Science.gov

Sample records for acceptable sensory characteristics

  1. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of decaffeinated green teas.

    PubMed

    Lee, S M; Lee, H-S; Kim, K-H; Kim, K-O

    2009-04-01

    Green tea has been widely consumed for its mild flavors and its health benefits, yet caffeine in green tea has been a limitation for those who want to avoid it. The limitation brought increase in need for decaffeinated products in the green tea market. Most of the conventional decaffeination techniques applied in food use organic solvents. However, supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SC-CO2) method is gaining its intension as one of the future decaffeination methods that overcomes the problems of conventional methods. The purpose of this study was to identify sensory characteristics of decaffeinated green teas applied with SC-CO2 method and to observe the relationship with consumer acceptability to elucidate the potentiality of applying SC-CO2 technique in decaffeinated green tea market. Descriptive analysis was performed on 8 samples: green teas containing 4 caffeine levels (10%, 35%, 60%, and 100%) infused at 2 infusing periods (1 or 2 min). It was found that the SC-CO2 process not only reduced caffeine but also decreased some important features of original tea flavors. Two groups were recruited for consumer acceptability test: one (GP I, N = 52), consuming all types of green teas including hot/cold canned teas; and the other (GP II, N = 40), only consuming the loose type. While GP II liked original green tea the most, GP I liked highly decaffeinated green teas. Although the SC-CO2 method had limitations of losing complex flavors of green teas, it appeared to have future potential in the decaffeinated green tea market within or without the addition of desirable flavors.

  2. Simultaneous analysis of consumer variables, acceptability and sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Masahiro; Obiya, Shinichi; Kaneko, Miku; Enomoto, Ayame; Honma, Mayu; Wakayama, Masataka; Tomita, Masaru

    2016-11-01

    We conducted a consumer acceptability analysis of dry-cured ham based on sensory evaluation. Consumer acceptability data are rendered heterogeneous by the diverse backgrounds and assessment abilities of the participants, requiring versatile analytical methods for their interpretation. Totally, 9 sensory attributes of 12 kinds of dry-cured ham samples collected from Japan (n=9), Italy (n=1), Spain (n=1), and Germany (n=1) were tasted by 117 Japanese consumers who showed acceptable evaluation abilities during blind sampling. Common techniques, such as hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis, and external preference mapping, were simultaneously utilized to analyze each characteristics scored in modified hedonic scale. These analyses revealed the relationships between the features and preferences of the assessors. For example, consumers aged 20-30 with smoking and drinking habits preferred sweetness and saltiness, and gave high ratings to Spanish Jómon serrano and Italian prosciutto. Our approach could assist ham marketers to identify potential purchasers and the preferred characteristics of their products.

  3. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione and/or MSG.

    PubMed

    Jung, D W; Hong, J H; Kim, K O

    2010-01-01

    The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione (GSH) and/or monosodium glutamate (MSG) were investigated to examine the feasibility of GSH as a flavor enhancer. The sensory characteristics of beef soup samples, containing only GSH or MSG at different levels or a mixture of these, were examined by descriptive analysis. Principle component analysis was conducted to summarize the relationships between the beef soup samples and the attributes. In consumer testing, separate groups of consumers evaluated overall liking as well as the flavor intensities of beef, seasoning, and MSG. Partial least square regression was conducted to observe the relationships between the descriptive data and consumer data. The samples containing GSH had stronger "beef flavor,"garlic flavor," and "green onion flavor" while the samples containing MSG had stronger "salty taste,"sweet taste,"MSG taste," and "potato flavor." The consumers preferred samples containing both GSH and MSG, which had higher perceived flavor intensities of beef, seasonings, MSG. This study indicates that GSH has potential as a flavor enhancer, but more tests in different food systems with additions of GSH at varying levels are required to elucidate its effectiveness as a flavor enhancer more clearly.

  4. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food

    PubMed Central

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Sensory analysis was used to determine the changes due to the storage time on extruded pet food prepared from two different rendered protein meals: (i) beef meat and bone meal (BMBM); (ii) chicken byproduct meal (CPBM). Extrusion is a process where feed is pressed through a die in order to create shapes and increase digestibility. Descriptive sensory analysis using a human panel found an increase in undesirable sensory attributes (e.g., oxidized oil, rancid) in extruded pet food over storage time, especially the one prepared from chicken by product meal without antioxidants. The small increase in oxidized and rancid aromas of BMBM samples did not affect pet owners’ acceptability of the products. CPBM samples without antioxidants showed a notable increase in oxidized and rancid aroma over storage time and, thus, affected product acceptability negatively. This finding indicated that human sensory analysis can be used as a tool to track the changes of pet food characteristics due to storage, as well as estimate the shelf-life of the products. Abstract Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products’ shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners’ acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly

  5. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food.

    PubMed

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-07-28

    Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products' shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners' acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly trained descriptive panelists for sensory attributes related to oxidation. Samples without preservatives were chosen for the acceptability test, since the differences in sensory characteristics over storage time were more distinguishable in those samples. Pet owners evaluated samples for aroma, appearance and overall liking. Descriptive sensory analysis detected significant changes in oxidized-related sensory characteristics over storage time. However, the differences for CBPM samples were more pronounced and directional. The consumer study showed no differences in pet owners' acceptability for BMBM samples. However, the noticeable increase in aroma characteristics (rancid aroma 0.33-4.21) in CBPM samples over storage time did have a negative effect on consumer's liking (overall liking 5.52-4.95).

  6. Optimizing the sensory characteristics and acceptance of canned cat food: use of a human taste panel.

    PubMed

    Pickering, G J

    2009-02-01

    food acceptance and preference behaviours in cats. For instance, while the sense of taste in cats appears generally similar to that of other mammals, they lack a sweet taste receptor (Li et al., 2006), which may limit the applicability of sweetness ratings obtained from humans. Modification of existing techniques used with human food research, such as external preference mapping (Naes and Risvik, 1996) may be useful. Ultimately, this may facilitate more economical and efficient methods for optimizing cat food flavour and texture and predicting the effects of composition and processing changes on cat feeding behaviour. This will require collaboration between pet food manufacturers and nutritionists, animal behaviourists and human sensory scientists. The results of this preliminary study should assist in this process.

  7. Influence of the fiber from agro-industrial co-products as functional food ingredient on the acceptance, neophobia and sensory characteristics of cooked sausages.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Vela, Juan; Totosaus, Alfonso; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Pérez-Chabela, M Lourdes

    2017-02-01

    The sensory analysis of new products is essential for subsequent acceptance by consumers, moreover in the functional food market. The acceptance and food neophobia of cooked sausages formulated with cactus pear fiber or pineapple pear fiber, as functional ingredient, was complemented with a sensory characterization by R-index and qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Female consumers aged between 40 and 50 years showed greater interest in the consumption of healthy foods, with a higher level of food neophobia towards pineapple fiber sausages. R-index for taste was higher in pineapple fiber samples. Cactus pear fiber samples presented higher R-index score for texture. In QDA, color, sweet, astringent and bitter flavors, pork meat smell and a firm and plastic texture were significant, with a good relationship (38%) between the evaluated attributes. Sensory attributes are important on the acceptance and neophobia of functional foods like cooked sausages with fruit peel fiber as functional ingredient.

  8. Effect of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed on antioxidant activity, phytocompounds, physicochemical characteristics, and sensory acceptability of enriched cookies and mango juice.

    PubMed

    Natukunda, Sheilla; Muyonga, John H; Mukisa, Ivan M

    2016-07-01

    Tamarind seeds are not consumed despite their high antioxidative activity. In this study, 0-10% tamarind seed powder (TSP) was incorporated into mango juice and cookies. Total phenolics (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay), flavonoid (aluminum chloride assay), condensed tannins content (Vanillin-HCl assay), and consumer acceptability (n = 50) of the products were determined. TSP increased the pH and viscosity and reduced titratable acidity of juice. Incorporation of TSP increased the: total phenolic content (6.84 ± 0.21 to 88.44 ± 0.8 mg GAE/100 mL); flavonoid (4.64 ± 0.03-21.7 ± 0.36 mg CE/100 mL); condensed tannins (0.24 ± 0.01-21.81 ± 0.08 mg CE/100 mL) and total antioxidant activity (4.65 ± 0.88-21.70 ± 0.03 mg VCE/100 mL) of juice. A similar trend was observed for cookies. Maximum sensorially acceptable TSP levels were 1.5% and 6%, respectively, for juice and cookies. TSP can thus be utilized as a source of natural antioxidants in food products.

  9. Effect of salmon type and presence/absence of bone on color, sensory characteristics, and consumer acceptability of pureed and chunked infant food products.

    PubMed

    DeSantos, F A; Ramamoorthi, L; Bechtel, P; Smiley, S; Brewer, M S

    2010-08-01

    Salmon-based infant food (puree) and toddler food (puree plus chunks) were manufactured from pink salmon, with and without bone, and from Sockeye salmon, with and without bone, to contain 45% salmon, 55% water, and 5% starch. Products were retort processed at 118 to 121 degrees C for 55 min in a steam-jacketed still retort. A trained descriptive panel (n = 7) evaluated infant and toddler foods separately. Instrumental color, pH, and water activity were also determined. Infant and toddler foods were also evaluated by a consumer panel (n = 104) of parents for product acceptability. During the manufacturing process (cooking, homogenization, retort processing), salmon infant food from pink salmon lost much of its characteristic pink color while that from sockeye salmon retained a greater amount. Bitterness was more evident in samples with bones. In the toddler food formulation containing chunks, the odor and flavor characteristics were influenced primarily by the type of salmon. The presence of bone affected visual pink color and lightness, and salmon odor only. Consumers scored products made with sockeye salmon as more acceptable despite the fact that they had more off-flavor than products from pink salmon. The appearance and thickness of the pureed infant food was more acceptable than the toddler food with chunks despite the chunky toddler product having more acceptable salmon flavor. This indicates that the color and appearance of the prototypes were the main drivers for liking. Of the total number of parents surveyed, 73% would feed this salmon product to their children.

  10. Consumer acceptance and sensory profiling of reengineered kitoza products.

    PubMed

    Pintado, Ana I E; Monteiro, Maria J P; Talon, Régine; Leroy, Sabine; Scislowski, Valérie; Fliedel, Geneviève; Rakoto, Danielle; Maraval, Isabelle; Costa, Ana I A; Silva, Ana P; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Manuela M E

    2016-05-01

    Kitoza refers to a traditional way of preparing beef and pork in Madagascar. However, in order to improve some drawbacks previous identified, the product was submitted to a reengineering process. The acceptance and sensory profiling of improved Kitoza products among Portuguese consumers was investigated. A local smoked loin sausage was selected as basis for comparison. Firstly, a Focus Group study was performed to identify sensory descriptors for Kitoza products and explore product perception. Subsequently, a Flash Profile and a consumer sensory acceptance study were conducted. Flash Profile's results showed that beef- and pork-based Kitoza products investigated differed considerably in all sensory dimensions. The Portuguese sausage was characterized as having a more intense and lasting after taste, as well as displaying a higher degree of (meat) doneness. The acceptance study yielded higher overall liking ratings for pork- than for beef-based Kitoza, although the Portuguese sausage remained the most appreciated product.

  11. Sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of sweetpotato cultivars with varying flesh colors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sensory characteristics of sweet potatoes (n = 12 cultivars) with varying flesh color (orange, purple, yellow) and the impact of flesh colors on consumer acceptance were evaluated. A lexicon was developed for sweet potato flavor followed by consumer acceptance testing conducted with and without ...

  12. Methyl-accepting protein associated with bacterial sensory rhodopsin I.

    PubMed Central

    Spudich, E N; Hasselbacher, C A; Spudich, J L

    1988-01-01

    In vivo radiolabeling of Halobacterium halobium phototaxis mutants and revertants with L-[methyl-3H] methionine implicated seven methyl-accepting protein bands with apparent molecular masses from 65 to 150 kilodaltons (kDa) in adaptation of the organism to chemo and photo stimuli, and one of these (94 kDa) was specifically implicated in phototaxis. The lability of the radiolabeled bands to mild base treatment indicated that the methyl linkages are carboxylmethylesters, as is the case in the eubacterial chemotaxis receptor-transducers. The 94-kDa protein was present in increased amounts in an overproducer of the apoprotein of sensory rhodopsin I, one of two retinal-containing phototaxis receptors in H. halobium. It was absent in a strain that contained sensory rhodopsin II and that lacked sensory rhodopsin I and was also absent in a mutant that lacked both photoreceptors. Based on the role of methyl-accepting proteins in chemotaxis in other bacteria, we suggest that the 94-kDa protein is the signal transducer for sensory rhodopsin I. By [3H]retinal labeling studies, we previously identified a 25-kDa retinal-binding polypeptide that was derived from photochemically reactive sensory rhodopsin I. When H. halobium membranes containing sensory rhodopsin I were treated by a procedure that stably reduced [3H]retinal onto the 25-kDa apoprotein, a 94-kDa protein was also found to be radiolabeled. Protease digestion confirmed that the 94-kDa retinal-labeled protein was the same as the methyl-accepting protein that was suggested above to be the signal transducer for sensory rhodopsin I. Possible models are that the 25- and 94-kDa proteins are tightly interacting components of the photosensory signaling machinery or that both are forms of sensory rhodopsin I. Images PMID:3410829

  13. Consumer studies on sensory acceptability of boar taint: a review.

    PubMed

    Font-i-Furnols, Maria

    2012-12-01

    Boar taint can be found in meat from boars and affects consumer acceptability of pork. The aim of this review is: (1) to describe different aspects of the existing methodologies used in consumer studies when evaluating boar taint from a sensory point of view, (2) to draw conclusions on different studies regarding the acceptability of meat from entire males, and (3) to discuss a possible harmonization of the different aspects to be considered when performing consumer studies on boar taint. This paper focuses on different aspects of studies previously carried out such as the country of assessment, the location of the test, the cooking procedure, the type of meat samples evaluated, the attributes and scales used, consumer profile, the results obtained, and the effect of androstenone sensitivity of the consumers on boar meat acceptability. A discussion on the possibility of a harmonization of the different aspects is also performed and final remarks and considerations have been drawn.

  14. Casein peptization, functional properties, and sensory acceptance of processed cheese spreads made with different emulsifying salts.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Clarissa R; Viotto, Walkiria H

    2010-01-01

    "Requeijão cremoso" is a traditional Brazilian processed cheese spread, showing ample acceptance on the national market. Emulsifying salts (ES) are an important factor influencing the characteristics of processed cheeses, but the literature presents conflicting results about their action on cheese functionality. Requeijão cremoso obtained from anhydrous ingredients allows the study of the influence of each type of ES on the cheese properties, since it can be treated as a model system where the variables are limited and well known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different types of ES (TSC-sodium citrate, SHMP-sodium hexametaphosphate, STPP-sodium tripolyphosphate, and TSPP-tetrasodium pyrophosphate) on the sensory and functional characteristics of requeijão cremoso-processed cheeses obtained from anhydrous ingredients. The physicochemical composition, degree of casein dissociation, fat particle size, melting index, color, texture profile, and sensory acceptance of the cheeses were determined. The functional behavior of processed cheeses was strongly influenced by the type of ES and its physicochemical properties including its ability to bind Ca, the casein dispersion during cooking, and the possible creation of cross-links with casein during cooling. The cheese made with SHMP was the one most differentiated from the others, presenting lower melting index, whiter color, and higher values for hardness, gumminess, and adhesiveness. The differences in texture had an impact on sensory acceptance: with the exception of the sample manufactured with sodium hexametaphosphate, all the samples presented good sensory acceptance.

  15. Sensory properties and consumer acceptance of imported and domestic sliced black ripe olives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soh Min; Kitsawad, Kamolnate; Sigal, Abdulkadir; Flynn, Dan; Guinard, Jean-Xavier

    2012-12-01

    Table olives are healthy and nutritious products with high contents of monounsaturated fatty acids, phenolics, vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Understanding sensory cues affecting consumer preferences would enable the increase of olive consumption. The objectives of this study were to characterize the sensory properties of commercial sliced black ripe olives from different regions, including California, Egypt, Morocco, Portugal, and Spain, and to examine the preferences of California consumers for sliced black ripe olives. Sensory profiles and preferences for 20 sliced olive samples were determined using descriptive analysis with a trained panel and a consumer test with 104 users and likers of table olives. Aroma and flavor characteristics separated the olives according to country of origin, and were the main determinants of consumer preferences for sliced olives, even though the biggest differences among the samples were in appearance and texture. Total of 2 consumer segments were identified with 51 and 53 consumers, respectively, that both liked Californian products, but differed in the olives they disliked. Negative drivers of liking for both segments included alcohol, oak barrel, and artificial fruity/floral characteristics; however, consumers from Cluster 1 were further negatively influenced by rancid, gassy, and bitter characteristics. This study stresses the need for sound and appealing flavor quality for table olives to gain wider acceptance among U.S. consumers.

  16. Occupational Therapy and Sensory Integration for Children with Autism: A Feasibility, Safety, Acceptability and Fidelity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, Roseann C.; Benevides, Teal W.; Kelly, Donna; Mailloux-Maggio, Zoe

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the feasibility, safety, and acceptability of a manualized protocol of occupational therapy using sensory integration principles for children with autism. Methods: Ten children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder ages 4-8 years received intensive occupational therapy intervention using sensory integration principles…

  17. Relationships between anthocyanins and other compounds and sensory acceptability of Hibiscus drinks.

    PubMed

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Cissé, Mady; Fliedel, Geneviève; Declemy, Anne-Laure; Ayessou, Nicolas; Akissoe, Noel; Touré, Cheikh; Bennett, Ben; Pintado, Manuela; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith I

    2014-04-01

    Chemical composition of Hibiscus drinks (Koor and Vimto varieties, commercial and traditional, infusions and syrups) (n=8) was related to sensory evaluation and acceptance. Significant correlations between chemical composition and sensory perception of drinks were found (i.e. anthocyanin content and Hibiscus taste) (p<0.05). Consumers (n=160) evaluated drink acceptability on a 9-point verbal hedonic scale. Three classes of behaviour were identified: (a) those who preferred syrup (43% of consumers); (b) those who preferred infusion (36%); and (c) those who preferred all of the samples (21%). Acceptability of 'syrup likers' was positively correlated to sweet taste, reducing sugar content and inversely correlated to acidic taste and titratable acidity (p<0.10). Acceptability of 'infusion likers' was positively correlated to the taste of Hibiscus drink and anthocyanin content. The study showed that the distinctions between the acceptability groups are very clear with respect to the chemical composition and rating of sensory attributes.

  18. Irradiated vacuum-packed lamb meat stored under refrigeration: microbiology, physicochemical stability and sensory acceptance.

    PubMed

    Fregonesi, R P; Portes, R G; Aguiar, A M M; Figueira, L C; Gonçalves, C B; Arthur, V; Lima, C G; Fernandes, A M; Trindade, M A

    2014-06-01

    Reducing spoilage and indicator bacteria is important for microbiological stability in meat and meat products. The objective was to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the shelf-life of lamb meat, vacuum-packed and stored under refrigeration, by assessing the microbiological safety, physicochemical stability and sensory quality. Lamb loin cuts (Longissimus dorsi) were irradiated with 1.5kGy and 3.0kGy. The samples, including control, were stored at 1±1°C during 56days. Samples were analyzed on zero, 14, 28, 42 and 56days by their microbiological and physicochemical characteristics. Sensory quality was carried out on day zero. The results showed a reduction (p<0.05) in the microbial load of the irradiated samples. The acceptance of lamb loins was not affected (p>0.05) by the radiation doses. Thus gamma irradiation at 3.0kGy was effective in reducing the content of microorganisms, without harming the physicochemical characteristics evaluated.

  19. Acceptable differences in sensory and motor latencies between the median and ulnar nerves.

    PubMed

    Grossart, Elizabeth A; Prahlow, Nathan D; Buschbacher, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The median and ulnar nerves are often studied during the same electrodiagnostic examination. The sensory and motor latencies of these nerves have been compared to detect a common electrodiagnostic entity: median neuropathy at the wrist. However, this comparison could also be used to diagnose less common ulnar pathology. For this reason, it is important to establish normal values for comparing median and ulnar sensory and motor latencies. Previous research deriving these differences in latency has had some limitations. The purpose of this study was to derive an improved normative database for the acceptable differences in latency between the median and ulnar sensory and motor nerves of the same limb. Median and ulnar sensory and motor latencies were obtained from 219 and 238 asymptomatic risk-factor-free subjects, respectively. An analysis of variance was performed to determine whether physical characteristics, specifically age, race, gender, height, or body mass index (as an indicator of obesity), correlated with differences in latency. Differences in sensory latencies were unaffected by physical characteristics. The upper limit of normal difference between median and ulnar (median longer than ulnar) onset latency was 0.5 ms (97th percentile), whereas the peak latency value was 0.4 ms (97th percentile). The upper limit of normal difference between ulnar-versus-median (ulnar longer than median) onset latency was 0.3 ms (97th percentile), whereas the peak-latency value was 0.5 ms (97th percentile). The mean difference in motor latencies correlated with age, with older subjects having a greater variability. In subjects aged 50 and over, the mean difference in median-versus-ulnar latency was 0.9 ms +/- 0.4 ms. The upper limit of normal difference (median longer than ulnar) was 1.7 ms (97th percentile). The upper limit of normal ulnar motor latency is attained if the ulnar latency comes within 0.3 ms of the median latency. In individuals less than 50 years of age, the

  20. Sensory Profile and Consumer Acceptability of Prebiotic White Chocolate with Sucrose Substitutes and the Addition of Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum).

    PubMed

    Morais Ferreira, Janaína Madruga; Azevedo, Bruna Marcacini; Luccas, Valdecir; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2017-03-01

    Functional food is a product containing nutrients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the descriptive sensory profile and consumers' acceptance of functional (prebiotic) white chocolates with and without the addition of an antioxidant source (goji berry [GB]) and sucrose replacement. The descriptive sensory profile was determined by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) with trained assessors (n = 12), and the acceptance test was performed with 120 consumers. The correlation of descriptive and hedonic data was determined by partial least squares (PLS). The results of QDA indicated that GB reduces the perception of most aroma and flavor attributes, and enhances the bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, astringency, and most of the texture attributes. The consumers' acceptance of the chocolates was positive for all sensory characteristics, with acceptance scores above 6 on a 9-point scale. According to the PLS regression analysis, the descriptors cream color and cocoa butter flavor contributed positively to the acceptance of functional white chocolates. Therefore, prebiotic white chocolate with or without the addition of GB is innovative and can attract consumers, due to its functional properties, being a promising alternative for the food industry.

  1. Variations in U.S. Consumers' Acceptability of Korean Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, with respect to Sensory Attributes and Nonsensory Factors.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungeun; Yoon, Suk Hoo; Min, Jieun; Lee, Suji; Tokar, Tonya; Lee, Sun-Ok; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Because the Korean rice cake, Seolgitteok, is mainly prepared with rice flour containing no gluten-protein associated with celiac disease, it can be considered for inclusion in a gluten-free diet. However, Western consumers may be unlikely to enjoy the plain flavor and chewy texture of Seolgitteok. This study aimed to determine both sensory and nonsensory factors that might affect U.S. consumers' acceptability of Seolgitteok. A total of 119 U.S. consumers rated 5 Seolgitteok samples, differentiated by descriptive sensory analysis, with respect to hedonic impression and just-about-right aspects of sensory attributes. Nonsensory factors such as demographic profile, innovativeness, social representation, sensation-seeking, and personality traits were also assessed. Addition levels of brown rice flour (0% to 100%) and sugar (5% to 20%) not only enriched flavor, but also lessened chewiness of Seolgitteok, thereby increasing an overall hedonic impression. Moreover, consumer acceptability of Seolgitteok varied with respect to nonsensory factors. Seolgitteok was more appreciated by males, sensation seekers, and individuals constrained by social desirability than by other groups. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that U.S. consumers' acceptability of Seolgitteok varies not only by sensory attributes such as rice flavor, sweetness, and chewiness, but also by nonsensory factors such as gender, sensation-seeking characteristics, and personality traits.

  2. Comparing sorghum and wheat whole grain breakfast cereals: Sensorial acceptance and bioactive compound content.

    PubMed

    Anunciação, Pamella Cristine; Cardoso, Leandro de Morais; Gomes, Jaqueline Vieira Piovesana; Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei Piler; Galdeano, Melicia Cintia; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2017-04-15

    The sensory acceptance and the content of bioactive compounds of whole-sorghum and whole-wheat breakfast cereals were compared. Sensory acceptance was assessed using the Food Action RatingScale. 3-Deoxyanthocyanidins, flavones and flavanones were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection, and vitamin E by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity were determined by spectrophotometry. The sorghum breakfast cereal had better sensory acceptance (70.6%) than wheat breakfast cereal (41.18%). Sorghum had higher 3-deoxyanthocyanidin content (100% higher), total phenolic compounds (98.2% higher) and antioxidant activity (87.9% higher) than wheat breakfast cereal. Flavones and flavanones were not detected in both breakfast cereals. Total vitamin E content was 78.6% higher in wheat than in sorghum breakfast cereal. Thus, consumption of whole sorghum breakfast cereal should be encouraged, since it had good sensory acceptance and is a source of bioactive compounds that can promote benefits to human health.

  3. Short communication: Influence of long-chain inulin and Lactobacillus paracasei subspecies paracasei on the sensory profile and acceptance of a traditional yogurt.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, T C; Cruz, A G; Prudencio, S H

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of the addition of long-chain inulin as a fat replacer and prebiotic agent (20g/L) and (or) probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei on the sensory profile and acceptance of yogurts, and to assess the influence of descriptive attributes on the sensory acceptance of the products. The addition of inulin to low-fat yogurt improved its brightness and firmness, which was similar to the full-fat yogurt. However, the use of long-chain inulin increased the separation of serum and no influence on creaminess was observed. Regarding the product's acceptability, the low-fat yogurt with added inulin presented similar acceptance compared with the full-fat yogurt. The addition of Lb. paracasei ssp. paracasei did not affect the sensory profile and acceptance of the low-fat yogurt. Using external preference mapping, it was possible to verify that the sensory acceptance was driven positively by the sweetness and creaminess and negatively driven by firmness (appearance and texture) and homogeneity (appearance). It was possible to formulate low-fat yogurts with added probiotics that presented similar sensory characteristics to those of full-fat yogurts, and this was due to the addition of the long-chain inulin as a fat replacer.

  4. Sensory acceptance and survival of probiotic bacteria in ice cream produced with different overrun levels.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Juliana L; Cruz, Adriano G; Cadena, Rafael S; Freitas, Monica Q; Pinto, Uelinton M; Carvalho, Celio C; Faria, Jose A F; Bolini, Helena M A

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different overrun levels on the sensory acceptance and survival of probiotic bacteria in ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice creams supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus were processed with overruns of 45%, 60%, and 90%. Viable probiotic bacterial counts and sensory acceptance were assessed. All the ice creams presented a minimum count of 6 log CFU/g at the end of 60 d of frozen storage. However, higher overrun levels negatively influenced cell viability, being reported a decrease of 2 log CFU/g for the 90% overrun treatment. In addition, it was not reported an influence about acceptability with respect to appearance, aroma, and taste of the ice creams (P > 0.05). Overall, the results suggest that lower overrun levels should be adopted during the manufacture of ice cream in order to maintain its probiotic status through the shelf life.

  5. Effects of different brewing conditions on catechin content and sensory acceptance in Turkish green tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Saklar, Sena; Ertas, Erdal; Ozdemir, Ibrahim S; Karadeniz, Bulent

    2015-10-01

    The optimal brewing conditions for Turkish green tea were determined on the basis of extracted catechins and sensory attributes. Green tea infusions were prepared at 75, 85 and 95 °C with brewing times of 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 45 min. The amounts of epistructured catechins (EGCG, EGC, ECG, EC), non-epistructured catechins (C, GC, GCG) and caffeine in brewed tea samples were analysed. Sensory analyses were performed by nine trained panelists for infusion colour, taste, aroma and overall acceptability. Brewing at 85 °C for 3 min was found to be the optimal condition, where the EGCG content was at a maximum of 50.69 mg/100 ml with the highest sensory scores. It was observed that the yield of epistructured catechins increased rapidly for the first 3-5 min of brewing at 85 °C, and increased brewing time resulted in a decrease in the yield of epistructured catechins. The amount of nonepistructured catechins continued to increase with longer extraction times. Sensory scores for infusion colour, taste, aroma and overall acceptability were highest at 3 and 5 min brewing times at all temperatures. Sensory scores were very low for 30 and 45 min brewing at 85 and 95 °C due to the bitter taste and dark colour.

  6. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice.

  7. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

  8. Effect of galactooligosaccharide addition on the physical, optical, and sensory acceptance of vanilla ice cream.

    PubMed

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Celeguini, R M S; Santos, R; Pastore, G M; Junior, C A Conte; Freitas, M Q; Nogueira, L C; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the addition of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the physicochemical, optical, and sensory characteristics of ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice cream was supplemented with 0, 1.5, and 3.0% (wt/wt) GOS and characterized for pH, firmness, color, melting, overrun, as well as subjected to a discriminative sensory test (triangle test). For comparison purposes, ice creams containing fructooligosaccharide were also manufactured. The GOS ice creams were characterized by increased firmness and lower melting rates. Different perceptions were reported in the sensory evaluation for the 3.0% GOS ice cream when compared with the control, which was not observed for the fructooligosaccharide ice cream. Overall, the findings suggest it is possible to produce GOS ice cream with improved stability in relation to the physicochemical parameters and sensory perception.

  9. Texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability of gamma-irradiated marinated anchovy fillets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomac, Alejandra; Cova, María C.; Narvaiz, Patricia; Yeannes, María I.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 3 and 4 kGy) on vacuum-packed marinated anchovy fillets was analyzed for their texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability after 10 months under refrigeration. Marinated (3% acetic acid, 10% sodium chloride and 0.2% citric acid) Engraulis anchoita fillets were vacuum-packed and irradiated with a cobalt-60 source at a semi-industrial irradiation facility. The irradiation caused a slight increase in hardness values regardless of the applied dose but maintained a consistent texture over the 10 months, even though the control samples softened, most likely due to degradation. This hardness increase did not affect the textural sensory acceptability. Irradiation did not modify the color but still reduced color changes during storage, benefitting the product's quality. TBARS was increased in every sample throughout storage, but irradiation decreased these values. Sensory acceptability was not affected by gamma irradiation. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be successfully applied to this type of product for the purpose of shelf-life extension.

  10. Sensory acceptability of squid rings gamma irradiated for shelf-life extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomac, Alejandra; Cova, María C.; Narvaiz, Patricia; Yeannes, María I.

    2017-01-01

    The feasibility of extending the shelf-life of a squid product by gamma irradiation was analyzed. Illex argentinus rings were irradiated at 4 and 8 kGy; and stored at 4±1 °C during 77 days. No mesophilic bacteria, enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were detected in irradiated rings during storage. Psychrotrophic bacteria were significantly reduced by irradiation; their counts were fitted to a growth model which was further used for shelf-life estimations: 3 and 27 days for 0 and 4 kGy, respectively. Initially, non-irradiated as well as irradiated rings had very good sensory scores. The overall acceptability of 4 and 8 kGy rings did not decrease during 27 and 64 days, respectively, while control samples spoiled after 3 days. A radiation dose range for squid rings preservation was defined, which attained the technological shelf-life extension objective, without impairing sensory quality.

  11. Sensory acceptability of slow fermented sausages based on fat content and ripening time.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Alicia; Navarro, José Luis; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica

    2010-10-01

    Low fat dry fermented sausages were manufactured using controlled ripening conditions and a slow fermented process. The effect of fat content and ripening time on the chemical, colour, texture parameters and sensory acceptability was studied. The fat reduction in slow fermented sausages produced an increase in the pH decline during the first stage of the process that was favoured by the higher water content of the low fat sausages. Fat reduction did not affect the external appearance and there was an absence of defects but lower fat content resulted in lower sausage lightness. The sausage texture in low fat sausages caused an increase in chewiness and at longer ripening times, an increase in hardness. The sensory acceptability of the fermented sausages analyzed by internal preference mapping depended on the different preference patterns of consumers. A group of consumers preferred sausages with high and medium fat content and high ripening time. The second group of consumers preferred sausages with low ripening time regardless of fat content except for the appearance, for which these consumers preferred sausages of high ripening time. Finally, the limit to produce high acceptability low fat fermented sausages was 16% fat content in the raw mixture that is half the usual content of dry fermented sausages.

  12. High amounts of broccoli in pasta-like products: nutritional evaluation and sensory acceptability.

    PubMed

    Silva, E; Gerritsen, L; Dekker, M; van der Linden, E; Scholten, E

    2013-11-01

    Pasta and noodles were enriched with concentrations of broccoli powder (BP) up to 30% (v/v). To ensure the benefits from the broccoli nutrients, their leakage during cooking should be prevented. Such leakage is determined by the microstructure. In a previous study we have shown that the microstructure can change dramatically in such broccoli-enriched products. In this article we investigated the amount of nutrients retained within the product. As a representative of nutrients we have chosen glucosinolates (GLs). Therefore, we have investigated the concentration of these phytochemicals in dried and cooked pasta and noodles. We have found that glucosinolates present in the pasta and noodles increase linearly with the volume fraction of BP up to 20%. At 30% BP the retained amount of GLs was equal to that of 20% BP and did not increase further. Therefore incorporation of 30% BP does not lead to additional health benefits over incorporation of 20% BP. We conclude that the nutritional function of our pasta-like products can be improved by enrichment up to 20% broccoli. This value is much higher than that found in common commercial products (which is a few percent). In this article we also briefly address the sensory acceptability of such products. Up to 20% broccoli the products turned out to remain acceptable. Combining this with our results on texture analysis we conclude that the GLs release, sensory acceptability and textural properties are related via the microstructure.

  13. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk from goats supplemented with castor or licuri oil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R A G; Oliveira, C J B; Medeiros, A N; Costa, R G; Bomfim, M A D; Queiroga, R C R E

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor and licuri palm oils supplemented to milking goats on the physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of milk. A double Latin square experimental design (5x5) using 10 confined crossbred Moxotó-Alpine goats was performed according to the following treatments: nonsupplemented (control), 3% castor oil, 5% castor oil, 3% licuri oil, and 5% licuri oil. Oils in each treatment were supplemented in the dry matter. Castor oil supplementation reduced the fat content and increased the lactose and density of milk. Considering the sensory analysis, a lower acceptability was observed for milk from goats supplemented with castor oil. On the other hand, licuri oil supplementation led to higher acceptability scores for flavor and odor of goat milk.

  14. [A transcultural study on stirred strawberry yogurt: consumer acceptability versus sensory quality with trained panel].

    PubMed

    Wittig de Penna, Emma; Curia, Ana; Calderón, Sandra; López, Luis; Fuenzalida, Regina; Hough, Guillermo

    2005-03-01

    The present work was designed in order to obtain the cut off point, to be used in a shelf life study on whole stirred strawberry yogurt. The study was simultaneously carried out in Argentina, Chile and Costa Rica, assaying the same kind of product, elaborated in each one of the countries. The sensory quality parameters obtained from trained panelists and the consumers acceptability, were correlated by using the cut off point methodology through a quality evaluation by the Karlsruhe scale. According to preliminary studies, the storage at 42 degrees C produced considerable damage on parameters such as pH, acidity (volumetric assay), viscosity and sensory quality. For each sample, the cut off point was determined. This value corresponds to the threshold score for the sensory quality, where the consumer starts to perceive negative changes in the product, when comparing with the fresh product. The rejection percentage was also calculated according to the cut off point. The cut off points and the percentage of rejection obtained by the three participating countries were similar. Data obtained from Costa Rica showed changes in color, acidity and rancidity. Argentinean yogurts developed acidity that had a negative effect on texture, appearance and residual flavors. Chilean samples presented a sensory quality that remains almost without change through the studied time. The differences of the deterioration pattern amongst the three countries, demonstrates that the products are different in formulation and elaboration process, in spite of been the same kind of yogurt. This could be explained by differences specified in the regulation of each country.

  15. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of restructured beef steak with added walnuts.

    PubMed

    Jiménez Colmenero, F; Serrano, A; Ayo, J; Solas, M T; Cofrades, S; Carballo, J

    2003-12-01

    The effects of different proportions (0, 5, 10, 15%) of added walnuts on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of restructured beef steak were evaluated. The addition of 10 and 15% walnut reduced (P<0.05) cooking loss. Increasing proportions of walnut in the beef steak increased (P<0.05) water binding and reduced (P<0.05) fat binding properties. The addition of walnut did not affect (P>0.05) textural properties in uncooked restructured beef steak, but in cooked products Kramer shear force and bind strength were reduced (P<0.05) when 10% or more of walnut was added. Product morphology characteristics suggest that walnut interferes with the formation of protein network structures. Restructured steaks made with added walnut presented acceptable sensory properties. Incorporation of nuts in meat products can be use to confer potential heart-healthy benefits (Spanish Patent Application 200300367).

  16. Consumer sensory acceptance and value of wet-aged and dry-aged beef steaks.

    PubMed

    Sitz, B M; Calkins, C R; Feuz, D M; Umberger, W J; Eskridge, K M

    2006-05-01

    To determine sensory preference and value of fresh beef steak differing in aging technique, strip steaks were evaluated by consumers in Denver (n = 132 consumers) and Chicago (n = 141 consumers). Wet-aged Choice strip loins were matched with dry-aged Choice strip loins, whereas wet-aged Prime strip loins were matched with dry-aged Prime strip loins. Dry-aged strip loins were commercially aged in air in a controlled environment for 30 d and vacuum-aged for 7 d during shipping and storage. Wet-aged strip loins were vacuum-packaged and aged for 37 d in a 1 degrees C cooler. Pairs of strip loins were matched to similar Warner-Bratzler shear force values and marbling scores. Twelve sensory evaluation panels (of 12 scheduled panelists each) were conducted over a 3-d period in each city. Individual samples from a pair of steaks were evaluated by the panelists for sensory traits. Bids were placed on the samples after sensory traits were obtained utilizing a variation of the Vickery auction with silent, sealed bids. No significant differences for sensory traits of flavor, juiciness, tenderness, or overall acceptability were detected between wet-aged Choice samples and dry-aged Choice samples. Although wet-aged Choice samples were numerically superior for all sensory traits, consumers placed similar bid values (P = 0.12) on wet- and dry-aged Choice samples ($3.82 per 0.45 kg and $3.57 per 0.45 kg, respectively). Wet-aged Prime samples were rated more desirable (P < 0.001) for flavor, tenderness, and overall acceptability than dry-aged Prime samples. Wet-aged Prime samples were valued at $4.02 per 0.45 kg, whereas dry-aged Prime samples brought $3.58 per 0.45 kg (P = 0.008). Consumers (29.3%) who preferred the dry-aged Choice samples over the wet-aged Choice samples were willing to pay $1.99/0.45 kg more (P < 0.001) for dry-aged samples. The consumers who preferred the wet-aged Choice over the dry-aged Choice samples (39.2%) were willing to pay $1.77/0.45 kg more (P < 0

  17. Influence of lactation stage and some flock management practices on sensory characteristics of goat milk from Brazilian Saanen breed.

    PubMed

    de Cássia Ramos do Egypto Queiroga, Rita; Costa, Roberto Germano; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Dos Santos Garruti, Deborah; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of lactation stage (early, middle, late) and management practices (milking hygiene and buck presence) on the sensory attributes of Saanen goat milk. Goats were randomly divided in four groups in respect of different milking sanitary procedures and the presence/absence of the buck in the barn. Milk samples were analyzed for sensory attributes including quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and acceptance. The milking hygiene practice caused no significant influence on microbiological parameters. Results of QDA revealed that the buck presence increased the characteristic odor of milk at the middle and late lactation stages. The off-odor and off-flavor descriptors showed a distinct response since a higher intensity of these sensory characteristics was noted in the samples obtained from goats maintained without the buck. Odor and flavor contributed most in characterizing the different samples regardless of the management practice and lactation stage. The acceptance of odor showed to be influenced only by the lactation stage, while the acceptance of flavor was only through the presence of the buck. Odor acceptance correlated negatively to off-odor and off-flavor, suggesting that these two sensory attributes impaired the preference for the aroma of the milk samples.

  18. Relationships of consumer sensory ratings, marbling score, and shear force value to consumer acceptance of beef strip loin steaks.

    PubMed

    Platter, W J; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E; Chapman, P L; Scanga, J A; Smith, G C

    2003-11-01

    Logistic regression was used to quantify and characterize the effects of changes in marbling score, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and consumer panel sensory ratings for tenderness, juiciness, or flavor on the probability of overall consumer acceptance of strip loin steaks from beef carcasses (n = 550). Consumers (n = 489) evaluated steaks for tenderness, juiciness, and flavor using nine-point hedonic scales (1 = like extremely and 9 = dislike extremely) and for overall steak acceptance (satisfied or not satisfied). Predicted acceptance of steaks by consumers was high (> 85%) when the mean consumer sensory rating for tenderness,juiciness, or flavor for a steak was 3 or lower on the hedonic scale. Conversely, predicted consumer acceptance of steaks was low (< or = 10%) when the mean consumer rating for tenderness, juiciness, or flavor for a steak was 5 or higher on the hedonic scale. As mean consumer sensory ratings for tenderness, juiciness, or flavor decreased from 3 to 5, the probability of acceptance of steaks by consumers diminished rapidly in a linear fashion. These results suggest that small changes in consumer sensory ratings for these sensory traits have dramatic effects on the probability of acceptance of steaks by consumers. Marbling score displayed a weak (adjusted R2 = 0.053), yet significant (P < 0.01), relationship to acceptance of steaks by consumers, and the shape of the predicted probability curve for steak acceptance was approximately linear over the entire range of marbling scores (Traces67 to Slightly Abundant97), suggesting that the likelihood of consumer acceptance of steaks increases approximately 10% for each full marbling score increase between Slight to Slightly Abundant. The predicted probability curve for consumer acceptance of steaks was sigmoidal for the WBSF model, with a steep decline in predicted probability of acceptance as WBSF values increased from 3.0 to 5.5 kg. Changes in WBSF within the high (> 5.5 kg) or low (< 3.0 kg

  19. Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    PubMed

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Shen, Yuchi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Methven, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability.

  20. Effects of Edible Seaweed on Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-salt Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ko-Eun; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    The effects of sea tangle, sea mustard, hijiki, and glasswort were investigated based on the proximate composition, salinity, cooking loss, emulsion stability, pH, color, texture profile analysis, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of reduced-salt (NaCl) meat batter and frankfurters. The moisture content, salinity, lightness of the meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of the reduced-salt frankfurters with sea weeds were lower than the control without seaweed (p<0.05). The protein content, springiness, and cohesiveness of the reduced-salt frankfurters were not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05). The moisture content, salinity, cooking loss, lightness, redness, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of treatments with sea tangle and with sea mustard were lower than the control (p<0.05). Among the sensory traits, color was highest in the control (p<0.05). The flavor was also highest in the control. The treatments with sea tangle and with sea mustard samples had high tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores similar to the control (p<0.05). The results of this study show that the combination of low-salt and seaweed in the formulation successfully improved reduced-salt frankfurters, improving sensory characteristics to levels similar to the regular salt control (1.5%). PMID:26877634

  1. Sensory characteristics of high-amylose maize-resistant starch in three food products

    PubMed Central

    Maziarz, Mindy; Sherrard, Melanie; Juma, Shanil; Prasad, Chandan; Imrhan, Victorine; Vijayagopal, Parakat

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) is considered a functional ingredient due to its positive organoleptic and physiochemical modifications associated with food and physiological benefits related to human health. The sensory characteristics of three types of food products (muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry) with and without HAM-RS2 were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry contained 5.50 g/100 g, 13.10 g/100 g, and 8.94 g/100 g RS, respectively, based on lyophilized dry weight. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffin had higher moisture content and was perceived as being significantly moister than the control according to the sensory evaluation. The addition of HAM-RS2 to muffins significantly enhanced all sensory characteristics and resulted in a higher mean overall likeability score. The HAM-RS2-enriched focaccia bread appeared significantly darker in color, was more dense, and had the perception of a well-done crust versus the control. A grainer texture was observed with the chicken curry containing HAM-RS2 which did not significantly affect overall likeability. We concluded that the addition of HAM-RS2 may not significantly alter consumer's acceptability in most food products. PMID:24804020

  2. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly ( p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant ( p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly ( p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

  3. Sensory characteristics of high-amylose maize-resistant starch in three food products.

    PubMed

    Maziarz, Mindy; Sherrard, Melanie; Juma, Shanil; Prasad, Chandan; Imrhan, Victorine; Vijayagopal, Parakat

    2013-03-01

    Type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) is considered a functional ingredient due to its positive organoleptic and physiochemical modifications associated with food and physiological benefits related to human health. The sensory characteristics of three types of food products (muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry) with and without HAM-RS2 were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry contained 5.50 g/100 g, 13.10 g/100 g, and 8.94 g/100 g RS, respectively, based on lyophilized dry weight. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffin had higher moisture content and was perceived as being significantly moister than the control according to the sensory evaluation. The addition of HAM-RS2 to muffins significantly enhanced all sensory characteristics and resulted in a higher mean overall likeability score. The HAM-RS2-enriched focaccia bread appeared significantly darker in color, was more dense, and had the perception of a well-done crust versus the control. A grainer texture was observed with the chicken curry containing HAM-RS2 which did not significantly affect overall likeability. We concluded that the addition of HAM-RS2 may not significantly alter consumer's acceptability in most food products.

  4. Probiotic fermented sausage: viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, M; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the minimum viable probiotic cells in each gram or milliliter of product till the time of consumption) is their most important characteristic. However, these organisms often show poor viability in fermented products due to their detrimental conditions. Today, the variety of fermented meat products available around the world is nearly equal to that of cheese. With meat products, raw fermented sausages could constitute an appropriate vehicle for such microorganisms into the human gastrointestinal tract. In present article, the viability of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausage, the main factors affect their viability, and the sensorial characteristics of final product are discussed.

  5. Some Rat Sensory Neurons in Culture Express Characteristics of Differentiated Pain Sensory Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccaglini, Paola I.; Hogan, Patrick G.

    1983-01-01

    Sensory neurons were dissociated from trigeminal ganglia or from dorsal root ganglia of rats, grown in culture, and examined for expression of properties of pain sensory cells. Many sensory neurons in culture are excited by low concentrations of capsaicin, reportedly a selective stimulus for pain sensory neurons. Many are excited by bradykinin, sensitized by prostaglandin E2, or specifically stained by an antiserum against substance P. These experiments provide a basis for the study of pain mechanisms in cell culture.

  6. Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Sponge Cakes with Rubus coreanus Powder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-09-01

    To develop new type of sponge cake, the effects of partial (0~40%) replacement with Rubus coreanus powder (RCP) on the quality characteristics of sponge cakes were investigated. The pH level and moisture content ranged from 4.05~8.23 and 28.49~36.59, respectively, and significantly decreased upon addition of RCP (P<0.05). Baking loss rate and cake firmness significantly increased with higher RCP content in the formulation, whereas morphological characteristics of cakes such as height, volume, and symmetry indices significantly decreased (P<0.05). For crumb color values, L*- and b*-values significantly decreased while a*-value significantly increased as a result of RCP substitution (P<0.05). Hedonic sensory results indicated that sponge cakes supplemented with 30~40% RCP showed the most favorable acceptance scores for most of the sensory attributes evaluated. Overall, Rubus coreanus sponge cake could be developed with comparable physicochemical qualities without sacrificing consumer acceptability.

  7. Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Sponge Cakes with Rubus coreanus Powder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-01-01

    To develop new type of sponge cake, the effects of partial (0~40%) replacement with Rubus coreanus powder (RCP) on the quality characteristics of sponge cakes were investigated. The pH level and moisture content ranged from 4.05~8.23 and 28.49~36.59, respectively, and significantly decreased upon addition of RCP (P<0.05). Baking loss rate and cake firmness significantly increased with higher RCP content in the formulation, whereas morphological characteristics of cakes such as height, volume, and symmetry indices significantly decreased (P<0.05). For crumb color values, L*- and b*-values significantly decreased while a*-value significantly increased as a result of RCP substitution (P<0.05). Hedonic sensory results indicated that sponge cakes supplemented with 30~40% RCP showed the most favorable acceptance scores for most of the sensory attributes evaluated. Overall, Rubus coreanus sponge cake could be developed with comparable physicochemical qualities without sacrificing consumer acceptability. PMID:26451358

  8. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control.

  9. Nurses with sensory disabilities: their perceptions and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Neal-Boylan, Leslie; Fennie, Kristopher; Baldauf-Wagner, Sara

    2011-01-01

    A survey design was used to explore the perceptions and characteristics of registered nurses (RNs) with sensory disabilities and their risk for leaving their jobs. An earlier study found that nurses with disabilities are leaving nursing and that employers do not appear to support these nurses. Work instability and the mismatch between a nurse's perceptions of his or her ability and the demands of their work increase risk for job retention problems. This study's convenience sample of U.S. RNs had hearing, vision, or communication disabilities. Participants completed a demographic form, three U.S. Census questions, and the Nurse-Work Instability Survey. Hospital nurses were three times more likely to be at risk for retention problems. Nurses with hearing disabilities were frustrated at work. Hearing difficulties increased with years spent working as a nurse. Many nurses with sensory disabilities have left nursing. Early intervention may prevent work instability and increase retention, and rehabilitation nurses are ideally positioned to lead early intervention programs.

  10. Refrigerated poultry breast fillets packed in modified atmosphere and irradiated: bacteriological evaluation, shelf life and sensory acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Mantilla, Samira Pirola Santos; Santos, Érica Barbosa; de Freitas, Mônica Queiroz; de Carvalho Vital, Helio; Mano, Sérgio Borges; Franc, Robson Maia

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the effects on shelf life and sensory acceptance of gamma-irradiated refrigerated poultry breast fillets subjected to modified atmosphere packaging (80% CO2/20% N2 or vacuum) were investigated. After irradiation with 2 kGy, sensory acceptance tests and monitoring of bacterial growth were performed in order to determine the sanitary quality of the samples. It has been found that irradiation, used in combination with modified atmosphere packaging, can double the shelf life of refrigerated poultry breast fillets by reducing the populations of aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, enterobacteria, coliforms, Listeria spp. and Aeromonas spp., without significantly modifying its color or its overall appearance, the lactic acid bacteria being the most resistant to exposure to radiation and carbon dioxide. PMID:24031967

  11. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented sheepmeat sausage

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yanjun; Young, Owen A; Brooks, John D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented, cured sausages made from equivalent muscle groups of beef, pork, and sheepmeat. The last has no commercial examples and represents an unexploited opportunity. Using seven replicates of shoulder meat and subcutaneous fat, sausages were made with 64%, 29%, 4%, 2%, 0.2%, and 0.01% of lean meat, fat, NaCl, glucose, sodium pyrophosphate, and lactic culture, respectively. Following anaerobic fermentation (96 h, 30°C), there were no significant differences between the species in mean texture (hardness, springiness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness) and pH, and only minor differences were seen in color. However, although not consumer tested, it is argued that consumers would be able to pick a texture difference due to different fat melting point ranges, highest for sheepmeat. This work was followed by a sensory experiment to find out if characteristic sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. To simulate a very strongly characteristic sheepmeat, beef sausage mixtures (above) were spiked, or not, with 4-methyloctanoic, 4-methylnonanoic acid, and skatole (5.0, 0.35, and 0.08 mg kg−1, respectively). Sodium nitrite (at 0.1 g kg−1) and a garlic/rosemary flavor were variably added to create a 23 factorial design. In a randomized design, 60 consumers found that spiked sheepmeat flavors caused an overall significant decrease in mean liking on a 1–9 scale (5.83 vs. 5.35,P = 0.003), but this was completely negated by the garlic/rosemary addition (5.18 vs. 6.00,P < 0.001). Nitrite had no effect on liking (5.61 vs. 5.58,P = 0.82), although nitrite might be included in commercial examples to minimize fat oxidation and suppress growth of clostridia. Thus, sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. Commercial examples could thus be made for these consumers, but the mandatory use of the name “mutton” in some

  12. Improving the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat burger patties using ginger extract and papain.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Naeem, Heba H S; Mohamed, Hussein M H

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to include tenderizing agents in the formulation of camel meat burger patties to improve the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the product. Camel meat burger patties were processed with addition of ginger extract (7%), papain (0.01%) and mixture of ginger extract (5%) and papain (0.005%) in addition to control. Addition of ginger, papain and their mixture resulted in significant (P<0.05) increase of the collagen solubility and sensory scores (juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability) with significant (P<0.05) reduction of the shear force values. Ginger extract resulted in extensive fragmentation of myofibrils; however, papain extract caused noticeable destructive effect on connective tissue. Moreover, ginger and papain resulted in improvement of the lipid stability of treated burger patties during storage. Therefore, addition of ginger extract and papain powder during formulation of camel burger patties can improve their physico-chemical and sensory properties.

  13. Chemical, Physicochemical, Nutritional, Microbiological, Sensory and Rehydration Characteristics of Instant Whole Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Ulloa, José Armando; Ibarra-Zavala, Silvia Jazmin; Ramírez-Salas, Silvia Patricia; Rosas-Ulloa, Petra; Ramírez-Ramírez, José Carmen; Ulloa-Rangel, Blanca Estela

    2015-03-01

    Instant whole beans obtained by drying at 25 °C were evaluated for their chemical, physicochemical, nutritional, microbiological, sensory and rehydration characteristics. The proximal composition of instant whole beans was typical of this kind of food, whereas aw and L*, a* and b* values were 0.639, 98.55, -0.28 and -1.52, respectively. In instant whole beans, 75% of the essential amino acids had a value greater or equal to the reference standard for adult humans; the protein quality in terms of chemical score was 95%. Microbiological counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, moulds, yeasts and total coliforms of rehydrated instant whole beans were <10 CFU/g, whereas the scores for colour, flavour, texture and overall acceptability were 7.22, 7.68, 7.24 and 7.34, respectively, on a 1-9 hedonic scale. The logarithmic and Pilosof models showed close fits (R(2)>0.99) to the experimental data for drying of cooked beans and rehydration of instant whole beans, respectively. In the light of the chemical, physicochemical, nutritional, microbiological, sensory and rehydration characteristics of instant whole beans found in this study, drying at 25 °C is recommended for the production of such food.

  14. Chemical, Physicochemical, Nutritional, Microbiological, Sensory and Rehydration Characteristics of Instant Whole Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra-Zavala, Silvia Jazmin; Ramírez-Salas, Silvia Patricia; Rosas-Ulloa, Petra; Ramírez-Ramírez, José Carmen; Ulloa-Rangel, Blanca Estela

    2015-01-01

    Summary Instant whole beans obtained by drying at 25 °C were evaluated for their chemical, physicochemical, nutritional, microbiological, sensory and rehydration characteristics. The proximal composition of instant whole beans was typical of this kind of food, whereas aw and L*, a* and b* values were 0.639, 98.55, –0.28 and –1.52, respectively. In instant whole beans, 75% of the essential amino acids had a value greater or equal to the reference standard for adult humans; the protein quality in terms of chemical score was 95%. Microbiological counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, moulds, yeasts and total coliforms of rehydrated instant whole beans were <10 CFU/g, whereas the scores for colour, flavour, texture and overall acceptability were 7.22, 7.68, 7.24 and 7.34, respectively, on a 1–9 hedonic scale. The logarithmic and Pilosof models showed close fits (R2>0.99) to the experimental data for drying of cooked beans and rehydration of instant whole beans, respectively. In the light of the chemical, physicochemical, nutritional, microbiological, sensory and rehydration characteristics of instant whole beans found in this study, drying at 25 °C is recommended for the production of such food. PMID:27904331

  15. Evaluation of poultry protein isolate as a food ingredient: physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of marinated chicken breasts.

    PubMed

    Khiari, Zied; Omana, Dileep A; Pietrasik, Zeb; Betti, Mirko

    2013-07-01

    The possibilities of replacing soy protein isolate (SPI) and reducing the amount of phosphate in marinated chicken breasts using poultry protein isolate (PPI) were investigated. PPI, prepared from mechanically separated turkey meat through the pH-shift technology, was used as a marinade ingredient for chicken breasts at 2 different concentrations (1.0% and 1.5%, w/w on a dry weight basis). Product characteristics were compared to samples marinated with salt, phosphate, or SPI. All the 5 treatments were subjected to instrumental and sensory analyses. Tumbling yield, drip, and cooking losses as well as expressible moisture showed that PPI can be used as a substitute for SPI in brine. The sensory analysis revealed that there were no differences among treatments in terms of appearance, color, flavor, saltiness, juiciness, tenderness, and overall acceptability of the marinated chicken breasts. However, chicken breasts marinated with phosphate had significantly higher aroma acceptability scores than those treated with 1% PPI.

  16. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of a medicinal soy yogurt containing health-benefit ingredients.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Young-Hee; Song, Sun-Mi

    2009-01-14

    Medicinal soy yogurt (sogurt) containing high levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), free amino acids (FAAs), statins, and isoflavone aglycones was developed using lactic acid bacteria (1:1 mixture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. latis KFRI 01181 and Lactobacillus plantarum KFRI 00144) and Monascus-fermented soybean extract (MFSE, 1.5%, w/v). Changes in the content of some functional components (GABA, FAAs, statins, isoflavones) and physical (pH, titratable acidity, water-holding capacity), biological (viable cell counts), and sensory characteristics of sogurts during fermentation and cold storage were examined. The medicinal sogurt contained significantly (p < 0.05) high levels of FAAs (2011.2 +/- 8.1 mg/100 g of dry weight of sogurt), GABA (45.5 +/- 1.9 mg), statins (100.1 +/- 7.5 microg), and isoflavone aglycones (56.4 +/- 4.6 mg) compared with the control sogurt (1167.1 +/- 8.1 mg, 32.1 +/- 2.5 mg, not detected, and 19.2 +/- 1.9 mg, respectively) after fermentation for 24 h at 35 degrees C. During cold storage for 30 days at 4 degrees C, medicinal sogurt displayed higher water-holding capacity and titratable acidity and total bacterial cells and lower pH than the control sogurt (p < 0.05). Overall sensory acceptability of medicinal sogurt supplemented with MFSE was higher than that of the control sogurt prepared without MFSE. The results indicate that the addition of the appropriate MFSE concentrations (1.5%, w/v) improved the physicochemical properties as well as sensory characteristics of soy yogurt, resulting in enhanced health-benefit ingredients and consumers' preferences.

  17. Effect of marinating time and low pH on marinade performance and sensory acceptability of poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Yusop, Salma M; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Kerry, John F; Kerry, Joseph P

    2010-08-01

    The effects of marinating time (30, 60, 120 and 180 min) and acidic marinade pH (3.0, 3.2, 3.4, 3.6, 3.8, 4.0 and 4.2) on the instrumental and sensory properties of cooked Chinese-style marinated chicken were investigated. With increasing marinating time up to 180 min, a significant (P<0.05) increase in surface redness (a* value) and the dark pink sensory attribute was observed, along with a corresponding decrease in lightness (L* value) and colour penetration. Increased marinating times of 120-180 min were found to produce more acceptable end products with increased scores for colour, aroma and flavour attributes. Marinade uptake was greater at higher marinade pH levels of 3.8, 4.0 and 4.2, with the highest marinade uptake (3.34%) recorded at pH 4.0. As changes to core meat pH were not observed, the effect of marinating time (up to 180 min) and marinade pH on the instrumental and sensory properties of Chinese-style marinated chicken were located principally at the surface of samples. Consumers considered surface colour as contributing to acceptability of marinated chicken to a greater degree compared to colour penetration.

  18. Effects of Various Salts on Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cured Meat

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Hyun-Wook

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of refined, solar, and bamboo salt on the physico-chemical properties and sensory characteristics of cured pork loin. Moisture, protein, fat, and ash content, lightness, yellowness, cooking yield, and color, juiciness, and tenderness of sensory properties on curing pork loin exhibited no significant differences regardless of the nature of salts. The pH of raw and cooked cured pork loin with added bamboo salt was higher that of other salt treatments. However, the cooking loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force of cured pork loin with added refined salt was lower than those of solar and bamboo salt pork loins cured. The flavor and overall acceptability scores of treatments with refined salt was higher than those of solar and bamboo salt treatments. The unique flavor of bamboo salt can render it as a functional material for marinating meat products. In addition, the results of this study reveal potential use of bamboo salt in meat curing. PMID:27194922

  19. The rheology, microstructure and sensory characteristics of a gluten-free bread formulation enhanced with orange pomace.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Norah; Doran, Linda; Auty, Mark; Arendt, Elke; Gallagher, Eimear

    2013-12-01

    The present manuscript studied a previously optimised gluten-free bread formulation containing 5.5% orange pomace (OP) in relation to the batter characteristics (i.e. pre-baking), microstructure (of the flours, batter and bread) and sensory characteristics of the bread. Rheology, RVA and mixolab results illustrated that orange pomace improved the robustness of the gluten-free batter and decreased the occurrence of starch gelatinisation. This was confirmed from the confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images, which showed potato starch granules to be more expanded in the control batter when compared to the sample containing orange pomace. Starch granules were also observed to be more enlarged and swollen in the CLSM bread images, suggesting a higher level of gelatinisation occurred in the control sample. Sensory analysis was carried out on the optimised and control bread; panellists scored the flavour, crumb appearance and overall acceptability of the OP-containing breads comparable to the control.

  20. Influence of oak maturation regimen on composition, sensory properties, quality, and consumer acceptability of cabernet sauvignon wines.

    PubMed

    Crump, Anna M; Johnson, Trent E; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Bastian, Susan E P

    2015-02-11

    Oak barrels have long been the preferred method for oak maturation of wine, but barrels contribute significantly to production costs, so alternate oak maturation regimens have been introduced, particularly for wines at lower price points. To date, few studies have investigated consumers' acceptance of wines made using non-traditional oak treatments. In this study, two Cabernet Sauvignon wines were aged using traditional (i.e., barrel) and/or alternative (i.e., stainless steel or plastic tanks and vats, with oak wood added) maturation regimens. Chemical and sensory analyses were subsequently performed to determine the influence on wine composition and sensory properties, that is, the presence of key oak-derived volatile compounds and perceptible oak aromas and flavor. The quality of a subset of wines was rated by a panel of 10 wine experts using a 20-point scoring system, with all wines considered technically sound. Consumer acceptance of wines was also determined. Hedonic ratings ranged from 5.7 to 5.9 (on a 9-point scale), indicating there was no significant difference in consumers' overall liking of each wine. However, segmentation based on individual liking scores identified three distinct clusters comprising consumers with considerably different wine preferences. These results justify wine producers' use of alternative oak maturation regimens to achieve wine styles that appeal to different segments of their target market.

  1. Physico-chemical changes during storage and sensory acceptance of low sodium probiotic Minas cheese added with arginine.

    PubMed

    Felicio, T L; Esmerino, E A; Vidal, V A S; Cappato, L P; Garcia, R K A; Cavalcanti, R N; Freitas, M Q; Conte Junior, C A; Padilha, M C; Silva, M C; Raices, R S L; Arellano, D B; Bollini, H M A; Pollonio, M A R; Cruz, A G

    2016-04-01

    The partial substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride (0%, 25%, and 50%) and addition of arginine (1% w/w) in probiotic Minas cheese was investigated. Microbiological (Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus counts, and functionality of the prebiotics L. acidophilus), physicochemical (pH, proteolysis, organic acids, fatty acids, and volatile profiles), rheological (uniaxial compression) and sensory (hedonic test with 100 consumers) characterizations were carried out. The sodium reduction and addition of arginine did not constitute a hurdle to lactic and probiotic bacteria survival, with presented values of about 9 log CFU/g, ranging from 7.11 to 9.21 log CFU/g, respectively. In addition, lower pH values, higher proteolysis, and a decrease in toughness, elasticity and firmness were observed, as well as an increase in lactic, citric, and acetic acid contents. In contrast, no change was observed in the fatty acid profile. With respect to the sensory acceptance, the probiotic low-sodium Minas cheese presented scores above 6.00 (liked slightly) for the attributes flavor and overall acceptance. The addition of arginine can be a potential alternative for the development of probiotic dairy products with reduced sodium content.

  2. Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.

    PubMed

    Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

    2014-09-01

    The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p < 0.05) increased with increase in taro level. Conversely the dough elasticity index (range 59.8-0 %), extensibility (78-22 mm) and strength (range 281-139 × 10(-4) joules) significantly (p < 0.05) diminished with increase in wheat substitution. Up to 10 % substitution with RIN taro flour and 15 % with egg-like taro flour, the composite taro-wheat dough exhibited elasticity indices acceptable for the production of baking products, whereas at all levels of taro substitution, the composite biscuits samples were either acceptable as or better (5-10 % substitution with RIN flour) than 100 % wheat biscuit.

  3. Effects of an Oral-Sensory/Oral-Motor Stimulation/Positive Reinforcement Program on the Acceptance of Nonpreferred Foods by Youth with Physical and Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2005-01-01

    This study employed a multiple probe design to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based lunchtime oral-sensory/oral-motor/positive reinforcement program on food acceptance behaviors of three youth with multiple disabilities. Overall dramatic gains in food acceptance behaviors of all participants indicated that trained school personnel were…

  4. Instrumental and sensory quality characteristics of blueberry fruit from twelve cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared the instrumental and sensory quality characteristics of blueberry fruit from ten highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, Chanticleer, Weymouth, Hannah’s Choice, Duke, Bluecrop, Coville, Berkeley, Bluegold, Elliott and Lateblue) and two rabbiteye (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton) cultivars...

  5. Sodium chloride concentration affects yield, quality, and sensory acceptability of vacuum-tumbled marinated broiler breast fillets.

    PubMed

    Lopez, K; Schilling, M W; Armstrong, T W; Smith, B S; Corzo, A

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of sodium chloride concentration on yield, instrumental quality, and sensory acceptability of broiler breast meat that was vacuum tumbled with a 15% solution (over green weight) for 30 min. Different concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, and 1.50%) of NaCl (salt) and 0.35% sodium tripolyphosphate were included in the marinade solution. After marinating, breast fillets were evaluated for marination yields, pH, surface color, cooking loss, tenderness, expressible moisture, proximate composition, purge loss, sodium content, and sensory acceptability. As salt concentration increased, CIE L* decreased linearly, with a concentration of 0.75% having lower (P < 0.05) CIE L* values when compared with the control, 0, and 0.25% NaCl treatments. In addition, there was a linear and quadratic decrease (P < 0.05) in shear force as salt concentration increased, with no further decrease (P < 0.05) when greater than 0.75% NaCl was used. Cooking yield increased (P < 0.05) as the salt concentration increased to 1.0%. All marinated treatments were preferred (P < 0.05) over the control treatment, and all treatments marinated with at least 0.50% sodium chloride had an average rating of like moderately. Cluster analysis indicated that consumer groups varied in their preference of broiler breast meat treatments and that samples that were marinated with between 0.5 to 1.0% NaCl were acceptable to the majority of consumers. Marination with 0.75% NaCl was sufficient to maximize yields and decrease lightness (L*) in vacuum-tumbled, marinated broiler breast that is sold raw, but 1.0% NaCl could be used in a precooked product because it minimizes cook loss. In addition, use of 0.50% NaCl had minimal effects on yields, color, and sensory acceptability when compared with products that were marinated with greater concentrations of NaCl.

  6. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, sensory, fatty acid and storage characteristics of cookies.

    PubMed

    Rangrej, V; Shah, V; Patel, J; Ganorkar, P M

    2015-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid imparted good evidence of health benefits. Flaxseed oil, being the richest vegetarian source of alpha linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid), was incorporated in cookies by replacing shortening at level of 5 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 %. Effect of shortening replacement with flaxseed oil on physical, textural and sensory attributes were investigated. Spread ratio and breaking strength of cookies increased as flaxseed oil level increased. Sensory score was not significantly affected up to 30 % shortening replacement with flaxseed oil as compared with the control cookies. Above 30 % flaxseed oil, sensory score was adversely affected. Fatty acid profile confirmed the enhancement of omega-3 fatty acid from 0 (control) to 14.14 % (30 % flaxseed oil cookies). The poly-unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S) increased from 0.088 (control) to 0.57 while ω - 6 to ω -3 fatty acid ratio of flaxseed oil cookies decreased from 4.51 (control) to 0.65 in the optimized cookies. The data on storage characteristics of the control and 30 % flaxseed oil cookies showed that there was significant change in the moisture content, Peroxide value (PV) and overall acceptability (OAA) up to 28 days of storage at 45 °C packed in polyethylene bags. Flaxseed oil cookies were acceptable up to 21 days of storage and afterwards noticeable off flavour was perceived.

  7. Sensory Acceptability of Infant Cereals with Whole Grain in Infants and Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Haro-Vicente, Juan Francisco; Bernal-Cava, Maria Jose; Lopez-Fernandez, Amparo; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Bodenstab, Stefan; Sanchez-Siles, Luis Manuel

    2017-01-01

    In many countries, infant cereals are one of the first foods introduced during the complementary feeding stage. These cereals are usually made with refined cereal flours, even though several health benefits have been linked to the intake of whole grain cereals. Prior evidence suggests that food preferences are developed at early stages of life, and may persist in later childhood and adulthood. Our aim was to test whether an infant cereal with 30% of whole grain was similarly accepted both by parents and infants in comparison to a similar cereal made from refined flour. A total of 81 infants between 4 and 24 months old were included in the study. Parent-infant pairs participated in an 8-day experimental study. Acceptance was rated on hedonic scales (4-points for infants and 7-points for parents). Other attributes like color, smell, and taste were evaluated by the parents. Acceptability for infant cereals with whole grain and refined cereals was very similar both for infants (2.30 ± 0.12 and 2.32 ± 0.11, p = 0.606) and parents (6.1 ± 0.8 and 6.0 ± 0.9, p = 0.494). Therefore, our findings show that there is an opportunity to introduce whole grain cereals to infants, including those who are already used to consuming refined infant cereals, thereby accelerating the exposure of whole grain in early life. PMID:28098769

  8. Dry-fermented chicken sausage produced with inulin and corn oil: physicochemical, microbiological, and textural characteristics and acceptability during storage.

    PubMed

    Menegas, Léia Zenaide; Pimentel, Tatiana Colombo; Garcia, Sandra; Prudencio, Sandra Helena

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oil content reduction and the addition of inulin as a partial oil substitute on the physicochemical, microbiological, and textural characteristics and acceptability during the storage (4 °C for 45 days) of dry-fermented chicken sausage produced with corn oil. Reducing the oil content did not influence the characteristics evaluated but tended to produce sausage with a dark reddish coloration. The addition of inulin did not change the physicochemical and microbiological parameters or the acceptability of the products, but resulted in an altered texture profile and a tendency toward lighter and less reddish coloration, similar to products with standard oil content. Fermented chicken sausages produced with standard amounts of corn oil, reduced amounts of corn oil, and inulin as a partial oil replacement remained stable without a significant loss of physical, chemical, microbiological, or sensory attributes during storage at 4 °C for 45 days.

  9. Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptability of a beverage made from malted and fermented cereal: case of gowe from Benin

    PubMed Central

    Adinsi, Laurent; Akissoé, Noël H; Dalodé-Vieira, Générose; Anihouvi, Victor B; Fliedel, Geneviève; Mestres, Christian; Hounhouigan, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Sensory profile of gowe beverage was established with 10 gowe samples by 22 semitrained panelists. Besides, consumer study was performed on four representative gowe samples with 141 African ordinary consumers using a modified quantitative descriptive analysis. Gowe samples significantly differed (P < 0.05) with respect to all the sensory attributes, except for cereal odor and cereal taste (P > 0.05). The principal component analysis plot revealed the effects of raw material and process: Sorghum gowe was differently scored from maize gowe samples (P < 0.05). Gowe types from saccharification step (SSaF, SSaSF) evidenced higher scores with respect to fermented odor (41.7) and acidic taste (47.9), while those without saccharification had lower scores of fermented odor and acidic taste, with values of 18.4 and 16.9, respectively. No significant difference was evidenced with respect to the addition of “non malted flour” before or after saccharification. Regarding consumer testing, three distinct patterns of consumer acceptability were observed, which were grouped as “Sugary gowe likers” (63.1% of consumers) followed by “Sugary and saccharified sorghum gowe likers” (20.6%) and “Pure maize gowe dislikers” (16.3%). Irrespective of the consumers cluster, saccharified malted sorghum gowe without sugar was the unique sample scored more than 6 over 9. PMID:25649142

  10. Effects of prebiotic inulin-type fructans on structure, quality, sensory acceptance and glycemic response of gluten-free breads.

    PubMed

    Capriles, Vanessa D; Arêas, José A G

    2013-01-01

    The effect of adding increasing levels of prebiotic inulin-type fructans (ITFs) (0, 4, 8, 10 and 12%) on the sensory and nutritional quality of gluten-free bread (GFB) was assessed. ITFs can provide structure and gas retention during baking, thus improving GFB quality by yielding better specific volume, softer crumb, improved crust and crumb browning with enhanced sensory acceptance. During baking, approximately one-third of the ITFs was lost. The addition of 12% ITFs to the basic formulation is required in order to obtain GFB enriched with 8% ITFs (4 g of fructans per 50 g bread serving size), levels that can provide health benefits. 12% ITFs-addition level decreased GFB glycemic index (from 71 to 48) and glycemic load (from 12 to 8). Prebiotic ITFs are a promising improver for GFB that can provide nutritional (11% dietary fiber content, low glycemic response) and functional benefits to patients with celiac disease, since ITFs are prebiotic ingredients that can also increase calcium absorption.

  11. The effect of raw milk microbial flora on the sensory characteristics of Salers-type cheeses.

    PubMed

    Callon, C; Berdagué, J L; Dufour, E; Montel, M C

    2005-11-01

    The sensory characteristics of Salers Protected Denomination of Origin raw-milk cheeses are linked to the biochemical composition of the raw material (milk) and to the resultant microbial community. To evaluate the influence of the microbial community on sensory characteristics, Salers-type cheeses were manufactured with the same pasteurized milk, reinoculated with 3 different microbial communities from 3 different filtrates from microfiltered milks. Each cheese was subjected to microbial counts (on selective media), biochemical tests, and volatile and sensory component analyses at different times of ripening. Adding different microbial communities to specimens of the same (biochemically identical) pasteurized milk lead to different sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Cheeses with fresh cream, hazelnut, and caramel attributes were opposed to those with fermented cream, chemical, and garlic flavors. The aromatic compounds identified (esters, acids, alcohols, and aldehydes) in these cheeses were quite similar. Nevertheless, one milk was distinguished by a higher content of acetoin, and lower 2-butanone and 3-methylpentanone concentrations. Over the production period of 1 mo, the different cheeses were characterized by the same balance of the microbial population assessed by microbial counts on different media. This was associated with the stability of some sensory attributes describing these cheeses. Nevertheless, there was no linear correlation between microbial flora data and sensory characteristics as measured in this study.

  12. Effect of Low Salt Concentrations on Microbial Changes During Kimchi Fermentation Monitored by PCR-DGGE and Their Sensory Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Ahmadsah, Lenny S F; Min, Sung-Gi; Han, Seon-Kyeong; Hong, Yeun; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2015-12-28

    Various salt concentrations (1.0%, 1.3%, 1.6%, 1.9%, and 2.1% labeled as sample A, B, C, D, and E, respectively) were investigated for microbial diversity, identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) in salted kimchi cabbage, prepared under laboratory conditions. These samples were stored at 4°C for 5 weeks in proper aluminum-metalized pouch packaging with calcium hydroxide gas absorber. A culture-independent method known as polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was carried out to identify LAB distributions among various salt concentration samples that had identified 2 Weissella (W. confusa and W. soli), 1 Lactobacillus (Lb. sakei), and 3 Leuconostoc (Lc. mesenteroides, Lc. lactis, and Lc. gelidum) in the overall kimchi samples. The pH, titratable acidity, viable cell counts, and coliform counts were not affected by salt variations. In order to assess sensory acceptance, the conducted sensory evaluation using a 9-point hedonic scale had revealed that samples with 1.3% salt concentration (lower than the manufacturer's regular salt concentration) was more preferred, indicating that the use of 1.3% salt concentration was acceptable in normal kimchi fermentation for its quality and safety. Despite similarities in pH, titratable acidity, viable cell counts, coliform counts, and LAB distributions among the various salt concentrations of kimchi samples, the sample with 1.3% salt concentration was shown to be the most preferred, indicating that this salt concentration was suitable in kimchi production in order to reduce salt intake through kimchi consumptions.

  13. Food sensory characteristics: their unconsidered roles in the feeding behaviour of domestic ruminants.

    PubMed

    Favreau-Peigné, A; Baumont, R; Ginane, C

    2013-05-01

    When domestic ruminants are faced with food diversity, they can use pre-ingestive information (i.e. food sensory characteristics perceived by the animal before swallowing the food) and post-ingestive information (i.e. digestive and metabolic consequences, experienced by the animal after swallowing the food) to evaluate the food and make decisions to select a suitable diet. The concept of palatability is essential to understand how pre- and post-ingestive information are interrelated. It refers to the hedonic value of the food without any immediate effect of post-ingestive consequences and environmental factors, but with the influence of individual characteristics, such as animal's genetic background, internal state and previous experiences. In the literature, the post-ingestive consequences are commonly considered as the main force that influences feeding behaviour whereas food sensory characteristics are only used as discriminatory agents. This discriminatory role is indeed important for animals to be aware of their feeding environment, and ruminants are able to use their different senses either singly or in combination to discriminate between different foods. However, numerous studies on ruminants' feeding behaviour demonstrate that the role of food sensory characteristics has been underestimated or simplified; they could play at least two other roles. First, some sensory characteristics also possess a hedonic value which influences ruminants' intake, preferences and food learning independently of any immediate post-ingestive consequences. Further, diversity of food sensory characteristics has a hedonic value, as animals prefer an absence of monotony in food sensory characteristics at similar post-ingestive consequences. Second, some of these food sensory characteristics become an indicator of post-ingestive consequences after their initial hedonic value has acquired a positive or a negative value via previous individual food learning or evolutionary processes

  14. Indigenous and traditional plants: South African parents’ knowledge, perceptions and uses and their children’s sensory acceptance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The dietary shift from indigenous and traditional plants (ITPs) to cash crops and exotic plant food sources increases the risk of malnutrition and other nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, especially in poor rural communities. Farm communities in South Africa have been associated with poor nutritional status and extreme poverty. ITPs have been found to be affordable sources of several micronutrients. However, knowledge of and the use of these plants are declining, and little is known about the child’s acceptance of dishes prepared with ITPs. This knowledge can be used to improve the general acceptance of ITPs. This study aimed to gain insight into parents’ knowledge and perceptions and their use of ITPs in a farming community in the North West Province and to assess children’s acceptance of and preference for dishes made with African leafy vegetables (ALVs) and Swiss chard. Methods Parents (n = 29) responsible for food preparation for children in grade 2 to 4 in two schools were purposively selected for four focus group discussions. A sensory evaluation assessed the children’s (n = 98) acceptance of, preference for and intended consumption of dishes made with leafy vegetables. The dishes were made of Amaranthus spp., Cleome gynandra, Cucurbita maxima, Vigna unguiculata and Beta vulgaris. Results Parents mentioned 30 edible ITPs during the focus group discussions. Parents had knowledge of available ITPs and their use as food. Location, seasonal variation and rainfall affected the availability of and access to ITPs. Sun-dried ITPs were stored in sacks for later use. ITPs were perceived as healthy, affordable and delicious, hence acceptable to the parents. The children also evaluated the dishes made with ALVs as acceptable in terms of colour, smell and taste. Swiss chard was preferred, most likely because of the children’s exposure to this vegetable. Children indicated that they would like to eat these leafy vegetables twice a

  15. Acceptably aware during general anaesthesia: 'dysanaesthesia'--the uncoupling of perception from sensory inputs.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Jaideep J

    2014-07-01

    This review makes the case for 'dysanaesthesia', a term encompassing states of mind that can arise in the course of anaesthesia during surgery, characterised by an uncoupling of sensation and perceptual experience. This is reflected in a macroscopic, functional model of anaesthetically-relevant consciousness. Patients in this state can be aware of events but in a neutral way, not in pain, sometimes personally dissociated from the experiences. This makes events associated with surgery peripheral to their whole experience, such that recall is less likely and if it exists, makes any spontaneous report of awareness unlikely. This state of perception-sensation uncoupling is therefore broadly acceptable (a minimum requirement for acceptable anaesthesia) but since it is likely a dose-related phenomenon, may also represent a precursor for awareness with adverse recall. This hypothesis uniquely explains the often inconsistent responses seen during the experimental paradigm of the 'isolated forearm technique', wherein apparently anaesthetised patients exhibit a positive motor response to verbal command, but no spontaneous movement to surgery. The hypothesis can also explain the relatively high incidence of positive response to relatively direct questions for recall (e.g., using the Brice questionnaire; ∼1:500; the vast majority of these being neutral reports) versus the very low incidence of spontaneous reports of awareness (∼1:15,000; a higher proportion of these being adverse recollections). The hypothesis is consistent with relevant notions from philosophical discussions of consciousness, and neuroscientific evidence. Dysanaesthesia has important implications for research and also for the development of appropriate monitoring.

  16. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurts made from goat and cow milk.

    PubMed

    Costa, Roberto Germano; Beltrão Filho, Edvaldo Mesquita; de Sousa, Solange; da Cruz, George Rodrigo Beltrão; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto; da Cruz, Eliel Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Substituting goats' milk for cows' milk could improve the quality of dairy products, because it adds new sensorial characteristics. The aim of this study was to develop a type of yoghurt using goats' milk (25, 50, 75 and 100%) in place of cows' milk and to compare their characteristics. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics were evaluated using a nine-point hedonic scale and purchase intention test. The data obtained in the physicochemical analysis were submitted to regression analysis and the sensory results were evaluated through analysis of variance. Among the physicochemical characteristics of the yoghurts, variation (P < 0.05) of ash, acidity and lactose was observed. Tasters in the sensory analysis indicated that yoghurts up to 50% of goats' milk received favorable averages; with lower scores for higher goats' milk concentrations (75% and 100%). No difference was reported in acidity. Replacing cows' milk with goats' milk in yoghurt preparation promotes variations in the physicochemical characteristics for ash, acidity and lactose. However, it does not cause alterations in the sensory attributes (50% goat milk) and therefore could be considered as an alternative for the production of dairy products. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Sensory Correlates of Difficult Temperament Characteristics in Preschool Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, I-Ching; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Lu, Lu; Shieh, Jeng-Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the rate of co-occurring sensory processing (SP) dysfunction in children with autism who had a difficult temperament characteristics, and the relationship between SP dysfunction and temperament characteristics in preschool children with autism. A total of 111 children aged 48-84 months, 67 children with autism…

  18. Chemical and sensorial characteristics of espresso coffee as affected by grinding and torrefacto roast.

    PubMed

    Andueza, Susana; De Peña, M Paz; Cid, Concepción

    2003-11-19

    Grinding is a critical step in the preparation of espresso coffee (EC). The addition of sugar during the torrefacto roasting process could influence the degree of brittleness and grinding. The aim of this work was to study the influence of the grinding grades (coarse, fine, and very fine) in Arabica/Robusta 20:80, natural roasted (A20:R80), and Arabica/Robusta 20:80 with 50% Robusta torrefacto roasted (A20:R80 50% torrefacto) on the chemical and sensorial characteristics of EC in order to select the optimal espresso grinding grade. A higher percentage of coarse particles was found in A20:R80 ground coffee. In both ECs, the extraction of solids and soluble and aroma compounds increased inversely with particle size. Higher foam indices and extraction yields were found in A20:R80 50% torrefacto ECs probably due to the solubilization of caramelized sugar and melanoidins. It has been suggested that the range of an acceptable extraction yield could be extended to 25% in A20:R80 50% torrefacto ECs. In conclusion, the optimal grinding grade for the obtainment of an EC with A20:R80 was fine and that for A20:R80 50% torrefacto was coarse.

  19. Effects of High-Hydrostatic Pressure on Inactivation of Human Norovirus and Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Oysters.

    PubMed

    Ye, Mu; Lingham, Talaysha; Huang, Yaoxin; Ozbay, Gulnihal; Ji, Lin; Karwe, Mukund; Chen, Haiqiang

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on inactivation of human norovirus (HuNoV) in oysters and to evaluate organoleptic characteristics of oysters treated at pressure levels required for HuNoV inactivation. Genogroup I.1 (GI.1) or Genogroup II.4 (GII.4) HuNoV was inoculated into oysters and treated at 300 to 600 MPa at 25 and 0 °C for 2 min. After HHP, viral particles were extracted by porcine gastric mucin-conjugated magnetic beads (PGM-MBs) and viral RNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Lower initial temperature (0 °C) significantly enhanced HHP inactivation of HuNoV compared to ambient temperature (25 °C; P < 0.05). HHP at 350 and 500 MPa at 0 °C could achieve more than 4 log10 reduction of GII.4 and GI.1 HuNoV in oysters, respectively. HHP treatments did not significantly change color or texture of oyster tissue. A 1- to 5-scale hedonic sensory evaluation on appearance, aroma, color, and overall acceptability showed that pressure-treated oysters received significantly higher quality scores than the untreated control (P < 0.05). Elevated pressure levels at 450 and 500 MPa did not significantly affect scores compared to 300 MPa at 0 °C, indicating increasing pressure level did not affect sensory acceptability of oysters. Oysters treated at 0 °C had slightly lower acceptability than the group treated at room temperature on day 1 (P < 0.05), but after 1 wk storage, no significant difference in sensory attributes and consumer desirability was observed (P > 0.05).

  20. The Effects of Sequential Environmental and Harvest Stressors on the Sensory Characteristics of Cultured Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) Fillets.

    PubMed

    Ciaramella, Michael A; Kim, Taejo; Avery, Jimmy L; Allen, Peter J; Schilling, M Wes

    2016-08-01

    Stress during fish culture alters physiological homeostasis and affects fillet quality. Maintenance of high-quality seafood is important to ensure the production of a marketable product. This study assessed how sequential stressors affect the sensory and quality characteristics of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillets. Three stress trials were conducted where temperature (25 or 33 °C) and dissolved oxygen (DO, approximately 2.5 or >5 mg/L) were manipulated followed by socking and transport stress. After each stage of harvest (environmental stress, socking, and transport), fillet yield, consumer acceptability, descriptive evaluation, cook loss, tenderness, and pH were evaluated. Fillet yield decreased with increasing severity of environmental stress. Fillets from the severe stress treatment (33 °C, approximately 2.5 mg/L) received the highest acceptability scores (P < 0.05). Control fillets (25 °C, >5 mg/L) were the least acceptable (P < 0.05). Increased intensity of less favorable flavor attributes commonly associated with catfish resulted in the differences in acceptability among treatments. As fish progressed through the harvest event, cook loss decreased, tenderness increased, and pH increased, indicating that stress induced textural changes. The data suggest that although environmental stress results in slight changes in flavor attributes, its effects on acceptability are minor with fillets from all treatments still liked (>6 on a 9 point scale). Socking and transport were identified to positively affect textural characteristics of catfish fillets. Although the effects observed were not likely to negatively impact consumer acceptance, a strict management plan should be followed to maintain consistency in the product and avoid changes in stressors that might alter quality more drastically.

  1. Sensory characterisation and consumer acceptability of small calibre fermented sausages with 50% substitution of NaCl by mixtures of KCl and potassium lactate.

    PubMed

    Guàrdia, M D; Guerrero, L; Gelabert, J; Gou, P; Arnau, J

    2008-12-01

    The effect of six mixtures with 50% molar substitution of KCl (0-50%) and potassium lactate (0-50%) as NaCl substitutes in small calibre fermented sausages on some sensory parameters and on the acceptability was studied. Also, the relationship between sensory profile and consumer acceptability using external preference mapping was investigated. The results showed that as the K-lactate substitution increased, pH, sweetness, crumbliness and pastiness also increased, and piquantness, hardness, cohesiveness, ripened flavour, acid taste and saltiness decreased. However, the treatments prepared with a high level of salt substitution by KCl showed scores of sensory attributes similar to those of the control. Consumer segmentation showed differences in acceptability between genders, place of residence, educational level and age group. Consumers rejected fermented sausages with high K-lactate substitution but not those with a high KCl substitution. External preference mapping split consumers up into four clusters with different preference patterns. According to these results and from a sensory point of view, it is possible to achieve a reduction of 50% of NaCl in small calibre fermented sausages and to obtain a product acceptable to most consumers.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF SALT CONTENT AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF TERASI TO THE SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMBAL TERASI, THE CHILI SAUCE ADDED WITH TERASI.

    PubMed

    Ambarita, N T Damanik; De Meulenaer, B

    2015-01-01

    The type of terasi (the Indonesian seafood fermented paste) and the ingredients used can give sambal terasi (ST), the chili sauce added with terasi, its identity and taste distinction. Inherit from its production, salt content differs the flavor(s) of product added with terasi. This research explored the role of terasi salt content, either from the origin of terasi or by salt adjustment, to the products acceptability and sensory characteristics perceived during subsequent sensorial evaluations. Six types of terasi were characterized based on the proximate and salt content, and prepared as STs with and without salt adjustment at several terasi concentrations. 118 panelists conducted sensory evaluations for overall acceptability at 12.5% terasi; at lower concentration specific tastes (sweet, bitter, salty, sour, umami, fishy and rebon) were characterized by 80 panelists. Results showed that the acceptance of ST is more due to its innate origin salt content and to the suitability saltiness perceived. The specific odor of terasi, combining with other taste(s), when prepared at higher terasi concentration as practiced in restaurant, home and commercial products showed masking effect(s). After saltiness adjusted, different types of terasi showed different taste characteristics. Preferred ST were different between higher and lower concentration. Better tastes characteristics and stronger spices taste were found at lower salt content (and terasi concentration).

  3. Quality characteristics and consumer acceptance of yogurt fortified with date fiber.

    PubMed

    Hashim, I B; Khalil, A H; Afifi, H S

    2009-11-01

    Yogurt is considered a healthy food and incorporating dietary fiber will make it even healthier. Date fiber (DF), a by-product of date syrup production, is a good source of dietary fiber. The effect of fortification with DF on fresh yogurt quality was investigated. Acidity, pH, color [L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) values], texture profile, sensory properties, and consumer acceptance were studied. Control yogurt (without fiber), yogurt fortified with 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% DF, and yogurt with 1.5% wheat bran (WB) were prepared. Fortification with DF did not cause significant changes in yogurt acidity, although pH was increased. Yogurts fortified with DF had firmer texture (higher hardness values) and darker color (lower L* and higher a*) compared with control or WB yogurts. Consumer test results indicated that the appearance, color, and flavor ratings were significantly affected by fiber fortification. Yogurt fortified with up to 3% DF had similar sourness, sweetness, firmness, smoothness, and overall acceptance ratings as the control yogurt. Sensory ratings and acceptability of yogurt decreased significantly when increasing DF to 4.5% or using 1.5% WB. Flavoring yogurt fortified with 4.5% DF with vanilla did not improve flavor or overall acceptance ratings. Thus, fortifying yogurt with 3% DF produced acceptable yogurt with beneficial health effects.

  4. The Impact of Ripening Time on Technological Quality Traits, Chemical Change and Sensory Characteristics of Dry-cured Loin

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kyoung Mi; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ripening time on the technological quality traits, fatty acid compositions and sensory characteristics of dry-cured loin was studied. Pork loins (n = 102) at 24 h post-mortem were used to produce dry-cured loins. The dry-cured loins were assessed at 30, 60, and 90 days of ripening for the aforementioned characteristics. Our results showed that the water activity (aw) decreased (p<0.05) up to 60 days and did not change thereafter. The lipid oxidation and weight loss levels significantly (p<0.05) increased with increased ripening time. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) L* decreased for 90 days while CIE a* increased for 60 days and did not increase thereafter. More noticeably, the levels of most of unsaturated fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly decreased as increasing ripening time up to 90 days. The 30 days-ripened loins had lower (p<0.05) color, flavor and overall acceptability scores than the loins ripened for 60 and 90 days, however, no differences in sensory traits occurred between the 60 and 90 day-ripened samples. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it is suggested that the ripening duration between 30 and 60 days could be more appropriate for producing dry-cured loin product with higher quality and economic benefits. PMID:25715685

  5. The Impact of Ripening Time on Technological Quality Traits, Chemical Change and Sensory Characteristics of Dry-cured Loin.

    PubMed

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kyoung Mi; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2015-05-01

    The effect of ripening time on the technological quality traits, fatty acid compositions and sensory characteristics of dry-cured loin was studied. Pork loins (n = 102) at 24 h post-mortem were used to produce dry-cured loins. The dry-cured loins were assessed at 30, 60, and 90 days of ripening for the aforementioned characteristics. Our results showed that the water activity (aw) decreased (p<0.05) up to 60 days and did not change thereafter. The lipid oxidation and weight loss levels significantly (p<0.05) increased with increased ripening time. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L* decreased for 90 days while CIE a* increased for 60 days and did not increase thereafter. More noticeably, the levels of most of unsaturated fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly decreased as increasing ripening time up to 90 days. The 30 days-ripened loins had lower (p<0.05) color, flavor and overall acceptability scores than the loins ripened for 60 and 90 days, however, no differences in sensory traits occurred between the 60 and 90 day-ripened samples. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it is suggested that the ripening duration between 30 and 60 days could be more appropriate for producing dry-cured loin product with higher quality and economic benefits.

  6. The influence of salt concentration on the chemical, ripening and sensory characteristics of Iranian white cheese manufactured by UF-Treated milk.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mostafa; Guzeler, Nuray; Hayaloglu, Ali A

    2015-08-01

    Iranian White cheese was manufactured from ultrafiltered cows' milk using different concentrations of salt consisting of 1, 2.5, 4% and salt free. Chemical composition, proteolysis, counts for lactic acid bacteria and sensory evaluation were examined during 90 d of ripening. It was found that the use of different salt concentrations significantly influenced all chemical composition, proteolysis, total number of lactic acid bacteria and sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Increasing the salt concentrations caused a proportional decrease in proteolysis determined by both urea-PAGE of caseins and RP-HPLC of peptides. With increased salt concentration, total number of lactic acid bacteria decreased. Cheeses with 1 and 2.5% salt were suitable and acceptable in odour and flavour that may be due to the proportional level of proteolysis products. In conclusion, reducing salt concentration from 4 to 2.5 and 1% had no ineligible effect on the quality and acceptability of the cheese.

  7. Gross composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of Saanen goat milk fed with Cacti varieties.

    PubMed

    Catunda, Karen Luanna Marinho; de Aguiar, Emerson Moreira; de Góes Neto, Pedro Etelvino; da Silva, José Geraldo Medeiros; Moreira, José Aparecido; do Nascimento Rangel, Adriano Henrique; de Lima Júnior, Dorgival Morais

    2016-08-01

    The use of cactus is an alternative for sustainable production systems in Northeast Brazil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of supplying five cacti species from the Brazilian semi-arid northeast region on the physical-chemical sensory characteristics and the profile of fatty acids of Saanen goat milk. Five multiparous goats were used, confined, and distributed in a Latin square 5 × 5 design, with five experimental diets and five periods. Treatments consisted of 473 to 501 g/kg of a cactaceous mix (Pilosocereus gounellei, Cereus jamacaru, Cereus squamosus, Nopalea cochenillifera, or Opuntia stricta) added to 187.8 to 197.9 g/kg of "Sabiá" (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) hay and 311 to 329 g/kg of concentrate. No effects of experimental diets (P > 0.05) were evidenced in the physical and chemical composition of milk for fat, total solids, or salt levels. However, protein, lactose, solids-not-fat levels, and cryoscopy point were influenced by diet (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the profile of fatty acids between treatments for all acids found, except for butyric acid. Diets also did not (P > 0.05) confer sensory changes in milk characteristics. The use of the native cacti in the dairy goats' diet did not influence the sensory characteristics or lipid profile of milk.

  8. Sensory characteristics and related volatile flavor compound profiles of different types of whey.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Escamilla, F J; Kelly, A L; Delahunty, C M

    2005-08-01

    To characterize the flavor of liquid whey, 11 samples of whey representing a wide range of types were sourced from cheese and casein-making procedures, either industrial or from pilot-plant facilities. Whey samples were assessed for flavor by descriptive sensory evaluation and analyzed for headspace volatile composition by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The sensory data clearly distinguished between the samples in relation to the processes of manufacture; that is, significant differences were apparent between cheese, rennet, and acid wheys. For Mozzarella and Quarg wheys, in which fermentation progressed to low pH values, the starter cultures used for cheese making had a significant influence on flavor. In comparison, Cheddar and Gouda wheys were described by milk-like flavors, and rennet casein wheys were described by "sweet" (oat-like and "sweet") and thermally induced flavors. The volatile compound data obtained by PTR-MS differentiated the samples as distinctive and reproducible "chemical fingerprints". On applying partial least squares regression to determine relationships between sensory and volatile composition data, sensory characteristics such as "rancid" and cheese-like odors and "caramelized milk," yogurt-like, "sweet," and oat-like flavors were found to be related to the presence and absence of specific volatile compounds.

  9. Effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on consumer acceptance of fruit juices with different concentrations of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    PubMed

    Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruit juices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruit juices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruit juices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruit juices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruit juices that claim a particular health benefit.

  10. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fat-free goat milk yogurt with added stabilizers and skim milk powder fortification.

    PubMed

    Bruzantin, F P; Daniel, J L P; da Silva, P P M; Spoto, M H F

    2016-05-01

    Goat milk yogurt has a less consistent coagulum compared with cow milk yogurt; furthermore, the presence of goat milk in foodstuffs imparts a characteristic flavor that can restrict its acceptance by consumers. This study aimed to assess and compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fat-free goat milk yogurts with added stabilizers or bovine skim milk powder to improve the final product. Four treatment additions were evaluated: (1) a mixture of 0.1% (wt/vol) carrageenan and 0.1% (wt/vol) pectin (treatment CR); (2) 0.5% (wt/vol) pectin (treatment PE); (3) 4.65% (wt/vol) bovine skim milk powder (treatment BM); and (4) control (no stabilizer; treatment CT). The physicochemical parameters were investigated at on d 1 and 5 of storage. The BM treatment presented higher pH and titratable acidity values, resulting in a buffering capacity effect. The total crude protein (CP) and solids-not-fat (SNF) contents were also higher in BM compared with the other evaluated treatments because of the addition of bovine skim milk powder. We detected a reduction in pH values for all treatments. Lower SNF contents were present in the CR and CT treatments, which might be related to a syneresis process during storage; moreover, an increase in total CP was observed for all treatments due to the proteolytic action of the starter culture. Sensory attributes, including appearance (color, consistency, and presence of lumps), texture (consistency, viscosity, and presence of lumps), flavor (bitter, sweet, and characteristic of commercial plain nonfat yogurt), and overall impression were evaluated by quantitative descriptive analysis. The addition of 0.5% (wt/vol) of pectin (PE treatment) strengthened the curd; however, the visual and oral presence of lumps and a higher bitterness score were noted by trained panelists, which resulted in the lowest overall impression score for the PE treatment. In several sensory attributes, the CR treatment was considered similar to the control

  11. Effects of cottonseed hull levels in the diet and ageing time on visual and sensory meat acceptability from young bulls finished in feedlot.

    PubMed

    Eiras, C E; Guerrero, A; Valero, M V; Pardo, J A; Ornaghi, M G; Rivaroli, D C; Sañudo, C; Prado, I N

    2017-03-01

    Cottonseed hulls are co-product of agribusiness that can be used in beef cattle rations, decreasing the cost of feed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different cottonseed hull levels, display and ageing times on visual and sensorial meat acceptability. Longissimus thoracis muscle from 30 crossbred young bulls finished on three high-grain diets (210, 270 or 330 g/kg of cottonseed hulls on dry matter, respectively) were visually evaluated during 10 days of display by 37 appraisers. Tenderness, flavour and overall acceptability from the three diets and three ageing times (1, 7 and 14 days) were evaluated by 120 consumers. On the visual study, time of display (P⩽0.001) was a more significant factor than diet. Cottonseed hull level had no effect on sensorial analyses, with tenderness acceptability improving with ageing time (P⩽0.001). Results indicate the possibility of using the three studied levels of cottonseed without damaging consumer meat acceptability.

  12. Influence of extended aging on beef quality characteristics and sensory perception of steaks from the biceps femoris and semimembranosus.

    PubMed

    Colle, M J; Richard, R P; Killinger, K M; Bohlscheid, J C; Gray, A R; Loucks, W I; Day, R N; Cochran, A S; Nasados, J A; Doumit, M E

    2016-09-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of post-fabrication aging (2, 14, 21, 42, and 63days) on beef quality characteristics and consumer sensory perception of biceps femoris (BF) and semimembranosus (SM) steaks. Lipid oxidation and aerobic plate counts increased (P<0.05) with longer aging periods and retail display times. An aging period by day of retail display interaction (P<0.05) was observed for a* and b* values of the BF and SM. Warner-Bratzler shear force values decreased (P<0.05) with longer aging for the SM, while no difference was observed for the BF. Consumer panel results revealed that longer aging periods increased (P<0.05) acceptability of the SM, tenderness of both muscles, and tended to increase (P=0.07) juiciness of the SM. Our results show that extended aging reduces retail color stability yet has positive effects on consumer perception of tenderness of both muscles and overall acceptability of the SM.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial decontamination, and chemical and sensory characteristic of lycium fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Chung, Hsiao-Ping; Chou, Fong-In; Lin, I.-hsin; Hsieh, Po-Chow

    2006-05-01

    Lycium fruit, popular traditional Chinese medicine and food supplement generally is ingested uncooked, was exposed to several doses of gamma irradiation (0-14 kGy) to evaluate decontamination efficiency, changes in chemical composition, and changes in sensory characteristic. In this study, lycium fruit specimens contained microbial counts of 3.1×10 3-1.7×10 5 CFU/g and 14 kGy was sufficient for microbial decontamination. Before irradiation, the main microbe isolated from lycium fruit was identified as a strain of yeast, Cryptococcus laurentii. After 10 kGy of irradiation, a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus cereus, was the only survivor. The first 90% reduction (LD 90) of C. laurentii and B. cereus was approximately 0.6 and 6.5 kGy, respectively, the D 10 doses of C. laurentii and B. cereus was approximately 0.6 and 1.7 kGy, respectively. After 14 kGy irradiation, except the vitamin C content, other chemical composition (e.g., crude protein, β-carotene, riboflavin, fructose, etc.) and the sensory characteristic of lycium fruit specimens did not have significant changes. In conclusion, 14 kGy is the optimal decontamination dose for lycium fruit for retention of its sensory quality and extension of shelf life.

  14. Effect of fat content on sensory characteristics of marbled beef from Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Iida, Fumiko; Saitou, Kaoru; Kawamura, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Shizuko; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2015-07-01

    To analyze the sensory characteristics of meat samples with a crude fat content between 23.8% and 48.6% taken from 34 Japanese Black steers, we grilled the meat and subjected it to analytical sensory evaluation. We also measured the amounts of moisture, protein, nucleic acid and glutamic acid. An increase in crude fat content increased the tenderness, juiciness, and fattiness in the meat quality evaluation. An increase in crude fat content reduced the crude protein and moisture contents; it also slightly reduced the nucleic acid and glutamic acid contents, although when the reductions in these umami components were assessed relative to the moisture content they changed little. Increasing the fat content up to a certain point greatly enhanced the umami intensity and beef flavor intensity in the meat quality evaluation and raised the overall evaluation score; the peak of the appropriate crude fat content for these purposes was about 36%.

  15. An Empirical Examination of Individual and System Characteristics on Enhancing E-Learning Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Hsiao, Chan; Purnomo, Sutrisno Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Due to the continued prevalence of e-learning underutilization in Indonesia's higher education context, this study empirically examines individual and system characteristics believed to influence students' acceptance of e-learning systems. The proposed research model is developed to examine the influence of five characteristics of the Technology…

  16. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; Şat, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists.

  17. High-pressure processing of Gorgonzola cheese: influence on Listeria monocytogenes inactivation and on sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Carminati, D; Gatti, M; Bonvini, B; Neviani, E; Mucchetti, G

    2004-08-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes on the rind of Gorgonzola cheese is difficult to avoid. This contamination can easily occur as a consequence of handling during ripening. The aims of this study were to determine the efficiency of high-pressure processing (HPP) for inactivation of L. monocytogenes on cheese rind and to evaluate the influence of HPP treatments on sensory characteristics. Gorgonzola cheese rinds, after removal, were inoculated (about 7.0 log CFU/g) with L. monocytogenes strains previously isolated from other Gorgonzola cheeses. The inoculated cheese rinds were processed with an HPP apparatus under conditions of pressure and time ranging from 400 to 700 MPa for 1 to 15 min. Pressures higher than 600 MPa for 10 min or 700 MPa for 5 min reduced L. monocytogenes more than 99%. A reduction higher than 99.999% was achieved pressurizing cheese rinds at 700 MPa for 15 min. Lower pressure or time treatments were less effective and varied in effectiveness with the cheese sample. Changes in sensory properties possibly induced by the HPP were evaluated on four different Gorgonzola cheeses. A panel of 18 members judged the treated and untreated cheeses in a triangle test. Only one of the four pressurized cheeses was evaluated as different from the untreated sample. HPP was effective in the reduction of L. monocytogenes on Gorgonzola cheese rinds without significantly changing its sensory properties. High-pressure technology is a useful tool to improve the safety of this type of cheese.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load and sensory characteristics of aniseed (Pimpinella anisum).

    PubMed

    Al-Bachir, M

    2007-07-01

    Seeds of anise (Pimpinella anisum) were exposed to doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20kGy in a (60)Co package irradiator. Irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored at room temperature. Microbial populations on seeds, total and inorganic soluble solids in water extract and sensory properties of the latter were evaluated after 0, 6 and 12 months of storage. Results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced the aerobic plate counts of aniseed. Immediately after irradiation, the total soluble solids in an extract of irradiated seeds were greater than those of unirradiated ones. The total soluble solids in an extract of irradiated and un-irradiated seeds increased after 6 and 12 months of storage. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in inorganic soluble solids between the water extract of irradiated and unirradiated aniseeds. Sensory evaluation indicated that gamma irradiation improved sensory characteristics of aniseed water extract tested immediately after irradiation; however, after 12 months of storage, no significant differences (p>0.05) were found in color, taste or flavor between extract of irradiated and unirradiated seeds.

  19. Effect of Dioscorea opposita Thunb. (yam) supplementation on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yogurt.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Lee, S Y; Palanivel, G; Kwak, H S

    2011-04-01

    A study was conducted to examine the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of yogurt made by supplementing powdered yam Dioscorea opposita Thunb. (YPT) at different concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8%, wt/vol) into milk, which was pasteurized and then fermented at 43°C for 6 h and stored for 16 d. The pH values of all samples decreased, whereas viscosity values and mean microbial counts increased during storage. The L* and a* color values (indicators of lightness and redness, respectively) of yogurt samples were not remarkably influenced by adding YPT, whereas the b* values (indicating yellowness) significantly increased with the addition of YPT at all concentrations at 0 d of storage, probably due to the original yellow color of yam powder. In functional component analyses, when the concentration of YPT increased, the amount of allantoin and diosgenin proportionally increased. The content of allantoin was 3.22 and diosgenin 4.69 μg/mL when 0.2% (wt/vol) YPT was supplemented and did not change quantitatively during the storage period (16 d). The sensory test revealed that the overall acceptability scores of YPT-supplemented yogurt samples (0.2 to 0.6%, wt/vol) were quite similar to those of the control throughout the storage period of 16 d. Based on the data obtained from the present study, it was concluded that the concentrations (0.2 to 0.6%, wt/vol) of YPT could be used to produce YPT-supplemented yogurt without significant adverse effects on physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties, and enhance functional components from the supplementation.

  20. Changes in Ultrastructure and Sensory Characteristics on Electro-magnetic and Air Blast Freezing of Beef during Frozen Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The ultrastructure in the beef muscle of the electro-magnetic resonance and air blast freezing during the frozen storage, and the changes in the quality characteristics after thawing were evaluated. The size of ice crystal was small and evenly formed in the initial freezing period, and it showed that the size was increased as the storage period was elapsed (p<0.05). The beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing showed the size of ice crystal with a lower rate of increase than the air blast freezing during the frozen storage. The thawing loss of beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was significantly lower than the air blast freezing during frozen storage (p<0.05), and it showed that the thawing loss of the round was higher than the loin. Water holding capacity decreased as the storage period became longer while the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was higher than the air blast on 8 month (p<0.05). As a result of sensory evaluation, the beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing did not show the difference until 4 months, and it showed higher acceptability in comparison with the beef stored by the air blast freezing. Thus, it is considered that the freezing method has an effect on the change in the ultrastructure and quality characteristics of the beef. PMID:26761797

  1. Changes in Ultrastructure and Sensory Characteristics on Electro-magnetic and Air Blast Freezing of Beef during Frozen Storage.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Ku, Su-Kyung; Jeong, Ji-Yun; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Young-Boong

    2015-01-01

    The ultrastructure in the beef muscle of the electro-magnetic resonance and air blast freezing during the frozen storage, and the changes in the quality characteristics after thawing were evaluated. The size of ice crystal was small and evenly formed in the initial freezing period, and it showed that the size was increased as the storage period was elapsed (p<0.05). The beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing showed the size of ice crystal with a lower rate of increase than the air blast freezing during the frozen storage. The thawing loss of beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was significantly lower than the air blast freezing during frozen storage (p<0.05), and it showed that the thawing loss of the round was higher than the loin. Water holding capacity decreased as the storage period became longer while the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was higher than the air blast on 8 month (p<0.05). As a result of sensory evaluation, the beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing did not show the difference until 4 months, and it showed higher acceptability in comparison with the beef stored by the air blast freezing. Thus, it is considered that the freezing method has an effect on the change in the ultrastructure and quality characteristics of the beef.

  2. The Effects of Fiber Inclusion on Pet Food Sensory Characteristics and Palatability.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri; Monti, Mariana; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Carciofi, Aulus Cavalieri

    2015-02-16

    The objectives of this study were to determine (a) the influence of fiber on the sensory characteristics of dry dog foods; (b) differences of coated and uncoated kibbles for aroma and flavor characteristics; (c) palatability of these dry dog foods; and (d) potential associations between palatability and sensory attributes. A total of eight fiber treatments were manufactured: a control (no fiber addition), guava fiber (3%, 6%, and 12%), sugar cane fiber (9%; large and small particle size), and wheat bran fiber (32%; large and small particle size). The results indicated significant effects of fibers on both flavor and texture properties of the samples. Bitter taste and iron and stale aftertaste were examples of flavor attributes that differed with treatment, with highest intensity observed for 12% guava fiber and small particle size sugar cane fiber treatments. Fracturability and initial crispness attributes were lowest for the sugar cane fiber treatments. Flavor of all treatments changed after coating with a palatant, increasing in toasted, brothy, and grainy attributes. The coating also had a masking effect on aroma attributes such as stale, flavor attributes such as iron and bitter taste, and appearance attributes such as porosity. Palatability testing results indicated that the control treatment was preferred over the sugar cane or the wheat bran treatment. The treatment with large sugarcane fiber particles was preferred over the treatment with small particles, while both of the wheat bran treatments were eaten at a similar level. Descriptive sensory analysis data, especially textural attributes, were useful in pinpointing the underlying characteristics and were considered to be reasons that may influence palatability of dog foods manufactured with inclusion of different fibers.

  3. The Effects of Fiber Inclusion on Pet Food Sensory Characteristics and Palatability

    PubMed Central

    Koppel, Kadri; Monti, Mariana; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Carciofi, Aulus Cavalieri

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary The results from this research indicate that fibers have an effect on extruded pet food texture and palatability. These results may help pet food companies select ingredients for successful product formulations. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine (a) the influence of fiber on the sensory characteristics of dry dog foods; (b) differences of coated and uncoated kibbles for aroma and flavor characteristics; (c) palatability of these dry dog foods; and (d) potential associations between palatability and sensory attributes. A total of eight fiber treatments were manufactured: a control (no fiber addition), guava fiber (3%, 6%, and 12%), sugar cane fiber (9%; large and small particle size), and wheat bran fiber (32%; large and small particle size). The results indicated significant effects of fibers on both flavor and texture properties of the samples. Bitter taste and iron and stale aftertaste were examples of flavor attributes that differed with treatment, with highest intensity observed for 12% guava fiber and small particle size sugar cane fiber treatments. Fracturability and initial crispness attributes were lowest for the sugar cane fiber treatments. Flavor of all treatments changed after coating with a palatant, increasing in toasted, brothy, and grainy attributes. The coating also had a masking effect on aroma attributes such as stale, flavor attributes such as iron and bitter taste, and appearance attributes such as porosity. Palatability testing results indicated that the control treatment was preferred over the sugar cane or the wheat bran treatment. The treatment with large sugarcane fiber particles was preferred over the treatment with small particles, while both of the wheat bran treatments were eaten at a similar level. Descriptive sensory analysis data, especially textural attributes, were useful in pinpointing the underlying characteristics and were considered to be reasons that may influence palatability of dog foods

  4. Low-fat frankfurters enriched with n-3 PUFA and edible seaweed: Effects of olive oil and chilled storage on physicochemical, sensory and microbial characteristics.

    PubMed

    López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2009-09-01

    This article reports a study of the physicochemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of low-fat (10%) and n-3 PUFA-enriched frankfurters as affected by addition of seaweed (5% Himanthalia elongata), partial substitution (50%) of animal fat by olive oil and chilled storage (41days at 2°C). The presence of seaweed improved water and fat binding properties, reduced (P<0.05) lightness and redness and increased (P<0.05) the hardness and chewiness of low-fat frankfurters enriched with n-3 PUFA. The effect of olive oil on those characteristics was less pronounced than that of seaweed. Replacing pork backfat with olive oil in frankfurters produced acceptable sensory characteristics, similar to control, while addition of seaweed resulted in less acceptable products, due mainly to the special flavour of the seaweed. Formulation and storage time affected the total viable count and lactic acid bacteria count. Frankfurters containing olive oil and seaweed had the highest total viable count from day 14 of storage, with lactic acid bacteria becoming the predominant microflora.

  5. Sensory characteristics of antioxidant extracts from Uruguayan native plants: influence of deodorization by steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Miraballes, Marcelo; Gámbaro, Adriana; Ares, Gastón

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenolic-rich antioxidant extracts from native plants have potential applications as ingredients in functional foods; however, their intense characteristic flavour is a major limitation to their application. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of steam distillation on the sensory and physicochemical characteristics of extracts of five native Uruguayan plants (Acca sellowiana, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia gratisima, Baccharis trimera and Mikania guaco). Aqueous extracts from the five native plants were obtained. Steam distillation was used to produce two types of deodorized extracts: extracts from deodorized leaves and extracts deodorized after the extraction. The extracts were characterized in terms of their total polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity (using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid methods). A trained assessor panel evaluated characteristic odour, characteristic flavour, bitterness and astringency of the extracts. The total polyphenolic content of the extracts ranged from 112.4 to 974.4 mg/100 mL, whereas their antioxidant capacity ranged from 9.6 to 1008.7 mg vitamin C equivalents/100 mL, depending on the type of extract and the method being considered. Steam distillation was effective in reducing the characteristic odour and flavour of the extracts, without causing large changes in their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. In general, in terms of sensory characteristics, steam distillation performed on the extracts gave better results than when performed on the leaves; whereas the opposite trend was found for polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Results suggested that steam distillation could be a promising low-cost procedure for the production of antioxidant extracts for food products.

  6. Effect of NaCl/Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) Mixture on the Sensorial Properties and Quality Characteristics of Model Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    Sodium chloride is an important ingredient added to most of foods which contributes to flavor enhancement and food preservation but excess intake of sodium chloride may also cause various diseases such as heart diseases, osteoporosis and so on. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a salty flavor enhancer on the quality and sensorial properties of the NaCl/MSG complex and actual food system. For characterizing the spray-dried NaCl/MSG complex, surface dimension, morphology, rheology, and saltiness intensity were estimated by increasing MSG (0-2.0%) levels at a fixed NaCl concentration (2.0%). MSG levels had no effect of the characteristics of the NaCl/MSG complex, although the addition of MSG increased the surface dimension of the NaCl/MSG complex significantly (p<0.05). Furthermore, the effect of MSG on enhancing the salty flavor was not observed in the solution of the NaCl/MSG complex. In the case of an actual food system, model meat products (pork patties) were prepared by replacing NaCl with MSG. MSG enhanced the salty flavor, thereby increasing overall acceptability of pork patties. Replacement of NaCl with MSG (<1.0%) did not result in negative sensorial properties of pork patties, although quality deterioration such as high cooking loss was found. Nevertheless, MSG had a potential application in meat product formulation as a salty flavor enhancer or a partial NaCl replacer when meat products were supplemented with binding agents. PMID:26761490

  7. Technology, Demographic Characteristics and E-Learning Acceptance: A Conceptual Model Based on Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarhini, Ali; Elyas, Tariq; Akour, Mohammad Ali; Al-Salti, Zahran

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to develop an amalgamated conceptual model of technology acceptance that explains how individual, social, cultural and organizational factors affect the students' acceptance and usage behaviour of the Web-based learning systems. More specifically, the proposed model extends the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to…

  8. Sensory Characteristics and Comparison of Commercial Plain Yogurts and 2 New Production Sample Options.

    PubMed

    Brown, Marissa D; Chambers, Delores H

    2015-12-01

    This research determined the sensory characteristics of currently available plain yogurts available in U.S. supermarkets and examined how 3 "more sustainable" prototypes compared. The prototypes, nonfat set-style yogurts pre-acidified after pasteurization with lemon juice or citric acid at 80 ppm to pH 6.2, had shorter fermentation times than the lab-made control. These reduced fermentation times could result in energy reductions and potentially substantiate a "sustainable" marketing claim, a concept gaining traction with consumers. Twenty-six commercial yogurts, varying in percent milk fat, milk source (organic or conventional), and processing (set-style, stirred, or strained/Greek-style), were also included. Using descriptive sensory analysis, a 6-person highly trained panel scored the intensity of 25 flavor and 10 texture attributes on a 15-point scale. Three replications were carried out, and all samples were tested at least 10 d prior to the end of their shelf-lives. The samples differed for 19 flavor and all 10 texture attributes. Cluster analysis indicated approximately 7 flavor and 5 texture clusters. The prototype pre-acidified with lemon juice was similar to category leaders nonfat yogurt varieties. The prototype pre-acidified with citric acid was similar in texture but was less sour. Although no legal definitions exist for "sustainable," the prototypes' sensory characteristics are comparable to those of popular yogurts indicating potential market viability. This research also demonstrates potential for making yogurt that is in line with growing consumer expectations for sustainability. Despite the current diversity, several combinations of flavor and texture were not represented.

  9. Textural and sensory characteristics of whole and skimmed flavored set-type yogurt during long storage.

    PubMed

    Salvador, A; Fiszman, S M

    2004-12-01

    A study of refrigerated storage (10 degrees C for 91 d) of whole and skimmed flavored set-type yogurt was made. Comparison with storage at 20 degrees C for 21 d and 30 degrees C for 3 d (accelerated) was also carried out. Refrigerated storage yogurts were assessed by a trained panel and by a consumer panel. Trained-panel scores were correlated to instrumental data, and the acceptability data for long storage were studied using consumer criteria. In all cases, after-storage pH values barely changed over storage time, indicating that the yogurt samples did not develop much acidity under any of the storage conditions studied. The profile of the instrumental texture curves obtained corresponded to a firm gel, which broke after a plunger penetrated the sample, and the firmness values of the whole yogurt were lower than for the skimmed yogurt under all the storage conditions studied. From a microbiological point of view, the viability of the yogurts was adequate at the different storage times and temperatures studied, although those stored at 10 degrees C for long periods would not comply with some countries' minimum requirements. Logistic regression of the data from a 50-consumer sensory evaluation showed that the probability of the whole yogurt being accepted after 91 d storage at 10 degrees C was around 40%, whereas for the skimmed yogurt it was only 15%, largely because the skimmed yogurt developed certain negative attributes at an earlier stage of storage than the whole yogurt.

  10. Influence of the reformulation of ingredients in bakery products on healthy characteristics and acceptability of consumers.

    PubMed

    Doménech-Asensi, G; Merola, N; López-Fernández, A; Ros-Berruezo, G; Frontela-Saseta, C

    2016-01-01

    Bakery products are highly consumed by children and adults and as cereal-derived foods are considered a fundamental part of a balanced diet, but they are usually high in sugar and saturated and trans fat and low in fibre. This study aimed to develop four different bakery products (cookies, croissants, Spanish muffins and Spanish sponge cake) with healthier properties, such as lower fat and sugar content, healthy fatty acid profile and higher fibre content. Margarine and sunflower oil were replaced with high oleic sunflower oil, and inulin was also added. After the modifications, a significant reduction of fat content and kilocalories in all cases, an increment of monounsaturated fat and a decrease in saturated fatty acids in three products were observed. The sensory analysis resulted similar results in both recipes for cookies and lower acceptability in sponge cake, croissants and muffins. Purchase intention only decreased in sponge cake.

  11. The use of natural herbal extracts for improving the lipid stability and sensory characteristics of irradiated ground beef.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hussein M H; Mansour, Hayam A; Farag, M Diaa El-Din H

    2011-01-01

    Ground Longissimus dorsi of beef were treated with herbal extracts of marjoram, rosemary and sage at concentration of 0.04% (v/w), radiation (2 or 4.5 kGy) or their combination. Treated samples were stored at 5°C and analyzed periodically for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), sensory characteristics and psychrotrophic bacterial counts during storage for 41 and 48 days for samples treated at 2 and 4.5 kGy respectively. Results demonstrated a significant benefit of the addition of herbal extracts to the ground beef prior to irradiation. All three extracts significantly (P<0.05) lowered the TBARS values and off-odor scores and significantly (P<0.05) increased color and acceptability scores in all samples with marjoram being the most effective. The combination treatment with herbal extracts plus irradiation resulted in extension of the shelf life of samples treated with 2 kGy by one week and samples treated with 4.5 kGy by two weeks, over that treated with irradiation alone. In conclusion, the addition of herbal extracts can minimize lipid oxidation, improve color and decrease off-odor production in irradiated ground beef.

  12. Carcass Performance, Muscle Fiber, Meat Quality, and Sensory Quality Characteristics of Crossbred Pigs with Different Live Weights

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hee Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In order to attain heavier live weight without impairing pork or sensory quality characteristics, carcass performance, muscle fiber, pork quality, and sensory quality characteristics were compared among the heavy weight (HW, average live weight of 130.5 kg), medium weight (MW, average weight of 111.1 kg), and light weight (LW, average weight of 96.3 kg) pigs at time of slaughter. The loin eye area was 1.47 times greater in the HW group compared to the LW group (64.0 and 43.5 cm2, p<0.001), while carcass percent was similar between the HW and MW groups (p>0.05). This greater performance by the HW group compared to the LW group can be explained by a greater total number (1,436 vs. 1,188, ×103, p<0.001) and larger area (4,452 vs. 3,716 μm2, p<0.001) of muscle fibers. No significant differences were observed in muscle pH45 min, lightness, drip loss, and shear force among the groups (p>0.05), and higher live weights did not influence sensory quality attributes, including tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. Therefore, these findings indicate that increased live weights in this study did not influence the technological and sensory quality characteristics. Moreover, muscles with a higher number of medium or large size fibers tend to exhibit good carcass performance without impairing meat and sensory quality characteristics. PMID:27433110

  13. Efficacy of monitoring the sensory taste characteristics in pomegranate juice with electronic tongue, and chemical measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to flavor attributes, pomegranate juices have sweet, sour, bitter tastes, astringent, and toothetch feeling factors. Many factors influence tastes and feeling factors. Measuring these attributes without a sensory panel makes economic sense. This investigation compares descriptive sensory...

  14. Effect of variety and processing method on functional properties of traditional sweet potato flour (“elubo”) and sensory acceptability of cooked paste (“amala”)

    PubMed Central

    Fetuga, Ganiyat; Tomlins, Keith; Henshaw, Folake; Idowu, Michael

    2014-01-01

    “Amala” is a generic term in Nigeria, used to describe a thick paste prepared by stirring flour (“elubo”) from yam, cassava or unripe plantain, in hot water, to form a smooth consistency. In order to overcome its high perishability and increase the utilization of sweet potato roots, three varieties of sweet potato roots were processed into flour using two methods. The interactive effect of variety and the processing method had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on all the functional properties of the flour except yellowness, setback viscosity, and peak time. Acceptable sweet potato “amala” with average sensory acceptability score of 7.5 were obtained from yellow-fleshed varieties irrespective of the processing method. Flour that produced acceptable “amala” were characterized by lower values of protein (2.20–3.94%), fiber (1.30–1.65%), total sugar (12.41–38.83 μg/mg), water absorption capacity (168–215 g/100 g), water solubility (8.29–14.65%), swelling power (0.52–0.82 g/g), and higher peak time (6.9–8.7 min). PMID:25493186

  15. In situ laser-induced synthesis of copper microstructures with high catalytic properties and sensory characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumkin, Ilya I.; Panov, Maxim S.; Khairullina, Evgenia; Gordeychuk, Dmitry; Ermakov, Sergey S.; Kochemirovsky, Vladimir A.

    2016-11-01

    The continuous in situ laser-induced catalysis proceeding via generation and growth of nano-sized copper particles was discussed. Also, the simple and lost-cost method for manufacturing of microstructural copper electrodes was proposed. The electrochemical properties of these electrodes were studied by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. The surface of the deposited copper structures (electrodes) was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. These microstructures are highly conductive and porous with a dispersion of pore size ranging from 50 nm to 50 μm. An analytical response of the fabricated copper electrode is 30 times higher than those observed for a pure bulk copper with similar geometric parameters. A study of sensory characteristics for hydrogen peroxide determination showed that the value of Faraday current at the fabricated copper electrode is 2-2.5 orders of magnitude higher than for etalon one.

  16. Sensory characteristics of meat and meat products from entire male pigs.

    PubMed

    Dolores Garrido, M; Egea, Macarena; Belén Linares, M; Borrisser-Pairó, Francesc; Rubio, Begoña; Viera, Ceferina; Martínez, Beatriz

    2017-02-14

    The surgical castration of male piglets has traditionally been practised to prevent the development of boar taint in pork meat, but European rules aim to end this practice on a voluntary basis. This study represents a sensory characterization of the meat and meat products from entire male pigs. Three levels of androstenone concentration in fat were compared: low, 0-0.3mgkg(-1); medium, 0.4-0.9μgkg(-1) and high, 1-2.75μgkg(-1). The use of meat from entire males in meat products lowered the perception of boar taint compared with fresh meat but was insufficient to totally mask it. Androstenone levels seem to influence the intramuscular fat content and hence, on texture. The perception of boar taint in meat products depends on androstenone concentration as well as on the characteristics of the product. It is necessary to develop additional strategies to totally mask androstenone perception in meat and meat products.

  17. A resistant-starch enriched yogurt: fermentability, sensory characteristics, and a pilot study in children.

    PubMed

    Aryana, Kayanush; Greenway, Frank; Dhurandhar, Nikhil; Tulley, Richard; Finley, John; Keenan, Michael; Martin, Roy; Pelkman, Christine; Olson, Douglas; Zheng, Jolene

    2015-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity and the vulnerability of the pediatric age group have highlighted the critical need for a careful consideration of effective, safe, remedial and preventive dietary interventions.  Amylose starch (RS2) from high-amylose maize (HAM) ferments in the gut and affects body weight.   One hundred and ten children, of 7-8 (n=91) or 13-14 (n=19) years of age scored the sensory qualities of a yogurt supplemented with either HAM-RS2 or an amylopectin starch.  The amylopectin starch yogurt was preferred to the HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt by 7-8 year old panelists ( P<0.0001).  Appearance, taste, and sandiness scores given by 13- to 14-year-old panelists were more favorable for the amylopectin starch yogurt than for HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt ( P<0.05).  HAM-RS2 supplementation resulted in acceptable (≥6 on a 1-9 scale) sensory and hedonic ratings of the yogurt in 74% of subjects.  Four children consumed a HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt for four weeks to test its fermentability in a clinical trial.  Three adolescents, but not the single pre-pubertal child, had reduced stool pH ( P=0.1) and increased stool short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) ( P<0.05) including increased fecal acetate ( P=0.02), and butyrate ( P=0.089) from resistant starch (RS) fermentation and isobutyrate ( P=0.01) from protein fermentation post-treatment suggesting a favorable change to the gut microbiota.  HAM-RS2 was not modified by pasteurization of the yogurt, and may be a palatable way to increase fiber intake and stimulate colonic fermentation in adolescents.  Future studies are planned to determine the concentration of HAM-RS2 that offers the optimal safe and effective strategy to prevent excessive fat gain in children.

  18. Effects of NaCl Replacement with Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the Quality Characteristics and Sensorial Properties of Model Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of γ-aminobutylic acid (GABA) on the quality and sensorial properties of both the GABA/NaCl complex and model meat products. GABA/NaCl complex was prepared by spray-drying, and the surface dimensions, morphology, rheology, and saltiness were characterized. For model meat products, pork patties were prepared by replacing NaCl with GABA. For characteristics of the complex, increasing GABA concentration increased the surface dimensions of the complex. However, GABA did not affect the rheological properties of solutions containing the complex. The addition of 2% GABA exhibited significantly higher saltiness than the control (no GABA treatment). In the case of pork patties, sensory testing indicated that the addition of GABA decreased the saltiness intensity. Both the intensity of juiciness and tenderness of patties containing GABA also scored lower than the control, based on the NaCl reduction. These results were consistent with the quality characteristics (cooking loss and texture profile analysis). Nevertheless, overall acceptability of the pork patties showed that up to 1.5%, patties containing GABA did not significantly differ from the control. Consequently, the results indicated that GABA has a potential application in meat products, but also manifested a deterioration of quality by the NaCl reduction, which warrants further exploration. PMID:26761294

  19. Effects of Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoera batatas Cultivar Ayamurasaki) Powder Addition on Color and Texture Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Kim, Yeong-Jung; Park, Jae Hong; Hur, In-Chul; Nam, Sang-Hae; Shin, Daekeun

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFP) powder on the texture properties and sensory characteristics of cooked pork sausage. Sodium nitrite alone and sodium nitrite in combination with PFP were added to five different treatments sausages (CON (control) = 0.01% sodium nitrite, SP25 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, SP50 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, PP25 = 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder, PP50 = 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder). The sausages were cooked to 74°C, stored at 4°C for 6 wks, and used for chemical analysis, textural properties, and a sensory evaluation on 0, 2, 4 and 6 wks of storage, respectively. Similar CIE a* and b* values were determined in sausages from CON, SP25 and SP50 at the end of storage, and they were higher in CIE a* but lower in CIE b* than that of the PP25 and PP50 sausages. Significant differences were observed for brittleness and hardness when PFP was added to the sausages but were not confirmed after 4 wks of storage. The objective color score was influenced by adding PFP; however, the effect was not dose dependent. In overall acceptability, panelists favored the CON, SP25, SP50, and PP50 sausages but did not prefer PP25 sausages at the end of storage. Therefore, adding PFP to cooked pork sausages improved color and texture properties and sensory characteristics, but further study is needed to determine the proper ratio of sodium nitrite and PFP. PMID:25049698

  20. Seeing with sound? exploring different characteristics of a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution device.

    PubMed

    Brown, David; Macpherson, Tom; Ward, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Sensory substitution devices convert live visual images into auditory signals, for example with a web camera (to record the images), a computer (to perform the conversion) and headphones (to listen to the sounds). In a series of three experiments, the performance of one such device ('The vOICe') was assessed under various conditions on blindfolded sighted participants. The main task that we used involved identifying and locating objects placed on a table by holding a webcam (like a flashlight) or wearing it on the head (like a miner's light). Identifying objects on a table was easier with a hand-held device, but locating the objects was easier with a head-mounted device. Brightness converted into loudness was less effective than the reverse contrast (dark being loud), suggesting that performance under these conditions (natural indoor lighting, novice users) is related more to the properties of the auditory signal (ie the amount of noise in it) than the cross-modal association between loudness and brightness. Individual differences in musical memory (detecting pitch changes in two sequences of notes) was related to the time taken to identify or recognise objects, but individual differences in self-reported vividness of visual imagery did not reliably predict performance across the experiments. In general, the results suggest that the auditory characteristics of the device may be more important for initial learning than visual associations.

  1. Characterization of volatile compounds, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of smoked dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Marušić Radovčić, Nives; Vidaček, Sanja; Janči, Tibor; Medić, Helga

    2016-11-01

    Volatile compounds from smoked dry-cured ham were isolated by using headspace-solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples of biceps femoris were also evaluated for sensory physical and chemical characteristics. Eighty seven volatile aroma compounds of smoked dry-cured ham were identified. Chemical groups identified were aldehydes (35.6%), phenols (34.3%), alcohols (13.8%), terpenes (6.4%), aromatic hydrocarbons (2.6%), alkanes (2.2%), ketones (2.2%), esters (1.7%) and acids (0.7%). Except volatile compounds derived from lipolysis and proteolysis the second most abundant constituents were phenols that originate from smoking phase of the production process. The most abundant phenols were: 4-methylphenol, 3-methylphenol, 2-metoxy-4-methylphenol, 2-methylphenol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and 4-ethyl-2 methoxyphenol. Principal components analysis showed that NaCl and ash content positively correlated with the salty taste while fat content was correlated to marbling. Water content and aw value were negatively correlated with hardness of dry-cured ham while phenols were positively corelated with smoky aroma. Due to the different volatile composition and pronounced smoky aroma, smoked dry-cured ham can be distinguished from other types of dry-cured hams.

  2. Physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of steviolbioside synthesized from stevioside and its application in fruit drinks and food.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Sherine N; Massoud, Mona I; Abd El-Razek, Amal M; El-Faham, Ayman

    2017-01-01

    Steviolbioside (Sb) was synthesized from stevioside and characterized by infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) spectroscopy. The purity melting point, solubility, acute toxicity, heat stability and sensory properties of Sb were evaluated. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of low calorie fruit drinks and shortened cake prepared by replacing sugar with Sb were evaluated. Sb was stable in neutral or acidic aqueous solutions maintained at 100 °C for 2 h. The sweetness intensity rate of Sb was found to be about 44 and 18.51 times sweeter than 0.5% and 10% sucrose solution, respectively. Sb solutions had sweet taste without bitterness compared to stevioside. No significant differences between the organoleptic properties of cakes prepared using sugar and those prepared replacing sugar with 50% Sb were observed. All drinks replacing sugar with Sb at 66% level had the highest overall acceptability scores comparable to those prepared using sugar alone.

  3. Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance of naturally and lactic acid bacteria-fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends.

    PubMed

    Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna A; Mwangwela, Agnes M; Schüller, Reidar B; Ostlie, Hilde M; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-03-01

    Fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends were evaluated to determine sensory properties driving consumer liking. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and lactic acid bacteria fermented (LFP). Lactic acid bacteria fermentation was achieved through backslopping using a fermented cereal gruel, thobwa. Ten trained panelists evaluated intensities of 34 descriptors, of which 27 were significantly different (P < 0.05). The LFP were strong in brown color, sourness, umami, roasted soybean-and maize-associated aromas, and sogginess while NFP had high intensities of yellow color, pH, raw soybean, and rancid odors, fried egg, and fermented aromas and softness. Although there was consumer (n = 150) heterogeneity in preference, external preference mapping showed that most consumers preferred NFP. Drivers of liking of NFP samples were softness, pH, fermented aroma, sweetness, fried egg aroma, fried egg-like appearance, raw soybean, and rancid odors. Optimization of the desirable properties of the pastes would increase utilization and acceptance of fermented soybeans.

  4. Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance of naturally and lactic acid bacteria-fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends

    PubMed Central

    Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna A; Mwangwela, Agnes M; Schüller, Reidar B; Østlie, Hilde M; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-01-01

    Fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends were evaluated to determine sensory properties driving consumer liking. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and lactic acid bacteria fermented (LFP). Lactic acid bacteria fermentation was achieved through backslopping using a fermented cereal gruel, thobwa. Ten trained panelists evaluated intensities of 34 descriptors, of which 27 were significantly different (P < 0.05). The LFP were strong in brown color, sourness, umami, roasted soybean-and maize-associated aromas, and sogginess while NFP had high intensities of yellow color, pH, raw soybean, and rancid odors, fried egg, and fermented aromas and softness. Although there was consumer (n = 150) heterogeneity in preference, external preference mapping showed that most consumers preferred NFP. Drivers of liking of NFP samples were softness, pH, fermented aroma, sweetness, fried egg aroma, fried egg-like appearance, raw soybean, and rancid odors. Optimization of the desirable properties of the pastes would increase utilization and acceptance of fermented soybeans. PMID:24804070

  5. Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Patties with Pork Back Fat Replaced by Dietary Fiber from Wheat Sprout.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Sung, Jung-Min; Park, Jong-Dae; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Lee, Cheol-Won; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Young-Boong

    2016-01-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 20% to 15% or 10% by partially substituting pork back fat with wheat sprout fiber in reduced-fat chicken patties were investigated. Approximate composition, energy value, pH, color, cooking loss, reduction in diameter, reduction in thickness, shear force, and sensory properties were determined. Moisture content, ash contents, yellowness of uncooked and cooked reduced-fat chicken patties with wheat sprout were higher than those in the control, while displaying fat content, calorie content, and pH of uncooked and cooked lower in reduced-fat chicken patties than in the control. Cooking loss, reduction in diameter, and reduction in thickness were the highest in the reduced-fat chicken patties with 10% fat level. Cooking loss, reduction in diameter, and reduction in thickness were decreased when fat levels and wheat sprout levels were increased. Control samples without wheat sprout dietary fiber had significantly (p<0.05) higher color and flavor scores compared to reduced-fat chicken patties containing wheat sprout dietary fiber. The overall acceptability of the control and treatment with 15% fat and 2% wheat sprout dietary fiber (T3) was the highest. Therefore, 15% fat level in reduced-fat chicken patties with the addition of 2% wheat sprout dietary fiber can be used to improve the quality and sensory characteristics of regular-fat chicken patties containing 20% fat level.

  6. Fortification with iron chelate and substitution of sucrose by sucralose in light uvaia sherbet (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess): physical, chemical and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Giarola, Tales Márcio de Oliveira; Pereira, Cristina Guimarães; de Resende, Jaime Vilela

    2015-09-01

    In this work, iron fortified light uvaia sherbet, with low sucrose content, was developed and its physical, chemical and sensory characteristics were evaluated. The central composite rotational design (CCRD), applicable to the response surface methodology, was used to analyze the formulations. In the formulations, in addition of iron fortification (9 to 15 mg/100 g), the sucrose was substituted by micronized sucralose in a proportion of 66-94 %. The responses were analyzed with respect to changes in pH, total solids, ash, carbohydrates, proteins, calories, overrun, nucleation and thawing temperatures, rheological parameters and sensory attributes. Protein contents and acidity were similar in all formulations. There was a reduction of over 25 % in the caloric value. The rheological results showed pseudoplastic behavior and significant viscosity differences among the tested sherbets. In the overrun and thawing behavior results the sucrose concentration had a significant influence as the formulations with substitution by 28 g of sucralose/kg of sucrose showed greater air incorporation. In the flavor attribute there was not significance in relation to the iron fortification. Sherbets prepared with substitution of sucrose by sucralose and fortified with iron showed good acceptability, more stability and more resistant to thawing.

  7. Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Patties with Pork Back Fat Replaced by Dietary Fiber from Wheat Sprout

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 20% to 15% or 10% by partially substituting pork back fat with wheat sprout fiber in reduced-fat chicken patties were investigated. Approximate composition, energy value, pH, color, cooking loss, reduction in diameter, reduction in thickness, shear force, and sensory properties were determined. Moisture content, ash contents, yellowness of uncooked and cooked reduced-fat chicken patties with wheat sprout were higher than those in the control, while displaying fat content, calorie content, and pH of uncooked and cooked lower in reduced-fat chicken patties than in the control. Cooking loss, reduction in diameter, and reduction in thickness were the highest in the reduced-fat chicken patties with 10% fat level. Cooking loss, reduction in diameter, and reduction in thickness were decreased when fat levels and wheat sprout levels were increased. Control samples without wheat sprout dietary fiber had significantly (p<0.05) higher color and flavor scores compared to reduced-fat chicken patties containing wheat sprout dietary fiber. The overall acceptability of the control and treatment with 15% fat and 2% wheat sprout dietary fiber (T3) was the highest. Therefore, 15% fat level in reduced-fat chicken patties with the addition of 2% wheat sprout dietary fiber can be used to improve the quality and sensory characteristics of regular-fat chicken patties containing 20% fat level. PMID:28115892

  8. Chemical, microbiological, textural, color, and sensory characteristics of pressed ewe milk cheeses with saffron (Crocus sativus L.) during ripening.

    PubMed

    Licón, C C; Carmona, M; Molina, A; Berruga, M I

    2012-08-01

    Adding saffron to dairy products represents an innovative practice to introduce them to niche markets. This paper represents a contribution to this field, as few studies have evaluated the influence of this spice on general aspects and ripening parameters of cheese. In this work, pasteurized ewe milk pressed cheeses with saffron were made to study compositional, microbiological, color, textural, and sensory characteristics in relation to saffron concentration and ripening time. The main changes were observed on sensory characteristics and color. In addition, compositional, textural, and microbiological changes could be observed; among them, saffron cheeses were firmer and more elastic but less prone to fracture. A remarkable result that could lead to further studies is that saffron addition slightly slowed down growth of total and lactic acid bacteria. This resulted in a slightly lower rate of pH decrease during pressing and, as a consequence, lower salt and water content. Compositional differences were not evident by the end of the ripening period.

  9. Perceived proposer personality characteristics and gender differences in acceptance of casual sex offers.

    PubMed

    Conley, Terri D

    2011-02-01

    In a highly influential paper, Clark and Hatfield (1989) demonstrated that, whereas men were quite likely to accept a casual sexual offer from a confederate research assistant, women never did so. The current research provides a more in-depth explanation of gender differences in acceptance of casual sex offers via 4 (quasi-) experiments. First, using a person-perception paradigm, I assessed people's impressions of women and men who proposed a casual sexual encounter in the same manner that confederates in Clark and Hatfield did. Women and men agreed that female proposers were more intelligent, successful, and sexually skilled than men who made the same proposals. Second, I demonstrated that the large gender differences from the original Clark and Hatfield study could be eliminated by asking participants to imagine proposals from (attractive and unattractive) famous individuals, friends, and same-gender individuals. Next, I assessed factors associated with likelihood of agreeing to the casual sex proposal. The extent to which women and men believed that the proposer would be sexually skilled predicted how likely they would be to engage in casual sex with this individual. Finally, I examined these factors in the context of actual encounters from the participants' previous experiences, and the results were replicated in this context. Overall findings suggest that the large gender differences Clark and Hatfield observed in acceptance of the casual sex offer may have more to do with perceived personality characteristics of the female versus male proposers than with gender differences among Clark and Hatfield's participants and that sexual pleasure figures largely in women's and men's decision making about casual sex.

  10. Sensory integration therapies for children with developmental and behavioral disorders.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Michelle; Desch, Larry

    2012-06-01

    Sensory-based therapies are increasingly used by occupational therapists and sometimes by other types of therapists in treatment of children with developmental and behavioral disorders. Sensory-based therapies involve activities that are believed to organize the sensory system by providing vestibular, proprioceptive, auditory, and tactile inputs. Brushes, swings, balls, and other specially designed therapeutic or recreational equipment are used to provide these inputs. However, it is unclear whether children who present with sensory-based problems have an actual "disorder" of the sensory pathways of the brain or whether these deficits are characteristics associated with other developmental and behavioral disorders. Because there is no universally accepted framework for diagnosis, sensory processing disorder generally should not be diagnosed. Other developmental and behavioral disorders must always be considered, and a thorough evaluation should be completed. Difficulty tolerating or processing sensory information is a characteristic that may be seen in many developmental behavioral disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, developmental coordination disorders, and childhood anxiety disorders. Occupational therapy with the use of sensory-based therapies may be acceptable as one of the components of a comprehensive treatment plan. However, parents should be informed that the amount of research regarding the effectiveness of sensory integration therapy is limited and inconclusive. Important roles for pediatricians and other clinicians may include discussing these limitations with parents, talking with families about a trial period of sensory integration therapy, and teaching families how to evaluate the effectiveness of a therapy.

  11. Coherences of instrumental and sensory characteristics: case study on cherry tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Csambalik, László; Divéky-Ertsey, Anna; Pap, Zoltán; Orbán, Csaba; Stégerné Máté, Mónika; Gere, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva; Sipos, László

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 6 cherry tomato varieties in terms of morphological, instrumental, and sensory attributes. Hungarian cherry tomato landraces have not been investigated in comparison with new commercial varieties for these traits. Parameters investigated were water-soluble antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH, and TEAC), and total polyphenol, vitamin C, β-carotene, lycopene, total soluble solids, and acid contents. Colorimetric measurements as well as sensory analyses were conducted. It was concluded that varied antioxidant assays should be used in parallel to overcome the selectivity of any 1 method. Total phenolic content significantly contributed to results of antioxidant assays for the investigated varieties. The sensory profiles of the 6 cherry tomato varieties have been created. The differences between the products based on the 18 attributes were analyzed by Tukey post hoc test. The biplot of the principal component analysis showed that the sensory panel could discriminate the samples along the principal components. No correlation was found between colorimetric data a* and b* measured from pulp and lycopene, but a negative connection of β-carotene and hue was noted. Total polyphenol content showed correlations with colorimetric results, except for b*. The influence of tomato skin color on color perception is significant as in the present study instrumental data measured from pulp did not match that of the panelists evaluating intact fruit. Instrumental results of sugar content were supported by the ratings of the sensory panel.

  12. Effects of types and amounts of stabilizers on physical and sensory characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, Suthida; Tinrat, Sirikhwan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the pH of mulberry juice was optimized for high anthocyanin content and an attractive red color. Mulberry juice pH values of 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 were evaluated. A pH of 2.5 gave an anthocyanin content of 541.39 ± 106.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per liter, and the a* value was 14 ± 1.00. The effects of stabilizers (CMC and xanthan gum) on the physical characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice (via the addition of mulberry fruit pulp at a mass fraction of 5%) during storage (4°C for 1 week) were also determined using different mass fractions of the stabilizers (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%). Increasing the stabilizer mass fraction increased the viscosity, turbidity, stability of turbidity, and h* value. Using xanthan gum as the stabilizer produced better results for these parameters than CMC. The type of stabilizer and its mass fraction had no effect on most sensory characteristics, including appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P ≥ 0.05), but did affect the odor (P ≥ 0.05). Xanthan gum stabilizer gave the juice a better odor than CMC. Cloudy mulberry juice containing 0.5% xanthan gum as the stabilizer had the highest acceptance rate among panelists (average acceptance was 6.90 ± 1.37 points) and produced no precipitate during storage.

  13. Effects of types and amounts of stabilizers on physical and sensory characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice

    PubMed Central

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, Suthida; Tinrat, Sirikhwan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the pH of mulberry juice was optimized for high anthocyanin content and an attractive red color. Mulberry juice pH values of 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 were evaluated. A pH of 2.5 gave an anthocyanin content of 541.39 ± 106.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per liter, and the a* value was 14 ± 1.00. The effects of stabilizers (CMC and xanthan gum) on the physical characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice (via the addition of mulberry fruit pulp at a mass fraction of 5%) during storage (4°C for 1 week) were also determined using different mass fractions of the stabilizers (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%). Increasing the stabilizer mass fraction increased the viscosity, turbidity, stability of turbidity, and h* value. Using xanthan gum as the stabilizer produced better results for these parameters than CMC. The type of stabilizer and its mass fraction had no effect on most sensory characteristics, including appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P ≥ 0.05), but did affect the odor (P ≥ 0.05). Xanthan gum stabilizer gave the juice a better odor than CMC. Cloudy mulberry juice containing 0.5% xanthan gum as the stabilizer had the highest acceptance rate among panelists (average acceptance was 6.90 ± 1.37 points) and produced no precipitate during storage. PMID:25987996

  14. Ultraviolet-C light effect on physicochemical, bioactive, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics of carrot (Daucus carota) beverages.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Carranza, Paola; Ruiz-López, Irving Israel; Pacheco-Aguirre, Francisco Manuel; Guerrero-Beltrán, José Ángel; Ávila-Sosa, Raúl; Ochoa-Velasco, Carlos Enrique

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of ultraviolet-C light on physicochemical, bioactive, microbial, and sensory characteristics of carrot beverages. Beverages were formulated with different concentrations of carrot juice (60, 80, and 100% [v/v]) and treated with ultraviolet-C light at different flow rates (0, 0.5, 3.9, and 7.9 mL s(-1)) and times (5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min), equivalent to ultraviolet-C dosages of 13.2, 26.4, 39.6, 52.8, and 79.2 J cm(-2) Total soluble solids, pH, and titratable acidity were not affected by the ultraviolet-C light treatment. Ultraviolet-C light significantly affected (p < 0.05) color parameters of pure juice; however, at low concentration of juice, total color change was slightly affected (ΔE = 2.0 ± 0.7). Phenolic compounds (4.1 ± 0.1, 5.2 ± 0.2, and 8.6 ± 0.3 mg of GAE 100 mL(-1) of beverage with 60, 80, and 100% of juice, respectively) and antioxidant capacity (6.1 ± 0.4, 8.5 ± 0.4, and 9.4 ± 0.3 mg of Trolox 100 mL(-1) of beverage with 60, 80, and 100% of juice, respectively) of carrot beverages were not affected by ultraviolet-C light treatment. Microbial kinetics showed that mesophiles were mostly reduced at high flow rates in carrot beverages with 60% of juice. Maximum logarithmic reductions for mesophiles and total coliforms were 3.2 ± 0.1 and 2.6 ± 0.1, respectively, after 30 min of ultraviolet-C light processing. Beverages were well accepted (6-7) by judges who did not perceive the difference between untreated and Ultraviolet-C light treated beverages.

  15. Comparison of sensory characteristics and fatty acid composition between Wagyu crossbred and Angus steers.

    PubMed

    May, S G; Sturdivant, C A; Lunt, D K; Miller, R K; Smith, S B

    1993-01-01

    Angus (n = 10) and crossbred (3 4 and 7 8 ) Wagyu (n = 10) steers were fed a diet according to typical Japanese standards for 552 days. The steers were fed to gain approximately 0·90 kg/head/day. Fatty acid composition was determined for subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissue, and M. longissimus dorsi muscle. Trained sensory evaluation and a consumer triangle test were performed on M. longissimus dorsi muscle steaks. For subcutaneous and intramuscular tissue. Wagyu adipose tissue possessed higher (P < 0·05) percentages of 14:1, 16:1 and 18:1 and a lower (P < 0·05) percentage of 16:0 and 18:0 than corresponding tissues from Angus steers. Trained sensory panel analysis revealed no differences (P < 0·05) in any of the sensory traits between steaks from Wagyu crossbred and Angus steers. However, a consumer triangle test indicated that consumers can detect a difference between breeds.

  16. Sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition.

    PubMed

    Arsa, Supeeraya; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2015-08-01

    The sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition were investigated. Rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) was hydrolyzed by alcalase. Sucrose, glucose or fructose was added to the liquid rice bran protein hydrolysate (LRBPH) and subsequently spray dried. The sensory aroma intensities of the hydrolysates were evaluated. Results showed that after spray drying, the rice bran protein concentrate powder (RBPC-P) had higher sweet and cocoa-like aroma intensities than RBPC (p ≤ 0.05) and hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder (HRBPP) had higher milk powder-like aroma intensities than LRBPH (p ≤ 0.05). The sweet, cocoa-like and milk powder-like aroma intensities in hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with fructose addition (HRBPP-F) were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than those of hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with sucrose or glucose addition (HRBPP-S or HRBPP-G). HRBPP-F had the highest overall aroma liking score. These results also indicate that spray drying and sugar addition could improve the sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed RBPC.

  17. A comparison of consumer sensory acceptance, purchase intention, and willingness to pay for high quality United States and Spanish beef under different information scenarios.

    PubMed

    Beriain, M J; Sánchez, M; Carr, T R

    2009-10-01

    Tests were performed to identify variation across consumer evaluation ratings for 2 types of beef (Spanish yearling bull beef and US Choice and Prime beef), using 3 information levels (blind scores; muscle fat content + production conditions; and all production data including geographical origin) and 3 consumer evaluation ratings (hedonic rating, willingness to pay, and purchase intention). Further testing was carried out to assess the extent to which expert evaluations converged with those of untrained consumers. Taste panel tests involving 290 consumers were conducted in Navarra, a region in northern Spain. The beef samples were 20 loins of Pyrenean breed yearling bulls that had been born and raised on private farms located in this Spanish region and 20 strip loins from high quality US beef that ranged from high Choice to average Prime US quality grades. The Spanish beef were slaughtered at 507 +/- 51 kg of BW and 366 +/- 23 d of age. The US beef proved more acceptable to consumers and received greater ratings from the trained panel, with greater scores for juiciness (3.33), tenderness (3.33), flavor (3.46), and fat content (5.83) than for Spanish beef (2.77, 2.70, 3.14, 1.17). The differences in sensory variable rating were more pronounced for the Spanish beef than for the US beef, always increasing with the level of information. The variation in the ratings across different information levels was statistically significant in the case of the Spanish beef, whereas the variation observed in the ratings of the US beef was highly significant in the willingness of consumers to pay a premium. Consumers who appreciated greater quality were also more willing to pay for the additional level of quality.

  18. Rheological properties and sensory characteristics of set-type soy yogurt.

    PubMed

    Donkor, Osaana N; Henriksson, A; Vasiljevic, T; Shah, N P

    2007-11-28

    The study examined chemical composition and rheological and sensory properties of probiotic soy yogurt during 28 day storage at 4 degrees C. Soymilk supplemented with 2% (w/v) inulin or 1% (w/v) each of raffinose and glucose was used as a base for soy yogurt manufacture. Viability of probiotic organisms and their metabolic activity measured as production of organic acids and aldehyde content responsible for beany flavor, as well as rheological and sensory properties of soy yogurt, were examined. Inulin or raffinose/glucose supplementation in soymilk increased the bacterial population by one log cycle and the amount of lactic acid. Probiotic bacteria metabolized more aldehyde than yogurt culture and substantially reduced the beaniness in soy yogurt as determined by sensory evaluation. The probiotic soy yogurts showed more viscous and pseudoplastic properties than the control soy yogurts, but the sensory evaluation results showed preference for the control soy yogurts which were slightly less viscous. Control soy yogurt provided better mouth feel than probiotic soy yogurts.

  19. Influence of oxygen exclusion and temperature on pathogenic bacteria levels and sensory characteristics of packed ostrich steaks throughout refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    González-Montalvo, Beatriz; Capita, Rosa; Guevara-Franco, José Alfredo; Prieto, Miguel; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos

    2007-06-01

    Ostrich steaks (290) were obtained from Iliofibularis muscles. For microbiological and pH determinations, samples were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes NCTC 11994 (80 steaks) or Escherichia coli ATCC 12806 (80), then air- or vacuum-packed and stored at either 4±1°C or 10±1°C. Analyses were carried out on days 0, 3, 6 and 9 of storage. For sensory evaluation, samples (130) were air- or vacuum-packed and stored at 4±1°C or at 10±1°C. Sensory attributes (odour, colour, drip loss, texture and general acceptability) were scored by six untrained judges using an unstructured nine-point hedonic scale on eleven sampling days (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27 and 30). Increases in microbial counts (log(10)cfu/g) were observed throughout storage in all groups of samples for both L. monocytogenes (from 6.39±0.43-6.62±0.32 at day 0 to 8.87±0.19-9.64±0.43 at day 9) and E. coli (from 5.57±0.15-5.68-0.40 to 7.79±0.96-9.64±0.17). Gas atmosphere influenced microbial counts from day 3 of storage with lower (P<0.05) values observed in vacuum- than in air-packed samples at 10°C (L. monocytogenes) or at 4 and 10°C (E. coli). Storage temperature significantly influenced bacterial counts throughout storage, especially in air-packed samples. Lower pH values in vacuum- than in air-packed samples were observed from day 6. Both effects (gas atmosphere and temperature) influenced the hedonic scores, with higher values assigned to vacuum-packed samples for most attributes (with the exception of drip loss) and sampling days. A marked influence of storage temperature on sensorial scores was obtained in air-packaged ostrich steaks. The shelf-life (time until the average general acceptability score fell below 5) was 6 (air-packed samples), 9 (vacuum-packed, 10°C), or 12 days (vacuum-packed, 4°C). The results being reported here suggest the importance of both oxygen exclusion and storage at low temperatures to reduce microbiological risks and improve the acceptability of

  20. Effect of reducing and replacing pork fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Arnau, Jacint

    2014-05-01

    The effect of pork fat reduction (from 44% to 20% final fat content) and its partial substitution by sunflower oil (3% addition) on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory properties throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) with reduced sodium content (with partial substitution of NaCl by KCl and K-lactate) and without direct addition of nitrate and nitrite (natural nitrate source used instead) was studied. Results showed that sausages with reduced fat (10% initial fat content) and with acceptable sensory characteristics can be obtained by adding to the shoulder lean (8% fat content) during the grinding, either 3.3% backfat (3% fat content) or 3% sunflower oil, both previously finely comminuted with lean. Furthermore, sunflower oil showed to be suitable for partial pork backfat substitution in very lean fermented sausages, conferring desirable sensory properties similar to those of sausages with standard fat content. The sensory quality of the sausages was maintained after three-month cold storage in modified atmosphere.

  1. First investigation on ultrasound-assisted preparation of food products: sensory and physicochemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pingret, Daniella; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Canselier, Jean-Paul; Chemat, Farid

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison between manufactured food products using conventional and ultrasound-assisted procedures. Three different foam-type products, chocolate Genoise, basic sponge cake, and chocolate mousse were prepared using both methods with subsequent evaluation of the samples using both sensory and physicochemical methods. Ultrasound-assisted preparations were considered superior according to the sensory analysis, and physicochemical data confirmed this finding. This approach of applying an emerging piece of equipment, with potential industrial application to assist food preparation, consists of a new technique that could be of great interest for the development of not only other food products created by molecular gastronomy but also for practical work carried out by students.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of licorice root product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Al-Adawi, M. A.; Al-Kaid, A.

    2004-03-01

    Licorice root products were irradiated at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy in a 60Co package irradiator. Irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored at room temperatures. Microbial population on product, chemical changes and sensory properties of produced solution of licorice root products were evaluated after 0 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced the counts of microorganisms on licorice root products. D10 of total count and klebsiella spp. were about 1.4 and 0.7 kGy, respectively. The mineral ions (Na, Ca and K) concentration in solution produced from irradiated products were lower than non-irradiated ones. Glycyrrhezinic acid and maltose concentration in solution produced from irradiated products were higher than non-irradiated ones. Sensory evaluation indicated that no significant differences ( P<0.05) were found between solution produced from irradiated and unirradiated products in color, flavor, texture, or taste.

  3. Sensometric calibration of sensory characteristics of commercially available milk products with instrumental data.

    PubMed

    Ochi, H; Sumi, M; Nakata, I; Saito, H; Uozumi, M; Iwatsuki, K

    2010-05-01

    Seven brands of commercial milk and related products that are available in the Japanese market were investigated. Quantitative descriptive analysis was used to describe 12 sensory properties of the samples, and the position of each sample was displayed by principal component analysis. The sensory descriptors of the samples were correlated with various analytical data by partial least squares regression analysis. Aroma descriptors were correlated with the headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profile. Descriptors of flavor, mouthfeel, and aftertaste were correlated with the results of the physicochemical analysis. Many of the volatile compounds that contributed to aroma attributes, according to the partial least squares loading plot, were in agreement with the influence of volatile compounds shown by previous studies. Lactulose and furosine, as indicators of heating, and viscosity were parameters that influenced flavor, mouthfeel, and aftertaste. In addition, overall aftertaste was significantly related to fat content.

  4. Rheological, physico-sensory, nutritional and storage characteristics of bread enriched with roller milled fractions of black gram (Phaseolus mungo L.).

    PubMed

    Indrani, D; Sakhare, Suresh D; Milind; Inamdar, Aashitosh A

    2015-08-01

    Black gram grains were fractionated using roller flour mill. Effect of combination of additives (CA) namely dry gluten powder, sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate, fungal α-amylase on the rheological and bread making characteristics of wheat flour partly replaced with roller milled fractions of black gram was studied. With increase in the addition of straight run flour (SRF), protein rich fraction (PRF), protein and fiber rich fraction (P&FRF) from 0 to 20 %, fiber rich fraction, FRF (0-15 %), the farinograph water absorption increased and dough stability decreased; amylograph pasting temperature increased and peak viscosity decreased; bread volume decreased and crumb firmness value increased indicating adverse effect of these fractions on the rheological and bread making characteristics of wheat flour. Sensory evaluation showed that breads were acceptable only up to the level of 15 % for SRF, PRF & P&FRF and 10 % for FRF. However, when CA containing dry gluten powder, sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate and fungal α-amylase was incorporated the overall quality of the products improved. Use of these fractions increased the protein and fiber contents of bread by 1.24-1.66 and 1.48-3.79 times respectively. The results showed that possibility of utilising roller milled black gram fractions along with CA to improve the taste, texture and nutritional quality of bread.

  5. Corn Crisps Enriched in Omega-3 Fatty Acids Sensory Characteristic and its Changes During Storage.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, Mateusz; Nowak, Karolina; Fiedor, Piotr; Szterk, Arkadiusz

    Extruded cereal snacks are usually deficient in protein, mineral ingredients, valuable fatty acids. With the rise of health awareness among consumers, food manufacturers and scientists are pressed to take measures in order to develop new functional/health-beneficial foods. The aim of this work was to manufacture extruded crisps enriched with α-linolenic acid (obtained from linseed oil) and to observe whether storage of the product for the period of 6 months would cause its disqualification, primarily due to its sensory properties and secondarily due to its chemical properties. The research demonstrated that the addition of linseed oil to corn crisps at the amount of 5 % enables to obtain functional corn crisps containing over 2 g of ALA in a portion of 100 g even after 6 months of storage at room temperature. ALA-enriched crisps maintain the original sensory profile after 6 months of storage and their sensory profile is similar to the profile of crisps without the addition of linseed oil if they are packed in barrier packaging filled 100 % with argon. Therefore, they may be a healthier alternative to typical corn crisps.

  6. Impact of chemical changes on the sensory characteristics of coffee beans during storage.

    PubMed

    Rendón, Mery Yovana; de Jesus Garcia Salva, Terezinha; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2014-03-15

    Sensory changes during the storage of coffee beans occur mainly due to lipid oxidation and are responsible for the loss of commercial value. This work aimed to verify how sensory changes of natural coffee and pulped natural coffee are related to the oxidative processes during 15 months of storage. During this period, changes in the content of free fatty acids (1.4-3.8 mg/g oil), TBARS values (8.8-10.2 nmol MDA/g), and carbonyl groups (2.6-3.5 nmol/mg of protein) occurred. The intensity of "rested coffee flavour" in the coffee brew increased (2.1-6.7) and 5-caffeoylquinic acid concentration decreased (5.2-4.6g/100g). Losses were also observed in seed viability, colour of the beans and cellular structure. All the results of the chemical analyses are coherent with the oxidative process that occurred in the grains during storage. Therefore, oxidation would be also responsible for the loss of cellular structure, seed viability and sensory changes.

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Tang, Yao; Xiao, Yao; Wan, Sen

    2012-08-01

    Gamma irradiation is highly effective in inactivating microorganisms in various foods and offers a safe alternative method of food decontamination. In the present study, soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill) were treated with 0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 KGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial populations on soybeans, isoflavone, tocopherol contents, raffinose family oligosaccharides, color and sensory properties were evaluated as a function of irradiation dose. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced aerobic bacterial and fungal load. Irradiation at the doses applied did not cause any significant change (p>0.05) in the contents of isoflavone of soybeans, but decreased tocopherol contents. The content of key flatulence-producing raffinose family oligosaccharides in irradiated soybeans (10.0 kGy) decreased by 82.1% compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that the odor of the soybeans was organoleptically acceptable at doses up to 5.0 kGy and no significant differences were observed between irradiated and nonirradiated samples in flavor, texture and color after irradiation.

  8. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages.

  9. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P < 0.05) leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn (PD) and midday (MD), 2) smaller berry diameter and weight, 3) lower pruning weights, and 4) higher soluble solids (Brix). Strong positive correlations emerged between June ψPD and pre-harvest grape berry diameter (R2 = 0.616 in 2007 and 0.413 in 2008) and similar strong correlations existed for berry weight (R2 = 0.626 in 2007 and 0.554 in 2008). A trained sensory panel performed a sensory analysis and characterized fruit using and a multivariate, principal components, analysis (PCA). This approach indicated that grapes from vines with lowest midday leaf water potential at veraison (< -1.5 MPa) had sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal characteristics, and browner and crunchier

  10. Effect of immunological castration management strategy on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions.

    PubMed

    Herrick, R T; Tavárez, M A; Harsh, B N; Mellencamp, M A; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of 1) immunological castration (Improvest, a gonadotropin releasing factor analog-diphtheria toxoid conjugate) management strategy (age at slaughter and time of slaughter after second dose) and 2) sex on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions. For Objective 1, immunological castration management strategies included 24-wk-old immunologically castrated (IC) barrows 4, 6, 8, or 10 wk after the second Improvest dose (ASD); 26-wk-old IC barrows 6 wk ASD; and 28-wk-old IC barrows 8 wk ASD ( = 63). Objective 2 ( = 97) included IC barrows, physically castrated (PC) barrows, and gilts slaughtered at 24, 26, and 28 wks of age. Bellies from 2 slaughter dates were manufactured into bacon under commercial conditions. Bacon slices were laid out on parchment paper, packaged in oxygen-permeable poly-vinyl-lined boxes, and frozen (-33°C) for 1, 4, 8, or 12 wk to simulate food service conditions. At the end of each storage period, bacon was evaluated for lipid oxidation, moisture and lipid content, and sensory characteristics. Data from both objectives were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS with belly as the experimental unit. For both objectives, as storage time increased, lipid oxidation of bacon increased ( < 0.01), regardless of management strategy or sex. Also, there was no sex or management strategy × week of frozen storage interaction for any traits evaluated ( ≥ 0.25). For Objective 1, lipid content of bacon from IC barrows increased as time of slaughter ASD increased ( < 0.05), regardless of age at slaughter. Additionally, there were no differences in sensory attributes of bacon across management strategies. For the evaluation of sex effects in Objective 2, lipid oxidation was greater ( < 0.05) in IC barrows compared with PC barrows but was not different than gilts ( > 0.05). After 12 wk of frozen storage, lipid oxidation values for IC barrows

  11. Sensory characterisation and consumer acceptability of potassium chloride and sunflower oil addition in small-caliber non-acid fermented sausages with a reduced content of sodium chloride and fat.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Serra, Xavier; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the simultaneous reduction of fat proportion (from 20% to 10% and 7%) and added salt (from 2.5% to 1.5%) and the subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl and sunflower oil (1.5% and 3.0%) on the physicochemical, instrumental colour and texture, sensory properties and consumer acceptability of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) was studied. This simultaneous reduction of fat and salt increased weight loss, moisture, water activity (aw), redness, instrumental texture parameters (hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness), sensory attributes (darkness, hardness, elasticity) and the consumer acceptability. The subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl to the leanest batch decreased the aw and barely affected instrumental texture parameters and consumer acceptability. Subsequent sunflower oil addition decreased hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness and increased crumbliness and oil flavour which may decrease the consumer acceptability. The simultaneous reduction of fat and NaCl with the addition of 0.64% KCl was the preferred option by the consumers.

  12. Understanding Learner Acceptance of Learning Objects: The Roles of Learning Object Characteristics and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Siong-Hoe; Woods, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Many organisations and institutions have integrated learning objects into their e-learning systems to make the instructional resources more efficient. Like any other information systems, this trend has made user acceptance of learning objects an increasingly critical issue as a high level of learner satisfaction and acceptance reflects that the…

  13. Characterization and classification of Japanese consumer perceptions for beef tenderness using descriptive texture characteristics assessed by a trained sensory panel.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Hagi, Tatsuro; Ojima, Koichi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Kitsunai, Katsuhiro; Saito, Yosuke; Hatori, Hikari; Muroya, Susumu; Nomura, Masaru; Miyaguchi, Yuji; Chikuni, Koichi

    2014-02-01

    Meat tenderness is an important characteristic in terms of consumer preference and satisfaction. However, each consumer may have his/her own criteria to judge meat tenderness, because consumers are neither selected nor trained like an expert sensory panel. This study aimed to characterize consumer tenderness using descriptive texture profiles such as chewiness and hardness assessed by a trained panel. Longissimus muscles cooked at four different end-point temperatures were subjected to a trained sensory panel (n=18) and consumer (n=107) tenderness tests. Multiple regression analysis showed that consumer tenderness was characterized as 'low-chewiness and low hardness texture.' Subsequently, consumers were divided into two groups by cluster analysis according to tenderness perceptions in each participant, and the two groups were characterized as 'tenderness is mainly low-chewiness' and 'tenderness is mainly low-hardness' for tenderness perception, respectively. These results demonstrate objective characteristics and variability of consumer meat tenderness, and provide new information regarding the evaluation and management of meat tenderness for meat manufacturers.

  14. Flavor characteristics of the juices from fresh market tomatoes differentiated from those from processing tomatoes by combined analysis of volatile profiles with sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Yoko; Iwasaki, Yumi; Otagiri, Yuji; Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Tsuneo; Otomo, Hiroe; Sekine, Yukio; Obata, Akio

    2016-12-01

    Various commercial tomato juices with different flavors are available at markets worldwide. To clarify the marker compounds related to the flavor characteristics of tomato juice, we analyzed 15 pure commercial tomato juices by a combination of volatile profiling and sensory evaluation. The correlations among volatiles and the relationship between volatiles and sensory descriptors were elucidated by multivariate analyses. Consequently, the tomato juices made from fresh market tomatoes (including the popular Japanese tomato variety "Momotaro") were clearly separated from other juices made from processing tomatoes, by both the volatile composition and sensory profiles. cis-3-Hexenol, hexanal, and apocarotenoids negatively contributed to the juices from fresh market tomatoes, whereas Strecker aldehydes and furfural showed positive contributions to the juices. Accordingly, the sensory characteristics of juices from fresh market tomatoes were related to cooked and fruity flavors but not to green or fresh notes.

  15. Food Deserts in Leon County, FL: Disparate Distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Accepting Stores by Neighborhood Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Samantha; Leone, Angela F.; Kim, Hwahwan; Betterley, Connie; Johnson, Mary Ann; Kurtz, Hilda; Lee, Jung Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether neighborhood characteristics of racial composition, income, and rurality were related to distribution of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-accepting stores in Leon County, Florida. Design: Cross-sectional; neighborhood and food store data collected in 2008. Setting and Participants: Forty-eight census…

  16. Effect of storage time and temperature on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of commercial apricot jam.

    PubMed

    Touati, Noureddine; Tarazona-Díaz, Martha Patricia; Aguayo, Encarna; Louaileche, Hayette

    2014-02-15

    Storage conditions are important factors for jam quality. The objective of this study was to monitor the physicochemical stability and sensorial profile of apricot jam during storage for 60 days at 5 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C. For that purpose, special attention was paid to total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), colour, free amino acids (FAA), total sugars (TS) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The decreasing parameter for jam at the end of storage under 5 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C, respectively, were 16.81%, 34.30% and 56.01% for FAA, and 5.52%, 9.02% and 7.46% for TS; likewise, the increasing were 19.81%, 22.94% and 25.07% for TA, 3.15%, 4.08% and 4.47% for TSS, 15.96%, 112.76% and 150% for HMF. Jam stability was better at 5 °C than 25 °C and 37 °C. The interaction time-temperature factor had significant effects on pH, TS, FAA and HMF, unlike TA, TSS and sensorial profile.

  17. Sensory and Flavor Chemistry Characteristics of Australian Beef: Influence of Intramuscular Fat, Feed, and Breed.

    PubMed

    Frank, Damian; Ball, Alex; Hughes, Joanne; Krishnamurthy, Raju; Piyasiri, Udayasika; Stark, Janet; Watkins, Peter; Warner, Robyn

    2016-06-01

    The sensory attributes and flavor chemistry of grilled beef striploins (M. longissimus lumborum, n = 42) varying widely in marbling from commercial production types typical for Southern Australia were extensively characterized. Striploins from Angus grass-fed yearlings (5.2-9.9% intramuscular fat), Angus grain-finished steers (10.2-14.9%), and Wagyu grass-fed heifers (7.8-17.5%) were evaluated. Inherent differences between samples from grass- and grain-fed Angus cattle were minimal when the intramuscular fat content was above ∼5%. After adjusting for intramuscular fat, Wagyu samples had more intense flavor and higher tenderness and juiciness compared to Angus grass-fed samples. Grilled beef flavor, dairy fat, and sweetness increased with the marbling level, and sourness and astringency decreased. Tenderness and juiciness increased with the marbling level and were correlated with Warner-Bratzler peak force measurements. Trained panel sensory differences in flavor corresponded with increases in aroma volatiles and changes in nonvolatile flavor compounds. Unsaturated fatty acids with potential health benefits (vaccenic, oleic, and rumenic acids) increased with the level of marbling.

  18. Effect of protein concentrates, emulsifiers on textural and sensory characteristics of gluten free cookies and its immunochemical validation.

    PubMed

    Sarabhai, Swati; Indrani, D; Vijaykrishnaraj, M; Milind; Arun Kumar, V; Prabhasankar, P

    2015-06-01

    The effect of 5, 7.5 and 10 % protein concentrates namely soya protein isolate (SPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC) and addition of 0.5 % emulsifiers such as glycerol monostearate (GMS), sodium stearoyl- 2- lactylate (SSL) and lecithin (LEC) on the rheological, sensory and textural characteristics of cookies with rice flour and its immunochemical validation was studied. The results showed that the use of 7.5 % SPI/WPC along with GMS significantly improved the quality characteristics of cookies with rice flour. Dot-Blot and Western-blot studies of cookies with 7.5 % of SPI or WPC confirmed that the anti-gliadin did not recognize these proteins. Carry- through process using ELISA kit confirmed that gluten was within the permissible limit in all the stages of processing and hence these cookies can be consumed by people suffering from celiac disease.

  19. Effects of dietary oregano and garlic essential oils on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Kirkpinar, F; Ünlü, H B; Serdaroğlu, M; Turp, G Y

    2014-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to determine the individual and combined effects of two essential oils, oregano and garlic, on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat. 2. The diets were supplemented with no essential oil (control), oregano essential oil or garlic essential oil at 300 mg/kg and oregano essential oil at 150 mg/kg + garlic essential oil at 150 mg/kg. 3. Dietary oregano and garlic oil supplementation did not affect carcass yields, the relative weight of carcass parts, breast and thigh meat composition, pH or b* value of breast meat. Oregano + garlic oil supplementation significantly decreased the L* value. The a* value of breast meat in birds given a diet supplemented with oregano oil was lower than that in birds given a diet supplemented with garlic oil and oregano oil + garlic oil. The essential oil addition had no positive effect on the oxidative stability. There was no difference between the treatments in breast appearance. 4. The juiciness, flavour, oxidised flavour and acceptability of breast meat samples were affected by treatments.

  20. Evaluation of alkaline electrolyzed water to replace traditional phosphate enhancement solutions: Effects on water holding capacity, tenderness, and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rigdon, Macc; Hung, Yen-Con; Stelzleni, Alexander M

    2017-01-01

    Sixty-four pork loins were randomly assigned to one of four treatments to evaluate the use of alkaline electrolyzed reduced water as a replacement for traditional enhancement solutions. Treatments included: alkaline electrolyzed reduced water (EOH; pH≈11.5), EOH plus 2.5% potassium-lactate (EOK), industry standard (IS; 0.35% sodium tri-polyphosphate, 0.14% sodium chloride, 2.5% potassium-lactate), and no enhancement (CON). After enhancement (targeting 110%) and rest period, chops were cut (2.54-cm) to test treatment effects on water holding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and sensory attributes. Despite its alkaline nature EOH chops exuded more water (P<0.05) than EOK, IS, or CON chops. Control chops were similar (P>0.05) to EOK, however CON and EOK both lost more moisture (P<0.05) than IS. The use of alkaline electrolyzed reduced water did not improve WBSF or sensory characteristics compared to IS treated chops. As a stand-alone enhancement solution alkaline electrolyzed reduced water was not a suitable replacement for industry standard solutions.

  1. Effect of moderate inlet temperatures in ultra-high-pressure homogenization treatments on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk.

    PubMed

    Amador-Espejo, G G; Suàrez-Berencia, A; Juan, B; Bárcenas, M E; Trujillo, A J

    2014-02-01

    The effect of ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH) on raw whole milk (3.5% fat) was evaluated to obtain processing conditions for the sterilization of milk. Ultra-high-pressure homogenization treatments of 200 and 300 MPa at inlet temperatures (Ti) of 55, 65, 75, and 85 °C were compared with a UHT treatment (138 °C for 4s) in terms of microbial inactivation, particle size and microstructure, viscosity, color, buffering capacity, ethanol stability, propensity to proteolysis, and sensory evaluation. The UHPH-treated milks presented a high level of microbial reduction, under the detection limit, for treatments at 300 MPa with Ti of 55, 65, 75, and 85 °C, and at 200 MPa with Ti = 85 °C, and few survivors in milks treated at 200 MPa with Ti of 55, 65, and 75 °C. Furthermore, UHPH treatments performed at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 and 85 °C produced sterile milk after sample incubation (30 and 45 °C), obtaining similar or better characteristics than UHT milk in color, particle size, viscosity, buffer capacity, ethanol stability, propensity to protein hydrolysis, and lower scores in sensory evaluation for cooked flavor.

  2. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of both.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, A M S; Bezerril, F F; Madruga, M S; Batista, A S M; Magnani, M; Souza, E L; Queiroga, R C R E

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess and compare the nutritional, technological, and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of the two stored in cold conditions for 21d. The yield and centesimal composition of the cheeses were not affected by the type of milk used in their preparation. Reductions were observed in the moisture content, pH, proteolysis index, and instrumental hardness; moreover, increases were observed in the syneresis, acidity index, and depth of proteolysis index in all cheeses. The percentages of caprylic, capric, oleic, and linoleic fatty acids were higher in goat milk cheese and cheese made with a mixture of goat and cow milk compared with cow milk cheese, and a sensory evaluation revealed differences in color, flavor, and aroma between the cheeses. The preparation of Minas fresh cheese with a mixture of goat and cow milk can be a viable alternative for dairy products in the market that can be characterized as high-quality products that meet consumer demands.

  3. Phenolic Compounds, Volatiles, and Sensory Characteristics of Twelve Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) Cultivars Grown in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports the phenolic, anthocyanin, and volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of 12 cultivars of sweet cherries including cvs. Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat. Eight individual phenolic compounds were determined by the HPLC-DAD method. Among these cherries, cvs. Bing, Durona di Cesena, and Lambert contained higher levels of total individual phenolic compounds than the other cultivars. Six anthocyanins were detected in cherries and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside was principal and it was the highest level in cv. Bing. The major volatiles found were 1-hexanol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzylalcohol, hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, and benzaldehyde. Sensory evaluation of the cherries showed that cvs. Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, and Summit have higher textural and flavor scores than others. It was concluded that the same compounds for phenolic or volatiles profiles of sweet cherries were similar in qualitative; however, quantitative differences were observed in these cultivars.

  4. Extraction of espresso coffee by using gradient of temperature. Effect on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of espresso.

    PubMed

    Salamanca, C Alejandra; Fiol, Núria; González, Carlos; Saez, Marc; Villaescusa, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Espresso extraction is generally carried out at a fixed temperature within the range 85-95°C. In this work the extraction of the espressos was made in a new generation coffee machine that enables temperature profiling of the brewing water. The effect of using gradient of temperature to brew espressos on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of the beverage has been investigated. Three different extraction temperature profiles were tested: updrawn gradient (88-93°C), downdrawn gradient (93-88°C) and fixed temperature (90°C). The coffee species investigated were Robusta, Arabica natural and Washed Arabica. Results proved that the use of gradient temperature for brewing espressos allows increasing or decreasing the extraction of some chemical compounds from coffee grounds. Moreover an appropriate gradient of temperature can highlight or hide some sensorial attributes. In conclusion, the possibility of programming gradient of temperature in the coffee machines recently introduced in the market opens new expectations in the field of espresso brewing.

  5. Volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of various instant teas produced from black tea.

    PubMed

    Kraujalytė, Vilma; Pelvan, Ebru; Alasalvar, Cesarettin

    2016-03-01

    Various instant teas produced differently from black tea [freeze-dried instant tea (FDIT), spray-dried instant tea (SDIT), and decaffeinated instant tea (DCIT)], were compared for their differences in volatile compounds as well as descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). A total of 63 volatile compounds in all tea samples (eight aldehydes, ten alcohols, nine ketones, five esters, eight acids, ten terpenes/terpenoids, ten furans/furanones, two pyrroles, and one miscellaneous compound) were tentatively identified. Black tea, FDIT, SDIT, and DCIT contained 60, 55, 47, and 40 volatile compounds, respectively. Ten flavour attributes such as after taste, astringency, bitter, caramel-like, floral/sweet, green/grassy, hay-like, malty, roasty, and seaweed were identified. Intensities for a number of flavour attributes (except for caramel-like in SDIT and bitter and after taste in DCIT) were not significantly different (p>0.05) among tea samples. The present study suggests that instant teas can also be used as good alternative to black tea.

  6. Short communication: Chemical and sensory characteristics of Canestrato di Moliterno cheese manufactured in spring.

    PubMed

    Trani, A; Gambacorta, G; Loizzo, P; Cassone, A; Faccia, M

    2016-08-01

    Canestrato di Moliterno is an Italian Protected Geographical Indication hard cheese, made in winter and spring from a mixture of ewe and goat milks, that has been poorly investigated. The present study was aimed at characterizing the cheese made in the warm season. Two series of samples, ripened in traditional rooms called fondaco as indicated in the official protocol of production, were taken from the main certified producers. The cheeses were analyzed for gross composition; proteolysis and lipolysis; volatile fraction; and organoleptic features. Gross composition was not completely homogeneous among the samples, but primary proteolysis and lipolysis were quite uniform. We observed variations in secondary proteolysis, likely caused by fluctuations in environmental conditions in the fondaco. The sensory profiles of the samples were homogeneous: the cheese was soluble, greasy, and adhesive, with a sheepfold and buttery odor. The main taste attributes were fermented, pungent, and bitter. Overall, the results of this study provide an initial contribution to the characterization of Canestrato di Moliterno, and could be used to improve marketing strategies.

  7. Storage and packaging effects on sensory and color characteristics of ground beef.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, J L; Parrish, F C; Olson, D G; Dickson, J S; Niebuhr, S

    2003-08-01

    Effects of irradiation (2 kGy) of ground beef patties from trimmings stored aerobically for 0 or 6 days on lean color, odor, and sensory attributes were investigated. Beef trimings were coarse ground and split into 2 groups. Group one was fine ground, pattied, and packaged immediately; group-two was stored 6 days then fine ground, pattied, and packaged. Irradiated beef patties had greater (P<0.05) off-odors, and off-flavors, lower (P<0.05) CIE L(∗), a(∗) and b(∗) and saturation indexes values (P<0.05) after four days of storage at 0±1 °C. Irradiation of patties produced from trimmings aged an extra 6 days resulted in increased (P<0.05) saturation indexes and b(∗) values, but not off-odors when compared to non-aged and irradiated patties. Thus, the production of irradiated beef patties should utilize beef trimmings with the shortest postmortem aging time and a dose of less than 2 kGy to minimize discoloration and off-odors.

  8. Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kuyng Mi; Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2014-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP), crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire)♀×Duroc♂ (LYD), Berkshire (Ber), and Duroc (Du) pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed) were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w) and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (p<0.05). It was observed that the dry-cured ham made from KNP breed had the lowest water activity value and highest salt content, while the LYD dry-cure ham had higher total volatile basic nitrogen content than the Ber and Du hams (p<0.05). Zinc, iron and total monounsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in KNP ham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). Additionally, the KNP dry-cured ham possessed higher Commission International de l’Eclairage (CIE) a* value, while the Du dry-cured ham had higher L*, CIE b* and hue angle values (p<0.05). Furthermore, breed significantly affected the sensory attributes of dry-cured hams with higher scores for color, aroma and taste found in KNP dry-cured ham as compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). The overall outcome of the study is that the breed has a potential effect on the specific chemical composition, texture, color and sensorial properties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams. PMID:25083111

  9. Effect of live weight and sex on physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics of Merino lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Tejeda, Juan Florencio; Peña, Ramón E; Andrés, Ana I

    2008-12-01

    Forty-eight lamb carcasses were divided into four groups (n=12) according to slaughter weight (24 and 29kg) and sex (male and female). Colour, pH, moisture, and intramuscular fat were not affected (p>0.05) by slaughter weight or sex. With respect to fatty acid composition, slaughter weight had significant effects on C12:0 (p<0.01), C14:0, C16:0, and C18:1 n-9 (p<0.05) in Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle. The percentage of C12:0 and C14:0 decreased as slaughter weight increased, while C16:0 increased. In Semimembranosus (SM) m., only C18:3 n-3 and C20:2 n-6 were affected (p<0.001) by slaughter weight. Total PUFA in LL m. was greater (p<0.01) in females than in males. Although in general, sensorial quality was not significantly affected by slaughter weight or sex, meat from lighter lambs (24kg) had greater general acceptability than meat from heavier lambs (29kg).

  10. Characteristics of patients with diabetes who accept referrals for care management services

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Bree; Annis, Ann M; Morrish, Wendy; Davis Burns, Jennifer; Krein, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with chronic conditions can improve their health through participation in self-care programs. However, awareness of and enrollment in these programs are generally low. Objective: We sought to identify factors influencing patients’ receptiveness to a referral for programs and services supporting chronic disease management. Methods: We analyzed data from 541 high-risk diabetic patients who completed an assessment between 2010 and 2013 from a computer-based, nurse-led Navigator referral program within a large primary care clinic. We compared patients who accepted a referral to those who declined. Results: A total of 318 patients (75%) accepted 583 referrals, of which 52% were for self-care programs. Patients who accepted a referral had more primary care visits in the previous year, were more likely to be enrolled in another program, expressed more interest in using the phone and family or friends for support, and were more likely to report recent pain than those who declined a referral. Discussion: Understanding what factors influence patients’ decisions to consider and participate in self-care programs has important implications for program design and development of strategies to connect patients to programs. This work informs outreach efforts to identify and engage patients who are likely to benefit from self-care activities. PMID:26835018

  11. Sensory characteristics and volatile profiles of parsley ( Petroselinum crispum [Mill.] Nym.) in correlation to resistance properties against Septoria Blight ( Septoria petroselini ).

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Detlef; Bruchmüller, Tobias; Krüger, Hans; Marthe, Frank

    2011-10-12

    Sixteen different genotypes of parsley, including two cultivars, six populations, and eight inbred lines, were investigated regarding their sensory characteristics in relation to the volatile patterns and resistance to Septoria petroselini . The sensory quality was determined by a combination of profile analysis and preference test, whereas the volatile patterns were analyzed by headspace-SPME-GC of leaf homogenates with subsequent nontargeted data processing to prevent a possible overlooking of volatile compounds. The more resistant genotypes are characterized by several negative sensory characteristics such as bitter, grassy, herbaceous, pungent, chemical, and harsh. In contrast, the contents of some volatile compounds correlate highly and significantly either with resistance (e.g., hexanal and α-copaene) or with susceptibility (e.g., p-menthenol). Some of these compounds with very strong correlation to resistance are still unidentified and are presumed to act as resistance markers.

  12. Effect of the fungal protease EPg222 on the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausage "salchichón" ripened with commercial starter cultures.

    PubMed

    Benito, María J; Rodríguez, Mar; Martín, Alberto; Aranda, Emilio; Córdoba, Juan J

    2004-07-01

    The effect of the addition of the fungal protease EPg222 on the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausage "salchichón" ripened with commercial starter cultures was investigated. Sausages were prepared with purified EPg222 and Staphylococcus carnosus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Lactobacillus sakei as starter cultures, ripened for 145 days and compared with a control batch only inoculated with the starter cultures. Dry fermented sausages ripened with EPg222 and starter cultures showed higher amount of NPN and volatile compounds derived from amino acid catabolism, than control ripened only with starter cultures. Several branched aldehydes, acids and alcohols such as 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid and 2-methylpropanol were detected only in enzyme treated samples. Sensory analysis reflected higher values for aroma intensity of sausages treated with EPg222 and lower values of hardness than control. The effect of EPg222 may be of great interest to improve sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausages ripened with starter cultures.

  13. Cultivar preference and sensory evaluation of vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in Eastern Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preference and acceptability of twelve vegetable pigeon pea genotypes of medium maturity was evaluated in Eastern Kenya based on six seed cultivar parameters of color, appearance, taste, odor, tenderness and overall seed acceptability. The sensory characteristics were scored by consumers and farmers...

  14. Effects of some oil-born yeasts on the sensory characteristics of Italian virgin olive oil during its storage.

    PubMed

    Zullo, B A; Cioccia, G; Ciafardini, G

    2013-10-01

    The olive oil microbiota, mainly composed of yeasts, is associated with the suspended fraction of freshly produced olive oils. Some olive oil yeasts are considered useful as they are able to hydrolyse the bitter tasting secoiridoid compound of the oil, whereas others are considered harmful as they can damage the quality of the oil. Present research demonstrated the influence of some yeast strains belonging to Candida adriatica, Candida diddensiae and Candida wickerhamii species on the olive oil sensory characteristics during its storage. All the tested yeasts survived in the inoculated extra virgin olive oil and, after four months of storage, the suspended yeast cells recovered from the olive oil varied between 50% and 80% of the initial total yeasts, according to their sedimentation capacity. The mean of five analytical indices (free fatty acids, peroxide value, K232, K270 and ΔK) were quite similar and about 60% of the treated samples analysed after four months of storage, on the basis of these indices, were still classed as extra virgin. Completely different results were obtained from the analyses of volatile and non volatile carbonyl compounds according to the yeast used. In the samples of oil treated with C. adriatica and C. wickerhamii, instead of some strains of C. diddensiae, a lower concentration of C6 volatile carbonyl compounds and polyphenols, responsible for positive oil attributes, were found. The sensory attributes of the treated olive oils varied according to the composition of the volatile and non volatile carbonyl compounds produced with the treatments. "Muddy-sediment", "rancid" or both defects were found in olive oil samples treated with C. adriatica DAPES 1933, C. wickerhamii DAPES 1885 and C. diddensiae DAPES 1912 and 1913 strains, whereas olive oil samples treated with C. diddensiae DAPES 1918 and 1922 after four months of storage were defect-free, and still categorized as extra virgin, according to the requirements of both chemical

  15. Slaughter plant location, USDA quality grade, external fat thickness, and aging time effects on sensory characteristics of beef loin strip steak.

    PubMed

    Miller, M F; Kerth, C R; Wise, J W; Lansdell, J L; Stowell, J E; Ramsey, C B

    1997-03-01

    A boneless beef strip loin (IMPS #180) was fabricated from each of 320 carcasses to study the effects of slaughter plant location, quality grade, fat thickness, and aging time on beef tenderness and palatability. Carcasses were selected for fat thickness (< .5 cm or > or = .5 cm fat thickness) and USDA quality grade (Select or Low Choice) from two slaughter facilities (IBP, Inc., Garden City, KS or Excel Inc., Plainview, TX), and the strips were aged for either 7 or 14 d. Aging steaks 14 d improved all sensory traits and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) values regardless of all other main effects (P < .05). Steaks from Choice carcasses that were processed in Kansas had higher initial and sustained tenderness ratings than steaks from carcasses that were processed in Texas or Select steaks from Kansas after 7 d of aging (P < .05). However, aging for 14 d removed differences from all sensory characteristics of steaks from Kansas and Texas. All sensory scores for steaks from carcasses that graded Choice were higher than those from carcasses that graded Select (P < .05). The USDA quality grade did not affect WBS values, and fat thickness did not affect sensory characteristics or WBS values (P > .05). Therefore, aging beef strip loin steaks for 14 compared with 7 d improved sensory score and decreased WBS values, but fat thickness had no effect on the palatability of loin strip steaks processed under these conditions.

  16. Microstructural, textural, and sensory characteristics of probiotic yogurts fortified with sodium calcium caseinate or whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Akalın, A S; Unal, G; Dinkci, N; Hayaloglu, A A

    2012-07-01

    The influence of milk protein-based ingredients on the textural characteristics, sensory properties, and microstructure of probiotic yogurt during a refrigerated storage period of 28 d was studied. Milk was fortified with 2% (wt/vol) skim milk powder as control, 2% (wt/vol) sodium calcium caseinate (SCaCN), 2% (wt/vol) whey protein concentrate (WPC) or a blend of 1% (wt/vol) SCaCN and 1% (wt/vol) WPC. A commercial yogurt starter culture and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 as probiotic bacteria were used for the production. The fortification with SCaCN improved the firmness and adhesiveness. Higher values of viscosity were also obtained in probiotic yogurts with SCaCN during storage. However, WPC enhanced water-holding capacity more than the caseinate. Addition of SCaCN resulted in a coarse, smooth, and more compact protein network; however, WPC gave finer and bunched structures in the scanning electron microscopy micrographs. The use of SCaCN decreased texture scores in probiotic yogurt; probably due to the lower water-holding capacity and higher syneresis values in the caseinate-added yogurt sample. Therefore, the textural characteristics of probiotic yogurts improved depending on the ingredient variety.

  17. Fresh cheese as a vehicle for polyunsaturated fatty acids integration: effect on physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Dal Bello, Barbara; Torri, Luisa; Piochi, Maria; Bertolino, Marta; Zeppa, Giuseppe

    2017-03-20

    Five different vegetable oils were used in the production of fresh cheese to increase the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly α-linolenic acid (ALA), the most important omega-3 fatty acid of vegetable origin. Physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of functionalized cheeses were evaluated after 1 and 3 days of ripening at 4 °C while the consumer appreciation was evaluated in the final product at 3 days of ripening. After 3 days, the cheeses with Camelina sativa and Echium plantagineum oils added exhibited the highest retention of PUFAs (mostly ALA) compared to those with flaxseed, raspberry and blackcurrant oils. The addition of oil showed little effects on physico-chemical characteristics and also consumers' evaluation highlighted that all of the fresh cheeses were considered acceptable although those with flaxseed and raspberry oils were the most appreciated.

  18. Physical-Chemical Characterization of Fruit Purees and Relationship with Sensory Analysis Carried out by Infants (12 to 24 mo).

    PubMed

    Inarejos-García, A M; Mancebo-Campos, V; Cañizares, P; Llanos, J

    2015-05-01

    Fruit purees are one of the foods earliest introduced foods in infants' diet during the complementary period. The rheological characteristics together with the sensory analysis are decisive factors for the acceptance of the food product by the infant. The sensory analysis of three commercial fruit purees (mixed fruits, pear, and plum) was studied by employing a new objective sensory parameter named as SAIR (Sensory Acceptance by Infants Ratio), which is the quotient between the percentage of puree consumed (%) by the time (seconds) throughout the storage time. In parallel, the rheological characteristics of the purees were analyzed in order to obtain a relationship with the SAIR parameter. It was proved that the best acceptance of the product (higher SAIR) was observed for such purees showing a lower apparent viscosity (lower consistency index, "K") and a less pseudoplastic behavior (higher flow behavior index, "n"). These results may help to obtain higher acceptance values based on easy obtainable and objective parameters.

  19. Effect of vacuum packaging and low-dose irradiation on the microbial, chemical and sensory characteristics of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    PubMed

    Mbarki, Raouf; Ben Miloud, Najla; Selmi, Salah; Dhib, Soukeina; Sadok, Saloua

    2009-12-01

    The effects of vacuum packaging followed by gamma irradiation treatment (1.5 kGy) on the shelf-life of fillets of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) were examined, during chill storage. The control and the treated packs were analyzed periodically for chemical (TMA, TBARS, biogenic amines) and microbial characteristics. Based on chemical and microbial data, vacuum packaging - by itself - was improper in extending the shelf-life of chub mackerel, estimated to 7 days. On the 7th day, TMA and Histamine contents reached the defect action levels, associated with the presence of mesophiles (3.7 log UFC/g); total coliforms (3.5 log UFC/g); staphylococci (1.9 log UFC/g) and the emergence of Pseudomonas (1.7 log UFC/g), in both the control and the vacuum packaged lots. Combination of vacuum packaging and gamma-irradiation was found to delay the spoilage during 14 days of refrigerated storage, based on chemical and microbial analyses. Similarly, consumer hedonic tests were performed to determine the effect of different treatments on the taste of fish fillets. For all treatments, consumers failed to discriminate treated samples from the control, on the 2nd day of storage (p > 0.05). The acceptability test showed that low-dose irradiation (1.5 kGy) optimised the sensory quality, on the 3rd day of storage (p < 0.05). The employment of vacuum packaging combined to a low-dose gamma-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on chub mackerel is recommended to enhance microbiological quality (4 log reduction), alleviate chemical changes and extend the shelf-life by 7 days, leading to consumer appreciation of these products.

  20. Ground beef patties prepared from brisket, flank and plate have unique fatty acid and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Blackmon, Terronica; Miller, Rhonda K; Kerth, Chris; Smith, Stephen B

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that unique ground beef products could be formulated from brisket, flank, and plate primals. Primals were taken from 4 USDA Select carcasses from conventionally produced cattle, selected at random in a commercial packing plant. Lean and fat trims were separated, and ground beef was formulated from each primal to contain 10, 20, or 30% total fat. Brisket patties contained higher proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids and less saturated fatty acids than flank patties. There were no differences in n-6 or n-3 fatty acids across primal type or fat level. After cooking, brisket patties had higher bloody/serumy and fat-like descriptor values than flank patties. Plate patties generated higher amounts of lipid-derived volatiles than patties from the brisket or flank. Brisket patties generally had higher amounts of pleasant headspace volatiles whereas the plate relied more heavily on Maillard-derived volatiles than flank patties. We conclude that individual primals can be used to formulate ground beef with unique compositional and flavor characteristics.

  1. Effects of ionizing irradiation and hydrostatic pressure on Escherichia coli O157:H7 inactivation, chemical composition, and sensory acceptability of ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Schilling, M W; Yoon, Y; Tokarskyy, O; Pham, A J; Williams, R C; Marshall, D L

    2009-04-01

    A randomized complete block design with three replications was utilized to determine the effects of ionizing irradiation and hydrostatic pressure on the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, volatile composition, and consumer acceptability (n=155) of frozen ground beef patties. E-beam and X-ray irradiation (2kGy) inactivated E. coli O157:H7 below the limit of detection, while hydrostatic pressure treatment (300mPa for 5min at 4°C) did not inactivate this pathogen. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to extract volatile compounds from treated ground beef patties. Irradiation and hydrostatic pressure altered the volatile composition (P<0.05) of the ground beef patties in respect to radiolytic products. However, results were inconclusive on whether these differences were great enough to use this method to differentiate between irradiated and non-irradiated samples in a commercial setting. Irradiation did not affect (P>0.05) consumer acceptability of ground beef patties when compared to untreated samples, but hydrostatic pressure caused decreased acceptability (P<0.05) when compared to other treatments.

  2. Physico-chemical characteristics and sensory evaluation of wheat bread partially substituted with banana (Musa acuminata X balbisiana cv. Awak) pseudo-stem flour.

    PubMed

    Ho, Lee-Hoon; Abdul Aziz, Noor Aziah; Azahari, Baharin

    2013-08-15

    The physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the control (BCtr), commercial wheat flour (CWF) bread substituted with 10% BPF (banana pseudo-stem flour) (B10BPF) and B10BPF with added 0.8% w/w (flour weight basis) xanthan gum (XG) or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (B10BPFXG and B10BPFCMC, respectively) were examined. The proximate analyses revealed that the composite bread had significantly higher moisture, ash, crude fibre, soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre contents but lower protein, fat and carbohydrate contents than the BCtr. Bread incorporated with BPF resulted in a lower volume, darker crumb and lighter crust colour than the BCtr. The addition of CMC improved the bread volume. All breads containing BPF had greater total phenolics, and antioxidant properties than the control bread. Sensory evaluation indicated that the B10BPFCMC bread had the highest acceptability.

  3. Quality characteristics, chemical composition, and sensory properties of butter from cows on pasture versus indoor feeding systems.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Tom F; Faulkner, Hope; McAuliffe, Stephen; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hennessy, Deirdre; Dillon, Pat; Kilcawley, Kieran N; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of 3 widely practiced cow feeding systems in the United States, Europe, and Southern Hemisphere regions on the characteristics, quality, and consumer perception of sweet cream butter. Fifty-four multiparous and primiparous Friesian cows were divided into 3 groups (n=18) for an entire lactation. Group 1 was housed indoors and fed a total mixed ration diet (TMR) of grass silage, maize silage, and concentrates; group 2 was maintained outdoors on perennial ryegrass-only pasture (GRS); and group 3 was maintained outdoors on a perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture (CLV). Mid-lactation butter was manufactured in triplicate with milk from each group in June 2015 (137±7d in milk) and was analyzed over a 6-mo storage period at 5°C for textural and thermal properties, fatty acid composition, sensory properties, and volatile compounds. The nutritional value of butters was improved by pasture feeding, and butter from pasture-fed cows had significantly lower thrombogenicity index scores compared with butters from TMR-fed cows. In line with these results, pasture-derived milks (GRS and CLV) produced butter with significantly higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11) and trans-β-carotene than TMR butter. Alterations in the fatty acid composition of butter contributed to significant differences in textural and thermal properties of the butters. Total mixed ration-derived butters had significantly higher hardness scores at room temperature than those of GRS and CLV. Onset of crystallization for TMR butters also occurred at significantly higher temperatures compared with pasture butters. Volatile analysis of butter by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified 25 compounds present in each of the butters, 5 of which differed significantly based on feeding system, including acetone, 2-butanone, 1-pentenol, toluene, and β-pinene. Toluene was very significantly correlated with pasture-derived butter. Sensory analysis

  4. Microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics of Swiss cheese manufactured with adjunct Lactobacillus strains using a low cooking temperature.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Harper, W J; Drake, M A; Courtney, P D

    2008-08-01

    The effect of nonstarter Lactobacillus adjunct cultures on the microbial, chemical, and sensory characteristics of Swiss cheese manufactured using the "kosher make procedure" was investigated. The kosher make procedure, which uses a lower cooking temperature than traditional Swiss cheese making, is used by many American cheese manufacturers to allow for kosher-certified whey. Cheeses were manufactured using a commercial starter culture combination and 1 of 3 non-starter Lactobacillus strains previously isolated from Swiss cheeses, Lactobacillus casei A26, L. casei B21, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus H2, as an adjunct. Control cheeses lacked the adjunct culture. Cheeses were analyzed during ripening for microbial and chemical composition. Adjunct strain L. casei A26, which utilized citrate most readily in laboratory medium, dominated the Lactobacillus population within 30 d, faster than the other adjunct cultures. There were no significant differences in Propionibacterium counts, Streptococcus thermophilus counts, protein, fat, moisture, salt, and pH among the cheeses. Free amino acid concentration ranged from 5 to 7 mmol/100 g of cheese at 90 d of ripening and was adjunct strain dependent. Lactic, acetic, and propionic acid concentrations were not significantly different among the cheeses after a 90-d ripening period; however differences in propionic acid concentrations were apparent at 60 d, with the cheeses made with L. casei adjuncts containing less propionic acid. Citric acid was depleted by the end of warm room ripening in cheeses manufactured with adjunct L. casei strains, but not with adjunct L. rhamnosus. Cheeses made with L. casei A26 were most similar to the control cheeses in diacetyl and butyric/isobutyric acid abundance as evaluated by electronic nose during the first 3 mo of ripening. The 4 cheese types differed in their descriptive sensory profiles at 8 mo of age, indicating an adjunct strain-dependent effect on particular flavor attributes. Adjunct

  5. Sensory characterization of bowel cleansing solutions

    PubMed Central

    Sharara, Ala I; Daroub, Hamza; Georges, Camille; Shayto, Rani; Nader, Ralph; Chalhoub, Jean; Olabi, Ammar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercial bowel cleansing preparations. METHODS Samples of 4 commercially available bowel cleansing preparations, namely polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (PEG), PEG + ascorbic acid (PEG-Asc), sodium picosulfate (SPS), and oral sodium sulfate (OSS) were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Descriptive analysis was conducted (n = 14) using a 15-cm line scale with the Compusense at-hand® sensory evaluation software. Acceptability testing (n = 80) was conducted using the 9-point hedonic scale. In addition, a Just-About-Right (JAR) scale was included for the four basic tastes to determine their intensity compatibility with acceptability levels in the products. RESULTS Samples were significantly different, in descriptive analysis, for all attributes (P < 0.05) except for sweetness. SPS received the highest ratings for turbidity, viscosity appearance, orange odor and orange flavor; PEG-Asc for citrus odor and citrus flavor; OSS for sweetener taste, sweet aftertaste, bitterness, astringency, mouthcoating, bitter aftertaste and throatburn, and along with PEG-Asc, the highest ratings for saltiness, sourness and adhesiveness. Acceptability results showed significant differences between the various samples (P < 0.05). SPS received significantly higher ratings for overall acceptability, acceptability of taste, odor and mouthfeel (P < 0.05). JAR ratings showed that PEG and PEG-Asc were perceived as slightly too salty; SPS and OSS were slightly too sweet, while SPS, PEG-Asc and OSS were slightly too sour and OSS slightly too bitter. While using small sample volumes was necessary to avoid unwanted purgative effects, acceptability ratings do not reflect the true effect of large volumes intake thus limiting the generalization of the results. CONCLUSION Further improvements are needed to enhance the sensory profile and to optimize the acceptability for better compliance with these bowel cleansing solutions

  6. Sensory evaluation ratings and moisture contents show that soy is acceptable as a partial replacement for all-purpose wheat flour in peanut butter graham crackers.

    PubMed

    Romanchik-Cerpovicz, Joelle E; Abbott, Amy E; Dent, Laura A

    2011-12-01

    Fortification can help individuals achieve adequate nutritional intake. Foods may be fortified with soy flour as a source of protein for individuals limiting their intake of animal products, either due to personal dietary preference or to reduce their intake of saturated fat, a known risk factor for heart disease. This study determined the feasibility of fortifying peanut butter graham crackers by substituting soy flour for all-purpose wheat flour at 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% weight/weight. Graham crackers fortified with soy flour were compared to similarly prepared nonfortified peanut butter graham crackers. Moisture contents of all graham crackers were similar. Consumers (n=102) evaluated each graham cracker using a hedonic scale and reported liking the color, smell, and texture of all products. However, unlike peanut butter graham crackers fortified with lower levels of soy, graham crackers fortified with 100% weight/weight soy flour had less than desirable flavor, aftertaste, and overall acceptability. Overall, this study shows that fortification of peanut butter graham crackers up to 75% weight/weight with soy flour for all-purpose wheat flour is acceptable.

  7. Protein-rich beverage developed using non-GM soybean (R08-4004) and evaluated for sensory acceptance and shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quyen; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Rayaprolu, Srinivas; Seo, Han-Seok; Horax, Ronny; Chen, Pengyin; Kumar, Thallapuranam K Suresh

    2016-08-01

    Protein beverages have been in demand due to an increasing consumers' interest in healthy eating habit. However, there is an increased concern on the use of genetic modified (GM) ingredient in the food product. This study aimed to develop protein hydrolysate beverages using a non-GM soybean (R08-4004/high protein line) grown in Arkansas. Protein isolate was prepared from the soybean using alkaline method (pH 9.5). Due to its poor solubility in acidic condition, alcalase 2.4 L (food grade protease) hydrolyzed soy protein was used to develop a beverage containing 20 g protein per serving (500 mL). Three flavored beverages: Chai tea (C), tangerine (T), and mixed berries (MB) were prepared using bitter blocker, masking agent, and citric acid to minimize an unpleasant bitter taste developed in the soy hydrolysates. Protein solubility, pH, microbial growth, instrumental color parameters, and turbidity were measured to evaluate the shelf-life stability of the beverages at refrigerated storage (5 °C) for 42 days. Beverages T and MB received overall highest scores from the sensory panel. Citric acid alone or in combination with bitter blocker or masking agent lowered the bitterness. Pasteurization (90-95 °C for 5 min) was effective in preventing microbial growth. Although pH remained constant, decrease in protein solubility and color changes were observed over the storage time in all the three flavored beverages. Cloudiness in beverage C increased over the storage period while beverages T and MB were very stable. Overall, T and MB flavored beverages have the potential for commercial application.

  8. Quality and sensory characteristics of selected post-rigor, early deboned broiler breast meat tenderized using hydrodynamic shock waves.

    PubMed

    Meek, K I; Claus, J R; Duncan, S E; Marriott, N G; Solomon, M B; Kathman, S J; Marini, M E

    2000-01-01

    Our first objective was to determine the effects of explosive amount and distance of the explosive to the meat surface in the Hydrodyne process on broiler breast tenderness. Early deboned (EB) breasts were removed immediately after initial chill (45 min postmortem), stored for 24 h (4 C), and subjected to one of four Hydrodyne treatments (200 g at 20 cm, 350 g at 23 cm, 275 g at 20 cm, or 350 g at 20 cm). Breasts were water-cooked (78 C internal). Hydrodyne treatment (HYD) of 350 g at 20 cm produced the greatest reduction (28.3%) in Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS, 1.9-cm wide strips). This combination was the only treatment to improve tenderness (peak force 4.3 kg) to a level equivalent (P > 0.05) to aged controls (CA; peak force 3.1 kg). The second objective was to determine the quality and sensory characteristics of Hydrodyne-treated (350 g explosive at 20 cm) broiler breasts as compared with CA and EB. The WBS values (1.0-cm wide and thick strips) for CA (1.56 kg) were different from both HYD (3.7 kg) and EB breasts (4.7 kg). The CA resulted in more tender, flavorful, and juicer breasts than EB and HYD. The EB was higher in initial moisture release than HYD. The EB breasts with tenderness problems can be tenderized by the Hydrodyne process based on WBS results. However, higher levels of explosive may be required to optimize the tenderness improvement of EB breasts that vary significantly in initial tenderness.

  9. Anthropometric, muscle strength, and spinal mobility characteristics as predictors in the rating of acceptable loads in parcel sorting.

    PubMed

    Stålhammar, H R; Louhevaara, V

    1992-09-01

    The rating of acceptable load (RAL) attained with a standard test (RALSt) and a wrk-simulating test (RALW) for postal parcel sorting was related to anthropometric, muscle strength, and spinal mobility characteristics of 18 male sorters. The subjects comprised a subsample of 103 experienced male sorters who carried out the RAL tests at postal sorting centres. The dynamic hand-grip endurance correlated significantly (p = 0.036) to the RALSt results. Correspondingly, there was a significant correlation (p = 0.044) between the ratio of maximal isometric strength of trunk extension to body weight and the RALW. The dynamic hand-grip endurance predicted 26% of the variation in the RALSt; in the RALW the maximal isometric strength of trunk flexion to body weight ratio predicted 24%. The subjects who rated heavier weights for RALSt tended to have a better trunk mobility. The dynamic endurance of hand-grip muscles, trunk strength, and spinal flexibility seemed to be the most powerful predictors for the psychophysically assessed 'acceptable loads' in experienced workers performing manual materials handling tasks.

  10. A comparison of slice characteristics and sensory characteristics of bacon from immunologically castrated barrows with bacon from physically castrated barrows, boars, and gilts.

    PubMed

    Little, K L; Kyle, J M; Bohrer, B M; Schroeder, A L; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K J; Boler, D D

    2014-12-01

    The objectives were to compare slice characteristics and sensory attributes of bacon from immunologically castrated (IC) barrows with bacon from other sexes using a trained sensory panel. Bacon was obtained for sensory evaluation from 3 experiments. In Exp. 1, trimmed and squared bellies (n=180) of IC barrows, IC barrows fed ractopamine hydrochloride (IC+RAC), physically castrated (PC) barrows, intact males (IM), and gilts were used. Data were analyzed as a general linear mixed model and pen (n=48) served as the experimental unit. Treatment (sex or diet) was a fixed effect in all 3 experiments. In Exp. 2, untrimmed, natural fall bellies (n=96) from IC and PC barrows fed 0 or 30% or a withdrawal distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) program when slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose (25 wk of age) were used. In Exp. 3, untrimmed, natural fall bellies (n=96) from IC and PC barrows fed the same experimental diets as in experiment 2 but slaughtered at 7 wk after the second dose (27 wk of age) were used. Data from Exp. 2 and 3 were analyzed as a 2×3 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design and pen was the experimental unit. Bellies from all 3 experiments were processed using the same protocols. In Exp. 1, IM had the greatest (P<0.0001) boar aroma and flavor scores among all treatments. No differences were detected among the other treatment groups for boar aroma or flavor. Intact males had the least (P<0.0001) desirable cured bacon aroma and flavor among all treatments. No differences were detected among the other treatment groups for bacon aroma or flavor. There were no differences in bacon aroma or off-flavor between IC and PC barrows slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose regardless of DDGS feeding program. Bacon from PC barrows was saltier (P<0.01) than bacon from IC barrows when slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose. There were no differences in bacon aroma, off-aroma, bacon flavor, or saltiness between IC and PC barrows

  11. Prelaunch self-discharge and charge-acceptance characteristics of the Hubble Space Telescope nickel hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanier, John R., Jr.; Bush, John R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Tests performed at NASA/MSFC on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) nickel-hydrogen batteries (flight spare module and flight spare battery) were used to determine self-discharge and charge-acceptance characteristics when the batteries were exposed to charged wet-stand conditions, pulse charging on the launch pad, and battery capacity at solar array deployment. An equation is presented which was used to predict the capacity that would be available in the HST NiH2 batteries after an extended stand time on the launch pad plus up to 2 days on orbit prior to solar array deployment (either ground power or orbiter power were used to supply HST loads until shortly before the solar arrays were deployed). It is shown that a fairly accurate estimate of the available capacity was made.

  12. Effect of the type of fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Miklos, Rikke; Lametsch, René; Arnau, Jacint

    2013-03-01

    Four batches of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages were manufactured with pork-ham lean, and the addition of no fat (Lean), 5% pork backfat (BF), 5% sunflower oil (SO) and 5% diacylglycerols (DAGs). The effect of the type of fat as pork-fat substitute on some physicochemical parameters, instrumental color and texture and sensory attributes of the sausages was studied. Results showed that reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages containing less than 12.5% of fat (BF, SO and DAGs) had a good overall sensory quality. This means a fat reduction of more than 70% compared with the average fat content of standard fermented sausages of similar characteristics. Sausages with SO showed higher sensory ratings in desirable ripened odor and flavor attributes and improved texture defined by lower hardness and chewiness (both sensory and instrumental) and higher crumbliness. Sausages with DAGs showed a similar behavior to that of BF, so they could be a good alternative to produce healthier reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages.

  13. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness) were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES) were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones.

  14. A Survey on the Effect of Livestock Production System and Finishing Diet on Sensory Characteristics of Foal Meat Using Generalized Procrustes Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, José M.; Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The influence of livestock production system [Freedom Extensive System (FES) versus Semi-Extensive System (SES)] and finishing feed (1.5 kg versus 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) diet on sensory properties of foal meat using Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was studied. For this work, a total of 24 foals (8 from FES and 16 from SES) were used. Samples were evaluated by eight panelists for eight sensory attributes: colour, marbling, odour intensity, sweetness, springiness, hardness, chewiness, and juiciness. Data were analyzed using a GPA to minimize differences among testers. Highly appreciated sensory properties (odour intensity, red colour, marbling, and juiciness) were mostly associated with foals from the Semi-Extensive System. On the other hand, the three groups studied (FES, 1.5SES, and 3SES) were clearly recognized by panelists on the consensus configuration and they were clearly separated on the map. This study concluded that sensory characteristics of foal meat from a Semi-Extensive Production System with a finishing diet of 3 kg concentrate were more preferable than the other ones. PMID:27006978

  15. Nano spray-dried sodium chloride and its effects on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of surface-salted cheese crackers.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Marvin; Astete, Carlos; Sabliov, Cristina; Olson, Douglas; Boeneke, Charles; Aryana, Kayanush J

    2015-09-01

    Reducing particle size of salt to approximately 1.5 µm would increase its surface area, leading to increased dissolution rate in saliva and more efficient transfer of ions to taste buds, and hence, perhaps, a saltier perception of foods. This has a potential for reducing the salt level in surface-salted foods. Our objective was to develop a salt using a nano spray-drying method, to use the developed nano spray-dried salt in surface-salted cheese cracker manufacture, and to evaluate the microbiological and sensory characteristics of cheese crackers. Sodium chloride solution (3% wt/wt) was sprayed through a nano spray dryer. Particle sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering, and particle shapes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Approximately 80% of the salt particles produced by the nano spray dryer, when drying a 3% (wt/wt) salt solution, were between 500 and 1,900 nm. Cheese cracker treatments consisted of 3 different salt sizes: regular salt with an average particle size of 1,500 µm; a commercially available Microsized 95 Extra Fine Salt (Cargill Salt, Minneapolis, MN) with an average particle size of 15 µm; and nano spray-dried salt with an average particle size of 1.5 µm, manufactured in our laboratory and 3 different salt concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2% wt/wt). A balanced incomplete block design was used to conduct consumer analysis of cheese crackers with nano spray-dried salt (1, 1.5, and 2%), Microsized salt (1, 1.5, and 2%) and regular 2% (control, as used by industry) using 476 participants at 1wk and 4mo. At 4mo, nano spray-dried salt treatments (1, 1.5, and 2%) had significantly higher preferred saltiness scores than the control (regular 2%). Also, at 4mo, nano spray-dried salt (1.5 and 2%) had significantly more just-about-right saltiness scores than control (regular 2%). Consumers' purchase intent increased by 25% for the nano spray-dried salt at 1.5% after they were notified about the 25% reduction in sodium content of the

  16. Comparison of physicochemical characteristics, sensory properties and volatile composition between commercial and New Zealand made wakame from Undaria pinnatifida.

    PubMed

    Balbas, Jessica; Hamid, Nazimah; Liu, Tingting; Kantono, Kevin; Robertson, John; White, William Lindsey; Ma, Qianli; Lu, Jun

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to obtain chemical and sensory profiles of the New Zealand wakame from Undaria pinnatifida for the first time since the lift of its commercial harvest in May 2010. We compared mannitol content, sensory quality and volatile profiles of wakame produced from New Zealand U. pinnatifida with Japanese and Korean commercial samples. Sensory analysis showed that New Zealand wakame processed in August was different from commercially available wakame in texture only. A total of 10 alkanes, 5 ester, 3 alcohol, 13 aldehyde, 8 ketone and 2 alkyne were detected in the two New Zealand processed wakame samples. Mannitol content in freeze-dried U. pinnatifida was also measured and result showed that mannitol was the only free carbohydrate in U. pinnatifida.

  17. The effect of a diet containing grasshoppers and access to free-range on carcase and meat physicochemical and sensory characteristics in broilers.

    PubMed

    Sun, T; Long, R J; Liu, Z Y

    2013-01-01

    1. Research was conducted to evaluate the impact of a diet containing grasshoppers on the carcase, physicochemical and sensory characteristics in a free-range, grassland-based broiler production system. 2. A total of 80, 28-d-old male broilers were reared on grassland containing a large population of grasshoppers (treatment PB). Control birds were reared intensively on a maize-soybean diet (treatment CB). At 91 d of age, 24 birds from each treatment were slaughtered to evaluate carcase, meat and sensory characteristics. 3. Treatment PB produced birds with significantly lower live weights, breast, wing, thigh and drum weights, and higher dressing percentage and breast percentage of carcase, compared with CB. Treatment PB produced breast meat with significantly higher redness values, shear force and protein content, and lower pH values, cooking loss, moisture and fat content compared with CB. Sensory panel results for breast and thigh meats showed no treatment effect on colour and juiciness, but significantly higher scores for chewiness, flavour, aroma and overall appreciation, and lower scores for tenderness from treatment PB compared with CB. 4. Rearing chickens on rangeland may provide an alternative way to produce poultry meat which is considered superior by modern consumers.

  18. Effects of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid on Salmonella Typhimurium survival, shelf-life, and sensory characteristics of ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Stelzleni, Alexander M; Ponrajan, Amudhan; Harrison, Mark A

    2013-09-01

    The inclusion of two sources of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid were studied as interventions for Salmonella Typhimurium and for their effect on shelf-life and sensory characteristics of ground beef. For the Salmonella challenge, beef trimmings (80/20) were inoculated then treated with 2% (w/v) liquid buffered vinegar (LVIN), 2.5% (w/w) powdered buffered vinegar (PVIN), a solution containing 1.0% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDLA) at 10% (w/v), or had no intervention applied (CNT). The same trim source and production methods were followed during production of patties for shelf-life and sensory testing without inoculation. SDLA patties had the largest reduction (P<0.05; 0.70 log CFU/g) of Salmonella. However, LVIN and PVIN had the least (P<0.05) psychrotrophic growth. SDLA patties had more purge (P<0.05) and lower (P<0.05) subjective color scores. There were not large differences in sensory characteristics, except PVIN exhibited stronger off-flavor (P<0.05).

  19. The effects of potato and rice starch as substitutes for phosphate in and degree of comminution on the technological, instrumental and sensory characteristics of restructured ham.

    PubMed

    Resconi, Virginia C; Keenan, Derek F; García, Elisa; Allen, Paul; Kerry, Joe P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), two sources of starch (potato starch: PS and rice starch: RS) and comminution degree (CD) on the technological, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reformed hams were studied using response surface methodology. Both starches reduced cook loss and decreased ham flavour intensity, but RS had stronger effects on instrumental measures of texture, while PS was associated with improved juiciness when low/no added STPP was included. Coarsely ground meat, processed 100% with the kidney plate was associated with slightly increased cook loss, reduced texture profile analysis parameters and a more intense ham flavour compared to the other treatment (80% ground with a kidney plate plus 20% with a 9mm plate). STPP was the sole factor affecting overall liking. If starch is included in the formulation, the standard level of STPP (0.3%) can be reduced by half with no increase in cook losses, but some decline in sensory quality cannot be avoided.

  20. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities.

  1. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters.

  2. Contribution of crosslinking products in the flavour enhancer processing: the new concept of Maillard peptide in sensory characteristics of Maillard reaction systems.

    PubMed

    Karangwa, Eric; Murekatete, Nicole; Habimana, Jean de Dieu; Masamba, Kingsley; Duhoranimana, Emmanuel; Muhoza, Bertrand; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the flavour-enhancing properties of the Maillard reaction products (MRPs) for different systems consisted of different peptides (sunflower, SFP; corn, CP and soyabean SP) with, xylose and cysteine were investigated. Maillard systems from peptides of sunflower, corn and soyabean with xylose and cysteine were designated as PXC, MCP and MSP, respectively. The Maillard systems were prepared at pH of 7.4 using temperature of 120C for 2 h. Results showed that all systems were significantly different in all sensory attributes. The highest scores for mouthfulness and continuity were observed for MCP with the lowest peptides distribution between 1000 and 5000 Da, known as Maillard peptide. This revealed that the MCP with the lowest Maillard peptide content had the strongest "Kokumi" effect compared to the other MRPsand demonstrated that "kokumi effect" of MRPs was contributed by not only the "Maillard peptide" defined by the molecular weight (1000-5000 Da). Results on sensory evaluation after fractionation of PXC followed by enzymatic hydrolysis showed no significant differences between PXC, P-PXC and their hydrolysates. This observation therefore confirmed that the presence of other contributors attributed to the "Kokumi" effect rather than the Maillard peptide. It can be deduced that the unhydrolyzed crosslinking products might have contributed to the "Kokumi" effect of MRPs. The structures of four probable crosslinking compounds were proposed and the findings have provided new insights in the sensory characteristics of xylose, cysteine and sunflower peptide MRPs.

  3. Sensory development.

    PubMed

    Clark-Gambelunghe, Melinda B; Clark, David A

    2015-04-01

    Sensory development is complex, with both morphologic and neural components. Development of the senses begins in early fetal life, initially with structures and then in-utero stimulation initiates perception. After birth, environmental stimulants accelerate each sensory organ to nearly complete maturity several months after birth. Vision and hearing are the best studied senses and the most crucial for learning. This article focuses on the cranial senses of vision, hearing, smell, and taste. Sensory function, embryogenesis, external and genetic effects, and common malformations that may affect development are discussed, and the corresponding sensory organs are examined and evaluated.

  4. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design.

    PubMed

    Brito, Isabelle L; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely; Yamashita, Fábio; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the mixture resulted in darker product. Quinoa flour showed a negative effect on the specific volume, producing less bulky cookies, and quinoa flour and quinoa flakes had a positive synergistic effect on the hardness of the cookies. According the results and considering the desirability profile for colour, hardness and specific volume in gluten-free cookies, the optimized formulation contains 30 % quinoa flour, 25 % quinoa flakes and 45 % corn starch. The quinoa-based cookie obtained was characterized as a product rich in dietary fibre, a good source of essential amino acids, linolenic acid and minerals, with good sensory acceptability. These findings reports for the first time the application of quinoa processed as flour and flakes in mixture with corn starch as an alternative ingredient for formulations of gluten-free cookies-type biscuits.

  5. Effects of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Young-Boong; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties.

  6. Nutritional quality of fermented defatted soya and flaxseed flours and their effect on texture and sensory characteristics of wheat sourdough bread.

    PubMed

    Bartkiene, Elena; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva

    2012-09-01

    The use of soya and flaxseed flours fermented with Pediococcus acidilactici for wheat sourdough bread production was investigated. The protein digestibility, biogenic amine contents of soya and flaxseed sourdoughs, texture and sensory features of bread were studied. The fermentation with P. acidilactici significantly improved soya and flaxseed protein extraction and increased protein digestibility on an average by 13.5%. The concentrations of histamine (3.8 ± 2.3 and 4.0 ± 0.2 mg/kg), tyramine (4.6 ± 0.7 and 19.3 ± 1.8 mg/kg) and putrescine (66.4 ± 1.3 and 11.3 ± 3.0 mg/kg) do not present a health risk for consumers due to their relatively low levels in fermented plant products. The flaxseed sourdoughs influenced a 17.5% higher specific volume and a 4.6% lower crumb hardness of bread than those of soya sourdoughs, and did not disimprove sensory properties of bread. However, the fermented soya additives decreased acceptability of bread because of intensive taste and odour.

  7. Effects of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties. PMID:27433101

  8. Sensory mononeuropathies.

    PubMed

    Massey, E W

    1998-01-01

    The clinical neurologist frequently encounters patients with a variety of focal sensory symptoms and signs. This article reviews the clinical features, etiologies, laboratory findings, and management of the common sensory mononeuropathies including meralgia paresthetica, cheiralgia paresthetica, notalgia paresthetica, gonyalgia paresthetica, digitalgia paresthetica, intercostal neuropathy, and mental neuropathy.

  9. Impact of packaging material and storage conditions on polyphenol stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (prunus cerasus var. Marasca).

    PubMed

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Ježek, Damir; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of packaging materials and storage conditions on polyphenols stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Marasca). Freeze-dried sour cherries were packed in high barrier metalized polypropylene and aluminium packaging (PET/PPmet/PE and PET/Al/PE) for up to 12 months at 4, 20 and 37 °C. Characterisation of polyphenol compounds was done by HPLC UV/Vis PDA and in all samples individual anthocyanins (ANTs), flavonol-glycosides (FGs) and hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) were determined. Polyphenol content was not markedly affected by freeze-drying and decreases were amounted 1.5-5 %. Furthermore, obtained results indicated that minimal loss of polyphenol content in freeze dried sour cherries were achieved at 4 °C and 3 months of storage. Regardless of the type of packaging materials, samples stored at lower temperature during 12 months, retained the higher content of FGs (quercetin-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-rutinoside) and HCAs (neochlorogenic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acid) than ANTs (cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside). The same trend was confirmed with kinetic parameters, also. Sour cherry products packed in both type of laminate and stored at lower temperature retained characteristic dark red colour and sensory properties. This study showed that freeze-dried cherry products have pleasant sensory and very good nutritional properties, and storage in both type of laminates at 4 and 20 °C up to 6 months ensured good product quality.

  10. Effect of farming system and cheesemaking technology on the physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid profile, and sensory properties of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, A; Tornambè, G; Bellina, V; De Pasquale, C; Mazza, F; Maniaci, G; Di Grigoli, A

    2013-01-01

    Caciocavallo Palermitano is a typical stretched-curd cheese that has been produced over the centuries in Sicily according to traditional cheesemaking technology and using raw milk from autochthonous cow breeds reared at pasture. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of the farming system and processing technology on the characteristics of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese, with particular regard to the fatty acid profile. The farming system was either extensive, using autochthonous cows fed a pasture-based diet, or intensive, with specialized dairy cow breeds fed mainly hay and concentrate. The cheese-processing technology was either artisanal, using traditional wooden tools and endemic lactic bacteria, or advanced, using modern steel equipment and selected lactic bacteria. Twelve Caciocavallo Palermitano cheeses, 3 from each of the 4 experimental theses (2 farming systems × 2 cheesemaking technologies), were obtained and aged for 1, 30, 60, and 120 d. Milk of origin and cheeses were analyzed for the main chemical and rheological parameters. Fatty acids were methylated in lyophilized cheese and analyzed by gas chromatography. Sensory analysis was carried out by trained panelists. The PROC GLM of SAS 9.1.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NY) was used for the statistical analysis. The physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese were influenced more by the farming system than by the cheesemaking technology. Compared with cheese produced through intensive farming, cheese from extensive farming was richer in polyunsaturated, n-3, and odd- and branched-chain fatty acids, as well as in conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11 C18:2), with accompanying improved human health benefits. The cheesemaking technology produced variation in the evolution of proteolysis during aging, due presumably to the different active microflora, which influenced the sensory profile of the resulting cheese. Indeed, cheese produced by

  11. Characteristics of receptor- and transducer-coupled activation of the intracellular signalling in sensory neuron revealed by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalisov, M. M.; Penniyaynen, V. A.; Esikova, N. A.; Ankudinov, A. V.; Krylov, B. V.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties of sensory neurons upon activation of intracellular cascade processes by comenic acid binding to a membrane opioid-like receptor (receptor-coupled), as well as a very low (endogenous) concentration of ouabain (transducer-coupled), have been investigated. Using atomic force microscopy, it is established that exposure to ouabain, in contrast to the impact of comenic acid, leads to a hardening of the neuron soma. This suggests that the receptor-coupled signal transmission to the cell genome is carried out through mechanisms that are different from the transducer-coupled signal pathways.

  12. Combined effects of potassium lactate and calcium ascorbate as sodium chloride substitutes on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y M; Jung, K C; Jo, H M; Nam, K W; Choe, J H; Rhee, M S; Kim, B C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) substitutes, including potassium lactate (K-lactate) and calcium ascorbate (Ca-ascorbate), on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage (1.2% content of NaCl). Sausages produced with 40% substitution of NaCl with combined K-lactate and Ca-ascorbate showed a higher value of lightness (P<0.001) than sausages containing 2.0% content of NaCl (control). However, the sensory panels were unable to distinguish a difference in color intensity between the control and treatment groups. Frankfurter sausages produced with 30% K-lactate and 10% Ca-ascorbate exhibited similar water-holding capacity, textural properties, and organoleptic characteristics (P>0.05) when compared to control sausages. Thus, the use of these salt mixtures is a good way to reduce the NaCl content in meat products while maintaining the quality of meat products. These results may be useful in developing low-sodium meat products.

  13. Relationship between the nutrition status and sensory characteristics of melon fertilized with wine-distillery waste compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requejo, María Isabel; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; González, Miguel Angel; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Villena, Raquel; Cartagena, Maria Carmen; Ribas, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The interest in developing sustainable agriculture is becoming more important day by day. A large quantity of wastes from the wine and distillery industry are produced and constitute a serious problem not only environmental but also economic. The use of exhausted grape marc compost as organic amendment is a management option of the fertility of soils. On the other hand, consumers are increasingly concerned about the type, quality and origin of food production. Flavor and aroma are most often the true indicators of shelf-life from the consumer's point of view. The aim of this study was to relate the nutritional status of melon fertilized with exhausted grape marc compost with the sensory profile of fresh-cut fruits. A field experiment was established with three doses of compost (1, 2 and 3 kg per linear meter) and a control. Melons were harvested at maturity and the sensory evaluation was carried out by an expert panel of melon tasters to describe odour, flavour and texture. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentration was determined in the fruits to calculate nutrient absorption. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01

  14. Effects of UV irradiation in a continuous turbulent flow UV reactor on microbiological and sensory characteristics of cow's milk.

    PubMed

    Rossitto, P V; Cullor, J S; Crook, J; Parko, J; Sechi, P; Cenci-Goga, B T

    2012-12-01

    The dairy industry under current pasteurization conditions (15 s at 72°C) and sanitary standards achieves a safe product with excellent quality. In an ever-competitive market there is still a need to improve product quality and extend shelf life of dairy products to increase competitiveness and open up new markets. In an attempt to test the effect of UV irradiation on microbiota of fluid milk, a continuous flow UV system at 254 nm was used to treat 3.5 and 2% fat milk at two UV doses (880 and 1,760 J liter(-1)). Milk was obtained from three processors, and two lots from each processor were assessed. To assess the impact on the most descriptive native microbiota in pasteurized milk after UV illumination, the product was held at two storage temperatures (4 and 7°C) and tested weekly for 5 weeks for aerobic plate counts (psychrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria), laboratory pasteurization counts, aerobic sporeformers, coliform organisms, and titratable acidity. Microbial counts for all tested microorganisms were lower in UV-treated milk when compared with control throughout storage at 4 and 7°C in both 3.5 and 2% fat milk. Sensory analysis indicated that there is a sensory defect associated with UV treatment at the wavelength used.

  15. Optimization of process conditions for Rohu fish in curry medium in retortable pouches using instrumental and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Ranendra K; Dhar, Bahni; Roy, Deepayan; Saha, Apurba

    2015-09-01

    'Kalia', a popular preparation of Rohu fish, packed in four-layered laminated retort pouch was processed in a steam/air mixture over-pressure retort at 121.1 °C to three different F 0 values of 7, 8 and 9 min. Time-temperature data were collected during heat processing using an Ellab Sterilization Monitoring System. Texture profile such as hardness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness decreased as the F 0 value increased. The L* values decreased whereas a* and b* values increased with increasing F 0 value. Based on the commercial sterility, sensory evaluation, colour and texture profile analysis, F 0 value of 8 min and cook value of 66 min, with a total process time of 41.7 min at 121.1 °C was found satisfactory for the preparation of Rohu fish curry (Kalia) in retort pouches.

  16. Applicability of Vacuum Impregnation to Modify Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Nutritive Characteristics of Plant Origin Products—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Radziejewska-Kubzdela, Elżbieta; Biegańska-Marecik, Róża; Kidoń, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food. PMID:25244012

  17. Comparison of physical, chemical, and sensorial characteristics between U.S.-imported and Northwestern Mexico retail beef.

    PubMed

    González-Rios, H; Peña-Ramos, A; Valenzuela, M; Zamorano-García, L; Cumplido-Barbeitia, G; González-Méndez, N F; Huerta-Leidenz, N

    2010-01-01

    To compare beef from Northwestern Mexico (NMEX) and that imported from the United States in physical-chemical (PC) and sensory traits, samples of ribeye (m. Longissimus dorsi thoracis, LDT) and knuckle (m. Vastus lateralis, VL) of Mexican (64 LDT; 51 VL) and U.S. (28 LDT; 25 VL) origin were purchased randomly from select retail stores located in 3 cities of NMEX. PC evaluation measured contents of moisture, fat and cholesterol, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), pH, CIE L*, a*, and b*, cooking loss, and normalized fatty acid profile (FAP). Trained panelists evaluated raw and cooked samples for 2 and 6 different organoleptic traits, respectively. Mexican and U.S.-imported LDT steaks did not differ (P>0.05) in PC traits. VL samples differed in L*, b*, hue*, WBSF, and fat content by country of origin (COO). The WBSF for cooked VL samples from the United States was lower (P < 0.05) and fat content was greater (P<0.05) than those for NMEX steaks. The FAP varied between muscles; Mexican LDT had a higher content of C18:0, while VL from the United States had a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a higher PUFA/Saturated ratio (P<0.05). Although sensory traits tended to be rated higher for Mexican LDT and VL steaks, no statistical differences with U.S.-imported samples were detected (P > 0.05). Results indicated that domestic and U.S. retail steaks sold in the NMEX are similar in eating quality and PC, whereas differences observed in FAP deserve further attention from a nutritional standpoint.

  18. Correlating consumer perception and consumer acceptability of traditional Doenjang in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2014-11-01

    Doenjang is a traditional Korean food and is widely used for many Korean foods. Consumer perception and consumer acceptability on the typical sensory characteristics of traditional Doenjang remain unknown. The objective of the current study was to determine the consumer perception on traditional Doenjang characteristics and how preexisting consumer perception influenced the consumer liking for traditionally and commercially manufactured Doenjang. A consumer survey was conducted by presenting 26 sensory descriptions to consumers (n = 82) for check-all-that-apply measurement. Then, a consumer acceptance test was conducted over 2 d on 2 Doenjang samples representing commercially produced Doenjang and traditionally produced Doenjang: Day 1 consumers evaluated without any information (n = 182), and day 2 consumers evaluated samples informed that both samples were made by the "traditional" method (n = 109). Two-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses were conducted. Consumers' preexisting perceptions on the typical sensory characteristics of traditionally made Doenjang were similar in that they associate "gu-soo flavor," "dark color," "flavorful," and "well-fermented flavor" regardless of consumer demographics and Doenjang user status. However, these consumer perceptions on sensory attributes of traditional Doenjang did not agree with desirable sensory attributes for consumer liking, in that consumers preferred the commercially made Doenjang regardless of the evaluation condition and consumer user status. Findings from the current study therefore suggested a discrepancy between the preexisting current consumer perception and actual consumer acceptability of traditional Doenjang products.

  19. The effect of non-standard heat treatment of sheep's milk on physico-chemical properties, sensory characteristics, and the bacterial viability of classical and probiotic yogurt.

    PubMed

    Zamberlin, Šimun; Samaržija, Dubravka

    2017-06-15

    Classical and probiotic set yogurt were made using non-standard heat treatment of sheep's milk at 60°C/5min. Physico-chemical properties, sensory characteristics, and the viability of bacteria that originated from cultures in classical and probiotic yogurt were analysed during 21days of storage at 4°C. For the production of yogurt, a standard yogurt culture and a probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were used. At the end of storage time of the classical and probiotic yogurt the totals of non-denatured whey proteins were 92.31 and 91.03%. The viability of yogurt culture bacteria and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were higher than 10(6)cfu/g. The total sensory score (maximum - 20) was 18.49 for the classical and 18.53 for the probiotic. In nutritional and functional terms it is possible to produce classical and probiotic sheep's milk yogurt by using a non-standard temperature of heat treatment with a shelf life of 21days.

  20. Consumer Acceptability of Intramuscular Fat

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Damian; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2016-01-01

    Fat in meat greatly improves eating quality, yet many consumers avoid visible fat, mainly because of health concerns. Generations of consumers, especially in the English-speaking world, have been convinced by health authorities that animal fat, particularly saturated or solid fat, should be reduced or avoided to maintain a healthy diet. Decades of negative messages regarding animal fats has resulted in general avoidance of fatty cuts of meat. Paradoxically, low fat or lean meat tends to have poor eating quality and flavor and low consumer acceptability. The failure of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets to curb “globesity” has prompted many experts to re-evaluate of the place of fat in human diets, including animal fat. Attitudes towards fat vary dramatically between and within cultures. Previous generations of humans sought out fatty cuts of meat for their superior sensory properties. Many consumers in East and Southeast Asia have traditionally valued more fatty meat cuts. As nutritional messages around dietary fat change, there is evidence that attitudes towards animal fat are changing and many consumers are rediscovering and embracing fattier cuts of meat, including marbled beef. The present work provides a short overview of the unique sensory characteristics of marbled beef and changing consumer preferences for fat in meat in general. PMID:28115880

  1. Sodium diacetate and sodium lactate affect microbiology and sensory and objective characteristics of a restructured turkey breast product formulated with a fibrin cold-set binding system.

    PubMed

    Mohammed Shafit, H; Williams, S K

    2010-03-01

    Research was conducted to manufacture and evaluate a restructured turkey breast product using the Fibrimex cold-set binding system, sodium diacetate (NaD), and sodium lactate (NaL) and to ascertain effects of the treatments on proximate composition, pH, psychrotrophic organisms, water activity, onset of rancidity (TBA), thaw loss, cooking yields, and objective color, and sensory characteristics. Whole turkey breasts were cut into 5-cm-thick strips; treated with either water only (control), 1.5% NaL, 2.0% NaL, 0.1% NaD, 1.5% NaL + 0.1% NaD, or 2.0% NaL + 0.1% NaD; blended with Fibrimex ingredients; stuffed into casings; and stored at -30 degrees C for 0, 1, 2, and 3 mo. After each storage period, frozen chubs were tempered at 4 degrees C, sliced into 1-cm-thick steaks, packaged in retail trays, stored at 0 degrees C to simulate retail storage, and analyzed after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 d. Sodium diacetate used alone or in combination with NaL reduced (P < 0.05) growth of psychrotrophic organisms and had no adverse effects on water activity, pH, cooking yield, fat, moisture, protein, objective color, onset of rancidity, and sensory characteristics (juiciness, turkey flavor intensity, and tenderness). Panelists reported slight off-flavor in all steaks treated with NaL. Treating steaks with NaL alone or in combination with NaD resulted in increased (P < 0.05) ash content. Sodium lactate also functioned to minimize thaw loss in the frozen restructured turkey product.

  2. Effect of the closure type on the evolution of the physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of a Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Rosé wine.

    PubMed

    Guaita, Massimo; Petrozziello, Maurizio; Motta, Silvia; Bonello, Federica; Cravero, Maria Carla; Marulli, Concezio; Bosso, Antonella

    2013-02-01

    The present work studied the effect of the kind of closure (a screw cap, a natural cork, and 2 synthetic closures) on the evolution of the oxygen content and on the physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of a Montepulciano d'Abruzzo rosé wine during the 1st 12 mo of bottle aging. The chemical analyses concerned the parameters more involved in the oxidative reactions (SO(2) , acetaldehyde, phenols, wine color), as well as the main fermentative volatile compounds. The kind of closure influenced the oxygen content in wines, free and total SO(2) concentration, and wine color (color intensity and hue). During bottle aging, free and total SO(2) concentration was significantly and negatively correlated with absorbance at 420 nm (A420), whereas the correlations with A520 were weak. Probably, the limited extent of the variations in red color (A520), when varying SO(2) concentration, were due to the low pH of this rosé wine. No effect of the kind of closure on phenols and the main fermentative volatile compounds was observed. The wines bottled with cork closures (N trials), after 12 mo of storage, had higher color intensity and hue, measured by spectrophotometry, and were visually distinguished from the other trials for the more intense pink reflections. On the whole, under the conditions of this work, all the used closures guaranteed a good preservability to the rosè wines during the 1st year of bottle aging, and the changes in composition did not significantly affect wine sensory characteristics. Therefore, these synthetic closures can represent an alternative to the cork closures for a medium to long term bottle aging of these wines.

  3. Benchmarking carcass characteristics and muscles from commercially identified beef and dairy cull cow carcasses for Warner-Bratzler shear force and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Stelzleni, A M; Patten, L E; Johnson, D D; Calkins, C R; Gwartney, B L

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to benchmark carcasses and muscles from commercially identified fed (animals that were perceived to have been fed an increased plane of nutrition before slaughter) and nonfed cull beef and dairy cows and A-maturity, USDA Select steers, so that the muscles could be identified from cull cow carcasses that may be used to fill a void of intermediately priced beef steaks. Carcass characteristics were measured at 24 h postmortem for 75 carcasses from 5 populations consisting of cull beef cows commercially identified as fed (B-F, n = 15); cull beef cows commercially identified as nonfed (B-NF, n = 15); cull dairy cows commercially identified as fed (D-F, n = 15); cull dairy cows commercially identified as nonfed (D-NF, n = 15); and A-maturity, USDA Select grade steers (SEL, n = 15). Nine muscles were excised from each carcass [m. infraspinatus, m. triceps brachii (lateral and long heads), m. teres major, m. longissimus dorsi (also termed LM), m. psoas major, m. gluteus medius, m. rectus femoris, and m. tensor fasciae latae] and subjected to Warner-Bratzler shear force testing and objective sensory panel evaluation after 14 d of postmortem aging. Carcass characteristics differed (P < 0.05) among the 5 commercially identified slaughter groups for the traits of lean maturity, bone maturity, muscle score, HCW, fat color, subjective lean color, marbling, ribeye area, 12th-rib fat thickness, and preliminary yield grade. Carcasses from commercially identified, fed cull cows exhibited more (P < 0.01) weight in carcass lean than did commercially identified, nonfed cull cows. There was a group x muscle interaction (P = 0.02) for Warner-Bratzler shear force. Warner-Bratzler shear force and sensory overall tenderness values demonstrates that muscles from the SEL group were the most tender (P < 0.01), whereas muscles from the B-NF group were the least tender (P < 0.01). Sensory, beef flavor intensity was similar (P > 0.20) among cull cow carcass groups

  4. Influence of somatic cell counts and breed on physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of hard ewes'-milk cheeses.

    PubMed

    Revilla, Isabel; Lurueña-Martínez, Miguel A; Vivar-Quintana, Ana M

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present work was to perform a physico-chemical, descriptive quantitative and consumer-preference analysis of hard ewes'-milk cheeses that had been matured for one year and to determine the correlations between the variables studied. The cheeses were elaborated with milk from three breeds of sheep (Castellana, Churra and Assaf) with different somatic cell counts (lower than 500,000 cells ml-1; between 1,000,000 and 1,500,000 cells ml-1, and more than 2,500,000 cells ml-1). The results show that the cheeses elaborated with milk with high SCC had lower values of dry extract and fat and high values of pH and fat acidity and were described as pungent, granulose and less creamy. Regarding the effect of breed, the cheeses made with milk from the Churra breed had lower values for fat and those made with Assaf breed milk were significantly more rancid. The study of correlations showed that creaminess was positively correlated with the dry extract and total fat content and negatively correlated with ash and fat acidity, indeed grainy texture and pungency had the opposite sign in their correlation with these latter variables. The yellow colour was positively correlated with ash and negatively with protein. Finally, the consumer preferences reveals that the less accepted cheeses showed the higher values for rancidness and pungency and they were less likely to accept the cheeses made with Assaf breed milk.

  5. Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Calasso, Maria; Campanella, Daniela; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-06-16

    This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, according to traditional protocols that are routinely used for making typical Italian breads. Based on kinetic of acidification and culture-dependent data, the wheat-legume sourdough was further characterized and selected for bread making. As determined by RAPD-PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene analyses, lactic acid bacteria in wheat-legume sourdough included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus coryneformis, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Two breads containing 15% (w/w) of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours were produced using selected wheat-legume sourdough (WLSB) and traditional wheat sourdough (WSB). Compared to wheat yeasted bread (WYB), the level of total free amino acids (FAA) was higher in WSB and WLSB. Phytase and antioxidant activities were the highest in WLSB. Compared to bread WYB, the addition of legume flours decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) (WYB versus WSB). However, the dough fermentation with WSLB favored an increase of IVPD. According to the levels of carbohydrates, dietary fibers and resistant starch, WSB and WLSB showed lower values of hydrolysis index (HI) compared to WYB. As showed by texture and image analyses and sensory evaluation of breads, a good acceptability was found for WSB and, especially, WLSB breads.

  6. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils) on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes

    2016-01-01

    The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils) on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation) and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale). Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry. PMID:27504957

  7. Effect of salmon type, and presence/absence of bone on color, sensory characteristics, and consumer acceptability of pureed and chunked infant food products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salmon type (pink/red), bone (presence/absence) and retort processing on an infant food product. Salmon fillets were cooked (3 min), homogenized (40%) in water (55%) then starch (5%) was added. The product was hot-filled into glass jars then...

  8. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea.

  9. Sensory perineuritis.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, W B; Squier, M V

    1988-01-01

    A case of sensory perineuritis is described, affecting individual cutaneous nerves in the extremities and with a chronic inflammatory exudate confined to the perineurium in a sural nerve biopsy. No cause was found. The condition slowly resolved on steroid treatment. Images PMID:3379419

  10. Effect of inulin on textural and sensory characteristics of sorghum based high fibre biscuits using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Chandralekha; Singh, Rakhi; Jha, Alok; Mitra, Jayeeta

    2014-10-01

    Five blends of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) flour (25.0-45.0 %) and whole wheat flour were used to make biscuits using inulin (5.0-10.0 %) and guar gum (1.0-2.0 %). An experimental investigation was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effect of fat replacer (inulin) and sorghum flour on the quality of high fibre and low calorie biscuits. For this purpose, the biscuit dough and the biscuit samples were analyzed. The analysis was based on hardness of the dough, hardness of the biscuit, fracturability and overall acceptability (OAA) scores. Results showed that increasing the amount of sorghum flour in biscuit increased the dough hardness and biscuit hardness, whereas, biscuit fracturability decreased and OAA scores increased up to the level at which sorghum flour ranged from 35.0 to 40.0 % after which it decreased. An increase in the amount of inulin was followed by an increase in biscuit hardness, while, fracturability and OAA scores decreased and there was little effect on the dough hardness. Optimum conditions generated from the analysis was 40.8 % sorghum flour, 6.5 % inulin and 1.0 % guar gum. The predicted response in terms of dough hardness, fracturability, biscuit hardness and OAA were 212.4 g, 36.4 mm, 4.8 kg and 7.06, respectively. The desirability of the optimum condition was 0.827.

  11. Combined effects of prefermentative skin maceration and oxygen addition of must on color-related phenolics, volatile composition, and sensory characteristics of Airén white wine.

    PubMed

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Castro-Vázquez, Lucía; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Pérez-Coello, María Soledad

    2011-11-23

    The effects of the joint prefermentative maceration and hyperoxygenation of Airén white must and wine on the phenolic content, chromatic characteristics, volatile composition, and sensory characteristics, not previously described in combination, have been evaluated. A total of 20 phenolic and 149 volatile compounds have been identified and quantified for that purpose. As a consequence of the oxygen addition, the concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavan-3-ols decreased (above all t-GRP and (+)-catechin), leading to color stabilization, but also the concentrations of several volatile compounds with a great importance for quality aroma decreased. Prefermentative skin maceration, previously applied to the hyperoxygenation of Airén musts, provided the aforementioned color stabilization in the respective wine but also increased the content of short-chain fatty acid esters and terpenes and decreased the concentration of C(6) alcohols. That combination of prefermentative treatments (skin maceration followed by must hyperoxygenation) produced an improvement of the global impression of the final wine based on significantly better scores of tropical fruit, body, and herbaceous notes.

  12. Determination of the effects of different washing processes on aroma characteristics in silver carp mince by MMSE-GC-MS, e-nose and sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuxia; Chong, Yunqing; Ding, Yuting; Gu, Saiqi; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-15

    The present study investigated the volatile compounds of silver carp mince and the effects of washing processes on the integral aroma characteristics and aroma-active compounds (AACs) of the mince. 57 volatile compounds were identified by monolithic material sorptive extraction (MMSE) and GC-MS analysis, and 13 volatile compounds with odor activity values greater than 1 (OAVs > 1) were further selected as AACs contributing primarily to the integral aroma profile of silver carp. Washing methods affected the overall aroma profiles of fish samples by washing away or facilitating the release of AACs but to different extents. Compared with water washing, washing with saline and weak alkaline solution removed more AACs. Washing with water three times (T2) exhibited a relatively stronger removal effect on most AACs compared to washing with water twice (T1). Washing with a high concentration of saline (T4) produced a strong removal effect on AACs. The results of sensory evaluation and electronic nose (e-nose) detection for distinguishing the aroma characteristics of different samples demonstrated good agreement with those obtained by OAV analysis.

  13. The effect of child characteristics on teachers' acceptability of classroom-based behavioral strategies and psychostimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Pisecco, S; Huzinec, C; Curtis, D

    2001-09-01

    Studied the effect of student characteristics on teachers' ratings of treatment acceptability for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants (N = 159) included experienced elementary school teachers who read 1 of 6 vignettes describing a child with symptoms representative of ADHD. Vignettes varied by sex and symptom-subtype classification. However, the number and specific type of symptoms described in the vignettes were consistent across all conditions. Next, teachers read a description of a daily report card (DRC), response cost technique, classroom lottery, and medication and rated their levels of agreement to the items of the Behavioral Intervention Rating Scale (BIRS). Teachers preferred the DRC to all other forms of treatment. However, there was a significant interaction between the type of treatment and sex of the student on the 3 factors (Treatment Acceptability, Treatment Effectiveness, and Timeliness) of the BIRS.

  14. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-01-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat’s unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods. PMID:26104409

  15. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-07-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat's unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods.

  16. Identification of the characteristics that drive consumer liking of butter.

    PubMed

    Krause, A J; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2007-05-01

    This study identified and explored the sensory characteristics that drive consumer liking of butter. A trained descriptive panel evaluated 27 commercial butters using a defined sensory language. Two focus groups were conducted with butter consumers to gain an understanding of consumer use and consumption habits. Six representative butters and 2 vegetable oil spreads were selected for consumer acceptance testing. Both internal and external preference mapping techniques were applied to interpret consumer data. Key discriminating sensory characteristics of butters included color intensity; diacetyl, cooked, grassy, and milk fat flavors; and salty taste. From focus groups and quantitative consumer testing, the key butter features were a desirable flavor and a natural image. Negative aspects included price and cholesterol. Five consumer clusters with distinct butter and spread flavor likes and dislikes were identified. Butter is a desirable product to consumers. Sensory expectations of butter vary among consumers, and butters with specific sensory characteristics could be marketed to specific target market segments.

  17. Evaluation of the chemical quality traits of soybean seeds, as related to sensory attributes of soymilk.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Li, Bin; Han, Fenxia; Yan, Shurong; Wang, Lianzheng; Sun, Junming

    2015-04-15

    The soybean seed chemical quality traits (including protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, isoflavone content, and protein subunits), soymilk chemical character (soluble solid), and soymilk sensory attributes were evaluated among 70 genotypes to determine the correlation between seed chemical quality traits and soymilk sensory attributes. Six sensory parameters (i.e., soymilk aroma, smoothness in the mouth, thickness in the mouth, sweetness, colour and appearance, and overall acceptability) and a seven-point hedonic scale for each parameter were developed. Significant positive correlations were observed between overall acceptability and the other five evaluation parameters, suggesting that overall acceptability is an ideal parameter for evaluating soymilk flavour. The soymilk sensory attributes were significantly positively correlated with the characteristics of the glycinin (11S)/beta-conglycinin (7S) protein ratio, soluble solid, and oil content but negatively correlated with glycitein and protein content. Our results indicated that soymilk sensory attributes could be improved by selecting the desirable seed chemical quality traits in practical soybean breeding programs.

  18. Finishing steers with diets based on corn, high-tannin sorghum, or a mix of both: feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and beef sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Larraín, R E; Schaefer, D M; Arp, S C; Claus, J R; Reed, J D

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this work was to compare feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and beef sensory attributes from steers finished with diets based on corn, high-tannin sorghum (HTS), and a mix of both grains. Angus crossbred steers (n = 11 steers per treatment, initial BW = 404 +/- 18 kg) were finished on diets containing 765 g/kg of DM of corn, HTS, or a 1:1 mix of corn and HTS. Final BW (P < 0.01), ADG (P < 0.001), and G:F (P < 0.01) were reduced in steers fed HTS when compared with steers fed corn. Steers fed the mixed diet had greater G:F than the average between corn and HTS diets (P = 0.04), which indicated that mixing corn and HTS had positive associative effects. Estimated NE(m) of HTS was 1.91, and estimated NE(g) was 1.35 Mcal/kg of DM. Hot carcass weight (P < 0.01), trimmed carcass weight (P < 0.01), yield grade (P = 0.04), and 12th-rib fat thickness (P = 0.01) were less in steers fed HTS than in those fed corn. Estimated percentage of HCW as boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts was greater in steers fed HTS compared with those fed corn (P = 0.02) but, due to the decreased HCW, estimated amount of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts was less in steers fed HTS than in those fed corn (P = 0.03). Steers fed HTS had greater pH on LM (P = 0.02) than steers fed corn, but the difference was small (5.42 +/- 0.02 vs. 5.36 +/- 0.02, respectively) and within the range of normal beef pH. Diet had no effect on Warner-Bratzler shear values (P > or = 0.72). Multivariate ANOVA indicated a difference in sensory attributes of beef from corn and HTS steers (Wilks' Lambda, P = 0.04). When evaluating each sensory attribute independently, panelists found beef from steers fed HTS to be less juicy (P < 0.01), less tender (P = 0.03), and more cooked (P < 0.01) than beef from animals fed corn. Data from this study indicated that by using a 1:1 mix of HTS and corn it is possible to finish steers to similar BW and carcass quality as by using a corn-based diet. Also, total

  19. Comparison of sensory and compositions of five selected persimmon cultivars (Diospyros kaki L.) and correlations between chemical components and processing characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyu; Du, Jing; Ge, Zhen-Zhen; Zhu, Wei; Nie, Rongzu; Li, Chun-Mei

    2016-03-01

    Persimmon is one of the most popular and valuable fruits in markets because of its distinguished flavor as well as its significant benefits to health. The present study systematically compared the sensory characteristics and chemical compositions of five commercial persimmon fruits, and the correlations between chemical components and processing characteristics were also included. Our results showed that obvious differences in aroma and taste were found among the cultivars. Likewise, the contents of chemical components including sugar, total phenol, β-carotene and ascorbic acid, varied significantly (p < 0.05) across different persimmon cultivars. The processing characteristics of persimmon fruit closely correlated with the chemical compositions. Pectin (r = 0.76, p < 0.01) and total phenol (r = 0.576, p < 0.05) were found to enhance the viscosity of persimmon pulp, and the colour of persimmon powder was greatly influenced by β-carotene, ascorbic acid and sugar contents (r = 0.823, -0.729 and -0.685, p < 0.01, respectively). Powder recovery of persimmon was positively correlated with pectin content (r = 0.503, p < 0.05) and negatively related to total sugar content (r = -0.668, p < 0.01). Pectin content exerted positive effect (r = 0.719, p < 0.01) on hygroscopicity of persimmon powder, and the powder solubility showed a positive correlation to sugar and a negative relationship to pectin contents (r = 0.662 and -0.716, p < 0.01, respectively). In addition, a positive correlation (r = 0.642, p < 0.01) of the content of ascorbic acid to phenolic retention was also observed.

  20. Geospatial variation of grapevine water status, soil water availability, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a spatially heterogeneous premium wine grape vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, D. R.; Cosby Hess, S.; Plant, R.; Feihn, O.; Heymann, H.; Ebeler, S.

    2014-11-01

    The geoscience component of terroir in wine grape production continues to be criticized for its quasi-mystical nature, and lack of testable hypotheses. Nonetheless, recent relational investigations are emerging and most involve water availability as captured by available water capacity (AWC, texture) or plant available water (PAW) in the root zone of soil as being a key factor. The second finding emerging may be that the degree of microscale variability in PAW and other soil factors at the vineyard scale renders larger regional characterizations questionable. Cimatic variables like temperature are well mixed, and its influence on wine characteristic is fairly well established. The influence of mesogeology on mesoclimate factors has also been characterized to some extent. To test the hypothesis that vine water status mirrors soil water availability, and controls fruit sensory and chemical properties at the vineyard scale we examined such variables in a iconic, selectively harvested premium winegrape vineyard in the Napa Valley of California during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. Geo-referenced data vines remained as individual study units throughout data gathering and analysis. Cartographic exercises using geographic information systems (GIS) were used to vizualize geospatial variation in soil and vine properties. Highly significant correlations (P < 0.01) emerged for pre-dawn leaf water potential (ΨPD), mid-day leaf water potential (ΨL) and PAW, with berry size, berry weight, pruning weights (canopy size) and soluble solids content (°Brix). Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality had vines with (1) lower leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn and mid-day, (2) smaller berry diameter and weight, (3) lower pruning weights, and (4) higher °Brix. A trained sensory panel found grapes from the more water-stressed vines had significantly sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal character, and browner and crunchier seeds. Metabolomic analysis of

  1. Fatty acid and sensory characteristics of beef from three biological types of cattle grazing cool-season forages supplemented with soyhulls.

    PubMed

    Baublits, R T; Brown, A H; Pohlman, F W; Rule, D C; Johnson, Z B; Onks, D O; Murrieta, C M; Richards, C J; Loveday, H D; Sandelin, B A; Pugh, R B

    2006-01-01

    Over two consecutive years, the effects of allocating divergent biological types of cattle (n=107) to fescue pasture without supplementation, or fescue or orchardgrass pasture with soyhull supplementation on chemical, fatty acid and sensory characteristics were investigated. Cattle from the two supplemented treatments produced beef that had increased (P<0.05) percentage lipid and decreased (P<0.05) polyunsaturated and n-3 fatty acids compared to the control. However, the n-6 to n-3 ratio was still less than four in beef from the supplemented cattle. Additionally, supplementation did not decrease (P>0.05) the CLA present in the longissimus, which can commonly occur when forage-fed cattle are supplemented concentrates. Although supplementation did not impact (P>0.05) Warner-Bratzler shear force or tenderness, supplementation of soyhulls reduced (P<0.05) the grassy flavor intensity of rib steaks when compared to the control. Biological type did not have a significant influence on most traits analyzed in this study. These results suggest that supplementation of soyhulls to cattle grazing forage can reduce grassy flavor intensity without decreasing CLA proportions, but can reduce the n-3 fatty acid proportions present in the longissimus.

  2. Improvement of Cencibel red wines by oxygen addition after malolactic fermentation: study on color-related phenolics, volatile composition, and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cejudo-Bastante, Maria Jesús; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Pérez-Coello, Maria Soledad

    2012-06-13

    The objective of this paper was to check whether a micro-oxygenation technique applied after malolactic fermentation could improve the quality of Cencibel red wines. For that purpose, the color-related phenolics, volatile composition, and sensory characteristics during the micro-oxygenation treatment have been considered. The phenolic compounds more affected by the oxygen addition were hydroxycinnamic acids and their derivatives [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin], flavonols (glycosilated forms), and anthocyanins-related pigments. The fact that the concentration of pyranoanthocyanins and hydroxyphenyl-pyranoanthocyanins was higher in treated red wines is closely related to their color stabilization. As a consequence, higher values of the yellow and red component of the color (b* and a*, respectively) were also observed in micro-oxygenated red wines. Red wine aroma quality was also improved in treated wines. A significant decrease in herbaceous notes, bitterness, acidity, and astringency was found, as well as higher scores of red fruits, plum, liquorice, and spicy attributes in oxygen-added red wines.

  3. Influence of sodium chloride treatment and polysaccharides as debittering agent on the physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacity and sensory characteristics of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) juice.

    PubMed

    Siti Rashima, R; Maizura, M; Kang, W M; Fazilah, A; Tan, L X

    2017-01-01

    The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) (3.5%) solution and polysaccharides, such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5%) and gum arabic (5, 10 and 15%), on the physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacity and sensory characteristics of bitter gourd juice were investigated. An increase in the concentration of CMC and gum arabic significantly was observed to increase the lightness (L value) and the viscosity (mPas) of bitter gourd juice at all levels. Increased concentrations of gum arabic significantly increased the total soluble solids. The bitter gourd fruit treated with NaCl solution produced the highest lightness (L value) and scavenging activity of free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl of bitter gourd juice. Increased concentration of gum arabic up to 15% significantly increased the total phenolic content. The addition of 5% gum arabic effectively reduced the bitterness of the bitter gourd juice. Viscosity of the juice resulted in negative correlation for bitterness.

  4. Development of probiotic dairy beverages: rheological properties and application of mathematical models in sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Castro, W F; Cruz, A G; Bisinotto, M S; Guerreiro, L M R; Faria, J A F; Bolini, H M A; Cunha, R L; Deliza, R

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry-flavored probiotic dairy beverages (2% vol/vol Lactobacillus acidophilus) were produced using 0, 20, 35, 50, 65, and 80% (vol/vol) whey in their formulations. Mathematical models (survival analysis, minimal significant difference, and mean global acceptance) were used to identify the optimal (sensorially) whey concentration in probiotic beverages. Fifty-five consumers evaluated acceptance of the beverages using hybrid 9-point hedonic scales. In addition, Lb. acidophilus were enumerated and pH was determined. Rheological behavior is an important characteristic for the processing and sensory acceptance of dairy beverages, varying with the presence of additives, fermentation process (time, bacterial strain), and whey concentrations used. All beverages presented minimal counts of 8 log cfu/mL of Lb. acidophilus, and pH ranged from 4.09 to 4.14. Increasing the whey content increased the fragility of the gel structure, probably because of the replacement of casein by whey proteins, once the concentrations of other ingredients in formulation were fixed. Whey content had a significant effect on acceptance of the probiotic dairy beverages; beverages with whey contents greater than 65% resulted in lower acceptance by consumers. The model of mean global acceptance presented 2 solutions with high sensory scores: beverages with 12 and 65% whey, the latter being of interest because it allows greater use of the whey by-product. The Weibull distribution presented a prediction of whey concentration of 49%, with higher sensory acceptance. The methodologies used in this research were shown to be useful in determining the constituents of food formulations, especially for whey-based probiotic beverages.

  5. Sensory quality of broiler breast meat influenced by low atmospheric pressure stunning, deboning time and cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Schilling, M W; Radhakrishnan, V; Vizzier-Thaxton, Y; Christensen, K; Williams, J B; Joseph, P

    2015-06-01

    Stunning method (low atmospheric pressure stunning, LAPS and electrical stunning, ES), deboning time (0.75 h and 4 h), and cooking method (baking, frying, and sous vide) were evaluated for their impact on the descriptive sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of breast meat (n=576, 144 birds per stunning × deboning time combination). Sensory evaluation was conducted by trained descriptive (n=8) and consumer (n=185) panels. On average, no differences (P>0.05) existed in the sensory acceptability of fried and sous vide cooked broiler breast treatment combinations. However, for oven-baking, the LAPS treatment that was deboned at 4 h was more acceptable (P<0.05) than other treatments and the ES and LAPS 4 h samples had greater (P<0.05) acceptability for texture than their ES and LAPS 0.75 h counterparts. Since consumers were highly variable in their liking of chicken breast treatments, consumers were grouped into clusters for each cooking method based on liking and preference. Cluster analysis data revealed that the largest groups of consumers liked (score≥6.0) all chicken breast treatments, but a larger proportion of consumers liked the 4 h LAPS and ES treatments when compared to the 0.75 h LAPS and ES treatments for all cooking methods. In addition, the consumers who indicated that baked chicken breast was highly acceptable preferred (P<0.05) 4 h LAPS over the 4 h ES samples. Based on sensory results, chicken breast meat from all stunning and deboning method combinations was highly acceptable to the majority of consumers, but the LAPS 4 h treatment had enhanced sensory characteristics when baked.

  6. Which perceived characteristics make product innovations appealing to the consumer? A study on the acceptance of fruit innovations using cross-cultural consumer segmentation.

    PubMed

    Onwezen, Marleen C; Bartels, Jos

    2011-08-01

    In general, fruit consumption in the EU does not meet governments' recommended levels, and innovations in the fruit industry are thought to be useful for increasing fruit consumption. Despite the enormous number of product innovations, the majority of new products in the market fail within the first two years, due to a lack of consumer acceptance. Consumer segmentation may be a useful research tool to increase the success rates of new fruit products. The current study aims to identify consumer segments based on individual importance rankings of fruit choice motives. We conducted a cross-national, online panel survey on fresh fruit innovations in four European countries: the Netherlands (n=251), Greece (n=246), Poland (n=250), and Spain (n=250). Our cluster analysis revealed three homogeneous consumer segments: Average Joe, the Naturally conscious consumer, and the Health-oriented consumer. These consumer segments differed with respect to their importance ratings for fruit choice motives. Furthermore, the willingness to buy specific fruit innovations (i.e., genetically modified, functional food and convenience innovation) and the perceived product characteristics that influence this willingness differed across the segments. Our study could lead to more tailored marketing strategies aimed at increasing consumer acceptance of fruit product innovations based on consumer segmentation.

  7. Effects of grazing cow diet on volatile compounds as well as physicochemical and sensory characteristics of 12-month-ripened Montasio cheese.

    PubMed

    Aprea, E; Romanzin, A; Corazzin, M; Favotto, S; Betta, E; Gasperi, F; Bovolenta, S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pasture type and cow feeding supplementation level on a 12-mo-ripened Montasio protected designation of origin (PDO) cheese, which is one of the most important PDO cheeses produced in northeast Italy. Cheeses were characterized for volatile compounds, color, mechanical variables, and sensory descriptors. Pasture type significantly affected most of the instrumental variables considered and, as a consequence, sensory properties were affected as well. Cheeses from the pasture characterized by a nutrient-rich vegetation type were higher in protein and lower in fat content. Furthermore, such cheeses, evaluated by a sensory panel, were more intense in color with a more pungent and less cow-like odor, in agreement with what found through instrumental analyses. Supplementation level resulted in less pronounced effects, limited to volatile compounds and texture properties, which were not detected by sensory analysis. The characterization of the 12-mo ripened Montasio cheese reported here is an important step for the valorization of this PDO product.

  8. Degradation kinetics of peroxidase enzyme, phenolic content, and physical and sensorial characteristics in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Italica) during blanching.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Elsa M; Pinheiro, Joaquina; Alegria, Carla; Abreu, Marta; Brandão, Teresa R S; Silva, Cristina L M

    2009-06-24

    The effects of water blanching treatment on peroxidase inactivation, total phenolic content, color parameters [-a*/b* and hue (h degrees*)], texture (maximum shear force), and sensory attributes (color and texture, evaluated by a trained panel) of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Italica) were studied at five temperatures (70, 75, 80, 85, and 90 degrees C). Experimental results showed that all studied broccoli quality parameters suffered significative changes due to blanching treatments. The vegetal total phenolic content showed a marked decline. Degradation on objective color and texture measurements and alterations in sensorial attributes were detected. Correlations between sensory and instrumental measurements have been found. Under the conditions 70 degrees C and 6.5 min or 90 degrees C and 0.4 min, 90% of the initial peroxidase activity was reduced. At these conditions, no significant alterations were detected by panelists, and a small amount of phenolic content was lost (ca. 16 and 10%, respectively). The peroxidase inactivation and phenolic content degradation were found to follow first-order reaction models. The zero-order reaction model showed a good fit to the broccoli color (-a*/b* and h degrees*), texture, and sensory parameters changes. The temperature effect was well-described by the Arrhenius law.

  9. Effects of sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives on the quality and sensory characteristics of hot-boned pork sausage patties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives were evaluated for their effects on color retention, microbial growth, and sensory attributes of hot-boned pork sausage patties. Treatments included: (a) sodium lactate (L), (b) buffered vinegar (V), (c) sodium lactate and vinegar mixture (LV), (d) control ...

  10. Sensory Quality Preservation of Coated Walnuts.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Antonella L; Asensio, Claudia M; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensory stability of coated walnuts during storage. Four walnut samples were prepared: uncoated (NC), and samples coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (NCMC), methyl cellulose (NMC), or whey protein (NPS). The samples were stored at room temperature for 210 d and were periodically removed from storage to perform a sensory descriptive analysis. A consumer acceptance test was carried out on the fresh product (storage day 0) to evaluate flavor. All samples exhibited significant differences in their sensory attributes initially and after storage. Intensity ratings for oxidized and cardboard flavors increased during storage. NC showed the highest oxidized and cardboard intensity ratings (39 and 22, respectively) and NMC exhibited the lowest intensity ratings for these negative attributes (8 and 17, respectively) after 210 d of storage. Alternatively, the intensity ratings for sweetness and walnut flavors were decreased for all samples. NMC had the lowest decrease at the end of storage for these positive attributes (75.86 in walnut flavor and 12.09 in sweetness). The results of this study suggest a protective effect of the use of an edible coating to preserve sensory attributes during storage, especially for samples coated with MC. The results of the acceptance test showed that addition of the coating negatively affected the flavor acceptance for NMC and NCMC coated walnuts. Edible coatings help to preserve sensory attributes in walnuts, improving their shelf-life, however, these coatings may affect consumer acceptance in some cases.

  11. Inulin and erythritol as sucrose replacers in short-dough cookies: sensory, fracture, and acoustic properties.

    PubMed

    Laguna, Laura; Primo-Martín, Cristina; Salvador, Ana; Sanz, Teresa

    2013-05-01

    The effect of sucrose replacement by erythritol and inulin was studied in short-dough cookies using instrumental and sensory analysis. Two levels of replacement were used (25% and 50% of total sucrose content). Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the sucrose replacement affects visual and texture cookies characteristics, being the differences perceived by mouth greater than by hand. In general, sucrose substitutes produced a less crispy cookie and lower consumer acceptability, with the exception of 25% sucrose replacement by inulin. Matrix aeration attributes such as open and crumbly obtained by trained panel were important properties, and correlated positively with consumer acceptance and negatively with maximum force at break (hardness). Inulin cookies sensory properties were more similar to the control than the erythritol cookies. Also, consumer overall acceptance decreased significantly with sucrose replacement by erythritol. The analysis of texture and sound revealed that inulin cookies were softer whereas erythritol cookies were harder in comparison with control cookies; despite this difference, inulin cookies had similar sound characteristics to erythritol cookies.

  12. Correlation between sensory and instrumental measurements of standard and crisp-texture southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. interspecific hybrids)

    PubMed Central

    Blaker, Kendra M; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Olmstead, James W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fruit texture is a primary selection trait in southern highbush blueberry (SHB) breeding to increase fresh fruit postharvest quality and consumer acceptance. A novel crisp fruit texture has recently been identified among SHB germplasm. In this study, we developed a common set of descriptors that align sensory evaluation of blueberry fruit texture with instrumental measures that could be used for quantitative measurements during pre- and postharvest evaluation. RESULTS Sensory and instrumental characteristics were measured in 36 and 49 genotypes in 2010 and 2011, respectively. A trained sensory panel evaluated fresh fruit based on five common textural attributes in 2010 and 2011: bursting energy, flesh firmness, skin toughness, juiciness and mealiness. Instrumental measures of compression and bioyield forces were significantly different among cultivars and correlated with sensory scores for bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness (R > 0.7, except skin toughness in 2011), but correlations with sensory scores for juiciness and mealiness were low (R < 0.4). CONCLUSION The results of sensory and instrumental measures supported the use of both compression and bioyield force measures in distinguishing crisp from standard-texture genotypes, and suggest that crisp texture in SHB is related to the sensory perception of bursting energy, flesh firmness and skin toughness. PMID:24619938

  13. Sensory and Volatile Profiles of Monovarietal North Tunisian Extra Virgin Olive Oils from 'Chétoui' Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Essid, Faten; Sifi, Samira; Beltrán, Gabriel; Sánchez, Sebastián; Raïes, Aly

    2016-07-01

    The quality of olive oil is defined as a combination of characteristics that significantly determine its acceptance by consumers. This study was carried out to compare sensorial and chemical characteristics of sixty 'Chétoui' extra virgin olive oils (EVOOc) samples from six northern areas in Tunisia (Tebourba (EVOOT); Other regions (EVOON): Mornag, Sidi Amor, El Kef, Béjà and Jendouba). Trained panel taste detected ten sensory attributes. EVOOT and EVOON were defined by 'tomato' and 'grass/ leave notes, respectively. Twenty one volatile compounds from EVOOc were extracted and identified by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction followed by Gas Chromatography- Flame Ionization Detector. Principal component and cluster analysis of all studied parameters showed that EVOOT differed from EVOON. Sensory and volatile profiles of EVOOc revealed that the perception of different aromas, in monovarietal olive oil, was the result of synergic effect of oils' various components, whose composition was influenced by the geographical growing area.

  14. Effect of flaxseed flour incorporation on the physical properties and consumer acceptability of cereal bars.

    PubMed

    Khouryieh, H; Aramouni, F

    2013-12-01

    Extensive research has revealed numerous nutritional and health benefits of flaxseed due primarily to its nutrients content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of flaxseed flour addition on the physical and sensory characteristics of cereal bars. Four formulations of the flaxseed cereal bars were prepared by partially replacing oats with flaxseed flour added at levels of 0 (control), 6%, 12% and 18%. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in water activity, moisture and firmness values between the flaxseed bars and control. Flaxseed addition significantly (p < 0.05) decreased lightness and increased redness of the bars. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the 12% flax cereal bars and the control with respect to sensory attributes and overall acceptability. The overall acceptability for both 12% flax bars and the control was in between 'like moderately' and 'like slightly' on the 9-point hedonic scale. The overall acceptability was most highly correlated with flavor acceptability for both control (r = 0.80) and 12% flax (r = 0.82) cereal bars. Flaxseed bars provided 12% dietary fiber of the daily recommended value. These results indicated that flaxseed flour incorporation up to 12% substantially enhanced the nutritional qualities of the cereal bars without affecting their sensory and quality properties.

  15. Meaning-making matters in product design: Users’ sensory perceptions and experience evaluations of long-acting vaginal gels and intravaginal rings

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Rochelle K.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Vargas, Sara E.; Senocak, Natali; Shaw, Julia G.; Buckheit, Robert W.; Smith, Kelley Alison; Guthrie, Kate Morrow

    2015-01-01

    Objective Users’ sensory perceptions and experiences (USPEs) of intravaginal products can inform acceptability and adherence. Focusing on the meanings women derive from formulation/device characteristics facilitates developers’ design iterations toward optimizing user experience. We investigated how users of long acting gels and intravaginal rings (IVRs) impute meaning to characteristics that may affect future product use. Study Design Focus groups were conducted with contraceptive IVR and vaginal lubricant users. Current perceptibility science and historical theory on the cultural acceptability of fertility regulating methods informed the analysis. Results 21 IVR users and 29 lubricant users attended focus groups in which they manipulated products in their hands and discussed reactions to product characteristics. Participants used prior product experiences, and sensory perceptions of prototype manipulations, to inform meanings about product properties and performance for pregnancy, disease prevention, comfort, and perceived efficacy. The meanings derived from product characteristics depended on why the product would be used; a characteristic deemed problematic in one risk context may be considered preferable in another. Conclusions Intravaginal product users create narratives that ascribe influence or causality to product characteristics. These meanings, whether correct or incorrect biologically, will shape vaginal product acceptability, use, and effectiveness. Implications Long-acting, and sustained-release, drug delivery systems will be part of the multipurpose prevention continuum. Developers must consider how sensory experiences and culturally salient assumptions shape the meanings users make of product design characteristics. Those meanings will ultimately impact use and effectiveness. PMID:26276246

  16. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development.

  17. Effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour on the antioxidant potential, nutritional quality, and sensory characteristics of fortified durum wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of carob flour addition from 1% to 5% (w/w) on phenolics content, antioxidant activity, nutritional quality, and sensory attributes of wheat pasta. An increase of about 2-folds, 18-folds and 3-folds in phenolics content, antiradical activity and reducing power for pasta fortified with 5% of carob flour was observed, respectively, compared to the control. Expected glycemic index (eGI) was increased proportionally to the substitution level and ranged between 72.2 and 83.9 for 1-5% of supplement, respectively. Furthermore, pasta fortification affected the in vitro bioaccessibility of nutrients. In case of 5% supplemented pasta, the digestibility of starch and protein decreased by about 9% compared to the control. The replacement of semolina with carob flour from 1% to 5% had no significant effect on pasta sensory attributes. In conclusion, carob flour seems to be a promising functional ingredient for pasta fortification.

  18. Partial sodium replacement in tilapia steak without loss of acceptability.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Maria Lúcia G; Mársico, Eliane T; Canto, Anna Carolina V C S; Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Lázaro, César A; Cruz, Adriano G; Conte-Júnior, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate physical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium tilapia steaks restructured with microbial transglutaminase. Polyphosphate (0.4%), condiment mixes-onion powder and garlic powder (2.5%), water (10.0%), transglutaminase (1.0%), and different types of salts (1.5%) were mixed with non-commercial sized fillets. Substitution of NaCl by KCl or MgCl2 (at 50% each) affected quality attributes and decreased (P < 0.05) consumer acceptability. The tri-salt steaks (KCl, MgCl2, and NaCl at 1:1:2 ratio) improved some attributes and increased (P < 0.05) acceptability and purchase intention. We conclude that potassium and magnesium chlorides are possible replacers of salt (NaCl) in restructured tilapia steaks and potentially decrease the risk factor for heart failure associated with high sodium consumption.

  19. Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on growing and finishing steer intake, performance, carcass characteristics, and steak color and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Leupp, J L; Lardy, G P; Bauer, M L; Karges, K K; Gibson, M L; Caton, J S; Maddock, R J

    2009-12-01

    juicier and more flavorful than steaks from steers fed 0:0 or 30:0 (6.01 vs. 5.83 +/- 0.11; 6.02 vs. 5.89 +/- 0.08, respectively). Inclusion of 30% DDGS in the growing period tended to reduce L (P = 0.08; 48.6 vs. 48.9 +/- 0.2) and b (P = 0.01; 8.24 vs. 8.65 +/- 0.18) of steaks. Feeding DDGS during growing or finishing reduced b (P = 0.02; 8.35 vs. 8.74 +/- 0.18) compared with 0:0. Feeding DDGS during the finishing period reduced a (P < 0.001; 20.1 vs. 22.0 +/- 0.24) of steaks. Furthermore, feeding DDGS during growing or finishing reduced a (P < 0.001; 20.9 vs. 21.7 +/- 0.24) compared with 0:0. Feeding 30% DDGS did not affect any performance or carcass characteristics but did influence steak sensory attributes and color.

  20. Effects of debittering on grapefruit juice acceptance.

    PubMed

    Sami, P S; Toma, R B; Nelson, D B; Frank, G C

    1997-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the acceptance of grapefruit juice which has undergone a debittering process. The sensory effect of debittering and the sensory attributes of sourness, sweetness, bitterness, and aftertaste were appraised, and the correlation between chemical and sensory analyses of the debittered juice were identified. The effect of added grapefruit flavor on perception of sweetness and sourness was statistically significant. Both the level of bitterness and storage duration of grapefruit were shown to influence the way judges perceived bitterness and sweetness. Storage study showed no difference in aftertaste, which may increase consumers buying interest in debittered juice with a high level of bitterness (450 ppm).

  1. Response surface methodology for predicting quality characteristics of beef patties added with flaxseed and tomato paste.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela Melendres, M; Camou, J P; Torrentera Olivera, N G; Alvarez Almora, E; González Mendoza, D; Avendaño Reyes, L; González Ríos, H

    2014-05-01

    Response surface methodology was used to study the effect of flaxseed flour (FS) and tomato paste (TP) addition, from 0 to 10% and 0 to 20% respectively, on beef patty quality characteristics. The assessed quality characteristics were color (L, a, and b), pH and texture profile analysis (TPA). Also, sensory analysis was performed for the assessment of color, juiciness, firmness, and general acceptance. FS addition reduced L and a values and decreased weight loss of cooked products (P<0.05). An opposite effect was observed when TP was added (P<0.05). All TPA parameters decreased when percentages of FS and TP were increased in the formulation of beef patties. Furthermore, FS and TP addition adversely affected the sensory characteristics of the cooked product (P<0.05); nevertheless, all sensory characteristics evaluated had an acceptable score (>5.6). Thus FS and TP are ingredients that can be used in beef patty preparation.

  2. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Appenzeller Cheese Supplemented with Shrimp Powder

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Chun, Soon-Sil

    2015-01-01

    The effects of adding shrimp (Periclimenes imperator) powder to Appenzeller cheese on quality and characteristics during ripening were investigated. Cheese samples were prepared containing 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% shrimp powder. Changes in the lactic acid bacterial populations, pH, water-soluble nitrogen concentrations, consumer acceptability, colour and texture were monitored during ripening. The addition of shrimp powder did not affect the appearance or consumer sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Likewise, cheese cohesiveness, fracturability, and springiness were not significantly altered. It was concluded that the quality of the Appenzeller cheese was not affected by adding shrimp powder. PMID:26761833

  3. National survey of sensory features in children with ASD: factor structure of the sensory experience questionnaire (3.0).

    PubMed

    Ausderau, Karla; Sideris, John; Furlong, Melissa; Little, Lauren M; Bulluck, John; Baranek, Grace T

    2014-04-01

    This national online survey study characterized sensory features in 1,307 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ages 2-12 years using the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire Version 3.0 (SEQ-3.0). Using the SEQ-3.0, a confirmatory factor analytic model with four substantive factors of hypothesized sensory response patterns (i.e., hyporesponsiveness; hyperresponsiveness; sensory interests, repetitions and seeking behaviors; enhanced perception), five method factors of sensory modalities (i.e., auditory, visual, tactile, gustatory/olfactory, vestibular/proprioceptive), and one of social context were tested with good model fit. Child and family characteristics associated with the sensory response patterns were explored. The effect of sensory response patterns on autism severity was tested, controlling for key child and family characteristics. The SEQ-3.0 demonstrates an empirically valid factor structure specific to ASD that considers sensory response patterns, modalities, and social context.

  4. Interactions between canola meal and flaxseed oil in the diets of White Lohmann hens on fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of table eggs.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2016-08-01

    The current study was designed to assess the fatty acid composition and sensory attributes of eggs procured from hens consuming diets containing canola meal (CM) and/or flax oil (FO). A total of 96 group-caged White Lohmann hens received 1 of 4 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets for a period of 4 weeks. Diets were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, containing 24% canola meal, 7.5% flax oil, both, or neither (control). All yolk fatty acids were affected by flax oil inclusion, with the exception of stearic acid (SA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Only SA was affected by CM inclusion. Additionally, significant interactions between CM and FO were observed for linoleic acid (LA) and total omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with DPA approaching significance (P = 0.069). Trained panelists (n = 8) evaluated 7 aroma ('egg', 'creamy', 'buttery', 'salty', 'sweet', 'barny', and 'oceanic') and 6 flavor ('egg', 'creamy', 'buttery', 'salty', 'brothy', and 'oceanic') attributes of cooked egg product. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in aroma attributes were found between eggs from different dietary treatments. However, egg, creamy, buttery, and oceanic flavors were significantly different between the dietary treatments (P < 0.05). While oceanic flavor significantly increased with inclusion of FO, egg and creamy flavors showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05). Although CM addition alone did not result in significant sensory changes, the pairing of CM and FO resulted in even greater sensory changes than using FO alone, specifically with regard to egg flavor. Results from partial least squares analyses showed a strong association between oceanic flavor and omega-3 PUFA. Oppositely, egg, creamy, and buttery flavors were more correlated with the presence of omega-6 PUFA and palmitic acid. This experiment provides evidence that the interaction between CM and FO in the White Lohmann hen diet results in sensory changes of cooked eggs associated in

  5. Incorporation of Mg and Ca into nanostructured Fe2O3 improves Fe solubility in dilute acid and sensory characteristics in foods.

    PubMed

    Hilty, Florentine M; Knijnenburg, Jesper T N; Teleki, Alexandra; Krumeich, Frank; Hurrell, Richard F; Pratsinis, Sotiris E; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies worldwide. Food fortification can be an effective and sustainable strategy to reduce Fe deficiency but selection of iron fortificants remains a challenge. Water-soluble compounds, for example, FeSO(4), usually demonstrate high bioavailability but they often cause unacceptable sensory changes in foods. On the other hand, poorly acid-soluble Fe compounds, for example FePO(4), may cause fewer adverse sensory changes in foods but are usually not well bioavailable since they need to be dissolved in the stomach prior to absorption. The solubility and the bioavailability of poorly acid-soluble Fe compounds can be improved by decreasing their primary particle size and thereby increasing their specific surface area. Here, Fe oxide-based nanostructured compounds with added Mg or Ca were produced by scalable flame aerosol technology. The compounds were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fe solubility in dilute acid. Sensory properties of the Fe-based compounds were tested in 2 highly reactive, polyphenol-rich food matrices: chocolate milk and fruit yoghurt. The Fe solubility of nanostructured Fe(2)O(3) doped with Mg or Ca was higher than that of pure Fe(2)O(3). Since good solubility in dilute acid was obtained despite the inhomogeneity of the powders, inexpensive precursors, for example Fe- and Ca-nitrates, can be used for their manufacture. Adding Mg or Ca lightened powder color, while sensory changes when added to foods were less pronounced than for FeSO(4). The combination of high Fe solubility and low reactivity in foods makes these flame-made nanostructured compounds promising for food fortification. Practical Application: The nanostructured iron-containing compounds presented here may prove useful for iron fortification of certain foods; they are highly soluble in dilute acid and likely to be well absorbed in the gut but cause less severe

  6. A sensory- and consumer-based approach to optimize cheese enrichment with grape skin powders.

    PubMed

    Torri, L; Piochi, M; Marchiani, R; Zeppa, G; Dinnella, C; Monteleone, E

    2016-01-01

    dispersion in the curd would reduce the effect of powder addition on sensory properties, thereby encouraging the use of these polyphenol-based fortifiers in cheeses. The proposed approach allowed the identification of sensory properties critical for product acceptability by consumers, thus helping the optimization of both fortifier characteristics and new cheese production and composition.

  7. Descriptive analysis and U.S. consumer acceptability of 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores H

    2010-03-01

    In the past, green tea has been one of the least popular nonalcoholic beverages for U.S. consumers. However, green tea has been receiving attention because of its potential health benefits. Knowing which green tea flavor attributes contribute to consumer liking will help the fast growing green tea business including green tea importers, tea shops, and beverage companies to understand which characteristics are most accepted by U.S. consumers. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine differences in acceptability of commonly available loose leaf and bagged green teas available from the major exporters to the U.S. (Japan, Korea, and China) and (2) to determine which green tea flavor characteristics are related to consumers' liking. In the study, consumers from the U.S. evaluated 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea for acceptability. A highly trained panel also evaluated the green tea samples to provide descriptive sensory attributes that might be related to acceptability. We found that U.S. consumers liked green tea samples with lower flavor intensity and lower bitterness intensity. Consumers' acceptability of green tea was negatively correlated with spinach and animalic flavor and bitterness and astringency of green teas evaluated using descriptive sensory analysis, but the correlation was only moderate. To learn what green tea flavor characteristics influence consumers' liking, future studies using more green tea samples with different flavor profiles are needed.

  8. Identification of characteristic flavour precursors from enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation tallow by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-olfactometry and partial least squares regression.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Xiaoming; Song, Shiqing; Tan, Chen; Jia, Chengsheng; Xia, Shuqin

    2013-01-15

    The "enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation" method was employed to obtain oxidized tallow. Nine beeflike flavours (BFs) were prepared through Maillard reaction with oxidized tallow and other ingredients. Volatile compounds of oxidized tallow and beeflike flavours were analysed by SPME/GC-MS. Six sensory attributes (meaty, beefy, tallowy, simulate, burnt and off-flavour) were selected to assess BFs. Thirty four odour-active compounds were identified to represent beef odour through GC-O analysis based on detection frequency method. GC-MS profiles of oxidized tallow were correlated with GC-O responses and sensory attributes of BFs using partial least squares regression modelling (PLSR). Twenty nine compounds were considered as the potential precursors of oxidized tallow. Among them, tetradecanoic acid, d-limonene, 1,7-heptandiol, 2-butyltetrahydrofuran, (Z)-4-undecenal, (Z)-4-decenal, (E)-4-nonenal and 5-pentyl-2(3H)-furanone were unique products generated from enzymatic hydrolysis-mild thermal oxidation of tallow, while hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, pentanal, acetic acid, butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol, 3-methylbutanal, 2-pentylfuran, γ-nonalactone, 2-undecenal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-decenal and (Z)-2-heptenal were common products generated from thermal oxidation of tallow.

  9. Optimisation of resistant starch II and III levels in durum wheat pasta to reduce in vitro digestibility while maintaining processing and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Aravind, Nisha; Sissons, Mike; Fellows, Christopher M; Blazek, Jaroslav; Gilbert, Elliot P

    2013-01-15

    Foods with elevated levels of resistant starch (RS) may have beneficial effects on human health. Pasta was enriched with commercial resistant starches (RSII, Hi Maize™ 1043; RSIII, Novelose 330™) at 10%, 20% and 50% substitution of semolina for RSII and 10% and 20% for RSIII and compared with pasta made from 100% durum wheat semolina to investigate technological, sensory, in vitro starch digestibility and structural properties. The resultant RS content of pasta increased from 1.9% to ∼21% and was not reduced on cooking. Significantly, the results indicate that 10% and 20% RSII and RSIII substitution of semolina had no significant effects on pasta cooking loss, texture and sensory properties, with only a minimal reduction in pasta yellowness. Both RS types lowered the extent of in vitro starch hydrolysis compared to that of control pasta. X-ray diffraction and small-angle scattering verified the incorporation of RS and, compared to the control sample, identified enhanced crystallinity and a changed molecular arrangement following digestion. These results can be contrasted with the negative impact on pasta resulting from substitution with equivalent amounts of more traditional dietary fibre such as bran. The study suggests that these RS-containing formulations may be ideal sources for the preparation of pasta with reduced starch digestibility.

  10. The effect of thermal processing condition on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented sausages dried by Quick-Dry-Slice process®.

    PubMed

    Ferrini, G; Arnau, J; Guàrdia, M D; Comaposada, J

    2014-02-01

    The effect of different thermal processing conditions just after fermentation on physicochemical parameters and sensory attributes of salami and chorizo slices dried by Quick-Dry-Slice process®, was evaluated. Meat and common additives were mixed, stuffed and fermented. Previous to drying the sausages were subjected to thermal treatment at 53 °C at different exposure times (0, 50, 65, 80, 95 and 110 min). Finally, the sausages were sliced and dried using QDS process®. Color, instrumental texture and sensory analysis were performed. Lightness (L*) after fermentation increased with thermal processing in both products while redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) decreased only in salami. Thermal treatment after fermentation increased the initial force (F0). Cooked appearance, cooked fat odor, cooked flavor and stringiness increased when the thermal processing time was increased. Thermal processing of salami and chorizo at 53 °C for 50 min and drying up to 30% of weight loss resulted in a similar product to that obtained without thermal processing.

  11. Lack of effect of menthol level and type on smokers' estimated mouth level exposures to tar and nicotine and perceived sensory characteristics of cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Madeleine; Dixon, Mike; Sisodiya, Ajit; Prasad, Krishna

    2012-08-01

    Menthol can reduce sensory irritation and it has been hypothesised that this could result in smokers of mentholated cigarettes taking larger puffs and deeper post-puff inhalations thereby obtaining higher exposures to smoke constituents than smokers of non-mentholated cigarettes. The aim of our study was to use part-filter analysis methodology to assess the effects of cigarette menthol loading on regular and occasional smokers of mentholated cigarettes. We measured mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine and investigated the effects of mentholation on smokers' sensory perceptions such as cooling and irritation. Test cigarettes were produced containing no menthol and different loadings of synthetic and natural l-menthol at 1 and 4mg ISO tar yields. A target of 100 smokers of menthol cigarettes and 100 smokers who predominantly smoked non-menthol cigarettes from both 1 and 4mg ISO tar yield categories were recruited in Poland and Japan. Each subject was required to smoke the test cigarette types of their usual ISO tar yield. There were positive relationships between menthol loading and the perceived 'strength of menthol taste' and 'cooling' effect. However, we did not see marked menthol-induced reductions in perceived irritation or menthol-induced increases in mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine.

  12. Epilepsy and the Sensory Systems

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The relations of epilepsy and the sensory systems are bidirectional. Epilepsy may act on sensory systems by producing sensory seizure symptoms, by altering sensory performance, and by epilepsy treatment causing sensory side effects. Sensory system activity may have an important role in both generation and inhibition of seizures. PMID:27857611

  13. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, C K

    1994-01-01

    I am proud and honored to accept this award on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh, and the millions of Bangladeshi children saved by oral rehydration solution. The Government of Bangladesh is grateful for this recognition of its commitment to international health and population research and cost-effective health care for all. The Government of Bangladesh has already made remarkable strides forward in the health and population sector, and this was recognized in UNICEF's 1993 "State of the World's Children". The national contraceptive prevalence rate, at 40%, is higher than that of many developed countries. It is appropriate that Bangladesh, where ORS was discovered, has the largest ORS production capacity in the world. It was remarkable that after the devastating cyclone in 1991, the country was able to produce enough ORS to meet the needs and remain self-sufficient. Similarly, Bangladesh has one of the most effective, flexible and efficient control of diarrheal disease and epidemic response program in the world. Through the country, doctors have been trained in diarrheal disease management, and stores of ORS are maintained ready for any outbreak. Despite grim predictions after the 1991 cyclone and the 1993 floods, relatively few people died from diarrheal disease. This is indicative of the strength of the national program. I want to take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of ICDDR, B and the important role it plays in supporting the Government's efforts in the health and population sector. The partnership between the Government of Bangladesh and ICDDR, B has already borne great fruit, and I hope and believe that it will continue to do so for many years in the future. Thank you.

  14. Descriptive analysis and early-stage consumer acceptance of yogurts fermented with carrot juice.

    PubMed

    Cliff, M A; Fan, L; Sanford, K; Stanich, K; Doucette, C; Raymond, N

    2013-07-01

    This research explored the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of novel probiotic unsweetened yogurts. Yogurts were made with 4 carrot juice levels (8, 16, 24, and 32%), 2 firmness levels (regular, 45g/L milk solids; firm, 90g/L milk solids), and 2 starter cultures (C1, C2). The sensory profile characterized the color intensity (before and after stirring), carrot flavor, sourness, and 7 texture/mouth-feel attributes (astringency, chalkiness, mouth-coating, thickness, smoothness, creaminess, and graininess). The influence of carrot juice level and firmness level were evaluated using ANOVA, polynomial contrasts, and principal component analysis. Mean scores and standard errors were calculated. Consumer acceptance panels in Wolfville, Nova Scotia (n=56), and in Vancouver, British Columbia (Asian n=72, non-Asian n=72), evaluated the hedonic responses to the C1 and C2 formulations, respectively. We observed increases in color intensity, carrot flavor, creaminess, mouth-coating, and chalkiness with increasing carrot juice levels, as well as increases in color intensity, carrot flavor, creaminess, mouth-coating, thickness, and astringency with increasing milk solids concentrations of the C1 and C2 yogurts. Mean hedonic scores for color, appearance, and texture/mouth-feel were greater than hedonic scores for aroma, flavor/taste, and overall liking. This research identified the sensory qualities that need further development and demonstrated the importance of early-stage consumer acceptance research for directing new product development.

  15. Effect of Dietary Treatment with Olive Oil By-Product (Olive Cake) on Physicochemical, Sensory and Microbial Characteristics of Beef During Storage.

    PubMed

    Branciari, Raffaella; Ranucci, David; Miraglia, Dino; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Servili, Maurizio

    2015-11-02

    Several studies have demonstrated that the use of natural preservatives through animal diets could increase the shelf life of meat and meat products since many plant-derived substances show antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of olive cake dietary supplementation on beef oxidative stability and antimicrobial activity during storage. Beef cattle were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups that were assigned to one of the three diets: a commercial unified based diet administered for 90 days until slaughter (CTR), CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake administered for 90 days until slaughter (OC1), and CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake and administered for 60 days followed by the administration of the CTR diet for 30 days until slaughter (OC2). Beefsteaks were overwrapped with oxygen-permeable packaging and analysed at four different storage times (zero, three, six and nine days). At the four sampling times considered from all of the samples, total viable count (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae counts, colour coordinates (CIE L*a*b* colour system), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARs) determinations and descriptive sensory analyses were performed. No differences in TVC and Enterobacteriaceae count were detected among the groups over all of the sampling times considered. Differences were recorder among groups for PV, TBARS, colour and sensory analysis. The addition of olive cake in the animal diet had an effect on lipid oxidation reducing the level of PV, TBARS and retarding colour deterioration and the development of off odour in OC meat during storage.

  16. Sensory integration, sensory processing, and sensory modulation disorders: putative functional neuroanatomic underpinnings.

    PubMed

    Koziol, Leonard F; Budding, Deborah Ely; Chidekel, Dana

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines conditions that have variously been called sensory integration disorder, sensory processing disorder, and sensory modulation disorder (SID/SPD/SMD). As these conditions lack readily and consistently agreed-upon operational definitions, there has been confusion as to how these disorders are conceptualized. Rather than addressing various diagnostic controversies, we will instead focus upon explaining the symptoms that are believed to characterize these disorders. First, to clarify the overall context within which to view symptoms, we summarize a paradigm of adaptation characterized by continuous sensorimotor interaction with the environment. Next, we review a dual-tiered, integrated model of brain function in order to establish neuroanatomic underpinnings with which to conceptualize the symptom presentations. Generally accepted functions of the neocortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum are described to illustrate how interactions between these brain regions generate both adaptive and pathological symptoms and behaviors. We then examine the symptoms of SID/SPD/SMD within this interactive model and in relation to their impact upon the development of inhibitory control, working memory, academic skill development, and behavioral automation. We present likely etiologies for these symptoms, not only as they drive neurodevelopmental pathologies but also as they can be understood as variations in the development of neural networks.

  17. Sensory Conversion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medelius, Pedro

    The human body has five basic sensory functions: touch, vision, hearing, taste, and smell. The effectiveness of one or more of these human sensory functions can be impaired as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or the normal ageing process. Converting one type of function into another, or translating a function to a different part of the body, could result in a better quality of life for a person with diminished sensorial capabilities.

  18. Signaling by Sensory Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

  19. A COMPARISON OF SENSORY INTEGRATIVE AND BEHAVIORAL THERAPIES AS TREATMENT FOR PEDIATRIC FEEDING DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Addison, Laura R; Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Bachmeyer, Melanie H; Rivas, Kristi M; Milnes, Suzanne M; Oddo, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of escape extinction (EE) plus noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with sensory integration therapy as treatment for the feeding problems of 2 children. Results indicated that EE plus NCR was more effective in increasing acceptance, decreasing inappropriate behavior, and increasing amount consumed relative to sensory integration for both children. The results are discussed in terms of the challenges of evaluating sensory-integration-based treatments, and the reasons why component analyses of multicomponent treatments like sensory integration are important. PMID:23060661

  20. Effect of whey and casein protein hydrolysates on rheological, textural and sensory properties of cookies.

    PubMed

    Gani, Adil; Broadway, A A; Ahmad, Mudasir; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Wani, Ali Abas; Wani, Sajad Mohd; Masoodi, F A; Khatkar, Bupinder Singh

    2015-09-01

    Milk proteins were hydrolyzed by papain and their effect on the rheological, textural and sensory properties of cookies were investigated. Water absorption (%) decreased significantly as the amount of milk protein concentrates and hydrolysates increased up to a level of 15 % in the wheat flour. Dough extensibility decreased with inrease in parental proteins and their hydrolysates in wheat flour, significantly. Similarly, the pasting properties also varied significantly in direct proportion to the quantity added in the wheat flour. The colour difference (ΔE) of cookies supplemented with milk protein concentrates and hydrolysates were significantly higher than cookies prepared from control. Physical and sensory characteristics of cookies at 5 % level of supplementation were found to be acceptable. Also the scores assigned by the judges for texture and colour were in good agreement with the measurements derived from the physical tests.

  1. STORAGE, NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF HIGH-FAT FISH AND RICE FLOUR COEXTRUDATES

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Sukumar Bandyopadhyay; Amarender Singh Bawa

    2013-10-01

    The present research is on understanding the storage, nutritional and sensory characteristics of high-fat fish (khoira) and rice flour coextrudates at storage temperature of 30C. The extruder processing conditions used are barrel temperature (200C), screw speed (109 rpm), fish content of feed (44%) and feed moisture content (39%). Sorption isotherm data indicated that the safe aw level was about 0.4–0.7. Guggenheim -Anderson -de Boer model described the sorption data adequately with an r2 value of 0.99. During the initial 15 days of storage, there was a loss of vitamin A and total tocopherols by 64.4 and 20.6%, and an increase in peroxides and free fatty acid content by about 116 mg/kg and 21.7%. The nonlinear mathematical model developed has adequately described the changes in nutritional and storage properties. Sensory attributes indicated that the product fried for 15 s was most acceptable.

  2. The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat, and low-fat ovine and bovine Halloumi.

    PubMed

    Lteif, L; Olabi, A; Kebbe Baghdadi, O; Toufeili, I

    2009-09-01

    Halloumi cheese is a popular cheese in Lebanon and the Middle East. Today, health-conscious consumers are demanding lower fat foods with sensory properties that are comparable to their full-fat counterparts. The objectives of this work were to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine and ovine Halloumi of different fat levels and to provide a baseline sensory profile for Halloumi cheese. Full-fat, reduced-fat, and low-fat samples were produced from ovine and bovine milks in 2 batches resulting in a total of 12 batches. The fat, protein, moisture, ash, pH, sodium, and calcium levels were determined and the instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Eleven trained panelists used quantitative descriptive analysis to profile the sensory attributes of the samples and an acceptability test was conducted with 84 panelists. The type of milk (ovine vs. bovine) significantly affected the moisture and protein contents, whereas fat level had a significant effect on moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents. Instrumental texture analysis revealed that the type of milk significantly affected adhesiveness, chewiness, and hardness, whereas the fat level affected chewiness, hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness. The sensory results of the trained panelists revealed that the ovine cheese was more yellow and harder than bovine cheese, whereas bovine cheese was squeakier. Low-fat and reduced-fat cheeses were also more yellow and harder than full-fat cheese, and full-fat cheese was more moist with no significant differences between the low-fat and reduced-fat varieties. Type of milk and fat level did not have any significant effect on fermented flavor, whey flavor, or saltiness. Bovine cheese received significantly higher scores on overall acceptability, texture acceptability, and significantly lower scores on the food action rating scale. Full-fat cheese obtained the highest score on overall acceptability

  3. Sensory characteristics and carcass traits of boars, barrows, and gilts fed high- or adequate-protein diets and slaughtered at 100 or 110 kilograms.

    PubMed

    Nold, R A; Romans, J R; Costello, W J; Henson, J A; Libal, G W

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine consumer reaction to boar (BO), barrow (BA), and gilt (G) meat from pigs grown and finished on high- (HI) and low- (LO) protein diets and slaughtered at 100 and 110 kg BW. Within each of two trials, 54 BO, BA, and G were allotted within sexes to HI or LO protein sequences for growing and finishing: 19 and 17% (BOHI), 18 and 16% (BOLO), 17 and 15% (GHI), 16 and 14% (GLO), 15 and 13% (BAHI), and 14 and 12% (BALO). Backfat skatole and salivary gland 16-androstene concentrations were measured from samples taken at slaughter. Longissimus (LM) and semitendinosus (ST) chops from 24 pigs (with equal representation across diet and sex groups) were evaluated by trained panelists for tenderness, juiciness, and off-flavor. Consumer panelists evaluated acceptability of LM chops. In the 100-kg trial, HI diets improved (P < .05) carcass leanness in BO and BA but not in G. In both trials, BO were leaner (P < .05) than G, and both were leaner (P < .05) than BA. Skatole and 16-androstene concentrations were similar (P > .05) among sexes in both trials. In the 100-kg trial, trained panelists found BOLO chops had more (P < .05) off-flavor. In the 110-kg trial, all BO had more off-flavor (P < .05) than BAHI, BALO, and GHI but were similar (P > .05) to GLO. In both trials, BA chops were more tender (P < .05) than G and BO chops and LM chops had less off-flavor (P < .05) than ST chops. In the 110-kg trial, skatole was correlated (r = .28, P < .001) to off-flavor. A relationship may exist among diet, skatole deposition, and off-flavor. Untrained consumers reported all chops were equally acceptable (P > .05).

  4. A Comparison between Older Persons with Down Syndrome and a Control Group: Clinical Characteristics, Functional Status and Sensori-Motor Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmeli, Eli; Kessel, Shlomo; Merrick, Joav; Bar-Chad, Shmuel

    2004-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy within the general population has resulted in an increasing number of elderly adults with intellectual disability, and this is reflected in the increased life expectancy in persons with Down syndrome, currently about 56 years. The aim of this study was to study the clinical characteristics, the functional status and…

  5. Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Whole Soybean Curd Supplemented with Pine Needle Powder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-01-01

    To develop functionally and nutritionally improved whole soybean curd (WSC), the effects of partial (0 ~ 4%) replacement with pine needle powder (PNP) on the quality characteristics of WSC were investigated. The moisture content and pH ranged from 76.96~77.80% (wet basis) and 6.69~6.74, respectively, with no considerable differences. Lightness significantly decreased with higher PNP content in the formulation (P<0.05), as indicated by visual observation that the color of WSC became darker. Redness and yellowness also significantly decreased (P<0.05). The texture profile analysis indicated that WSC containing PNP was softer and less cohesive than control WSC. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging activities significantly increased (P<0.05) with higher substitution of PNP, and they were well correlated. Results from the consumer test revealed that WSC with 1% PLP received the most favorable acceptance scores for sensory attributes, including overall acceptability. The present study indicated that the characteristics of PNP may play a role in improving WSC quality in terms of physicochemical, sensorial, and antioxidant characteristics. PMID:26176004

  6. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SENSORY SYSTEMS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to many neurotoxic compounds has been shown to produce a sensory system dysfunction. Neurophysiological assessment of sensory function in humans and animal models often uses techniques known as sensory evoked potentials. Because both humans and animals show analogous res...

  7. Effects of Rice Bran, Flax Seed, and Sunflower Seed on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Fatty Acid Composition, Free Amino Acid and Peptide Contents, and Sensory Evaluations of Native Korean Cattle (Hanwoo)

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chang Bon; Kwon, Hana; Kim, Sung Il; Yang, Un Mok; Lee, Ju Hwan; Park, Eun Kyu

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with rice bran, flax seed, or sunflower seed to finishing native Korean cattle (Hanwoo) on growth performances, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, free amino acid and peptide contents, and sensory evaluations of Longissimus muscle (LM). A total of 39 Hanwoo steers (average age of 22.2 mo and average body weight (BW) of 552.2 kg) were randomly divided into Control, rice bran (RB), flax seed (FS), or Sunflower seed (SS) groups. The steers were group fed for 273 d until they reached an average age of 31.2 mo. Final BW was 768.2, 785.8, 786.2, and 789.0 kg, and average daily gain was 0.79, 0.85, 0.82, and 0.84 kg for the Control, RS, FS, and SS groups, respectively (p>0.05). Fat thickness of the FS group (19.8 mm) was greater (p<0.05) than that of the other groups. Final yield grade converted into numerical values was 2.0 for the RB group, 1.7 for the Control and SS groups, and 1.4 for the FS group. Marbling degrees for the Control, SS, RB, and FS groups were 5.3, 5.1, 4.7, and 4.6, respectively. Percentages of palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and arachidic acid (C20:0) in the LM were not different among the groups. Palmitoleic (C16:1) acid was higher (p<0.05) in the SS group. The concentration of oleic acid was highest (p<0.05) in the Control group (47.73%). The level of linolenic acid (C18:3) was 2.3 times higher (p<0.05) in the FS group compared to the other groups. Methionine concentration was (p<0.05) higher in FS (1.7 mg/100 g) and SS (1.2 mg/100 g) steers than in the Control or RB groups. Glutamic acid and α-aminoadipic acid (α-AAA) contents were (p<0.05) higher in the FS group compared to the other groups. LM from the FS group had numerically higher (p>0.05) scores for flavor, umami, and overall palatability in sensory evaluations. In conclusion, supplementation of flax seed to diets of finishing Hanwoo steers improved sensory evaluations which might have been

  8. Influence of label information on dark chocolate acceptability.

    PubMed

    Torres-Moreno, M; Tarrega, A; Torrescasana, E; Blanch, C

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to study how the information on product labels influences consumer expectations and their acceptance and purchase intention of dark chocolate. Six samples of dark chocolate, varying in brand (premium and store brand) and in type of product (regular dark chocolate, single cocoa origin dark chocolate and high percentage of cocoa dark chocolate), were evaluated by 109 consumers who scored their liking and purchase intention under three conditions: blind (only tasting the products), expected (observing product label information) and informed (tasting the products together with provision of the label information). In the expected condition, consumer liking was mainly affected by the brand. In the blind condition, differences in liking were due to the type of product; the samples with a high percentage of cocoa were those less preferred by consumers. Under the informed condition, liking of dark chocolates varied depending on both brand and type of product. Premium brand chocolates generated high consumer expectations of chocolate acceptability, which were fulfilled by the sensory characteristics of the products. Store brand chocolates created lower expectations, but when they were tasted they were as acceptable as premium chocolates. Claims of a high percentage of cocoa and single cocoa origin on labels did not generate higher expectations than regular dark chocolates.

  9. Wartenberg's migrant sensory neuritis: a prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Stork, Abraham C J; van der Meulen, Marjon F G; van der Pol, W-Ludo; Vrancken, Alexander F J E; Franssen, Hessel; Notermans, Nicolette C

    2010-08-01

    Migrant sensory neuropathy (Wartenberg's migrant sensory neuritis) is characterized by sudden numbness in the distribution of one or multiple cutaneous nerves. To study disease course and outcome, we prospectively followed 12 patients who presented to our tertiary referral neuromuscular outpatient clinic between January 2003 and January 2004. Medical history, neurological, laboratory and electrophysiological examinations were obtained from all patients. All patients were reviewed a second time in 2007, and five had a follow-up electrophysiological examination. At the first visit, 50% described an episode of stretching preceding the sensory complaints. All but three described pain in the affected area before or concomitant with sensory loss. At clinical examination a median of six skin areas were affected, and in 75% this could be confirmed by nerve conduction studies in at least one nerve. Forty-two percent had involvement of the trigeminal nerve. After a mean disease duration of 7.5 years, three patients reported a complete disappearance of sensory complaints and five that the pain had disappeared, but numbness remained. Three patients still had both painful and numb sensory deficits. One patient developed a distal symmetric sensory polyneuropathy. In conclusion, Wartenberg's sensory neuritis is a distinct, exclusively sensory, neuropathy, marked by pain preceding numbness in affected nerves. An episode of stretching preceding pain is not necessary for the diagnosis. Wartenberg's sensory neuritis often retains its spotty, exclusively sensory characteristics after long term follow-up.

  10. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat sensory evaluation of West African dwarf sheep fed varying levels of maize and cassava hay.

    PubMed

    Fasae, O A; Adu, I F; Aina, A B J; Dipeolu, M A

    2011-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine the growth performance and meat yield and quality of West African dwarf sheep. Twenty rams weighing an average of 15.3 ± 0.79 kg live weight and with an average age of 18 months were allotted at random to five dietary treatments of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% maize hay (MH) for a period of 105 days. Dry matter (DM) intake and growth rate of the rams were improved as the level of cassava hay (CH) increased in the diets. Live weight gain varied significantly (P < 0.05) across the treatments, ranging from 38.8 to 47.9 g/day. The carcass weight of the rams fed 100% MH was significantly (P < 0.05) lower compared with the other treatments. Dressing percentage ranged from 56.5% to 61.0% with no significant (P > 0.05) difference observed across the treatments, while the distribution of the slaughtered parts was similar (P > 0.05) regardless of the dietary treatment. Proximate composition of the meat from the loin indicated that the DM, crude protein, fat and ash contents were not influenced (P > 0.05) by the dietary treatments. Panellists rated the meat to be similar (P > 0.05) in flavour, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability while colour and texture varied significantly (P < 0.05) across the treatments. In conclusion, this study indicated that better growth performance and meat production in West African dwarf sheep can be improved in form of body weight and carcass production when fed 25%MH and 75% CH diet.

  11. Intensification of sensory properties of foods for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S

    2000-04-01

    Taste and smell losses in the elderly can reduce appetite and lead to inadequate dietary intake. Although these chemosensory deficits are generally not reversible, sensory interventions including intensification of taste and odor can compensate for perceptual losses. One method for "treatment" of chemosensory losses involves sensory enhancement of foods with flavors and monosodium glutamate (MSG). Amplification of flavor and taste can improve food palatability and acceptance, increase salivary flow and immunity, and reduce oral complaints in both sick and healthy elderly.

  12. Effects of spray-drying conditions on the chemical, physical, and sensory properties of cheese powder.

    PubMed

    Koca, Nurcan; Erbay, Zafer; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2015-05-01

    Dairy powders are produced to increase the shelf life of fresh dairy products and for use as flavoring agents. In this study, 24 cheese powders produced under 7 different conditions were used to investigate the effects of spray-drying parameters (e.g., inlet air temperature, atomization pressure, and outlet air temperature) on the quality of white cheese powder. Composition, color, physical properties, reconstitution, and sensory characteristics of white cheese powders were determined. The results revealed that the white cheese powders produced in this study had low moisture content ratios and water activity values. High outlet air temperatures caused browning and enhanced Maillard reactions. Additionally, high outlet air temperatures increased wettability and dispersibility and decreased the solubility of white cheese powders. Free fat content was positively correlated with inlet air temperature and negatively correlated with outlet air temperature and atomization pressure. Sensory analyses revealed that white cheese powder samples had acceptable sensory characteristics with the exception of the sample produced at an outlet air temperature of 100°C, which had high scores for scorched flavor and color and low scores for cheese flavor.

  13. Identification of sensory attributes that drive the likeability of Korean rice wines by American panelists. [Corrected].

    PubMed

    Kwak, Han Sub; Ahn, Byung-Hak; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2015-01-01

    Six commercial Korean rice wines were described their sensory profiles by trained American panelists, and assessed acceptances by American subjects to identify the drivers of liking and disliking factors. Thirteen statistically different descriptive attributes were defined for Korean rice wines: aromas (apple, pear, earthy, peach, nutty, yeasty, honey), flavor (yeasty, nutty), taste (sweet, sour, bitter), and aftertaste (apricot). Samples A and F were characterized as sweet taste and fruity attributes, and sample C was characterized as being pear flavor and bitter taste. Sample B exhibited a strong earthy aroma, determined as the aroma of ginseng. The American subjects could not identify ginseng aroma due to their lack of experience in ginseng. Samples D and E were described as nutty and yeasty. In consumer test, consumer preference was skewed to sample A, for which the consumer preference revolved around the sweet, sour, and fruity characteristics of the sample by the principal component analysis. Few consumers expressed preference toward samples D and E, as evidenced by the lowest consumer acceptance ratings. Partial least squares regression revealed that the key liking factors of Korean rice wines were sweet, sour, and apricot flavors. Fruity characteristics (peach, apple, and pear) were also positively correlated with overall acceptance. The key disliking factors were yeasty and nutty characteristics. American subjects regarded Korean rice wine as belonging to the wine category, prompting them to grant the highest rank to sample A, which has similar characteristics to semisweet white wine.

  14. Neurocontrol in sensory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, Jason; Nandi, Anirban; Schroeder, Joseph; Ching, Shinung

    Technology to control neural ensembles is rapidly advancing, but many important challenges remain in applications, such as design of controls (e.g. stimulation patterns) with specificity comparable to natural sensory encoding. We use the rodent whisker tactile system as a model for active touch, in which sensory information is acquired in a closed loop between feedforward encoding of sensory information and feedback guidance of sensing motions. Motivated by this system, we present optimal control strategies that are tailored for underactuation (a large ratio of neurons or degrees of freedom to stimulation channels) and limited observability (absence of direct measurement of the system state), common in available stimulation technologies for freely behaving animals. Using a control framework, we have begun to elucidate the feedback effect of sensory cortex activity on sensing in behaving animals. For example, by optogenetically perturbing primary sensory cortex (SI) activity at varied timing relative to individual whisker motions, we find that SI modulates future sensing behavior within 15 msec, on a whisk by whisk basis, changing the flow of incoming sensory information based on past experience. J.T.R. and S.C. hold Career Awards at the Scientific Interface from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund.

  15. Sensory Integration Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Healy, Olive; Rispoli, Mandy; Lydon, Helena; Streusand, William; Davis, Tonya; Kang, Soyeon; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Giesbers, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    Intervention studies involving the use of sensory integration therapy (SIT) were systematically identified and analyzed. Twenty-five studies were described in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) assessments used to identify sensory deficits or behavioral functions, (c) dependent variables, (d) intervention procedures, (e) intervention…

  16. Sensory Substitution for Wounded Servicemembers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-28

    traumatic brain injury (TBI) and two civilians, all with partial visual impairment , evaluated the vision sensory substitution systems. The servicemember...Mobility Augmentation; Wounded Service Members; Human-Centered Computing; Vision Augmentation, Vision , Balance and Hearing; Sensory Substitution-enabled...mitigation of vision sensory and mobility losses. 2) Improved the usefulness of available sensory substitution technologies for injured military

  17. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which

  18. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    PubMed

    Teng, Ya-Ling; Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which

  19. Effect of irradiation on Brazilian honeys' consistency and their acceptability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, A. H.; Sabato, S. F.

    2004-09-01

    Contamination of bee products may occur during packing or even during the process of collection. Gamma irradiation was found to decrease the number of bacteria and fungi. However, little information is available on the effects of gamma irradiation on viscosity which is an important property of honey. In this work the viscosity of two varieties of Brazilian honey was measured when they were irradiated at 5 and 10 kGy. The viscosity was measured at four temperatures (25°C, 30°C, 35°C and 40°C) for both samples and compared with control and within the doses. The sensory evaluation was carried on for the parameters color, odor, taste and consistency, using a 9-point hedonic scale. All the data were treated with a statistical tool (Statistica 5.1, StatSoft, 1998). The viscosity was not impaired significantly by gamma irradiation in doses 5 and 10 kGy ( p<0.05). The effect of gamma irradiation on sensorial characteristics (odor, color, taste and consistency) is presented. The taste for Parana type indicated a significant difference among irradiation doses ( p<0.05) but the higher value was for 5 kGy dose, demonstrating the acceptability for this case. The Organic honey presented the taste parameter for 10 kGy, significantly lower than the control mean but it did not differ significantly from the 5 kGy value.

  20. Effects of feeding extruded full-fat cottonseed pellets in place of tallow as a fat source for finishing heifers on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, sensory traits, display color, and fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Stelzleni, A M; Froetschel, M A; Pringle, T D

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of supplemental feeding of full-fat extruded cottonseed pellets (FFECS) compared with tallow on carcass characteristics, sensory traits, retail display color, and fatty acid profiles, especially CLA isomers in finishing heifers. Twenty-one Angus heifers (450 ± 5 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 experimental diets: 1) 100% supplemental fat from tallow at 4.1% of ration DM (TAL), 2) a 50:50 ratio of supplemental fat from a combination of tallow at 2.1% and FFECS at 12.8% of ration DM (TAL/ECS), and 3) 100% supplemental fat from FFECS at 25.6% ration DM (ECS). All rations were formulated to contain 7.5% fat on a DM basis. Heifers were individually fed, ad libitum, for 82 d, and BW, G:F, DMI, ADG, and body composition via ultrasound were collected at 3 to 4 wk intervals. After 82 d on feed heifers were slaughtered under federal inspection, and carcass characteristics were measured (at 24 h). The LM was removed for retail display color (1, 3, 6, 10 d), Warner-Bratzler shear force (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 d postmortem aging), sensory analysis (1, 7, 14, 21 d postmortem aging), and fatty acid profile analysis. Subcutaneous fat, including all layers, was removed from the LM for fatty acid profile analysis, and ground beef patties (80:20) were produced with lean from the brisket and fat from the plate for retail color analysis (1, 2, 4, 7 d). Supplemental fat source did not influence feedlot performance for any of the traits measured (P > 0.12) or any carcass traits related to yield, quality, or LM color at the 12th- to 13th-rib interface (P > 0.15). Supplemental fat source did not affect Warner-Bratzler shear force or any sensory traits (P > 0.20), but LM steaks became more tender as postmortem aging time increased up to 14 d (P < 0.01). During retail display of LM steaks and beef patties, the only difference was LM steaks from ECS were darker (lower L* value) than TAL or TAL/ECS steaks (P < 0.02). As display time

  1. Colour of fat, and colour, fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of muscle from heifers offered alternative forages to grass silage in a finishing ration.

    PubMed

    Moloney, A P; Mooney, M T; Kerry, J P; Stanton, C; O'Kiely, P

    2013-11-01

    The effect of type of silage offered to beef heifers during the finishing period on aspects of beef quality was determined. In two experiments, a diet based on grass silage (GS) was compared with a diet based on maize silage (MS) or whole-crop wheat silage (WCW). Compared to the GS-based diet, increasing the amount of MS linearly increased fat whiteness while the increase in fat whiteness due to WCW was dependent on the stage of crop maturity at harvesting. There was no effect of diet on muscle colour or on muscle pH measured at 48h post-mortem, drip loss, taste panel traits after 14days ageing or shear force values at 2, 7 or 14days ageing. The alternative silages decreased the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion and increased the linoleic:linolenic acid ratio in intramuscular lipid. It is concluded that type of silage affects fat colour and fatty acid composition of muscle but not the other muscle characteristics examined.

  2. Redberry juniper as a roughage source in lamb feedlot rations: wool and carcass characteristics, meat fatty acid profiles, and sensory panel traits.

    PubMed

    Whitney, T R; Lupton, C J; Smith, S B

    2011-10-01

    Effects of replacing cottonseed hulls with juniper leaves on end products were investigated in lambs. Lambs were individually fed diets containing cottonseed hulls (CSH), half of the CSH replaced by juniper (CSHJ), or all the CSH replaced by juniper (JUN). Lambs grew the same amount of wool when measured as greasy fleece (P>0.19), clean fleece (P>0.46), and clean wool production per unit of BW (P>0.54). Average fiber diameter quadratically decreased (P=0.04) and became more uniform (P<0.04) as percentage of juniper increased in the diet. Carcass characteristics were not affected (P>0.16) by diet. Myristic, palmitoleic, and arachidic acids, cis-9, trans-11 CLA, and the ∆9 desaturase index linearly increased (P<0.09) and stearic acid linearly decreased (P=0.05) as percentage of juniper increased in the diet. Off-flavor linearly increased (P=0.02) as juniper increased in the diet.

  3. Proteolysis, lipolysis, volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of Hispánico cheeses made using frozen curd from raw and pasteurized ewe milk.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Rocío; Picon, Antonia; Gaya, Pilar; Nuñez, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    Hispánico cheese, manufactured from a mixture of cow and ewe milk, is representative of cheese varieties made using milk from more than one animal species in Mediterranean countries. The shortage of ewe milk production in autumn hinders the uniformity of Hispánico cheese composition throughout the year. To surmount this inconvenience of ewe milk seasonality, curds made in spring from raw and pasteurized ewe milk were stored frozen and used four months later for the manufacture of Hispánico cheese. Experimental cheeses were made by mixing fresh curd from pasteurized cow milk with thawed curd from raw or pasteurized ewe milk, and control cheese from a mixture of pasteurized cow and ewe milk in the same proportion. Characteristics of experimental and control cheeses throughout a 60-d ripening period were investigated. On the one hand, the experimental cheese containing frozen curd from raw ewe milk showed the highest counts of staphylococci, Gram-negative bacteria and coliforms, the highest levels of aminopeptidase and esterase activity, and the highest concentrations of free amino acids, free fatty acids, alcohols and esters. On the other, the experimental cheese containing frozen curd from pasteurized ewe milk had concentrations of free amino acids, free fatty acids and volatile compounds similar to those of control cheese, with the only exception being a higher level of ketones. Flavour intensity reached the highest scores in the experimental cheese containing frozen curd from raw ewe milk, followed by the experimental cheese containing frozen curd from pasteurized ewe milk. Flavour quality scores of both experimental cheeses were similar, and lower than those of control cheese.

  4. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Coates, W; Ayerza, R

    2009-11-01

    Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the greatest known plant source of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, was fed at the rate of 10 and 20% to finishing pigs, with the goal to determine if this new crop would increase the n-3 content of the meat as has been reported for other n-3 fatty acid-rich crops. The effects of chia on fatty acid composition of the meat, internal fats, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics were determined. Productive performance was unaffected by dietary treatment. Chia seed modified the fatty acid composition of the meat fat, but not of the internal fat. Significantly (P < 0.05) less palmitic, stearic, and arachidic acids were found with both chia treatments. This is different than trials in which flaxseed, another plant based source of omega-3 fatty acid, has been fed. Alpha-linolenic acid content increased with increasing chia content of the diet; however, only the effect of the 20% ration was significantly (P < 0.05) different from that of the control. Chia seed increased panel member preferences for aroma and flavor of the meat. This study tends to show that chia seems to be a viable feed that can produce healthier pork for human consumption.

  5. Sensory feedback in cockroach locomotion: current knowledge and open questions.

    PubMed

    Ayali, A; Couzin-Fuchs, E; David, I; Gal, O; Holmes, P; Knebel, D

    2015-09-01

    The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, provides a successful model for the study of legged locomotion. Sensory regulation and the relative importance of sensory feedback vs. central control in animal locomotion are key aspects in our understanding of locomotive behavior. Here we introduce the cockroach model and describe the basic characteristics of the neural generation and control of walking and running in this insect. We further provide a brief overview of some recent studies, including mathematical modeling, which have contributed to our knowledge of sensory control in cockroach locomotion. We focus on two sensory mechanisms and sense organs, those providing information related to loading and unloading of the body and the legs, and leg-movement-related sensory receptors, and present evidence for the instrumental role of these sensory signals in inter-leg locomotion control. We conclude by identifying important open questions and indicate future perspectives.

  6. [Sensory integration: benefits and effectiveness of therapeutic management in sensory processing disorders].

    PubMed

    Tudela-Torras, M; Abad-Mas, L; Tudela-Torras, E

    2017-02-24

    Today, the fact that sensory integration difficulties with a neurological basis exist and that they seriously condition the development of those individuals who suffer from them is widely accepted and acknowledged as being obvious by the vast majority of professionals working in the field of community healthcare. However, less is known and there is more controversy about effective treatments that can be applied to them. This is because many professionals criticise the fact that there is not enough scientific evidence to prove, both quantitatively and empirically, the outcomes of the interventions implemented as alternatives to pharmacological therapy. Consequently, when the symptoms and repercussions on the quality of life deriving from a distorted sensory integration are really disabling for the person, pharmacological treatment is used as the only possible approach, with the side effects that this entails. The reason for this is largely the fact that little is known about other effective therapeutic approaches, such as occupational therapy based on sensory integration.

  7. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration

    PubMed Central

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler. PMID:25628523

  8. [Pathophysiology of sensory ataxic neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Sobue, G

    1996-12-01

    The main lesions of sensory ataxic neuropathy such as chronic idiopathic sensory ataxic neuropathy, (ISAN), carcinomatous neuropathy, Sjögren syndrome-associated neuropathy and acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy (AASN) are the large-diameter sensory neurons and dosal column of the spinal cord and the large myelinated fibers in the peripheral nerve trunks. In addition, afferent fibers to the Clarke's nuclei are also severely involved, suggesting Ia fibers being involved in these neuropathies. In NT-3 knockout mouse, an animal model of sensory ataxia, large-sized la neurons as well as muscle spindle and Golgi tendon organs are depleted, and are causative for sensory ataxia. Thus, the proprioceptive Ia neurons would play a role in pathogenesis of sensory ataxia in human sensory ataxic neuropathies, but the significance of dorsal column involvement in human sensory ataxia is still needed to evaluate.

  9. Using Movement-Based Sensory Interventions to Address Self-Stimulatory Behaviors in Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Nicole M.; Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer; Jolivette, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a three-step process to help teachers determine whether or not the function of a student's stereotypical behavior is sensory-based and if so, how to select and monitor an appropriate sensory intervention to promote instructional engagement. In particular, characteristics of students who are seeking to gain sensory input in…

  10. Screening for Sensory Integration Dysfunction. Caught Two, But One Got Away.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranowitz, Carol Stock

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of a screening program to identify possible sensory integration dysfunction. Describes characteristics of sensory integration dysfunction. Updates case studies of three children now in sixth grade who were screened for sensory integration dysfunction in nursery school to illustrate the use of the screening program, evaluation,…

  11. Survival analysis applied to the sensory shelf-life dating of high hydrostatic pressure processed avocado and mango pulps.

    PubMed

    Jacobo-Velázquez, D A; Ramos-Parra, P A; Hernández-Brenes, C

    2010-08-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) pasteurized and refrigerated avocado and mango pulps contain lower microbial counts and thus are safer and acceptable for human consumption for a longer period of time, when compared to fresh unprocessed pulps. However, during their commercial shelf life, changes in their sensory characteristics take place and eventually produce the rejection of these products by consumers. Therefore, in the present study, the use of sensory evaluation was proposed for the shelf-life determinations of HHP-processed avocado and mango pulps. The study focused on evaluating the feasibility of applying survival analysis methodology to the data generated by consumers in order to determine the sensory shelf lives of both HHP-treated pulps of avocado and mango. Survival analysis proved to be an effective methodology for the estimation of the sensory shelf life of avocado and mango pulps processed with HHP, with potential application for other pressurized products. Practical Application: At present, HHP processing is one of the most effective alternatives for the commercial nonthermal pasteurization of fresh tropical fruits. HHP processing improves the microbial stability of the fruit pulps significantly; however, the products continue to deteriorate during their refrigerated storage mainly due to the action of residual detrimental enzymes. This article proposes the application of survival analysis methodology for the determination of the sensory shelf life of HHP-treated avocado and mango pulps. Results demonstrated that the procedure appears to be simple and practical for the sensory shelf-life determination of HHP-treated foods when their main mode of failure is not caused by increases in microbiological counts that can affect human health.

  12. The combine effects of salting and thyme oil on sensory and chemical changes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Pınar Oǧuzhan

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the combine effects of salting and thyme oil on chemical and sensory changes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during storage (4°C) was investigated over a period of 24 days. There groups were constituted: group A-control salted, group B-salted samples with 0.4% of thyme oil and group C-salted samples with 0.8% of thyme oil. Fillets were subject to chemical (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances-TBARS, total volatile base nitrogen-TVB-N) and sensory analyses on certain days (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24th days) of storage. Five experienced panelists, academic staff who were trained in sensory descriptors for fishes, were employed to evaluate the quality of trout fillets during storage. Rainbow trout fillets were assessed on the basis of appearance, taste, texture and odour characteristics using a nine point descriptive scale. TVB-N and TBARS values increased in the duration of storage time in all groups. TVB-N and TBARS values in control groups were higher than other groups. Group C samples were assessed as the most acceptable products by the panellists. Difference in chemical and sensory changes between samples was found to be significant (p<0.05) during storage period.

  13. Understanding the effect of novel approaches based on ultrasound on sensory profile of orange juice.

    PubMed

    Khandpur, Paramjeet; Gogate, Parag R

    2015-11-01

    The present work investigates the effects of novel non thermal processing based on ultrasound on the sensory profile of orange juice and also compares the observed trends with the conventional thermal pasteurization. A novel treatment methodology based on combination of ultrasound and UV irradiations was investigated. The juice quality was assessed in terms of standard parameters (taste, flavor, odor, mouth feel etc.) by panel tests. Physicochemical analysis in terms of color of processed juice (which is an important physical attribute) and oxidation reduction potential (a good indicator of the quantum of oxidants present in the fruit juices) has also been performed. Thermally treated juices had significantly different characteristics that were not very appealing as compared to the ultrasound treated juices or those treated using the combined approach. The sensory properties of the ultrasound treated juices showed that the samples were most acceptable to the consumers and rated at par with the quality parameters of the fresh untreated juices. Overall the present work is the first to report and conclusively establish the usefulness of ultrasound based treatment approaches for maintaining the sensory profile in comparison with the thermally processed juice.

  14. Influence of particle size on physical and sensory attributes of mango pulp powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Kadam, D. M.; Chadha, S.; Wilson, R. A.; Gupta, R. K.

    2013-09-01

    The present investigation was aimed to observe the effect of particle size on physical, sensory and thermal properties of foam-mat dried mango pulp powder. Mango pulp of Dussehri variety was foam-mat dried using 3% egg white at 65ºC. Dried foam-mats were pulverized and passed through a sieve shaker for obtaining three grades of powder with 50, 60, and 85 mesh size sieves. The particle size of these samples measured using laser diffraction particle size analyzer ranged from 191.26 to 296.19 μm. The data was analysed statistically using ANOVA of SAS. There was a linear increase in lightness (`L' value) with a decrease in particle size, however, `a' value decreased with a decrease in particle size, indicating the decrease in redness. An increase in bulk density and decrease in water solubility index and water absorption index % were observed with a decrease in particle size. Particle size had a significant effect on sensory parameters. Particle size in the range of 258.01 to 264.60μmwas found most acceptable with respect to sensory characteristics. This finding can be exploited for various commercial applicationswhere powder quality is dependent on the particle size and has foremost priority for end users.

  15. Sensory matched filters.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric J

    2016-10-24

    As animals move through their environments they are subjected to an endless barrage of sensory signals. Of these, some will be of utmost importance, such as the tell-tale aroma of a potential mate, the distinctive appearance of a vital food source or the unmistakable sound of an approaching predator. Others will be less important. Indeed some will not be important at all. There are, for instance, wide realms of the sensory world that remain entirely undetected, simply because an animal lacks the physiological capacity to detect and analyse the signals that characterise this realm. Take ourselves for example: we are completely insensitive to the Earth's magnetic field, a sensory cue of vital importance as a compass for steering the long distance migration of animals as varied as birds, lobsters and sea turtles. We are also totally oblivious to the rich palette of ultraviolet colours that exist all around us, colours seen by insects, crustaceans, birds, fish and lizards (in fact perhaps by most animals). Nor can we hear the ultrasonic sonar pulses emitted by bats in hot pursuit of flying insect prey. The simple reason for these apparent deficiencies is that we either lack the sensory capacity entirely (as in the case of magnetoreception) or that our existing senses are incapable of detecting specific ranges of the stimulus (such as the ultraviolet wavelength range of light).

  16. Our Sensory World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liesman, C.; Barringer, M. D.

    The booklet explores the role of sensory experiences in the severely developmentally disabled child. Developmental theory is addressed, followed by specific activity suggestions (broken down into developmental levels) for developing tactile sense, auditory sense, gustatory (taste) sense, olfactory sense, visual sense, and kinesthetic sense.…

  17. Recording Sensory Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    From children's viewpoints, what they experience in the world is what the world is like--for everyone. "What do others experience with their senses when they are in the same situation?" is a question that young children can explore by collecting data as they use a "feely box," or take a "sensory walk." There are many ways to focus the children's…

  18. [Sensory Systems of Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero To Three, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter contains six articles: (1) "Early Flavor Experiences: When Do They Start?" Julie A. Mennella and Gary K. Beauchamp); (2) "Infant Massage" (Tiffany Field); (3) "The Infant's Sixth Sense: Awareness and Regulation of Bodily Processes" (Stephen W. Porges); (4) "Sensory Contributions to Action: A…

  19. Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Marian

    Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

  20. Studying Sensory Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerly, Spafford C.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the vestibular organ's role in balancing the body and stabilizing the visual world using the example of a hunter. Describes the relationship between sensory perception and learning. Recommends using optical illusions to illustrate the distinctions between external realities and internal perceptions. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  1. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  2. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I.

    PubMed

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2008-03-18

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances) are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7) identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra neuropathy, or decaying skin

  3. Effects of repeated consumption on sensory-enhanced satiety.

    PubMed

    Yeomans, Martin R; McCrickerd, Keri; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Chambers, Lucy

    2014-03-28

    Previous research has suggested that sensory characteristics of a drink modify the acute satiating effects of its nutrients, with enhanced satiety being evident when a high-energy drink was thicker and tasted creamier. The present study tested whether this modulation of satiety by sensory context was altered by repeated consumption. Participants (n 48) consumed one of four drinks mid-morning on seven non-consecutive days, with satiety responses being measured pre-exposure (day 1), post-exposure (day 6) and at a 1-month follow-up. The drinks combined two levels of energy (lower energy (LE), 326 kJ and higher energy, 1163 kJ) with two levels of satiety-predictive sensory characteristics (low sensory (LS) or enhanced sensory). Test lunch intake 90 min after drink consumption depended on both the energy content and sensory characteristics of the drink before exposure, but on the energy content alone after exposure and at the follow-up. The largest change was an increase in test meal intake over time in the LE/LS condition. The effects on intake were reflected in appetite ratings, with rated hunger and expected filling affected by sensory characteristics and energy content pre-exposure, but were largely determined by energy content post-exposure and at the follow-up. In contrast, a measure of expected satiety reflected sensory characteristics regardless of energy content on all the three test days. Overall, these data suggest that some aspects of the sensory modulation of satiety are changed by repeated consumption, with covert energy becoming more effective in suppressing appetite over time, but also suggest that these behavioural changes are not readily translated into expectations of satiety.

  4. Sensory influences on food intake control: moving beyond palatability.

    PubMed

    McCrickerd, K; Forde, C G

    2016-01-01

    The sensory experience of eating is an important determinant of food intake control, often attributed to the positive hedonic response associated with certain sensory cues. However, palatability is just one aspect of the sensory experience. Sensory cues based on a food's sight, smell, taste and texture are operational before, during and after an eating event. The focus of this review is to look beyond palatability and highlight recent advances in our understanding of how certain sensory characteristics can be used to promote better energy intake control. We consider the role of visual and odour cues in identifying food in the near environment, guiding food choice and memory for eating, and highlight the ways in which tastes and textures influence meal size and the development of satiety after consumption. Considering sensory characteristics as a functional feature of the foods and beverages we consume provides the opportunity for research to identify how sensory enhancements might be combined with energy reduction in otherwise palatable foods to optimize short-term energy intake regulation in the current food environment. Moving forward, the challenge for sensory nutritional science will be to assess the longer-term impact of these principles on weight management.

  5. Physical and sensory properties of ready to eat apple chips produced by osmo-convective drying.

    PubMed

    Velickova, Elena; Winkelhausen, Eleonora; Kuzmanova, Slobodanka

    2014-12-01

    The low cost raw material, apple variety Idared, was turned into value-added product, apple chips. The apple chips were produced in a two-step process consisting of osmotic treatment and conventional drying. Osmotic treatment was carried out in 40 % glucose solution at room temperature, followed by convective drying at 105 °C, till reaching water activity of 0.3. Mechanical properties of the apple chips measured by compression and penetration tests were correlated with the sorption properties. The low browning index, 25.5 and high whitening index, 63.7, proved the good retention of the color of the apple chips. The instrumental characteristics of the apple chips were correlated with the sensory characteristics of the product. The new product was accepted by the 95 % of the panelists. The stored apple chips under modified atmosphere showed no significant changes in the quality parameters over 6 month period.

  6. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  7. Effects of Charitable Versus Monetary Incentives on the Acceptance of and Adherence to a Pedometer-Based Health Intervention: Study Protocol and Baseline Characteristics of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Jan-Niklas; Kehr, Flavius; Wahle, Fabian; Elser, Niklas; Fleisch, Elgar

    2016-01-01

    Background Research has so far benefited from the use of pedometers in physical activity interventions. However, when public health institutions (eg, insurance companies) implement pedometer-based interventions in practice, people may refrain from participating due to privacy concerns. This might greatly limit the applicability of such interventions. Financial incentives have been successfully used to influence both health behavior and privacy concerns, and may thus have a beneficial effect on the acceptance of pedometer-based interventions. Objective This paper presents the design and baseline characteristics of a cluster-randomized controlled trial that seeks to examine the effect of financial incentives on the acceptance of and adherence to a pedometer-based physical activity intervention offered by a health insurance company. Methods More than 18,000 customers of a large Swiss health insurance company were allocated to a financial incentive, a charitable incentive, or a control group and invited to participate in a health prevention program. Participants used a pedometer to track their daily physical activity over the course of 6 months. A Web-based questionnaire was administered at the beginning and at the end of the intervention and additional data was provided by the insurance company. The primary outcome of the study will be the participation rate, secondary outcomes will be adherence to the prevention program, physical activity, and health status of the participants among others. Results Baseline characteristics indicate that residence of participants, baseline physical activity, and subjective health should be used as covariates in the statistical analysis of the secondary outcomes of the study. Conclusions This is the first study in western cultures testing the effectiveness of financial incentives with regard to a pedometer-based health intervention offered by a large health insurer to their customers. Given that the incentives prove to be effective

  8. Sensory Integrative Dysfunction: Parental Participation in the Child's Therapy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamill, Janet S.

    1987-01-01

    A plan is described for effective parent involvement in occupational therapy for the child with sensory integrative dysfunction. Consideration is given to levels of parent-child interaction and parents' ability to accept the child's difficulties. Purposes of parental participation are outlined and a model for evaluation and intervention is…

  9. A sensory evaluation of irradiated cookies made from flaxseed meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Flávio T.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Koike, Amanda C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.

    2012-08-01

    The growing consumer demand for food with sensory quality and nutritional has called for research to develop new products with consumer acceptance as cookies made from flaxseed meal, that can be inserted in diet of celiacs. Celiac disease characterized by an inappropriate immune response to dietary proteins found in wheat, rye and barley (gluten and gliadin). It can affect anyone at any age and is more common in women. The celiac disease does not have cure and the only scientifically proven treatment is a gluten free diet. Irradiation as a decontamination method used for a many variety of foodstuffs, being very feasible, useful method to increase the shelf life, effective and environmental friendly without any sensory properties significant change. Sensory analyses were used to assess gluten-free bakery foods subjected to ionizing radiation sensory attributes.

  10. Consumer Acceptance of a Polyphenolic Coffee Beverage.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy; Kuchera, Meredith; Smoot, Katie; Diako, Charles; Vixie, Beata; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-10-05

    The objective of this study was to determine if Chardonnay grape seed pomace (GSP), a waste stream of wine production, could be used as a functional ingredient in brewed coffee. Two consumer panels were conducted to assess the acceptance of coffee at coffee replacement (w/w) values of 0% (control), 6.25%, 12.50%, 18.75%, or 25% GSP. The 1st consumer panel (n = 80) assessed the coffee samples served "black." The 2nd panel (n = 67) assessed the coffee samples with adjustment (that is, sweeteners, milk, and cream) options available. Consumer sensory evaluation involved evaluating the 5 treatments individually for acceptance of appearance, aroma, taste/flavor, and overall acceptance using a 9-point hedonic scale. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire surveyed the sensory attributes describing aroma, appearance, and taste/flavor of the samples. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity was used to measure the effects of antioxidant levels in GSP coffee samples. Results showed that GSP could be added at 6.25% replacement without significantly affecting the overall consumer acceptance of coffee compared to the control (0% GSP). Above 6.25% GSP supplementation, the coffee beverage was described as more tan, milky, watery/dilute, and mild, and was generally less accepted by the consumers. GSP also increased the antioxidant capacity of the coffee compared to the control (0% GSP), with no significant differences among replacement values. Therefore, 6.25% GSP replacement is recommended for creating coffee beverages acceptable to consumers. Further in vivo investigation may substantiate the free-radical scavenging capacity of GSP coffee and its potential health benefits.

  11. Understanding Sensory Integration. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMatties, Marie E.; Sammons, Jennifer H.

    This brief paper summarizes what is known about sensory integration and sensory integration dysfunction (DSI). It outlines evaluation of DSI, treatment approaches, and implications for parents and teachers, including compensatory strategies for minimizing the impact of DSI on a child's life. Review of origins of sensory integration theory in the…

  12. Novel approaches and application of contemporary sensory evaluation practices in iron fortification programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.; Guinard, Jean-Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the leading nutritional deficiency in the U.S. and the rest of the world, with its highest prevalences in the developing world. Iron fortification of food has been proposed as a strategy to reduce the high prevalence of iron deficiency. Poor consumer acceptance, unacceptable taste, and discoloration of the iron-fortified foods have been frequently listed as causes of unsuccessful iron fortification programs. An excellent prospect for improving consumer acceptance of iron-fortified foods is the incorporation of a thorough, organized, and unified approach to sensory evaluation practices into iron fortification programs for product optimization. The information gained from systematic sensory evaluation allows for the manipulation of the sensory attributes, and thus improvement of the sensory properties of the fortified food. However, iron fortification programs have not systematically measured the effect of fortification on the sensory quality of the food. Because sensory evaluation is an important criterion in successful iron fortification, an integrated approach is necessary. Therefore, nutritionists and sensory scientists should work closely with each other to select the most suitable sensory tests and methods. The objectives of this article are to: (1) critically review and discuss some traditional and contemporary approaches and applications of sensory evaluation practices in iron fortification programs, and (2) demonstrate the importance of incorporating a multidisciplinary, systematic sensory evaluation approach in iron fortification programs.

  13. Effect of Vitamin D3 Fortification and Saskatoon Berry Syrup Addition on the Flavor Profile, Acceptability, and Antioxidant Properties of Rooibos Tea (Aspalathus linearis).

    PubMed

    Grant, Jennifer; Ryland, Donna; Isaak, Cara K; Prashar, Suvira; Siow, Yaw L; Taylor, Carla G; Aliani, Michel

    2017-03-01

    The unique characteristics and healthful reputation of caffeine-free rooibos tea (RT) make it an ideal carrier for vitamin D3 supplementation, and a potential base for the addition of Saskatoon berry syrup (SBS), a natural flavor additive. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D3 fortification and SBS addition on the flavor profile, consumer acceptability, and antioxidant properties of RT. Six formulations (RT, RT with SBS, RT with SBS and vitamin D3 , RT with vitamin D3 , green tea [GT], and GT with SBS) were evaluated by 12 trained panelists and 114 consumers. The formulations were also assessed for antioxidant capacity, physical characteristics, and untargeted phytochemical content. Sensory results revealed that the mean intensity values for berry and sweet attributes were significantly higher (P < 0.05) while bitter and astringent attributes were significantly lower when SBS was added to RT samples compared to those without syrup. Acceptability of flavor, aftertaste, and overall acceptability were also significantly higher for the RT with SBS. The addition of SBS to RT significantly increased the antioxidant capacities which may increase the related health benefits of RT. SBS contributed several polyphenols, particularly flavonoids, to the tea. Vitamin D3 added to RT formulations did not significantly affect the sensory attributes, acceptability, or antioxidant content. For the development of a functional vitamin D3 fortified iced-tea beverage that can be consumed as part of the daily diet, SBS could be a favorable flavoring additive that may provide additional health benefits.

  14. Instabilities in sensory processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    In any organism there are different kinds of sensory receptors for detecting the various, distinct stimuli through which its external environment may impinge upon it. These receptors convey these stimuli in different ways to an organism's information processing region enabling it to distinctly perceive the varied sensations and to respond to them. The behavior of cells and their response to stimuli may be captured through simple mathematical models employing regulatory feedback mechanisms. We argue that the sensory processes such as olfaction function optimally by operating in the close proximity of dynamical instabilities. In the case of coupled neurons, we point out that random disturbances and fluctuations can move their operating point close to certain dynamical instabilities triggering synchronous activity.

  15. Sensory and Perceptual Deprivation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1964-04-22

    stimulation even in inane forms, and -- were more effectively persuaded by lectures advocating the existence of ghosts, poltergeists and extrasensory ... perception pbenomena. These provocative experiments at McGill were completed just about 10 years ago. What has happened in the decade since? Research...shown a greater change among isolated Ss in interest and belief in extra sensory perception topics (29, 56). Recent experiments have tended to confirm

  16. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  17. Relationship between physical properties and sensory attributes of carbonated beverages.

    PubMed

    Kappes, S M; Schmidt, S J; Lee, S-Y

    2007-01-01

    Bulk sweeteners provide functional properties in beverages, including sweet taste, bulking, bitter masking, structure, and mouthfeel. Diet beverages come closer to the taste of regular beverages using a blend of high-intensity sweeteners; however, some properties, including bulking, structure, and mouthfeel, remain significantly different. Relating physical properties to sensory characteristics is an important step in understanding why mouthfeel differences are apparent in beverages sweetened with alternative sweeteners compared to bulk sweeteners. The objectives of this research were to (1) measure sweetener profile, Brix, refractive index, viscosity, a(w), carbonation, titratable acidity, and pH of commercial carbonated beverages; and (2) correlate the physical property measurements to descriptive analysis of the beverages. Correlation analysis, partial least squares, canonical correlation analysis, and cluster analysis were used to analyze the data. Brix, viscosity, and sweet taste were highly correlated among one another and were all negatively correlated to a(w). Carbonated and decarbonated pH were highly correlated to each other and were both negatively correlated to mouthcoating. Numbing, burn, bite, and carbonation were highly correlated to total acidity, citric acid, and ascorbic acid and negatively correlated to phosphoric acid. The mouthfeel difference between diet and regular lemon/lime carbonated beverages is small and may be related to overall differences between flavor, acid, and sweetener types and usage levels. This research is significant because it demonstrates the use of both sensory attributes and physical properties to identify types of ingredients and levels that may decrease the mouthfeel perception differences between regular and diet carbonated beverages, which could consequently lead to higher acceptance of diet beverages by the consumers of regular.

  18. Sensory Perception: Lessons from Synesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Joshua Paul

    2013-01-01

    Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition’s existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of “normal” sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion ― the binding problem ― as well as how sensory perception develops. PMID:23766741

  19. LIMS user acceptance testing.

    PubMed

    Klein, Corbett S

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) play a key role in the pharmaceutical industry. Thorough and accurate validation of such systems is critical and is a regulatory requirement. LIMS user acceptance testing is one aspect of this testing and enables the user to make a decision to accept or reject implementation of the system. This paper discusses key elements in facilitating the development and execution of a LIMS User Acceptance Test Plan (UATP).

  20. Effects of 35% corn wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets on animal performance, carcass characteristics, beef fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Buttrey, E K; Jenkins, K H; Lewis, J B; Smith, S B; Miller, R K; Lawrence, T E; McCollum, F T; Pinedo, P J; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2013-04-01

    Fifty-four individually-fed Hereford-Angus cross steers (initial BW = 308 ± 9 kg) were used in an unbalanced randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement to determine effects of corn processing method and corn wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) inclusion in finishing diets on animal performance, carcass and beef characteristics, and sensory attributes. Dietary treatments included steam-flaked corn- (SFC) and dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based finishing diets containing 0 or 35% WDGS (DM basis; 0SFC and 35SFC, 0DRC and 35DRC, respectively). Yellow grease was used to equilibrate fat content of diets. Steers were fed 174 d, and were harvested on a single date when the mean ultrasound fat thickness was estimated to be 1.30 cm. No interactions between corn processing and WDGS were observed for performance or carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.11). Final BW (556 ± 14 kg) and ADG (1.43 ± 0.06 kg) were not affected (P ≥ 0.25) by dietary treatment. Steers fed SFC-based diets consumed less feed, and were 10.6% more efficient (P < 0.01) than those fed DRC-based diets. Including WDGS in finishing diets improved feed efficiency of steers consuming both SFC- and DRC-based diets (P ≤ 0.04). Dietary treatment did not affect HCW, dressing percentage, fat thickness, or yield grade (P ≥ 0.27). Including WDGS in finishing diets decreased the concentration of 16:1cis-9, 18:1cis-9, and 18:1cis-11 fatty acids, and tended (P ≤ 0.10) to increase total fat concentration of steaks compared with diets without WDGS. A corn processing method by WDGS interaction was detected for 18:1trans-11 where steaks from 0DRC diets had decreased concentrations compared with other diets. There were no dietary effects on palatability attributes (P > 0.20). Livery-organy aromatics (P = 0.03) and sweet basic tastes (P = 0.01) in steaks from the 35SFC treatment were more intense than in other treatments, but were barely detectable. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances tended

  1. On Maximum FODO Acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Yuri Konstantinovich

    2014-12-24

    This note illustrates maximum acceptance of FODO quadrupole focusing channel. Acceptance is the largest Floquet ellipse of a matched beam: A = $\\frac{a^2}{β}$$_{max}$ where a is the aperture of the channel and βmax is the largest value of beta-function in the channel. If aperture of the channel is restricted by a circle of radius a, the s-s acceptance is available for particles oscillating at median plane, y=0. Particles outside median plane will occupy smaller phase space area. In x-y plane, cross section of the accepted beam has a shape of ellipse with truncated boundaries.

  2. Sensory and instrumental evaluation of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) aroma.

    PubMed

    Baranauskiene, Renata; Venskutonis, Rimantas P; Demyttenaere, Jan C R

    2003-06-18

    The present study investigates the composition of volatile constituents and sensory characteristics of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) grown in Lithuania. Hydrodistillation, simultaneous distillation-solvent extraction, static headspace, and solid phase microextraction methods were used for the isolation of aroma volatiles. Geranyl acetate, citronellyl acetate, citronellol, and geraniol were the major constituents in catnip. Differences in the quantitative compositions of volatile compounds isolated by the different techniques were considerable. A sensory panel performed sensory analysis of the ground herb, pure essential oil, and extract; aroma profiles of the products were expressed graphically, and some effects of odor qualities of individual compounds present in catnip on the overall aroma of this herb were observed.

  3. The effect of substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride on the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of Halloumi cheese.

    PubMed

    Kamleh, R; Olabi, A; Toufeili, I; Najm, N E O; Younis, T; Ajib, R

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of salt reduction and partial replacement with KCl on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of fresh and matured Halloumi cheese. Halloumi samples were matured for 8 wk and moisture, fat, protein, pH, lactic acid, sodium, and potassium contents determined. Instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Microbiological analyses included counts of total bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, total coliforms, and psychrophilic bacteria. Descriptive sensory analysis was carried out by a 9-member panel, and acceptability testing was conducted with 72 panelists. Salt treatment had a significant effect on the pH, sodium, and potassium contents of the cheeses, whereas age by salt treatment interaction had a significant effect on the pH, lactic acid, and potassium contents of the samples. No major trends could be discerned from the texture profile analysis. All tested microorganisms increased with storage but in general did not differ between treatments and were, in certain instances, lower than levels reported in the literature for other cheeses. Descriptive analysis revealed a significant difference between salt treatments for bitterness, crumbliness, and moistness, whereas age of cheese was significant for saltiness and squeakiness. Salt treatment had no significant effect on any of the acceptability variables for all Halloumi samples.

  4. Rheological characterization and sensory evaluation of a typical soft ice cream made with selected food hydrocolloids.

    PubMed

    BahramParvar, M; Razavi, S M A; Khodaparast, M H H

    2010-02-01

    The effect of two novel hydrocolloids known as Balangu seed gum (BSG) and palmate-tuber salep (PTS) with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the rheological characteristics of a typical soft ice cream was studied. The power law model well described the flow behavior of mixes with a high correlation coefficient (r). The flow behavior index was in the range of 0.450-1.154, while the consistency coefficient varied from 0.051 to 6.822 Pa s(n). All mixes showed a pseudoplastic behavior except the mix containing 0.3% PTS, which was found to have a slightly dilatant characteristic. An increase in the concentration was accompanied by an increase in the pseudoplasticity and consistency coefficient. The effect of selected gums on some sensory properties of a soft ice cream such as viscosity, coldness, firmness, degree of smoothness (coarseness), liquefying rate, body and texture and total acceptance has also been investigated in this work. The correlation between the apparent viscosity and sensory attributes has been determined because of the importance of viscosity in the quality evaluation of an ice cream. Taking into account the commercial ice cream properties, a 0.4% BSG gum concentration may be recommended.

  5. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt.

  6. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  7. Consumer perception and sensory effect of oxidation in savory-flavored yogurt enriched with n-3 lipids.

    PubMed

    Rognlien, M; Duncan, S E; O'Keefe, S F; Eigel, W N

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different oils (butter, fish, and oxidized fish) on sensory characteristics of a savory [chile-lime (CL)] low-fat yogurt using descriptive (unstructured line scales, 5 attributes) and affective (hedonic) sensory testing methods. Yogurts were each manufactured at low [1.1-1.2% total fat; 0.43% added oil (wt/wt)] or high [1.6% total fat; 1% added oil (wt/wt)] levels of fish oil, with high levels of fish oil targeted to deliver 145 mg of docosahexaenoic acid+eicosapentaenoic acid/170 g of yogurt. In a preliminary study, untrained panelists (n=31), using triangle tests, did not discriminate between low levels of fish and butter oils in unflavored yogurts but could discern yogurt with oxidized fish oil, even at the low level. Trained panelists (n=12) described lower lime and acid flavor characteristics in CL-flavored yogurts containing 1% oxidized fish oil compared with yogurts containing low levels of oxidized fish oil and low or high levels of butter and fish oils. Oxidized flavor was higher in CL-flavored yogurts with oxidized fish oil (low and high) and with the high level of fish oil. Consumer ratings (n=100; 9-point hedonic scale; 9="like extremely) of overall acceptability and flavor acceptability were bimodally distributed, with overall means between 4 and 5 ("neither like nor dislike") for CL-flavored yogurt with butter or fish oils (high level). The upper 50% of responses for yogurt with butter or fish oil were 6.51 and 6.31, respectively, for overall acceptability ("like slightly"), and 7.02 and 6.56, respectively, for flavor acceptability. A large segment of consumers may be interested in incorporating heart-healthy n-3 lipids in their diets through frequent consumption of a savory yogurt enriched with n-3 fatty acids.

  8. Sensory quality of lamb following long-term frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Muela, E; Monge, P; Sañudo, C; Campo, M M; Beltrán, J A

    2016-04-01

    The study analysed the effect of frozen storage duration (FSD) on lamb sensory quality. Trained panel evaluated Longissimus lumborum aged for 1d in unfrozen carcass plus 3d in modified atmosphere packaging on thawed (1, 9, 15 or 21 month FSD) or refrigerated (0 month FSD) meat. Consumer acceptability test was performed on leg chops (Semimembranosus) kept in the same conditions but those chops for the visual test were retail displayed up to 10d from packaging. FSD differed on texture variables and fresh meat showed intermediate values among thawed meats for trained evaluators. Consumers gave the lowest acceptability to 21 months FSD and preferred 1 month FSD, being all meats 'acceptable'. A third of the population scored fresh meat with the lowest acceptance after consumption, although its visual score remained 'acceptable' 3d longer than most of thawed meats. As thawed and fresh meats were equally preferred at short display, consumer concerns about thawed meat might be reconsidered.

  9. Determinants of Taste Preference and Acceptability: Quality vs. Hedonics

    PubMed Central

    Loney, Gregory C.; Blonde, Ginger D.; Eckel, Lisa A.; Spector, Alan C.

    2012-01-01

    Several methods exist for reliably determining the motivational valence of a taste stimulus in animals, but few to determine its perceptual quality independent of its apparent affective properties. Individual differences in taste preference and acceptability could result from variance in the perceptual qualities of the stimulus leading to different hedonic evaluations. Alternatively, taste perception might be identical across subjects whereas processing of the sensory signals in reward circuits could differ. Utilizing an operant-based taste cue discrimination/generalization task involving a gustometer, we trained male Long-Evans rats to report the degree to which a test stimulus resembled the taste quality of either sucrose or quinine irrespective of its intensity. The rats, grouped by a characteristic bimodal phenotypic difference in their preference for sucralose, treated this artificial sweetener as qualitatively different with the sucralose-preferring rats finding the stimulus much more perceptually similar to sucrose, relative to sucralose-avoiding rats. Although the possibility that stimulus palatability may have served as a discriminative cue cannot entirely be ruled out, the profile of results suggested otherwise. Subsequent brief-access licking tests revealed that affective licking responses of the same sucralose-avoiding and -preferring rats differed across concentration in a manner roughly similar to that found in the stimulus generalization task. Thus, the perceived taste quality of sucralose alone may be sufficient to drive the observed behavioral avoidance of the compound. By virtue of its potential ability to dissociate the sensory and motivational consequences of a given experimental manipulation on taste-related behavior, this approach could be interpretively valuable. PMID:22815522

  10. Task-specific transfer of perceptual learning across sensory modalities.

    PubMed

    McGovern, David P; Astle, Andrew T; Clavin, Sarah L; Newell, Fiona N

    2016-01-11

    It is now widely accepted that primary cortical areas of the brain that were once thought to be sensory-specific undergo significant functional reorganisation following sensory deprivation. For instance, loss of vision or audition leads to the brain areas normally associated with these senses being recruited by the remaining sensory modalities [1]. Despite this, little is known about the rules governing crossmodal plasticity in people who experience typical sensory development, or the potential behavioural consequences. Here, we used a novel perceptual learning paradigm to assess whether the benefits associated with training on a task in one sense transfer to another sense. Participants were randomly assigned to a spatial or temporal task that could be performed visually or aurally, which they practiced for five days; before and after training, we measured discrimination thresholds on all four conditions and calculated the extent of transfer between them. Our results show a clear transfer of learning between sensory modalities; however, generalisation was limited to particular conditions. Specifically, learned improvements on the spatial task transferred from the visual domain to the auditory domain, but not vice versa. Conversely, benefits derived from training on the temporal task transferred from the auditory domain to visual domain, but not vice versa. These results suggest a unidirectional transfer of perceptual learning from dominant to non-dominant sensory modalities and place important constraints on models of multisensory processing and plasticity.

  11. Effects of Drying Condition and Binding Agent on the Quality Characteristics of Ground Dried-Pork Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Ju; Jang, Aera

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of processing conditions (temperature and time) and binding agent types (glutinous rice flour, potato starch, bean flour, and acorn flour) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ground dried-pork meat product. For this purpose, ground dried-pork meat product was produced by adding several binding agents at different drying temperatures and times. The drying time affected moisture content and water activity in all drying temperature. However, under the similar drying conditions, the extent of drying varied depending on the type of binding agents. The results of sensory evaluation for texture degree and overall acceptability indicated the following: overall, higher drying temperatures and longer drying time heightened the degree of texture, and the overall acceptability varied depending on binding agent type. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics were analyzed to determine any possible correlation. The results revealed a high correlation between moisture content, water activity, shear forces, and sensory evaluation (p<0.01). However, there was no correlation with respect to overall acceptability. PMID:26761886

  12. Cortical oscillations and sensory predictions.

    PubMed

    Arnal, Luc H; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2012-07-01

    Many theories of perception are anchored in the central notion that the brain continuously updates an internal model of the world to infer the probable causes of sensory events. In this framework, the brain needs not only to predict the causes of sensory input, but also when they are most likely to happen. In this article, we review the neurophysiological bases of sensory predictions of "what' (predictive coding) and 'when' (predictive timing), with an emphasis on low-level oscillatory mechanisms. We argue that neural rhythms offer distinct and adapted computational solutions to predicting 'what' is going to happen in the sensory environment and 'when'.

  13. Sensory quality of soymilk and tofu from soybeans lacking lipoxygenases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Aijun; Smyth, Heather; Chaliha, Mridusmita; James, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    The oxidation of unsaturated lipids by lipoxygenases in soybeans causes undesirable flavors in soy foods. Using a traditional and a nontraditional soy food user group, we examined the cultural difference in perceiving the sensory characteristics of soymilk and tofu produced from soybeans with or without lipoxygenases (Lx123). The two groups described the samples using similar terms. The traditional users preferred the control soy milk and lipoxygenase-free tofu while the nontraditional users preferred the lipoxygenase-free soymilk with no preference for tofu. In a separate study, a trained descriptive taste panel compared the odor of soymilk and tofu from control soybeans or those lacking lipoxygenase-1 and lipoxygenase-2 (Lx12) or all three isomers (Lx123). The rancid/grassy odor was rated the lowest in Lx123 products, followed by Lx12 products with the control products given the highest rating. The Lx12 and Lx123 products were also sweeter and less bitter than the controls. Taken together, our results demonstrated that soybeans lacking lipoxygenases can produce soy foods with less undesirable aromas and are therefore likely more acceptable to the consumers.

  14. Sensory optimization of a mayonnaise-type spread made with rice bran oil and soy protein.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Karen; Sriwattana, Sujinda; No, Hong Kyoon; Corredor, Jose Andres Herrera; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2009-08-01

    The optimum formulation for mayonnaise-type spreads containing rice bran oil (RBO) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) was determined based on sensory acceptability. RBO and SPC were used due to their health benefit claims such as lowering risk of heart disease. The effects of the proportions of high-impact ingredients (RBO, SPC, and water) on sensory acceptability of the spreads were determined. The 10 spread formulations, prepared following a 3-component constrained simplex lattice mixture design, were subjected to a consumer acceptance test to identify sensory attributes driving consumer acceptance and purchase intent. Predictive regression models were used to plot mixture response surfaces of the critical sensory attributes (taste, mouthfeel, and overall liking) that influenced purchase intent. Areas within the contour plots of these critical sensory attributes, having acceptability scores > or = 68 ("moderately like" on the 100-mm bidirectional labeled affective magnitude scale) were chosen and superimposed to obtain a predicted optimum formulation range (37% to 43% RBO, 4% to 7% SPC, and 52% to 57% water). The formulation containing 37% RBO, 6% SPC, and 57% water, which was located within the optimum region, was selected as a base for further developing flavored (sour cream & onion, cheddar & sour cream, or Monterrey Jack dried cheese) products. All flavored spreads were significantly more acceptable than the plain formulation. Purchase intent of all flavored products also significantly increased once consumers had been given the information about potential health benefits associated with RBO and SPC in the spreads.

  15. Acceptability of Aloysia citriodora-supplemented peach jams.

    PubMed

    Gámbaro, Adriana; Miraballes, Marcelo; Purtscher, Irene; Deandréis, Inés; Martínez, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    An unsupplemented peach jam and four peach jam samples prepared by supplementing the former with increasing amounts of Aloysia citriodora aqueous extract were subjected to sensory testing. A trained panel of eight assessors initially identified (reaching consensus) the relevant sensory attributes and then rated the jam samples on an individual basis. The jam samples were later evaluated for overall liking and willingness to purchase by a group of 95 interested consumers, who also provided their individual appraisal of the sensory features of the various samples by responding to an open-ended question. Overall, consumers appeared not to accept the sensory modifications introduced in traditional peach jam by the addition of A. citriodora extract, even though they were expressly acquainted with its health benefits. The degree of acceptance of the extract supplement decreased significantly with increasing amounts of extract in the jam. The groups identified to have the least and the greatest tolerance to the sensory modifications introduced in the supplemented jams differed in gender distribution, with male consumers having a greater tolerance than females.

  16. Processing of a novel powdered herbal coffee (Pistacia Terebinthus L. Fruits Coffee) and its sensorial properties.

    PubMed

    Secilmis, S S; Yanık, D Kocak; Gogus, F

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the effects of roasting method, grinding and reduction in oil content on the characteristics of Pistacia terebinthus fruit coffee were investigated. Pistacia terebinthus fruit was roasted by microwave, pan and combined (microwave and convection) methods. The degree of roasting was determined by L*, a*, b* color values. The roasting times were 1,500, 1,900 and 1,620 s for microwave, pan and combined roasting methods, respectively. Cold press was used to reduce the oil content both prior to roasting and after the roasting. The oil content was reduced to around 21.5 % in all roasting methods to approach to that of coffee beans. Powdered Pistacia terebinthus fruit coffee brews were compared with each other and Turkish coffee in terms of aroma, flavor, acidity aftertaste, and overall acceptability. Sensorial analysis results showed that coffee brews prepared by pressing after the roasting process were better than those pressing prior to roasting.

  17. Investigation of the Effects of Inulin and β-Glucan on the Physical and Sensory Properties of Low-Fat Beef Burgers Containing Vegetable Oils: Optimisation of the Formulation Using D-Optimal Mixture Design

    PubMed Central

    Afshari, Roya; Khaksar, Ramin; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Amiri, Zohre; Komeili, Rozita; Khaneghah, Amin Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this study, the D-optimal mixture design methodology was applied to determine the optimised proportions of inulin, β-glucan and breadcrumbs in formulation of low-fat beef burgers containing pre-emulsified canola and olive oil blend. Also, the effect of each of the ingredients individually as well as their interactions on cooking characteristics, texture, colour and sensory properties of low-fat beef burgers were investigated. The results of this study revealed that the increase of inulin content in the formulations of burgers led to lower cooking yield, moisture retention and increased lightness, overall acceptability, mouldability and desired textural parameters. In contrast, incorporation of β-glucan increased the cooking yield, moisture retention and decreased lightness, overall acceptability, mouldability and desired textural parameters of burger patties. The interaction between inulin and β-glucan improved the cooking characteristics of the burgers without significantly negative effect on the colour or sensory properties. The results of the study clearly stated that the optimum mixture for the burger formulation consisted of (in g per 100 g): inulin 3.1, β-glucan 2.2 and breadcrumbs 2.7. The texture parameters and cooking characteristics were improved by using the mixture of inulin, β-glucan and breadcrumbs, without any negative effects on the sensory properties of the burgers. PMID:27904378

  18. Sensory receptors in monotremes.

    PubMed

    Proske, U; Gregory, J E; Iggo, A

    1998-07-29

    This is a summary of the current knowledge of sensory receptors in skin of the bill of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, and the snout of the echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus. Brief mention is also made of the third living member of the monotremes, the long-nosed echidna, Zaglossus bruijnii. The monotremes are the only group of mammals known to have evolved electroreception. The structures in the skin responsible for the electric sense have been identified as sensory mucous glands with an expanded epidermal portion that is innervated by large-diameter nerve fibres. Afferent recordings have shown that in both platypuses and echidnas the receptors excited by cathodal (negative) pulses and inhibited by anodal (positive) pulses. Estimates give a total of 40,000 mucous sensory glands in the upper and lower bill of the platypus, whereas there are only about 100 in the tip of the echidna snout. Recording of electroreceptor-evoked activity from the brain of the platypus have shown that the largest area dedicated to somatosensory input from the bill, S1, shows alternating rows of mechanosensory and bimodal neurons. The bimodal neurons respond to both electrosensory and mechanical inputs. In skin of the platypus bill and echidna snout, apart from the electroreceptors, there are structures called push rods, which consist of a column of compacted cells that is able to move relatively independently of adjacent regions of skin. At the base of the column are Merkel cell complexes, known to be type I slowly adapting mechanoreceptors, and lamellated corpuscles, probably vibration receptors. It has been speculated that the platypus uses its electric sense to detect the electromyographic activity from moving prey in the water and for obstacle avoidance. Mechanoreceptors signal contact with the prey. For the echidna, a role for the electrosensory system has not yet been established during normal foraging behaviour, although it has been shown that it is able to detect the presence

  19. Sensory receptors in monotremes.

    PubMed Central

    Proske, U; Gregory, J E; Iggo, A

    1998-01-01

    This is a summary of the current knowledge of sensory receptors in skin of the bill of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, and the snout of the echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus. Brief mention is also made of the third living member of the monotremes, the long-nosed echidna, Zaglossus bruijnii. The monotremes are the only group of mammals known to have evolved electroreception. The structures in the skin responsible for the electric sense have been identified as sensory mucous glands with an expanded epidermal portion that is innervated by large-diameter nerve fibres. Afferent recordings have shown that in both platypuses and echidnas the receptors excited by cathodal (negative) pulses and inhibited by anodal (positive) pulses. Estimates give a total of 40,000 mucous sensory glands in the upper and lower bill of the platypus, whereas there are only about 100 in the tip of the echidna snout. Recording of electroreceptor-evoked activity from the brain of the platypus have shown that the largest area dedicated to somatosensory input from the bill, S1, shows alternating rows of mechanosensory and bimodal neurons. The bimodal neurons respond to both electrosensory and mechanical inputs. In skin of the platypus bill and echidna snout, apart from the electroreceptors, there are structures called push rods, which consist of a column of compacted cells that is able to move relatively independently of adjacent regions of skin. At the base of the column are Merkel cell complexes, known to be type I slowly adapting mechanoreceptors, and lamellated corpuscles, probably vibration receptors. It has been speculated that the platypus uses its electric sense to detect the electromyographic activity from moving prey in the water and for obstacle avoidance. Mechanoreceptors signal contact with the prey. For the echidna, a role for the electrosensory system has not yet been established during normal foraging behaviour, although it has been shown that it is able to detect the presence

  20. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Presents the Newbery Medal acceptance speech of Russell Freedman, writer of children's nonfiction. Discusses the place of nonfiction in the world of children's literature, the evolution of children's biographies, and the author's work on "Lincoln." (ARH)

  1. Sensory aspects in myasthenia gravis: A translational approach.

    PubMed

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Leon-Ariza, Juan S; Prada, Diddier; Leon-Ariza, Daniel S; Rizzo-Sierra, Carlos V

    2016-09-15

    Myasthenia gravis is a paradigmatic muscle disorder characterized by abnormal fatigue and muscle weakness that worsens with activities and improves with rest. Clinical and research studies done on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have advanced our knowledge of the muscle involvement in myasthenia. Current views still state that sensory deficits are not "features of myasthenia gravis". This article discusses the gap that exists on sensory neural transmission in myasthenia that has remained after >300years of research in this neurological disorder. We outline the neurobiological characteristics of sensory and motor synapses, reinterpret the nanocholinergic commonalities that exist in both sensory and motor pathways, discuss the clinical findings on altered sensory pathways in myasthenia, and propose a novel way to score anomalies resulting from multineuronal inability associated sensory troubles due to eugenic nanocholinergic instability and autoimmunity. This medicine-based evidence could serve as a template to further identify novel targets for studying new medications that may offer a better therapeutic benefit in both sensory and motor dysfunction for patients. Importantly, this review may help to re-orient current practices in myasthenia.

  2. Characteristics of a cream of cheese with bacon frozen soup concentrate.

    PubMed

    Brown, C; Holmes, Z A; Soeldner, A

    1981-08-01

    The starch granules of both Purity W, a modified waxy cornstarch, and wheat flour were affected by processing, refrigeration, freezing, and reheating. The major change in starch granules shown by scanning electron micrographs was the trend towards greater deformation of the starch granule and, apparently, subsequent greater homogeneity of the mixture. Sensory evaluation revealed a statistically significant difference (p of less than 0.05) only in overall acceptability of the fresh vs. the frozen soup. The other quality characteristics of texture acceptability, consistency, and syneresis were not statistically (p of less than 0.05) different.

  3. Sensory adaptation for timing perception

    PubMed Central

    Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-01-01

    Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception. PMID:25788590

  4. Influence of sensory and cultural perceptions of white rice, brown rice and beans by Costa Rican adults in their dietary choices.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Mattei, Josiemer; Fuster, Tamara; Willett, Walter; Campos, Hannia

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the distinct perceptions towards rice and beans that may shape the consumption of these main staple foods among Costa Ricans. We aimed to identify barriers and motivators that could change the current staple into a healthier one, and assess the sensory perceptions of these foods in this population. Focus group discussions and sensory tastings of 8 traditional white or brown rice and beans preparations were conducted in 98 Costa Ricans, aged 40-65 years. Traditional habits and family support emerged as the two main drivers for current consumption. Consuming similar amounts of rice and beans, as well as unfamiliarity with brown rice, are habits engrained in the Costa Rican culture, and are reinforced in the family and community environment. Suggested strategies for consuming more brown rice and more beans included introducing them during childhood, disseminating information of their health benefits that take into account the importance of tradition, lowering the cost, increasing availability, engaging women as agents of change and for brown rice masking the perceived unpleasant sensory characteristics by incorporating them into mixed dishes. Plain brown rice received the lowest mean hedonic liking scores. The preparations rated highest for pleasant were the beans: rice 1:1 ratio regardless of the type of rice. This study identified novel strategies to motivate Costa Rican adults to adapt their food choices into healthier ones within their cultural and sensory acceptability.

  5. Effects of post-processing treatments on sensory quality and Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli reductions in dry-fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Heir, E; Holck, A L; Omer, M K; Alvseike, O; Måge, I; Høy, M; Rode, T M; Sidhu, M S; Axelsson, L

    2013-05-01

    The effects of post-processing treatments on sensory quality and reduction of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) in three formulations of two types of dry-fermented sausage (DFS; salami and morr) were evaluated. Tested interventions provided only marginal changes in sensory preference and characteristics. Total STEC reductions in heat treated DFS (32°C, 6days or 43°C, 24h) were from 3.5 to >5.5 log from production start. Storing of sausages (20°C, 1month) gave >1 log additional STEC reduction. Freezing and thawing of sausages in combination with storage (4°C, 1month) gave an additional 0.7 to 3.0 log reduction in STEC. Overall >5.5 log STEC reductions were obtained after storage and freezing/thawing of DFS with increased levels of glucose and salt. This study suggests that combined formulation optimisation and post-process strategies should be applicable for implementation in DFS production to obtain DFS with enhanced microbial safety and high sensory acceptance and quality.

  6. Sensory and Repetitive Behaviors among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder at Home

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Anne V.; Boyd, Brian A.; Williams, Kathryn; Faldowski, Richard A.; Baranek, Grace T.

    2017-01-01

    Atypical sensory and repetitive behaviors are defining features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are thought to be influenced by environmental factors; however, there is a lack of naturalistic research exploring contexts surrounding these behaviors. The current study involved video recording observations of 32 children with ASD (2 – 12 years of age) engaging in sensory and repetitive behaviors during home activities. Behavioral coding was used to determine what activity contexts, sensory modalities, and stimulus characteristics were associated with specific behavior types: hyperresponsive, hyporesponsive, sensory seeking, and repetitive/stereotypic. Results indicated that hyperresponsive behaviors were most associated with activities of daily living and family-initiated stimuli, whereas sensory seeking behaviors were associated with free play activities and child-initiated stimuli. Behaviors associated with multiple sensory modalities simultaneously were common, emphasizing the multi-sensory nature of children’s behaviors in natural contexts. Implications for future research more explicitly considering context are discussed. PMID:27091950

  7. Evaluation of sensory processing abilities following stroke using the adolescent/adult sensory profile: implications for individualized intervention

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sang Mi; Song, Bo Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to understand characteristics of sensory processing in patients who have experienced a stroke using the previously established, self-diagnostic Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). [Subjects and Methods] Data from 180 total Korean patients who had been diagnosed as having experienced a stroke were collected and analyzed between May and August of 2015. [Results] Average scores for each sensory processing domain were as follows: low registration (32.1), sensation seeking (34.3), sensory sensitivity (36.7), and sensation avoiding (34.0). Study participants exhibited similar scores to healthy controls (data obtained from previous studies) with the following frequencies: low registration (65%), sensation seeking (77.2%), sensory sensitivity (65%), and sensation avoiding (62.2%). Significant differences were observed between control data and scores obtained for study participants in all domains except that of sensory sensitivity. [Conclusion] The results of the present study indicate that therapeutic intervention following the experience of a stroke should account for individual differences in sensory processing abilities to provide the environment most conducive to the patient’s overall cognitive and physical improvement. PMID:27821949

  8. The effects of focal epileptic activity on regional sensory-evoked neurovascular coupling and postictal modulation of bilateral sensory processing

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Sam; Bruyns-Haylett, Michael; Kennerley, Aneurin; Boorman, Luke; Overton, Paul G; Ma, Hongtao; Zhao, Mingrui; Schwartz, Theodore H; Berwick, Jason

    2013-01-01

    While it is known that cortical sensory dysfunction may occur in focal neocortical epilepsy, it is unknown whether sensory-evoked neurovascular coupling is also disrupted during epileptiform activity. Addressing this open question may help to elucidate both the effects of focal neocortical epilepsy on sensory responses and the neurovascular characteristics of epileptogenic regions in sensory cortex. We therefore examined bilateral sensory-evoked neurovascular responses before, during, and after 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 15 mmol/L, 1 μL) induced focal neocortical seizures in right vibrissal cortex of the rat. Stimulation consisted of electrical pulse trains (16 seconds, 5 Hz, 1.2 mA) presented to the mystacial pad. Consequent current-source density neural responses and epileptic activity in both cortices and across laminae were recorded via two 16-channel microelectrodes bilaterally implanted in vibrissal cortices. Concurrent two-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy was used to produce spatiotemporal maps of total, oxy-, and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration. Compared with control, sensory-evoked neurovascular coupling was altered during ictal activity, but conserved postictally in both ipsilateral and contralateral vibrissal cortices, despite neurovascular responses being significantly reduced in the former, and enhanced in the latter. Our results provide insights into sensory-evoked neurovascular dynamics and coupling in epilepsy, and may have implications for the localization of epileptogenic foci and neighboring eloquent cortex. PMID:23860375

  9. Sensory aspects of movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Tourette's syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed.

  10. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  11. Consumer Acceptance of Dry Dog Food Variations

    PubMed Central

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri; Swaney-Stueve, Marianne; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Pet owners evaluated dry dog food samples available in the US market. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Abstract The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Eight dry dog food samples available in the US market were evaluated by pet owners. In this study, consumers evaluated overall liking, aroma, and appearance liking of the products. Consumers were also asked to predict their purchase intent, their dog’s liking, and cost of the samples. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Overall liking clusters were not related to income, age, gender, or education, indicating that general consumer demographics do not appear to play a main role in individual consumer acceptance of dog food products. PMID:26480043

  12. A Multivariate Analysis of the Relationship between Androgyny and Self-Esteem, Self-Acceptance and Acceptance of Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eman, Virginia A.; Morse, Benjamin W.

    Androgynous persons accept both their masculine and feminine characteristics rather than adhere to traditional sex-role stereotypes. This study tested whether the multidimensional approach and psychological freedom of androgynous persons would give them greater self-esteem, self-acceptance, and acceptance of others, according to their own…

  13. Identifying drivers for consumer acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortilla.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Corredor, J A; Saidu, J E P; Khachatryan, A; Prinyawiwatkul, W; Carballo-Carballo, A; Zepeda-Bautista, R

    2007-11-01

    The traditional production of corn tortilla has been modified by new processing technologies to make possible a commercial-scale production; this practice has resulted in products having sensory properties different from those produced by the traditional method. There is no published information on sensory attributes driving acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortillas. Identifying sensory drivers for acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortillas will help commercially produce products that satisfy consumers' expectations. A consumer study was conducted to evaluate acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortillas and determine drivers of acceptance and purchase intent of the products. Ten samples of corn tortillas were selected to represent a variety of corn tortillas available in the Mexican market. Three hundred Mexican consumers evaluated acceptability of appearance, color, thickness, rollability, resistance to tearing, aroma, chewiness, taste and aftertaste, and overall liking using a 9-point hedonic scale. Overall acceptance and purchase intent were determined with a yes/no scale. Analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance revealed that consumers were able to differentiate differences in sensory acceptability among 10 samples. For example, 2 homemade and 1 small commercial-scale samples, with an overall liking score of 6.6 to 6.7, were more acceptable than others. Rollability, resistance to tearing, and chewiness were attributes underlying overall differences among 10 samples. Attributes determining overall acceptance of corn tortillas were chewiness and overall liking. Purchase intent was influenced by overall appearance, rollability, chewiness, taste, and overall liking. This study revealed critical sensory attributes and their weights given by Mexican consumers when making decisions for acceptance and purchase intent of corn tortilla.

  14. Accepting space radiation risks.

    PubMed

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2010-08-01

    The human exploration of space inevitably involves exposure to radiation. Associated with this exposure are multiple risks, i.e., probabilities that certain aspects of an astronaut's health or performance will be degraded. The management of these risks requires that such probabilities be accurately predicted, that the actual exposures be verified, and that comprehensive records be maintained. Implicit in these actions is the fact that, at some point, a decision has been made to accept a certain level of risk. This paper examines ethical and practical considerations involved in arriving at a determination that risks are acceptable, roles that the parties involved may play, and obligations arising out of reliance on the informed consent paradigm seen as the basis for ethical radiation risk acceptance in space.

  15. Improving Academic Scores Through Sensory Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, A. Jean

    1972-01-01

    Investigated were the effects of a remedial program stressing sensory integration on the academic performance of learning disabled children with certain identifiable types of sensory integrative dysfunction. (KW)

  16. Effects of emulsion gels containing bioactive compounds on sensorial, technological, and structural properties of frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Pintado, T; Herrero, A M; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Triki, M; Carmona, P; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2016-03-01

    Emulsion gels prepared with olive oil, chia, and cold gelling agents (transglutaminase, alginate, or gelatin) were used as fat replacers in reduced-fat frankfurter formulation. Nutritional advantages, sensory analysis, technological properties, and microbiological populations of frankfurters were evaluated along with their lipid structural characteristics over chilled storage. Frankfurters with emulsion gels showed significant improvements in fat content (lower saturated fatty acid, higher mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents) and had good fat and water-binding properties. The presence of an emulsion gel reduced lightness and redness, but increased yellowness. Textural behavior of samples was significantly affected by the presence of emulsion gels and by storage. Sensory properties were not affected by the incorporation of emulsion gels, and all frankfurters were judged acceptable. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed that samples with emulsion gels involve more lipid-protein interactions. Frankfurters with emulsion gels showed good stability to oxidation during storage and contained lower levels of microorganism than reduced-fat control at 85 days.

  17. Haltere mediated flight stabilization in Diptera: Rate decoupling, sensory encoding, and control realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Rhoe A.

    Insects of the order Diptera have a single pair of wings. The rear wings of Dipteran insects have evolved into organs that allow stabilizing control responses through sensing and encoding of body angular rate feedback. This dissertation documents research on the physical and physiological mechanisms that enable a pair of halteres to distinguish and encode three orthogonal components of the body rate vector. While the knowledge that the halteres play a role in flight stability has been accepted for centuries, the understanding of how insect's very simple sensory structures are able to encode and decouple the orthogonal components of the rate vector has been lacking. The work described in this report furthers this understanding through modeling and simulation. First, a natural decoupling of the observable rate components has been identified that asserts proportionality of body rate components to averaged strain characteristics near the center of the haltere stroke. Second, a means of encoding and decoding the necessary rate information in a manner compatible with the insect's sensory structures and flight motor physiology has been identified and demonstrated. Finally, the ability of the proposed haltere model to stabilize flight in a 6DOF environment with competing behavioural objectives and randomly generated obstructions has been demonstrated.

  18. Physicochemical, antioxidant and sensory properties of peach wine made from redhaven cultivar.

    PubMed

    Davidović, Sonja M; Veljović, Mile S; Pantelić, Milica M; Baošić, Rada M; Natić, Maja M; Dabić, Dragana Č; Pecić, Sonja P; Vukosavljević, Predrag V

    2013-02-13

    Physicochemical, sensory, and health-related characteristics of peach wine produced from Redhaven variety and selected white wines produced from various grape varieties were determined and compared. The alcohol content, titratable acidity, and total extract of peach wine was significantly lower compared with that of white wines, while its pH value was higher. The content of total phenolics (TPC) and flavonoids (TFC) of peach wine (402.53 mg/L GAE and 332.67 mg CAE/L, respectively) have been found significantly higher in comparison with that of white wines (TPC range 243.67-319.00 mg/L GAE, TFC range 129.67-175.17 mg CAE/L). The main phenolic compounds found in peach wine were chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and catechin (3.59, 0.87, and 0.60 mg/L, respectively). Antioxidant capacities were strongly correlated with total phenolics with correlation coefficients over 0.99. The highest antioxidant capacity was ascribed to peach wine. The results of sensory analysis indicated that the peach wine was very well accepted by the regular consumers of wine and can be a very interesting product in the market.

  19. Effect of Duck Feet Gelatin on Physicochemical, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Low-fat Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Duck feet gelatin (DFG) gel was added as a fat replacer to low-fat frankfurters and the effect of DFG on physicochemical, textural, and sensory characteristics of low-fat frankfurters was evaluated. DFG gel was prepared with a 20% duck feet gelatin concentration (w/w). Adding DFG decreased lightness and increased yellowness of the low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). However, DFG did not affect redness of low-fat frankfurters (p>0.05). The statistical results indicated that adding DFG improved cooking yield of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In addition, replacing pork back fat with DFG resulted in increased moisture content, protein content, and ash content of low-fat frankfurters, and the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel had the highest moisture content and lowest fat content (p<0.05). Adding of DFG increased all textural parameters including hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and gumminess of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In terms of sensory properties, the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel showed similar satisfaction scores for the flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptance when compared to the regular frankfurters (20% back fat). Therefore, our results suggest that DFG could be an effective novel source, as a fat replacer, for manufacturing of low-fat frankfurters. PMID:26761279

  20. Physico-chemical and sensory changes during the storage of lal peda.

    PubMed

    Jha, Alok; Kumar, Arvind; Jain, Parul; Om, Hari; Singh, Rakhi; Bunkar, D S

    2014-06-01

    Lal peda is a popular heat desiccated traditional dairy delicacy of eastern India specially Uttar Pradesh. It is prepared by blending of khoa and sugar followed by heat desiccation until characteristic reddish brown colour appears. It is a nutritive, palatable and a very good source of energy. In order to commercially manufacture and market lal peda, studies on its shelf-life were considered to be very important. Lal peda samples were packed in paper boxes and stored at two different temperatures i.e. 4 and 37 °C and physico-chemical and sensory changes were monitored during storage period. There was a continuous loss of moisture during storage and rate of loss of moisture was higher at 37 °C. FFA and HMF contents in lal peda increased during storage and these changes were found to be temperature sensitive. Changes in textural properties of lal peda in terms of hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness and gumminess were also studied. Lal peda samples stored at 4 and 37 °C were acceptable up to 31 days and 9 days, respectively on the basis of textural and sensory attributes.

  1. Sensory suppression during feeding

    PubMed Central

    Foo, H.; Mason, Peggy

    2005-01-01

    Feeding is essential for survival, whereas withdrawal and escape reactions are fundamentally protective. These critical behaviors can compete for an animal's resources when an acutely painful stimulus affects the animal during feeding. One solution to the feeding-withdrawal conflict is to optimize feeding by suppressing pain. We examined whether rats continue to feed when challenged with a painful stimulus. During feeding, motor withdrawal responses to noxious paw heat either did not occur or were greatly delayed. To investigate the neural basis of sensory suppression accompanying feeding, we recorded from brainstem pain-modulatory neurons involved in the descending control of pain transmission. During feeding, pain-facilitatory ON cells were inhibited and pain-inhibitory OFF cells were excited. When a nonpainful somatosensory stimulus preactivated ON cells and preinhibited OFF cells, rats interrupted eating to react to painful stimuli. Inactivation of the brainstem region containing ON and OFF cells also blocked pain suppression during eating, demonstrating that brainstem pain-modulatory neurons suppress motor reactions to external stimulation during homeostatic behaviors. PMID:16275919

  2. Sensory analysis of calcium-biofortified lettuce.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunghun; Elless, Mark P; Park, Jungeun; Jenkins, Alicia; Lim, Wansang; Chambers, Edgar; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2009-01-01

    Vegetables represent an attractive means of providing increased calcium nutrition to the public. In this study, it was demonstrated that lettuce expressing the deregulated Arabidopsis H(+)/Ca(2+) transporter sCAX1 (cation exchanger 1) contained 25%-32% more calcium than controls. These biofortified lettuce lines were fertile and demonstrated robust growth in glasshouse growth conditions. Using a panel of highly trained descriptive panellists, biofortified lettuce plants were evaluated and no significant differences were detected in flavour, bitterness or crispness when compared with controls. Sensory analysis studies are critical if claims are to be made regarding the efficacy of biofortified foods, and may be an important component in the public acceptance of genetically modified foods.

  3. The effect of chilled conditioning at 4°C on selected water and lipid-soluble flavor precursors in Bison bison longissimus dorsi muscle and their impact on sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Jennifer; Ryland, Donna; Suh, Miyoung; Aliani, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Water and lipid-soluble flavor precursors were monitored using chromatography methods in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of six grain-fed Bison bison, stored at 4°C for 2, 4, 8, 15 and 21 days in order to investigate their potential impact on sensory attributes of cooked bison meat. While pH and lipid-soluble compounds remained mostly unchanged, several changes in water-soluble compounds were observed. The breakdown of inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) led to increases in inosine, hypoxanthine and ribose (7-fold). Non-polar amino acids including valine, leucine and phenylalanine showed the most significant increases over 21 days. Trained panelists (n=8) found a significant increase at day 15 in vinegary/sour aroma, tenderness and juiciness, while chewiness and connective tissue significantly decreased. Although, most flavor attributes were undetectable, partial least squares (PLS) analysis revealed most water-soluble precursors were positively correlated with extended conditioning as well as beef and oily/fatty flavors. Quantitative changes observed in flavor precursors may be responsible for some sensory attributes developed during the heating process.

  4. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  5. UGV acceptance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Robin R.

    2006-05-01

    With over 100 models of unmanned vehicles now available for military and civilian safety, security or rescue applications, it is important to for agencies to establish acceptance testing. However, there appears to be no general guidelines for what constitutes a reasonable acceptance test. This paper describes i) a preliminary method for acceptance testing by a customer of the mechanical and electrical components of an unmanned ground vehicle system, ii) how it has been applied to a man-packable micro-robot, and iii) discusses the value of testing both to ensure that the customer has a workable system and to improve design. The test method automated the operation of the robot to repeatedly exercise all aspects and combinations of components on the robot for 6 hours. The acceptance testing process uncovered many failures consistent with those shown to occur in the field, showing that testing by the user does predict failures. The process also demonstrated that the testing by the manufacturer can provide important design data that can be used to identify, diagnose, and prevent long-term problems. Also, the structured testing environment showed that sensor systems can be used to predict errors and changes in performance, as well as uncovering unmodeled behavior in subsystems.

  6. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  7. Was cultural deprivation in fact sensory deprivation? Deprivation, retardation and intervention in the USA.

    PubMed

    Raz, Mical

    2011-01-01

    In the 1950s, the term "deprivation" entered American psychiatric discourse. This article examines how the concept of deprivation permeated the field of mental retardation, and became an accepted theory of etiology. It focuses on sensory deprivation and cultural deprivation, and analyzes the interventions developed, based on these theories. It argues that the controversial theory of cultural deprivation derived its scientific legitimization from the theory of sensory deprivation, and was a highly politicized concept that took part in the nature-nurture debate.

  8. Expressing fear enhances sensory acquisition.

    PubMed

    Susskind, Joshua M; Lee, Daniel H; Cusi, Andrée; Feiman, Roman; Grabski, Wojtek; Anderson, Adam K

    2008-07-01

    It has been proposed that facial expression production originates in sensory regulation. Here we demonstrate that facial expressions of fear are configured to enhance sensory acquisition. A statistical model of expression appearance revealed that fear and disgust expressions have opposite shape and surface reflectance features. We hypothesized that this reflects a fundamental antagonism serving to augment versus diminish sensory exposure. In keeping with this hypothesis, when subjects posed expressions of fear, they had a subjectively larger visual field, faster eye movements during target localization and an increase in nasal volume and air velocity during inspiration. The opposite pattern was found for disgust. Fear may therefore work to enhance perception, whereas disgust dampens it. These convergent results provide support for the Darwinian hypothesis that facial expressions are not arbitrary configurations for social communication, but rather, expressions may have originated in altering the sensory interface with the physical world.

  9. Quality assessment and consumer acceptability of bread from wheat and fermented banana flour.

    PubMed

    Adebayo-Oyetoro, Abiodun Omowonuola; Ogundipe, Oladeinde Olatunde; Adeeko, Kehinde Nojeemdeen

    2016-05-01

    Bread was produced from wheat flour and fermented unripe banana using the straight dough method. Matured unripe banana was peeled, sliced, steam blanched, dried and milled, and sieved to obtain flour. The flour was mixed with water and made into slurry and allowed to stand for 24 h after which it was divided into several portions and blended with wheat flour in different ratios. Proximate and mineral compositions as well as functional, pasting, and sensory characteristics of the samples were determined. The results of proximate analysis showed that crude fiber ranged between 1.95% and 3.19%, carbohydrate was between 49.70% and 52.98% and protein was 6.92% and 10.25%, respectively, while iron was between 27.07 mg/100 g and 29.30 mg/100 g. Swelling capacity of the experimental samples showed a significant difference from that of control. Peak viscosity ranged between 97.00RVU and 153.63RVU for experimental samples compared with 392.35RVU obtained for the control. Most of the sensory properties for the experimental samples were significantly different from the control. This study showed that bread with better quality and acceptability can be produced from wheat-unripe banana blends.

  10. Designing sensory-substitution devices: Principles, pitfalls and potential1

    PubMed Central

    Kristjánsson, Árni; Moldoveanu, Alin; Jóhannesson, Ómar I.; Balan, Oana; Spagnol, Simone; Valgeirsdóttir, Vigdís Vala; Unnthorsson, Rúnar

    2016-01-01

    An exciting possibility for compensating for loss of sensory function is to augment deficient senses by conveying missing information through an intact sense. Here we present an overview of techniques that have been developed for sensory substitution (SS) for the blind, through both touch and audition, with special emphasis on the importance of training for the use of such devices, while highlighting potential pitfalls in their design. One example of a pitfall is how conveying extra information about the environment risks sensory overload. Related to this, the limits of attentional capacity make it important to focus on key information and avoid redundancies. Also, differences in processing characteristics and bandwidth between sensory systems severely constrain the information that can be conveyed. Furthermore, perception is a continuous process and does not involve a snapshot of the environment. Design of sensory substitution devices therefore requires assessment of the nature of spatiotemporal continuity for the different senses. Basic psychophysical and neuroscientific research into representations of the environment and the most effective ways of conveying information should lead to better design of sensory substitution systems. Sensory substitution devices should emphasize usability, and should not interfere with other inter- or intramodal perceptual function. Devices should be task-focused since in many cases it may be impractical to convey too many aspects of the environment. Evidence for multisensory integration in the representation of the environment suggests that researchers should not limit themselves to a single modality in their design. Finally, we recommend active training on devices, especially since it allows for externalization, where proximal sensory stimulation is attributed to a distinct exterior object. PMID:27567755

  11. Sensory Processing Relates to Attachment to Childhood Comfort Objects of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalpidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The author tested the hypothesis that attachment to comfort objects is based on the sensory processing characteristics of the individual. Fifty-two undergraduate students with and without a childhood comfort object reported sensory responses and performed a tactile threshold task. Those with a comfort object described their object and rated their…

  12. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-10-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility.

  13. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  14. [Evaluation of consumer's acceptance of a peach palm snack (Bactris gasipaes) and determination of its potential as a functional food].

    PubMed

    López-Calvo, Rebeca; Pérez, Ana M; Ivankovich Guillén, Carmen; Calderón Villaplana, Sandra; Pineda Castro, Maria Lourdes

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' acceptance of a peach palm snack and to determine its potential as a functional food by chemical characterization. An assessment was conducted with 100 consumers to determine the acceptance of different snack formulations and the results were subjected to cluster analysis. This analysis revealed two groups. Group 2 included people that consume snacks and peach palm frequently and showed the highest grades for the snack evaluated characteristics. All the consumers in group 2 and approximately 85% of the consumers in group 1 indicated that they would buy the product suggesting that there is a niche market for the developed peach palm snack. Also, a qualitative evaluation, using mini focus groups, of the two most widely accepted formulas of the snack (chosen according to previously described study) was performed. The sessions considered the opinion of middle class professionals and housewives. It was determined that the combination of tara gum and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) allows a positive synergistic effect on the sensory characteristics of the snack, highlighting natural peach flavor and improving crunchiness. In a dry basis, the snack contains per 100 g: 9 ± 4 g of fat, 14.0 ± 0.3 g of dietary fiber, 15500 ± 32 µg of carotenoids and has an antioxidant capacity of 4700 ± 8 µmol TE, which demonstrates its potential as a functional food.

  15. Acceptance Test Plan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    7 RD-Ai507 154 CCEPTANCE TEST PLN(U) WESTINGHOUSE DEFENSE ND i/i ELECTRO ICS CENTER BALTIMORE MD DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONS DIY D C KRRiJS 28 JUN...Ln ACCEPTANCE TEST PLAN FOR SPECIAL RELIABILITY TESTS FOR BROADBAND MICROWAVE AMPLIFIER PANEL David C. Kraus, Reliability Engineer WESTINGHOUSE ...ORGANIZATION b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7g& NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION tIf appdeg ble) WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CORP. - NAVAL RESEARCH LABORATORY e. AOORES$ (Ci7t

  16. Meeting the Sensory Needs of Young Children in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Malia; Brittain, Lea Ann; McCathren, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the characteristics of modulation disorders that have been reported with sensory integration dysfunction and provide strategies for supporting positive development and engagement. Although not well understood, scientists are beginning to link structural and chemical imbalances of the brain with responses…

  17. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  18. Sensory properties and drivers of liking for Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Desai, N T; Shepard, L; Drake, M A

    2013-01-01

    Greek yogurt is currently the largest growing sector in the dairy industry. Because no standard of identity exists for Greek yogurts in the United States, and they can be made by a variety of methods, variability in sensory properties is expected. Knowledge of consumer perception and specific drivers of liking will be useful information for product developers. The objective of this study was to document the sensory properties of commercial Greek yogurts and to determine drivers of liking through descriptive profiling and consumer testing. Flavor and texture attributes of commercial Greek yogurts (n = 24) were evaluated in triplicate by a trained descriptive sensory panel. An online survey (n = 520) was used to collect consumer usage and attitude information for Greek yogurts before consumer acceptance testing. Consumer acceptance testing (n = 155) was then conducted on commercial Greek yogurts (n = 10). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used for data analysis. Sensory properties of yogurt differed with fat content and manufacture (Greek vs. fortified Greek). Full-fat yogurts were characterized by firmness and denseness, whereas low- and non-fat yogurts lacked firmness, denseness, cohesiveness, and, after stirring, viscosity. Fortified Greek yogurts generally had more surface shine and jiggle and lower denseness compared with traditional Greek yogurts. Fewer flavor differences were observed among yogurts compared with texture differences. Fortified Greek yogurts displayed a burnt/beefy flavor not documented in traditional Greek yogurts, but this flavor was not evident in all fortified Greek yogurts. Consumer preferred Greek yogurts with firm, dense texture, moderate sweet aromatic, milkfat and dairy sour flavors, and moderate sour taste. Consumers were aware of the increased protein content of Greek yogurts but generally unaware of differences between strained and fortified Greek yogurts; both strained Greek and fortified Greek yogurts received

  19. Gerontechnology acceptance by elderly Hong Kong Chinese: a senior technology acceptance model (STAM).

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Chan, Alan Hoi Shou

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a senior technology acceptance model (STAM) aimed at understanding the acceptance of gerontechnology by older Hong Kong Chinese people. The proposed STAM extended previous technology acceptance models and theories by adding age-related health and ability characteristics of older people. The proposed STAM was empirically tested using a cross-sectional questionnaire survey with a sample of 1012 seniors aged 55 and over in Hong Kong. The result showed that STAM was strongly supported and could explain 68% of the variance in the use of gerontechnology. For older Hong Kong Chinese, individual attributes, which include age, gender, education, gerontechnology self-efficacy and anxiety, and health and ability characteristics, as well as facilitating conditions explicitly and directly affected technology acceptance. These were better predictors of gerontechnology usage behaviour (UB) than the conventionally used attitudinal factors (usefulness and ease of use).

  20. Sensory tricks in primary cervical dystonia depend on visuotactile temporal discrimination.

    PubMed

    Kägi, Georg; Katschnig, Petra; Fiorio, Mirta; Tinazzi, Michele; Ruge, Diane; Rothwell, John; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2013-03-01

    A characteristic feature of primary cervical dystonia is the presence of "sensory tricks" as well as the impairment of temporal and spatial sensory discrimination on formal testing. The aim of the present study was to test whether the amount of improvement of abnormal head deviation due to a sensory trick is associated with different performance of temporal sensory discrimination in patients with cervical dystonia. We recruited 32 patients with cervical dystonia. Dystonia severity was assessed using the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale. Patients were rated according to clinical improvement to a sensory trick and assigned to 1 of the following groups: (1) no improvement (n = 6), (2) partial improvement (n = 17), (3) complete improvement (n = 9). Temporal discrimination thresholds were assessed for visual, tactile, and visuotactile modalities. Disease duration was shorter (P = .026) and dystonia severity lower (P = .033) in the group with complete improvement to sensory tricks compared with the group with partial improvement to sensory tricks. A significant effect for group and modality and a significant interaction between group × modality were found, with lower visuotactile discrimination thresholds in the group with complete improvement to sensory tricks compared with the other groups. In primary cervical dystonia, a complete resolution of dystonia during a sensory trick is associated with better visuotactile discrimination and shorter disease duration compared with patients with less effective sensory tricks, which may reflect progressive loss of adaptive mechanisms to basal ganglia dysfunction.

  1. Sensory Transduction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Austin L.; Ramot, Daniel; Goodman, Miriam B.

    The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has a well-defined and comparatively simple repertoire of sensory-guided behaviors, all of which rely on its ability to detect chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli. In this chapter, we review what is known about the ion channels that mediate sensation in this remarkable model organism. Genetic screens for mutants defective in sensory-guided behaviors have identified genes encoding channel proteins, which are likely transducers of chemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli. Such classical genetic approaches are now being coupled with molecular genetics and in vivo cellular physiology to elucidate how these channels are activated in specific sensory neurons. The ion channel superfamilies implicated in sensory transduction in C. elegans - CNG, TRP, and DEG/ENaC - are conserved across phyla and also appear to contribute to sensory transduction in other organisms, including vertebrates. What we learn about the role of these ion channels in C. elegans sensation is likely to illuminate analogous processes in other animals, including humans.

  2. Reading the World through the Skin and Ears: A New Perspective on Sensory Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Deroy, Ophelia; Auvray, Malika

    2012-01-01

    Sensory substitution devices aim at replacing or assisting one or several functions of a deficient sensory modality by means of another sensory modality. Despite the numerous studies and research programs devoted to their development and integration, sensory substitution devices have failed to live up to their goal of allowing one to “see with the skin” (White et al., 1970) or to “see with the brain” (Bach-y-Rita et al., 2003). These somewhat peremptory claims, as well as the research conducted so far, are based on an implicit perceptual paradigm. Such perceptual assumption accepts the equivalence between using a sensory substitution device and perceiving through a particular sensory modality. Our aim is to provide an alternative model, which defines sensory substitution as being closer to culturally implemented cognitive extensions of existing perceptual skills such as reading. In this article, we will show why the analogy with reading provides a better explanation of the actual findings, that is, both of the positive results achieved and of the limitations noticed across the field of research on sensory substitution. The parallel with the most recent two-route and interactive models of reading (e.g., Dehaene et al., 2005) generates a radically new way of approaching these results, by stressing the dependence of integration on the existing perceptual-semantic route. In addition, the present perspective enables us to generate innovative research questions and specific predictions which set the stage for future work. PMID:23162506

  3. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  4. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  5. [Trigeminal sensory involvement in Bell's palsy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Lapresle, J; Fernandez Manchola, I; Lasjaunias, P

    1980-01-26

    Trigeminal sensory involvement was noted in 14 out of 24 cases of Bell's palsy. The authors describe its characteristics and its chronology with regard to the facial paralysis. Then they propose a vascular mechanism for this association on the basis of two kinds of data. First it is known that there is a common arterial supply of the VIIth and Vth cranial nerves through the middle meningeal vascular system. Secondly some exceptional complications of embolisation within that system have included involvement of both VIIth and Vth sensory nerves. These facts support the vascular basis of Bell's palsy and present an example of a vascular territorial pathology in cranial nerve involvement.

  6. Effect of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the Quality Characteristics of Chicken Patties

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary fiber extracted from Algelica keiskei Koidz on the chemical composition, cooking characteristics, and sensory properties of chicken patties. The chicken patties with Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had significantly higher moisture and ash content, and yellowness than the control sample (p<0.05). Energy value, cooking loss, reduction in diameter, reduction in thickness, lightness, redness, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness of the control samples was significantly higher than chicken patties with Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber (p<0.05). The sensory evaluation indicated that the greatest overall acceptability in chicken patties was achieved at Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber levels of 1% and 2%. Chicken patties supplemented with 2% Algelica keiskei Koidz dietary fiber had improved quality characteristics. PMID:26761844

  7. Physicochemical and sensory properties of irradiated dry-cured ham

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Kim, Chul-Wook; Chung, Ki-Hwa; Jo, Kwang-Keun; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Hur, In-Chul; Jung, Eun-Young; Joo, Seon-Tea; Yang, Han-Sul

    2012-02-01

    To determine the effect of different irradiation doses on ready-to-eat (RTE) dry-cured shoulder hams, physicochemical and sensory attributes were analyzed during 8 weeks of refrigerated storage. The results show that irradiation reduced the redness value and increased the 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value as well as the irradiation aroma during storage. However, ham samples irradiated with 2.5 and 5.0 kGy did not show significant changes in lightness values compared to the control sample during 8 weeks of storage. TBARS values were lower in the sample irradiated with 2.5 kGy than in the other irradiated samples. The total plate counts of the 5.0 kGy-irradiated samples were not measured after 0 weeks. Sensory panels found that the 2.5- and 5.0 kGy-irradiated samples had better overall acceptability scores than the other irradiated samples. It was concluded that treatments with lower levels of irradiation (≤5.0 kGy) can enhance the microbial safety and sensory acceptance of dry-cured shoulder hams.

  8. Study of sensory properties of emollients used in cosmetics and their correlation with physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Solana, Gerardo

    2005-01-01

    Eight liquid emollients (mineral oil, sunflower oil, squalane, decyl oleate, isopropyl myristate, octyldodecanol, dimethicone, and cyclomethicone) were characterized by instrumental and sensory methods and evaluated to determine the relationship between sensory and instrumental measures. Sensory analysis was carried out by a panel of 14 assessors, who evaluated the following attributes: difficulty of spreading, gloss, residue, stickiness, slipperiness, softness, and oiliness. The physicochemical properties measured were spreadability (at one-half minute and at one minute), viscosity, and superficial tension. Data collected were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA), and linear partial least squares regression analysis (PLS). In consideration of their physicochemical characteristics, the studied emollients were sorted into three groups, in which the silicones distinctly separate from the rest. Sensory characteristics enabled the discrimination of four groups of emollients where, besides the two silicones, isopropyl myristate was also differentiated. PLS revealed that emollient sensory attributes could be well predicted by instrumental measurements.

  9. Evaluation of sensory quality of calf chops: a new methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Etaio, I; Gil, P F; Ojeda, M; Albisu, M; Salmerón, J; Pérez Elortondo, F J

    2013-05-01

    A new method to evaluate the sensory quality of calf chops was developed by discussion with experts. Resulting method comprised four parameters: quality related to odor, texture, flavor and persistence. For each parameter, the sensory characteristics perceived are marked and, by using decision trees, corresponding quality is directly scored, so making the assessment more objective. Global sensory quality is calculated by weighting these four partial qualities. Due to sensory characteristic collection, the method also provides an exhaustive description of each sample. To check the appropriateness of the method, 127 calf chop samples were evaluated by a panel specifically trained to apply it. Results confirmed the suitability of the method to describe the samples and differentiate among them according to their quality level. This innovative approach can be very useful for quality control and also to study the effects of different factors on meat sensory quality.

  10. The impact of fruit maturation on bioactive microconstituents, inhibition of serum oxidation and inflammatory markers in stimulated PBMCs and sensory characteristics of Koroneiki virgin olive oils from Messenia, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kaliora, Andriana C; Artemiou, Anna; Giogios, Ioannis; Kalogeropoulos, Nick

    2013-08-01

    Olive fruits from the Koroneiki cultivar (Olea europaea L.) grown in Messenia, Greece, were hand-picked from the same trees in progressive maturity stages, covering three months, and processed identically with a commercial olive mill and a three-phase decanter. Data on quality parameters, and antioxidant activity of the obtained oils were collected by employing the conventional analytical methods set by European Union Commission Regulation no. 61/2011. Additionally, the potential of oils' polar extract to inhibit total serum lipid oxidation and inflammatory markers in stimulated human mononuclear cells was assayed. The results showed that ripening caused an increase in monounsaturated and decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as an increase in phenolic compounds - mainly hydroxytyrosol - and in squalene. The extracts' ferric reducing power was in line with the increase of phenolic compounds. In later stages of maturation, lipoprotein oxidation was less potent and the decrease of inflammatory markers in stimulated human mononuclear cells was more powerful. Sensory evaluation detected differences in oils' "bitter" attributes, while the analysis of oils' volatiles revealed quantitative differences.

  11. Chemical, physical, and sensory properties of dairy products enriched with conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Jones, E L; Shingfield, K J; Kohen, C; Jones, A K; Lupoli, B; Grandison, A S; Beever, D E; Williams, C M; Calder, P C; Yaqoob, P

    2005-08-01

    Recent studies have illustrated the effects of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on human health. Ruminant-derived meat, milk and dairy products are the predominant sources of cis-9,trans-11 CLA in the human diet. This study evaluated the processing properties, texture, storage characteristics, and organoleptic properties of UHT milk, Caerphilly cheese, and butter produced from a milk enriched to a level of cis-9,trans-11 CLA that has been shown to have biological effects in humans. Forty-nine early-lactation Holstein-British Friesian cows were fed total mixed rations containing 0 (control) or 45 g/kg (on dry matter basis) of a mixture (1:2 wt/wt) of fish oil and sunflower oil during two consecutive 7-d periods to produce a control and CLA-enhanced milk, respectively. Milk produced from cows fed the control and fish and sunflower oil diets contained 0.54 and 4.68 g of total CLA/100 g of fatty acids, respectively. Enrichment of CLA in raw milk from the fish and sunflower oil diet was also accompanied by substantial increases in trans C18:1 levels, lowered C18:0, cis-C18:1, and total saturated fatty acid concentrations, and small increases in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content. The CLA-enriched milk was used for the manufacture of UHT milk, butter, and cheese. Both the CLA-enhanced butter and cheese were less firm than control products. Although the sensory profiles of the CLA-enriched milk, butter, and cheese differed from those of the control products with respect to some attributes, the overall impression and flavor did not differ. In conclusion, it is feasible to produce CLA-enriched dairy products with acceptable storage and sensory characteristics.

  12. Weak universality in sensory tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzen, Sarah; DeDeo, Simon

    2016-12-01

    For many organisms, the number of sensory neurons is largely determined during development, before strong environmental cues are present. This is despite the fact that environments can fluctuate drastically both from generation to generation and within an organism's lifetime. How can organisms get by by hard coding the number of sensory neurons? We approach this question using rate-distortion theory. A combination of simulation and theory suggests that when environments are large, the rate-distortion function—a proxy for material costs, timing delays, and energy requirements—depends only on coarse-grained environmental statistics that are expected to change on evolutionary, rather than ontogenetic, time scales.

  13. Building sensory receptors on the tongue.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Bruce; Witt, Martin

    2004-12-01

    Neurotrophins, neurotrophin receptors and sensory neurons are required for the development of lingual sense organs. For example, neurotrophin 3 sustains lingual somatosensory neurons. In the traditional view, sensory axons will terminate where neurotrophin expression is most pronounced. Yet, lingual somatosensory axons characteristically terminate in each filiform papilla and in each somatosensory prominence within a cluster of cells expressing the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), rather than terminating among the adjacent cells that secrete neurotrophin 3. The p75NTR on special specialized clusters of epithelial cells may promote axonal arborization in vivo since its over-expression by fibroblasts enhances neurite outgrowth from overlying somatosensory neurons in vitro. Two classical observations have implicated gustatory neurons in the development and maintenance of mammalian taste buds--the early arrival times of embryonic innervation and the loss of taste buds after their denervation in adults. In the modern era more than a dozen experimental studies have used early denervation or neurotrophin gene mutations to evaluate mammalian gustatory organ development. Necessary for taste organ development, brain-derived neurotrophic factor sustains developing gustatory neurons. The cardinal conclusion is readily summarized: taste buds in the palate and tongue are induced by innervation. Taste buds are unstable: the death and birth of taste receptor cells relentlessly remodels synaptic connections. As receptor cells turn over, the sensory code for taste quality is probably stabilized by selective synapse formation between each type of gustatory axon and its matching taste receptor cell. We anticipate important new discoveries of molecular interactions among the epithelium, the underlying mesenchyme and gustatory innervation that build the gustatory papillae, their specialized epithelial cells, and the resulting taste buds.

  14. Satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia: from form to function.

    PubMed

    Hanani, Menachem

    2005-06-01

    Current information indicates that glial cells participate in all the normal and pathological processes of the central nervous system. Although much less is known about satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia, it appears that these cells share many characteristics with their central counterparts. This review presents information that has been accumulated recently on the physiology and pharmacology of SGCs. It appears that SGCs carry receptors for numerous neuroactive agents (e.g., ATP, bradykinin) and can therefore receive signals from other cells and respond to changes in their environment. Activation of SGCs might in turn influence neighboring neurons. Thus SGCs are likely to participate in signal processing and transmission in sensory ganglia. Damage to the axons of sensory ganglia is known to contribute to neuropathic pain. Such damage also affects SGCs, and it can be proposed that these cells have a role in pathological changes in the ganglia.

  15. Effect of ingredients on sensory profile of idli.

    PubMed

    Durgadevi, Manoharan; Shetty, Prathapkumar H

    2014-09-01

    Idli is a traditional fermented food and is consumed in India and Srilanka. The objective of the present study is to select the ingredients for optimum desirable product characteristics and to identify the optimum ratios of ingredients and fermentation time with respect to sensory attributes using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The sensory attributes included were color, appearance, texture, taste and overall quality. Preliminary trials were conducted using five variants of rice and common black gram dhal before framing a model using Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). From the study it was found that a desirable score of 0.7439 was obtained for sensory attributes of idli made with the ratio of 3: 1.475 for IR20 idli rice and ADT3 variety black gram (with husk removed after soaking) fermented for 10.2 h. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) helped to discriminate the samples and attributes within the data matrix, depending upon their inter relationships.

  16. Exposure, health information and flavour-masking strategies for improving the sensory quality of probiotic juice.

    PubMed

    Luckow, T; Sheehan, V; Fitzgerald, G; Delahunty, C

    2006-11-01

    Probiotics are live microbial food supplements, which have been shown to exert numerous health benefits. Research has identified that probiotics cause perceptible off-flavours that often contribute to consumer dissatisfaction. This research consisted of three objectives. Firstly, to confirm whether probiotics have a significant effect on the sensory quality and the consumer acceptance of juices. Secondly, to evaluate whether the addition of tropical juices masks probiotic off-flavours, thereby increasing consumer liking. Thirdly, to determine whether non-sensory factors (i.e., repeated exposure, and health information) have an impact on consumer liking. Three orange juice products were manufactured for analysis; Control juice, juice containing probiotics, and juice containing probiotics and tropical fruit juices (10% v/v). Descriptive sensory analysis using a trained panel (n=8) determined that probiotic juices possessed unique 'medicinal' characteristics. Using labelled affective magnitude scales, consumers (n=116) evaluated their 'overall liking' of the three juices in a randomised order in the laboratory. Once assigned into one of three balanced exposure groups, each consumer took home seven, 100mL bottles of one of the juices, and consumed one bottle each day for 7 days. After each in-home consumption, consumers evaluated their 'overall liking' to familiarize themselves with the juice. Furthermore, half of the consumers were provided with information about the presence and the health benefits of probiotics, while the other half of consumers received no information. After 7 days of in-home usage, consumers returned to the laboratory for post-exposure sensory testing, where they re-evaluated their 'overall liking' of the three juices in a randomised order. Results showed that tropical juices were effective in masking the off-flavours associated with probiotic ingredients, and that consumer liking for the probiotic juice containing tropical juice flavours was

  17. Comparison of sensory specific satiety and sensory specific desires to eat in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Annemarie; Ritz, Christian; Hartvig, Ditte L; Møller, Per

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this experiment is to compare sensory specific satiety (SSS) and sensory specific desire to eat (SSD), which can be described as general wanting for certain taste categories and go beyond specific foods, in children and adults and their impact on subsequent food choices. Eighty-seven children (10.3 ± 0.6 years) and 49 adults (31.0 ± 2.0 years) participated in the study. Sweet pear banana yoghurt was used as the food eaten to satiation, and test foods representing sweet, salty, sour, bitter, "fatty", and "spicy" flavors were also evaluated (foods not eaten). At baseline and post meal participants evaluated hunger, satiation, liking, and wanting for test foods and yoghurt, and desires on a 150 mm visual analogue score (VAS) scale. The yoghurt was eaten until a state of "comfortable satiation" was reached. Results showed that SSS and SSD were expressed differently in children and adults. In children, SSS was primarily product specific and bound to the yoghurt, whereas in adults SSS was transferred to the uneaten foods sharing sensory characteristics with the yoghurt (namely sweet, sour and "fatty"), which all decreased in their liking post meal. Similar differences were found for SSD. We conclude that children and adults differ in their expression of SSS and SSD, and this might have implications for planning meal compositions.

  18. Sensory evaluation of a novel vegetable in school age children.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Helen; Palfreyman, Zoe; Morizet, David

    2016-05-01

    A behavioural sensory task was undertaken to further understanding into whether children's sensory evaluation of a new vegetable is associated with tasting and food neophobia scores. A sample of ninety-five children, aged 7-11 years, was recruited from a primary school in inner city Birmingham, UK. They were asked to rate the sight, smell and feel of a familiar vegetable (carrot) and an unfamiliar vegetable (celeriac) in a randomised order to control for order effects. They were then asked to try the each vegetable, and rate its taste. It was found that children rated the sensory characteristics of the familiar vegetable more positively than the novel vegetable across all sensory domains (p < 0.05). Refusing to try the novel vegetable was associated with food neophobia scores and olfactory ratings. The ratings of the taste of the novel vegetable were associated with olfactory and tactile ratings. In addition there was a clear developmental shift in the sample with younger children being more likely to rate the novel vegetable as 'looking strange' and older children rating the novel vegetable as 'smelling strange'. This research strengthens the idea that sensory information is important in children deciding to try, and their hedonic evaluation of the taste of a new vegetable.

  19. Sensor selection and chemo-sensory optimization: toward an adaptable chemo-sensory system.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Alexander; Llobet, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, despite the tremendous research on chemical sensors and machine olfaction to develop micro-sensory systems that will accomplish the growing existent needs in personal health (implantable sensors), environment monitoring (widely distributed sensor networks), and security/threat detection (chemo/bio warfare agents), simple, low-cost molecular sensing platforms capable of long-term autonomous operation remain beyond the current state-of-the-art of chemical sensing. A fundamental issue within this context is that most of the chemical sensors depend on interactions between the targeted species and the surfaces functionalized with receptors that bind the target species selectively, and that these binding events are coupled with transduction processes that begin to change when they are exposed to the messy world of real samples. With the advent of fundamental breakthroughs at the intersection of materials science, micro- and nano-technology, and signal processing, hybrid chemo-sensory systems have incorporated tunable, optimizable operating parameters, through which changes in the response characteristics can be modeled and compensated as the environmental conditions or application needs change. The objective of this article, in this context, is to bring together the key advances at the device, data processing, and system levels that enable chemo-sensory systems to "adapt" in response to their environments. Accordingly, in this review we will feature the research effort made by selected experts on chemical sensing and information theory, whose work has been devoted to develop strategies that provide tunability and adaptability to single sensor devices or sensory array systems. Particularly, we consider sensor-array selection, modulation of internal sensing parameters, and active sensing. The article ends with some conclusions drawn from the results presented and a visionary look toward the future in terms of how the field may evolve.

  20. Sensor Selection and Chemo-Sensory Optimization: Toward an Adaptable Chemo-Sensory System

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Alexander; Llobet, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, despite the tremendous research on chemical sensors and machine olfaction to develop micro-sensory systems that will accomplish the growing existent needs in personal health (implantable sensors), environment monitoring (widely distributed sensor networks), and security/threat detection (chemo/bio warfare agents), simple, low-cost molecular sensing platforms capable of long-term autonomous operation remain beyond the current state-of-the-art of chemical sensing. A fundamental issue within this context is that most of the chemical sensors depend on interactions between the targeted species and the surfaces functionalized with receptors that bind the target species selectively, and that these binding events are coupled with transduction processes that begin to change when they are exposed to the messy world of real samples. With the advent of fundamental breakthroughs at the intersection of materials science, micro- and nano-technology, and signal processing, hybrid chemo-sensory systems have incorporated tunable, optimizable operating parameters, through which changes in the response characteristics can be modeled and compensated as the environmental conditions or application needs change. The objective of this article, in this context, is to bring together the key advances at the device, data processing, and system levels that enable chemo-sensory systems to “adapt” in response to their environments. Accordingly, in this review we will feature the research effort made by selected experts on chemical sensing and information theory, whose work has been devoted to develop strategies that provide tunability and adaptability to single sensor devices or sensory array systems. Particularly, we consider sensor-array selection, modulation of internal sensing parameters, and active sensing. The article ends with some conclusions drawn from the results presented and a visionary look toward the future in terms of how the field may evolve. PMID

  1. Functional sensorial complementation during host orientation in an Asilidae parasitoid larva.

    PubMed

    Pueyrredon, J M; Crespo, J E; Castelo, M K

    2017-03-07

    Changes in environmental conditions influence the performance of organisms in every aspect of their life. Being capable of accurately sensing these changes allow organisms to better adapt. The detection of environmental conditions involves different sensory modalities. There are many studies on the morphology of different sensory structures but not so many studies showing their function. Here we studied the morphology of different sensory structures in the larva of a dipteran parasitoid. We occluded the putative sensory structures coupling the morphology with their function. First, we could develop a non-invasive method in which we occluded the putative sensorial structures annulling their function temporarily. Regarding their functionality, we found that larvae of Mallophora ruficauda require simultaneously of the sensilla found both in the antennae and those of the maxillary palps in order to orient to its host. When either both antennae or both maxillary palps were occluded, no orientation to the host was observed. We also found that these structures are not involved in the acceptance of the host because high and similar proportion of parasitized hosts was found in host acceptance experiments. We propose that other sensilla could be involved in host acceptance and discuss how the different sensilla in the antennae and maxillary palps complement each other to provide larvae with the information for locating its host.

  2. Vacuum-packed ripened sausages: evolution of oxidative and hydrolytic degradation of lipid fraction during long-term storage and influence on the sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Summo, Carmine; Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Pasqualone, Antonella; Gomes, Tommaso

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out with the aim to understand the oxidative and hydrolytic phenomena involving the lipid fraction of vacuum-packed sausages during long-term storage (5 months) and to verify their influence on the sensory characteristics. The data obtained pointed out that the oxidation was more pronounced in the initial stages of storage than in the further period, while the hydrolysis of lipid fraction significantly advanced during the whole storage time, supported by the high moisture level of the product. Both these phenomena resulted to be correlated with the sensory decay of the product. In particular, in the first stage of vacuum storage overall acceptability was found to be negatively correlated (p<0.05) with rancid taste, acid value, and oxidized triacylglycerols. In the further stage the oxidative processes slowed down and affected in a lesser extent the sensory properties, which were more distinctly characterized by the onset of pungent perception attributed to compounds arising from multiple origins such as carbohydrate fermentation. This investigation confirmed the unreliability of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances test and the usefulness of high performance size exclusion chromatography analysis of the polar compounds of the lipid fraction to correctly determine the levels of the oxidative and hydrolytic degradation of the lipid fraction of vacuum-packed ripened sausages during long-term storage.

  3. Sensory Hierarchical Organization and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skapof, Jerome

    The purpose of this study was to judge the viability of an operational approach aimed at assessing response styles in reading using the hypothesis of sensory hierarchical organization. A sample of 103 middle-class children from a New York City public school, between the ages of five and seven, took part in a three phase experiment. Phase one…

  4. [Sensory Awareness through Outdoor Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Carin; And Others

    Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, these seven articles present concepts and activities relative to sensory awareness and outdoor education. The first article presents definitions, concepts, detailed methodology, and over 50 activities designed to create awareness of man's five senses. Utilizing the art of…

  5. Making Sense of Sensory Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Marie

    2010-01-01

    The role of caregivers requires that they continuously assess the needs and performance of children and provide the support necessary for them to achieve their potential. A thorough understanding of child development, including the role and impact of sensory development, is critical for caregivers to properly evaluate and assist these children.…

  6. Comparison of Carcass and Sensory Traits and Free Amino Acid Contents among Quality Grades in Loin and Rump of Korean Cattle Steer

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Min Yu; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ko, Jong-Youl; Baik, Myunggi

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to compare carcass traits, sensory characteristics, physiochemical composition, and contents of nucleotides, collagen, and free amino acids among quality grades (QG) and to understand the association between QG and above parameters in loin and rump of Korean cattle steer. Loin and rump samples were obtained from 48 Korean cattle steers with each of four QG (QG 1++, 1+, 1, and 2; average 32 months of age). Carcass weight and marbling score (MS) were highest in QG 1++, whereas texture score measured by a meat grader was highest in QG 2. A correlation analysis revealed that MS (r = 0.98; p<0.01) and fat content (r = 0.73; p<0.01) had strong positive correlations with QG and that texture had a strong negative correlation (r = −0.78) with QG. Fat content in loin was highest but protein and moisture contents were lowest in QG 1++. Our results confirmed that a major determinant of QG is the MS; thus, intramuscular fat content. The International Commission on Illumination L*, a*, and b* values in loin were highest in QG 1++. Numeric values of shear force in loin were lowest in QG 1++, whereas those of tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability tended to be highest in QG 1++ without statistical significance. QG was strongly correlated with juiciness (r = 0.81; p<0.01) and overall acceptability (r = 0.87; p<0.001). All sensory characteristics were higher (p<0.05) in loin than those in rump. Adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP) and inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP) contents in both loin and rump did not differ among QGs. No nucleotide (AMP, IMP, inosine, hypoxanthine) was correlated with any of the sensory traits. Total, soluble, and insoluble collagen contents in loin were higher in QG 1++ than those in QG 1. All three collagens had lower content in loin than that in rump. All three collagens were positively correlated with tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. Glutamic acid content did not significantly differ among the four QGs in

  7. [Olfactory sensory perception].

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Aler; Fresno, María Javiera; Santander, Hugo; Valenzuela, Saúl; Gutiérrez, Mario Felipe; Miralles, Rodolfo

    2011-03-01

    The five senses have had a fundamental importance for survival and socialization of human beings. From an evolutionary point of view the sense of smell is the oldest. This sense has a strong representation within the genome, allowing the existence of many types of receptors that allow us to capture multiple volatile odor producing molecules, sending electrical signals to higher centers to report the outside world. Several cortical areas are activated in the brain, which are interconnected to form an extensive and complex neural network, linking for example, areas involved with memory and emotions, thus giving this sense of perceptual richness. While the concept of flavor is largely related to the sense of taste, smell provides the necessary integration with the rest of the senses and higher functions. Fully understanding the sense of smell is relevant to health professionals. Knowing the characteristics of the receptors, the transduction processes and convergence of information in the higher centers involved, we can properly detect olfactory disorders in our patients.

  8. Sensory exploitation and sexual conflict

    PubMed Central

    Arnqvist, Göran

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature on male–female coevolution concerns the processes by which male traits and female preferences for these can coevolve and be maintained by selection. There has been less explicit focus on the origin of male traits and female preferences. Here, I argue that it is important to distinguish origin from subsequent coevolution and that insights into the origin can help us appreciate the relative roles of various coevolutionary processes for the evolution of diversity in sexual dimorphism. I delineate four distinct scenarios for the origin of male traits and female preferences that build on past contributions, two of which are based on pre-existing variation in quality indicators among males and two on exploitation of pre-existing sensory biases among females. Recent empirical research, and theoretical models, suggest that origin by sensory exploitation has been widespread. I argue that this points to a key, but perhaps transient, role for sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) in the subsequent evolutionary elaboration of sexual traits, because (i) sensory exploitation is often likely to be initially costly for individuals of the exploited sex and (ii) the subsequent evolution of resistance to sensory exploitation should often be associated with costs due to selective constraints. A review of a few case studies is used to illustrate these points. Empirical data directly relevant to the costs of being sensory exploited and the costs of evolving resistance is largely lacking, and I stress that such data would help determining the general importance of sexual conflict and SAC for the evolution of sexual dimorphism. PMID:16612895

  9. A review on intelligent sensory modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tham, H. J.; Tang, S. Y.; Teo, K. T. K.; Loh, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    Sensory evaluation plays an important role in the quality control of food productions. Sensory data obtained through sensory evaluation are generally subjective, vague and uncertain. Classically, factorial multivariate methods such as Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square (PLS) method, Multiple Regression (MLR) method and Response Surface Method (RSM) are the common tools used to analyse sensory data. These methods can model some of the sensory data but may not be robust enough to analyse nonlinear data. In these situations, intelligent modelling techniques such as Fuzzy Logic and Artificial neural network (ANNs) emerged to solve the vagueness and uncertainty of sensory data. This paper outlines literature of intelligent sensory modelling on sensory data analysis.

  10. Meal Replacement Mass Reduction and Integration Acceptability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirmons, T.; Cooper, M.; Douglas, G.; Barrett, A.; Richardson, M.; Arias, D.; Schneiderman, J.; Slack, K.; Ploutz-Snyder R.

    2016-01-01

    NASA, in planning for long duration missions, has an imperative to provide a food system with the necessary nutrition, acceptability, and safety to ensure sustainment of crew health and performance. The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and future exploration missions are mass constrained; therefore we are challenged to reduce the mass of the food system by 10% while maintaining safety, nutrition, and acceptability for exploration missions. Food bars have previously been used to supplement meals in the Skylab food system, indicating that regular consumption of bars will be acceptable. However, commercially available products do not meet the requirements for a full meal replacement in the spaceflight food system. The purpose of this task is to develop a variety of nutritionally balanced breakfast replacement bars, which meet spaceflight nutritional, microbiological, sensorial, and shelf-life requirements, while enabling a 10% food mass savings. To date, six nutrient-dense meal replacement bars have been developed, using both traditional methods of compression as well as novel ultrasonic compression technologies developed by Creative Resonance Inc. (Phoenix, AZ). All bars will be prioritized based on acceptability and the four top candidates will be evaluated in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) to assess the frequency with which actual meal replacement options may be implemented. Specifically, overall impact to mood, satiety, dietary discomfort, and satisfaction with food will be analyzed to inform successful implementation strategies. In addition, these bars will be evaluated based on final product sensory acceptability, nutritional stability, qualitative stability of analytical measurements (i.e. water activity and texture), and microbiological compliance over two years of storage at room temperature and potential temperature abuse conditions to predict long-term acceptability. It is expected that this work will enable a successful meal

  11. College Student Invulnerability Beliefs and HIV Vaccine Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravert, Russell D.; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine behavioral history, beliefs, and vaccine characteristics as predictors of HIV vaccine acceptability. Methods: Two hundred forty-five US under graduates were surveyed regarding their sexual history, risk beliefs, and likelihood of accepting hypothetical HIV vaccines. Results: Multivariate regression analysis indicated that…

  12. Predicting Acceptance of Diversity in Pre-Kindergarten Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Kay; Downer, Jason

    2012-01-01

    This study examined classroom-level contributors to an acceptance of diversity in publicly supported pre-kindergarten classrooms across 11 states. Classroom composition, process quality, and teacher characteristics were examined as predictors of diversity-promoting practices as measured by the ECERS-R, acceptance of diversity construct. Findings…

  13. Botanical origin, colour, granulation, and sensory properties of the Harenna forest honey, Bale, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belay, Abera; Solomon, W K; Bultossa, Geremew; Adgaba, Nuru; Melaku, Samuel

    2015-01-15

    In this study, the Harenna forest honey samples were investigated with respect to their botanical origin, granulation, colour and sensory properties. Sixteen honey samples were collected from two representative sites (Chiri, C, and Wabero, W) using random sampling techniques. Botanical origin was investigated using qualitative pollen analysis by counting 500 pollen grains using harmonised methods of melissopalynology. Granulation, colour, and sensory properties of honey were determined by visual observation, using Pfund grader, acceptability and preference tests, respectively. Honey samples were also tested for tetracycline. Honey obtained from Wabero is originated dominantly from Syzygium guineense while Chiri was multifloral. The colour of honey ranged from 34 to 85 with light amber and extra light amber colours. The honey samples were free from tetracycline residue and form coarse granules slowly. Significant variation (p>0.05) in sensory preference and acceptability tests not observed due to hive types and locations.

  14. Military ration chocolate: the effect of simulated tropical storage on sensory quality, structure and bloom formation.

    PubMed

    Bui, Lan T T; Coad, Ross

    2014-10-01

    A storage trial was conducted to observe the effect of typical northern Australia climatic conditions on a military ration chocolate (RC). The results indicate that sensory quality decreased during storage; after seven days the chocolate was no longer of acceptable appearance. Deterioration in RC sensory quality was strongly correlated with decreases in visual acceptance (appearance) and increases in degree of blooming. Instrumental colour measurements were also strongly correlated with sensory ratings. Visual and microscopic observations provide evidence for movement of fat to and across the surface of the RC, behaviour that may be explained in terms of the phase transition theory of fat blooming. DSC thermographs provide evidence of a shift from predominantly polymorph form V in a fresh RC sample to a greater proportion of form VI in bloomed storage samples. The study provides a baseline against which efforts to improve the quality of RC may be evaluated.

  15. A Sensorial Approach to Art: Pre-Art Discovery with Severely and Profoundly Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonker, Sherrie

    The booklet presents an art therapist's thoughts on contributions of art therapy to the development of severely and profoundly impaired students. She emphasizes the importance of sensory exploration as an introduction to the child's environment. Also stressed is the importance of positive and accepting attitudes on the part of teachers or…

  16. A Comparison of Sensory Integrative and Behavioral Therapies as Treatment for Pediatric Feeding Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Laura R.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Patel, Meeta R.; Bachmeyer, Melanie H.; Rivas, Kristi M.; Milnes, Suzanne M.; Oddo, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of escape extinction (EE) plus noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with sensory integration therapy as treatment for the feeding problems of 2 children. Results indicated that EE plus NCR was more effective in increasing acceptance, decreasing inappropriate behavior, and increasing amount consumed relative to sensory…

  17. Behavior Management Guide for Parents of Children with Dual Sensory Impairments. Bulletin No. 9129.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papineau, Andrew

    This guide describes methods to help parents and others reduce the unacceptable behaviors of children with multiple sensory impairments and replace those behaviors with acceptable ones. The guide recommends that the behavior change program begin with simple changes so that both the parents and the child gain experience in changing behavior. The…

  18. Effect of corn bran as dietary fiber addition on baking and sensory quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of wholesome and nutritious fiber rich food products with acceptable functional and sensory quality is a major industrial concern, seeking to capture consumer’s interest in healthy and functional foods. Dietary fiber in corn bran is known for its beneficial effects on human health and n...

  19. Emperical Tests of Acceptance Sampling Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. Preston, Jr.; Johnson, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance sampling is a quality control procedure applied as an alternative to 100% inspection. A random sample of items is drawn from a lot to determine the fraction of items which have a required quality characteristic. Both the number of items to be inspected and the criterion for determining conformance of the lot to the requirement are given by an appropriate sampling plan with specified risks of Type I and Type II sampling errors. In this paper, we present the results of empirical tests of the accuracy of selected sampling plans reported in the literature. These plans are for measureable quality characteristics which are known have either binomial, exponential, normal, gamma, Weibull, inverse Gaussian, or Poisson distributions. In the main, results support the accepted wisdom that variables acceptance plans are superior to attributes (binomial) acceptance plans, in the sense that these provide comparable protection against risks at reduced sampling cost. For the Gaussian and Weibull plans, however, there are ranges of the shape parameters for which the required sample sizes are in fact larger than the corresponding attributes plans, dramatically so for instances of large skew. Tests further confirm that the published inverse-Gaussian (IG) plan is flawed, as reported by White and Johnson (2011).

  20. Subclinical sensory involvement in monomelic amyotrophy.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jenny P; Waclawik, Andrew J; Lotz, Barend P

    2005-12-01

    An 18-year-old woman presented with weakness and atrophy in her hand without associated sensory symptoms, preceding events, or structural abnormalities on neuroimaging. No sensory deficits were detected on neurologic examination. Electrophysiological studies showed not only the expected motor findings for monomelic amyotrophy (MA) in the affected limb, but also markedly reduced sensory nerve action potentials when compared with the unaffected side. These findings suggest that subclinical sensory involvement can exist in patients with otherwise classic presentations of MA.

  1. Motor-sensory confluence in tactile perception.

    PubMed

    Saig, Avraham; Gordon, Goren; Assa, Eldad; Arieli, Amos; Ahissar, Ehud

    2012-10-03

    Perception involves motor control of sensory organs. However, the dynamics underlying emergence of perception from motor-sensory interactions are not yet known. Two extreme possibilities are as follows: (1) motor and sensory signals interact within an open-loop scheme in which motor signals determine sensory sampling but are not affected by sensory processing and (2) motor and sensory signals are affected by each other within a closed-loop scheme. We studied the scheme of motor-sensory interactions in humans using a novel object localization task that enabled monitoring the relevant overt motor and sensory variables. We found that motor variables were dynamically controlled within each perceptual trial, such that they gradually converged to steady values. Training on this task resulted in improvement in perceptual acuity, which was achieved solely by changes in motor variables, without any change in the acuity of sensory readout. The within-trial dynamics is captured by a hierarchical closed-loop model in which lower loops actively maintain constant sensory coding, and higher loops maintain constant sensory update flow. These findings demonstrate interchangeability of motor and sensory variables in perception, motor convergence during perception, and a consistent hierarchical closed-loop perceptual model.

  2. Multi-Sensory Intervention Observational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2011-01-01

    An observational research study based on sensory integration theory was conducted to examine the observed impact of student selected multi-sensory experiences within a multi-sensory intervention center relative to the sustained focus levels of students with special needs. A stratified random sample of 50 students with severe developmental…

  3. Electrophysiological aspects of sensory conduction velocity in healthy adults. 2. Ratio between the amplitude of sensory evoked potentials at the wrist on stimulating different fingers in both hands.

    PubMed

    Cruz Martínez, A; Barrio, M; Pérez Conde, M C; Ferrer, M T

    1978-12-01

    The normal ratio between the amplitude of the sensory evoked potential (SEP) at the wrist on stimulating digits 1, 2, 3, and 5 was determined in 44 healthy adult subjects. The first digit had the larger amplitude, and the fifth digit the smallest SEP. The amplitude expresses the density of sensory innervation in each finger. The ratio between the amplitude of different fingers varied according to the age of the subject. The amplitude of the SEP from a digit innervated by the median nerve decreased in the elderly more than the SEP amplitude of the digit innervated by the ulnar nerve, probably because of a chronic compression in the carpal tunnel. The changes in the normal amplitude ratio can be applied to the topographic diagnosis of radicular and brachial plexus lesions if a fixed segmental sensory innervation of the hand is accepted. In 44 right handed subjects the amplitude of the sensory evoked potentials at the wrist was significantly larger in the left hand. This asymmetry of sensory innervation between hands could be physiological, and suggests a greater density of sensory innervation in the left hand of right handed subjects.

  4. Electrophysiological aspects of sensory conduction velocity in healthy adults. 2. Ratio between the amplitude of sensory evoked potentials at the wrist on stimulating different fingers in both hands.

    PubMed Central

    Cruz Martínez, A; Barrio, M; Pérez Conde, M C; Ferrer, M T

    1978-01-01

    The normal ratio between the amplitude of the sensory evoked potential (SEP) at the wrist on stimulating digits 1, 2, 3, and 5 was determined in 44 healthy adult subjects. The first digit had the larger amplitude, and the fifth digit the smallest SEP. The amplitude expresses the density of sensory innervation in each finger. The ratio between the amplitude of different fingers varied according to the age of the subject. The amplitude of the SEP from a digit innervated by the median nerve decreased in the elderly more than the SEP amplitude of the digit innervated by the ulnar nerve, probably because of a chronic compression in the carpal tunnel. The changes in the normal amplitude ratio can be applied to the topographic diagnosis of radicular and brachial plexus lesions if a fixed segmental sensory innervation of the hand is accepted. In 44 right handed subjects the amplitude of the sensory evoked potentials at the wrist was significantly larger in the left hand. This asymmetry of sensory innervation between hands could be physiological, and suggests a greater density of sensory innervation in the left hand of right handed subjects. PMID:731255

  5. A clinician-administered observation and corresponding caregiver interview capturing DSM-5 sensory reactivity symptoms in children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Siper, Paige M; Kolevzon, Alexander; Wang, A Ting; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Tavassoli, Teresa

    2017-03-11

    Sensory reactivity, including hyperreactivity, hyporeactivity, and sensation seeking, is a new criterion for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). However, there is no consensus on how to reliably measure sensory reactivity, particularly in minimally verbal individuals. The current study is an initial validation of the Sensory Assessment for Neurodevelopmental Disorders (SAND), a novel clinician-administered observation and corresponding caregiver interview that captures sensory symptoms based on DSM-5 criteria for ASD. DSM-5 criteria of sensory hyperreactivity, hyporeactivity, and seeking behaviors are measured across visual, auditory, and tactile domains. Children with ASD showed significantly more sensory reactivity symptoms compared to typically developing (TD) children across sensory domains (visual, tactile, and auditory) and within each sensory subtype (hyperreactivity, hyporeactivity, and seeking). Psychometric properties including internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity were all strong. The SAND provides a novel method to characterize sensory reactivity symptoms based on DSM-5 criteria for ASD. This is the first known sensory assessment that combines a clinician-administered observation and caregiver interview to optimally capture sensory phenotypes characteristic of individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. The SAND offers a beneficial new tool for both research and clinical purposes and has the potential to meaningfully enhance gold-standard assessment of ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Factors affecting dry-cured ham consumer acceptability.

    PubMed

    Morales, R; Guerrero, L; Aguiar, A P S; Guàrdia, M D; Gou, P

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were (1) to compare the relative importance of price, processing time, texture and intramuscular fat in purchase intention of dry-cured ham through conjoint analysis, (2) to evaluate the effect of dry-cured ham appearance on consumer expectations, and (3) to describe the consumer sensory preferences of dry-cured ham using external preference mapping. Texture and processing time influenced the consumer preferences in conjoint analysis. Red colour intensity, colour uniformity, external fat and white film presence/absence influenced consumer expectations. The consumer disliked hams with bitter and metallic flavour and with excessive saltiness and piquantness. Differences between expected and experienced acceptability were found, which indicates that the visual preference of consumers does not allow them to select a dry-cured ham that satisfies their sensory preferences of flavour and texture.

  7. Sensory change following motor learning.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Andrew A G; Nasir, Sazzad M; Darainy, Mohammad; Ostry, David J

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe two studies linking perceptual change with motor learning. In the first, we document persistent changes in somatosensory perception that occur following force field learning. Subjects learned to control a robotic device that applied forces to the hand during arm movements. This led to a change in the sensed position of the limb that lasted at least 24 h. Control experiments revealed that the sensory change depended on motor learning. In the second study, we describe changes in the perception of speech sounds that occur following speech motor learning. Subjects adapted control of speech movements to compensate for loads applied to the jaw by a robot. Perception of speech sounds was measured before and after motor learning. Adapted subjects showed a consistent shift in perception. In contrast, no consistent shift was seen in control subjects and subjects that did not adapt to the load. These studies suggest that motor learning changes both sensory and motor function.

  8. Studies on effect of oat and cheese incorporation on sensory and textural quality of short-dough type biscuit.

    PubMed

    Swapna, K S; Rao, K Jayaraj

    2016-03-01

    In view of their growing importance in human nutrition, incorporation of oats and cheese during the manufacture of short-dough type biscuits was studied. Rolled oats were incorporated at 25, 35 and 45 % of refined wheat flour in short-dough type biscuit formulation. Cheddar and processed cheese were used for flavouring purpose at three levels each, viz. 30, 40 and 50 % on flour basis. The dough exhibited less firmness on oats incorporation as indicated by lower firmness value (21.73 N) as against 25.05 N for control dough measured by Texture Analyser. Addition of cheese to the 25 % oat incorporated dough further reduced its firmness and altered its viscoelastic characteristics. Baking conditions for the oats and cheese incorporated biscuits were optimized as 165 °C for 25-27 min. Sensory evaluation results revealed that the biscuit made from 25 % oat incorporated dough scored highest in most of the sensory attributes including overall acceptability. Cheddar cheese and processed cheese levels were optimized at 30 and 40 % in oats-incorporated dough based on the sensory analysis of biscuits prepared from the dough samples. The moisture and β- glucan contents were 3.93 % and 0.62 %; 4.32 % and 0.60 % for cheddar cheese and processed cheese added biscuits, respectively. The spread ratios were higher in cheese incorporated biscuits than in oat incorporated biscuits. It was concluded that good quality cheese flavoured biscuits can be prepared by incorporating rolled oats in biscuit formulation along with cheddar or processed cheese.

  9. Sensory Coordination of Insect Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-29

    flies ( Hermetia Illucens ) to elicit controlled take-off and landing in free flight (Pilot experiments completed. Follow- up experiments in progress...neerii. 2) Location of odor sources in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. 3) Wing-haltere coordination in the soldier fly, Hermetia illucens ...coordination in the soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Tanvi Deora): One of the key sensory inputs for flight stability in Diptera comes from the haltere

  10. Spanish, French and British consumers' acceptability of Uruguayan beef, and consumers' beef choice associated with country of origin, finishing diet and meat price.

    PubMed

    Realini, C E; Font i Furnols, M; Sañudo, C; Montossi, F; Oliver, M A; Guerrero, L

    2013-09-01

    The effect of country of origin (local, Switzerland, Argentina, Uruguay), finishing diet (grass, grass plus concentrate, concentrate), and price (low, medium, high) on consumer's beef choice and segmentation was evaluated in Spain, France and United Kingdom. Sensory acceptability of Uruguayan beef from different production systems was also evaluated and contrasted with consumers' beef choices. Origin was the most important characteristic for the choice of beef with preference for meat produced locally. The second most important factor was animal feed followed by price with preference for beef from grass-fed animals and lowest price. The least preferred product was beef from Uruguay, concentrate-fed animals and highest price. Sensory data showed higher acceptability scores for Uruguayan beef from grass-fed animals with or without concentrate supplementation than animals fed concentrate only. Consumer segments with distinct preferences were identified. Foreign country promotion seems to be fundamental for marketing beef in Europe, as well as the development of different marketing strategies to satisfy each consumer segment.

  11. Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

  12. Methodology of oral sensory tests.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, R; Wu, C-H; Van Loven, K; Desnyder, M; Kolenaar, B; Van Steenberghed, D

    2002-08-01

    Different methods of oral sensory tests including light touch sensation, two-point discrimination, vibrotactile function and thermal sensation were compared. Healthy subjects were tested to assess the results obtained from two psychophysical approaches, namely the staircase and the ascending & descending method of limits for light touch sensation and two-point discrimination. Both methods appeared to be reliable for examining oral sensory function. The effect of topical anaesthesia was also evaluated but no conclusion could be drawn as too few subjects were involved. Newly developed simple testing tools for two-point discrimination and thermal sensation in a clinical situation were developed prior to this study and tested for their reproducibility. Thermal sensation could be reliably detected in repeated trials. Although the hand-held instruments have some drawbacks, the outcome of these instruments in a clinical environment is suitable for assessing oral sensory function. Three different frequencies (32, 128 and 256 Hz) were used to estimate the vibrotactile function. Different threshold levels were found at different frequencies.

  13. Bioinspired Sensory Systems for Shear Flow Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin K.; Kanso, Eva

    2017-03-01

    Aquatic organisms such as copepods exhibit remarkable responses to changes in ambient flows, especially shear gradients, when foraging, mating and escaping. To accomplish these tasks, the sensory system of the organism must decode the local sensory measurements to detect the flow properties. Evidence suggests that organisms sense differences in the hydrodynamic signal rather than absolute values of the ambient flow. In this paper, we develop a mathematical framework for shear flow detection using a bioinspired sensory system that measures only differences in velocity. We show that the sensory system is capable of reconstructing the properties of the ambient shear flow under certain conditions on the flow sensors. We discuss these conditions and provide explicit expressions for processing the sensory measurements and extracting the flow properties. These findings suggest that by combining suitable velocity sensors and physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements, we obtain a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  14. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials.

  15. Dynamics of the sensory response to urethral flow over multiple time scales in rat

    PubMed Central

    Danziger, Zachary C; Grill, Warren M

    2015-01-01

    The pudendal nerve carries sensory information from the urethra that controls spinal reflexes necessary to maintain continence and achieve efficient micturition. Despite the key role urethral sensory feedback plays in regulation of the lower urinary tract, there is little information about the characteristics of urethral sensory responses to physiological stimuli, and the quantitative relationship between physiological stimuli and the evoked sensory activation is unknown. Such a relation is critical to understanding the neural control of the lower urinary tract and how dysfunction arises in disease states. We systematically quantified pudendal afferent responses to fluid flow in the urethra in vivo in the rat. We characterized the sensory response across a range of stimuli, and describe a previously unreported long-term neural accommodation phenomenon. We developed and validated a compact mechanistic mathematical model capable of reproducing the pudendal sensory activity in response to arbitrary profiles of urethral flows. These results describe the properties and function of urethral afferents that are necessary to understand how sensory disruption manifests in lower urinary tract pathophysiology. Key points Sensory information from the urethra is essential to maintain continence and to achieve efficient micturition and when compromised by disease or injury can lead to substantial loss of function. Despite the key role urethral sensory information plays in the lower urinary tract, the relationship between physiological urethral stimuli, such as fluid flow, and the neural sensory response is poorly understood. This work systematically quantifies pudendal afferent responses to a range of fluid flows in the urethra in vivo and describes a previously unknown long-term neural accommodation phenomenon in these afferents. We present a compact mechanistic mathematical model that reproduces the pudendal sensory activity in response to urethral flow. These results have

  16. Sensory evaluation of dry-fermented sausage containing ground deodorized yellow mustard.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuliu; Aliani, Michel; Holley, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Ground deodorized yellow mustard is used as a binder and meat protein substitute in cooked processed meat products. Recent studies have shown that it has the potential to be used in uncooked processed meat products because of its natural antimicrobial properties. In the present study, ground deodorized yellow mustard was added to uncooked dry-fermented sausage during manufacture at 1% to 4% (w/w) and analyzed for its effects on starter cultures, physico-chemical properties, and consumer acceptability. Mustard had a nondose-dependent inhibitory effect on the Staphylococcus starter culture, had no effect on water activity or instrumental texture, and tended to accelerate sausage pH reduction. At 3% and 4% mustard, consumer scores on all sensory attributes as well as overall acceptability were significantly lower. The appearance and color of 3% and 4% mustard-treated sausages were liked slightly, whereas flavor, texture, and overall acceptability scores were reduced. The control without mustard and 1% mustard-treated sausages had similar sensory properties and were the most acceptable, while 2% mustard-treated sausages were given "like moderately" and "like slightly" descriptors. Sensory results mean that at concentrations necessary for mandated regulatory control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dry sausages, mustard may have a negative effect on consumer acceptance.

  17. Behavioral, perceptual, and neural alterations in sensory and multisensory function in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Baum, Sarah H; Stevenson, Ryan A; Wallace, Mark T

    2015-11-01

    Although sensory processing challenges have been noted since the first clinical descriptions of autism, it has taken until the release of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) in 2013 for sensory problems to be included as part of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the diagnostic profile. Because sensory information forms the building blocks for higher-order social and cognitive functions, we argue that sensory processing is not only an additional piece of the puzzle, but rather a critical cornerstone for characterizing and understanding ASD. In this review we discuss what is currently known about sensory processing in ASD, how sensory function fits within contemporary models of ASD, and what is understood about the differences in the underlying neural processing of sensory and social communication observed between individuals with and without ASD. In addition to highlighting the sensory features associated with ASD, we also emphasize the importance of multisensory processing in building perceptual and cognitive representations, and how deficits in multisensory integration may also be a core characteristic of ASD.

  18. Behavioral, Perceptual, and Neural Alterations in Sensory and Multisensory Function in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Sarah H.; Stevenson, Ryan A.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Although sensory processing challenges have been noted since the first clinical descriptions of autism, it has taken until the release of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) in 2013 for sensory problems to be included as part of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the diagnostic profile. Because sensory information forms the building blocks for higher-order social and cognitive functions, we argue that sensory processing is not only an additional piece of the puzzle, but rather a critical cornerstone for characterizing and understanding ASD. In this review we discuss what is currently known about sensory processing in ASD, how sensory function fits within contemporary models of ASD, and what is understood about the differences in the underlying neural processing of sensory and social communication observed between individuals with and without ASD. In addition to highlighting the sensory features associated with ASD, we also emphasize the importance of multisensory processing in building perceptual and cognitive representations, and how deficits in multisensory integration may also be a core characteristic of ASD. PMID:26455789

  19. Cross-modal plasticity in sensory deprived animal models: From the thalamocortical development point of view.

    PubMed

    Mezzera, Cecilia; López-Bendito, Guillermina

    2016-09-01

    Over recent decades, our understanding of the plasticity of the central nervous system has expanded enormously. Accordingly, it is now widely accepted that the brain can adapt to changes by reorganizing its circuitry, both in response to external stimuli and experience, as well as through intrinsic mechanisms. A clear example of this is the activation of a deprived sensory area and the expansion of spared sensory cortical regions in individuals who suffered peripheral sensory loss. Despite the efforts to understand these neuroplastic changes, the mechanisms underlying such adaptive remodeling remains poorly understood. Progress in understanding these events may be hindered by the highly varied data obtained from the distinct experimental paradigms analyzed, which include different animal models and neuronal systems, as well as studies into the onset of sensory loss. Here, we will establish the current state-of-the-art describing the principal observations made according to the time of sensory deprivation with respect to the development of the thalamocortical connectivity. We will review the experimental data obtained from animal models where sensory deprivation has been induced either before or after thalamocortical axons reach and invade their target cortical areas. The anatomical and functional effects of sensory loss on the primary sensory areas of the cortex will be presented. Indeed, we consider that the comparative approach of this review is a necessary step in order to help deciphering the processes that underlie sensory neuroplasticity, for which studies in animal models have been indispensable. Understanding these mechanisms will then help to develop restorative strategies and prostheses that will overcome the functional loss.

  20. Acceptance of tinnitus: validation of the tinnitus acceptance questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Weise, Cornelia; Kleinstäuber, Maria; Hesser, Hugo; Westin, Vendela Zetterqvist; Andersson, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The concept of acceptance has recently received growing attention within tinnitus research due to the fact that tinnitus acceptance is one of the major targets of psychotherapeutic treatments. Accordingly, acceptance-based treatments will most likely be increasingly offered to tinnitus patients and assessments of acceptance-related behaviours will thus be needed. The current study investigated the factorial structure of the Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire (TAQ) and the role of tinnitus acceptance as mediating link between sound perception (i.e. subjective loudness of tinnitus) and tinnitus distress. In total, 424 patients with chronic tinnitus completed the TAQ and validated measures of tinnitus distress, anxiety, and depression online. Confirmatory factor analysis provided support to a good fit of the data to the hypothesised bifactor model (root-mean-square-error of approximation = .065; Comparative Fit Index = .974; Tucker-Lewis Index = .958; standardised root mean square residual = .032). In addition, mediation analysis, using a non-parametric joint coefficient approach, revealed that tinnitus-specific acceptance partially mediated the relation between subjective tinnitus loudness and tinnitus distress (path ab = 5.96; 95% CI: 4.49, 7.69). In a multiple mediator model, tinnitus acceptance had a significantly stronger indirect effect than anxiety. The results confirm the factorial structure of the TAQ and suggest the importance of a general acceptance factor that contributes important unique variance beyond that of the first-order factors activity engagement and tinnitus suppression. Tinnitus acceptance as measured with the TAQ is proposed to be a key construct in tinnitus research and should be further implemented into treatment concepts to reduce tinnitus distress.

  1. Sensory adaptation during negative chemotaxis in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, W; Zusman, D R

    1994-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus exhibits many tactic movements that require the frz signal transduction system, such as colony swarming and cellular aggregation during fruiting body formation. Previously we demonstrated that the Frz proteins control the chemotactic movements of M. xanthus (W. Shi, T. Köhler, and D. R. Zusman, Mol. Microbiol. 9:601-611, 1993). However it was unclear from that study how chemotaxis might be achieved at the cellular level. In this study, we showed that M. xanthus cells not only modulate the reversal frequency of cell movement in response to repellent stimuli but also exhibit sensory adaptation in response to the continuous presence of nonsaturating repellent stimuli. The sensory adaptation behavior requires FrzF (a putative methyltransferase) and is correlated with the methylation-demethylation of FrzCD, a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein. These results indicate that negative chemotaxis in M. xanthus is achieved by chemokinesis plus sensory adaptation in a manner analogous to that of the free-swimming enteric bacteria. Images PMID:8113194

  2. Sensory subtypes and associated outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Ausderau, Karla K; Sideris, John; Little, Lauren M; Furlong, Melissa; Bulluck, John C; Baranek, Grace T

    2016-12-01

    Sensory features are prevalent and heterogeneous across children with ASD and these features have been associated with child outcomes. Identification of clinically defined sensory subtypes may enhance our understanding of unique phenotypes that have implications for etiology, prognosis, and intervention. This longitudinal study used a national online survey aimed to identify associations of previously validated sensory subtypes to specific child and family characteristics and functional outcomes [vineland adaptive behavior scale-II (VABS) and parenting stress index short form (PSI)]. The sensory experiences questionnaire-3.0 was collected from caregivers with children with ASD, ages 2-12, at two time points (Time 1, n = 1307, Time 2, n = 884), 1 year apart. Functional outcomes assessments were collected at the second time point. A latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) was used to test associations, and results indicated that the attenuated-preoccupied subtype presented with the significantly lowest levels of VABS adaptive behavior composite scores compared to the other three sensory subtypes. Both the VABS maladaptive behavior index and the total PSI score were significantly highest in the extreme-mixed subtype. These results underscore the clinical utility of this subtyping approach for differentiating characteristics and functional outcomes associated with clinically defined sensory phenotypes. These findings may have implications for better understanding etiology, prognosis, and more precise targets for interventions designed to ameliorate sensory difficulties, and ultimately mitigate negative developmental consequences and parenting stress. Autism Res 2016, 9: 1316-1327. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Sensory Deprivation Triggers Synaptic and Intrinsic Plasticity in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Milshtein-Parush, Hila; Frere, Samuel; Regev, Limor; Lahav, Coren; Benbenishty, Amit; Ben-Eliyahu, Shamgar; Goshen, Inbal; Slutsky, Inna

    2017-04-12

    Hippocampus, a temporal lobe structure involved in learning and memory, receives information from all sensory modalities. Despite extensive research on the role of sensory experience in cortical map plasticity, little is known about whether and how sensory experience regulates functioning of the hippocampal circuits. Here, we show that 9 ± 2 days of whisker deprivation during early mouse development depresses activity of CA3 pyramidal neurons by several principal mechanisms: decrease in release probability, increase in the fraction of silent synapses, and reduction in intrinsic excitability. As a result of deprivation-induced presynaptic inhibition, CA3-CA1 synaptic facilitation was augmented at high frequencies, shifting filtering properties of synapses. The changes in the AMPA-mediated synaptic transmission were accompanied by an increase in NR2B-containing NMDA receptors and a reduction in the AMPA/NMDA ratio. The observed reconfiguration of the CA3-CA1 connections may represent a homeostatic adaptation to augmentation in synaptic activity during the initial deprivation phase. In adult mice, tactile disuse diminished intrinsic excitability without altering synaptic facilitation. We suggest that sensory experience regulates computations performed by the hippocampus by tuning its synaptic and intrinsic characteristics.

  4. Altered visual sensory fusion in children with reading difficulties.

    PubMed

    González-Castro, P; Rodríguez, C; Núñez, J C; Vallejo, G; González-Pienda, J A

    2014-12-01

    Reading is a multi-sensory and multi-cognitive task, and its difficulties (e.g., dyslexia) are not a unitary disorder. There are probably a variety of manifestations that relate to the actual site of impairment. A randomized, pre-test/post-test nonequivalent-groups design was conducted over 4 months with three groups aged between 6 and 8 years. One group comprised 76 participants (34 boys, 42 girls) with reading difficulties and altered sensory fusion (RD+ASF), a second group was made up of 123 students (59 boys, 64 girls) with reading difficulties but without altered sensory fusion (RD), and a third group comprised 81 participants (39 boys, 42 girls) who were young readers (RL) without reading delay, paired with the RD group on reading level. The experimental groups received intervention in the skills of control, stimulus recognition, and phonological awareness during a 4-month period. Both pre-test and post-test measures of errors in reading mechanics and reading routes (word and pseudo-word) were obtained. Poorer results in mechanics and reading routes of the RD+ASF group suggest that the effectiveness of the intervention depended on the characteristics of the groups and on the presence of sensory fusion deficits in the RD students.

  5. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  6. Sensory properties of wine tannin fractions: implications for in-mouth sensory properties.

    PubMed

    McRae, Jacqui M; Schulkin, Alex; Kassara, Stella; Holt, Helen E; Smith, Paul A

    2013-01-23

    Different molecular structures of grape tannins have been shown to influence astringency, however, the in-mouth sensory effects of different molecular structures in red wine tannins remains to be established. The objective of this research was to assess the impact of wine tannin structure on in-mouth sensory properties. Wine tannin was isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon wines of two vintages (3 and 7 years old) and separated into two structurally distinct subfractions with liquid-liquid fractionation using butanol and water. The aqueous subfractions had greater mean degree of polymerization (mDp) and contained a higher proportion of epigallocatechin subunits than the butanol-soluble subfractions, while the older wine tannin fractions showed fewer epicatechin gallate subunits than the younger tannin fractions. The red wine had approximately 3:1 mass ratio of the aqueous and butanol tannin subfractions which approximated an equimolar ratio of tannin in each subfraction. Descriptive sensory analysis of the tannin subfractions in model wine at equimolar concentrations revealed that the larger, more water-soluble wine tannin subfractions from both wines were perceived as more astringent than the smaller, more hydrophobic and more highly pigmented butanol-soluble subfractions, which were perceived as hotter and more bitter. Partial least squares analysis indicated that the greater hydrophobicity and color incorporation in the butanol fractions was negatively associated with astringency, and these characteristics are also associated with aged wine tannins. As the larger, water-soluble tannins had a greater impact on the overall wine astringency, winemaking processes that modulate concentrations of these are likely to most significantly influence astringency.

  7. Sensory Intolerance: Latent Structure and Psychopathologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Steven; Conelea, Christine A.; McKay, Dean; Crowe, Katherine B.; Abramowitz, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensory intolerance refers to high levels of distress evoked by everyday sounds (e.g., sounds of people chewing) or commonplace tactile sensations (e.g., sticky or greasy substances). Sensory intolerance may be associated with obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, OC-related phenomena, and other forms of psychopathology. Sensory intolerance is not included as a syndrome in current diagnostic systems, although preliminary research suggests that it might be a distinct syndrome. Objectives First, to investigate the latent structure of sensory intolerance in adults; that is, to investigate whether it is syndrome-like in nature, in which auditory and tactile sensory intolerance co-occur and are associated with impaired functioning. Second, to investigate the psychopathologic correlates of sensory intolerance. In particular, to investigate whether sensory intolerance is associated with OC-related phenomena, as suggested by previous research. Method A sample of 534 community-based participants were recruited via Amazon.com’s Mechanical Turk program. Participants completed measures of sensory intolerance, OC-related phenomena, and general psychopathology. Results Latent class analysis revealed two classes of individuals: Those who were intolerant of both auditory and tactile stimuli (n = 150), and those who were relatively undisturbed by auditory or tactile stimuli (n = 384). Sensory intolerant individuals, compared to those who were comparatively sensory tolerant, had greater scores on indices of general psychopathology, more severe OC symptoms, a higher likelihood of meeting caseness criteria for OC disorder, elevated scores on measures of OC-related dysfunctional beliefs, a greater tendency to report OC-related phenomena (e.g., a greater frequency of tics), and more impairment on indices of social and occupational functioning. Sensory intolerant individuals had significantly higher scores on OC symptoms even after controlling for general psychopathology

  8. Common Extracellular Sensory Domains in Transmembrane Receptors for Diverse Signal Transduction Pathways in Bacteria and Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Zhulin, Igor B.; Nikolskaya, Anastasia N.; Galperin, Michael Y.

    2003-01-01

    Transmembrane receptors in microorganisms, such as sensory histidine kinases and methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins, are molecular devices for monitoring environmental changes. We report here that sensory domain sharing is widespread among different classes of transmembrane receptors. We have identified two novel conserved extracellular sensory domains, named CHASE2 and CHASE3, that are found in at least four classes of transmembrane receptors: histidine kinases, adenylate cyclases, predicted diguanylate cyclases, and either serine/threonine protein kinases (CHASE2) or methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (CHASE3). Three other extracellular sensory domains were shared by at least two different classes of transmembrane receptors: histidine kinases and either diguanylate cyclases, adenylate cyclases, or phosphodiesterases. These observations suggest that microorganisms use similar conserved domains to sense similar environmental signals and transmit this information via different signal transduction pathways to different regulatory circuits: transcriptional regulation (histidine kinases), chemotaxis (methyl-accepting proteins), catabolite repression (adenylate cyclases), and modulation of enzyme activity (diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases). The variety of signaling pathways using the CHASE-type domains indicates that these domains sense some critically important extracellular signals. PMID:12486065

  9. Effect of Facial Sensory Re-training on Sensory Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Essick, G.K.; Phillips, C.; Zuniga, J.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 100% of patients experience trauma to the trigeminal nerve during orthognathic surgery, impairing sensation and sensory function on the face. In a recent randomized clinical trial, people who performed sensory re-training exercises reported less difficulty related to residual numbness and decreased lip sensitivity than those who performed standard opening exercises only. We hypothesized that re-training reduces the impaired performance on neurosensory tests of tactile function that is commonly observed post-surgically. We analyzed thresholds for contact detection, two-point discrimination, and two-point perception, obtained during the clinical trial before and at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery, to assess tactile detection and discriminative sensitivities, and subjective interpretation of tactile stimulation, respectively. Post-surgery, the retrained persons exhibited less impairment, on average, than non-retrained persons only in two-point perception (P < 0.025), suggesting that retrained persons experienced or interpreted the tactile stimuli differently than did non-retrained persons. PMID:17525360

  10. Individual astringency responsiveness affects the acceptance of phenol-rich foods.

    PubMed

    Dinnella, Caterina; Recchia, Annamaria; Tuorila, Hely; Monteleone, Erminio

    2011-06-01

    Sensory responses greatly vary between individuals, and individual sensory experiences influence eating behaviour. Three groups responding differently to phenolic astringent stimuli (Low Responding, LR, n=20, Medium Responding, MR, n=37 and High Responding, HR, n=20) were identified from a population of 77 subjects, based on the maintenance vs fluctuation of salivary characteristics after repeated stimulation of the masticatory and taste/somatosensory systems. The effect of LR, MR and HR status on perceived astringency and liking for phenol-containing apple, grape and carrot juices spiked with increasing tannic acid (TA) concentrations was examined. TA induced a greater increase of perceived astringency in HR, compared to MR and LR subjects. A decrease in liking for spiked juices was found in HR and to a lesser extent in MR and LR subjects. No significant differences were found comparing MR and LR groups for both astringency intensity and liking data. Liking for and familiarity with 37 food items, as well as preference for 14 phenol-rich foods and beverages, each paired with a less astringent counter-product, were also examined. An internal preference map was computed on liking scores and product subgroups were identified. An effect of LR/HR status was found for two food subgroups consisting of coffee without sugar, tea without sugar, raw chicory and milk chocolate, tea with sugar, coffee with sugar. LR subjects rated the products with the most astringency higher and those with the least astringency lower than did HR subjects. LR subjects also rated their familiarity with highly astringent products higher than did HR subjects. Thus, individual differences related to the physiological salivatory response to oral stimulations affect responses to astringent stimuli and can influence the overall acceptability of phenol-rich food items.

  11. Quality Assessment and Physicochemical Characteristics of Bran Enriched Chapattis

    PubMed Central

    Dar, B. N.; Sharma, Savita; Singh, Baljit; Kaur, Gurkirat

    2014-01-01

    Cereal brans singly and in combination were blended at varying levels (5 and 10%) for development of Chapattis. Cereal bran enriched Chapattis were assessed for quality and physicochemical characteristics. On the basis of quality assessment, 10% enrichment level for Chapatti was the best. Moisture content, water activity, and free fatty acids remained stable during the study period. Quality assessment and physicochemical characteristics of bran enriched Chapattis carried out revealed that dough handling and puffing of bran enriched Chapattis prepared by 5 and 10% level of bran supplementation did not vary significantly. All types of bran enriched Chapattis except rice bran enriched Chapattis showed nonsticky behavior during dough handling. Bran enriched Chapattis exhibited full puffing character during preparation. The sensory attributes showed that both 5 and 10% bran supplemented Chapattis were acceptable. PMID:26904644

  12. Sensory Motor Coordination in Robonaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Richard Alan, II

    2003-01-01

    As a participant of the year 2000 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, I worked with the engineers of the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center on the Robonaut project. The Robonaut is an articulated torso with two dexterous arms, left and right five-fingered hands, and a head with cameras mounted on an articulated neck. This advanced space robot, now driven only teleoperatively using VR gloves, sensors and helmets, is to be upgraded to a thinking system that can find, interact with and assist humans autonomously, allowing the Crew to work with Robonaut as a (junior) member of their team. Thus, the work performed this summer was toward the goal of enabling Robonaut to operate autonomously as an intelligent assistant to astronauts. Our underlying hypothesis is that a robot can develop intelligence if it learns a set of basic behaviors (i.e., reflexes - actions tightly coupled to sensing) and through experience learns how to sequence these to solve problems or to accomplish higher-level tasks. We describe our approach to the automatic acquisition of basic behaviors as learning sensory-motor coordination (SMC). Although research in the ontogenesis of animals development from the time of conception) supports the approach of learning SMC as the foundation for intelligent, autonomous behavior, we do not know whether it will prove viable for the development of autonomy in robots. The first step in testing the hypothesis is to determine if SMC can be learned by the robot. To do this, we have taken advantage of Robonaut's teleoperated control system. When a person teleoperates Robonaut, the person's own SMC causes the robot to act purposefully. If the sensory signals that the robot detects during teleoperation are recorded over several repetitions of the same task, it should be possible through signal analysis to identify the sensory-motor couplings that accompany purposeful motion. In this report, reasons for suspecting SMC as the basis for

  13. Developmental broadening of inhibitory sensory maps.

    PubMed

    Quast, Kathleen B; Ung, Kevin; Froudarakis, Emmanouil; Huang, Longwen; Herman, Isabella; Addison, Angela P; Ortiz-Guzman, Joshua; Cordiner, Keith; Saggau, Peter; Tolias, Andreas S; Arenkiel, Benjamin R

    2017-02-01

    Sensory maps are created by networks of neuronal responses that vary with their anatomical position, such that representations of the external world are systematically and topographically organized in the brain. Current understanding from studying excitatory maps is that maps are sculpted and refined throughout development and/or through sensory experience. Investigating the mouse olfactory bulb, where ongoing neurogenesis continually supplies new inhibitory granule cells into existing circuitry, we isolated the development of sensory maps formed by inhibitory networks. Using in vivo calcium imaging of odor responses, we compared functional responses of both maturing and established granule cells. We found that, in contrast to the refinement observed for excitatory maps, inhibitory sensory maps became broader with maturation. However, like excitatory maps, inhibitory sensory maps are sensitive to experience. These data describe the development of an inhibitory sensory map as a network, highlighting the differences from previously described excitatory maps.

  14. Primary processes in sensory cells: current advances.

    PubMed

    Frings, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    In the course of evolution, the strong and unremitting selective pressure on sensory performance has driven the acuity of sensory organs to its physical limits. As a consequence, the study of primary sensory processes illustrates impressively how far a physiological function can be improved if the survival of a species depends on it. Sensory cells that detect single-photons, single molecules, mechanical motions on a nanometer scale, or incredibly small fluctuations of electromagnetic fields have fascinated physiologists for a long time. It is a great challenge to understand the primary sensory processes on a molecular level. This review points out some important recent developments in the search for primary processes in sensory cells that mediate touch perception, hearing, vision, taste, olfaction, as well as the analysis of light polarization and the orientation in the Earth's magnetic field. The data are screened for common transduction strategies and common transduction molecules, an aspect that may be helpful for researchers in the field.

  15. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating.

    PubMed

    Jones, L A; Hills, P J; Dick, K M; Jones, S P; Bright, P

    2016-02-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification.

  16. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating

    PubMed Central

    Jones, L.A.; Hills, P.J.; Dick, K.M.; Jones, S.P.; Bright, P.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification. PMID:26716891

  17. Influence of Extrusion Cooking on In Vitro Digestibility, Physical and Sensory Properties of Brazilian Pine Seeds Flour (Araucaria Angustifolia).

    PubMed

    Boff Zortéa-Guidolin, Manoela Estefânea; Piler de Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei; Bueno de Godoy, Rossana Catie; Mottin Demiate, Ivo; Paula Scheer, Agnes

    2017-03-24

    Brazilian pine seeds (pinhão) are gluten-free products derived from Araucaria angustifolia. The commercialization of these seeds is essentially associated with a low level of industrialization. In this context, extrusion cooking is a potential alternative for preparing extrudates of pinhão as a food product, which can be easily digested and is ready for human consumption. Brazilian pine seeds flour was processed in a single-screw extruder following a central composite rotatable design. Three factors (independent parameters) were considered: moisture content (14 to 22 g/100 g), screw speed (100 to 250 rpm), and temperature in the 3rd heating zone (120 to 200 °C). The structural characteristics, in vitro digestibility and sensory acceptance were also evaluated. The resistant starch contents is almost reduced to zero after extrusion cooking while the slowly digestible starch content is increased. An increase in moisture positively affected the hardness and the luminosity (L(*) ), although it negatively affected the volumetric expansion index, crispness, and color parameters (a(*) , b(*) , and ΔE). The experimental conditions of this study allowed the production of expanded extrudates from Brazilian pine seeds with good expansion, texture properties, and acceptance qualities. Thus, extrusion cooking was found to be a potential method for the industrialization of Brazilian pine seeds as a food product.

  18. Peripheral neuropathic pain: a mechanism-related organizing principle based on sensory profiles.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ralf; Maier, Christoph; Attal, Nadine; Binder, Andreas; Bouhassira, Didier; Cruccu, Giorgio; Finnerup, Nanna B; Haanpää, Maija; Hansson, Per; Hüllemann, Philipp; Jensen, Troels S; Freynhagen, Rainer; Kennedy, Jeffrey D; Magerl, Walter; Mainka, Tina; Reimer, Maren; Rice, Andrew S C; Segerdahl, Märta; Serra, Jordi; Sindrup, Sören; Sommer, Claudia; Tölle, Thomas; Vollert, Jan; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2017-02-01

    Patients with neuropathic pain are heterogeneous in etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical appearance. They exhibit a variety of pain-related sensory symptoms and signs (sensory profile). Different sensory profiles might indicate different classes of neurobiological mechanisms, and hence subgroups with different sensory profiles might respond differently to treatment. The aim of the investigation was to identify subgroups in a large sample of patients with neuropathic pain using hypothesis-free statistical methods on the database of 3 large multinational research networks (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS), IMI-Europain, and Neuropain). Standardized quantitative sensory testing was used in 902 (test cohort) and 233 (validation cohort) patients with peripheral neuropathic pain of different etiologies. For subgrouping, we performed a cluster analysis using 13 quantitative sensory testing parameters. Three distinct subgroups with characteristic sensory profiles were identified and replicated. Cluster 1 (sensory loss, 42%) showed a loss of small and large fiber function in combination with paradoxical heat sensations. Cluster 2 (thermal hyperalgesia, 33%) was characterized by preserved sensory functions in combination with heat and cold hyperalgesia and mild dynamic mechanical allodynia. Cluster 3 (mechanical hyperalgesia, 24%) was characterized by a loss of small fiber function in combination with pinprick hyperalgesia and dynamic mechanical allodynia. All clusters occurred across etiologies but frequencies differed. We present a new approach of subgrouping patients with peripheral neuropathic pain of different etiologies according to intrinsic sensory profiles. These 3 profiles may be related to pathophysiological mechanisms and may be useful in clinical trial design to enrich the study population for treatment responders.

  19. Peripheral neuropathic pain: a mechanism-related organizing principle based on sensory profiles

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Ralf; Maier, Christoph; Attal, Nadine; Binder, Andreas; Bouhassira, Didier; Cruccu, Giorgio; Finnerup, Nanna B.; Haanpää, Maija; Hansson, Per; Hüllemann, Philipp; Jensen, Troels S.; Freynhagen, Rainer; Kennedy, Jeffrey D.; Magerl, Walter; Mainka, Tina; Reimer, Maren; Rice, Andrew S.C.; Segerdahl, Märta; Serra, Jordi; Sindrup, Sören; Sommer, Claudia; Tölle, Thomas; Vollert, Jan; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with neuropathic pain are heterogeneous in etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical appearance. They exhibit a variety of pain-related sensory symptoms and signs (sensory profile). Different sensory profiles might indicate different classes of neurobiological mechanisms, and hence subgroups with different sensory profiles might respond differently to treatment. The aim of the investigation was to identify subgroups in a large sample of patients with neuropathic pain using hypothesis-free statistical methods on the database of 3 large multinational research networks (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS), IMI-Europain, and Neuropain). Standardized quantitative sensory testing was used in 902 (test cohort) and 233 (validation cohort) patients with peripheral neuropathic pain of different etiologies. For subgrouping, we performed a cluster analysis using 13 quantitative sensory testing parameters. Three distinct subgroups with characteristic sensory profiles were identified and replicated. Cluster 1 (sensory loss, 42%) showed a loss of small and large fiber function in combination with paradoxical heat sensations. Cluster 2 (thermal hyperalgesia, 33%) was characterized by preserved sensory functions in combination with heat and cold hyperalgesia and mild dynamic mechanical allodynia. Cluster 3 (mechanical hyperalgesia, 24%) was characterized by a loss of small fiber function in combination with pinprick hyperalgesia and dynamic mechanical allodynia. All clusters occurred across etiologies but frequencies differed. We present a new approach of subgrouping patients with peripheral neuropathic pain of different etiologies according to intrinsic sensory profiles. These 3 profiles may be related to pathophysiological mechanisms and may be useful in clinical trial design to enrich the study population for treatment responders. PMID:27893485

  20. Production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory analysis of goat milk in goats fed buriti oil.

    PubMed

    Morais, J S; Bezerra, L R; Silva, A M A; Araújo, M J; Oliveira, R L; Edvan, R L; Torreão, J N C; Lanna, D P D

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with buriti oil ( L.) on feed intake and digestibility and on the production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of goat milk. A double Latin square (4 × 4) was used; eight goats were distributed in a completely randomized design. The square comprised four periods and four buriti oil concentration (0.00; 1.50; 3.00 and 4.50% of total DM) replacing corn. Intakes of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, non-fibrous carboydrates (NFC) and TDN were not affected by the replacement of corn with oil in the diet. However, lipids intake was increased ( < 0.01) by 100% in the diet of goats with 4.50% oil inclusion, as total DM. DM and CP digestibility were similar between the buriti oil concentrations. However, lipid digestibility increased linearly ( = 0.01) and may have contributed to a quadratic reduction in NDF digestibility ( = 0.01) and a linear reduction of NFC ( = 0.04) with buriti oil content in the goat feed. Goat milk production, corrected production and chemical composition were not influenced by the concentration of buriti oil replacement; however, milk fat concentration ( = 0.04) and feed efficiency ( < 0.01) increased linearly with the amount of buriti oil in the diet. There was a linear reduction on hypercholesterolemic SFA such as C12:0 ( < 0.01) and C14:0 ( < 0.01) as well as the atherogenic index (AI; < 0.01) with buriti oil inclusion in goat's diet. In contrast, the fatty acids C18:0 ( < 0.01) and C18:1 9 ( < 0.01) increased linearly in the milk of goats that were fed with buriti oil. However, CLA ( < 0.01) varied quadratically; the maximum production of 0.62 g/100 g of fat was observed when using 1.50% buriti oil. The sensory characteristics of the milk were not changed ( > 0.05) by the replacement of corn with buriti oil in the goats' diet. It is recommended to replace corn with buriti oil in goat feed by up to 4.5% of total DM, resulting in improved feed efficiency and milk fat without

  1. Extending the Technology Acceptance Model: Policy Acceptance Model (PAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Tamra

    There has been extensive research on how new ideas and technologies are accepted in society. This has resulted in the creation of many models that are used to discover and assess the contributing factors. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is one that is a widely accepted model. This model examines people's acceptance of new technologies based on variables that directly correlate to how the end user views the product. This paper introduces the Policy Acceptance Model (PAM), an expansion of TAM, which is designed for the analysis and evaluation of acceptance of new policy implementation. PAM includes the traditional constructs of TAM and adds the variables of age, ethnicity, and family. The model is demonstrated using a survey of people's attitude toward the upcoming healthcare reform in the United States (US) from 72 survey respondents. The aim is that the theory behind this model can be used as a framework that will be applicable to studies looking at the introduction of any new or modified policies.

  2. Dendritic Spikes in Sensory Perception

    PubMed Central

    Manita, Satoshi; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi; Kitamura, Kazuo; Murayama, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    What is the function of dendritic spikes? One might argue that they provide conditions for neuronal plasticity or that they are essential for neural computation. However, despite a long history of dendritic research, the physiological relevance of dendritic spikes in brain function remains unknown. This could stem from the fact that most studies on dendrites have been performed in vitro. Fortunately, the emergence of novel techniques such as improved two-photon microscopy, genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs), and optogenetic tools has provided the means for vital breakthroughs in in vivo dendritic research. These technologies enable the investigation of the functions of dendritic spikes in behaving animals, and thus, help uncover the causal relationship between dendritic spikes, and sensory information processing and synaptic plasticity. Understanding the roles of dendritic spikes in brain function would provide mechanistic insight into the relationship between the brain and the mind. In this review article, we summarize the results of studies on dendritic spikes from a historical perspective and discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the role of dendritic spikes in sensory perception. PMID:28261060

  3. Sighting versus sensory ocular dominance

    PubMed Central

    Pointer, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose An indication of the laterality of ocular dominance (OD) informs the clinical decision making process when considering certain ophthalmic refractive and surgical interventions. Can predictive reliance be assured regardless of OD technique or is the indication of a dominant eye method-dependent? Methods Two alternative OD test formats were administered to a group of 72 emmetropic healthy young adult subjects: the ‘hole-in-card’ test for sighting dominance and the ‘+1.50D blur’ test for sensory dominance. Both techniques were chosen as being likely familiar to the majority of ophthalmic clinicians; to promote and expedite application during the examination routine neither test required specialist training nor equipment. Results Right eye dominance was indicated in 71% of cases by the sighting test but in only 54% of subjects using the sensory test. The laterality of OD indicated for the individual subject by each technique was in agreement on only 50% of occasions. Conclusions Reasons are considered for the poor intra-individual agreement between OD tests, along with an item of procedural advice for the clinician.

  4. Meal Replacement Mass Reduction and Integration Acceptability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirmons, T.; Barrett, A.; Richardson, M.; Arias, D.; Schneiderman, J.; Slack, K.; Williams, T.; Douglas, G.

    2017-01-01

    NASA, in planning for long-duration missions, has an imperative to provide a food system with the necessary nutrition, acceptability, and safety to ensure sustainment of crew health and performance. The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and future exploration missions are mass constrained; therefore the team is challenged to reduce the mass of the food system by 10% while maintaining product safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Commercially available products do not meet the nutritional requirements for a full meal replacement in the spaceflight food system, and it is currently unknown if daily meal replacements will impact crew food intake and psychosocial health over time. The purpose of this study was to develop a variety of nutritionally balanced breakfast replacement bars that meet spaceflight nutritional, microbiological, sensorial, and shelf-life requirements, while enabling a 10% savings in food mass. To date, six nutrient-dense meal replacement bars (approximately 700 calories per bar) have been developed, using traditional methods of compression as well as novel ultrasonic compression technologies developed by Creative Resonance Inc. (Phoenix, AZ). The four highest rated bars were evaluated in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) to assess the frequency with which actual meal replacement options may be implemented. Specifically, overall impact of bars on mood, satiety, digestive discomfort, and satisfaction with food. These factors are currently being analyzed to inform successful implementation strategies where crew maintain adequate food intake. In addition, these bars are currently undergoing shelf-life testing to determine long-term sensory acceptability, nutritional stability, qualitative stability of analytical measurements (i.e. water activity and texture), and microbiological compliance over two years of storage at room temperature and potential temperature abuse conditions to predict long-term acceptability. It is expected that

  5. Meat quality, fatty acid composition and sensory evaluation of Cherry Valley, Spent Layer and Crossbred ducks.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yan; Huang, Jichao; Chen, Yulian; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-01-01

    The aim o