else would they be the very hallmark of neocortex?), then the inevitable question is: exactly what advantages do they permit? In this review of our recent presentation at the workshop on Homeostasis, plasticity and learning at the Institut Henri Poincaré, we will outline a systematic approach to investigating the role of modular, map-like cortical organization in the processing of sensory information. We survey current evidence concerning the functional significance of cortical maps and modules, arguing that sensory cortex is involved not solely in the online processing of afferent data, but also in the storage and retrieval of information. We also show that the topographic framework of primary sensory cortex renders the encoding of sensory information efficient, fast and reliable.

  6. Novel approaches and application of contemporary sensory evaluation practices in iron fortification programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.; Guinard, Jean-Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the leading nutritional deficiency in the U.S. and the rest of the world, with its highest prevalences in the developing world. Iron fortification of food has been proposed as a strategy to reduce the high prevalence of iron deficiency. Poor consumer acceptance, unacceptable taste, and discoloration of the iron-fortified foods have been frequently listed as causes of unsuccessful iron fortification programs. An excellent prospect for improving consumer acceptance of iron-fortified foods is the incorporation of a thorough, organized, and unified approach to sensory evaluation practices into iron fortification programs for product optimization. The information gained from systematic sensory evaluation allows for the manipulation of the sensory attributes, and thus improvement of the sensory properties of the fortified food. However, iron fortification programs have not systematically measured the effect of fortification on the sensory quality of the food. Because sensory evaluation is an important criterion in successful iron fortification, an integrated approach is necessary. Therefore, nutritionists and sensory scientists should work closely with each other to select the most suitable sensory tests and methods. The objectives of this article are to: (1) critically review and discuss some traditional and contemporary approaches and applications of sensory evaluation practices in iron fortification programs, and (2) demonstrate the importance of incorporating a multidisciplinary, systematic sensory evaluation approach in iron fortification programs.

  7. CRYPTOGENIC SENSORY POLYNEUROPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a common cause for referral to neurologists. Despite extensive diagnostic testing, up to one-third of these patients remain without a known cause. They are referred to as having cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy (CSPN). The age of onset is variable but usually in the sixth to seventh decade of life, affecting men and women equally. CSPN symptoms progress slowly, most patients present with distal leg paresthesias or pain that progressed over years to involve the hands. On examination, there may be additional mild toe flexion and extension weakness. Electrophysiologic testing and histology reveals axonal neuropathy. Prognosis is usually favorable as most patients maintain independent ambulation. Besides patient education and reassurance, management is focused on pharmacotherapy of neuropathic pain (see Treatment of Painful Peripheral Neuropathy chapter) and physical therapy for balance training and occasionally assistive devices. PMID:23642719

  8. Instabilities in sensory processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    In any organism there are different kinds of sensory receptors for detecting the various, distinct stimuli through which its external environment may impinge upon it. These receptors convey these stimuli in different ways to an organism's information processing region enabling it to distinctly perceive the varied sensations and to respond to them. The behavior of cells and their response to stimuli may be captured through simple mathematical models employing regulatory feedback mechanisms. We argue that the sensory processes such as olfaction function optimally by operating in the close proximity of dynamical instabilities. In the case of coupled neurons, we point out that random disturbances and fluctuations can move their operating point close to certain dynamical instabilities triggering synchronous activity.

  9. Sensory cilia in arthropods.

    PubMed

    Keil, Thomas A

    2012-11-01

    In arthropods, the modified primary cilium is a structure common to all peripheral sensory neurons other than photoreceptors. Since its first description in 1958, it has been investigated in great detail in numerous sense organs (sensilla) of many insect species by means of electron microscopy and electrophysiology. The perfection of molecular biological methods has led to an enormous advance in our knowledge about development and function of sensory cilia in the fruitfly since the end of the last century. The cilia show a wealth of adaptations according to their different physiological roles: chemoreception, mechanoreception, hygroreception, and thermoreception. Divergent types of receptors and channels have evolved fulfilling these tasks. The number of olfactory receptor genes can be close to 300 in ants, whereas in crickets slightest mechanical stimuli are detected by the interaction of extremely sophisticated biomechanical devices with mechanosensory cilia. Despite their enormous morphological and physiological divergence, sensilla and sensory cilia develop according to a stereotyped pattern. Intraflagellar transport genes have been found to be decisive for proper development and function.

  10. Sensory Perception: Lessons from Synesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Joshua Paul

    2013-01-01

    Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition’s existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of “normal” sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion ― the binding problem ― as well as how sensory perception develops. PMID:23766741

  11. Ctip1 Controls Acquisition of Sensory Area Identity and Establishment of Sensory Input Fields in the Developing Neocortex.

    PubMed

    Greig, Luciano C; Woodworth, Mollie B; Greppi, Chloé; Macklis, Jeffrey D

    2016-04-20

    While transcriptional controls over the size and relative position of cortical areas have been identified, less is known about regulators that direct acquisition of area-specific characteristics. Here, we report that the transcription factor Ctip1 functions in primary sensory areas to repress motor and activate sensory programs of gene expression, enabling establishment of sharp molecular boundaries defining functional areas. In Ctip1 mutants, abnormal gene expression leads to aberrantly motorized corticocortical and corticofugal output connectivity. Ctip1 critically regulates differentiation of layer IV neurons, and selective loss of Ctip1 in cortex deprives thalamocortical axons of their receptive "sensory field" in layer IV, which normally provides a tangentially and radially defined compartment of dedicated synaptic territory. Therefore, although thalamocortical axons invade appropriate cortical regions, they are unable to organize into properly configured sensory maps. Together, these data identify Ctip1 as a critical control over sensory area development. PMID:27100196

  12. Relationship between physical properties and sensory attributes of carbonated beverages.

    PubMed

    Kappes, S M; Schmidt, S J; Lee, S-Y

    2007-01-01

    Bulk sweeteners provide functional properties in beverages, including sweet taste, bulking, bitter masking, structure, and mouthfeel. Diet beverages come closer to the taste of regular beverages using a blend of high-intensity sweeteners; however, some properties, including bulking, structure, and mouthfeel, remain significantly different. Relating physical properties to sensory characteristics is an important step in understanding why mouthfeel differences are apparent in beverages sweetened with alternative sweeteners compared to bulk sweeteners. The objectives of this research were to (1) measure sweetener profile, Brix, refractive index, viscosity, a(w), carbonation, titratable acidity, and pH of commercial carbonated beverages; and (2) correlate the physical property measurements to descriptive analysis of the beverages. Correlation analysis, partial least squares, canonical correlation analysis, and cluster analysis were used to analyze the data. Brix, viscosity, and sweet taste were highly correlated among one another and were all negatively correlated to a(w). Carbonated and decarbonated pH were highly correlated to each other and were both negatively correlated to mouthcoating. Numbing, burn, bite, and carbonation were highly correlated to total acidity, citric acid, and ascorbic acid and negatively correlated to phosphoric acid. The mouthfeel difference between diet and regular lemon/lime carbonated beverages is small and may be related to overall differences between flavor, acid, and sweetener types and usage levels. This research is significant because it demonstrates the use of both sensory attributes and physical properties to identify types of ingredients and levels that may decrease the mouthfeel perception differences between regular and diet carbonated beverages, which could consequently lead to higher acceptance of diet beverages by the consumers of regular. PMID:17995891

  13. Sensory shelf life of dulce de leche.

    PubMed

    Garitta, L; Hough, G; Sánchez, R

    2004-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the sensory cutoff points for dulce de leche (DL) critical descriptors, both for defective off-flavors and for storage changes in desirable attributes, and to estimate the shelf life of DL as a function of storage temperature. The critical descriptors used to determine the cutoff points were plastic flavor, burnt flavor, dark color, and spreadability. Linear correlations between sensory acceptability and trained panel scores were used to determine the sensory failure cutoff point for each descriptor. To estimate shelf life, DL samples were stored at 25, 37, and 45 degrees C. Plastic flavor was the first descriptor to reach its cutoff point at 25 degrees C and was used for shelf-life calculations. Plastic flavor vs. storage time followed zero-order reaction rate. Shelf-life estimations at different temperatures were 109 d at 25 degrees C, 53 d at 37 degrees C, and 9 d at 45 degrees C. The activation energy, necessary to calculate shelf lives at different temperatures, was 14,370 +/- 2080 cal/mol.

  14. Volatile and sensory profiling of cocktail bitters.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arielle J; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E

    2015-07-15

    Aromatic cocktail bitters are derived from the alcoholic extraction of a variety of plant materials and are used as additives in mixed drinks to enhance aroma and flavor. In this study sixteen commercial bitters were analyzed using volatile (GC-MS) and sensory profiling and multivariate statistics including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS). The samples differed significantly in their citrus, celery, and spice characteristics. 148 volatile compounds were tentatively identified and the composition varied significantly with the type of bitters sample evaluated. PLS analysis showed that the volatile data correlated well overall to the sensory data, explaining 60% of the overall variability in the dataset. Primary aldehydes and phenylpropanoids were most closely related to green and spice-related sensory descriptors. However, the sensory impact of terpenoid compounds was difficult to predict in many cases. This may be due to the wide range of aroma qualities associated with terpenes as well as to concentration, synergistic or masking effects. PMID:25722175

  15. Sensory syndromes in parietal stroke.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, C; Bogousslavsky, J; Regli, F

    1993-10-01

    We studied 20 patients with an acute parietal stroke with hemisensory disturbances but no visual field deficit and no or only slight motor weakness, without thalamic involvement on CT or MRI and found three main sensory syndromes. (1) The pseudothalamic sensory syndrome consists of a faciobrachiocrural impairment of elementary sensation (touch, pain, temperature, vibration). All patients have an inferior-anterior parietal stroke involving the parietal operculum, posterior insula, and, in all but one patient, underlying white matter. (2) The cortical sensory syndrome consists of an isolated loss of discriminative sensation (stereognosis, graphesthesia, position sense) involving one or two parts of the body. These patients show a superior-posterior parietal stroke. (3) The atypical sensory syndrome consists of a sensory loss involving all modalities of sensation in a partial distribution. Parietal lesions of different topography are responsible for this clinical picture, which probably represents a minor variant of the two previous sensory syndromes. Neuropsychological dysfunction was present in 17 patients. The only constant association was between conduction aphasia and right-sided pseudothalamic sensory deficit. We conclude that parietal stroke can cause different sensory syndromes depending on the topography of the underlying lesion. Sensory deficits can be monosymptomatic but never present as a "pure sensory stroke" involving face, arm, leg, and trunk together.

  16. Sensory and instrumental evaluation of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) aroma.

    PubMed

    Baranauskiene, Renata; Venskutonis, Rimantas P; Demyttenaere, Jan C R

    2003-06-18

    The present study investigates the composition of volatile constituents and sensory characteristics of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) grown in Lithuania. Hydrodistillation, simultaneous distillation-solvent extraction, static headspace, and solid phase microextraction methods were used for the isolation of aroma volatiles. Geranyl acetate, citronellyl acetate, citronellol, and geraniol were the major constituents in catnip. Differences in the quantitative compositions of volatile compounds isolated by the different techniques were considerable. A sensory panel performed sensory analysis of the ground herb, pure essential oil, and extract; aroma profiles of the products were expressed graphically, and some effects of odor qualities of individual compounds present in catnip on the overall aroma of this herb were observed.

  17. Effects of Charitable Versus Monetary Incentives on the Acceptance of and Adherence to a Pedometer-Based Health Intervention: Study Protocol and Baseline Characteristics of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Jan-Niklas; Kehr, Flavius; Wahle, Fabian; Elser, Niklas; Fleisch, Elgar

    2016-01-01

    Background Research has so far benefited from the use of pedometers in physical activity interventions. However, when public health institutions (eg, insurance companies) implement pedometer-based interventions in practice, people may refrain from participating due to privacy concerns. This might greatly limit the applicability of such interventions. Financial incentives have been successfully used to influence both health behavior and privacy concerns, and may thus have a beneficial effect on the acceptance of pedometer-based interventions. Objective This paper presents the design and baseline characteristics of a cluster-randomized controlled trial that seeks to examine the effect of financial incentives on the acceptance of and adherence to a pedometer-based physical activity intervention offered by a health insurance company. Methods More than 18,000 customers of a large Swiss health insurance company were allocated to a financial incentive, a charitable incentive, or a control group and invited to participate in a health prevention program. Participants used a pedometer to track their daily physical activity over the course of 6 months. A Web-based questionnaire was administered at the beginning and at the end of the intervention and additional data was provided by the insurance company. The primary outcome of the study will be the participation rate, secondary outcomes will be adherence to the prevention program, physical activity, and health status of the participants among others. Results Baseline characteristics indicate that residence of participants, baseline physical activity, and subjective health should be used as covariates in the statistical analysis of the secondary outcomes of the study. Conclusions This is the first study in western cultures testing the effectiveness of financial incentives with regard to a pedometer-based health intervention offered by a large health insurer to their customers. Given that the incentives prove to be effective

  18. The effect of substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride on the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of Halloumi cheese.

    PubMed

    Kamleh, R; Olabi, A; Toufeili, I; Najm, N E O; Younis, T; Ajib, R

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of salt reduction and partial replacement with KCl on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of fresh and matured Halloumi cheese. Halloumi samples were matured for 8 wk and moisture, fat, protein, pH, lactic acid, sodium, and potassium contents determined. Instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Microbiological analyses included counts of total bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, total coliforms, and psychrophilic bacteria. Descriptive sensory analysis was carried out by a 9-member panel, and acceptability testing was conducted with 72 panelists. Salt treatment had a significant effect on the pH, sodium, and potassium contents of the cheeses, whereas age by salt treatment interaction had a significant effect on the pH, lactic acid, and potassium contents of the samples. No major trends could be discerned from the texture profile analysis. All tested microorganisms increased with storage but in general did not differ between treatments and were, in certain instances, lower than levels reported in the literature for other cheeses. Descriptive analysis revealed a significant difference between salt treatments for bitterness, crumbliness, and moistness, whereas age of cheese was significant for saltiness and squeakiness. Salt treatment had no significant effect on any of the acceptability variables for all Halloumi samples.

  19. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  20. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  1. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt.

  2. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  3. Consumer perception and sensory effect of oxidation in savory-flavored yogurt enriched with n-3 lipids.

    PubMed

    Rognlien, M; Duncan, S E; O'Keefe, S F; Eigel, W N

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different oils (butter, fish, and oxidized fish) on sensory characteristics of a savory [chile-lime (CL)] low-fat yogurt using descriptive (unstructured line scales, 5 attributes) and affective (hedonic) sensory testing methods. Yogurts were each manufactured at low [1.1-1.2% total fat; 0.43% added oil (wt/wt)] or high [1.6% total fat; 1% added oil (wt/wt)] levels of fish oil, with high levels of fish oil targeted to deliver 145 mg of docosahexaenoic acid+eicosapentaenoic acid/170 g of yogurt. In a preliminary study, untrained panelists (n=31), using triangle tests, did not discriminate between low levels of fish and butter oils in unflavored yogurts but could discern yogurt with oxidized fish oil, even at the low level. Trained panelists (n=12) described lower lime and acid flavor characteristics in CL-flavored yogurts containing 1% oxidized fish oil compared with yogurts containing low levels of oxidized fish oil and low or high levels of butter and fish oils. Oxidized flavor was higher in CL-flavored yogurts with oxidized fish oil (low and high) and with the high level of fish oil. Consumer ratings (n=100; 9-point hedonic scale; 9="like extremely) of overall acceptability and flavor acceptability were bimodally distributed, with overall means between 4 and 5 ("neither like nor dislike") for CL-flavored yogurt with butter or fish oils (high level). The upper 50% of responses for yogurt with butter or fish oil were 6.51 and 6.31, respectively, for overall acceptability ("like slightly"), and 7.02 and 6.56, respectively, for flavor acceptability. A large segment of consumers may be interested in incorporating heart-healthy n-3 lipids in their diets through frequent consumption of a savory yogurt enriched with n-3 fatty acids.

  4. Sensory quality of soymilk and tofu from soybeans lacking lipoxygenases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Aijun; Smyth, Heather; Chaliha, Mridusmita; James, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    The oxidation of unsaturated lipids by lipoxygenases in soybeans causes undesirable flavors in soy foods. Using a traditional and a nontraditional soy food user group, we examined the cultural difference in perceiving the sensory characteristics of soymilk and tofu produced from soybeans with or without lipoxygenases (Lx123). The two groups described the samples using similar terms. The traditional users preferred the control soy milk and lipoxygenase-free tofu while the nontraditional users preferred the lipoxygenase-free soymilk with no preference for tofu. In a separate study, a trained descriptive taste panel compared the odor of soymilk and tofu from control soybeans or those lacking lipoxygenase-1 and lipoxygenase-2 (Lx12) or all three isomers (Lx123). The rancid/grassy odor was rated the lowest in Lx123 products, followed by Lx12 products with the control products given the highest rating. The Lx12 and Lx123 products were also sweeter and less bitter than the controls. Taken together, our results demonstrated that soybeans lacking lipoxygenases can produce soy foods with less undesirable aromas and are therefore likely more acceptable to the consumers. PMID:27004110

  5. Effect of maize based composite flour noodles on functional, sensory, nutritional and storage quality.

    PubMed

    Shobha, D; Vijayalakshmi, D; Puttaramnaik; Asha, K J

    2015-12-01

    To explore the feasibility of utilization of maize flour in noodle preparation, eight different combinations (T1 to T8) with varied amount of maize flour (MF), refined wheat flour (RWF), rice flour (RF), wheat gluten (WG), soya protein isolate (SPI), kansui (Sodium Carbonates), potato starch (PS) were extruded to standardize good quality noodles. Among various combinations tested, the combination T5 (50 %MF + 30 %RWF + 10 %SPI + 7 %RF + 3 %WG) was rated the best for appearance (8.3) colour (8.25) taste (8.5) elasticity (8.3) with an overall acceptability of 8.2 on a nine point hedonic rating sensory scale. There was no significant difference in normal noodle (NN) and Quality protein maize (QPM) noodle (QN) for T5 with respect to sensory characteristics when compared to control noodle (CN) prepared out of refined wheat flour. The cooked yield was more for maize based noodle (234 g NN and 220 g QN) with lower cooking loss of 7.80 and 7.76 respectively for NN & QN. The nutritional composition of maize noodles revealed that addition of 10 % soya protein isolate had increased the protein content of noodles to the tune of 16.6 and 12.7 % in QN and NN respectively. The soluble (3.18NN, 3.76QN) and insoluble fiber (21.67NN, 21.87QN) contents of both NN & QN was significantly more compared to CN (0.15 and 9.3 g).There was non- significant increase in moisture and peroxide values up to 3 months of storage with high overall acceptable sensory scores (4.0, 4.1, & 4.2 respectively for NN, QN and CN but beyond third month of storage the increase was significant. However the noodles were within the acceptable range up to 6 months of storage with an overall acceptability score of 3.0, 3.4 and 3.2 for NN, QN and CN respectively on a five point hedonic scale. PMID:26604375

  6. Effect of maize based composite flour noodles on functional, sensory, nutritional and storage quality.

    PubMed

    Shobha, D; Vijayalakshmi, D; Puttaramnaik; Asha, K J

    2015-12-01

    To explore the feasibility of utilization of maize flour in noodle preparation, eight different combinations (T1 to T8) with varied amount of maize flour (MF), refined wheat flour (RWF), rice flour (RF), wheat gluten (WG), soya protein isolate (SPI), kansui (Sodium Carbonates), potato starch (PS) were extruded to standardize good quality noodles. Among various combinations tested, the combination T5 (50 %MF + 30 %RWF + 10 %SPI + 7 %RF + 3 %WG) was rated the best for appearance (8.3) colour (8.25) taste (8.5) elasticity (8.3) with an overall acceptability of 8.2 on a nine point hedonic rating sensory scale. There was no significant difference in normal noodle (NN) and Quality protein maize (QPM) noodle (QN) for T5 with respect to sensory characteristics when compared to control noodle (CN) prepared out of refined wheat flour. The cooked yield was more for maize based noodle (234 g NN and 220 g QN) with lower cooking loss of 7.80 and 7.76 respectively for NN & QN. The nutritional composition of maize noodles revealed that addition of 10 % soya protein isolate had increased the protein content of noodles to the tune of 16.6 and 12.7 % in QN and NN respectively. The soluble (3.18NN, 3.76QN) and insoluble fiber (21.67NN, 21.87QN) contents of both NN & QN was significantly more compared to CN (0.15 and 9.3 g).There was non- significant increase in moisture and peroxide values up to 3 months of storage with high overall acceptable sensory scores (4.0, 4.1, & 4.2 respectively for NN, QN and CN but beyond third month of storage the increase was significant. However the noodles were within the acceptable range up to 6 months of storage with an overall acceptability score of 3.0, 3.4 and 3.2 for NN, QN and CN respectively on a five point hedonic scale.

  7. Sensory receptors in monotremes.

    PubMed

    Proske, U; Gregory, J E; Iggo, A

    1998-07-29

    This is a summary of the current knowledge of sensory receptors in skin of the bill of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, and the snout of the echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus. Brief mention is also made of the third living member of the monotremes, the long-nosed echidna, Zaglossus bruijnii. The monotremes are the only group of mammals known to have evolved electroreception. The structures in the skin responsible for the electric sense have been identified as sensory mucous glands with an expanded epidermal portion that is innervated by large-diameter nerve fibres. Afferent recordings have shown that in both platypuses and echidnas the receptors excited by cathodal (negative) pulses and inhibited by anodal (positive) pulses. Estimates give a total of 40,000 mucous sensory glands in the upper and lower bill of the platypus, whereas there are only about 100 in the tip of the echidna snout. Recording of electroreceptor-evoked activity from the brain of the platypus have shown that the largest area dedicated to somatosensory input from the bill, S1, shows alternating rows of mechanosensory and bimodal neurons. The bimodal neurons respond to both electrosensory and mechanical inputs. In skin of the platypus bill and echidna snout, apart from the electroreceptors, there are structures called push rods, which consist of a column of compacted cells that is able to move relatively independently of adjacent regions of skin. At the base of the column are Merkel cell complexes, known to be type I slowly adapting mechanoreceptors, and lamellated corpuscles, probably vibration receptors. It has been speculated that the platypus uses its electric sense to detect the electromyographic activity from moving prey in the water and for obstacle avoidance. Mechanoreceptors signal contact with the prey. For the echidna, a role for the electrosensory system has not yet been established during normal foraging behaviour, although it has been shown that it is able to detect the presence

  8. Sensory optimization of a mayonnaise-type spread made with rice bran oil and soy protein.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Karen; Sriwattana, Sujinda; No, Hong Kyoon; Corredor, Jose Andres Herrera; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2009-08-01

    The optimum formulation for mayonnaise-type spreads containing rice bran oil (RBO) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) was determined based on sensory acceptability. RBO and SPC were used due to their health benefit claims such as lowering risk of heart disease. The effects of the proportions of high-impact ingredients (RBO, SPC, and water) on sensory acceptability of the spreads were determined. The 10 spread formulations, prepared following a 3-component constrained simplex lattice mixture design, were subjected to a consumer acceptance test to identify sensory attributes driving consumer acceptance and purchase intent. Predictive regression models were used to plot mixture response surfaces of the critical sensory attributes (taste, mouthfeel, and overall liking) that influenced purchase intent. Areas within the contour plots of these critical sensory attributes, having acceptability scores > or = 68 ("moderately like" on the 100-mm bidirectional labeled affective magnitude scale) were chosen and superimposed to obtain a predicted optimum formulation range (37% to 43% RBO, 4% to 7% SPC, and 52% to 57% water). The formulation containing 37% RBO, 6% SPC, and 57% water, which was located within the optimum region, was selected as a base for further developing flavored (sour cream & onion, cheddar & sour cream, or Monterrey Jack dried cheese) products. All flavored spreads were significantly more acceptable than the plain formulation. Purchase intent of all flavored products also significantly increased once consumers had been given the information about potential health benefits associated with RBO and SPC in the spreads. PMID:19723230

  9. Does Prediabetes Cause Small Fiber Sensory Polyneuropathy? Does it Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Kassardjian, C.D.; Dyck, P.J.B.; Davies, J.L.; Carter, Rickey E.; Dyck, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives The association between prediabetes and distal polyneuropathy (DPN) remains controversial. Here we test whether the prevalence of small fiber sensory distal polyneuropathy is increased in prediabetes. Methods Prospectively recruited cohorts of healthy subjects and those with prediabetes from Olmsted County, Minnesota, were assessed for positive neuropathic sensory symptoms, or pain symptoms characteristic of small fiber sensory DPN. Hyperalgesia and hypoalgesia were assessed by “smart” quantitative sensation testing (QST). The prevalence of symptoms and QST abnormalities were compared among the groups. Results There was no significant increase in the prevalence of positive neuropathic sensory or pain symptoms, nor of hyper- or hypoalgesia in the prediabetes group. There was an increased prevalence of hypoalgesia of the foot only in newly diagnosed diabetes. Conclusions Based on positive sensory and pain symptoms and QSTs, we did not find an increase in small fiber sensory DPN in prediabetes. Recognizing that obesity and diabetes mellitus are implicated in macro- and microvessel complications, physicians should encourage healthy living and weight loss in patients with prediabetes. In medical practice, alternate causes should be excluded before concluding that small fiber sensory distal neuropathy is secondary to prediabetes. PMID:26049659

  10. Sensory aspects in myasthenia gravis: A translational approach.

    PubMed

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Leon-Ariza, Juan S; Prada, Diddier; Leon-Ariza, Daniel S; Rizzo-Sierra, Carlos V

    2016-09-15

    Myasthenia gravis is a paradigmatic muscle disorder characterized by abnormal fatigue and muscle weakness that worsens with activities and improves with rest. Clinical and research studies done on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have advanced our knowledge of the muscle involvement in myasthenia. Current views still state that sensory deficits are not "features of myasthenia gravis". This article discusses the gap that exists on sensory neural transmission in myasthenia that has remained after >300years of research in this neurological disorder. We outline the neurobiological characteristics of sensory and motor synapses, reinterpret the nanocholinergic commonalities that exist in both sensory and motor pathways, discuss the clinical findings on altered sensory pathways in myasthenia, and propose a novel way to score anomalies resulting from multineuronal inability associated sensory troubles due to eugenic nanocholinergic instability and autoimmunity. This medicine-based evidence could serve as a template to further identify novel targets for studying new medications that may offer a better therapeutic benefit in both sensory and motor dysfunction for patients. Importantly, this review may help to re-orient current practices in myasthenia.

  11. Sensory aspects in myasthenia gravis: A translational approach.

    PubMed

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Leon-Ariza, Juan S; Prada, Diddier; Leon-Ariza, Daniel S; Rizzo-Sierra, Carlos V

    2016-09-15

    Myasthenia gravis is a paradigmatic muscle disorder characterized by abnormal fatigue and muscle weakness that worsens with activities and improves with rest. Clinical and research studies done on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have advanced our knowledge of the muscle involvement in myasthenia. Current views still state that sensory deficits are not "features of myasthenia gravis". This article discusses the gap that exists on sensory neural transmission in myasthenia that has remained after >300years of research in this neurological disorder. We outline the neurobiological characteristics of sensory and motor synapses, reinterpret the nanocholinergic commonalities that exist in both sensory and motor pathways, discuss the clinical findings on altered sensory pathways in myasthenia, and propose a novel way to score anomalies resulting from multineuronal inability associated sensory troubles due to eugenic nanocholinergic instability and autoimmunity. This medicine-based evidence could serve as a template to further identify novel targets for studying new medications that may offer a better therapeutic benefit in both sensory and motor dysfunction for patients. Importantly, this review may help to re-orient current practices in myasthenia. PMID:27538668

  12. Cortical network reorganization guided by sensory input features.

    PubMed

    Kilgard, Michael P; Pandya, Pritesh K; Engineer, Navzer D; Moucha, Raluca

    2002-12-01

    Sensory experience alters the functional organization of cortical networks. Previous studies using behavioral training motivated by aversive or rewarding stimuli have demonstrated that cortical plasticity is specific to salient inputs in the sensory environment. Sensory experience associated with electrical activation of the basal forebrain (BasF) generates similar input specific plasticity. By directly engaging plasticity mechanisms and avoiding extensive behavioral training, BasF stimulation makes it possible to efficiently explore how specific sensory features contribute to cortical plasticity. This review summarizes our observations that cortical networks employ a variety of strategies to improve the representation of the sensory environment. Different combinations of receptive-field, temporal, and spectrotemporal plasticity were generated in primary auditory cortex neurons depending on the pitch, modulation rate, and order of sounds paired with BasF stimulation. Simple tones led to map expansion, while modulated tones altered the maximum cortical following rate. Exposure to complex acoustic sequences led to the development of combination-sensitive responses. This remodeling of cortical response characteristics may reflect changes in intrinsic cellular mechanisms, synaptic efficacy, and local neuronal connectivity. The intricate relationship between the pattern of sensory activation and cortical plasticity suggests that network-level rules alter the functional organization of the cortex to generate the most behaviorally useful representation of the sensory environment.

  13. Sensory adaptation for timing perception.

    PubMed

    Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-04-22

    Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception. PMID:25788590

  14. Effects of Drying Condition and Binding Agent on the Quality Characteristics of Ground Dried-Pork Meat Products.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Ku, Su-Kyung; Park, Jong-Dae; Kim, Hee-Ju; Jang, Aera; Kim, Young-Boong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of processing conditions (temperature and time) and binding agent types (glutinous rice flour, potato starch, bean flour, and acorn flour) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ground dried-pork meat product. For this purpose, ground dried-pork meat product was produced by adding several binding agents at different drying temperatures and times. The drying time affected moisture content and water activity in all drying temperature. However, under the similar drying conditions, the extent of drying varied depending on the type of binding agents. The results of sensory evaluation for texture degree and overall acceptability indicated the following: overall, higher drying temperatures and longer drying time heightened the degree of texture, and the overall acceptability varied depending on binding agent type. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics were analyzed to determine any possible correlation. The results revealed a high correlation between moisture content, water activity, shear forces, and sensory evaluation (p<0.01). However, there was no correlation with respect to overall acceptability. PMID:26761886

  15. Effects of Drying Condition and Binding Agent on the Quality Characteristics of Ground Dried-Pork Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Ju; Jang, Aera

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of processing conditions (temperature and time) and binding agent types (glutinous rice flour, potato starch, bean flour, and acorn flour) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ground dried-pork meat product. For this purpose, ground dried-pork meat product was produced by adding several binding agents at different drying temperatures and times. The drying time affected moisture content and water activity in all drying temperature. However, under the similar drying conditions, the extent of drying varied depending on the type of binding agents. The results of sensory evaluation for texture degree and overall acceptability indicated the following: overall, higher drying temperatures and longer drying time heightened the degree of texture, and the overall acceptability varied depending on binding agent type. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics were analyzed to determine any possible correlation. The results revealed a high correlation between moisture content, water activity, shear forces, and sensory evaluation (p<0.01). However, there was no correlation with respect to overall acceptability. PMID:26761886

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation with or without hot water dip and transportation from Thailand to Canada on nutritional qualities, ripening index and sensorial characteristics of Thai mangoes (Nahng Glahng Wahn variety)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, M.; Gagnon, M.; Pringsulaka, V.; Jobin, M.; Latreille, B.; Nouchpramool, K.; Prachasitthisak, Y.; Charoen, S.; Adulyatham, P.; Lettre, J.; Grad, B.

    1993-07-01

    Two lots of mangoes of the Nahng Glahng Wahn variety from Thailand were irradiated at the Thai Irradiation Center (TIC) at 0.49 to 0.77 kGy. Following this, one batch was retained in Thailand while the other was shipped to the Canadian Irradiation Center (CIC) for investigation of the same variables during storage. This way, it was hoped to compare the effects of gamma radiation with hot water dip (HWI) or without (I) before and after transportation on the ripening, vitamin C and vitamin A content and sensory qualities of mangoes. The results indicate that the I and HWI treatments delayed the ripening of the mangoes. The irradiated groups appeared to have a slightly higher content of ascorbic acid on the first day after irradiation than their corresponding controls. The sensory evaluation indicates that the panelists mostly favoured the I and HWI irradiated groups for the overall appearance and texture of whole mangoes and pulp and in taste and palatability of the pulp alone. Transportation stress did not appear to have much of an effect on the ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid levels and the sensorial tests. The mangoes stored and studied in Canada appeared to have a lower vitamin A content.

  17. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  18. Transformation of sensory organs by mutations of the cut locus of D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Bodmer, R; Barbel, S; Sheperd, S; Jack, J W; Jan, L Y; Jan, Y N

    1987-10-23

    The identities of two types of sensory organs in the body wall of Drosophila, namely the external sensory organs and the chordotonal organs, are under genetic control. Embryonic lethal mutations in the cut gene complex transform the external sensory organs into chordotonal organs. The neurons, as well as the support cells forming the external sensory structures, change their morphological and antigenic characteristics to those of chordotonal organs, providing genetic evidence that these two types of sensory organs are homologous. Similar transformations of external sensory organs are observed in adult mosaic flies. Analysis of mosaic larvae and flies suggests that the cut gene function is required either in or near external sensory organs in order for them to acquire their correct identity. PMID:3117374

  19. Sensory Subtypes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Latent Profile Transition Analysis using a National Survey of Sensory Features

    PubMed Central

    Ausderau, Karla K.; Furlong, Melissa; Sideris, John; Bulluck, John; Little, Lauren M.; Watson, Linda R.; Boyd, Brian A.; Belger, Aysenil; Dickie, Virginia A.; Baranek, Grace T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensory features are highly prevalent and heterogeneous among children with ASD. There is a need to identify homogenous groups of children with ASD based on sensory features (i.e., sensory subtypes) to inform research and treatment. Methods Sensory subtypes and their stability over one year were identified through latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) among a national sample of children with ASD. Data were collected from caregivers of children with ASD ages 2-12 years at two time points (Time 1 N=1294; Time 2 N=884). Results Four sensory subtypes (Mild; Sensitive-Distressed; Attenuated-Preoccupied; Extreme-Mixed) were identified, which were supported by fit indices from the LPTA as well as current theoretical models that inform clinical practice. The Mild and Extreme-Mixed subtypes reflected quantitatively different sensory profiles, while the Sensitive-Distressed and Attenuated-Preoccupied subtypes reflected qualitatively different profiles. Further, subtypes reflected differential child (i.e., gender, developmental age, chronological age, autism severity) and family (i.e., income, mother's education) characteristics. Ninety-one percent of participants remained stable in their subtypes over one year. Conclusions Characterizing the nature of homogenous sensory subtypes may facilitate assessment and intervention, as well as potentially inform biological mechanisms. PMID:25039572

  20. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; McCurdy, David A.

    1992-04-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  1. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  2. Behavioral guides for sensory neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Konishi, M

    2006-06-01

    The study of natural behavior is important for understanding the coding schemes of sensory systems. The jamming avoidance response of the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia is an excellent example of a bottom-up approach, in which behavioral analyses guided neurophysiological studies. These studies started from the electroreceptive sense organs to the motor output consisting of pacemaker neurons. Going in the opposite direction, from the central nervous system to lower centers, is the characteristic of the top-down approach. Although this approach is perhaps more difficult than the bottom-up approach, it was successfully employed in the neuroethological analysis of sound localization in the barn owl. In the latter studies, high-order neurons selective for complex natural stimuli led to the discovery of neural pathways and networks responsible for the genesis of the stimulus selectivity. Comparison of Eigenmannia and barn owls, and their neural systems, has revealed similarities in network designs, such as parallel pathways and their convergence to produce stimulus selectivity necessary for detection of natural stimuli.

  3. Behavioral guides for sensory neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Konishi, M

    2006-06-01

    The study of natural behavior is important for understanding the coding schemes of sensory systems. The jamming avoidance response of the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia is an excellent example of a bottom-up approach, in which behavioral analyses guided neurophysiological studies. These studies started from the electroreceptive sense organs to the motor output consisting of pacemaker neurons. Going in the opposite direction, from the central nervous system to lower centers, is the characteristic of the top-down approach. Although this approach is perhaps more difficult than the bottom-up approach, it was successfully employed in the neuroethological analysis of sound localization in the barn owl. In the latter studies, high-order neurons selective for complex natural stimuli led to the discovery of neural pathways and networks responsible for the genesis of the stimulus selectivity. Comparison of Eigenmannia and barn owls, and their neural systems, has revealed similarities in network designs, such as parallel pathways and their convergence to produce stimulus selectivity necessary for detection of natural stimuli. PMID:16432726

  4. Temperament and sensory features of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Brock, M E; Freuler, A; Baranek, G T; Watson, L R; Poe, M D; Sabatino, A

    2012-11-01

    This study sought to characterize temperament traits in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ages 3-7 years old, and to determine the potential association between temperament and sensory features in ASD. Individual differences in sensory processing may form the basis for aspects of temperament and personality, and aberrations in sensory processing may inform why some temperamental traits are characteristic of specific clinical populations. Nine dimensions of temperament from the Behavioral Style Questionnaire (McDevitt and Carey in Manual for the behavioral style questionnaire, Behavioral-Developmental Initiatives, Scottsdale, AZ, 1996) were compared among groups of children with ASD (n = 54), developmentally delayed (DD; n = 33), and the original normative sample of typically developing children (McDevitt and Carey in J Child Psychol Psychiatr 19(3):245-253, 1978; n = 350) using an ANOVA to determine the extent to which groups differed in their temperament profiles. The hypothesized overlap between three sensory constructs (hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsiveness, and seeking) and the nine dimensions of temperament was analyzed in children with ASD using regression analyses. The ASD group displayed temperament scores distinct from norms for typically developing children on most dimensions of temperament (activity, rhythmicity, adaptability, approach, distractibility, intensity, persistence, and threshold) but differed from the DD group on only two dimensions (approach and distractibility). Analyses of associations between sensory constructs and temperament dimensions found that sensory hyporesponsiveness was associated with slowness to adapt, low reactivity, and low distractibility; a combination of increased sensory features (across all three patterns) was associated with increased withdrawal and more negative mood. Although most dimensions of temperament distinguished children with ASD as a group, not all dimensions appear equally

  5. Temperament and Sensory Features of Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Matthew E.; Freuler, Ashley; Baranek, Grace T.; Watson, Linda R.; Poe, Michele D.; Sabatino, Antoinette

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study sought to characterize temperament traits in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ages 3–7 years old, and to determine the potential association between temperament and sensory features in ASD. Individual differences in sensory processing may form the basis for aspects of temperament and personality, and aberrations in sensory processing may inform why some temperamental traits are characteristic of specific clinical populations. Methods Nine dimensions of temperament from the Behavioral Style Questionnaire (McDevitt & Carey, 1996) were compared among groups of children with ASD (n = 54), developmentally delayed (DD; n = 33), and the original normative sample of typically developing children (Carey & McDevitt, 1978; n = 350) using an ANOVA to determine the extent to which groups differed in their temperament profiles. The hypothesized overlap between three dimensional constructs of sensory features (hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsivness, and seeking) and the nine dimensions of temperament was analyzed in children with ASD using regression analyses. Results The ASD group displayed temperament scores distinct from norms for typically developing children on most dimensions of temperament (activity, rhythmicity, adaptability, approach, distractibility, intensity, persistence, and threshold) but differed from the DD group on only two dimensions (approach and distractibility). Analyses of associations between sensory constructs and temperament dimensions found that sensory hyporesponsiveness was associated with slowness to adapt, low reactivity, and low distractibility; a combination of increased sensory features (across all three patterns) was associated with increased withdrawal and more negative mood. Conclusions Although most dimensions of temperament distinguished children with ASD as a group, not all dimensions appear equally associated with sensory response patterns. Shared mechanisms underlying sensory responsiveness

  6. Influence of sensory and cultural perceptions of white rice, brown rice and beans by Costa Rican adults in their dietary choices.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Mattei, Josiemer; Fuster, Tamara; Willett, Walter; Campos, Hannia

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the distinct perceptions towards rice and beans that may shape the consumption of these main staple foods among Costa Ricans. We aimed to identify barriers and motivators that could change the current staple into a healthier one, and assess the sensory perceptions of these foods in this population. Focus group discussions and sensory tastings of 8 traditional white or brown rice and beans preparations were conducted in 98 Costa Ricans, aged 40-65 years. Traditional habits and family support emerged as the two main drivers for current consumption. Consuming similar amounts of rice and beans, as well as unfamiliarity with brown rice, are habits engrained in the Costa Rican culture, and are reinforced in the family and community environment. Suggested strategies for consuming more brown rice and more beans included introducing them during childhood, disseminating information of their health benefits that take into account the importance of tradition, lowering the cost, increasing availability, engaging women as agents of change and for brown rice masking the perceived unpleasant sensory characteristics by incorporating them into mixed dishes. Plain brown rice received the lowest mean hedonic liking scores. The preparations rated highest for pleasant were the beans: rice 1:1 ratio regardless of the type of rice. This study identified novel strategies to motivate Costa Rican adults to adapt their food choices into healthier ones within their cultural and sensory acceptability. PMID:24973509

  7. Influence of sensory and cultural perceptions of white rice, brown rice and beans by Costa Rican adults in their dietary choices.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Mattei, Josiemer; Fuster, Tamara; Willett, Walter; Campos, Hannia

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the distinct perceptions towards rice and beans that may shape the consumption of these main staple foods among Costa Ricans. We aimed to identify barriers and motivators that could change the current staple into a healthier one, and assess the sensory perceptions of these foods in this population. Focus group discussions and sensory tastings of 8 traditional white or brown rice and beans preparations were conducted in 98 Costa Ricans, aged 40-65 years. Traditional habits and family support emerged as the two main drivers for current consumption. Consuming similar amounts of rice and beans, as well as unfamiliarity with brown rice, are habits engrained in the Costa Rican culture, and are reinforced in the family and community environment. Suggested strategies for consuming more brown rice and more beans included introducing them during childhood, disseminating information of their health benefits that take into account the importance of tradition, lowering the cost, increasing availability, engaging women as agents of change and for brown rice masking the perceived unpleasant sensory characteristics by incorporating them into mixed dishes. Plain brown rice received the lowest mean hedonic liking scores. The preparations rated highest for pleasant were the beans: rice 1:1 ratio regardless of the type of rice. This study identified novel strategies to motivate Costa Rican adults to adapt their food choices into healthier ones within their cultural and sensory acceptability.

  8. Determinants of taste preference and acceptability: quality versus hedonics.

    PubMed

    Loney, Gregory C; Blonde, Ginger D; Eckel, Lisa A; Spector, Alan C

    2012-07-18

    Several methods exist for reliably determining the motivational valence of a taste stimulus in animals, but few to determine its perceptual quality independent of its apparent affective properties. Individual differences in taste preference and acceptability could result from variance in the perceptual qualities of the stimulus leading to different hedonic evaluations. Alternatively, taste perception might be identical across subjects, but the processing of the sensory signals in reward circuits could differ. Using an operant-based taste cue discrimination/generalization task involving a gustometer, we trained male Long-Evans rats to report the degree to which a test stimulus resembled the taste quality of either sucrose or quinine regardless of its intensity. The rats, grouped by a characteristic bimodal phenotypic difference in their preference for sucralose, treated this artificial sweetener as qualitatively different-compared to sucralose-avoiding rats, the sucralose-preferring rats found the stimulus much more perceptually similar to sucrose. Although the possibility that stimulus palatability may have served as a discriminative cue cannot entirely be ruled out, the profile of results suggests otherwise. Subsequent brief-access licking tests revealed that affective licking responses of the same sucralose-avoiding and -preferring rats differed across concentration in a manner approximately similar to that found in the stimulus generalization task. Thus, the perceived taste quality of sucralose alone may be sufficient to drive the observed behavioral avoidance of the compound. By virtue of its potential ability to dissociate the sensory and motivational consequences of a given experimental manipulation on taste-related behavior, this approach could be interpretively valuable. PMID:22815522

  9. Characteristics of a cream of cheese with bacon frozen soup concentrate.

    PubMed

    Brown, C; Holmes, Z A; Soeldner, A

    1981-08-01

    The starch granules of both Purity W, a modified waxy cornstarch, and wheat flour were affected by processing, refrigeration, freezing, and reheating. The major change in starch granules shown by scanning electron micrographs was the trend towards greater deformation of the starch granule and, apparently, subsequent greater homogeneity of the mixture. Sensory evaluation revealed a statistically significant difference (p of less than 0.05) only in overall acceptability of the fresh vs. the frozen soup. The other quality characteristics of texture acceptability, consistency, and syneresis were not statistically (p of less than 0.05) different.

  10. Acceptability of Aloysia citriodora-supplemented peach jams.

    PubMed

    Gámbaro, Adriana; Miraballes, Marcelo; Purtscher, Irene; Deandréis, Inés; Martínez, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    An unsupplemented peach jam and four peach jam samples prepared by supplementing the former with increasing amounts of Aloysia citriodora aqueous extract were subjected to sensory testing. A trained panel of eight assessors initially identified (reaching consensus) the relevant sensory attributes and then rated the jam samples on an individual basis. The jam samples were later evaluated for overall liking and willingness to purchase by a group of 95 interested consumers, who also provided their individual appraisal of the sensory features of the various samples by responding to an open-ended question. Overall, consumers appeared not to accept the sensory modifications introduced in traditional peach jam by the addition of A. citriodora extract, even though they were expressly acquainted with its health benefits. The degree of acceptance of the extract supplement decreased significantly with increasing amounts of extract in the jam. The groups identified to have the least and the greatest tolerance to the sensory modifications introduced in the supplemented jams differed in gender distribution, with male consumers having a greater tolerance than females. PMID:24259751

  11. Acceptability of Aloysia citriodora-supplemented peach jams.

    PubMed

    Gámbaro, Adriana; Miraballes, Marcelo; Purtscher, Irene; Deandréis, Inés; Martínez, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    An unsupplemented peach jam and four peach jam samples prepared by supplementing the former with increasing amounts of Aloysia citriodora aqueous extract were subjected to sensory testing. A trained panel of eight assessors initially identified (reaching consensus) the relevant sensory attributes and then rated the jam samples on an individual basis. The jam samples were later evaluated for overall liking and willingness to purchase by a group of 95 interested consumers, who also provided their individual appraisal of the sensory features of the various samples by responding to an open-ended question. Overall, consumers appeared not to accept the sensory modifications introduced in traditional peach jam by the addition of A. citriodora extract, even though they were expressly acquainted with its health benefits. The degree of acceptance of the extract supplement decreased significantly with increasing amounts of extract in the jam. The groups identified to have the least and the greatest tolerance to the sensory modifications introduced in the supplemented jams differed in gender distribution, with male consumers having a greater tolerance than females.

  12. Temporal dominance of sensations sensory profile and drivers of liking of artisanal Minas cheese produced in the region of Serra da Canastra, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bemfeito, Raquel M; Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Silva, Jonas G E; Abreu, Luiz R

    2016-10-01

    The Serra da Canastra region, located in southwestern Minas Gerais, Brazil, is recognized worldwide for its tradition of producing artisanal cheeses. However, as production is done by hand, great variability exists in the characteristics of artisanal Minas cheese. Thus, it is important to characterize the sensory profile of these products and verify the quality attributes that lead to their acceptance. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the dynamic sensorial profile of artisanal Minas cheese produced in the Serra da Canastra region through temporal dominance of sensations and sensory acceptance tests and verify the attributes that lead to product quality. We observed that the texture and flavor profile varied among the evaluated artisanal Minas cheeses from Serra da Canastra, some cheeses being more characterized by creamy and soft or hard and firm sensations, whereas others had high dominance rates for crumbly texture. In relation to flavor, salty and bitter tastes were dominant in most cheeses, some also being characterized by a sour taste, and others by buttery and rancid attributes, which indicates a lack of product standardization. However, all samples obtained scores between 6 (liked slightly) and 7 (liked moderately), indicating good acceptability in relation to the texture and flavor of the evaluated cheeses. Moreover, it is possible to infer that creamy and soft or hard and firm are positive attributes for cheese texture, and bitter, buttery, salty, and acid taste drive cheese acceptance. This study provides important information for product standardization, quality improvement, and process origin indications, besides providing quality attributes that meet consumer desires. PMID:27497904

  13. Acceptability of BCG vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mande, R

    1977-01-01

    The acceptability of BCG vaccination varies a great deal according to the country and to the period when the vaccine is given. The incidence of complications has not always a direct influence on this acceptability, which depends, for a very large part, on the risk of tuberculosis in a given country at a given time.

  14. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, J. C. , Jr.; Parker, J. V.; Hinckley, W. B.; Hosack, K. W.; Mills, D.; Parsons, W. M.; Scudder, D. W.; Stokes, J. L.; Tabaka, L. J.; Thompson, M. C.; Wysocki, Frederick Joseph; Campbell, T. N.; Lancaster, D. L.; Tom, C. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  15. Haltere mediated flight stabilization in Diptera: Rate decoupling, sensory encoding, and control realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Rhoe A.

    Insects of the order Diptera have a single pair of wings. The rear wings of Dipteran insects have evolved into organs that allow stabilizing control responses through sensing and encoding of body angular rate feedback. This dissertation documents research on the physical and physiological mechanisms that enable a pair of halteres to distinguish and encode three orthogonal components of the body rate vector. While the knowledge that the halteres play a role in flight stability has been accepted for centuries, the understanding of how insect's very simple sensory structures are able to encode and decouple the orthogonal components of the rate vector has been lacking. The work described in this report furthers this understanding through modeling and simulation. First, a natural decoupling of the observable rate components has been identified that asserts proportionality of body rate components to averaged strain characteristics near the center of the haltere stroke. Second, a means of encoding and decoding the necessary rate information in a manner compatible with the insect's sensory structures and flight motor physiology has been identified and demonstrated. Finally, the ability of the proposed haltere model to stabilize flight in a 6DOF environment with competing behavioural objectives and randomly generated obstructions has been demonstrated.

  16. Effect of Duck Feet Gelatin on Physicochemical, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Low-fat Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Duck feet gelatin (DFG) gel was added as a fat replacer to low-fat frankfurters and the effect of DFG on physicochemical, textural, and sensory characteristics of low-fat frankfurters was evaluated. DFG gel was prepared with a 20% duck feet gelatin concentration (w/w). Adding DFG decreased lightness and increased yellowness of the low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). However, DFG did not affect redness of low-fat frankfurters (p>0.05). The statistical results indicated that adding DFG improved cooking yield of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In addition, replacing pork back fat with DFG resulted in increased moisture content, protein content, and ash content of low-fat frankfurters, and the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel had the highest moisture content and lowest fat content (p<0.05). Adding of DFG increased all textural parameters including hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and gumminess of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In terms of sensory properties, the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel showed similar satisfaction scores for the flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptance when compared to the regular frankfurters (20% back fat). Therefore, our results suggest that DFG could be an effective novel source, as a fat replacer, for manufacturing of low-fat frankfurters. PMID:26761279

  17. Acceptability of zinc-fortified, lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) prepared for young children in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Hess, Sonja Y; Bado, Lucien; Aaron, Grant J; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Zeilani, Mamane; Brown, Kenneth H

    2011-10-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are a public health concern among young children in low-income countries, and novel strategies are needed to improve the nutritional status of children at risk. One promising approach is the use of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS), which can be added to complementary food at the time of consumption. The optimal amount of zinc to include in LNS is uncertain, and concerns have been expressed about possible adverse effects of zinc on sensory characteristics of LNS. We conducted a series of acceptability studies of LNS containing either 0 or 10 mg of zinc per daily 20 g LNS dose among Burkinabe children 9-15 months old and their mothers. These acceptability studies included observations of children's consumption, maternal and child sensory reaction to the products using a 5-unit hedonic scale, a triangle test for detection of differences and a review of maternal reports of their child-feeding experiences during a 2-week home-feeding trial. The LNS products were well appreciated by the mothers and children during the sensory trials and the 2-week home-feeding trial. The addition of 10 mg zinc to LNS did not affect the consumed proportion of the offered porridge-LNS-mixture (P = 0.43). Results of the triangle test with mothers confirmed that there was no detectable difference between products containing 0 or 10 mg zinc per 20 g LNS dose. Most importantly, interviews and focus groups following the 2-week home-feeding trial indicated good acceptability of the products by mothers and their children.

  18. Sensory analysis of calcium-biofortified lettuce.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunghun; Elless, Mark P; Park, Jungeun; Jenkins, Alicia; Lim, Wansang; Chambers, Edgar; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2009-01-01

    Vegetables represent an attractive means of providing increased calcium nutrition to the public. In this study, it was demonstrated that lettuce expressing the deregulated Arabidopsis H(+)/Ca(2+) transporter sCAX1 (cation exchanger 1) contained 25%-32% more calcium than controls. These biofortified lettuce lines were fertile and demonstrated robust growth in glasshouse growth conditions. Using a panel of highly trained descriptive panellists, biofortified lettuce plants were evaluated and no significant differences were detected in flavour, bitterness or crispness when compared with controls. Sensory analysis studies are critical if claims are to be made regarding the efficacy of biofortified foods, and may be an important component in the public acceptance of genetically modified foods. PMID:19021875

  19. Examining extrinsic factors that influence product acceptance: a review.

    PubMed

    Li, X E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2015-05-01

    Drivers of liking (DOL) studies are useful for product development to formulate acceptable products; however, DOL alone are insufficient for understanding why a product is purchased and repurchased, which is ultimately the indication of a successful product. Ultimately sensory attributes drive product success (that is, repeat and continued purchase). However, ignoring the importance of extrinsic factors may neglect the vital product attributes responsible for the initial purchase, which may in turn, affect repeat purchase. The perception of sensory attributes assessed by DOL is mitigated by external perceptions of quality. If the sensory attributes do not deliver based upon the quality cues, the product will not be acceptable. Four key extrinsic factors that affect DOL are the perceived satiety, brand and labeling, price, and the emotional impact to decision making. In order to more thoroughly understand what the DOL for a product is, these 4 product cues should be considered in conjunction with sensory attribute perception to gain a holistic understanding of product acceptance. PMID:25959688

  20. The effect of chilled conditioning at 4°C on selected water and lipid-soluble flavor precursors in Bison bison longissimus dorsi muscle and their impact on sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Jennifer; Ryland, Donna; Suh, Miyoung; Aliani, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Water and lipid-soluble flavor precursors were monitored using chromatography methods in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of six grain-fed Bison bison, stored at 4°C for 2, 4, 8, 15 and 21 days in order to investigate their potential impact on sensory attributes of cooked bison meat. While pH and lipid-soluble compounds remained mostly unchanged, several changes in water-soluble compounds were observed. The breakdown of inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) led to increases in inosine, hypoxanthine and ribose (7-fold). Non-polar amino acids including valine, leucine and phenylalanine showed the most significant increases over 21 days. Trained panelists (n=8) found a significant increase at day 15 in vinegary/sour aroma, tenderness and juiciness, while chewiness and connective tissue significantly decreased. Although, most flavor attributes were undetectable, partial least squares (PLS) analysis revealed most water-soluble precursors were positively correlated with extended conditioning as well as beef and oily/fatty flavors. Quantitative changes observed in flavor precursors may be responsible for some sensory attributes developed during the heating process.

  1. Assessing Decreased Sensation and Increased Sensory Phenomena in Diabetic Polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, David N.; Staff, Nathan P.; Dyck, P. James B.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of sensation and increased sensory phenomena are major expressions of varieties of diabetic polyneuropathies needing improved assessments for clinical and research purposes. We provide a neurobiological explanation for the apparent paradox between decreased sensation and increased sensory phenomena. Strongly endorsed is the use of the 10-g monofilaments for screening of feet to detect sensation loss, with the goal of improving diabetic management and prevention of foot ulcers and neurogenic arthropathy. We describe improved methods to assess for the kind, severity, and distribution of both large- and small-fiber sensory loss and which approaches and techniques may be useful for conducting therapeutic trials. The abnormality of attributes of nerve conduction may be used to validate the dysfunction of large sensory fibers. The abnormality of epidermal nerve fibers/1 mm may be used as a surrogate measure of small-fiber sensory loss but appear not to correlate closely with severity of pain. Increased sensory phenomena are recognized by the characteristic words patients use to describe them and by the severity and persistence of these symptoms. Tests of tactile and thermal hyperalgesia are additional markers of neural hyperactivity that are useful for diagnosis and disease management. PMID:24158999

  2. Research in Review. Children's Eating: The Development of Food-Acceptance Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reviews what is known about the factors that influence child's food-acceptance patterns, including children's sensory responsiveness, innate preferences, and ability to learn about food; the consequences of eating; and the effect of child-feeding practices on children's food-acceptance patterns. Suggests that early experience contributes to the…

  3. Designing sensory-substitution devices: Principles, pitfalls and potential1

    PubMed Central

    Kristjánsson, Árni; Moldoveanu, Alin; Jóhannesson, Ómar I.; Balan, Oana; Spagnol, Simone; Valgeirsdóttir, Vigdís Vala; Unnthorsson, Rúnar

    2016-01-01

    An exciting possibility for compensating for loss of sensory function is to augment deficient senses by conveying missing information through an intact sense. Here we present an overview of techniques that have been developed for sensory substitution (SS) for the blind, through both touch and audition, with special emphasis on the importance of training for the use of such devices, while highlighting potential pitfalls in their design. One example of a pitfall is how conveying extra information about the environment risks sensory overload. Related to this, the limits of attentional capacity make it important to focus on key information and avoid redundancies. Also, differences in processing characteristics and bandwidth between sensory systems severely constrain the information that can be conveyed. Furthermore, perception is a continuous process and does not involve a snapshot of the environment. Design of sensory substitution devices therefore requires assessment of the nature of spatiotemporal continuity for the different senses. Basic psychophysical and neuroscientific research into representations of the environment and the most effective ways of conveying information should lead to better design of sensory substitution systems. Sensory substitution devices should emphasize usability, and should not interfere with other inter- or intramodal perceptual function. Devices should be task-focused since in many cases it may be impractical to convey too many aspects of the environment. Evidence for multisensory integration in the representation of the environment suggests that researchers should not limit themselves to a single modality in their design. Finally, we recommend active training on devices, especially since it allows for externalization, where proximal sensory stimulation is attributed to a distinct exterior object. PMID:27567755

  4. Designing sensory-substitution devices: Principles, pitfalls and potential1.

    PubMed

    Kristjánsson, Árni; Moldoveanu, Alin; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Balan, Oana; Spagnol, Simone; Valgeirsdóttir, Vigdís Vala; Unnthorsson, Rúnar

    2016-09-21

    An exciting possibility for compensating for loss of sensory function is to augment deficient senses by conveying missing information through an intact sense. Here we present an overview of techniques that have been developed for sensory substitution (SS) for the blind, through both touch and audition, with special emphasis on the importance of training for the use of such devices, while highlighting potential pitfalls in their design. One example of a pitfall is how conveying extra information about the environment risks sensory overload. Related to this, the limits of attentional capacity make it important to focus on key information and avoid redundancies. Also, differences in processing characteristics and bandwidth between sensory systems severely constrain the information that can be conveyed. Furthermore, perception is a continuous process and does not involve a snapshot of the environment. Design of sensory substitution devices therefore requires assessment of the nature of spatiotemporal continuity for the different senses. Basic psychophysical and neuroscientific research into representations of the environment and the most effective ways of conveying information should lead to better design of sensory substitution systems. Sensory substitution devices should emphasize usability, and should not interfere with other inter- or intramodal perceptual function. Devices should be task-focused since in many cases it may be impractical to convey too many aspects of the environment. Evidence for multisensory integration in the representation of the environment suggests that researchers should not limit themselves to a single modality in their design. Finally, we recommend active training on devices, especially since it allows for externalization, where proximal sensory stimulation is attributed to a distinct exterior object.

  5. Designing sensory-substitution devices: Principles, pitfalls and potential1.

    PubMed

    Kristjánsson, Árni; Moldoveanu, Alin; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Balan, Oana; Spagnol, Simone; Valgeirsdóttir, Vigdís Vala; Unnthorsson, Rúnar

    2016-09-21

    An exciting possibility for compensating for loss of sensory function is to augment deficient senses by conveying missing information through an intact sense. Here we present an overview of techniques that have been developed for sensory substitution (SS) for the blind, through both touch and audition, with special emphasis on the importance of training for the use of such devices, while highlighting potential pitfalls in their design. One example of a pitfall is how conveying extra information about the environment risks sensory overload. Related to this, the limits of attentional capacity make it important to focus on key information and avoid redundancies. Also, differences in processing characteristics and bandwidth between sensory systems severely constrain the information that can be conveyed. Furthermore, perception is a continuous process and does not involve a snapshot of the environment. Design of sensory substitution devices therefore requires assessment of the nature of spatiotemporal continuity for the different senses. Basic psychophysical and neuroscientific research into representations of the environment and the most effective ways of conveying information should lead to better design of sensory substitution systems. Sensory substitution devices should emphasize usability, and should not interfere with other inter- or intramodal perceptual function. Devices should be task-focused since in many cases it may be impractical to convey too many aspects of the environment. Evidence for multisensory integration in the representation of the environment suggests that researchers should not limit themselves to a single modality in their design. Finally, we recommend active training on devices, especially since it allows for externalization, where proximal sensory stimulation is attributed to a distinct exterior object. PMID:27567755

  6. Sensory Processing Relates to Attachment to Childhood Comfort Objects of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalpidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The author tested the hypothesis that attachment to comfort objects is based on the sensory processing characteristics of the individual. Fifty-two undergraduate students with and without a childhood comfort object reported sensory responses and performed a tactile threshold task. Those with a comfort object described their object and rated their…

  7. Deboning time effect on sensory descriptive flavor profiles of cooked broiler pectoralis major

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profiling sensory texture characteristics of cooked chicken pectoralis major (breast fillets) deboned at different postmortem (PM) times has been research interests for decades. However, there is lack of peer-reviewed studies to compare sensory descriptive flavor profiles of hot-deboned versus 2-h c...

  8. Physicochemical and sensory properties of Galician chorizo sausage preserved by refrigeration, freezing, oil-immersion, or vacuum-packing.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fernández, E; Romero-Rodríguez, M A; Vázquez-Odériz, M L

    2001-05-01

    Galician chorizo sausage is a traditional cured meat product from northwest Spain. We monitored changes in the physicochemical and sensory properties of Galician chorizo sausage conserved by four different methods, namely refrigeration, freezing, immersion in sunflower oil, and vacuum-packing. Refrigeration was the least effective method tested, with rapid deterioration of sensory properties, and oxidative spoilage evident from week 4 onward. Oil immersion and vacuum-packing gave reasonable conservation of sensory properties (despite some masking of aromas by the oil). Freezing gave acceptable conservation of sensory properties, and by week 6 there was still no evidence of oxidative spoilage.

  9. Acceptance procedures: Microfilm printer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Acceptance tests were made for a special order automatic additive color microfilm printer. Tests include film capacity, film transport, resolution, illumination uniformity, exposure range checks, and color cuing considerations.

  10. Meeting the Sensory Needs of Young Children in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Malia; Brittain, Lea Ann; McCathren, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the characteristics of modulation disorders that have been reported with sensory integration dysfunction and provide strategies for supporting positive development and engagement. Although not well understood, scientists are beginning to link structural and chemical imbalances of the brain with responses…

  11. Identifying drivers for consumer acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortilla.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Corredor, J A; Saidu, J E P; Khachatryan, A; Prinyawiwatkul, W; Carballo-Carballo, A; Zepeda-Bautista, R

    2007-11-01

    The traditional production of corn tortilla has been modified by new processing technologies to make possible a commercial-scale production; this practice has resulted in products having sensory properties different from those produced by the traditional method. There is no published information on sensory attributes driving acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortillas. Identifying sensory drivers for acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortillas will help commercially produce products that satisfy consumers' expectations. A consumer study was conducted to evaluate acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortillas and determine drivers of acceptance and purchase intent of the products. Ten samples of corn tortillas were selected to represent a variety of corn tortillas available in the Mexican market. Three hundred Mexican consumers evaluated acceptability of appearance, color, thickness, rollability, resistance to tearing, aroma, chewiness, taste and aftertaste, and overall liking using a 9-point hedonic scale. Overall acceptance and purchase intent were determined with a yes/no scale. Analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance revealed that consumers were able to differentiate differences in sensory acceptability among 10 samples. For example, 2 homemade and 1 small commercial-scale samples, with an overall liking score of 6.6 to 6.7, were more acceptable than others. Rollability, resistance to tearing, and chewiness were attributes underlying overall differences among 10 samples. Attributes determining overall acceptance of corn tortillas were chewiness and overall liking. Purchase intent was influenced by overall appearance, rollability, chewiness, taste, and overall liking. This study revealed critical sensory attributes and their weights given by Mexican consumers when making decisions for acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortilla. PMID:18034760

  12. Consumer Acceptance of Dry Dog Food Variations

    PubMed Central

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri; Swaney-Stueve, Marianne; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Pet owners evaluated dry dog food samples available in the US market. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Abstract The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Eight dry dog food samples available in the US market were evaluated by pet owners. In this study, consumers evaluated overall liking, aroma, and appearance liking of the products. Consumers were also asked to predict their purchase intent, their dog’s liking, and cost of the samples. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Overall liking clusters were not related to income, age, gender, or education, indicating that general consumer demographics do not appear to play a main role in individual consumer acceptance of dog food products. PMID:26480043

  13. Sensory Transduction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Austin L.; Ramot, Daniel; Goodman, Miriam B.

    The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has a well-defined and comparatively simple repertoire of sensory-guided behaviors, all of which rely on its ability to detect chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli. In this chapter, we review what is known about the ion channels that mediate sensation in this remarkable model organism. Genetic screens for mutants defective in sensory-guided behaviors have identified genes encoding channel proteins, which are likely transducers of chemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli. Such classical genetic approaches are now being coupled with molecular genetics and in vivo cellular physiology to elucidate how these channels are activated in specific sensory neurons. The ion channel superfamilies implicated in sensory transduction in C. elegans - CNG, TRP, and DEG/ENaC - are conserved across phyla and also appear to contribute to sensory transduction in other organisms, including vertebrates. What we learn about the role of these ion channels in C. elegans sensation is likely to illuminate analogous processes in other animals, including humans.

  14. Crossmodal plasticity in sensory loss.

    PubMed

    Frasnelli, Johannes; Collignon, Olivier; Voss, Patrice; Lepore, Franco

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we describe crossmodal plasticity following sensory loss in three parts, with each section focusing on one sensory system. We summarize a wide range of studies showing that sensory loss may lead, depending of the affected sensory system, to functional changes in other, primarily not affected senses, which range from heightened to lowered abilities. In the first part, the effects of blindness on mainly audition and touch are described. The latest findings on brain reorganization in blindness are reported, with a particular emphasis on imaging studies illustrating how nonvisual inputs recruit the visually deafferented occipital cortex. The second part covers crossmodal processing in deafness, with a special focus on the effects of deafness on visual processing. In the last portion of this review, we present the effects that the loss of a chemical sense have on the sensitivity of the other chemical senses, that is, smell, taste, and trigeminal chemosensation. We outline how the convergence of the chemical senses to the same central processing areas may lead to the observed reduction in sensitivity of the primarily not affected senses. Altogether, the studies reviewed herein illustrate the fascinating plasticity of the brain when coping with sensory deprivation. PMID:21741555

  15. A Multivariate Analysis of the Relationship between Androgyny and Self-Esteem, Self-Acceptance and Acceptance of Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eman, Virginia A.; Morse, Benjamin W.

    Androgynous persons accept both their masculine and feminine characteristics rather than adhere to traditional sex-role stereotypes. This study tested whether the multidimensional approach and psychological freedom of androgynous persons would give them greater self-esteem, self-acceptance, and acceptance of others, according to their own…

  16. Changes in the adult vertebrate auditory sensory epithelium after trauma.

    PubMed

    Oesterle, Elizabeth C

    2013-03-01

    Auditory hair cells transduce sound vibrations into membrane potential changes, ultimately leading to changes in neuronal firing and sound perception. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and repair capabilities of traumatized auditory sensory epithelium in the adult vertebrate ear. Injured mammalian auditory epithelium repairs itself by forming permanent scars but is unable to regenerate replacement hair cells. In contrast, injured non-mammalian vertebrate ear generates replacement hair cells to restore hearing functions. Non-sensory support cells within the auditory epithelium play key roles in the repair processes.

  17. Reading the World through the Skin and Ears: A New Perspective on Sensory Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Deroy, Ophelia; Auvray, Malika

    2012-01-01

    Sensory substitution devices aim at replacing or assisting one or several functions of a deficient sensory modality by means of another sensory modality. Despite the numerous studies and research programs devoted to their development and integration, sensory substitution devices have failed to live up to their goal of allowing one to “see with the skin” (White et al., 1970) or to “see with the brain” (Bach-y-Rita et al., 2003). These somewhat peremptory claims, as well as the research conducted so far, are based on an implicit perceptual paradigm. Such perceptual assumption accepts the equivalence between using a sensory substitution device and perceiving through a particular sensory modality. Our aim is to provide an alternative model, which defines sensory substitution as being closer to culturally implemented cognitive extensions of existing perceptual skills such as reading. In this article, we will show why the analogy with reading provides a better explanation of the actual findings, that is, both of the positive results achieved and of the limitations noticed across the field of research on sensory substitution. The parallel with the most recent two-route and interactive models of reading (e.g., Dehaene et al., 2005) generates a radically new way of approaching these results, by stressing the dependence of integration on the existing perceptual-semantic route. In addition, the present perspective enables us to generate innovative research questions and specific predictions which set the stage for future work. PMID:23162506

  18. Quality assessment and consumer acceptability of bread from wheat and fermented banana flour.

    PubMed

    Adebayo-Oyetoro, Abiodun Omowonuola; Ogundipe, Oladeinde Olatunde; Adeeko, Kehinde Nojeemdeen

    2016-05-01

    Bread was produced from wheat flour and fermented unripe banana using the straight dough method. Matured unripe banana was peeled, sliced, steam blanched, dried and milled, and sieved to obtain flour. The flour was mixed with water and made into slurry and allowed to stand for 24 h after which it was divided into several portions and blended with wheat flour in different ratios. Proximate and mineral compositions as well as functional, pasting, and sensory characteristics of the samples were determined. The results of proximate analysis showed that crude fiber ranged between 1.95% and 3.19%, carbohydrate was between 49.70% and 52.98% and protein was 6.92% and 10.25%, respectively, while iron was between 27.07 mg/100 g and 29.30 mg/100 g. Swelling capacity of the experimental samples showed a significant difference from that of control. Peak viscosity ranged between 97.00RVU and 153.63RVU for experimental samples compared with 392.35RVU obtained for the control. Most of the sensory properties for the experimental samples were significantly different from the control. This study showed that bread with better quality and acceptability can be produced from wheat-unripe banana blends. PMID:27247766

  19. Effect of ingredients on sensory profile of idli.

    PubMed

    Durgadevi, Manoharan; Shetty, Prathapkumar H

    2014-09-01

    Idli is a traditional fermented food and is consumed in India and Srilanka. The objective of the present study is to select the ingredients for optimum desirable product characteristics and to identify the optimum ratios of ingredients and fermentation time with respect to sensory attributes using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The sensory attributes included were color, appearance, texture, taste and overall quality. Preliminary trials were conducted using five variants of rice and common black gram dhal before framing a model using Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). From the study it was found that a desirable score of 0.7439 was obtained for sensory attributes of idli made with the ratio of 3: 1.475 for IR20 idli rice and ADT3 variety black gram (with husk removed after soaking) fermented for 10.2 h. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) helped to discriminate the samples and attributes within the data matrix, depending upon their inter relationships. PMID:25190832

  20. Chemical, physical, and sensory properties of dairy products enriched with conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Jones, E L; Shingfield, K J; Kohen, C; Jones, A K; Lupoli, B; Grandison, A S; Beever, D E; Williams, C M; Calder, P C; Yaqoob, P

    2005-08-01

    Recent studies have illustrated the effects of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on human health. Ruminant-derived meat, milk and dairy products are the predominant sources of cis-9,trans-11 CLA in the human diet. This study evaluated the processing properties, texture, storage characteristics, and organoleptic properties of UHT milk, Caerphilly cheese, and butter produced from a milk enriched to a level of cis-9,trans-11 CLA that has been shown to have biological effects in humans. Forty-nine early-lactation Holstein-British Friesian cows were fed total mixed rations containing 0 (control) or 45 g/kg (on dry matter basis) of a mixture (1:2 wt/wt) of fish oil and sunflower oil during two consecutive 7-d periods to produce a control and CLA-enhanced milk, respectively. Milk produced from cows fed the control and fish and sunflower oil diets contained 0.54 and 4.68 g of total CLA/100 g of fatty acids, respectively. Enrichment of CLA in raw milk from the fish and sunflower oil diet was also accompanied by substantial increases in trans C18:1 levels, lowered C18:0, cis-C18:1, and total saturated fatty acid concentrations, and small increases in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content. The CLA-enriched milk was used for the manufacture of UHT milk, butter, and cheese. Both the CLA-enhanced butter and cheese were less firm than control products. Although the sensory profiles of the CLA-enriched milk, butter, and cheese differed from those of the control products with respect to some attributes, the overall impression and flavor did not differ. In conclusion, it is feasible to produce CLA-enriched dairy products with acceptable storage and sensory characteristics.

  1. Sensory evaluation of a novel vegetable in school age children.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Helen; Palfreyman, Zoe; Morizet, David

    2016-05-01

    A behavioural sensory task was undertaken to further understanding into whether children's sensory evaluation of a new vegetable is associated with tasting and food neophobia scores. A sample of ninety-five children, aged 7-11 years, was recruited from a primary school in inner city Birmingham, UK. They were asked to rate the sight, smell and feel of a familiar vegetable (carrot) and an unfamiliar vegetable (celeriac) in a randomised order to control for order effects. They were then asked to try the each vegetable, and rate its taste. It was found that children rated the sensory characteristics of the familiar vegetable more positively than the novel vegetable across all sensory domains (p < 0.05). Refusing to try the novel vegetable was associated with food neophobia scores and olfactory ratings. The ratings of the taste of the novel vegetable were associated with olfactory and tactile ratings. In addition there was a clear developmental shift in the sample with younger children being more likely to rate the novel vegetable as 'looking strange' and older children rating the novel vegetable as 'smelling strange'. This research strengthens the idea that sensory information is important in children deciding to try, and their hedonic evaluation of the taste of a new vegetable. PMID:26809143

  2. Fatty acid and sensory profiles of Caciocavallo cheese as affected by management system.

    PubMed

    Esposito, G; Masucci, F; Napolitano, F; Braghieri, A; Romano, R; Manzo, N; Di Francia, A

    2014-01-01

    The effect of season of the year associated with changes in feeding and management system (pasture-based vs. confinement) on milk and cheese fatty acid profile and on sensory properties of Caciocavallo cheese was evaluated on 3 mountain dairy farms. Each farm used a pasture-based feeding system from April to June and from September to October (PS), and a confinement system for the rest of the year (CS). As a consequence of grazing, PS milk showed higher percentages of C18:3, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, and trans-11 C18:1, and a reduced percentage of C16:0. The fatty acid profile of cheese largely reflected that of the corresponding raw milk from which cheese was made. This led to a significant decrease of atherogenic index in cheeses produced from cows on pasture. Based on sensory analysis, cheese from animals kept on pasture was more yellow and had a lower intensity of butter and smoked odors than did CS cheese. In addition, grazing induced a lower intensity of bitter and a higher intensity of spicy flavors compared with cheese from CS animals. In regard to texture, pasture feeding resulted in higher intensity of friability and graininess. All cheeses performed well in consumer tests; the panel found all samples more than acceptable for overall liking, and for liking according to appearance, taste/flavor, and texture. Overall liking of Caciocavallo cheese, as assessed by slope analysis, was affected primarily by taste/flavor (raw slope k=0.88) and texture (k=0.97), whereas appearance had a lesser effect (k=0.72). The acidic and sensory profiles of cheese were well discriminated, with healthier cheeses produced by grazing cows. Therefore, wider use of pasture should be promoted to accentuate this favorable feature. Based on the specific nutritional and sensory characteristics of mountain Caciocavallo cheese, particularly that obtained from grazing animals, efforts should be made to indicate the quality of this cheese to the consumer and improve product

  3. Exposure, health information and flavour-masking strategies for improving the sensory quality of probiotic juice.

    PubMed

    Luckow, T; Sheehan, V; Fitzgerald, G; Delahunty, C

    2006-11-01

    Probiotics are live microbial food supplements, which have been shown to exert numerous health benefits. Research has identified that probiotics cause perceptible off-flavours that often contribute to consumer dissatisfaction. This research consisted of three objectives. Firstly, to confirm whether probiotics have a significant effect on the sensory quality and the consumer acceptance of juices. Secondly, to evaluate whether the addition of tropical juices masks probiotic off-flavours, thereby increasing consumer liking. Thirdly, to determine whether non-sensory factors (i.e., repeated exposure, and health information) have an impact on consumer liking. Three orange juice products were manufactured for analysis; Control juice, juice containing probiotics, and juice containing probiotics and tropical fruit juices (10% v/v). Descriptive sensory analysis using a trained panel (n=8) determined that probiotic juices possessed unique 'medicinal' characteristics. Using labelled affective magnitude scales, consumers (n=116) evaluated their 'overall liking' of the three juices in a randomised order in the laboratory. Once assigned into one of three balanced exposure groups, each consumer took home seven, 100mL bottles of one of the juices, and consumed one bottle each day for 7 days. After each in-home consumption, consumers evaluated their 'overall liking' to familiarize themselves with the juice. Furthermore, half of the consumers were provided with information about the presence and the health benefits of probiotics, while the other half of consumers received no information. After 7 days of in-home usage, consumers returned to the laboratory for post-exposure sensory testing, where they re-evaluated their 'overall liking' of the three juices in a randomised order. Results showed that tropical juices were effective in masking the off-flavours associated with probiotic ingredients, and that consumer liking for the probiotic juice containing tropical juice flavours was

  4. Fatty acid and sensory profiles of Caciocavallo cheese as affected by management system.

    PubMed

    Esposito, G; Masucci, F; Napolitano, F; Braghieri, A; Romano, R; Manzo, N; Di Francia, A

    2014-01-01

    The effect of season of the year associated with changes in feeding and management system (pasture-based vs. confinement) on milk and cheese fatty acid profile and on sensory properties of Caciocavallo cheese was evaluated on 3 mountain dairy farms. Each farm used a pasture-based feeding system from April to June and from September to October (PS), and a confinement system for the rest of the year (CS). As a consequence of grazing, PS milk showed higher percentages of C18:3, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, and trans-11 C18:1, and a reduced percentage of C16:0. The fatty acid profile of cheese largely reflected that of the corresponding raw milk from which cheese was made. This led to a significant decrease of atherogenic index in cheeses produced from cows on pasture. Based on sensory analysis, cheese from animals kept on pasture was more yellow and had a lower intensity of butter and smoked odors than did CS cheese. In addition, grazing induced a lower intensity of bitter and a higher intensity of spicy flavors compared with cheese from CS animals. In regard to texture, pasture feeding resulted in higher intensity of friability and graininess. All cheeses performed well in consumer tests; the panel found all samples more than acceptable for overall liking, and for liking according to appearance, taste/flavor, and texture. Overall liking of Caciocavallo cheese, as assessed by slope analysis, was affected primarily by taste/flavor (raw slope k=0.88) and texture (k=0.97), whereas appearance had a lesser effect (k=0.72). The acidic and sensory profiles of cheese were well discriminated, with healthier cheeses produced by grazing cows. Therefore, wider use of pasture should be promoted to accentuate this favorable feature. Based on the specific nutritional and sensory characteristics of mountain Caciocavallo cheese, particularly that obtained from grazing animals, efforts should be made to indicate the quality of this cheese to the consumer and improve product

  5. [Evaluation of consumer's acceptance of a peach palm snack (Bactris gasipaes) and determination of its potential as a functional food].

    PubMed

    López-Calvo, Rebeca; Pérez, Ana M; Ivankovich Guillén, Carmen; Calderón Villaplana, Sandra; Pineda Castro, Maria Lourdes

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' acceptance of a peach palm snack and to determine its potential as a functional food by chemical characterization. An assessment was conducted with 100 consumers to determine the acceptance of different snack formulations and the results were subjected to cluster analysis. This analysis revealed two groups. Group 2 included people that consume snacks and peach palm frequently and showed the highest grades for the snack evaluated characteristics. All the consumers in group 2 and approximately 85% of the consumers in group 1 indicated that they would buy the product suggesting that there is a niche market for the developed peach palm snack. Also, a qualitative evaluation, using mini focus groups, of the two most widely accepted formulas of the snack (chosen according to previously described study) was performed. The sessions considered the opinion of middle class professionals and housewives. It was determined that the combination of tara gum and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) allows a positive synergistic effect on the sensory characteristics of the snack, highlighting natural peach flavor and improving crunchiness. In a dry basis, the snack contains per 100 g: 9 ± 4 g of fat, 14.0 ± 0.3 g of dietary fiber, 15500 ± 32 µg of carotenoids and has an antioxidant capacity of 4700 ± 8 µmol TE, which demonstrates its potential as a functional food.

  6. Sensor selection and chemo-sensory optimization: toward an adaptable chemo-sensory system.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Alexander; Llobet, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, despite the tremendous research on chemical sensors and machine olfaction to develop micro-sensory systems that will accomplish the growing existent needs in personal health (implantable sensors), environment monitoring (widely distributed sensor networks), and security/threat detection (chemo/bio warfare agents), simple, low-cost molecular sensing platforms capable of long-term autonomous operation remain beyond the current state-of-the-art of chemical sensing. A fundamental issue within this context is that most of the chemical sensors depend on interactions between the targeted species and the surfaces functionalized with receptors that bind the target species selectively, and that these binding events are coupled with transduction processes that begin to change when they are exposed to the messy world of real samples. With the advent of fundamental breakthroughs at the intersection of materials science, micro- and nano-technology, and signal processing, hybrid chemo-sensory systems have incorporated tunable, optimizable operating parameters, through which changes in the response characteristics can be modeled and compensated as the environmental conditions or application needs change. The objective of this article, in this context, is to bring together the key advances at the device, data processing, and system levels that enable chemo-sensory systems to "adapt" in response to their environments. Accordingly, in this review we will feature the research effort made by selected experts on chemical sensing and information theory, whose work has been devoted to develop strategies that provide tunability and adaptability to single sensor devices or sensory array systems. Particularly, we consider sensor-array selection, modulation of internal sensing parameters, and active sensing. The article ends with some conclusions drawn from the results presented and a visionary look toward the future in terms of how the field may evolve. PMID

  7. Smaller hospitals accept advertising.

    PubMed

    Mackesy, R

    1988-07-01

    Administrators at small- and medium-sized hospitals gradually have accepted the role of marketing in their organizations, albeit at a much slower rate than larger institutions. This update of a 1983 survey tracks the increasing competitiveness, complexity and specialization of providing health care and of advertising a small hospital's services. PMID:10288550

  8. Students Accepted on Probation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorberbaum, Caroline S.

    This report is a justification of the Dalton Junior College admissions policy designed to help students who had had academic and/or social difficulties at other schools. These students were accepted on probation, their problems carefully analyzed, and much effort devoted to those with low academic potential. They received extensive academic and…

  9. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  10. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  11. Effect of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the Quality Characteristics of Chicken Patties

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary fiber extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the chemical composition, cooking characteristics, and sensory properties of chicken patties. The chicken patties with Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had significantly higher moisture and ash content, and yellowness than the control sample (p<0.05). Energy value, cooking loss, reduction in diameter, reduction in thickness, lightness, redness, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness of the control samples was significantly higher than chicken patties with Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber (p<0.05). The sensory evaluation indicated that the greatest overall acceptability in chicken patties was achieved at Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber levels of 1% and 2%. Chicken patties supplemented with 2% Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had improved quality characteristics. PMID:26761844

  12. Effect of Different Tumbling Marination Treatments on the Quality Characteristics of Prepared Pork Chops

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Tian; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Jiang, Yun; Ma, Ruixue; Song, Lei; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different tumbling marination treatments (control group, CG; conventional static marination, SM; vacuum continuous tumbling marination, CT; vacuum intermittent tumbling marination, IT) on the quality characteristics of prepared pork chops was investigated under simulated commercial conditions. The CT treatment increased (p<0.05) the pH value, b* value, product yield, tenderness, overall flavor, sensory juiciness and overall acceptability in comparison to other treatments for prepared boneless pork chops. The CT treatment decreased (p<0.05) cooking loss, shear force value, hardness, gumminess and chewiness compared with other treatments. In addition, CT treatment effectively improved springiness and sensory color more than other treatments. However, IT treatment achieved the numerically highest (p<0.05) L* and a* values. These results suggested that CT treatment obtained the best quality characteristics of prepared pork chops and should be adopted as the optimal commercial processing method for this prepared boneless pork chops. PMID:25557823

  13. [Sensory Awareness through Outdoor Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Carin; And Others

    Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, these seven articles present concepts and activities relative to sensory awareness and outdoor education. The first article presents definitions, concepts, detailed methodology, and over 50 activities designed to create awareness of man's five senses. Utilizing the art of…

  14. Sensory Aids for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

    The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

  15. Making Sense of Sensory Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Marie

    2010-01-01

    The role of caregivers requires that they continuously assess the needs and performance of children and provide the support necessary for them to achieve their potential. A thorough understanding of child development, including the role and impact of sensory development, is critical for caregivers to properly evaluate and assist these children.…

  16. Persistent Pain and Sensory Abnormalities after Abdominoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Finnerup, Kenneth; Andresen, Sven R.; Nikolajsen, Lone; Finnerup, Nanna B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent postsurgical pain is a well-recognized problem after a number of common surgical procedures, such as amputation, thoracotomy, and inguinal hernia repair. Less is known about persistent pain after cosmetic surgical procedures. We, therefore, decided to study the incidence and characteristics of persistent pain after abdominoplasty, which is one of the most frequent cosmetic surgical procedures. Methods: In September 2014, a link to a web-based questionnaire was mailed to 217 patients who had undergone abdominoplasty between 2006 and 2014 at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire included questions about pain and sensory abnormalities located to the abdominal skin, and physical and psychological function; patient satisfaction with surgery was rated on a 4-point scale. Results: One hundred seventy patients answered the questionnaire. Fourteen patients (8.2%) reported pain within the past 7 days related to the abdominoplasty. Abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common and reported by 138 patients (81%). Sensory hypersensitivity was associated with the presence of persistent pain. Satisfaction with the procedure was reported by 149 (88%) patients. The majority of patients reported improvement on all physical and psychological factors. Patients with pain were more often disappointed with the surgery and unwilling to recommend the surgery. Conclusions: Overall, patients were satisfied with the procedure, although abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common. However, there is a risk of developing persistent neuropathic pain after abdominoplasty, and patients should be informed about this before surgery. PMID:26893986

  17. [Olfactory sensory perception].

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Aler; Fresno, María Javiera; Santander, Hugo; Valenzuela, Saúl; Gutiérrez, Mario Felipe; Miralles, Rodolfo

    2011-03-01

    The five senses have had a fundamental importance for survival and socialization of human beings. From an evolutionary point of view the sense of smell is the oldest. This sense has a strong representation within the genome, allowing the existence of many types of receptors that allow us to capture multiple volatile odor producing molecules, sending electrical signals to higher centers to report the outside world. Several cortical areas are activated in the brain, which are interconnected to form an extensive and complex neural network, linking for example, areas involved with memory and emotions, thus giving this sense of perceptual richness. While the concept of flavor is largely related to the sense of taste, smell provides the necessary integration with the rest of the senses and higher functions. Fully understanding the sense of smell is relevant to health professionals. Knowing the characteristics of the receptors, the transduction processes and convergence of information in the higher centers involved, we can properly detect olfactory disorders in our patients. PMID:21879170

  18. [Olfactory sensory perception].

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Aler; Fresno, María Javiera; Santander, Hugo; Valenzuela, Saúl; Gutiérrez, Mario Felipe; Miralles, Rodolfo

    2011-03-01

    The five senses have had a fundamental importance for survival and socialization of human beings. From an evolutionary point of view the sense of smell is the oldest. This sense has a strong representation within the genome, allowing the existence of many types of receptors that allow us to capture multiple volatile odor producing molecules, sending electrical signals to higher centers to report the outside world. Several cortical areas are activated in the brain, which are interconnected to form an extensive and complex neural network, linking for example, areas involved with memory and emotions, thus giving this sense of perceptual richness. While the concept of flavor is largely related to the sense of taste, smell provides the necessary integration with the rest of the senses and higher functions. Fully understanding the sense of smell is relevant to health professionals. Knowing the characteristics of the receptors, the transduction processes and convergence of information in the higher centers involved, we can properly detect olfactory disorders in our patients.

  19. A review on intelligent sensory modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tham, H. J.; Tang, S. Y.; Teo, K. T. K.; Loh, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    Sensory evaluation plays an important role in the quality control of food productions. Sensory data obtained through sensory evaluation are generally subjective, vague and uncertain. Classically, factorial multivariate methods such as Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square (PLS) method, Multiple Regression (MLR) method and Response Surface Method (RSM) are the common tools used to analyse sensory data. These methods can model some of the sensory data but may not be robust enough to analyse nonlinear data. In these situations, intelligent modelling techniques such as Fuzzy Logic and Artificial neural network (ANNs) emerged to solve the vagueness and uncertainty of sensory data. This paper outlines literature of intelligent sensory modelling on sensory data analysis.

  20. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  1. Response to Vestibular Sensory Events in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Garver, Carolyn R.; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Carmody, Thomas; Andrews, Alonzo A.; Mehta, Jyutika A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the response to vestibular sensory events in persons with autism. The data for this study was collected as part of a cross-sectional study that examined sensory processing (using the Sensory Profile) in 103 persons with autism, 3-43 years of age, compared to age- and gender-matched community controls. The…

  2. Multi-Sensory Intervention Observational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2011-01-01

    An observational research study based on sensory integration theory was conducted to examine the observed impact of student selected multi-sensory experiences within a multi-sensory intervention center relative to the sustained focus levels of students with special needs. A stratified random sample of 50 students with severe developmental…

  3. Comparison of Carcass and Sensory Traits and Free Amino Acid Contents among Quality Grades in Loin and Rump of Korean Cattle Steer

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Min Yu; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ko, Jong-Youl; Baik, Myunggi

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to compare carcass traits, sensory characteristics, physiochemical composition, and contents of nucleotides, collagen, and free amino acids among quality grades (QG) and to understand the association between QG and above parameters in loin and rump of Korean cattle steer. Loin and rump samples were obtained from 48 Korean cattle steers with each of four QG (QG 1++, 1+, 1, and 2; average 32 months of age). Carcass weight and marbling score (MS) were highest in QG 1++, whereas texture score measured by a meat grader was highest in QG 2. A correlation analysis revealed that MS (r = 0.98; p<0.01) and fat content (r = 0.73; p<0.01) had strong positive correlations with QG and that texture had a strong negative correlation (r = −0.78) with QG. Fat content in loin was highest but protein and moisture contents were lowest in QG 1++. Our results confirmed that a major determinant of QG is the MS; thus, intramuscular fat content. The International Commission on Illumination L*, a*, and b* values in loin were highest in QG 1++. Numeric values of shear force in loin were lowest in QG 1++, whereas those of tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability tended to be highest in QG 1++ without statistical significance. QG was strongly correlated with juiciness (r = 0.81; p<0.01) and overall acceptability (r = 0.87; p<0.001). All sensory characteristics were higher (p<0.05) in loin than those in rump. Adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP) and inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP) contents in both loin and rump did not differ among QGs. No nucleotide (AMP, IMP, inosine, hypoxanthine) was correlated with any of the sensory traits. Total, soluble, and insoluble collagen contents in loin were higher in QG 1++ than those in QG 1. All three collagens had lower content in loin than that in rump. All three collagens were positively correlated with tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. Glutamic acid content did not significantly differ among the four QGs in

  4. Military ration chocolate: the effect of simulated tropical storage on sensory quality, structure and bloom formation.

    PubMed

    Bui, Lan T T; Coad, Ross

    2014-10-01

    A storage trial was conducted to observe the effect of typical northern Australia climatic conditions on a military ration chocolate (RC). The results indicate that sensory quality decreased during storage; after seven days the chocolate was no longer of acceptable appearance. Deterioration in RC sensory quality was strongly correlated with decreases in visual acceptance (appearance) and increases in degree of blooming. Instrumental colour measurements were also strongly correlated with sensory ratings. Visual and microscopic observations provide evidence for movement of fat to and across the surface of the RC, behaviour that may be explained in terms of the phase transition theory of fat blooming. DSC thermographs provide evidence of a shift from predominantly polymorph form V in a fresh RC sample to a greater proportion of form VI in bloomed storage samples. The study provides a baseline against which efforts to improve the quality of RC may be evaluated.

  5. Botanical origin, colour, granulation, and sensory properties of the Harenna forest honey, Bale, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belay, Abera; Solomon, W K; Bultossa, Geremew; Adgaba, Nuru; Melaku, Samuel

    2015-01-15

    In this study, the Harenna forest honey samples were investigated with respect to their botanical origin, granulation, colour and sensory properties. Sixteen honey samples were collected from two representative sites (Chiri, C, and Wabero, W) using random sampling techniques. Botanical origin was investigated using qualitative pollen analysis by counting 500 pollen grains using harmonised methods of melissopalynology. Granulation, colour, and sensory properties of honey were determined by visual observation, using Pfund grader, acceptability and preference tests, respectively. Honey samples were also tested for tetracycline. Honey obtained from Wabero is originated dominantly from Syzygium guineense while Chiri was multifloral. The colour of honey ranged from 34 to 85 with light amber and extra light amber colours. The honey samples were free from tetracycline residue and form coarse granules slowly. Significant variation (p>0.05) in sensory preference and acceptability tests not observed due to hive types and locations.

  6. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  7. Gerontechnology acceptance by elderly Hong Kong Chinese: a senior technology acceptance model (STAM).

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Chan, Alan Hoi Shou

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a senior technology acceptance model (STAM) aimed at understanding the acceptance of gerontechnology by older Hong Kong Chinese people. The proposed STAM extended previous technology acceptance models and theories by adding age-related health and ability characteristics of older people. The proposed STAM was empirically tested using a cross-sectional questionnaire survey with a sample of 1012 seniors aged 55 and over in Hong Kong. The result showed that STAM was strongly supported and could explain 68% of the variance in the use of gerontechnology. For older Hong Kong Chinese, individual attributes, which include age, gender, education, gerontechnology self-efficacy and anxiety, and health and ability characteristics, as well as facilitating conditions explicitly and directly affected technology acceptance. These were better predictors of gerontechnology usage behaviour (UB) than the conventionally used attitudinal factors (usefulness and ease of use).

  8. Evaluation of the Acceptance of Audience Response System by Corporations Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hsing-Hui; Lu, Ta-Jung; Wann, Jong-Wen

    The purpose of this research is to explore enterprises' acceptance of Audience Response System (ARS) using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The findings show that (1) IT characteristics and facilitating conditions could be external variables of TAM. (2) The degree of E-business has positive significant correlation with behavioral intention of employees. (3) TAM is a good model to predict and explain IT acceptance. (4) Demographic variables, industry and firm characteristics have no significant correlation with ARS acceptance. The results provide useful information to managers and ARS providers that (1) ARS providers should focus more on creating different usages to enhance interactivity and employees' using intention. (2) Managers should pay attention to build sound internal facilitating conditions for introducing IT. (3) According to the degree of E-business, managers should set up strategic stages of introducing IT. (4) Providers should increase product promotion and also leverage academic and government to promote ARS.

  9. A Comparison of Sensory Integrative and Behavioral Therapies as Treatment for Pediatric Feeding Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Laura R.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Patel, Meeta R.; Bachmeyer, Melanie H.; Rivas, Kristi M.; Milnes, Suzanne M.; Oddo, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of escape extinction (EE) plus noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with sensory integration therapy as treatment for the feeding problems of 2 children. Results indicated that EE plus NCR was more effective in increasing acceptance, decreasing inappropriate behavior, and increasing amount consumed relative to sensory…

  10. Behavior Management Guide for Parents of Children with Dual Sensory Impairments. Bulletin No. 9129.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papineau, Andrew

    This guide describes methods to help parents and others reduce the unacceptable behaviors of children with multiple sensory impairments and replace those behaviors with acceptable ones. The guide recommends that the behavior change program begin with simple changes so that both the parents and the child gain experience in changing behavior. The…

  11. Electrophysiological aspects of sensory conduction velocity in healthy adults. 2. Ratio between the amplitude of sensory evoked potentials at the wrist on stimulating different fingers in both hands.

    PubMed Central

    Cruz Martínez, A; Barrio, M; Pérez Conde, M C; Ferrer, M T

    1978-01-01

    The normal ratio between the amplitude of the sensory evoked potential (SEP) at the wrist on stimulating digits 1, 2, 3, and 5 was determined in 44 healthy adult subjects. The first digit had the larger amplitude, and the fifth digit the smallest SEP. The amplitude expresses the density of sensory innervation in each finger. The ratio between the amplitude of different fingers varied according to the age of the subject. The amplitude of the SEP from a digit innervated by the median nerve decreased in the elderly more than the SEP amplitude of the digit innervated by the ulnar nerve, probably because of a chronic compression in the carpal tunnel. The changes in the normal amplitude ratio can be applied to the topographic diagnosis of radicular and brachial plexus lesions if a fixed segmental sensory innervation of the hand is accepted. In 44 right handed subjects the amplitude of the sensory evoked potentials at the wrist was significantly larger in the left hand. This asymmetry of sensory innervation between hands could be physiological, and suggests a greater density of sensory innervation in the left hand of right handed subjects. PMID:731255

  12. Sensory Augmentation for the Blind

    PubMed Central

    Kärcher, Silke M.; Fenzlaff, Sandra; Hartmann, Daniela; Nagel, Saskia K.; König, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Common navigational aids used by blind travelers during large-scale navigation divert attention away from important cues of the immediate environment (i.e., approaching vehicles). Sensory augmentation devices, relying on principles similar to those at work in sensory substitution, can potentially bypass the bottleneck of attention through sub-cognitive implementation of a set of rules coupling motor actions with sensory stimulation. We provide a late blind subject with a vibrotactile belt that continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. The present experimental approach demonstrates the positive potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of handicapped people. PMID:22403535

  13. Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has bee