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Sample records for acceptable thermal histories

  1. Rape myth acceptance, sexual trauma history, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Baugher, Shannon N; Elhai, Jon D; Monroe, James R; Gray, Matt J

    2010-11-01

    The prediction of false rape-related beliefs (rape myth acceptance [RMA]) was examined using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Payne, Lonsway, & Fitzgerald, 1999) among a nonclinical sample of 258 male and female college students. Predictor variables included measures of attitudes toward women, gender role identity (GRI), sexual trauma history, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. Using linear regression and testing interaction effects, negative attitudes toward women significantly predicted greater RMA for individuals without a sexual trauma history. However, neither attitudes toward women nor GRI were significant predictors of RMA for individuals with a sexual trauma history. PTSD did not moderate RMA's relationship with attitudes toward women and GRI. This study has clinical implications for treatment as well as for the development of rape myth-dispelling programs.

  2. More Bayesian Transdimensional Inversion for Thermal History Modelling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, K.

    2013-12-01

    Since the publication of Dodson (1973) quantifying the relationship between geochronogical ages and closure temperatures, an ongoing concern in thermochronology is reconstruction of thermal histories consistent with the measured data. Extracting this thermal history information is best treated as an inverse problem, given the complex relationship between the observations and the thermal history. When solving the inverse problem (i.e. finding thermal acceptable thermal histories), stochastic sampling methods have often been used, as these are relatively global when searching the model space. However, the issue remains how best to estimate those parts of the thermal history unconstrained by independent information, i.e. what is required to fit the data ? To solve this general problem, we use a Bayesian transdimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo method and this has been integrated into user-friendly software, QTQt (Quantitative Thermochronology with Qt), which runs on both Macintosh and PC. The Bayesian approach allows us to consider a wide range of possible thermal history as general prior information on time, temperature (and temperature offset for multiple samples in a vertical profile). We can also incorporate more focussed geological constraints in terms of more specific priors. In this framework, it is the data themselves (and their errors) that determine the complexity of the thermal history solutions. For example, more precise data will justify a more complex solution, while more noisy data will be happy with simpler solutions. We can express complexity in terms of the number of time-temperature points defining the total thermal history. Another useful feature of this method is that was can easily deal with imprecise parameter values (e.g. kinetics, data errors), by drawing samples from a user specified probability distribution, rather than using a single value. Finally, the method can be applied to either single samples, or multiple samples (from a borehole or

  3. Thermal history sensing with thermographic phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyes, A. L.; Rabhiou, A.; Feist, J. P.; Kempf, A.

    2013-09-01

    The ability to measure temperatures on high thermal loaded components in gas turbines and similar prime movers is critical during the design phase if the performance of cooling strategies is to be confirmed. Restricted access and the extreme environment mean that on-line temperature measurement is not always possible and that off-line temperature techniques employing thermal history sensors are sometimes necessary. The authors have developed a new type of sensor based on ceramic phosphors. These show bright narrow band emission that is easily detected and distinguished from the background. Crystallization, phase change and diffusion are all temperature dependent processes that affect the emission characteristics and that, with proper calibration, can be used to form a phosphor based thermal history sensor. Results from the calibration of crystallization in Y2SiO5:Tb and its application in the form of a temperature indicating paint are reviewed. A new embodiment of the phosphor thermal history sensor concept is then presented comprising a YSZ/YAG:Dy composite applied using air plasma spraying in the form of a thermal barrier coating. The coating is shown to function as a thermal history sensor albeit with a limited dynamic range.

  4. Thermal history of Michigan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cercone, K.R.

    1984-02-01

    The elevated organic maturity observed in shallowly buried units from the Michigan basin implies that higher temperatures and thicker overburdens once existed in the basin. Evidence from sediment-accumulation rates, regional dips, and maturity of Pennsylvanian-age coals suggests that up to 1,000 m of sediment were removed by erosion prior to the Late Jurassic, when the basin became stable. Geothermal gradients during Paleozoic basin subsidence probably ranged from 35/sup 0/ to 45/sup 0/ C/ km in contrast to the average present value of 25/sup 0/ C/km. Depths to the top of the oil window ranged from 1,900 to 2,300 m during the Paleozoic. Post-Pennsylvanian erosional uplift and further thermal maturation of the basin have combined to raise the top of the oil window to its present level of 500 m.

  5. [Photoeffects, Einstein's light quanta and the history of their acceptance].

    PubMed

    Wiederkehr, Karl Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    It is generally supposed, that the discovery of the efficacy-quantum by Planck was the impetus to Einstein's hypothesis of lightquanta. With its help Einstein could explain the external light-electrical effect. But even years before Einstein had worked at the photoeffect and already made experiments on it. For that reason the article gives a short survey about the history of the lightelectric effects. Lenard's basical work about the release of the photoelectrons is dealt with in detail, without which Einstein would scarcely have found his lightquanta. Furthermore it is shown how difficult it was for the physicists to give up--at least partially--the traditional view of the undulation-nature of light, and how they searched to explain the great energies of the photoelectrons. On the other side it is set forth how Einstein's formula of lightquanta was gradually confirmed. The tragical development of Einstein's personal relations with Johannes Stark and Philipp Lenard are briefly described. Stark was one of the few who supported Einstein's ideas at the beginning. Only with the Compton-effect, which could only be quantitatively interpreted by means of lightquanta and the special theory of relativity 1923, the way was free for the general acceptance of the lightquanta. Einstein did not agree to the obtained dualism of undulation and corpuscle; he had a different solution in mind about the fusion of the two forms of appearance of light. PMID:17338401

  6. Does Suicidal History Enhance Acceptance of Other Suicidal Individuals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, Ena; Range, Lillian

    2001-01-01

    To see if moderately suicidal outpatients were more accepting of a suicidal person than never- or severely-suicidal outpatients, 105 respondents completed measures of suicidality, depression, acceptance, and empathy. Results indicated, unexpectedly, that net of depression, never-suicidal people were more accepting of a suicidal person than…

  7. Thermal History and Mantle Dynamics of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsui, Albert T.

    1997-01-01

    One objective of this research proposal is to develop a 3-D thermal history model for Venus. The basis of our study is a finite-element computer model to simulate thermal convection of fluids with highly temperature- and pressure-dependent viscosities in a three-dimensional spherical shell. A three-dimensional model for thermal history studies is necessary for the following reasons. To study planetary thermal evolution, one needs to consider global heat budgets of a planet throughout its evolution history. Hence, three-dimensional models are necessary. This is in contrasts to studies of some local phenomena or local structures where models of lower dimensions may be sufficient. There are different approaches to treat three-dimensional thermal convection problems. Each approach has its own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, the choice of the various approaches is subjective and dependent on the problem addressed. In our case, we are interested in the effects of viscosities that are highly temperature dependent and that their magnitudes within the computing domain can vary over many orders of magnitude. In order to resolve the rapid change of viscosities, small grid spacings are often necessary. To optimize the amount of computing, variable grids become desirable. Thus, the finite-element numerical approach is chosen for its ability to place grid elements of different sizes over the complete computational domain. For this research proposal, we did not start from scratch and develop the finite element codes from the beginning. Instead, we adopted a finite-element model developed by Baumgardner, a collaborator of this research proposal, for three-dimensional thermal convection with constant viscosity. Over the duration supported by this research proposal, a significant amount of advancements have been accomplished.

  8. Thermal comfort of people in the hot and humid area of China-impacts of season, climate, and thermal history.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Chen, H; Wang, J; Meng, Q

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a climate chamber study on the thermal comfort of people in the hot and humid area of China. Sixty subjects from naturally ventilated buildings and buildings with split air conditioners participated in the study, and identical experiments were conducted in a climate chamber in both summer and winter. Psychological and physiological responses were observed over a wide range of conditions, and the impacts of season, climate, and thermal history on human thermal comfort were analyzed. Seasonal and climatic heat acclimatization was confirmed, but they were found to have no significant impacts on human thermal sensation and comfort. The outdoor thermal history was much less important than the indoor thermal history in regard to human thermal sensation, and the indoor thermal history in all seasons of a year played a key role in shaping the subjects' sensations in a wide range of thermal conditions. A warmer indoor thermal history in warm seasons produced a higher neutral temperature, a lower thermal sensitivity, and lower thermal sensations in warm conditions. The comfort and acceptable conditions were identified for people in the hot and humid area of China.

  9. Thermal comfort of people in the hot and humid area of China-impacts of season, climate, and thermal history.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Chen, H; Wang, J; Meng, Q

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a climate chamber study on the thermal comfort of people in the hot and humid area of China. Sixty subjects from naturally ventilated buildings and buildings with split air conditioners participated in the study, and identical experiments were conducted in a climate chamber in both summer and winter. Psychological and physiological responses were observed over a wide range of conditions, and the impacts of season, climate, and thermal history on human thermal comfort were analyzed. Seasonal and climatic heat acclimatization was confirmed, but they were found to have no significant impacts on human thermal sensation and comfort. The outdoor thermal history was much less important than the indoor thermal history in regard to human thermal sensation, and the indoor thermal history in all seasons of a year played a key role in shaping the subjects' sensations in a wide range of thermal conditions. A warmer indoor thermal history in warm seasons produced a higher neutral temperature, a lower thermal sensitivity, and lower thermal sensations in warm conditions. The comfort and acceptable conditions were identified for people in the hot and humid area of China. PMID:26451532

  10. Rape Myth Acceptance, Sexual Trauma History, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugher, Shannon N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Monroe, James R.; Gray, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    The prediction of false rape-related beliefs (rape myth acceptance [RMA]) was examined using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Payne, Lonsway, & Fitzgerald, 1999) among a nonclinical sample of 258 male and female college students. Predictor variables included measures of attitudes toward women, gender role identity (GRI), sexual trauma…

  11. The History of UTAUT Model and Its Impact on ICT Acceptance and Usage by Academicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oye, N. D.; Iahad, N. A.; Rahim, N. Ab.

    2014-01-01

    This paper started with the review of the history of technology acceptance model from TRA to UTAUT. The expected contribution is to bring to lime light the current development stage of the technology acceptance model. Based on this, the paper examined the impact of UTAUT model on ICT acceptance and usage in HEIs. The UTAUT model theory was…

  12. The Thermal Memory of Reionization History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Lam; Haiman, Zoltán

    2003-10-01

    The recent measurement by WMAP of a large electron-scattering optical depth τe=0.17+/-0.04 is consistent with a simple model of reionization in which the intergalactic medium (IGM) is ionized at redshift z~15 and remains highly ionized thereafter. Here we show that existing measurements of the IGM temperature from the Lyα forest at z~2-4 rule out this ``vanilla'' model. Under reasonable assumptions about the ionizing spectrum, as long as the universe is reionized before z=10 and remains highly ionized thereafter, the IGM reaches an asymptotic thermal state that is too cold compared to observations. To simultaneously satisfy the cosmic microwave background and Lyα forest constraints, the reionization history must be complex: reionization begins early at z>~15, but there must have been significant (order-of-unity) changes in fractions of neutral hydrogen and/or helium at 6history and show that a late epoch of (HeII-->HeIII) reionization induces a significant scatter in the IGM temperature, but the scatter diminishes with time quickly. Finally, we provide an analytic formula for the thermal asymptote and discuss possible additional heating mechanisms that might evade our constraints.

  13. 78 FR 26785 - Guidance for Industry: Implementation of an Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ...DHQ documents under 21 CFR 601.12. In the Federal Register of October 24, 2011 (76 FR 65735), FDA... Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire and Accompanying Materials for Use in Screening Frequent Donors of... ``Guidance for Industry: Implementation of an Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire...

  14. The Thermal History of Enstatite Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1992-07-01

    In an attempt to decipher the complicated thermal history of the enstatite chondrites, the CaS enstatite (Larimer and Buseck, 1974; Fogel et al., 1989), cubic sulfide (Skinner and Luce, 1971) and sphalerite (Kissin, 1989; El Goresy and Ehlers, 1989) systems have been applied, but the results have not been straightforward. The CaS-En thermometer gives metamorphic temperatures which appear reasonable, but which do not correlate well with petrologic type. The cubic sulfides yield reasonable temperatures for the EH chondrites, but the values for EL chondrites are very low. To some extent, the problem has been the lack of low petrologic type EL chondrites. Here we discuss data for the recently discovered EL3 chondrites (Chang et al., 1992) and we examine the applicability of the Fe-Ni-P system for thermometry. The CaS-En thermometer uses three reactions including equilibria between metal, CaS, SiO2, enstatite and FeS. The method is crucially dependent on the activity coefficients for Si and CaSiO3 which are in solid solutions with metal and enstatite, respectively. The cubic sulfide thermometer uses the solubility of FeS in MgS and MnS, while the ZnS thermometer (which is pressure-dependent) uses the solubility of FeS in ZnS. Current equilibration temperature estimates for enstatite chondrites including the EL3 chondrites are listed in Table 1. Table 1. Estimates of equilibration temperatures (degrees C) for enstatite chondrites.* Petrologic type EH EL System 3 4 5 6 3 4 5 6 En-CaS 1030 950 830 - 830 - - 1025 Cubic sulf 400 680 600 - <<400 - - <400 ZnS 410 (1859)+ - - 500 - - 550 Fe-Ni-P <450 500 550 - <<450 - - <450 *Literature data (see text), present data (bold type). +Heavily shocked. In an attempt to use the Fe-Ni-P system as a thermometer for enstatite chondrites, we used the phase diagram of Doan and Goldstein (1970). Like the other systems, this required extrapolation to lower temperatures (Fig. 1). The temperatures calculated from this system mirror those of

  15. Cognitive Processes Underlying Women's Risk Judgments: Associations with Sexual Victimization History and Rape Myth Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Treat, Teresa A.; Viken, Richard J.; McFall, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effects of sexual victimization history, rape myth acceptance, implicit attention, and recent learning on the cognitive processes underlying undergraduate women's explicit risk judgments. Method: Participants were 194 undergraduate women between 18 and 24 years of age. The sample was ethnically diverse and…

  16. Crystallization, flow and thermal histories of lunar and terrestrial compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhlmann, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Contents: a kinetic treatment of glass formation; effects of nucleating heterogeneities on glass formation; glass formation under continuous cooling conditions; crystallization statistics; kinetics of crystal nucleation; diffusion controlled crystal growth; crystallization of lunar compositions; crystallization between solidus and liquidus; crystallization on reheating a glass; temperature distributions during crystallization; crystallization of anorthite and anorthite-albite compositions; effect of oxidation state on viscosity; diffusive creep and viscous flow; high temperature flow behavior of glass-forming liquids, a free volume interpretation; viscous flow behavior of lunar compositions; thermal history of orange soil material; breccias formation by viscous sintering; viscous sintering; thermal histories of breccias; solute partitioning and thermal history of lunar rocks; heat flow in impact melts; and thermal histories of olivines.

  17. Thermal History of the Allende Parent Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbruch, S.; Armstrong, J. T.; Palme, H.

    1992-07-01

    Little is known about the temperature of accretion of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies and their subsequent thermal history. The frequent indicators of thermodynamic disequilibrium present in Allende (e.g., chemical zoning of olivine and pyroxene) clearly demonstrate that parent body metamorphism was limited to low temperatures and/or short periods of time. In order to quantify maximum temperatures and timescales we have studied chemical zoning of olivine and Fe/Mg exchange between coexisting olivine and chromite (olivine/spinel thermometry). We have analyzed 43 olivine-chromite pairs in type II chondrules and Fe-rich single olivine grains from Allende with the electron microprobe and calculated equilibration temperatures between 1500 K and 800 K (uncertainties are in the order of 200 K depending on various calibrations of the exchange reaction). In a few grains high temperatures, between 1300 and 1500 K (depending on the calibration), are preserved, which may be interpreted as chondrule crystallization temperatures. Most grains, however, yield much lower temperatures between 800 and 1000 K, presumably representing closure temperatures for Fe/Mg interdiffusion. The lowest temperatures of about 800 K may be regarded as an upper limit for metamorphic peak temperatures. In the few cases where higher temperatures are preserved, chromite grains are extraordinarily large, preventing low-temperature equilibration. Chemical zoning of Allende olivine indicates that temperatures in the parent body are below 800 K. In some olivine grains steep Fe/Mg concentration profiles across the boundary between forsteritic cores and fayalite-rich rims were observed, with FeO contents increasing by about 30 wt% within 5 micrometers (Weinbruch et al., 1990). The maximum time such steep concentration profiles could be retained at a given temperature was calculated using Fe/Mg interdiffusion coefficients of Buening and Buseck (1973) and Misener (1974). In extrapolating the Misener (1974

  18. Thermal expansion and thermal stress in the moon and terrestrial planets - Clues to early thermal history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S. C.; Chaiken, J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses how features of the surface geology of the moon and also Mars and Mercury impose constraints on the volumetric expansion or contraction of a planet and consequently provide a test of thermal history models. The moon has changed very little in volume over the last 3.8 b.y. Thermal models satisfying this constraint involve early heating and perhaps melting of the outer 200 km of the moon and an initially cold interior. Mercury has contracted by about 2 km in radius since emplacement of its present surface, so core formation must predate that surface. A hot initial temperature distribution is implied.

  19. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Ground Test History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold P.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) was started in 1955 under the Atomic Energy Commission as project Rover and was assigned to Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Nevada Test Site was selected in 1956 and facility construction began in 1957. The KIWI-A was tested on July 1, 1959 for 5 minutes at 70MW. KIWI-A1 was tested on July 8, 1960 for 6 minutes at 85MW. KIWI-A3 was tested on October 10, 1960 for 5 minutes at 100MW. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was formed in 1958. On August 31, 1960 the AEC and NASA established the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office and named Harold Finger as Director. Immediately following the formation of SNPO, contracts were awarded for the Reactor In Flight Test (RIFT), master plan for the Nuclear Rocket Engine Development Station (NRDS), and the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA). From December 7, 1961 to November 30, 1962, the KIWI-B1A, KIWI-B1B, and KIWI-B4A were tested at test cell A. The last two engines were only tested for several seconds before noticeable failure of the fuel elements. Harold Finger called a stop to any further hot fire testing until the problem was well understood. The KIWI-B4A cold flow test showed the problem to be related to fluid dynamics of hydrogen interstitial flow causing fuel element vibrations. President Kennedy visited the NTS one week after the KIWI-B4A failure and got to see the engine starting to be disassembled in the maintenance facility. The KIWI-B4D and KIWI-B4E were modified to not have the vibration problems and were tested in test cell C. The NERVA NRX program started testing in early 1964 with NRX-A1 cold flow test series (unfueled graphite core), NRX-A2 and NRX-A3 power test series up to 1122 MW for 13 minutes. In March 1966, the NRX-EST (Engine System Test) was the first breadboard using flight functional relationship and total operating time of 116 minutes. The NRX-EST demonstrated the feasibility of a hot bleed cycle. The NRX-A5 had multiple start

  20. Thermal history of the universe after inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Scott

    2016-06-01

    When did the universe thermalize? In this talk I review the status of this issue and its importance in establishing the expected properties of dark matter, the growth of large-scale structure, and the viability of inflation models when confronted with CMB observations. I also present a novel approach to tackling the theoretical challenges surrounding inflationary (p)reheating, which seeks to extend past work on the Effective Field Theory of Inflation to the time of reheating.

  1. Shock and thermal history of iron and chondritic meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Joseph I.

    1994-10-01

    This research grant included a study of the shock and thermal history of iron and chondritic meteorites. The important research findings are to be found in the 20 publications that were published as a result of the research support. A complete bibliographic reference to all these papers is given.

  2. Shock and thermal history of iron and chondritic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Joseph I.

    1994-01-01

    This research grant included a study of the shock and thermal history of iron and chondritic meteorites. The important research findings are to be found in the 20 publications that were published as a result of the research support. A complete bibliographic reference to all these papers is given.

  3. Riddles about the origin and thermal history of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, B. Y.; Mayeva, S. V.

    1977-01-01

    Magmatic differentiation of the moon's interior, confirmed through calculations of thermal history, was studied. It appears that differentiation was a result of the moon's initial temperature whose origin remains unknown. In solving this problem, convective models of the moon were considered as well as a two layered differentiated model of the moon, operative over the past 3.5 billion years. The high content of long lived radioactive elements present was investigated in explaining the moon's current thermal properties. The controversy concerning the true nature of magmatic differentiation continues to be unsolved.

  4. Microstructure and thermal history of metal particles in CH chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, J. I.; Jones, R. H.; Kotula, P. G.; Michael, J. R.

    2007-06-01

    We have studied metal microstructures in four CH chondrites, Patuxent Range (PAT) 91546, Allan Hills (ALH) 85085, Acfer 214, and Northwest Africa (NWA) 739, to examine details of the thermal histories of individual particles. Four types of metal particles are common in all of these chondrites. Zoned and unzoned particles probably formed as condensates from a gas of chondritic composition in a monotonic cooling regime, as has been shown previously. We have demonstrated that these particles were cooled rapidly to temperatures below 500 K after they formed, and that condensation effectively closed around 700 K. Zoned and unzoned particles with exsolution precipitates, predominantly high-Ni taenite, have considerably more complex thermal histories. Precipitates grew in reheating episodes, but the details of the heating events vary among individual grains. Reheating temperatures are typically in the range 800-1000 K. Reheating could have been the result of impact events on the CH parent body. Some particles with precipitates may have been incorporated into chondrules, with further brief heating episodes taking place during chondrule formation. In addition to the four dominant types of metal particles, rare Ni-rich metal particles and Si-rich metal particles indicate that the metal assemblage in CH chondrites was a mixture of material that formed at different redox conditions. Metal in CH chondrites consists of a mechanical mixture of particles that underwent a variety of thermal histories prior to being assembled into the existing brecciated meteorites.

  5. The Thermal and Radiation Exposure History of Lunar Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.; Symes, Steven J. K.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured the natural and induced thermoluminescence (TL) of seven lunar meteorites in order to examine their crystallization, irradiation, and recent thermal histories. Lunar meteorites have induced TL properties similar to Apollo samples of the same provenance (highland or mare), indicating similar crystallization and metamorphic histories. MacAlplne Hills 88104/5 has experienced the greatest degree of impact/regolith processing among the highland-dominated meteorites. The basaltic breccia QUE 94281 is dominated by mare component but may also contain a significant highland component. For the mare-dominated meteorites, EET 87521 may have a significant highland impact-melt component, while Asuka 881757 and Y-793169 have been heavily shocked. The thermal history of Y-793169 included slow cooling, either during impact processing or during its initial crystallization. Our natural TL data indicate that most lunar meteorites have apparently been irradiated in space a few thousand years, with most less than 15,000 a. Elephant Moraine 87521 has the lowest irradiation exposure time, being less than 1,000 a. Either the natural TL of ALHA81005, Asuka 881757 and Y-82192 was only partially reset by lunar ejection or these meteorites were in small perihelia orbits (less than or equal to 0.7 AU).

  6. Recent thermal history influences thermal tolerance in freshwater mussel species (Bivalvia: Unionoida)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galbraith, Heather S.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding species’ temperature tolerances in the context of concurrent environmental stressors is critical because thermal regimes of freshwater ecosystems are changing. We evaluated the critical thermal maximum (CTM) of 3 freshwater mussel species (Alasmidonta varicosa, Elliptio complanata, and Strophitus undulatus) acclimated to 2 temperatures (15 and 25°C) and exposed to 2 aeration treatments (aerated vs unaerated) during CTM testing. Responses varied by species, but mussels acclimated to 25°C generally had a higher CTM than mussels acclimated to 15°C. For E. complanata, the effects of acclimation temperature and aeration were interactive, such that CTM was highest at 15°C but only under aerated conditions. Our results indicate that recent thermal history affects thermal tolerance, combinations of environmental stressors may influence thermal tolerance, and such responses vary among species.

  7. Thermal History Of PMRs Via Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gluyas, Richard E.; Alston, William B.; Snyder, William J.

    1994-01-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography (PY-GC) useful as analytical technique to determine extents of cure or postcure of PMR-15 polyimides and to lesser extent, cumulative thermal histories of PMR-15 polyimides exposed to high temperatures. Also applicable for same purposes to other PMR polyimides and to composite materials containing PMR polyimides. Valuable in reducing costs and promoting safety in aircraft industry by helping to identify improperly cured or postcured PMR-15 composite engine and airframe components and helping to identify composite parts nearing ends of their useful lives.

  8. Cooling history of Earth's core with high thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Christopher J.

    2015-10-01

    Thermal evolution models of Earth's core constrain the power available to the geodynamo process that generates the geomagnetic field, the evolution of the solid inner core and the thermal history of the overlying mantle. Recent upward revision of the thermal conductivity of liquid iron mixtures by a factor of 2-3 has drastically reduced the estimated power available to generate the present-day geomagnetic field. Moreover, this high conductivity increases the amount of heat that is conducted out of the core down the adiabatic gradient, bringing it into line with the highest estimates of present-day core-mantle boundary heat flow. These issues raise problems with the standard scenario of core cooling in which the core has remained completely well-mixed and relatively cool for the past 3.5 Ga. This paper presents cooling histories for Earth's core spanning the last 3.5 Ga to constrain the thermodynamic conditions corresponding to marginal dynamo evolution, i.e. where the ohmic dissipation remains just positive over time. The radial variation of core properties is represented by polynomials, which gives good agreement with radial profiles derived from seismological and mineralogical data and allows the governing energy and entropy equations to be solved analytically. Time-dependent evolution of liquid and solid light element concentrations, the melting curve, and gravitational energy are calculated for an Fe-O-S-Si model of core chemistry. A suite of cooling histories are presented by varying the inner core boundary density jump, thermal conductivity and amount of radiogenic heat production in the core. All models where the core remains superadiabatic predict an inner core age of ≲ 600Myr , about two times younger than estimates based on old (lower) thermal conductivity estimates, and core temperatures that exceed present estimates of the lower mantle solidus prior to the last 0.5-1.5 Ga. Allowing the top of the core to become strongly subadiabatic in recent times

  9. The effect of thermal history on the susceptibility of reef-building corals to thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Middlebrook, Rachael; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Leggat, William

    2008-04-01

    The mutualistic relationship between corals and their unicellular dinoflagellate symbionts (Symbiodinium sp.) is a fundamental component within the ecology of coral reefs. Thermal stress causes the breakdown of the relationship between corals and their symbionts (bleaching). As with other organisms, this symbiosis may acclimate to changes in the environment, thereby potentially modifying the environmental threshold at which they bleach. While a few studies have examined the acclimation capacity of reef-building corals, our understanding of the underlying mechanism is still in its infancy. The present study focused on the role of recent thermal history in influencing the response of both corals and symbionts to thermal stress, using the reef-building coral Acropora aspera. The symbionts of corals that were exposed to 31 degrees C for 48 h (pre-stress treatment) 1 or 2 weeks prior to a 6-day simulated bleaching event (when corals were exposed to 34 degrees C) were found to have more effective photoprotective mechanisms. These mechanisms included changes in non-photochemical quenching and xanthophyll cycling. These differences in photoprotection were correlated with decreased loss of symbionts, with those corals that were not prestressed performing significantly worse, losing over 40% of their symbionts and having a greater reduction in photosynthetic efficiency. These results are important in that they show that thermal history, in addition to light history, can influence the response of reef-building corals to thermal stress and therefore have implications for the modeling of bleaching events. However, whether acclimation is capable of modifying the thermal threshold of corals sufficiently to cope as sea temperatures increase in response to global warming has not been fully explored. Clearly increases in sea temperatures that extend beyond 1-2 degrees C will exhaust the extent to which acclimation can modify the thermal threshold of corals.

  10. Thermal history and petroleum systems of the east Mediterranean realm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, Samer Bou; Nader, Fadi H.; Littke, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    The eastern Mediterranean Levant basin is a frontier basin that has gained a lot of industrial and academic interest in the last decade due to the huge gas discoveries that have been reported in its southern part. The reported gas in Miocene reservoirs has been assumed to be derived from biogenic sources, although little data has been published so far. The thickness of the sedimentary column and the presence of direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHI) observed in the seismic data suggest the presence of promising prospective thermogenic petroleum systems in deeper intervals in the Levant Basin and along its margins. The east Mediterranean contains several structural elements dividing the area into different realms that reacted differently to the successive tectonic events that have shaped the area and thus resulted in different thermal and burial histories. We will present source rock data collected within the last few years from several organic matter rich intervals in the east Mediterranean and discuss their depositional environment and petroleum generation potential, as well as the potential petroleum systems in each compartment of the study area. This is based on numerical thermal and burial history models of several east Mediterranean realms including the Levant basin, its eastern and western margins, and the Eratosthenes Seamount. Additionally, we will present some results of sensitivity analysis in the poorly calibrated parts of the study area.

  11. Pyroxene Spectroscopy: Remote Characterization of Composition, Structure and Thermal History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, Rachel L.; Dyar, Darby; Glotch, Timothy; Lane, Melissa

    2014-11-01

    Pyroxene is one of the most commonly used minerals for remote analysis of mineralogy and composition of planetary bodies. This is in part due to the prevalence of pyroxene on the surfaces of objects in the inner solar system. Pyroxene also exhibits a distinctive spectrum that is highly sensitive to its specific composition, structure, and cation site occupancy. Cation ordering, which is partially a result of the cooling history of a pyroxene, affects the strengths of absorptions caused by Fe2+ in the M1 and M2 cation sites, which in turn affects the relative band 1 and band 2 areas. Terrestrial pyroxenes are generally quite well-ordered, as many have been exposed to and held for long times at temperatures warm enough to allow cations to exchange between the M1 and M2 sites. Extraterrestrial pyroxenes have been exposed to a vast array of cooling regimes, including flash heating and cooling in the protoplanetary disk, impact brecciation and melting, and more traditional igneous processes.To push pyroxene spectroscopy beyond simple mineral identification and develop it as a tool for characterizing the thermal history of a body, we have been working to characterize and document the crystal chemistry, structure, and site occupancies of a suite of 91 synthetic pyroxenes. This is accomplished by measuring single-crystal XRD, Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) and electron probe microanalysis (EMP), variable-temperature Mössbauer and Raman spectra. For each of the samples, visible-far IR spectra have also been collected. We will present the results of this integrated study, focusing on how the crystal structure, composition and site occupancy in pyroxenes is reflected in their visible-infrared spectra and how they can be used to evaluate the thermal history of asteroids and the Moon.

  12. Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) Instrument: Flight Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) Acceptance Thermal Vacuum Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Charles; Butler, Dan; Ku, Jentung; Grob, Eric; Swanson, Ted; Nikitkin, Michael; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Two loop heat pipes (LHPs) are to be used for tight thermal control of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument, planned for flight in late 2001. The LHPs are charged with Propylene as a working fluid. One LHP will be used to transport 110 W from a laser to a radiator, the other will transport 160 W from electronic boxes to a separate radiator. The application includes a large amount of thermal mass in each LHP system and low initial startup powers. The initial design had some non-ideal flight design compromises, resulted in a less than ideal charge level for this design concept with a symmetrical secondary wick. This less than ideal charge was identified as the source of inadequate performance of the flight LHPs during the flight thermal vacuum test in October of 2000. We modified the compensation chamber design, re-built and charged the LHPs for a final LHP acceptance thermal vacuum test. This test performed March of 2001 was 100% successful. This is the last testing to be performed on the LHPs prior to instrument thermal vacuum test. This sensitivity to charge level was shown through varying the charge on a Development Model Loop Heat Pipe (DM LHP) and evaluating performance at various fill levels. At lower fills similar to the original charge in the flight units, the same poor performance was observed. When the flight units were re-designed and filled to the levels similar to the initial successful DM LHP test, the flight units also successfully fulfilled all requirements. This final flight Acceptance test assessed performance with respect to startup, low power operation, conductance, and control heater power, and steady state control. The results of the testing showed that both LHPs operated within specification. Startup on one of the LHPs was better than the other LHP because of the starter heater placement and a difference in evaporator design. These differences resulted in a variation in the achieved superheat prior to startup. The LHP with

  13. On the thermal history, thermal state, and related tectonism of a moon of fission origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, A. B.; Lange, M. A.

    1980-06-01

    Results obtained from a series of advanced thermal models of a moon of fission origin are presented. The results are discussed in terms of the tectonics and seismic activity of the moon. It is noted that the thermal history of an initially totally molten moon of fission origin properly accounts for (1) the mare basalt epoch, in terms of its duration, the depth of a source region, and degrees of partial melting which produces the magmas, (2) the present-day heat flow of 17-18 ergs/sq cm s, and (3) the current high temperatures of the lower mantle as deduced from magnetic and seismic data.

  14. The effect of thermal history on the elasticity of K-type gellan gels.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Yoko; Yoshimura, Miki; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi

    2014-11-26

    Elasticity of potassium type gellan gels prepared at different thermal histories was examined using dynamic viscoelastic measurements. The storage Young's modulus E' decreased with increasing cooling rate during gelation. Once gel formation occurred, thermal history at lower temperature did not influence the elastic modulus and thermal stability of the gellan gels. On the other hand, thermal history around gelation temperature influenced strongly the elastic modulus and thermal stability of resulting gels. When the gellan solution was kept for a certain time before cooling at a temperature near the gelation temperature, it was found that gels with higher elastic modulus and thermal stability were formed.

  15. A Coupled Model Between Robot Trajectories and Thermal History of the Workpiece During Thermal Spray Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolot, Rodolphe; Deng, Sihao; Cai, Zhenhua; Liao, Hanlin; Montavon, Ghislain

    2014-02-01

    Offline robot trajectory generation is now often used for thermal spray applications, especially for complex design parts, requiring enhanced trajectories. This technique allows decreasing the downtime of the thermal spray cell and insures the generation of optimized trajectories. Heat transfers caused by thermal spray increase the workpiece temperature during the coating application. This temperature acts directly on the resulting thermal stresses after cooling of the part down to the ambient temperature. In this study, a coupling was developed between the robot trajectory and computation of the thermal history of the workpiece during the spray operation. The method is based on the storage of the real robot trajectory (i.e., accurate in time) in a text file, and reading of this file with a C programming performed with ANSYS/FLUENT commercial code which allows computing the displacement of the thermal sources according to the trajectory and solving the transient heat conservation equation during the torch displacement. The contributions of the impinging plasma jet and the molten particle jet are taken into account in the model.

  16. Rheological characterisation of thermally-treated anaerobic digested sludge: impact of temperature and thermal history.

    PubMed

    Farno, Ehsan; Baudez, Jean Christophe; Parthasarathy, Rajarathinam; Eshtiaghi, Nicky

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the partially irreversible effect of thermal treatment on the rheology of digested sludge when it was subjected to temperature change between 20 °C and 80 °C and then cooled down to 20 °C. The yield stress, infinite viscosity and liquor viscosity of sludge were measured at 20 °C for different thermal histories and were compared to the evolution of the solubilised chemical oxygen demand (COD) of sludge liquor. The results showed that thermal history irreversibly affects sludge rheology as the yield stress of sludge which was heated to 80 °C then cooled down to 20 °C was 68% lower than the initial yield stress at 20 °C. This decrease was due to the irreversible solubilisation of solid matter during heating as underlined by soluble COD data which did not reach its original level after thermal treatment. Measured soluble COD of sludge which was heated and cooled down was much higher than the soluble COD of initial sludge. We found a proportionality of the increase of soluble COD with the decrease of the yield stress as well as increase of infinite viscosity. PMID:24675271

  17. Effect of thermal history on the rheology of thermoplastic polyurethanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Pil Joong

    The effect of thermal history on the rheological behavior of ester- and, ether-based commercial thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) was investigated. It was found from 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy that the ester-based TPU consisted of 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and butane diol (BDO) as hard segments and poly(butylene adipate) as soft segments, and the ether-based TPU consisted of MDT-BDO as hard segments and poly(oxytetramethylene) as soft segments. During isothermal annealing, the dynamic storage and loss moduli (G' and G'' ) of specimens, which had been prepared by injection molding at different temperatures, were monitored at a fixed angular frequency. It was found that thermal history of specimens had a profound influence on the variations of G' and G' ' with time observed during isothermal annealing. Isochronal dynamic temperature sweep experiments indicated that the TPUs exhibit hysteresis effect during heating and cooling, very similar to that observed in microphase-separated block polymers and thermotropic liquid-crystalline polymers reported in the literature. It was found that time-temperature superposition failed to produce reduced (or master) plots for the TPUs employed. This conclusion was reinforced by the temperature dependence of log G ' versus log G'' plots over the entire range of temperatures (110--190°C) investigated, suggesting that the morphological state of the TPU specimens varied with temperature. Little evidence was found from differential scanning calorimetry that thermal transitions took place in the TPU specimens during isothermal annealing, while values of G' and G' ' were found to vary with time. Measurements were taken of N-H stretching absorption bands in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra during isothermal annealing at 170°C for specimens prepared by injection molding at different temperatures. The analysis of FTIR spectra indicated that variations of hydrogen bonding with time

  18. Heat flow and thermal history of the Anadarko basin, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, L.S.; Kelley, S.A.; Blackwell, D.D.; Naeser, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    New heat-flow values for seven sites in the Anadarko basin, Oklahoma, were determined using high-precision temperature logs and thermal conductivity measurements from nearly 300 core plugs. Three of the sites are on the northern shelf, three sites are in the deep basin, and one site is in the frontal fault zone of the northern Wichita Mountains. The heat flow decreased from 55 to 64 mW/m2 in the north, and from 39 to 54 mW/m2 in the south, due to a decrease in heat generation in the underlying basement rock toward the south. Lateral lithologic changes in the basin, combined with the change in heat flow across the basin, resulted in an unusual pattern of thermal maturity. The vitrinite reflectance values of the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Woodford formation are highest 30-40 km north-northwest of the deepest part of the basin. The offset in highest reflectance values is due to the contrast in thermal conductivity between the Pennsylvanian "granite wash" section adjacent to the Wichita uplift and the Pennsylvanian shale section to the north. The geothermal gradient in the low-conductivity shale section is elevated relative to the geothermal gradient in the high-conductivity "granite wash" section, thus displacing the highest temperatures to the north of the deepest part of the basin. Apatite fission-track, vitrinite reflectance, and heat-flow data were used to constrain regional aspects of the burial history of the Anadarko basin. By combining these data sets, we infer that at least 1.5 km of denudation has occurred at two sites in the deep Anadarko basin since the early to middle Cenozoic (40 ?? 10 m.y.). The timing of the onset of denudation in the southern Anadarko basin coincides with the period of late Eocene erosion observed in the southern Rocky Mountains and in the northern Great Plains. Burial history models for two wells from the deep Anadarko basin predict that shales of the Woodford formation passed through the hydrocarbon maturity window by the

  19. Cratons Formation and the Earth Episodic Thermal History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davaille, A.; Arndt, N.

    2007-12-01

    U-Pb ages of zircons in granites and large rivers record a three-stage evolution of the continental crust. Plate tectonics operated in the first stage, from ~4.4 to 2.7 Ga. Huge peaks of crustal growth separated by long troughs dominated the second stage, from 2.7 to 1.8 Ga. Semi-continuous growth punctuated by large peaks characterized the last stage, from 1.8 to 0 Ga. Individual peaks in the second stage open with massive mafic- ultramafic volcanism and climax 30 Ma later with intrusion of voluminous granitoids: each peak opened with enhanced mantle plume activity, climaxed with accelerated plate tectonic activity, and was followed by a long quiet period when little crust formed. We develop a fluid-mechanics model to explain the three-stage evolution and the pronounced peak-and-trough pattern of the second stage. Low temperatures in the upper mantle during the first and last stages allow the formation of thin, subductable oceanic crust, and lead to a plate-tectonic regime. The crustal-growth peaks of the second regime results from destabilization of a hot denser layer at the bottom of the lower mantle. Domes rising from this layer partially melt to form voluminous mafic magmas. Moreover, when the domes hit and spread under the top surface, they peel off the cold thermal boundary layer there, which triggers a ring of enhanced cold instabilities around each thermochemical dome. This period of enhanced downwellings (i.e. subduction) is however followed by a lull, during which the cold thermal boundary layer is growing again. The onset of the first thermochemical instabilities is predicted to be synchroneous on the whole mantle , and followed by several more disorganized events, in agreement with observations. These experiments closely link continental growth and the thermal history of our planet, which appear strongly episodic. The importance of the 2.7 Ga peak, related to the sudden destabilization of a lower denser layer, suggests that extraction of heat from the

  20. Modelling the Thermal History of Asteroid 4 Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solano, James M.; Kiefer, W. S.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    The asteroid 4 Vesta is widely thought to be the source of the HED (Howardite, Eucrite and Diogenite) meteorites, with this link supported by spectroscopic and dynamical studies. The availability of the HED meteorites for study and the new data being gained from the Dawn mission provides an excellent opportunity to investigate Vesta s history. In this study, modelling of Vesta has been undertaken to investigate its evolution from an unconsolidated chondritic body to a differentiated body with an iron core. In contrast to previous modelling, both heat and mass transfer are considered as coupled processes. This work draws on models of melt segregation in terrestrial environments to inform the evolution of Vesta into the differentiated body observed today. In order for a core to form in this body, a separation of the metallic iron from the silicates must take place. Temperatures in excess of the solidus temperatures for the Fe-FeS system and the silicates are therefore required. Thermal modelling has shown accretion before 2Myr leads to temperatures in excess of the silicate solidus.

  1. Tectonic subsidence history and thermal evolution of the Orange Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, K. K.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; van Wees, J.; Paton, D. A.; Kuhlmann, G.

    2008-12-01

    The Orange Basin offshore southwest Africa appears to represent a classical example of continental rifting and break up associated with large-scale, transient volcanism. The presence of lower crustal bodies of high seismic velocities indicates that large volumes of igneous crust formed as a consequence of lithospheric extension. We present results of a combined approach using subsidence analysis and basin history inversion models. Our results show that a classical uniform stretching model does not account for the observed tectonic subsidence. Moreover we find that that the thermal and subsidence implications of underplating need to be considered. Another departure from the uniform stretching model is re-newed sub-crustal stretching and linked to that uplift in the Cenozoic which is necessary to reproduce the observed phases of erosion and the present day depth of the basin. The dimension of these events has been examined and quantified in terms of tectonic uplift and sub-crustal stretching. Based on these forward models we predict the heat flow evolution not only for the available real wells but also for virtual wells over the entire study area. Finally the hydrocarbon potential and the temperature evolution is presented and shown in combination with inferred maturation of the sediments for depth intervals which comprise potential source rocks.

  2. Modelling the thermal history of Vesta: time scale of accretion and differentiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formisano, M.; Federico, C.; Turrini, D.; Capaccioni, F.

    2012-04-01

    Vesta is the only known intact primordial asteroid in the Solar System showing an internal differentiated structure, as inferred by its spectral connection with HED meteorites (Keil et al. 2002, Scott 2007, Coradini et al. 2011). Recent results (Schiller et al. 2011) indicate a faster cooling of the interior of Vesta than previously thought. If confirmed, this would imply that the thermal history of Vesta diverges from the generally accepted picture (Ghosh & Mc Sween 1998). Using the thermal evolution code (Formisano et al. 2011) we developed, we are simulating several thermal and structural evolution scenarios of Vesta, by varying the delay Δtd in the injection of 26Al in Vesta, which controls the strength of radiogenic sources. We consider a primordial Vesta as a sphere of radius 270 Km with the initial temperature fixed to 200 K. The initial composition is a homogeneous mixture of silicatic (77%) and metallic (23%) material. Our code solves contemporary the heat equation with the source term (i.e. the energy is supplied by the decay of 26Al, 60Fe ) and the equation for the mass transfer in a porous medium, by using a finite difference 1D method. When the melting temperature of Fe-FeS is reached, the percolation of the iron into the silicatic matrix takes place while, when the melting temperature of silicate is reached, the differentiation and subsequent core formation occur. Since our model does not take in account heat removal mechanisms other than the conduction and the irradiation at the surface, our results supply a reliable picture of the thermal history of Vesta up until the onset of the differentiation. When compared to the data provided by HED meteorites, our results suggest short accretion and differentiation times of Vesta respect to the condensation of CAIs. The scenarios characterized by Δtd > 2 Ma show temperatures not reaching the melting temperature of silicate and for this reason they are incompatible with the basaltic magmatism suggest by HEDs

  3. Nonmonotonic (reheating) thermal histories from contrasting kinetics of multiple thermochronometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiners, P. W.; Thomson, S. N.; Min, K. K.

    2007-12-01

    Reheating events are often difficult to deduce in thermochronology, because the age resetting they cause can usually be modeled by varying the form of a presumably simpler monotonic cooling path (an exception to this is fission-track length modeling). However, reheating and full or partial resetting due to metamorphism, hydrothermal circulation, magmatism, wildfire, or (at least in the case of meteorites) impacts, are likely common in many settings. Such effects may be particularly important for samples that have resided for long periods at or near the surface with old cooling ages, where they are susceptible to brief, high-temperature events. Failure to recognize reheating may lead to erroneous tectonic interpretations. Nonmonotonic thermal histories may be resolved by using multiple thermochronometric systems with appropriately contrasting kinetic properties. At relatively high temperatures and short timescales, systems with different activation energy ( E), frequency factor ( D0) and domain size (a) display crossovers in diffusion (or annealing) rates that may be used to diagnose reheating episodes of particular intensity and duration. The most diagnostic effect of these kinetic crossovers are apparent "age inversions" in which systems with higher closure temperatures ( Tc) are more strongly reset (resulting in younger ages) than systems with lower Tc (e.g., apatite fission-track and He systems). In cases of complete resetting of the higher- Tc system and partial resetting of the lower- Tc system, reheating may be diagnosed and the intensity and duration of the event partially constrained. When both systems are partially reset, Dt/a2 of the reheating event can be calculated and used to estimate the specific form and timing of reheating thermal histories. Examples of high temperature thermochronometers with potentially useful kinetic crossovers include the Rb-Sr system in both biotite and muscovite coupled with many higher temperature systems such as Ar in

  4. Ar-Ar ages and thermal histories of enstatite meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Dixon, Eleanor T.; Garrison, Daniel H.

    2010-05-01

    Compared with ordinary chondrites, there is a relative paucity of chronological and other data to define the early thermal histories of enstatite parent bodies. In this study, we report 39Ar-40Ar dating results for five EL chondrites: Khairpur, Pillistfer, Hvittis, Blithfield, and Forrest; five EH chondrites: Parsa, Saint Marks, Indarch, Bethune, and Reckling Peak 80259; three igneous-textured enstatite meteorites that represent impact melts on enstatite chondrite parent bodies: Zaklodzie, Queen Alexandra Range 97348, and Queen Alexandra Range 97289; and three aubrites, Norton County, Bishopville, and Cumberland Falls Several Ar-Ar age spectra show unusual 39Ar recoil effects, possibly the result of some of the K residing in unusual sulfide minerals, such as djerfisherite and rodderite, and other age spectra show 40Ar diffusion loss. Few additional Ar-Ar ages for enstatite meteorites are available in the literature. When all available Ar-Ar data on enstatite meteorites are considered, preferred ages of nine chondrites and one aubrite show a range of 4.50-4.54Ga, whereas five other meteorites show only lower age limits over 4.35-4.46Ga. Ar-Ar ages of several enstatite chondrites are as old or older as the oldest Ar-Ar ages of ordinary chondrites, which suggests that enstatite chondrites may have derived from somewhat smaller parent bodies, or were metamorphosed to lower temperatures compared to other chondrite types. Many enstatite meteorites are brecciated and/or shocked, and some of the younger Ar-Ar ages may record these impact events. Although impact heating of ordinary chondrites within the last 1Ga is relatively common for ordinary chondrites, only Bethune gives any significant evidence for such a young event.

  5. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Alternative thermal histories. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Interpretations supporting a differentiated, once active Mercury are listed. Alternative scenarios of the planet's thermal history involve: different distributions of accreted materials, including uranium and thorium-rich materials; variations of early melting; and different modes of plains and scarp formation. Arguments are advanced which strongly favor plains formation by volcanism, lack of a primordial surface, and possible identification of remnant tensional features. Studies of remotely sensed data which strongly suggest a modestly homogeneous surface of silicates imply core separation. Reasons for accepting or rejecting various hypotheses for thermal histories of the planet are mentioned.

  6. 76 FR 65735 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Implementation of Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... The draft guidance refers to previously approved collections of information found in FDA regulations.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft document... donor history information from frequent donors of blood and blood components that is consistent with...

  7. Feasibility study on the readiness, suitability and acceptance of M-Learning AR in learning History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taharim, Nurwahida Faradila; Lokman, Anitawati Mohd; Hanesh, Amjad; Aziz, Azhar Abd

    2016-02-01

    There is no doubt that globalization and innovation in technology has led to the use of technology widespread in almost all sectors, including in the field of education. In recent years, the use of technology in the field of education has more widely and rapidly expand worldwide. Integration of technology in education always open to new opportunities where past studies have shown that technology enhances teaching and learning experience. There are various technologies that have been integrated into the various disciplines of education. Augmented Reality (AR) in mobile learning, which allows a combination of real and virtual worlds in a mobile device, is one of the latest technological potential and has been applied in the field of education. The aim of this research work is to mitigate the challenges faced by end users namely students and teachers of history class by means of creating Augmented Reality mobile application to increase the interest in both delivering and receiving the subject matter. The system consists a mobile platform for students to view the content, and a cloud-based engine to deliver the content based on recognized marker. The impact of such system has been tested on both students and teachers, where students showed interest in learning history, while teachers expressed interest to extend and adopt the system school wide.

  8. Low Pressure Evidence of High Pressure Shock: Thermal Histories and Annealing in Shocked Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, T. G.; Hu, J.

    2016-08-01

    In this study we look at the mineralogy associated with shock veins in several highly shocked L chondrites to better understand shock conditions and the importance of thermal history in creating and destroying high-pressure minerals.

  9. Thermoluminescence Sensitivity and Thermal History of Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrites: Review and Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Ninagawa, K.; Sears, D. W. G.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the induced thermoluminescence (TL) data for 102 unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. We discuss these data in terms of pairing, weathering, and parent body thermal history. We identify ten possible meteorites of petrologic types 3.0-3.1.

  10. Extracting Concrete Thermal Characteristics from Temperature Time History of RC Column Exposed to Standard Fire

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A numerical method to identify thermal conductivity from time history of one-dimensional temperature variations in thermal unsteady-state is proposed. The numerical method considers the change of specific heat and thermal conductivity with respect to temperature. Fire test of reinforced concrete (RC) columns was conducted using a standard fire to obtain time history of temperature variations in the column section. A thermal equilibrium model in unsteady-state condition was developed. The thermal conductivity of concrete was then determined by optimizing the numerical solution of the model to meet the observed time history of temperature variations. The determined thermal conductivity with respect to temperature was then verified against standard thermal conductivity measurements of concrete bricks. It is concluded that the proposed method can be used to conservatively estimate thermal conductivity of concrete for design purpose. Finally, the thermal radiation properties of concrete for the RC column were estimated from the thermal equilibrium at the surface of the column. The radiant heat transfer ratio of concrete representing absorptivity to emissivity ratio of concrete during fire was evaluated and is suggested as a concrete criterion that can be used in fire safety assessment. PMID:25180197

  11. Extracting concrete thermal characteristics from temperature time history of RC column exposed to standard fire.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung J; Youm, Kwang-Soo; Reda Taha, Mahmoud M

    2014-01-01

    A numerical method to identify thermal conductivity from time history of one-dimensional temperature variations in thermal unsteady-state is proposed. The numerical method considers the change of specific heat and thermal conductivity with respect to temperature. Fire test of reinforced concrete (RC) columns was conducted using a standard fire to obtain time history of temperature variations in the column section. A thermal equilibrium model in unsteady-state condition was developed. The thermal conductivity of concrete was then determined by optimizing the numerical solution of the model to meet the observed time history of temperature variations. The determined thermal conductivity with respect to temperature was then verified against standard thermal conductivity measurements of concrete bricks. It is concluded that the proposed method can be used to conservatively estimate thermal conductivity of concrete for design purpose. Finally, the thermal radiation properties of concrete for the RC column were estimated from the thermal equilibrium at the surface of the column. The radiant heat transfer ratio of concrete representing absorptivity to emissivity ratio of concrete during fire was evaluated and is suggested as a concrete criterion that can be used in fire safety assessment.

  12. Variations in thermal history lead to dissynchronous diapause development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, is the world’s most intensively managed solitary bee for commercial pollination. It is the primary pollinator for alfalfa seed production. Managed bees are subjected to thermal regimes for overwintering and subsequent adult emergence in time for al...

  13. Variations in thermal history lead to dyssynchronous diapause development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, is the world’s most intensively managed solitary bee and the primary pollinator for alfalfa seed production. Managed bees are subjected to thermal regimes for overwintering and subsequent adult emergence in time for alfalfa bloom. In nature, first ge...

  14. Immobile and mobile life-history stages have different thermal physiologies in a lizard.

    PubMed

    Telemeco, Rory S

    2014-01-01

    Temperature affects multiple aspects of an organism's biology and thus defines a major axis of the fundamental niche. For ectotherms, variation in the thermal environment is particularly important because most of these taxa have a limited capacity to thermoregulate via metabolic heat production. While temperature affects all life-history stages, stages can differ in their ability to respond to the thermal environment. For example, in oviparous organisms, free-living adults can behaviorally thermoregulate, whereas developing embryos are at the mercy of the nest environment. These differences in the realized thermal environment should select for life-history stages to have different thermal tolerances, although this has been rarely examined. I tested the hypothesis that stage-specific thermal reaction norms can evolve independently by using southern alligator lizards (Elgaria multicarinata, Anguidae). Using incubation experiments (five temperatures: 24°, 26°, 28°, 30°, and 32°C), I described the thermal reaction norm for embryonic development and compared these results to previous studies on the thermal ecology of adults. Offspring survivorship and morphology were similarly affected by incubation temperature. While developing embryos had the same optimum temperature as adults (approximately 28°C), the breadth of their thermal reaction norms differed. My results suggest that developing embryos of E. multicarinata are more sensitive to variation in the average thermal environment than are adults. Variation in the thermal sensitivity of life-history stages might be common and has implications for how organisms respond to variation in the thermal environment. Identifying those life-history stages that are most sensitive/limiting will be important for developing models that best predict species' responses to impending environmental change. PMID:24642538

  15. Thermal barrier coatings for aircraft engines: History and directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    Thin thermal barrier coatings for protecting aircraft turbine section airfoils are examined. The discussion focuses on those advances that led first to their use for component life extension and more recently as an integral part of airfoil design. It is noted that development has been driven by laboratory rig and furnace testing corroborated by engine testing and engine field experience. The technology has also been supported by performance modeling to demonstrate benefits and life modeling for mission analysis. Factors which have led to the selection of the current state-of-the-art plasma sprayed and physical vapor deposited zirconia-yttria/MCrAlY TBC's is emphasized in addition to observations fundamentally related to their behavior. Current directions in research into thermal barrier coatings and recent progress at NASA is also noted.

  16. Thermal barrier coatings for aircraft engines: History and directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    Thin thermal barrier coatings for protecting aircraft turbine section airfoils are examined in this paper. The discussion focuses on those advances that led first to their use for component life extension, and more recently as an integral part of airfoil design. Development has been driven by laboratory rig and furnace testing corroborated by engine testing and engine field experience. The technology has also been supported by performance modeling to demonstrate benefits and life modeling for mission analysis. Factors which have led to the selection of the current state-of-the-art plasma sprayed and physical vapor deposited zirconia-yttria/MCrAlX TBC's are emphasized, as are observations fundamentally related to the their behavior. Current directions in research into thermal barrier coatings and recent progress at NASA are also noted.

  17. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control. PMID:26471676

  18. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control.

  19. Thermal and tectonic history of the Mineral Mountains intrusive complex

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, S.; Nielson, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Study of the Mineral Mountains intrusive complex was undertaken to decipher interrelationships of intrusion, uplift rate and structural control as related to the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal system. Results of fission track and K-Ar dating show that different units of the intrusive complex underwent similar cooling histories. Uplift rates calculated for the north (0.25 mm/yr) and central (0.5 mm/yr) portions differ substantially. This difference in uplift rate may have accounted for the development of faulting which has been important as structural controls on the geothermal system.

  20. The importance of thermal history: costs and benefits of heat exposure in a tropical, rocky shore oyster.

    PubMed

    Giomi, Folco; Mandaglio, Concetta; Ganmanee, Monthon; Han, Guo-Dong; Dong, Yun-Wei; Williams, Gray A; Sarà, Gianluca

    2016-03-01

    Although thermal performance is widely recognised to be pivotal in determining species' distributions, assessment of this performance is often based on laboratory-acclimated individuals, neglecting their proximate thermal history. The thermal history of a species sums the evolutionary history and, importantly, the thermal events recently experienced by individuals, including short-term acclimation to environmental variations. Thermal history is perhaps of greatest importance for species inhabiting thermally challenging environments and therefore assumed to be living close to their thermal limits, such as in the tropics. To test the importance of thermal history, the responses of the tropical oyster Isognomon nucleus to short-term differences in thermal environments were investigated. Critical and lethal temperatures and oxygen consumption were improved in oysters that previously experienced elevated air temperatures, and were associated with an enhanced heat shock response, indicating that recent thermal history affects physiological performance as well as inducing short-term acclimation to acute conditions. These responses were, however, associated with trade-offs in feeding activity, with oysters that experienced elevated temperatures showing reduced energy gain. Recent thermal history, therefore, seems to rapidly invoke physiological mechanisms that enhance survival of short-term thermal challenge but also longer term climatic changes and consequently needs to be incorporated into assessments of species' thermal performances.

  1. The importance of thermal history: costs and benefits of heat exposure in a tropical, rocky shore oyster.

    PubMed

    Giomi, Folco; Mandaglio, Concetta; Ganmanee, Monthon; Han, Guo-Dong; Dong, Yun-Wei; Williams, Gray A; Sarà, Gianluca

    2016-03-01

    Although thermal performance is widely recognised to be pivotal in determining species' distributions, assessment of this performance is often based on laboratory-acclimated individuals, neglecting their proximate thermal history. The thermal history of a species sums the evolutionary history and, importantly, the thermal events recently experienced by individuals, including short-term acclimation to environmental variations. Thermal history is perhaps of greatest importance for species inhabiting thermally challenging environments and therefore assumed to be living close to their thermal limits, such as in the tropics. To test the importance of thermal history, the responses of the tropical oyster Isognomon nucleus to short-term differences in thermal environments were investigated. Critical and lethal temperatures and oxygen consumption were improved in oysters that previously experienced elevated air temperatures, and were associated with an enhanced heat shock response, indicating that recent thermal history affects physiological performance as well as inducing short-term acclimation to acute conditions. These responses were, however, associated with trade-offs in feeding activity, with oysters that experienced elevated temperatures showing reduced energy gain. Recent thermal history, therefore, seems to rapidly invoke physiological mechanisms that enhance survival of short-term thermal challenge but also longer term climatic changes and consequently needs to be incorporated into assessments of species' thermal performances. PMID:26747904

  2. Thermal history dependence of the superconducting properties in La2CuO4+δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Toshikazu; Nakagawa, Masahito; Akihiko-Sumiyama; Oda, Yasukage

    1996-03-01

    We report the thermal history dependence of the superconducting properties in the ceramic La2CuO4+δ with excess oxygen. In the sample, annealed in high pressure oxygen gas, the transition temperature T c onset of 32K in rapidly cooling case changes into 37K in case of annealing at 200K. Another superconducting phase with T c around 45K was found to be enhanced in the samples annealed around 220K, both in the de susceptibility and resistivity measurements. We also studied thermal history dependence in the samples with electrochemical oxidation. And we observed the T c onset of 45K, however the T c onset of 45K did not change by thermal history.

  3. Thermal history of the parent bodies of asteroid Itokawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakita, S.; Nakamura, T.; Ikeda, T.; Yurimoto, H.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: The Hayabusa spacecraft collected dust particles from asteroid 25143 Itokawa. The mineralogic studies of Itokawa dust particles revealed that those dust particles resemble LL5 and/or LL6 type ordinary chondrites [1-3]. Those particles were thermally metamorphosed at a peak temperature around 800° C but did not experience temperatures over 1000° C [1]. The ^{26}Al-^{26}Mg age study and oxygen thermometry indicated that the parent body of Itokawa kept at 700° C or higher at 7.6 Myr after the Ca-Al rich inclusion (CAI) formation [2,3]. Methods: We investigated numerically the thermal modeling of the parent bodies of Itokawa which are in agreement with the mineralogic and isotopic evidence from the dust particles of Itokawa. We assumed that the parent body of Itokawa is an instantaneously-accreted spherically symmetric body and the initial temperature of the body is -73° C (200K), which is the temperature at ˜ 2 au in the solar nebula [4]. The physical properties (e.g., density, thermal conductivity) of the parent body are assumed to be the same with those of LL6 chondrites based on the analyses of the Itokawa sample [1, 2]. The main heat source is the decay energy of ^{26}Al, as used in most of the previous thermal modeling works [e.g., 5]. The one-dimensional heat conduction equations are numerically solved using a finite difference method and an explicit method of time integration (see [6] for details of the numerical methods). Numerical simulations are performed for parent bodies which have various sizes and accretion times (i.e. the initial ratio of ^{26}Al/^{27}Al). Results: Our numerical results showed that the parent bodies that accreted within 2.2 Myr after CAI formation could reach 800° at the center of the body: those bodies could be the parent bodies of Itokawa. If the parent bodies accreted within 1.9 Myr after CAI formation, the peak temperature exceeds 1000° C: those bodies could not be the parent body of Itokawa. The parent bodies

  4. The Ongoing History of Thermal Therapy for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Evan S.; Curley, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Through 5,000 years of practice, physicians, surgeons, clergy, or lay people have utilized thermal therapy to treat mass lesions now known as cancer. The methods have changed dramatically over this time span and certainly the techniques have improved the efficacy and safety, but fundamentally, hyperthermic therapy is usually a local or regional treatment for most cancer patients. Fortunately, hyperthermia used in combination with chemotherapy or ionizing radiation continues to improve outcomes. We will briefly describe the historic role of hyperthermia in cancer care as well as modern expectations based on technological advancements. In particular, we will focus on the role of hyperthermia for cancers that do not have other, more effective treatments. PMID:21377580

  5. Simulating the Thermal History of the Unsaturated Zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    B.D. Marshal; J.F. Whelan

    2001-07-23

    Heat transfer within Earth's upper crust is primarily by conduction, and conductive thermal models adequately explain the cooling history of deep, batholith-scale intrusions and surrounding wall rocks, as confirmed by numerous thermochronometric studies. However, caldera magmatic systems require consideration of the small and localized component of hydrothermal convection and numerical models to simulate additional boundary conditions, irregular magma chamber shapes, and complex intrusive histories. At Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository, simulating the detailed thermal history at any location in the unsaturated zone requires knowledge of the shape of the magma chamber and its proximity to Yucca Mountain (the southern margin of the Timber Mountain caldera complex is approximately 8 km north of the potential repository site), the temporal and spatial extent of hydrothermal convection, the erosional history of the area, and past levels of the water table.

  6. The thermal evolution of pyroclastic density currents: Exploring the thermal histories of juvenile clasts of Tungurahua and Cotopaxi, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benage, M. C.; Dufek, J.; Degruyter, W.

    2010-12-01

    The thermal history of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) is critical in determining flow dynamics and deposit characteristics. The thermal history of these flows depends on the particles’ internal rate of heat transfer and heat exchange between discrete particles and a gas phase. We examine the thermal history of a class of dense PDC exemplified by the eruption of Tungurahua (2006) and Cotopaxi (1877) that have abundant breadcrust bombs segregated in levees and in flow snouts. An open question in this type of PDC is the amount of air entrainment (and cooling) during transport. To understand the entrainment and cooling history of these flows we use a multiphase numerical model coupled with a Lagrangian model (Eulerian-Eulerian-Lagrangian [EEL]) that tracks the internal heat transfer and post-eruption bubble evolution in juvenile clasts. We combine the numerical study with the observation of the morphology and vesicularity of breadcrust bombs from dense pyroclastic density currents from Tungurahua and Cotopaxi. Breadcrust bombs are common in many deposits from mafic explosive eruptions, e.g. Montserrat, Cotopaxi, Guagua Pichincha, and Tungurahua volcanoes. At many locations these bombs have likely been transported as ballistics (interacting mostly with ambient air), although several instances of dense scoria bomb flows have been noted (e.g. Cotopaxi and Tungurahua, Ecuador). The dense flow deposits are generally rich in unabraided breadcrust bombs along the flow levee and occasionally along the entire transect of the flow. The breadcrust bombs range in size from tens of centimeters to meters. They can also be found draping around previous deposits suggesting a high temperature of deposition. We discuss the use of clast morphology with other thermal proxies to better understand the thermal evolution of individual PDC and the proportion of time clasts underwent transport in dense flows as compared to ballistic transport.

  7. Inelastic deformation and dislocation structure of a nickel alloy - Effects of deformation and thermal histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. S.; Page, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Inelastic deformation behavior of the cast Ni-base alloy, B1900 + Hf, was investigated using data from step-temperature tensile tests and thermomechanical cyclic tests in the temperature ranges 538-760 C and 760-982 C. The deformation results were correlated with the dislocation structures of deformed specimens, identified by TEM. It was found that, in the 760-982 C temperature range, there are no thermal history effects in the inelastic deformation behavior of B1900 + Hf. In the 538-760 range, anomalous cyclic hardening and, possibly, thermal history effects were observed in thermomechanically deformed alloy, caused by sessile (010) dislocations in the gamma-prime phase.

  8. Effects of selective fusion on the thermal history of the Moon, Mars, and Venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, W.H.K.

    1968-01-01

    A comparative study on the thermal history of the Moon, Mars, and Venus was made by numerical solutions of the heat equation including and excluding selective fusion of silicates. Selective fusion was approximated by melting in a multicomponent system and redistribution of radioactive elements. Effects on selective fusion on the thermal models are (1) lowering (by several hundred degrees centigrade) and stabilizing the internal temperature distribution, and (2) increasing the surface heat-flow. ?? 1968.

  9. Internal crystallography and thermal history of natural gold alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, R.; Cleverley, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    New studies of gold are revealing how metallography is a key component of our understanding of the deposition of precious alloys in primary ore systems. Alluvial gold nuggets once thought to be secondary in origin have now been shown to be the erosional residue of hypogene systems, i.e. primary. This has been achieved through analysis of the internal crystallography using electron back scattered diffraction of large area ion beam polished gold samples. Comparisons of the microstructure are also being made with experiments on gold alloys with the same Ag contents where real time heating and in-situ microstructure mapping reveal the structures are of high temperature origin. A new frontier in gold analysis in both hypogene and supergene systems is the nano domain. In hypogene settings gold at all scales can be metallic and particulate as has been directly observed in refractory ores, or the so called "invisible gold" in pyrite and arsenopyrite. Such nanoparticulate and colloidal transport of gold is a viable mechanism of dispersing the gold during weathering of ore deposits. These gold nanoparticles, long known about in materials sciences and manufacturing have now been seen in these natural environments. Such colloids are also likely to play an important role in gold transport in hydrothermal deposits. The regularly heterogeneous distribution, trace concentration and nanoparticulate grain size of metallic gold in all ore systems has made it difficult for direct observation. Yet, it is critical to be able to establish a broad view of the microstructural/microchemical residence of the actual gold in a given sample. New generation element mapping tools now allow us to 'see' this invisible gold component for the first time and to probe its chemistry and controls on deposition. These studies have the potential to provide a new approach and view of the formation, deposition and provenance history of the metal in all gold deposits.

  10. Prograde and retrograde thermal histories from the central Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Derek; Keith O'Nions, R.

    1992-12-01

    The "Lepontine" phase of metamorphism in the central Alps is a result of thermal relaxation following continental collision and overthrusting. The timing of the peak remains poorly known, largely because the existing chronological data relate to cooling or to phases for which the pressure and temperature of growth is only poorly constrained. Here we report U sbnd Pb, Sm sbnd Nd and Rb sbnd Sr analyses of garnets from the central Swiss Alps, as well as major element data on garnets and other phases. The data shows that the climax of the metamorphism was diachronous across grade, from 30 Ma in the lower grade northwest to 27 Ma in the higher grade in the southeast. Consideration of these data in conjunction with existing chronological constraints suggests a period of about 10 Ma between the attainment of the metamorphic climax in greenschist facies and the upper amphibolite facies rocks. The time constraints obtained here yield a garnet growth interval of 2.9 ± 1.5 Ma, corresponding to a growth rate of 0.2 cm Ma -1, a heating rate of 12°C Ma -1 and a burial rate of 2.9 km Ma -1. The strain rate obtained from measurement of the rotation of the garnet relative to the matrix fabric during growth is ˜ 1.9 × 10 -14s -1. This strain rate, as well as the heating and burial rates, are in the range of values derived in a similar fashion from other Barrovian metamorphic terrains. Consideration of these data in conjunction with published cooling ages leads to cooling rates of about 20°C Ma -1 for the Steinental samples but much higher rates for the Bellinzona area (> 100°C Ma -1). In both cases it is necessary to invoke tectonic exhumation rather than isostatic recovery and erosion to explain the observed temperature-time trends. In the case of the Bellinzona area, the most likely cause of the very rapid cooling rates is late backthrusting over the Insubric Line.

  11. Prediction of thermal strains in fibre reinforced plastic matrix by discretisation of the temperature exposure history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngoy, E. K.

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of environmental effects on fibre reinforced plastics habitually is made difficult due to the complex variability of the natural service environment. This paper suggests a method to predict thermal strain distribution over the material lifetime by discretisation of the exposure history. Laboratory results show a high correlation between predicted and experimentally measured strain distribution

  12. Equivalent thermal history reconstruction from a partially crystallized glass-ceramic sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeg, Bauke

    2015-11-01

    The basic concept of a thermal history sensor is that it records the accumulated exposure to some unknown, typically varying temperature profile for a certain amount of time. Such a sensor is considered to be capable of measuring the duration of several (N) temperature intervals. For this purpose, the sensor deploys multiple (M) sensing elements, each with different temperature sensitivity. At the end of some thermal exposure for a known period of time, the sensor array is read-out and an estimate is made of the set of N durations of the different temperature ranges. A potential implementation of such a sensor was pioneered by Fair et al. [Sens. Actuators, A 141, 245 (2008)], based on glass-ceramic materials with different temperature-dependent crystallization dynamics. In their work, it was demonstrated that an array of sensor elements can be made sensitive to slight differences in temperature history. Further, a forward crystallization model was used to simulate the variations in sensor array response to differences in the temperature history. The current paper focusses on the inverse aspect of temperature history reconstruction from a hypothetical sensor array output. The goal of such a reconstruction is to find an equivalent thermal history that is the closest representation of the true thermal history, i.e., the durations of a set of temperature intervals that result in a set of fractional crystallization values which is closest to the one resulting from the true thermal history. One particular useful simplification in both the sensor model as well as in its practical implementation is the omission of nucleation effects. In that case, least squares models can be used to approximate the sensor response and make reconstruction estimates. Even with this simplification, sensor noise can have a destabilizing effect on possible reconstruction solutions, which is evaluated using simulations. Both regularization and non-negativity constrained least squares

  13. Rapid Life-History Diversification of an Introduced Fish Species across a Localized Thermal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fengyue; Rypel, Andrew L.; Murphy, Brian R.; Li, Zhongjie; Zhang, Tanglin; Yuan, Jing; Guo, Zhiqiang; Tang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jiashou

    2014-01-01

    Climatic variations are known to engender life-history diversification of species and populations at large spatial scales. However, the extent to which microgeographic variations in climate (e.g., those occurring within a single large ecosystem) can also drive life-history divergence is generally poorly documented. We exploited a spatial gradient in water temperatures at three sites across a large montane lake in southwest China (Lake Erhai) to examine the extent to which life histories of a short-lived fish species (icefish, Neosalanx taihuensis) diversified in response to thermal regime following introduction 25 y prior. In general, warmwater icefish variants grew faster, had larger adult body size and higher condition and fecundity, but matured at smaller sizes. Conversely, coldwater variants had smaller adult body size and lower condition, but matured at larger sizes and had larger eggs. These life-history differences strongly suggest that key ecological trade-offs exist for icefish populations exposed to different thermal regimes, and these trade-offs have driven relatively rapid diversification in the life histories of icefish within Lake Erhai. Results are surprisingly concordant with current knowledge on life-history evolution at macroecological scales, and suggest that improved conservation management might be possible by focusing on patterns operating at microgeographical, including, within-ecosystem scales. PMID:24505366

  14. Rapid life-history diversification of an introduced fish species across a localized thermal gradient.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fengyue; Rypel, Andrew L; Murphy, Brian R; Li, Zhongjie; Zhang, Tanglin; Yuan, Jing; Guo, Zhiqiang; Tang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jiashou

    2014-01-01

    Climatic variations are known to engender life-history diversification of species and populations at large spatial scales. However, the extent to which microgeographic variations in climate (e.g., those occurring within a single large ecosystem) can also drive life-history divergence is generally poorly documented. We exploited a spatial gradient in water temperatures at three sites across a large montane lake in southwest China (Lake Erhai) to examine the extent to which life histories of a short-lived fish species (icefish, Neosalanx taihuensis) diversified in response to thermal regime following introduction 25 y prior. In general, warmwater icefish variants grew faster, had larger adult body size and higher condition and fecundity, but matured at smaller sizes. Conversely, coldwater variants had smaller adult body size and lower condition, but matured at larger sizes and had larger eggs. These life-history differences strongly suggest that key ecological trade-offs exist for icefish populations exposed to different thermal regimes, and these trade-offs have driven relatively rapid diversification in the life histories of icefish within Lake Erhai. Results are surprisingly concordant with current knowledge on life-history evolution at macroecological scales, and suggest that improved conservation management might be possible by focusing on patterns operating at microgeographical, including, within-ecosystem scales.

  15. Conservatism of lizard thermal tolerances and body temperatures across evolutionary history and geography.

    PubMed

    Grigg, Joseph W; Buckley, Lauren B

    2013-04-23

    Species may exhibit similar thermal tolerances via either common ancestry or environmental filtering and local adaptation, if the species inhabit similar environments. We ask whether upper and lower thermal limits (critical thermal maxima and minima) and body temperatures are more strongly conserved across evolutionary history or geography for lizard populations distributed globally. We find that critical thermal maxima are highly conserved with location accounting for a higher proportion of the variation than phylogeny. Notably, thermal tolerance breadth is conserved across the phylogeny despite critical thermal minima showing little niche conservatism. Body temperatures observed during activity in the field show the greatest degree of conservatism, with phylogeny accounting for most of the variation. This suggests that propensities for thermoregulatory behaviour, which can buffer body temperatures from environmental variation, are similar within lineages. Phylogeny and geography constrain thermal tolerances similarly within continents, but variably within clades. Conservatism of thermal tolerances across lineages suggests that the potential for local adaptation to alleviate the impacts of climate change on lizards may be limited.

  16. Paleofluid-flow circulation within a Triassic rift basin: Evidence from oil inclusions and thermal histories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tseng, H.-Y.; Burruss, R.C.; Onstott, T.C.; Omar, G.

    1999-01-01

    The migration of subsurface fluid flow within continental rift basins has been increasingly recognized to significantly affect the thermal history of sediments and petroleum formation. To gain insight into these paleofluid flow effects, the thermal history of the Taylorsville basin in Virginia was reconstructed from fluid-inclusion studies, apatite fission-track data, and vitrinite reflectance data. Models of thermal history indicate that the basin was buried to the thermal maximum at 200 Ma; a cooling event followed during which the eastern side of the basin cooled earlier and faster than the western side, suggesting that there was a differential uplift and topographically driven fluid flow. This hypothesis is supported by analyses of secondary oil and aqueous inclusions trapped in calcite and quartz veins during the uplift stage. Gas chromatograms of inclusion oils exhibit variable but extensive depletion of light molecular-weight hydrocarbons. The relative abundance of n-alkanes, petrographic observations, and the geological data indicate that the alteration process on these inclusion oils was probably neither phase separation nor biodegradation, but water washing. Water:oil ratios necessary to produce the observed alteration are much greater than 10000:1. These exceedingly high ratios are consistent with the migration of inclusion oils along with fluid flow during the early stages of basin evolution. The results provide significant evidence about the role of a subsurface flow system in modifying the temperature structure of the basin and the composition of petroleum generated within the basin.

  17. Thermal History of Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springmann, Alessondra; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2016-10-01

    The connection between orbital and temperature history of small Solar System bodies has only been studied through modeling. The upcoming OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission provides an opportunity to connect thermal modeling predictions with laboratory studies of meteorites to predict past heating and thus dynamical histories of bodies such as OSIRIS-REx mission target asteroid (101955) Bennu. Bennu is a desirable target for asteroid sample return due to its inferred primitive nature, likely 4.5 Gyr old, with chemistry and mineralogy established in the first 10 Myr of solar system history (Lauretta et al. 2015). Delbo & Michel (2011) studied connections between the temperature and orbital history of Bennu. Their results suggest that the surface of Bennu (assuming no regolith turnover) has a 50% probability of being heated to 500 K in the past. Further, the Delbo & Michel simulations show that the temperature within the asteroid below the top layer of regolith could remain at temperatures ~100 K below that of the surface. The Touch-And-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism on OSIRIS-REx could access both the surface and near surface regolith, collecting primitive asteroid material for study in Earth-based laboratories in 2023. To quantify the effects of thermal metamorphism on the Bennu regolith, laboratory heating experiments on carbonaceous chondrite meteorites with compositions likely similar to that of Bennu were conducted from 300–1200 K. These experiments show mobilization and volatilization of a suite of labile elements (sulfur, mercury, arsenic, tellurium, selenium, antimony, and cadmium) at temperatures that could be reached by asteroids that cross Mercury's orbit. We are able to quantify element loss with temperature for several carbonaceous chondrites and use these results to constrain past orbital histories of Bennu. When OSIRIS-REx samples arrive for analysis we will be able to measure labile element loss in the material, determine maximum past

  18. Analysis of the Beaufort-Mackenzie basin, Canada: Burial, thermal, and hydrocarbon histories

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jie; Lerche, I. )

    1991-03-01

    Using a 1-D thermal indicator tomography model, the burial, thermal, and hydrocarbon histories of the Jurassic-Tertiary sedimentary sequences are investigated in three structural zones of the Beaufort-Mackenzie basin. The specific objectives of this study are (1) to reconstruct the burial paths of Jurassic-Tertiary strata, the erosional amounts, and basement subsidence, from which the authors estimate the basin evolution, (2) to determine the thermal maturation levels of Jurassic-Tertiary source rocks, and (3) to investigate the relationship between the maturity levels of source rocks and present-day oil and gas occurrences. The reconstructed geohistories of seven wells indicate two stages of tectonics in the study area. The first stage is a rifting event from Jurassic to early Miocene. The second stage is one of post-rifting uplift and erosion as well as thermal subsidence. Associated with the tectonic activities, inversion of vitrinite reflectance data in the seven wells yielded heating episodes from around 150 to 20 m.y. ago in the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula province and from around 60 to 10 m.y. ago in the central and western parts of the basin. Comparison of the thermal maturation patterns with oil and gas occurrences in five of the wells indicates that the oil of Cretaceous reservoirs may come vertically from the Husky Formation, while the oil and gas of Tertiary reservoirs and the gas of the Cretaceous may undergo extensive horizontal migration. The combination of thermal history, hydrocarbon generation history, and TOC of source rocks, as well as the relationship between source and reservoir rocks, indicates that exploration for oil and gas should likely concentrate on both the central part and on the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula of the study area.

  19. History of Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Engines: Emphasizing NASA's Role from 1942 to 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA has played a central role in the development of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for gas turbine applications. This report discusses the history of TBCs emphasizing the role NASA has played beginning with (1) frit coatings in the 1940s and 1950s; (2) thermally sprayed coatings for rocket application in the 1960s and early 1970s; (3) the beginnings of the modern era of turbine section coatings in the mid 1970s; and (4) failure mechanism and life prediction studies in the 1980s and 1990s. More recent efforts are also briefly discussed.

  20. Influence of thermal history on the mechanical properties of carbon fiber-acrylate composites cured by electron beam and thermal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Vautard, Frederic; Ozcan, Soydan; Poland, Laura E; Meyer III, Harry M

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical properties of an acrylate resin and its carbon fiber composite, as well as the adhesion strength between them, were characterized in the case of thermal and electron beam curing. The thermal history during the cure was also recorded. It was shown that the properties of the matrix were similar but that the thermal history during the curing had a direct influence on the type of interactions that were generated at the interface, leading to different level of adhesion strength and level of performance for the associated composites. In the case of a thermal cure, the thermal profile allowed the generation of covalent bonding at the interface, leading to a high level of adhesion strength, which was not the case for electron beam curing. The thermal history during the cure appeared to be a determining parameter for the level of performance of composites cured by electron beam.

  1. Solution of the equation of heat conduction with time dependent sources: Programmed application to planetary thermal history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program (Program SPHERE) solving the inhomogeneous equation of heat conduction with radiation boundary condition on a thermally homogeneous sphere is described. The source terms are taken to be exponential functions of the time. Thermal properties are independent of temperature. The solutions are appropriate to studying certain classes of planetary thermal history. Special application to the moon is discussed.

  2. A Laboratory to Demonstrate the Effect of Thermal History on Semicrystalline Polymers Using Rapid Scanning Rate Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badrinarayanan, Prashanth; Kessler, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the effect of thermal history on the thermal properties of semicrystalline polymers is essential for materials scientists and engineers. In this article, we describe a materials science laboratory to demonstrate the effect of parameters such as heating rate and isothermal annealing conditions on the thermal behavior of…

  3. The thermal and deformational history of apollo 15418, A partly shock-melted lunar breccia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nord, G.L.; Christie, J.M.; Lally, J.S.; Heuer, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    A thermal and mechanical history of lunar gabbroic anorthosite 15418 (1140g) has been deduced from petrographic examination of both exterior and interior thin sections and electron microprobe analysis and transmission electron microscopy of interior thin sections. We suggest that the rock underwent two major shock events - an early brecciation and annealing that produced a recrystallized breccia, followed by a second shock event that melted the surface of the rock, vitrified the interior plagioclase and heavily deformed the mafic phases. This latter shock even was also followed by annealing which crystallized the shock-produced glass and promoted recovery and recrystallization of the deformed crystalline phases. The complex mechanical and thermal history of 15418 compared with other ANT suite rocks at Spur Crater suggests that it had a different provenance. ?? 1977 D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht-Holland.

  4. Effects of selective fusion on the thermal history of the earth's mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, W.H.K.

    1968-01-01

    A comparative study on the thermal history of the earth's mantle was made by numerical solutions of the heat equation including and excluding selective fusion of silicates. Selective fusion was approximated by melting in a multicomponent system and redistribution of radioactive elements. Effects of selective fusion on the thermal models are (1) lowering (by several hundred degrees centigrade) and stabilizing the internal temperature distribution, and (2) increasing the surface heat-flow. It was found that models with selective fusion gave results more compatible with observations of both present temperature and surface heat-flow. The results therefore suggest continuous differentiation of the earth's mantle throughout geologic time, and support the hypothesis that the earth's atmosphere, oceans, and crust have been accumulated throughout the earth's history by degassing and selective fusion of the mantle. ?? 1968.

  5. Combining apatite fission track and He thermochronology to constrain thermal histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persano, C.; Stuart, F.; Bishop, P.

    2003-04-01

    Apatite fission track thermochronometry (AFTT) has proved an invaluable tool for determining the cooling histories of rocks in the shallow crust. Quantitative models for the time and temperature dependence of the fission track annealing process in apatite demostrate that the combination of fission track apparent age and track length distribution provides a continuous record of the thermal history of the samples from 120 to 60^oC, and possibly, to lower temperatures. However the sensitivity of the technique is poorly constrained below 70-80^oC because annealing rates are slow. The apatite (U-Th)/He system is sensitive to temperatures between 80 and 40^oC irrespective of apatite chemistry, and presents a way to test the ability of AFTT to determine thermal histories below 80^oC. Here we present a novel way of combining apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He data that narrows the number of possible thermal histories and provides better constraints on the landscape evolution of a particular region. We use as an example the southeastern Australia passive margin in NSW, an area where post break-up landscape evolution is poorly resolved despite an extensive fission track database. Fission track and (U-Th)/He ages have been measured on 16 apatite samples from two coast perpendicular traverses across the coastal plain, up the escarpment onto the plateau. The fission track data are modelled using AFTSolve and the individual thermal histories which fit the data are used as parameters for forward modelling the apatite He ages. Only the thermal histories that produce the measured He age, within uncertainty, are considered. For each sample, the choosen time-temperature paths show the same peculiar characteristics, narrowing considerably the number of possible cooling scenarios. This combination shows that the AFT/derived thermal histories for temperatures between 60 to 40^oC may be inconsistent with the (U-Th)/He ages, suggesting that the annealing process at this temperatures

  6. Accessing probable thermal histories through dispersed, partially-reset zircon (U-Th)/He ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Jeremy; Schneider, David

    2016-04-01

    We have applied the ZRDAAM model (Guenthner et al., 2013; Am. J. Sci. 313) to assess the thermal evolution of the Neoproterozoic stratigraphy of the Mackenzie Mountain fold-thrust belt (NWT, Canada), which witnessed protracted (100's m.y.) cooling through the uppermost crust. Single crystal ZHe dates from rocks in the cores of anticlines span 432 ± 35 Ma to 46 ± 4 Ma, with intrasample ZHe date dispersion as great as 350 m.y., indicating that the strata have not been heated sufficiently to fully reset the zircon (U-Th)/He system. The modeling has its most utility in samples where self-irradiation of zircon has occurred over long geologic timescales without significant annealing of damaged zones. Partially- to fully-reset detrital datasets can contain a tremendous amount of T-t information, due to the wide range in grain size, eU, and potential for variable pre-depositional histories and inherited radiation damage in the zircon population. These variables result in a broad spectrum of closure temperatures within a single sample, and in tectonic settings where strata are never buried to sufficiently high temperatures can potentially record more than the most recent thermal event. Additionally, modeling of these datasets has added value in strata where apatite is absent or too small for (U-Th)/He analysis, as highly damaged zircon can record similar parts of the cooling history as the apatite He system. However, several factors complicate interpretation of these datasets including the influences of pre-depositional history (e.g. inherited 4He and radiation damage, on ZHe dates and date-eU relationships). As a result of these variables, sampling from the same stratigraphic succession can yield substantially different ZHe date populations, despite having experienced the same T-t history, should the strata have different grain sizes or provenance. For these reasons, we believe that detailed thermal modeling is required to understand the probable geologic history

  7. Unique effects of thermal and pressure histories on glass hardness: Structural and topological origin

    SciTech Connect

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Bauchy, Mathieu; Mauro, John C.; Rzoska, Sylwester J.; Bockowski, Michal

    2015-10-28

    The properties of glass are determined not only by temperature, pressure, and composition, but also by their complete thermal and pressure histories. Here, we show that glasses of identical composition produced through thermal annealing and through quenching from elevated pressure can result in samples with identical density and mean interatomic distances, yet different bond angle distributions, medium-range structures, and, thus, macroscopic properties. We demonstrate that hardness is higher when the density increase is obtained through thermal annealing rather than through pressure-quenching. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that this arises because pressure-quenching has a larger effect on medium-range order, while annealing has a larger effect on short-range structures (sharper bond angle distribution), which ultimately determine hardness according to bond constraint theory. Our work could open a new avenue towards industrially useful glasses that are identical in terms of composition and density, but with differences in thermodynamic, mechanical, and rheological properties due to unique structural characteristics.

  8. Constraining the Thermal History of the Midcontinent Rift System with Clumped Isotopes and Organic Thermal Maturity Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, T. M.; Sheldon, N. D.; Mauk, J. L.; Gueneli, N.; Brocks, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Mesoproterozoic (~1.1 Ga) North American Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) has been of widespread interest to researchers studying its economic mineral deposits, continental rifting processes, and the evolution of early terrestrial life and environments. For their age, the MRS rocks are well preserved and have not been deeply buried, yet a thorough understanding of the regional thermal history is necessary to constrain the processes that emplaced the mineral deposits and how post-burial alteration may have affected various paleo-records. To understand the thermal history of the MRS better, this study presents carbonate clumped isotope (Δ47) temperatures from deposits on the north and south sides of the rift. Due to the age of these deposits and known post-depositional processes, uncertainties exist about whether the clumped isotope signature has been reset. To test this, three generations of calcite were analyzed from the Nonesuch Fm. from the White Pine mine in Michigan including: sedimentary limestone beds, early diagenetic carbonate nodules, and hydrothermal calcite veins associated with the emplacement of copper mineralization. Clumped isotope temperatures from the White Pine mine range from 84 to 131°C, with a hydrothermal vein producing the hottest temperature. The clumped isotope temperature range for samples throughout the rift expands to 41-134°C. The hottest temperatures are associated with areas of known copper mineralization, whereas the coolest temperatures are found on the northern arm of the rift in Minnesota, far from known basin-bounding faults. Our hottest temperatures are broadly consistent with preexisting maximum thermal temperature estimates based on clay mineralogy, fluid inclusions, and organic geochemistry data. Clumped isotope results will also be compared to new hydrocarbon maturity data from the Nonesuch Fm., which suggest that bitumen maturities consistently fall within the early oil window across Michigan and Wisconsin.

  9. Burial History, Thermal Maturity, and Oil and Gas Generation History of Source Rocks in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Laura N.R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Lewan, Michael D.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of oil and gas generation were modeled for seven key source-rock units at eight well locations throughout the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming and Montana. Also modeled was the timing of cracking to gas of Phosphoria Formation-sourced oil in the Permian Park City Formation reservoirs at two well locations. Within the basin boundary, the Phosphoria is thin and only locally rich in organic carbon; it is thought that the Phosphoria oil produced from Park City and other reservoirs migrated from the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt. Other petroleum source rocks include the Cretaceous Thermopolis Shale, Mowry Shale, Frontier Formation, Cody Shale, Mesaverde and Meeteetse Formations, and the Tertiary (Paleocene) Fort Union Formation. Locations (wells) selected for burial history reconstructions include three in the deepest parts of the Bighorn Basin (Emblem Bench, Red Point/Husky, and Sellers Draw), three at intermediate depths (Amoco BN 1, Santa Fe Tatman, and McCulloch Peak), and two at relatively shallow locations (Dobie Creek and Doctor Ditch). The thermal maturity of source rocks is greatest in the deep central part of the basin and decreases to the south, east, and north toward the basin margins. The Thermopolis and Mowry Shales are predominantly gas-prone source rocks, containing a mix of Type-III and Type-II kerogens. The Frontier, Cody, Mesaverde, Meeteetse, and Fort Union Formations are gas-prone source rocks containing Type-III kerogen. Modeling results indicate that in the deepest areas, (1) the onset of petroleum generation from Cretaceous rocks occurred from early Paleocene through early Eocene time, (2) peak petroleum generation from Cretaceous rocks occurred during Eocene time, and (3) onset of gas generation from the Fort Union Formation occurred during early Eocene time and peak generation occurred from late Eocene to early Miocene time. Only in the deepest part of the basin did the oil generated from the Thermopolis and

  10. Indirect color prediction of amorphous carbohydrate melts as a function of thermal history.

    PubMed

    van Sleeuwen, Rutger M T; Gosse, Anaїck J; Normand, Valery

    2013-07-01

    Glassy carbohydrate microcapsules are widely used for the encapsulation of flavors in food applications, and are made using various thermal processes (for example, extrusion). During manufacturing, these carbohydrate melts are held at elevated temperatures and color can form due to nonenzymatic browning reactions. These reactions can negatively or positively affect the color and flavor of microcapsules. The rate of color formation of maltodextrin and maltodextrin/sucrose melts at elevated temperatures was determined spectrophotometrically and was found to follow pseudo zero-order kinetics. The effect of temperature was adequately modeled by an Arrhenius relationship. Reaction rate constants and Arrhenius parameters were determined for individual wavelengths in the visible range (360 to 700 nm at 1 nm intervals). Transient processes (temperature changes with time) were modeled as a sequence of small isothermal events, and the equivalent thermal history at a reference temperature calculated using the Arrhenius relationship. Therefore, spectral transmittance curves could be predicted with knowledge of the time/temperature relationship. Validation was conducted by subjecting both melts to a transient thermal history. Experimental transmittance spectrum compared favorably against predicted values. These spectra were optionally converted to any desirable color space (for example, CIELAB, XYZ, RGB) or derived parameter (for example, Browning Index). The tool could be used to better control nonenzymatic browning reactions in industrial food processes. PMID:23701635

  11. Indirect color prediction of amorphous carbohydrate melts as a function of thermal history.

    PubMed

    van Sleeuwen, Rutger M T; Gosse, Anaїck J; Normand, Valery

    2013-07-01

    Glassy carbohydrate microcapsules are widely used for the encapsulation of flavors in food applications, and are made using various thermal processes (for example, extrusion). During manufacturing, these carbohydrate melts are held at elevated temperatures and color can form due to nonenzymatic browning reactions. These reactions can negatively or positively affect the color and flavor of microcapsules. The rate of color formation of maltodextrin and maltodextrin/sucrose melts at elevated temperatures was determined spectrophotometrically and was found to follow pseudo zero-order kinetics. The effect of temperature was adequately modeled by an Arrhenius relationship. Reaction rate constants and Arrhenius parameters were determined for individual wavelengths in the visible range (360 to 700 nm at 1 nm intervals). Transient processes (temperature changes with time) were modeled as a sequence of small isothermal events, and the equivalent thermal history at a reference temperature calculated using the Arrhenius relationship. Therefore, spectral transmittance curves could be predicted with knowledge of the time/temperature relationship. Validation was conducted by subjecting both melts to a transient thermal history. Experimental transmittance spectrum compared favorably against predicted values. These spectra were optionally converted to any desirable color space (for example, CIELAB, XYZ, RGB) or derived parameter (for example, Browning Index). The tool could be used to better control nonenzymatic browning reactions in industrial food processes.

  12. 78 FR 13071 - Guidance for Industry: Implementation of an Acceptable Full-Length and Abbreviated Donor History...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Implementation of an Acceptable Full... Donors of Source Plasma; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a document...

  13. Thermal history of type-3 chondrites in the NASA antarctic collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, L.; Quirico, E.; Montagnac, G.

    2014-07-01

    Chondrites are the most primitive meteorites. However, they were all modified in some ways by post-accretion geological processes operating on their asteroidal parent bodies. Hence, to decipher the formation(s) and origin(s) of their components, we must first understand how chondritic materials were modified in their asteroidal parent bodies. The modifications induced by secondary processes should not be underestimated and have to be precisely estimated before any interpretation of chondrite properties in terms of cosmochemistry. In particular, all chondrites contain some organic components that were potentially chemically and physically modified through post-accretion processes. A thin understanding of the induced evolution is required to allow for pertinent comparisons with other primitive extraterrestrial materials, such as cometary grains, to finally address questions such as the origin of organics in the Solar System. Type 3 chondrites experienced thermal metamorphism on their asteroidal parent body due to the radioactive decay of elements such as ^{26}Al. Temperatures higher than 300 °C were experienced on timescales of several thousands of years. Still, type 3 chondrites remain as unequilibrated rocks and common mineralogical thermometers cannot be applied. The polyaromatic carbonaceous matter is sensitive to thermal episodes (of long and short duration) experienced by the host meteorite. In particular, its structural order directly reflects the thermal history experienced on their parent bodies. The structural modification of the aromatic carbonaceous matter towards a higher order is irreversible, and independent of the mineralogy and degree of aqueous alteration. It is mainly controlled by the peak metamorphic temperature. Moreover, under the assumption of fairly similar organic precursors among chondrites of distinct groups, the structural order of polyaromatic organic matter allows for a direct comparison of their metamorphic grades. It is then possible

  14. Research on the thermal history of the moon. [by computerized simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Lunar thermal history modelling is used to demonstrate that a realistic computer simulation can be used to predict major and minor element concentrations, thickness of the lunar crust, and intensity of volcanic activity as a function of time. The models which are most consistent with the observations include: (1) a high surface temperature and low interior temperature during the very early lunar history; (2) high near-surface radioactivity and relatively low radioactivity in the interior; and (3) a molten zone formed at or near the surface which gradually migrates downward with time. Lunar magnetic anomaly calculations show that large anomalies measured at some of the landing sites and above some points on the surface cannot be caused by mere basalts but are consistent with valley fillings of Cayley-like material with a remanent magnetization of about 0.0002 emu/gm.

  15. Chondrite thermal histories from Low-CA pyroxene microstructures: Autometamorphism versus prograde metamorphism revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, Adrian J.; Jones, Rhian H.; Papike, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to constrain the thermal histories of chondritic meteorites, a detailed study of the microstructures of low-Ca pyroxenes produced experimentally and in types 4 and 5 ordinary chondrites was carried out. Cooling experiments on synthetic MgSiO3 at cooling rates between 2 and 10000 C/hr from the protopyroxene stability field into that of orthopyroxene (OPX) were performed and the products of these experiments were annealed for a variety of annealing times. There are clear microstructural differences between samples which were cooled and those which were subsequently annealed. A comparison of the microstructures observed in the experimental samples with those in H4-5 ordinary chondrites shows that they cannot have experienced a single stage cooling history, as proposed for the autometamorphism model.

  16. The Role Played by Radiative Heat-Transfer in Earth's Thermal History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, A. P.; Yuen, D. A.; Rainey, E. S.

    2004-12-01

    For the last 30 years mantle heat transfer was thought to be governed by convective mantle circulation, where heat-transfer is operative by means of a thermal-boundary type of law in which classical scaling works well. In the last 5 years there has been increasing evidence that radiative heat-transfer may play an important role, especially in the deep mantle (Badro et al., 2004). Consequently we have studied the role played by radiative heat-transfer in conjunction with a core-coupling thermal history model. Our model results are based on a 2-D cartesian domain geometry and do not include the effects of phase transitions, at 670 km and 2750 km. We have focussed on varying the strength of radiative thermal conductivity by means of a single parameter f. This prefactor f is applied to the the radiative part of the Hofmeister composite conductivity model (Hofmeister, 1999). We have neglected the effects of water, grain-size and Fe on the radiative thermal conductivity. Our results show a clear impact of the scaling parameter f. Small values of f representing models which are dominated by lattice conductivity show a significant delay of 1-2 Gyr in planetary secular cooling compared to corresponding uniform conductivity models. This appears to be due to a low conductivity zone (LCZ) produced at shallow depth by these variable temperature and pressure dependent models. Increasing f from 0 to 10 produces a less pronounced LCZ. As a result the thermal resistance of the thermal boundary layer decreases and the rate of secular cooling increases with f. Our results dominated by the temperature and pressure sensitive LCZ illustrate the shortcomings of purely pressure dependent monotonic conductivity profiles for thermal history models. Heat flow from the core also depends strongly on the radiative conductivity in our models, including thermal coupling between mantle and core. Strong variations of some 100%, increasing with f, were observed in the core heat flux. The recently

  17. Rapid fingerprinting of milk thermal processing history by intact protein mass spectrometry with nondenaturing chromatography.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Phil; Philo, Mark; Watson, Andrew; Mills, E N Clare

    2011-12-14

    Thermal processing of foods results in proteins undergoing conformational changes, aggregation, and chemical modification notably with sugars via the Maillard reaction. This can impact their functional, nutritional, and allergenic properties. Native size-exclusion chromatography with online electrospray mass spectrometry (SEC-ESI-MS) was used to characterize processing-induced changes in milk proteins in a range of milk products. Milk products could be readily grouped into either pasteurized liquid milks, heavily processed milks, or milk powders by SEC behavior, particularly by aggregation of whey proteins by thermal processing. Maillard modification of all major milk proteins by lactose was observed by MS and was primarily present in milk powders. The method developed is a rapid tool for fingerprinting the processing history of milk and has potential as a quality control method for food ingredient manufacture. The method described here can profile milk protein oligomeric state, aggregation, and Maillard modification in a single shot, rapid analysis. PMID:22007861

  18. Analyzing Morphology and Thermal History of Polybutylene Terephthalate by THz Time-domain Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wietzke, Steffen; Reuter, Marco; Nestle, Nikolaus; Klimov, Evgueni; Zadok, Uri; Fischer, Bernd M.; Koch, Martin

    2011-07-01

    We have measured the frequency-dependent dielectric function of semi-crystalline polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) in the terahertz region between 100 GHz and approximately 2.8 THz. A characteristic band is observed around 2.38 THz. The intensity of this band is a good indicator of the degree of crystallinity of the different samples. A potential assignment of this band is proposed, based on the comparison with spectroscopic data of the structurally very similar polyethylene terephtalate (PET). Furthermore, the frequency-dependent index of refraction of PBT reveals more insight about the morphology and different thermal history of the samples under investigation.

  19. Effect of thermal history on Mossbauer signature and hyperfine interaction parameters of copper ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Modi, K. B. Raval, P. Y.; Dulera, S. V.; Kathad, C. R.; Shah, S. J.; Trivedi, U. N.; Chandra, Usha

    2015-06-24

    Two specimens of copper ferrite, CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, have been synthesized by double sintering ceramic technique with different thermal history i.e. slow cooled and quenched. X-ray diffractometry has confirmed single phase fcc spinel structure for slow cooled sample while tetragonal distortion is present in quenched sample. Mossbauer spectral analysis for slow-cooled copper ferrite reveals super position of two Zeeman split sextets along with paramagnetic singlet in the centre position corresponds to delafossite (CuFeO{sub 2}) phase that is completely absent in quenched sample. The hyperfine interaction parameters are highly influenced by heat treatment employed.

  20. The competition between thermal contraction and differentiation in the stress history of the Moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirk, R.L.; Stevenson, Dirk J.

    1989-01-01

    The scarcity of both extension and compression features on the Moon strongly constrains the history of the lunar radius9d\\to variations of thermal contraction of the near-surface and expansion of a substantial cold interior region. Recent theories of lunar origin (eg, giant impact), in contrast, favor a "hot' initial state. We propose that a reconciliation may be possible by taking account of the volume change ??V/V|d due to differentiation. -from Authors

  1. Effect of thermal history on Mossbauer signature and hyperfine interaction parameters of copper ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modi, K. B.; Raval, P. Y.; Dulera, S. V.; Kathad, C. R.; Shah, S. J.; Trivedi, U. N.; Chandra, Usha

    2015-06-01

    Two specimens of copper ferrite, CuFe2O4, have been synthesized by double sintering ceramic technique with different thermal history i.e. slow cooled and quenched. X-ray diffractometry has confirmed single phase fcc spinel structure for slow cooled sample while tetragonal distortion is present in quenched sample. Mossbauer spectral analysis for slow-cooled copper ferrite reveals super position of two Zeeman split sextets along with paramagnetic singlet in the centre position corresponds to delafossite (CuFeO2) phase that is completely absent in quenched sample. The hyperfine interaction parameters are highly influenced by heat treatment employed.

  2. Thermal history of pyroclastic density currents and pyroclasts at Tungurahua, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benage, M. C.; Dufek, J.

    2014-12-01

    The associated hazards and opaqueness of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) make it impossible for in-situ thermal or concentration measurements within the currents that would provide critical information on the dynamics of PDCs. The entrainment of ambient air into these currents significantly impacts their runout distance and thermal history. The most efficient mechanism to cool a PDC is through the entrainment of colder, denser ambient air through Kelvin-Helmholtz and lobe-and-cleft instabilities, which are dependent on density stratification in the current and topographic-current interactions. The combination of high-resolution multiphase numerical models in concert with field measurements of PDC deposits allows us to better understand the evolving concentration gradients, instabilities, entrainment of air, and temperatures of PDCs. We employ a three-dimensional multiphase Eulerian-Eulerian-Lagrangian (EEL) model, high-resolution topography, and field data to understand the PDCs that traveled down the Juive Grande quebrada during the 2006 eruption of Tungurahua volcano. The multiphase model allows us to examine PDC dynamics such as particle concentrations, velocities, thermal heterogeneities, and ambient air entrainment. As the PDC propagates, the entrainment coefficient decreases due to enhanced density stratification. The interaction of the current with rugged topography increases the entrainment coefficient. We also calculate the temperature of deposition and breadcrust bomb rind thickness for individual pyroclasts. The individual pyroclasts are tracked as Lagrangian particles in the multiphase model and we employ the breadcrust bomb model (Benage et al., 2014) to calculate the deposition temperature and the formation of the non-vesicular to low vesicularity rinds. The model results are compared to paleomagnetic data and field measurements of rind thickness, respectively. This allows the deposited pyroclasts to be natural thermometers that help constrain the

  3. Types of social support and parental acceptance among transfemale youth and their impact on mental health, sexual debut, history of sex work and condomless anal intercourse

    PubMed Central

    Le, Victory; Arayasirikul, Sean; Chen, Yea-Hung; Jin, Harry; Wilson, Erin C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Transfemale youth (TFY) are an underserved and understudied population at risk for numerous poor physical and mental health outcomes, most notably HIV. Research suggests that parental acceptance and social support may serve as protective factors against HIV and other risks for TFY; however, it is unclear whether TFY receive primary social support from parents with or without parental acceptance of their gender identity. This study examines differences in parental acceptance, mental health and the HIV risk factors of history of sex work, age at sexual debut and engagement in condomless anal intercourse between TFY with two types of primary social support – non-parental primary social support (NPPSS) and parental primary social support (PPSS). Methods Cross-sectional data collected from 301 TFY from 2012 to 2014 in the San Francisco Bay Area were analyzed to determine differences in parental acceptance, mental health and HIV risk factors between youth with and without PPSS. Univariate statistics and chi-squared tests were conducted to determine if parental acceptance and health outcomes were correlated with type of social support. Results Two-hundred fifty-one participants (83.7%) reported having NPPSS, and 49 (16.3%) reported PPSS. Significantly more youth with PPSS reported affirmative responses on parental acceptance items than their NPPSS counterparts. For example, 87.8% of youth with PPSS reported that their parents believed they could have a happy future as a trans adult, compared with 51.6% of youth with NPPSS (p<0.001). Fewer participants with PPSS reported symptoms of psychological distress (2.0% vs. 12.5%, p=0.057), though this finding was not statistically significant; no significant associations were found between primary social support type and HIV risk factors. Conclusions These results suggest that TFY with parental acceptance of their gender identity may be more likely to reach out to their parents as their primary source of social

  4. Thermal history and timing of hydrocarbon expulsion in the Maracaibo basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    White, C.; Mompart, L.

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to contribute towards the understanding of the thermal history of La Luna and Orocui source rocks and their related hydrocarbon generation and expulsion in the Maracaibo basin. The paper is derived from an integrated geochemical model obtained during a recent multidisciplinary regional study. Among data compiled or interpreted are geothermal gradients which increase in value towards the northeast and southwest, with a minimum in the west coast of the lake and local maxima along NNE-SSW structural alignments; heat flow value which reflect this same pattern; eroded Eocene sediment thicknesses of up to 1500 ft in the lake area which contrast with 10,000 ft used in previous studies. These data, together with vitrinite reflectance and T{sub max} maturity values, well and seismic isopachs of Cretaceous and Tertiary stratigraphic sequences, were modelled using BasinMod TM, a basin modelling software. Highlights of this are time of expulsion maps that illustrate how the first expulsion of hydrocarbons from La Luna occurred in the northeastern area of the Basin during Early (not Middle) Eocene times. The oil expulsion window migrated towards the southwest and eventually the northwest, but bypassing the western coast of the lake, presently immature (contrary to previous work), and gas expulsion is occurring now in the Miocene trough northwest of the Andes Mountains. The thermal history of the Paleogene source rocks (Orocui Group and Misoa Formation), shows generation/expulsion mainly in the southwest of the Basin, since Late Miocene.

  5. Fe-Ni metal and sulfide minerals in CM chondrites: An indicator for thermal history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimura, M.; Grossman, J.N.; Weisberg, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    CM chondrites were subjected to aqueous alteration and, in some cases, to secondary metamorphic heating. The effects of these processes vary widely, and have mainly been documented in silicate phases. Herein, we report the characteristic features of Fe-Ni metal and sulfide phases in 13 CM and 2 CM-related chondrites to explore the thermal history of these chondrites. The texture and compositional distribution of the metal in CM are different from those in unequilibrated ordinary and CO chondrites, but most have similarities to those in highly primitive chondrites, such as CH, CR, and Acfer 094. We classified the CM samples into three categories based on metal composition and sulfide texture. Fe-Ni metal in category A is kamacite to martensite. Category B is characterized by pyrrhotite grains always containing blebs or lamellae of pentlandite. Opaque mineral assemblages of category C are typically kamacite, Ni-Co-rich metal, and pyrrhotite. These categories are closely related to the degree of secondary heating and are not related to degree of the aqueous alteration. The characteristic features of the opaque minerals can be explained by secondary heating processes after aqueous alteration. Category A CM chondrites are unheated, whereas those in category B experienced small degrees of secondary heating. CMs in category C were subjected to the most severe secondary heating process. Thus, opaque minerals can provide constraints on the thermal history for CM chondrites. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2011.

  6. Subsidence, extension and thermal history of the West African margin in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Marie Véronique Latil; Lucazeau, Francis

    1988-10-01

    The subsidence of the Atlantic margin in Senegal clearly shows two rapid stages related to the formation of (1) the Central Atlantic during the early Jurassic (around 200 Ma), and (2) the Equatorial Atlantic during the Cretaceous (100 Ma). A simple model of extension is used to interpret the subsidence history and to derive the thermal evolution of this basin. The present-day gravity, bathymetry, bottom hole temperatures (BHT) in oil exploration boreholes and heat flow density are used to control the validity of the model. Two cross sections from the outcropping basement to oceanic crust are used, one in Casamance and the other one at the south to latitude of Dakar. The model can fully explain the first-order subsidence history as well as the present-day observations, and therefore can provide valuable information about the thermal evolution of sediments and about the structure of the continental crust along the margin. Comparisons with the opposite margin in North America (Blake Plateau and Carolina trough) indicate a rather different evolution (the North American margin did not undergo the second stage of rifting) and a different crustal structure (crustal thinning is less important on the African margin).

  7. Modeling Breadcrust Bombs to Better Understand Their Transportation Mechanisms and Thermal History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benage, M. C.; Dufek, J.; Degruyter, W.

    2012-12-01

    The thermal history of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) can influence their runout distance and dynamics and provides information about the concentration field and air entrainment in these flows. We have been investigating breadcrust bombs contained in PDCs as useful thermal proxies that can also be contrasted with ballistically ejected breadcrust bombs. Breadcrust bombs can have dense, non-vesicular rinds and/or surface cracks and are usually basaltic to andesitic in composition. Their textures may contain clues to the way they were transported, the thermal history they underwent, and their initial water concentration. To better interpret these textures, we model the morphology of the bomb as it is being transported. The juvenile clasts are modeled as Lagrangian particles in a coupled multiphase numerical model (Eulerian-Eulerian-Lagrangian [EEL]) that tracks the heat exchange between the current and the clasts. The volcanic clast morphology is modeled by coupling cooling, viscosity, and bubble growth models and the glass transition temperature. The cooling of the clast is calculated by convective and radiative heat transfer to the surrounding environment, as well as conductive cooling. The temperature profile of the clast is then used, along with composition of the clast, to calculate the distribution of viscosity. Viscosity can have a significant impact on restricting bubble growth within the clast. The Proussevitch et al., (1993) numerical bubble growth model is included to calculate post-eruption bubble evolution and the clast morphology, such as rind thickness and bubble size distributions. We examined the likely morphology of clasts that develop in PDCs and ballistic trajectories. We ran multiple models of ballistic and PDC eruptions with varying conditions such as initial current temperature, initial clast temperature, and initial water concentration. The results show that ballistic clasts rapidly cool and produce thicker rinds for higher temperature

  8. Thermal histories of chondrules in solar nebula shocks, including the effect of molecular line cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Melissa A.

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized, silicate (mostly ferromagnesian) igneous spheres found within chondritic meteorites. They are some of the oldest materials in our Solar System, having formed within a few million years of its birth. Chondrules were melted at high temperature (over 1800 K), while they were free-floating objects in the early solar nebula. Their petrology and chemistry constrain their formation, especially their thermal histories. Chondrules provide some of the most powerful constraints on conditions in the solar nebula. Models in which chondrule precursors melted by passage through solar nebula shocks are very promising, and meet most constraints on chondrule formation in broad brush. However, these models have been lacking in some of the relevant physics. Previous shock models have used incorrect approximations to the input radiation boundary condition, and the opacity of solids has been treated simply. Most important, a proper treatment of cooling due to molecular line emission has not been included. In this thesis, the shock model is significantly improved in order to determine if it remains consistent with observational constraints. The appropriate boundary condition for the input radiation and the proper method for calculation of the opacity of solids are determined, and a complete treatment of molecular line cooling due to water is included. Previous estimates of the effect of line cooling predicted chondrule cooling rates in excess of 10,000 K per hour. However, once molecular line cooling due to water was incorporated into the full shock model, it was found that line cooling has a minimal effect on the thermal histories of gas and chondrules. This behavior is attributed mostly to the thermal buffering of the gas due to hydrogen dissociation and recombination, which tends to keep the gas temperature at approximately 2000 K until the column densities of water become optically thick to line emission. Chondrule cooling rates in the range of 10

  9. Thermal history of Michigan Basin and Southern Canadian Shield from apatite fission track analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, Kevin D.

    1991-01-01

    Apatite fission track ages and confined-length distributions were collected from 38 basement outcrop and 5 basement drillcore samples in order to reconstruct the Phanerozoic thermal history of the Michigan Basin and southern Canadian Shield. The apatite data indicate two periods of thermal activity in the region: Triassic heating/cooling that affected the basin and adjacent shield and Cretaceous or post-Cretaceous heating/cooling that primarily affected the basin. The magnitude, timing, and cause of Cretaceous thermal activity cannot be identified with the present data. Model calculations suggest that some of the shield samples and probably all of the basin samples were heated to temperatures of at least 90°C just prior to relatively rapid cooling in the Triassic. Available stratigraphic and geochemical constraints suggest that these elevated temperatures were the result of burial by an additional 2-5 km of late Paleozoic (probably Pennsylvanian and Permian) sediments. It is likely that the basin was buried during the Alleghenian Orogeny as observed for the adjacent Appalachian Basin.

  10. Thermal history of Michigan Basin and southern Canadian Shield from apatite fission track analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, K.D. )

    1991-01-10

    Apatite fission track ages and confined-length distributions were collected from 38 basement outcrop and 5 basement drillcore samples in order to reconstruct the Phanerozoic thermal history of the Michigan Basin and southern Canadian Shield. The apatite data indicate two periods of thermal activity in the region: Triassic heating/cooling that affected the basin and adjacent shield and Cretaceous or post-Cretaceous heating/cooling that primarily affected the basin. The magnitude, timing, and cause of Cretaceous thermal activity cannot be identified with the present data. Model calculations suggest that some of the shield samples and probably all of the basin samples were heated to temperatures of at least 90C just prior to relatively rapid cooling in the Triassic. Available stratigraphic and geochemical constraints suggest that these elevated temperatures were the result of burial by an additional 2-5 km of late Paleozoic (probably Pennsylvanian and Permian) sediments. It is likely that the basin was buried during the Alleghenian Orogeny as observed for the adjacent Appalachian Basin.

  11. Thermal history of Colorado plateau lithoshere from Sm-Nd mineral geochronology of xenoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Wendlandt, E.; DePaolo, D.J.; Baldridge, W.S.

    1996-07-01

    The thermal history of the lower crust and upper mantle of the Colorado Plateau region is reconstructed on the basis of Nd and Sr isotopes in minerals and whole rock xenoliths hosted by Tertiary minette and kimberlite. Whole rock data indicate that the crustal rocks were extracted from the mantle at ca. 1900 Ma. The mineral ages, which are 30-100 m.y. younger than crystallization ages of Proterozoic `anorogenic` granitoids from regions bordering the Colorado Plateau, are interpreted as cooling ages set following the crustal thermal maximum at 1380-1440 Ma. The eclogite mineral ages are probably the ages of the host Garnet Ridge and Moses Rock diatremes, and require that Nd isotopes were maintained in equilibrium right up to the time of entrainment. The isotopic data and the mineral textures suggest that the eclogites were undergoing active recrystallization at 21 Ma. The contrast in mineral ages between granulite and eclogite xenoliths indicates that the equilibration temperatures of the two rock types reflect different times of equilibration, and therefore cannot be considered as evidence for a negative thermal gradient at depth. The Rb-Sr mineral data from the xenoliths give variable early Paleozoic and Proterozoic ages that cannot easily be assigned to geologic events. 55 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Conodont color alteration index and upper Paleozoic thermal history of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Cassiane Negreiros; Sanz-López, Javier; Blanco-Ferrera, Silvia; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Scomazzon, Ana Karina

    2015-12-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) was determined in elements from core samples of the Frasnian Barreirinha Formation (one well) and of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Tapajós Group (twenty three wells and one limestone quarry) in the Amazonas Basin. The thermal history of the basin is analyzed using the CAI value distribution represented in maps and stratigraphic sections through correlation schemes, and in conjunction with previously published data. The pattern of palaeotemperatures for CAI values of 1.5-3 is coincident with organic matter maturation under a sedimentary overburden providing diagenetic conditions in the oil/gas window. Locally, conodonts show metamorphism (CAI value of 6-7) in relation to the intrusion of diabase bodies in beds including high geothermal gradient evaporites. Microtextural alteration on the surface conodonts commonly shows several types of overgrowth microtextures developed in diagenetic conditions. Locally, recrystallization in conodonts with a high CAI value is congruent with contact metamorphism in relation to Mesozoic intrusions. The CAI values of 1.5 or 2 observed close to the surface in several areas of the basin may be interpreted in relation to a high thermal palaeogradient derived from the magmatic episode or/and to the local denudation of the upper part of the Paleozoic succession prior to this thermal event.

  13. Metal phases in ordinary chondrites: Magnetic hysteresis properties and implications for thermal history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattacceca, J.; Suavet, C.; Rochette, P.; Weiss, B. P.; Winklhofer, M.; Uehara, M.; Friedrich, Jon M.

    2014-04-01

    Magnetic properties are sensitive proxies to characterize FeNi metal phases in meteorites. We present a data set of magnetic hysteresis properties of 91 ordinary chondrite falls. We show that hysteresis properties are distinctive of individual meteorites while homogeneous among meteorite subsamples. Except for the most primitive chondrites, these properties can be explained by a mixture of multidomain kamacite that dominates the induced magnetism and tetrataenite (both in the cloudy zone as single-domain grains, and as larger multidomain grains in plessite and in the rim of zoned taenite) dominates the remanent magnetism, in agreement with previous microscopic magnetic observations. The bulk metal contents derived from magnetic measurements are in agreement with those estimated previously from chemical analyses. We evidence a decreasing metal content with increasing petrologic type in ordinary chondrites, compatible with oxidation of metal during thermal metamorphism. Types 5 and 6 ordinary chondrites have higher tetrataenite content than type 4 chondrites. This is compatible with lower cooling rates in the 650-450 °C interval for higher petrographic types (consistent with an onion-shell model), but is more likely the result of the oxidation of ordinary chondrites with increasing metamorphism. In equilibrated chondrites, shock-related transient heating events above approximately 500 °C result in the disordering of tetrataenite and associated drastic change in magnetic properties. As a good indicator of the amount of tetrataenite, hysteresis properties are a very sensitive proxy of the thermal history of ordinary chondrites, revealing low cooling rates during thermal metamorphism and high cooling rates (e.g., following shock reheating or excavation after thermal metamorphism). Our data strengthen the view that the poor magnetic recording properties of multidomain kamacite and the secondary origin of tetrataenite make equilibrated ordinary chondrites challenging

  14. Thermal history of crystalline nappes of the Maria fold and thrust belt, west central Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, J.H. ); Heizler, M.T. )

    1990-11-10

    The thermal history of the crust in west central Arizona, as documented by {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar step-heating analysis of mineral suites from crystalline nappes of the Maria fold and thrust belt, is characterized by three distinct stages for Late Cretaceous and Tertiary time. Regional heating of the crust occurred during basement-involved folding and thrust faulting in middle Late Cretaceous time and represents the earliest phase recorded by the {sup 40}/{sup 39}Ar data. The second stage was dominated by uplift and slow cooling (5-10C/m.y.) of the crust throughout latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary time. Tectonic denudation in late Oligocene to early Miocene time resulted in rapid uplift and cooling of midcrustal rocks in the footwall of the Whipple-Buckskin-Rawhide detachment system, marking the final thermal signature in the region. Partially outgassed hornblende in the northern Granite Wash Mountains reflects temperatures of {approximately}450C, whereas complete resetting of hornblende at Mesquite Mountain suggests that this area attained temperatures in excess of 500C. In contrast, data from the northern Plomosa Mountains indicate that this area did not attain temperatures sufficient to completely degas biotite or K-feldspar during Late Cretaceous time. Either (1) lower plate rocks were still sufficiently hot following Late Cretaceous heating that argon clocks were set simply due to rapid cooling or (2) the area experienced a renewed thermal input associated with extension, causing argon loss from previously cool rocks. Based on consideration of diffusion domain behavior in K-feldspars, the authors infer that a renewed thermal pulse was associated with the early stages of extension and was related to the cause for crustal weakening.

  15. Unique Thermal Histories from Whole-Rock 40Ar/39Ar Step-heating Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnke, P.; Harrison, M.; Heizler, M. T.; Lovera, O. M.; Warren, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    Step-heating 40Ar/39Ar analysis can reveal spatial distributions of 40Ar* at the micron scale imparted by post- crystallization heating events through complex, multi-diffusion domain models. These efforts have largely focused on single-phase, terrestrial samples with only scant attention paid to multi-phase or extra-terrestrial materials. Generalizing these models to incorporate the multiple activation energies (E) expected from bulk rock samples introduces significant interpretational ambiguity. This is because the thermal crossovers explicit in multi-E cases make the age spectrum a function of the lab heating schedule in thermally disturbed samples. A further difficulty is that unique interpretation of the associated Arrhenius plot is no longer possible and a range of E's can be fitted with equal goodness of fit. In order to address these challenges, we developed a new computational approach that simultaneously inverts the Arrhenius spectra and release pattern using a variant of the Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO) algorithm for a square-pulse heating event. Our version uses a Levy Flight to break the swarm out of a local minima rather than randomly modifying a single dimension as in the original APSO. Further we explored issues of Pareto efficiency arising from fitting two fitness functions (i.e., the fit to the age spectra and to the Arrhenius plot) and found an adequate resolution to the classic inability to have a single best fit. By utilizing multiple-E samples, we are able to obtain unique thermal history solutions. Application of these methods to high resolution age spectra of the Jilin chondrite and Apollo 16 samples (North Ray Crater) and found fits of sufficiently high fidelity to constrain the absolute temperature of the thermal episode to better than ±10%.

  16. Mars Thermal History: Core, Atmosphere, Mantle, Phobos and Surface (MaTH CAMPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicks, J. K.; Weller, M. B.; Towles, N. J.; Thissen, C.; Knezek, N. R.; Johnston, S.; Hongsresawat, S.; Duncan, M. S.; Black, B. A.; Schmerr, N. C.; Panning, M. P.; Montesi, L.; Manga, M.; Lognonne, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    The death of the Martian dynamo ~4.1 Ga and sustained volcanism throughout Martian history place fundamental constraints on the thermal history of the planet. To explore the implications for mantle structure, we constructed holistic models of Mars that include the core, mantle, lithosphere/surface, atmosphere, and an atmospheric capture of Phobos in a collaborative effort begun at the CIDER 2014 summer program. For our thermal model of the core, we employ an iterative solver and parameterized phase diagram to compute pressure, density, and temperature in the core for a variety of initial accretion temperatures and bulk compositions. We use this model to constrain core-mantle boundary (CMB) temperature and heat flow. We couple this model for the evolution of the core with a one-dimensional parameterized convection model for the mantle. The upper boundary condition is set by the state of the Martian atmosphere. We consider the effect of a distinct compositional layer at the base of the mantle that may represent dense magma ocean crystallization products or a primitive layer untouched by magma ocean processes. We find successful models that allow sufficient CMB heat flow to power an early dynamo and the potential of melt generation through extended periods of Mars' history. In addition to dynamo and magmatism timing, other diagnostics allow us to compare model outputs to modern observables. The mass, moment of inertia, and tidal Love number of our model planet are compared directly to measured values. Additionally, deformation and stress on the lithosphere due to internal volume changes and changes in surface loading predicted by our thermal evolution models could be recorded in the Martian crust. Finally, coupling temperature-dependent tidal dissipation affects Phobos' orbital secular evolution and gives constraint on mantle temperatures. These constraints are discussed for the different scenarios of Phobos capture. We present a suite of models that satisfy the

  17. History of Sulphur Content Effects on the Thermal Stability of RP-1 under Heated Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, Solveig A.; Schoettmer, Amanda K.; Bates, Ronald W.; Meyer, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    As technologies advance in the aerospace industry, a strong desire has emerged to design more efficient, longer life, reusable liquid hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines. To achieve this goal, a more complete understanding of the thermal stability and chemical makeup of the hydrocarbon propellant is needed. Since the main fuel used in modern liquid hydrocarbon systems is RP-1, there is concern that Standard Grade RP-1 may not be a suitable propellant for future-generation rocket engines due to concern over the outdated Mil-Specification for the fuel. This current specification allows high valued limits on contaminants such as sulfur compounds, and also lacks specification of required thermal stability qualifications for the fuel. Previous studies have highlighted the detrimental effect of high levels of mercaptan sulfur content (^50 ppm) on copper rocket engine materials, but the fuel itself has not been studied. While the role of sulfur in other fuels (e.g., aviation, diesel, and automotive fuels) has been extensively studied, little has been reported on the effects of sulfur levels in rocket fuels. Lower RP-1 sulfur concentrations need to be evaluated and an acceptable sulfur limit established before RP-1 can be recommended for use as the propellant for future launch vehicles. (5 tables, 8 figures, 9 refs.)

  18. Thermal History and Fragmentation of Ureilitic Asteroids: Insights from the Almahata Sitta Fall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrin, J. S.; Ito, M.; Zolensky, M. E.; Mittlefehldt, D. M.; Jenniskens, P. M.; Shaddad, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Prior to recovery the Almahata Sitta fall was observed as the asteroid 2008 TC3 on an Earth-bound trajectory, providing a unique link between spectral data and ureilite composition. The event has also provided insight into the nature of ureilitic objects in space. In particular, the large size (4 m3) and low density (2.2 g/cm3) of the object combined with near-complete disintegration upon entry suggest a porous and loosely-consolidated body [1]. Accordingly, recovered fragments are small in size (1.5-283g) and represent several different ureilite lithologies. Some recovered fragments appear brecciated while others do not. We use chemical and mineralogic data to dissect the thermal history of this new ureilite, then use this information to compare the inferred size of fragments within the asteroid to those initially dislodged from a common ureilite parent body (UPB).

  19. Pyroxene structures, cathodoluminescence and the thermal history of the enstatite chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Yanhong; Huang, Shaoxiong; Schneider, Diann; Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.; DeHart, John M.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    1996-01-01

    In order to explore the thermal history of enstatite chondrites, we examined the cathodoluminescence (CL) and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 15 EH chondrites and 21 EL chondrites, including all available petrographic types, both textural types 3-6 and mineralogical types alpha-delta. The CL properties of EL3(alpha) and EH3(alpha) chondrites are similar. Enstatite grains high in Mn and other transition metals display red CL, while enstatite with low concentrations of these elements show blue CL. A few enstatite grains with greater than 5 wt% FeO display no CL. In contrast, the luminescent properties of the metamorphosed EH chondrites are very different from those of metamorphosed EL chondrites. While the enstatites in metamorphosed EH chondrites display predominantly blue CL, the enstatites in metamorphosed EL chondrites display a distinctive magenta CL with blue and red peaks of approximately equal intensity in their spectra. The TL sensitivities of the enstatite chondrites correlate with the intensity of the blue CL and, unlike other meteorite classes, are not simply related to metamorphism. The different luminescent properties of metamorphosed EH and EL chondrites cannot readily be attributed to compositional differences. But x-ray diffraction data suggests that the enstatite in EH5(gamma),(delta) chondrites is predominantly disordered orthopyroxene, while enstatite in EL6(beta) chondrites is predominantly ordered orthopyroxene. The difference in thermal history of metamorphosed EL and EH chondrites is so marked that the use of single 'petrographic' types is misleading, and separate textural and mineralogical types are preferable. Our data confirm earlier suggestions that metamorphosed EH chondrites underwent relatively rapid cooling, and the metamorphosed EL chondrites cooled more slowly and experienced prolonged heating in the orthopyroxene field.

  20. Thermal history of type-3 chondrites in the NASA antarctic collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, L.; Quirico, E.; Montagnac, G.

    2014-07-01

    Chondrites are the most primitive meteorites. However, they were all modified in some ways by post-accretion geological processes operating on their asteroidal parent bodies. Hence, to decipher the formation(s) and origin(s) of their components, we must first understand how chondritic materials were modified in their asteroidal parent bodies. The modifications induced by secondary processes should not be underestimated and have to be precisely estimated before any interpretation of chondrite properties in terms of cosmochemistry. In particular, all chondrites contain some organic components that were potentially chemically and physically modified through post-accretion processes. A thin understanding of the induced evolution is required to allow for pertinent comparisons with other primitive extraterrestrial materials, such as cometary grains, to finally address questions such as the origin of organics in the Solar System. Type 3 chondrites experienced thermal metamorphism on their asteroidal parent body due to the radioactive decay of elements such as ^{26}Al. Temperatures higher than 300 °C were experienced on timescales of several thousands of years. Still, type 3 chondrites remain as unequilibrated rocks and common mineralogical thermometers cannot be applied. The polyaromatic carbonaceous matter is sensitive to thermal episodes (of long and short duration) experienced by the host meteorite. In particular, its structural order directly reflects the thermal history experienced on their parent bodies. The structural modification of the aromatic carbonaceous matter towards a higher order is irreversible, and independent of the mineralogy and degree of aqueous alteration. It is mainly controlled by the peak metamorphic temperature. Moreover, under the assumption of fairly similar organic precursors among chondrites of distinct groups, the structural order of polyaromatic organic matter allows for a direct comparison of their metamorphic grades. It is then possible

  1. The effect of solution thermal history on chicken egg white lysozyme nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Michael W.; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.

    2001-11-01

    Proteins are highly flexible molecules and often exhibit defined conformational changes in response to changes in the ambient temperature. Chicken egg white lysozyme has been previously shown to undergo an apparent structural change when warmed above the tetragonal/orthorhombic phase transition temperature. This is reflected by a change in the habit of the tetragonal and orthorhombic crystals so formed. In this study, we show that possible conformational changes induced by heating are stable and apparently non-reversible by simple cooling. Exposure of protein solutions to temperatures above the phase change transition temperature, before combining with precipitant solution to begin crystallization, reduces final crystal numbers. Protein that is briefly warmed to 37°C, then cooled shows no sign of reversal to the unheated nucleation behavior even after storage for 4 weeks at 4°C. The change in nucleation behavior of tetragonal lysozyme crystals, attributed to a structural shift, occurs faster the greater the exposure to temperature above the equi-solubility point for the two phases. Heating for 2 h at 48°C reduces crystal numbers by 20 fold in comparison to the same solution heated for the same time at 30°C. Thermal treatment of solutions is therefore a possible tool to reduce crystal numbers and increase crystal size. The effects of a protein's previous thermal history are now shown to be a potentially critical factor in subsequent macromolecule crystal nucleation and growth studies.

  2. Effects of Thermal and Pressure Histories on the Chemical Strengthening of Sodium Aluminosilicate Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenson, Mouritz; Thirion, Lynn; Youngman, Randall; Mauro, John; Bauchy, Mathieu; Rzoska, Sylwester; Bockowski, Michal; Smedskjaer, Morten

    2016-03-01

    Glasses can be chemically strengthened through the ion exchange process, wherein smaller ions in the glass (e.g., Na+) are replaced by larger ions from a salt bath (e.g., K+). This develops a compressive stress (CS) on the glass surface, which, in turn, improves the damage resistance of the glass. The magnitude and depth of the generated CS depends on the thermal and pressure histories of the glass prior to ion exchange. In this study, we investigate the ion exchange-related properties (mutual diffusivity, CS, and hardness) of a sodium aluminosilicate glass, which has been densified through annealing below the initial fictive temperature of the glass or through pressure-quenching from the glass transition temperature at 1 GPa prior to ion exchange. We show that the rate of alkali interdiffusivity depends only on the density of the glass, rather than on the applied densification method. However, we also demonstrate that for a given density, the increase in CS and increase in hardness induced by ion exchange strongly depends on the densification method. Specifically, at constant density, the CS and hardness values achieved through thermal annealing are larger than those achieved through pressure-quenching. These results are discussed in relation to the structural changes in the environment of the network-modifier and the overall network densification.

  3. Using the viscoelastic relaxation of large impact craters to study the thermal history of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Saman; Dombard, Andrew J.; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Robbins, Stuart J.; Williams, Rebecca M.

    2016-07-01

    We simulate the long-term deformation of Martian craters and investigate the role of lower crustal flow in the evolution of surface and subsurface topography. Using the finite element method and a viscoelastic rheological model, we model the deformation of more than 30 large craters and Quasi-Circular Depressions (QCDs), in the diameter range of ∼200-500 km, in both the Northern Lowlands and Southern Highlands. We determine the most appropriate background heat fluxes that produce the current topography beneath the impacts at the crust-mantle boundary (ranges from 40 to ∼90 mW m-2). Our study shows that a higher background heat flux leads to more relaxation at the surface and subsurface. By applying various viscous creep parameters for hydrous and anhydrous rheologies, we demonstrate that Mars's interior is wet to a certain degree, which is consistent with other estimates. Since craters and QCDs are distributed fairly equally on the surface of the Red Planet, this study provides a less regionally biased picture of the thermal history of early Mars than in previous studies. Based on our results, the ancient average background heat flux in the Northern Lowlands was higher than that of the Southern Highlands, which could indicate that whatever process formed the crustal dichotomy had a thermal signature at least through the middle Noachian.

  4. The Effect of Solution Thermal History on Chicken Egg White Lysozyme Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Michael W.; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Proteins are highly flexible molecules and often exhibit defined conformational changes in response to changes in the ambient temperature. Chicken egg white lysozyme has been previously shown to undergo an apparent structural change when warmed above the tetragonal/orthorhombic phase transition temperature. This is reflected by a change in the habit of the tetragonal and orthorhombic crystals so formed. In this study we show that possible conformational changes induced by heating are stable and apparently non- reversible by simple cooling. Exposure of protein solutions to temperatures above the phase change transition temperature, before combining with precipitant solution to begin crystallization, reduces final crystal numbers. Protein that is briefly warmed to 37 C, then cooled shows no sign of reversal to the unheated nucleation behavior even after storage for 4 weeks at 4 C. The change in nucleation behavior of tetragonal lysozyme crystals, attributed to a structural shift, occurs faster the greater the exposure to temperature above the equi-solubility point for the two phases. Heating for 2 h at 48 C reduces crystal numbers by 20 fold in comparison to the same solution heated for the same time at 30 C. Thermal treatment of solutions is therefore a possible tool to reduce crystal numbers and increase crystal size. The effects of a protein's previous thermal history are now shown to be a potentially critical factor in subsequent macromolecule crystal nucleation and growth studies.

  5. The Effect of Solution Thermal History on Chicken Egg White Lysozyme Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Michael W.; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.

    2001-01-01

    Proteins are highly flexible molecules and often exhibit defined conformational changes in response to changes in the ambient temperature. Chicken egg white lysozyme has been previously shown to undergo an apparent structural change when warmed above the tetragonal/orthorhombic phase transition temperature. This is reflected by a change in the habit of the tetragonal and orthorhombic crystals so formed. In this study, we show that possible conformational changes induced by heating are stable and apparently non-reversible by simple cooling. Exposure of protein solutions to temperatures above the phase change transition temperature, before combining with precipitant solution to begin crystallization, reduces final crystal numbers. Protein that is briefly warmed to 37 C, then cooled shows no sign of reversal to the unheated nucleation behavior even after storage for four weeks at 4 C. The change in nucleation behavior of tetragonal lysozyme crystals, attributed to a structural shift, occurs faster the greater the exposure to temperature above the equi-solubility point for the two phases. Heating for 2 hours at 48 C reduces crystal numbers by 20 fold in comparison to the same solution heated for the same time at 30 C. Thermal treatment of solutions is therefore a possible tool to reduce crystal numbers and increase crystal size. The effects of a protein's previous thermal history are now shown to be a potentially critical factor in subsequent macromolecule crystal nucleation and growth studies.

  6. New constrains on the thermal history of the Miocene Jarando basin (Southern Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrić, Nevena; Životić, Dragana; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Cvetković, Vladica

    2013-04-01

    The Jarando basin, located in the internal Dinarides, formed in the course of the Miocene extension affecting the whole Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaride system (Schmid et al., 2008). In the study area Miocene extension led to the formation of a core-complex in the Kopaonik area (Schefer et al., 2011) with the Jarando basin located in the hanging wall of the detachment fault. The Jarando basin is characterized by the presence of bituminous coals, whereas in the other intramontane basins in Serbia coalification did not exceed the subbituminous stage within the same stratigraphic level. Furthermore, the basin hosts boron mineralizations (borates and howlite) and a magnesite deposit, which again implies elevated temperatures. This thermal overprint is possibly due to post-magmatic activity related to the emplacement of Oligocene I-type Kopaonik and Miocene S-type Polumir granitoid (Schefer et al., 2011.). This research project is aimed at providing new information about the thermal history of the Jarando basin. Fifteen core samples from three boreholes and 10 samples from the surrounding outcrops were processed for apatite fission-track analysis. Additionally, vitrinite reflectance was measured for 11 core samples of shales from one borehole and 5 samples of coal from an underground mine. VR data of Early to Middle Miocene sediments reveal a strong post-depositional overprint. Values increase with the depth from 0.66-0.79% to 0.83-0.90%. Thus organic matter reached the bituminous stage and experienced temperatures of around 110-120˚C (Barker and Pawlewicz, 1994). FT single grain ages for apatite scatter between 45 Ma to 10 Ma with a general trend towards younger ages with depth. Both, the spread in single grain ages together with the bimodal track lengths distribution clearly point to partial annealing of the detrital apatites. With the temperature given from the VR values the partial annealing points to a rather short-lived thermal event. This is assisted by thermal

  7. Mass-47 clumped isotope thermal history reordering: Example from the Greater Green River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, B.; Niemi, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    During the last several years, many studies have tried to reconstruct the paleoelevations of sedimentary basins and paleosol sequences using the mass-47 clumped isotope thermometer. Ideally, this technique directly preserves the temperature of carbonate formation, avoiding any speculation on the composition of surface or water from which the carbonate precipitated. Recently, however, concerns about post-depositional alteration of the mass-47 isotope signature, due to the effects of burial, O and C volume diffusion, and/or diagenetic alteration have arisen, potentially complicating the application of the clumped thermometer for determining paleo-surface conditions. Here we investigate the effect of burial depth on mass-47 bond reordering. To this purpose we collected samples, from the surface and from drill cores, in two different areas of the Greater Green River basin: the Washakie Basin near Rock Springs, Wyoming and Green River basin near Pinedale, Wyoming. Both basins are filled with a thick Eocene lacustrine series that include numerous limestone beds. The thermal histories of the basins are well documented from petroleum prospecting studies. The Δ47 composition of lacustrine limestones with peak burial depths ranging from 1 to 6 km have been measured and compared to values derived from temperature history reordering models (THRMs). These results show that the THRMs does not predict the observed clumped isotope composition, suggesting than parameters other than temperature are controlling the Δ47 reordering. In order to refine the predictive model, we propose to independently model the best k0 factor of each analyzed sample starting from their final measured Δ47 values and implementing the thermal history from current depth to the period of deposition. Resulting k0 values are surprisingly well correlated with depth, suggesting that pressure and/or depth have a strong influence on the k0factor, and consequently on Δ47 bond reordering. These results suggest

  8. Thermal History of the Felsite Unit, Geysers Geothermal Field, From Thermal Modeling of 40Ar/39Ar Incremental Heating Data

    SciTech Connect

    T. M. Harrison; G. B. Dalrymple; J. B. Hulen; M. A. Lanphere; M. Grove; O. M. Lovera

    1999-08-19

    An Ar-40/Ar-39 and U-Pb study was performed of the Geysers plutonic complex of the Geysers Geothermal Field in California. Sixty-nine ion microprobe spot analyses of zircons from four granite samples from the plutonic complex that underlies the Geysers geothermal field yielded Pb-207/Pb-206 vs. U-238/Pb-206 concordia ages ranging from 1.13 {+-} 0.04 Ma to 1.25 {+-} 0.04 Ma. The U-Pb ages coincide closely with Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectrum plateau and ''terminal'' ages from coexisting K-feldspars and with the eruption ages of overlying volcanic rocks. The data indicate that the granite crystallized at 1.18 Ma and had cooled below 350 C by {approximately}0.9-1.0 Ma. Interpretation of the feldspar Ar-40/Ar-39 age data using multi-diffusion domain theory indicates that post-emplacement rapid cooling was succeeded either by slower cooling from 350-300 C between 1.0 and 0.4 Ma or transitory reheating to 300-350 C at about 0.4-0.6 Ma. Heat flow calculations constrained with K-feldspar thermal histories and the pre sent elevated regional heal flow anomaly demonstrate that appreciable heat input from sources external to the known Geysers plutonic complex is required to maintain the geothermal system. This requirement is satisfied by either a large, underlying, convecting magma chamber (now solidified) emplaced at 1.2 Ma or episodic intrusion of smaller bodies from 1.2-0.6 Ma.

  9. Some constraints on the thermal history of the lunar magma ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, F.; Drake, M. J.; Sonett, C. P.; Wiskerchen, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    If the accumulating evidence is accepted that the outer portion of the moon was molten for 100-200 million years, it is clear that a permanent insulating surface layer existed over nearly all of that epoch. Considerations of crustal stability against break-up and foundering lead to the view that this insulating blanket must have been an early-forming plagioclase-rich layer light enough to float on the hot magma. It is found that radiometric age-dating evidence implies a fairly specific history for the solidification of the lunar magma ocean. The possibility is anticipated that geochronological and petrological constraints will be sufficient to narrow the range of allowed geophysical and geochemical models. It is hoped that such a study will make it possible to deduce the original depth, and hence, the composition of the lunar magma ocean. If the moon accreted homogeneously, the composition of the magma ocean will also be that of the whole moon, and hence such models should allow estimation of the bulk lunar composition.

  10. Thermal and exhumation histories from borehole thermochronometer samples in the Swiss Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillon, Charlotte; Ehlers, Todd; Enkelmann, Eva; Becker, Jens K.; Schnellmann, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, significant interest has emerged to better understand the links between the foreland basin evolution and the erosion history of the Alps. For this, the European Alps are indeed a well-suited study region since the hinterland and the Swiss Molasse basin erosion rates and timing were extensively studied using basin analysis, and low-temperature thermochronology 1-4,5,6. However, the driving mechanisms for the post-Miocene erosion of the Swiss Molasse basin remains controversial, and several papers discuss whether global climatic changes1 or local variations of base level7,8,9 have controlled the erosion of the basin. With this study, we add quantitative constraints on the late-stage history of the basin by presenting new AFT and AHe dataset (respectively 16 and 19 samples) from two boreholes located ~30 km apart from each other, one located close to the center (Sonnengarten, depth of 3500 m) and one located to the North (Benken, depth of 100 m) of the basin. The data are derived from Triassic to Pliocene sand deposits as well as the underlying gneissic basement rocks and both AFT and AHe results are ranging from Pliocene to Triassic ages. The two dataset present very different age patterns which make the direct interpretation difficult. Therefore, thermal models using the QTQt software10,11 have been performed. This software is capable to evaluate cooling rates and timing using multiple samples from a single borehole. To test the robustness of the simulations, several runs for each borehole based on different data sets were performed, and showed some discrepancies between the resulting thermal histories. We provide, based on the simulations results, the most probable erosion estimates which are in the same range as the ones proposed in previous studies in the basin. For the borehole Benken, we reproduce a long and slow erosion phase starting at 23 Ma, with an overall estimate of the amount of eroded sediments ranging between 1.2 to 2 km. For the

  11. The Thermal History of Lunar Rocks, Regolith, and Lunar Meteorites: Secondary Processing as Viewed by Thermoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symes, S.; Benoit, P. H.; Batchelor, J. D.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1992-07-01

    The Moon has served as a petrogenic testing ground since the inception of the Apollo program. Thermoluminescence (TL) measurements on returned lunar material were fairly common during the earliest days of the program (e.g., Hoyt et al., 1972), but virtually ceased after the first few missions. Since that time, much has been learned about TL properties and their value in deciphering the history of extraterrestrial samples (Sears, 1988). Here we report new TL data for a suite of lunar samples covering virtually all the major lunar rock types present in the Apollo and lunar meteorite collections. Both highland and mare material were examined and data for highland core 60009/10 were also obtained. We have previously discussed natural TL of lunar meteorites (Sears et al., 1991); our present discussion is confined to induced TL measurements. In lunar and meteoritic samples, three induced TL parameters are measured: the intensity of the signal (TL sensitivity) reflects the amount and composition of feldspar, while the TL peak temperature and peak width reflect its structural state, which is, in turn, determined by thermal/metamorphic history (Fig. 1). There is fairly clear distinction between highland and mare samples in TL sensitivity, with the mare samples having lower values. This presumably reflects the greater abundance of feldspar in highland samples, although the TL sensitivities even for highland samples are unusually low in view of their high feldspar contents. The high TL peak temperatures suggests that the feldspar of both highland and mare samples is predominantly disordered. Only two rock samples have minor amounts of ordered feldspar and this form of feldspar is dominant only in lunar core 60009/10. For mare samples this is not surprising, since many of these are known to have cooled very rapidly. The lack of ordered feldspar in highlands samples (including lunar meteorites) reflects the lack of pervasive metamorphism similar to that experienced by the

  12. Thermal histories and crystal distributions in partly devitrified lunar glasses cooled by radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopper, R. W.; Onorato, P.; Uhlmann, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    Calculations of the expected crystallization behavior of selected lunar compositions (60095 and 14259) are presented. Knowledge of this behavior combined with measurements of the state of crystallinity in partially devitrified lunar samples permits the determination of the thermal history of the samples. The state of crystallinity of a specimen is described by a statistical crystal distribution function psi. The heat flow problems of a plate of opaque glass quenched on an aluminum block and of a semi-transparent glass sphere cooling by radiation are analyzed. The results are combined with laboratory measurements of the crystal growth velocity and the viscosity, and with theoretical expressions for the nucleation frequency (homogeneous and heterogeneous) to obtain psi. It is found that the calculated psi is much too large in comparison with laboratory experiments on lunar samples. Possible reasons for the discrepancy are discussed, and the most likely cause is that the assumed nucleation barrier is too small. It also appears likely that these materials have relatively few nucleating heterogeneities.

  13. Elasticity and anelasticity of microcrystalline aluminum samples having various deformation and thermal histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betekhtin, V. I.; Kadomtsev, A. G.; Kardashev, B. K.

    2006-08-01

    The effect of the amplitude of vibrational deformation on the elastic modulus and internal friction of microcrystalline aluminum samples produced by equal-channel angular pressing was studied. The samples have various deformation and thermal histories. The elastic and inelastic (microplastic) properties of the samples are investigated. As the degree of plastic deformation increases, the Young’s modulus E, the amplitude-independent decrement δi, and the microplastic flow stress σ increase. As the annealing temperature increases, the quantities δi and σ decrease noticeably and the modulus E exhibits a more complex behavior. The experimental data are discussed under the assumption that the dislocation mobility depends on both the spectrum of point defects and the internal stresses, whose level is determined by the degree of plastic deformation and the temperature of subsequent annealing. The concept of internal stresses is also used to analyze the data on the effect of the degree of deformation and annealing on the rupture strength of the samples.

  14. Thermal-history dependent magnetoelastic transition in (Mn,Fe){sub 2}(P,Si)

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, X. F. Dijk, N. H. van; Brück, E.; Caron, L.; Gercsi, Z.; Daoud-Aladine, A.

    2015-07-27

    The thermal-history dependence of the magnetoelastic transition in (Mn,Fe){sub 2}(P,Si) compounds has been investigated using high-resolution neutron diffraction. As-prepared samples display a large difference in paramagnetic-ferromagnetic (PM-FM) transition temperature compared to cycled samples. The initial metastable state transforms into a lower-energy stable state when the as-prepared sample crosses the PM-FM transition for the first time. This additional transformation is irreversible around the transition temperature and increases the energy barrier which needs to be overcome through the PM-FM transition. Consequently, the transition temperature on first cooling is found to be lower than on subsequent cycles characterizing the so-called “virgin effect.” High-temperature annealing can restore the cycled sample to the high-temperature metastable state, which leads to the recovery of the virgin effect. A model is proposed to interpret the formation and recovery of the virgin effect.

  15. A thermal history of the Proterozoic East Alligator River Terrain, N.T., Australia: a fission track study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koul, Sohan L.; Wilde, A. R.; Tickoo, Awtar K.

    1988-01-01

    Radiometric data indicate a major thermal event in Proterozoic rocks of the East Alligator River Terrain, at 1870 Ma. These data, together with metamorphic mineral assemblages, demonstrate peak temperatures in excess of 600 ° C, close to the melting temperature of more deeply buried rocks. A cooling rate following peak metamorphism of 3°C/Ma is suggested. Fission-track dates of peak metamorphic phases, however, reveal a thermal event (or events), after 1650 Ma, rather than the peak metamorphic event. This rise in temperature was the result of thermal blanketing of the metamorphic basement by Carpentarian sediments and anomalous radiogenic heat flow from underlying granitoid gneiss. The temperatures so generated (≥ 175 ° C) were insufficient to reset Rb-Sr and K-Ar systems, but are clearly in excess of F.T. annealing temperatures for all the phases investigated. A cooling history, extending over 1000 m.y. and reflecting gradual erosion of the sedimentary cover, is revealed. This history is consistent with the extraordinary tectonic stability of the region. The importance of F.T. studies in establishing a thermal history is underscored, particularly when maximum temperatures experienced were less than those required to reset Rb-Sr and K-Ar systems.

  16. Early thermal history of Rhea: the role of serpentinization and liquid state convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechowski, Leszek; Losiak, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Intorduction: Thermal history of Rhea from the beginning of accretion is investigated. The numerical model of convection combined with the parameterized theory is developed. Melting of the satellite's matter, gravitational differentiation and serpentinization of silicates are included. The role of the following parameters of the model is investigated: time of beginning of accretion, duration of accretion, viscosity of ice close to the melting point, activation energy in the formula for viscosity E, thermal conductivity of silicate component, ammonia content X, and energy of serpentinization. 1. Numerical model: In our calculations we use numerical model developed by Czechowski (2012) (see e.g. description in [1]). The model is based on parameterized theory of convection combined with 1-dimensional equation of the heat transfer in spherical coordinates: δT(r,t)- ρcp δt = div(k(r,T ) gradT (r,t))+ Q(r,T), where r is the radial distance (spherical coordinate), ρ is the density [kg m-3], cp [J kg1 K-1 ] is the specific heat, Q [W kg-1] is the heating rate, and k[W m-1 K-1] is the thermal conductivity. Q(r,t) includes sources and sinks of the heat. The equation is solved in time dependent region [0, R(t)]. During accretion the radius R(t) increases in time according to formula: R(t) = atfor tini tac , i.e. after the accretion (see e.g. [2]), where tinidenotes beginning of accretion and tac denotes duration of this process. If the Rayleigh number in the considered layer exceeds its critical value Racr then convection starts. It leads to effective heat transfer. The full description of convection is given by a velocity field and temperature distribution. However, we are interested in convection as a process of heat transport only. For solid state convection (SSC) heat transport can be described by dimensionless Nusselt number Nu. We use the following definition of the Nu: Nu= (True total surface heat flow)/(Total heat flow without convection). The heat transport by

  17. Influences of Neo-Pleistocene permafrost on thermal history of petromaternal Lower Jurassic Togur suite (Tomsk region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskorkina, A. A.; Isaev, V. I.; Fomin, A. N.

    2016-09-01

    Based on paleotemperature modeling, evaluation of Neo-Pleistocene permafrost rock thickness impact on geothermal regime of the petromaternal Togur deposits has been performed within the territory of oil fields of the Tomsk region (the southeast of Western Siberia). It has been stated that paleopermafrost with the thickness of about 300 m must be considered for appropriate reconstruction of geothermal history of petromaternal rocks in the south-east areas of West Siberia. This condition is relevant to a consistent consideration of thermal history of maternal deposits in course of assessment of resources by a volumetric- genetic method.

  18. Genetic test reporting enhances understanding of risk information and acceptance of prevention recommendations compared to family history-based counseling alone

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Jennifer M.; Aspinwall, Lisa G.; Stump, Tammy K.; Kohlmann, Wendy; Champine, Marjan; Leachman, Sancy A.

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown whether or why genetic test reporting confers benefits in the understanding and management of cancer risk beyond what patients learn from counseling based on family history. A prospective nonexperimental control group study compared participants from melanoma-prone families who underwent CDKN2A/p16 (p16) genetic testing (27 carriers, 38 noncarriers) to participants from equivalently melanoma-prone families known not to carry a deleterious p16 mutation (31 no-test controls). All participants received equivalent counseling concerning elevated lifetime melanoma risk and corresponding recommendations for prevention and screening. Both immediately and one month after counseling, participants receiving a genetic test result reported greater understanding of their risk, decreased derogation of the risk information, and greater personal applicability of prevention recommendations than no-test controls. Decreased derogation of risk information after test reporting predicted further increases in understanding of melanoma risk and applicability of prevention recommendations one month later. Results suggest unique benefits of genetic test reporting in promoting understanding and acceptance of information about hereditary cancer risk and its management. PMID:26178773

  19. Patchy Blazar Heating: Diversifying the Thermal History of the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberts, Astrid; Chang, Philip; Pfrommer, Christoph; Puchwein, Ewald; Broderick, Avery E.; Shalaby, Mohamad

    2015-09-01

    TeV-blazars potentially heat the intergalactic medium (IGM) as their gamma rays interact with photons of the extragalactic background light to produce electron-positron pairs, which lose their kinetic energy to the surrounding medium through plasma instabilities. This results in a heating mechanism that is only weakly sensitive to the local density, and therefore approximately spatially uniform, naturally producing an inverted temperature-density relation in underdense regions. In this paper we go beyond the approximation of uniform heating and quantify the heating rate fluctuations due to the clustered distribution of blazars and how this impacts the thermal history of the IGM. We analytically compute a filtering function that relates the heating rate fluctuations to the underlying dark matter density field. We implement it in the cosmological code GADGET-3 and perform large-scale simulations to determine the impact of inhomogeneous heating. We show that because of blazar clustering, blazar heating is inhomogeneous for z ≳ 2. At high redshift, the temperature-density relation shows an important scatter and presents a low temperature envelope of unheated regions, in particular at low densities and within voids. However, the median temperature of the IGM is close to that in the uniform case, albeit slightly lower at low redshift. We find that blazar heating is more complex than initially assumed and that the temperature-density relation is not unique. Our analytic model for the heating rate fluctuations couples well with large-scale simulations and provides a cost-effective alternative to subgrid models.

  20. 3D thermal history and maturity modelling of the Levant Basin and Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, Samer Bou; Ducros, Mathieu; Michel, Pauline; Nader, Fadi H.; Littke, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    The gas discoveries recorded in the Levant Basin in the last decade have redirected the industrial and academic communities' interest to this frontier basin and its surroundings. The reported gas in Miocene reservoirs has been assumed to be derived from biogenic sources, although little data has been published so far. The thickness of the sedimentary column and the presence of direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHI) observed in the seismic data suggest the presence of promising prospective thermogenic petroleum systems in deeper intervals in the Levant Basin and along its Margin. In this study we present a large scale 3D thermal history and maturity model of the Levant Basin and Margin, integrating all available calibration data, source rock information collected from onshore Lebanon, and published data. In the first part we will present the main input and assumptions that were made in terms of thicknesses, lithologies, and boundary conditions. In the second part we will discuss the analysed source rocks, their petroleum generation potential and their kinetics. In the third part we will present modelling results including depth maps for key isotherms in addition to transformation ratio and vitrinite reflectance maps for proven and speculative source rocks at different time steps. This will provide a comprehensive assessment of the potential thermogenic petroleum systems in the study area, and allow us to illustrate and discuss the differences between the basinal, marginal, and onshore part of the study area as well as the potential of the northern vis a vis the southern offshore Levant Basin. This model will also allow us to analyse the sensitivity of the system to the various poorly constrained parameters in frontier basins (e.g. crustal thickness, rifting phases, lithologies) and thus identify the most critical data to be collected for future exploration and de-risking strategies.

  1. The Sutter's Mill meteorite: Thermoluminescence data on thermal and metamorphic history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Derek W.; Beauford, Robert

    2014-11-01

    A piece of the Sutter's Mill meteorite, fragment SM2-1d, has been examined using thermoluminescence techniques to better understand its thermal and metamorphic history. The sample had very weak but easily measureable natural and induced thermoluminescence (TL) signals; the signal-to-noise ratio was better than 10. The natural TL was restricted to the high-temperature regions of the glow curve suggesting that the meteorite had been heated to approximately 300 °C within the time it takes for the TL signal to recover from a heating event, probably within the last 105 years. It is possible that this reflects heating during release from the parent body, close passage by the Sun, or heating during atmospheric passage. Of these three options, the least likely is the first, but the other possibilities are equally likely. It seems that temperatures of approximately 300 °C reached 5 or 6 mm into the meteorite, so that all but one of the small Sutter's Mill stones have been heated. The Dhajala normalized induced TL signal for SM2-1d is comparable to that of type 3.0 chondrites and is unlike normal CM chondrites, the class it most closely resembles, which do not have detectable TL sensitivity. The shape of the induced TL curve is comparable to other low-type ordinary, CV, and CO chondrites, in that it has a broad hummocky structure, but does not resemble any of them in detail. This suggests that Sutter's Mill is a unique, low-petrographic-type (3.0) chondrite.

  2. Comparing offshore and onshore thermal histories: low-T thermochronology of the Utsira High, western Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksienzyk, Anna K.; Jacobs, Joachim; Fossen, Haakon; Woznitza, Tobias; Wemmer, Klaus; Dunkl, István

    2016-04-01

    The Utsira High is a basement horst in the northern North Sea, flanked to the west and east by the Viking Graben and Stord Basin respectively. The basement is composed of Caledonian granitic and gabbroic rocks. Since Caledonian times, the North Sea region has been affected by extensional tectonics leading to rifting, active fault tectonics and uplift of basement blocks. Extensive drilling due to recent hydrocarbon exploration has made the basement of the Utsira High accessible for thermochronological investigations that allow a direct comparison with the results from onshore studies. Zircon (U-Th)/He, apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th)/He dating on seven samples from the Utsira High yielded Middle-Late Devonian, Late Permian-Late Jurassic and Middle Jurassic-Pliocene ages respectively, tracking cooling through successively lower closure temperatures and subsequent reheating during sedimentary burial since the Jurassic. Generally, basement rocks of the Utsira High reached near surface temperatures already in Carboniferous-Triassic times, much earlier than the oldest overlying sediments (Middle Jurassic-Cretaceous) might indicate. Onshore samples, on the other hand, generally cooled to near-surface temperatures in the Jurassic (coastal areas) or even later, in the Cretaceous-Cenozoic (inland areas). Only coastal areas experienced minor reburial followed by renewed exhumation in late Cretaceous-Cenozoic times. Both the basement of the Utsira High and onshore western Norway are strongly dissected by faults. K-Ar illite fault gouge dating shows that many of these faults were active during rifting. However, fault activity continued during the Cretaceous-Cenozoic, long after rifting in the North Sea had ceased. Large fault systems separate crustal blocks with distinct thermal histories, suggesting that uplift, erosion and landscape evolution along the North Sea rift margin were strongly fault-controlled.

  3. Thermal history influences diapause development in the solitary bee Megachile rotundata.

    PubMed

    Yocum, G D; Kemp, W P; Bosch, J; Knoblett, J N

    2006-01-01

    Respiration rate, time to pupation and the expression patterns of selected genes were examined during the diapause to post-diapause transition in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata held at constant 4 degrees C in winter storage. Respiration quotients were at or below 0.7 from December to May and then increased to over 0.8 in June and July. The time required for prepupae to reach the pupal stage following transfer to 29 degrees C decreased from 23 days in December to 10 days in July. HSP70 was expressed at a consistently high level in all the diapausing prepupae stored at 4 degrees C. In contrast, we demonstrated previously that HSP70 expression in diapausing prepupae maintained under field conditions began decreasing after December and was expressed at trace levels in the June samples. Transferring prepupae stored at 4 to 25 degrees C at monthly intervals from December to July induced a significant decrease in HSP70. Levels of HSC70 showed no changes during the transition to post-diapause development in prepupae maintained at 4 degrees C. Transferring the prepupae to 25 degrees C during the April-June time interval elicited an increase in HSC70 expression. HSP90 was expressed at a consistent level in prepupae stored at 4 degrees C but decreased to very low levels after being transferred to 25 degrees C in December-February prepupae: no decrease was noted in the April-July prepupae. Actin was expressed at trace levels in the diapausing prepupae maintained at 4 degrees C and increased slightly in the post-diapausing pupae. Transferring prepupae stored at 4 to 25 degrees C at monthly intervals from December to July induced an increase in actin expression. These results indicate that the level of gene expression for selected genes in diapausing and post-diapause bees is highly influenced by their thermal history. PMID:17049551

  4. Double Diffusive Layering In The Early Earth's Mantle- Consequences For Thermal History And Surface Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, U.; Dude, S.

    2011-12-01

    The thermal history of the Earth, it's chemical differentiation and also the reaction of the interior with the atmosphere is largely determined by convective processes within the Earth's mantle. A simple physical model, resembling the situation, shortly after core formation, consists of a compositionally stably stratified mantle, due to magma ocean differentiation , which is heated from below and/or cooled from above. Additionally internal heat sources will serve to power the mantle dynamics. Under such circumstances double diffusive convection will eventually lead to self organized layer formation, even without the existence of jumps is material properties. We have conducted 2D and 3D numerical experiments in Cartesian and spherical geometry, taking into account mantle realistic values, especially a strong temperature dependent viscosity. The experiments show that in a wide parameter rage distinct convective layers evolve in this scenario. The layering strongly controls the heat loss from the core. In the most intensely explored scenario, convection starts at the core-mantle boundary and a stack of layers grow from the lower mantle to the top. Mobilization of the surface occurs after a time span of about 2.5 Gyears. We observe several events of intermittent breakdown of individual layers. This can potentially explain periods of strongly increasing heat flow at the Earth's surface. Alternative models of magma ocean differentiation suggest a freezing of the magma ocean from below. Under such conditions an initially unstable situation may emerge. We observe an initial Rayleigh Taylor instability, again followed by a phase of layered convection, as described above.

  5. Thermal evolution of pre-adult life history traits, geometric size and shape, and developmental stability in Drosophila subobscura.

    PubMed

    Santos, M; Brites, D; Laayouni, H

    2006-11-01

    Replicated lines of Drosophila subobscura originating from a large outbred stock collected at the estimated Chilean epicentre (Puerto Montt) of the original New World invasion were allowed to evolve under controlled conditions of larval crowding for 3.5 years at three temperature levels (13, 18 and 22 degrees C). Several pre-adult life history traits (development time, survival and competitive ability), adult life history related traits (wing size, wing shape and wing-aspect ratio), and wing size and shape asymmetries were measured at the three temperatures. Cold-adapted (13 degrees C) populations evolved longer development times and showed lower survival at the highest developmental temperature. No divergence for wing size was detected following adaptation to temperature extremes (13 and 22 degrees C), in agreement with earlier observations, but wing shape changes were obvious as a result of both thermal adaptation and development at different temperatures. However, the evolutionary trends observed for the wing-aspect ratio were inconsistent with an adaptive hypothesis. There was some indication that wing shape asymmetry has evolutionarily increased in warm-adapted populations, which suggests that there is additive genetic variation for fluctuating asymmetry and that it can evolve under rapid environmental changes caused by thermal stress. Overall, our results cast strong doubts on the hypothesis that body size itself is the target of selection, and suggest that pre-adult life history traits are more closely related to thermal adaptation.

  6. The Yukon Flats Cretaceous(?)-Tertiary Extensional Basin, East-Central Alaska: Burial and Thermal History Modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    One-dimensional burial and thermal history modeling of the Yukon Flats basin, east-central Alaska, was conducted as part of an assessment of the region's undiscovered oil and gas resources. No deep exploratory wells have been drilled in the Yukon Flats region, and the subsurface geology of the basin is inferred from seismic reflection, gravity and magnetic surveys, and studies of shallow core holes in the basin and outcrops in the surrounding region. A thick sequence of Upper Cretaceous(?) and Cenozoic nonmarine sedimentary rocks is believed to fill the basin; coal and organic-rich mudstone and shale within this sequence represent potential hydrocarbon source rocks. The burial and thermal history models presented here represent the sole source of information on the thermal maturity of these potential source rocks at depth. We present four alternative burial history scenarios for a hypothetical well through the deepest portion of Yukon Flats basin. They differ from each other in the thicknesses of Upper Cretaceous and Cenozoic strata, the timing of initial basin subsidence, and the timing of inferred unconformities. The burial modeling results suggest a present-day depth to the oil window of approximately 6,000 feet.

  7. Development of acceptance criteria for batches of silane primer for external tank thermal protection system bonding applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikes, F.

    1985-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is currently the best technique for observing hydrolytic changes in DC 1200 silane the primers caused by moisture in the atmosphere. To further prove that FTIR can be used as a criterion test for acceptance of silane primer lots, intensities of the FTIR OH- band are being compared with primer adhesive bond strength using a mechanical test suggested by NASA. Results of tests for shear strength and Oh-absorption are tabulated and compared with FTIR absorption intensities in the OH-region.

  8. Thermal Histories of PGE-rich Metal Particles in a Vigarano CAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, I.; Grossman, L.

    1993-07-01

    2 cannot be reconciled with a single thermal history and thus require separate environments for their early thermal evolution. References: [1] MacPherson G. J. and Davis A. M. (1993) GCA, 57, 31-243. [2] Casanova I. and Grossman L. (1993) LPSC, XXIV, 257- 258. [3] Blum J. D. et al. (1989) GCA, 53, 483-489. [4] Simon S. B. and Grossman L. (1992) EPSL, 110, 67-75. [5] Blum J. D. et al. (1989) GCA, 53, 543-556. [6] Dean D. C. and Goldstein J. I. (1986) Met. Trans., 17A, 1131-1138. [7] MacPherson G. J. et al. (1984) J. Geol., 92, 289-305.

  9. Development of acceptance criteria for batches of silane primer for external tank thermal protection system bonding applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikes, F.

    1984-01-01

    Silane primers for use as thermal protection on external tanks were subjected to various analytic techniques to determine the most effective testing method for silane lot evaluation. The analytic methods included high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, thermogravimetry (TGA), and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It is suggested that FTIR be used as the method for silane lot evaluation. Chromatograms, TGA profiles, bar graphs showing IR absorbances, and FTIR spectra are presented.

  10. Burial and thermal history of the central Appalachian basin, based on three 2-D models of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, Elisabeth L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Three regional-scale, cross sectional (2-D) burial and thermal history models are presented for the central Appalachian basin based on the detailed geologic cross sections of Ryder and others (2004), Crangle and others (2005), and Ryder, R.T., written communication. The models integrate the available thermal and geologic information to constrain the burial, uplift, and erosion history of the region. The models are restricted to the relatively undeformed part of the basin and extend from the Rome trough in West Virginia and Pennsylvania northwestward to the Findlay arch in Ohio. This study expands the scope of previous work by Rowan and others (2004) which presented a preliminary burial/thermal history model for a cross section (E-E') through West Virginia and Ohio. In the current study, the burial/thermal history model for E-E' is revised, and integrated with results of two additional cross sectional models (D-D' and C-C'). The burial/thermal history models provide calculated thermal maturity (Ro%) values for the entire stratigraphic sequence, including hydrocarbon source rocks, along each of the three cross sections. In contrast, the Ro and conodont CAI data available in the literature are sparse and limited to specific stratigraphic intervals. The burial/thermal history models also provide the regional temperature and pressure framework that is needed to model hydrocarbon migration.

  11. The distribution of the thermally tolerant symbiont lineage (Symbiodinium clade D) in corals from Hawaii: correlations with host and the history of ocean thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Stat, Michael; Pochon, Xavier; Franklin, Erik C; Bruno, John F; Casey, Kenneth S; Selig, Elizabeth R; Gates, Ruth D

    2013-05-01

    Spatially intimate symbioses, such as those between scleractinian corals and unicellular algae belonging to the genus Symbiodinium, can potentially adapt to changes in the environment by altering the taxonomic composition of their endosymbiont communities. We quantified the spatial relationship between the cumulative frequency of thermal stress anomalies (TSAs) and the taxonomic composition of Symbiodinium in the corals Montipora capitata, Porites lobata, and Porites compressa across the Hawaiian archipelago. Specifically, we investigated whether thermally tolerant clade D Symbiodinium was in greater abundance in corals from sites with high frequencies of TSAs. We recovered 2305 Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences from 242 coral colonies in lagoonal reef habitats at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, French Frigate Shoals, and Kaneohe Bay, Oahu in 2007. Sequences were grouped into 26 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 12 OTUs associated with Montipora and 21 with Porites. Both coral genera associated with Symbiodinium in clade C, and these co-occurred with clade D in M. capitata and clade G in P. lobata. The latter represents the first report of clade G Symbiodinium in P. lobata. In M. capitata (but not Porites spp.), there was a significant correlation between the presence of Symbiodinium in clade D and a thermal history characterized by high cumulative frequency of TSAs. The endogenous community composition of Symbiodinium and an association with clade D symbionts after long-term thermal disturbance appear strongly dependent on the taxa of the coral host. PMID:23762518

  12. Thermal history of the H-chondrite parent body: Implications for metamorphic grade and accretionary time-scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnereau, Marc; Toplis, Michael J.; Baratoux, David; Guignard, Jérémy

    2013-10-01

    Multiple temperature-age constraints for eight H-chondrite samples have been used to provide insight into the thermal history of their parent-body through combination with numerical models of thermal evolution assuming internal heating by 26Al and conductive cooling. The effect of spreading accretion out over time is the principal focus of this work. A wide range of body size and date of accretion is systematically tested for different values of accretion rate in order to quantify and illustrate the parameter space that is consistent with the available thermo-chronological data. We conclude that the H-chondrite samples considered have a thermal history consistent with a parent body that at some stage had a concentric 'onion-shell' internal structure. That body had a radius no larger than 130 km, and accretion most probably took place over a time interval on the order of 0.0-0.2 Myr, approximately 2 Myr after CAI condensation. In any case, the time interval of accretion is unlikely to have been more than 0.5 Myr supporting evidence in favour of rapid accretion, possibly through reassembly of the fragments of an earlier generation of bodies. Furthermore, the H-chondrites studied here are inferred to have come from a wide depth range within the body where they experienced metamorphism, indicating that preservation of the onion-shell structure is unlikely. The presence of an insulating regolith does not modify this conclusion, as appropriate thermal histories for the three H6 samples considered cannot be reproduced at depths near the surface. Asteroid 6-Hebe may be the parent body of the H-chondrites, but the high bulk density of the latter is difficult to reconcile with a 'rubble-pile' structure of pure H-chondrite material. Finally, optimized thermal histories are used to constrain the temperatures characterizing boundaries between petrological types (800, 1000, and 1140 K for the H3/4, H4/5, and H5/6 boundaries respectively). In detail, the type 6 samples studied

  13. Constraints on the Thermal History of Martian Meteorites ALH84001 and MIL03346 by Single Crystal XRD, Electron Microprobe and Mössbauer Analyses of Ortho- and Clinopyroxene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeneghetti, M. C.; Fioretti, A. M.; Cámara, F.; Carraro, A.; McCammon, C.; Tazzoli, V.

    2007-07-01

    Constraints on the thermal history of meteorites can be established by estimating the Fe2+-Mg order degree in their pyroxene using single-crystal XRD. We present here the data obtained on martian meteorites ALH84001 and MIL03346.

  14. Thermal history of the Krishna-Godavari basin, India: Constraints from apatite fission track thermochronology and organic maturity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Himansu S.; Raab, Matthias J.; Kohn, Barry P.; Gleadow, Andrew J. W.; Bal, Kiron D.

    2013-09-01

    The Krishna-Godavari (KG) basin, a passive margin Late Carboniferous to Holocene basin along the rifted east coast of India, includes the deltaic and inter-deltaic regions of the Krishna and Godavari rivers onshore and extends into the offshore. It is one of India's premier hydrocarbon-bearing basins. In an attempt to better understand the thermal history of the basin, apatite fission track (AFT) data has been obtained from six exploration wells (five onshore and one offshore). AFT thermal history models as well as other thermal indicators e.g. vitrinite reflectance (VR), Rock-Eval Tmax data reveal that the host rocks are currently at their maximum post-depositional temperatures and that any possible heating related to small-scale tectonism or rifting episodes in the basin bears little significance on the maturation of the sediments. In the case of one borehole (M-1) however, the organic maturity data reveals a period of Oligocene cooling across an unconformity when ∼1000 m of section was eroded due to falling sea-level. This information offers the potential for improved basin modeling of the KG basin.

  15. Thermal acclimation and nutritional history affect the oxidation of different classes of exogenous nutrients in Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus.

    PubMed

    McCue, Marshall D; Voigt, Christian C; Jefimow, Małgorzata; Wojciechowski, Michał S

    2014-11-01

    During acclimatization to winter, changes in morphology and physiology combined with changes in diet may affect how animals use the nutrients they ingest. To study (a) how thermal acclimation and (b) nutritional history affect the rates at which Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) oxidize different classes of dietary nutrients, we conducted two trials in which we fed hamsters one of three (13) C-labeled compounds, that is, glucose, leucine, or palmitic acid. We predicted that under acute cold stress (3 hr at 2°C) hamsters previously acclimated to cold temperatures (10°C) for 3 weeks would have higher resting metabolic rate (RMR) and would oxidize a greater proportion of dietary fatty acids than animals acclimated to 21°C. We also investigated how chronic nutritional stress affects how hamsters use dietary nutrients. To examine this, hamsters were fed four different diets (control, low protein, low lipid, and low-glycemic index) for 2 weeks. During cold challenges, hamsters previously acclimated to cold exhibited higher thermal conductance and RMR, and also oxidized more exogenous palmitic acid during the postprandial phase than animals acclimated to 21°C. In the nutritional stress trial, hamsters fed the low protein diet oxidized more exogenous glucose, but not more exogenous palmitic acid than the control group. The use of (13) C-labeled metabolic tracers combined with breath testing demonstrated that both thermal and nutritional history results in significant changes in the extent to which animals oxidize dietary nutrients during the postprandial period.

  16. Thermal history and evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin in northern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menges, Daniel; Karl, Markus; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton

    2013-04-01

    From Permo-Carboniferous to Mid Jurassic northern Namibia was affected by deep erosion of the Damara Orogen, Permo-Triassic collisional processes along the southern margin of Gondwana and eastern margin of Africa (Coward and Daly 1984, Daly et al. 1991), and the deposition of the Nama Group sediments and the Karoo megasequence. The lithostratigraphic units consist of Proterozoic and Cambrian metamorphosed rocks with ages of 534 (7) Ma to 481 (25) Ma (Miller 1983, Haack 1983), as well as Mesozoic sedimentary and igneous rocks. The Early Jurassic Karoo flood basalt lavas erupted rapidly at 183 (1) Ma (Duncan et al. 1997). The Early Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka flood basalts (132 (1) Ma) and mafic dike swarms mark the rift stage of the opening of the South Atlantic (Renne et al. 1992, Milner et al. 1995, Stewart et al. 1996, Turner et al. 1996). The "passive" continental margin in northern Namibia is a perfect location to quantify exhumation and uplift rates, model the long-term landscape evolution and provide information on the influence of mantle processes on a longer time scale. The poster will provide first information on the long-term landscape evolution and thermochronological data. References Coward, M. P. and Daly, M. C., 1984. Crustal lineaments and shear zones in Africa: Their relationships to plate movements, Precambrian Research 24: 27-45. Duncan, R., Hooper, P., Rehacek, J., March, J. and Duncan, A. (1997). The timing and duration of the Karoo igneous event, southern Gondwana, Journal of Geophysical Research 102: 18127-18138. Haack, U., 1983. Reconstruction of the cooling history of the Damara Orogen by correlation of radiometric ages with geography and altitude, in H. Martin and F. W. Eder (eds), Intracontinental fold belts, Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 837-884. Miller, R. M., 1983. Evolution of the Damara Orogen, Vol. 11, Geological Society, South Africa Spec. Pub.. Milner, S. C., le Roex, A. P. and O'Connor, J. M., 1995. Age of Mesozoic igneous rocks in

  17. Ar-39-Ar-40 Ages of Euerites and the Thermal History of Asteroid 4-Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, Daniel H.

    2002-01-01

    Eucrite meteorites are igneous rocks that derive from a large asteroid, probably 4 Vesta. Prior studies have shown that after eucrites formed, most were subsequently metamorphosed to temperatures up to equal to or greater than 800 C, and much later many were brecciated and heated by large impacts into the parent body surface. The uncommon basaltic, unbrecciated eucrites also formed near the surface but presumably escaped later brecciation, whereas the cumulate eucrites formed at depth where metamorphism may have persisted for a considerable period. To further understand the complex HED parent body thermal history, we determined new Ar-39-Ar-40 ages for nine eucrites classified as basaltic but unbrecciated, six eucrites classified as cumulate, and several basaltic-brecciated eucrites. Relatively precise Ar-Ar ages of two cumulate eucrites (Moama and EET87520) and four unbrecciated eucrites give a tight cluster at 4.48 +/1 0.01 Gyr. Ar-Ar ages of six additional unbrecciated eucrites are consistent with this age, within their larger age uncertainties. In contrast, available literature data on Pb-Pb isochron ages of four cumulate eucrites and one unbrecciated eucrite vary over 4.4-4.515 Gyr, and Sm-147 - Nd-143 isochron ages of four cumulate and three unbrecciated eucrites vary over 4.41-4.55 Gyr. Similar Ar-Ar ages for cumulate and unbrecciated eucrites imply that cumulate eucrites do not have a younger formation age than basaltic eucrites, as previously proposed. Rather, we suggest that these cumulate and unbrecciated eucrites resided at depth where parent body temperatures were sufficiently high to cause the K-Ar and some other chronometers to remain open diffusion systems. From the strong clustering of Ar-Ar ages at approximately 4.48 Gyr, we propose that these meteorites were excavated from depth in a single large impact event approximately 4.48 Gyr ago, which quickly cooled the samples and started the K-Ar chronometer. A large (approximately 460 km) crater

  18. Burial history, thermal history and hydrocarbon generation modelling of the Jurassic source rocks in the basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep and Outer Carpathians (SE Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosakowski, Paweł; Wróbel, Magdalena

    2012-08-01

    Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of hydrocarbon generation were modelled for the Jurassic source rocks in the basement of the Carpathian Foredeep and marginal part of the Outer Carpathians. The area of investigation was bounded to the west by Kraków, to the east by Rzeszów. The modelling was carried out in profiles of wells: Będzienica 2, Dębica 10K, Góra Ropczycka 1K, Goleszów 5, Nawsie 1, Pławowice E1 and Pilzno 40. The organic matter, containing gas-prone Type III kerogen with an admixture of Type II kerogen, is immature or at most, early mature to 0.7 % in the vitrinite reflectance scale. The highest thermal maturity is recorded in the south-eastern part of the study area, where the Jurassic strata are buried deeper. The thermal modelling showed that the obtained organic matter maturity in the initial phase of the "oil window" is connected with the stage of the Carpathian overthrusting. The numerical modelling indicated that the onset of hydrocarbon generation from the Middle Jurassic source rocks was also connected with the Carpathian thrust belt. The peak of hydrocarbon generation took place in the orogenic stage of the overthrusting. The amount of generated hydrocarbons is generally small, which is a consequence of the low maturity and low transformation degree of kerogen. The generated hydrocarbons were not expelled from their source rock. An analysis of maturity distribution and transformation degree of the Jurassic organic matter shows that the best conditions for hydrocarbon generation occurred most probably in areas deeply buried under the Outer Carpathians. It is most probable that the "generation kitchen" should be searched for there.

  19. Isotope Geochemistry of Calcite Coatings and the Thermal History of the Unsaturated Zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    B.D. Marshall; J.F. Whelan

    2000-07-27

    Calcite and opal coatings found on fracture footwalls and lithophysal cavity bottoms in the volcanic section at Yucca Mountain (exposed in a tunnel) contain a record of gradual chemical and isotopic changes that have occurred in the unsaturated zone. The thin (less than 6 cm) coatings are composed primarily of calcite, opal, chalcedony, and quartz. Fluid inclusions in calcite that homogenize at greater than ambient temperatures provide impetus for geochronologic studies in order to determine the thermal history. In the welded Topopah Spring Tuff (12.7 Ma), U-Pb ages of opal and chalcedony layers provide evidence of a long history of deposition throughout the past 10 m.y. However, these ages can constrain the ages of associated calcite layers only in samples with an easily interpretable microstratigraphy. Strontium isotope ratios in calcite increase with microstratigraphic position from the base up to the outermost surface of the coatings. The strontium incorporated in these coatings records the systematic change in pore-water isotopic composition due to water-rock interaction primarily in the overlying nonwelded tuffs. A one-dimensional advection-reaction model simulates strontium isotope ratios measured in pore water extracted from core in three vertical boreholes adjacent to the tunnel. By calculating the strontium isotope compositions of the rocks at various past times, the model predicts a history of the strontium isotope ratios in the water that matches the record in the calcite and therefore provides approximate ages. Oxygen isotope ratios measured in calcite gradually increase with decreasing model strontium age. Assuming that the oxygen isotope ratio of the percolating water was relatively constant, this trend indicates a gradual cooling of the rocks over millions of years, in agreement with thermal modeling of magma beneath the 12-Ma Timber Mountain caldera just north of Yucca Mountain. This model predicts that temperatures significantly exceeding current

  20. Maternal thermal environment induces plastic responses in the reproductive life history of oviparous lizards.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liang; Sun, Bao-Jun; Li, Shu-Ran; Sha, Wei; Du, Wei-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive plasticity may shift phenotypic traits close to a new optimum for directional selection and probably facilitates adaptive evolution in new environments. However, such plasticity has rarely been reported in life-history evolution, despite overwhelming evidence of life-history variation both among and within species. In this study, the temperatures experienced by gravid females of Scincella modesta were manipulated to identify maternally induced plasticity in reproductive traits and the significance of such changes in the evolution of life history. Consistent with the geographic pattern of life history, the study demonstrated that low temperatures delayed egg oviposition, resulting in a more advanced embryonic developmental stage at oviposition and shorter incubation periods compared with warm temperatures. In addition, females maintained at low temperatures produced larger eggs and hence heavier hatchlings than those at warm temperatures. This study demonstrated that environmental temperatures can induce plastic responses in egg retention and offspring size, and these maternally mediated changes in reproductive life history seem to be adaptive in the light of latitudinal clines of these traits in natural populations.

  1. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Thermal histories of Mercury and the Moon. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    To determine a planet's thermal history, a wide range of data is necessary. These data include remote sensing results, photogeologic evidence, magnetic field and remanent magnetization data, composition and ages of samples, and physical parameters of the planet and its orbit. Few of these data form unambiguous constraints for thermal models of Mercury. Igneous Chronology as the time history of the differentiation and igneous activity, is defined. Igneous Chronology is used here in the sense of the apparent igneous or relative chronology of geologic events, such as plains formation (through whatever mechanism) relative to the crater production and tectonic history (lineament and scarp formation).

  2. Thermal history of the periphery of the Junggar Basin, Northwestern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, J.D.; Yang, J.; Pu, F.

    1994-01-01

    Geochemical analysis of rock core samples show that the basin periphery has experienced low thermal stress; present-day heat flows are in the range of 25-35 mW/m2 and have not been significantly higher than the worldwide mean of approx. 63 mW/m2 since the mid-Permian. Present day heat flows were determined from corrected borehole temperatures and rock thermal conductivities. Paleo-heat flows were determined by first-order reaction kinetic modeling of several geochemical paleothermometers (vitrinite reflectance, clay mineral diagenesis and relative proportions of sterane and hopane biological marker diastereomers). ?? 1994.

  3. Accumulation of organic matter in the in the Rome trough of the Appalachian basin and its subsequent thermal history

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, J.B.; Faure, G.

    1997-03-01

    We used geochemical data to examine the origin and preservation of organic matter contained in the lower part of the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale formation and the Rhinestreet Shale Member of the West Falls Formation (Devonian) in Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The thermal history of the organic matter was determined by relating relative temperatures experienced by the organic matter to the geologic setting. The organic matter in these formations is predominantly marine in origin and was most probably derived largely from algal organisms. Although the rate of production of marine organic matter may have been uniform within the basin, its preservation apparently was controlled by the existence of a set of fault-bounded anoxic subbasins associated with the Rome trough, a Cambrian structural complex. These subbasins apparently were anoxic because they limited oxygen recharge by circulating waters. Preservation of organic matter was also enhanced by periodic blooms of the alga Tasmanites and similar organisms in the waters above the subbasins during both early Huron and Rhinestreet deposition. A significant negative correlation was identified between the vitrinite reflectance peak temperature, and integrated measure of the thermal history of a rock, and the hydrogen index, a measure of the remaining hydrocarbon-generation potential of kerogen. Although peak temperatures were controlled by burial depth, excess heating occurred locally, perhaps by hot brines rising from depth through fractures associated with major structures in the study area.

  4. Computer program determines thermal environment and temperature history of lunar orbiting space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, D. E.; Mitchell, K. L.

    1967-01-01

    Program computes the thermal environment of a spacecraft in a lunar orbit. The quantities determined include the incident flux /solar and lunar emitted radiation/, total radiation absorbed by a surface, and the resulting surface temperature as a function of time and orbital position.

  5. Thermal relics in modified cosmologies: Bounds on evolution histories of the early Universe and cosmological boosts for PAMELA

    SciTech Connect

    Catena, R.; Fornengo, N.; Pato, M.; Pieri, L.; Masiero, A.

    2010-06-15

    Alternative cosmologies, based on extensions of general relativity, predict modified thermal histories in the early Universe during the pre-big bang nucleosynthesis era, an epoch which is not directly constrained by cosmological observations. When the expansion rate is enhanced with respect to the standard case, thermal relics typically decouple with larger relic abundances. The correct value of the relic abundance is therefore obtained for larger annihilation cross sections, as compared to standard cosmology. A direct consequence is that indirect detection rates are enhanced. Extending previous analyses of ours, we derive updated astrophysical bounds on the dark matter annihilation cross sections and use them to constrain alternative cosmologies in the pre-big bang nucleosynthesis era. We also determine the characteristics of these alternative cosmologies in order to provide the correct value of relic abundance for a thermal relic for the (large) annihilation cross section required to explain the PAMELA results on the positron fraction, therefore providing a ''cosmological boost'' solution to the dark matter interpretation of the PAMELA data.

  6. Thermal history, chemical composition and relationship of comets to the origin of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Leschine, S. B.; Schloerb, F. P.

    1980-01-01

    The role of thermal processes in determining the chemical composition of comets is considered, and implications of possible cometary constituents for the origin and evolution of life on earth are discussed. It is shown that the inclusion of short-lived Al-26 from a nearby supernova explosion into cometary nuclei could lead to comets with surfaces cool enough to retain H2O and interiors warm enough for thermal processing to occur, with the production of complex organic molecules such as amino acids and nucleic acid bases. It is thus suggested that comets may have played a part in seeding the primitive earth with biological polymers capable of self-replication or of evolving towards that capability, and may even be responsible for the subsequent introduction of organic material capable of infecting already existing cells.

  7. History-dependent thermal expansion in NbO{sub 2}F

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, Angus P.; Josefsberg, Ryan E.; Gallington, Leighanne C.; Morelock, Cody R.; Monaco, Christopher M.

    2014-05-01

    Materials with cubic ReO{sub 3}-type structures are of interest for their low or negative thermal expansion characteristics. TaO{sub 2}F is known to display almost zero thermal expansion over a wide temperature range. On heating NbO{sub 2}F, its volume coefficient of thermal expansion decreases from ∼+45 ppm K{sup −1} at 100 K to almost zero at 400 K. NbO{sub 2}F is cubic between 100 and 500 K. Samples of “NbO{sub 2}F” prepared by the digestion of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} in aqueous HF followed by mild drying contain hydroxyl defects and metal vacancies. On heating, they can undergo irreversible chemical changes while maintaining a cubic ReO{sub 3}-type structure. The possibility of hydroxyl defect incorporation should be considered when preparing oxyfluorides for evaluation as battery materials. - Graphical abstract: “NbO{sub 2}F” prepared by the digestion of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} in HF contains cation vacancies and hydroxyl groups. It undergoes irreversible changes on heating to low temperatures, unlike NbO{sub 2}F prepared by the solid state reaction of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and NbF{sub 5}. - Highlights: • The digestion of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} in aqueous HF followed by mild drying does not produce NbO{sub 2}F. • The ReO{sub 3}-type product from the HF digestion of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} contains metal vacancies and hydroxyl. • The thermal expansion coefficient of NbO{sub 2}F decreases on heating and approaches zero at ∼400 K.

  8. Thermal history of comets during residence in the Oort cloud - Effect of radiogenic heating in combination with the very low thermal conductivity of amorphous ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haruyama, Jun'ichi; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Mizutani, Hitoshi; Greenberg, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The thermal history of long-period comets initially composed of amorphous ice is studied. It is shown that such comets with a small nucleus thermal conductivity (kappa) experience a runaway increase in the internal temperature during residence in the Oort cloud. The temperature increase is a result of rapid release of the latent heat at crystallization triggered by gradual heating due to decay of radioactive nuclides. The time of the runaway temperature increase is about ten to a hundred million years after the formation of the nucleus depending on the fraction of refractory grains which contain radioactive nuclides. Most of the amorphous ice in the nuclides except just beneath the surface transforms into crystalline ice due to the runaway temperature increase. This implies that the ice in short-period comets is crystalline from the initial time when the long-period comet becomes a short-period one. In comets with large kappa the temperature does not rise much compared to the small kappa case and the initial amorphous ice is preserved. A criterion for the crystallization of the nucleus ice is derived.

  9. History of the 185-/189-D thermal hydraulics laboratory and its effects on reactor operations at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S.

    1994-09-01

    The 185-D deaeration building and the 189-D refrigeration building were constructed at Hanford during 1943 and 1944. Both buildings were constructed as part of the influent water cooling system for D reactor. The CMS studies eliminated the need for 185-D function. Early gains in knowledge ended the original function of the 189-D building mission. In 1951, 185-D and 189-D were converted to a thermal-hydraulic laboratory. The experiments held in the thermal-hydraulic lab lead to historic changes in Hanford reactor operations. In late 1951, the exponential physics experiments were moved to the 189-D building. In 1958, new production reactor experiments were begun in 185/189-D. In 1959, Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor experiments were added to the 185/189-D facility. By 1960, the 185/189-D thermal hydraulics laboratory was one of the few full service facilities of its type in the nation. During the years 1961--1963 tests continued in the facility in support of existing reactors, new production reactors, and the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor. In 1969, Fast Flux Test Facility developmental testings began in the facility. Simulations in 185/189-D building aided in the N Reactor repairs in the 1980`s. In 1994 the facility was nominated to the National Register of Historic Places, because of its pioneering role over many years in thermal hydraulics, flow studies, heat transfer, and other reactor coolant support work. During 1994 and 1995 it was demolished in the largest decontamination and decommissioning project thus far in Hanford Site history.

  10. Contribution of the RSCM geothermometry to understanding the thermal history of the Hajjar deposit (Guemassa massif, Morocco).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delchini, S.; Lahfid, A.; Ramboz, C.; Branquet, Y.; Maacha, L.

    2015-12-01

    The knowledge of the thermal history of rocks is a key point for reconstructing the history of basins or mountain belts for mining or petroleum industries. Conventional techniques such as mineralogy, isotopic analysis, provide basic data concerning the maturity degree of organic matter. Recent new geothermometric approach based on the Raman Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous Materials (RSCM) has been developed. This approach allows successfully estimating peak temperatures of advanced diagenesis to high-grade metamorphic rocks. The aim of this study is mainly to apply the RSCM geothermometry for 3D paleotemperatures cartography in the Guemessa area, a Hercynian massif located at 35 Km SW of Marrakech, Morocco. This area composed of the carboniferous metasediments, underwent tectonic, metamorphic and hydrothermal events that explain the presence of several base metal deposits like Zn-Pb-Cu Hajjar mine. Combining RSCM data and classical methods of thermometry like fluid inclusions and chlorite thermometry will allow a good understanding of thermal history of Hajjar deposits. The samples used in this study were collected around the Hajjar mine and from different depths in the Hajjar body collected in the footwall and hangingwall of the massive ore. Our peak temperature estimates show values superior to 500°C. These temperatures differ from the ones obtained by other classical methods, which are not higher than 450°C. Nevertheless, fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures of 450°C represent minimum trapping temperature conditions, since the fluids were trapped above boiling conditions. Also, 450°C represents minimum thermic condition for the biotite isograd. Higher Raman temperatures obtained in this work confirm the hypothesis of a late heat flow related to a deep granitic intrusion. This intrusion could be closer to the Hajjar deposit which would explain the higher Raman temperature around the mineralization. It is important to properly evaluate the consequences of

  11. The crystal structure and thermal history of orthopyroxene from lunar anorthosite 15415

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T.; Stephen, Huebner J.; Konnert, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A single crystal of untwinned orthopyroxene from lunar anorthosite sample 15415, with composition (Mg1.14Fe0.80Mn0.02Ca0.04)(Si1.97Al0.03)O6, has a unit cell in space group Pbca with a = 18.310(15) A ??, b = 8.904(10) A ??, c = 5.214(7) A ??, containing 2 formula units. A set of 742 counter-measured intensity data made with MoK?? radiation has been used to refine the crystal structure in isotropic thermal mode to R = 0.116. Anisotropic refinement led to R = 0.092, but thermal parameters are distorted by non-random errors resulting from poor crystal texture. The resulting structure is in close agreement with that obtained by Ghose [9] for a hypersthene from Greenland. A parameter q, which gives (MgqFe1-q) for cation site M(1) and (Mg1.14-qFeq-0.18Ca0.04) for site M(2), was included in the least-squares analysis, yielding q = 0.90(1). This orthopyroxene has the high degree of cation order expected of pyroxenes subjected to Apollonian metamorphism at lower than 500-600??C. No evidence exists for a subsequent thermal event of sufficient intensity to disorder the pyroxene. On the basis of previous laboratory studies of argon-release patterns of lunar plagioclase and order-disorder kinetics of terrestrial pyroxenes, we attribute the reported isotopic age (3.9-4.1 AE) to cessation of metamorphism, perhaps caused by impact excavation. ?? 1978.

  12. History of Uranium-233(sup233U)Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant. In support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moment, R.L.; Gibbs, F.E.; Freiboth, C.J.

    1999-04-01

    This report documents the processing of Uranium-233 at the Rocky Flats Plant (Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site). The information may be used to meet Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC)and for determining potential Uranium-233 content in applicable residue waste streams.

  13. Apollo 14 mineral ages and the thermal history of the Fra Mauro formation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compston, W.; Vernon, M. J.; Berry, H.; Rudowski, R.; Gray, C. M.; Ware, N.; Chappell, B. W.; Kaye, M.

    1972-01-01

    The thermal inertia of the Fra Mauro formation limits its rate of cooling. The calculations of Jaeger (1961) for the cooling of an extrusive sheet are used to estimate the time required for a central temperature drop of 10%. This time is found to be about 45 years. For a 90% temperature drop, the time is about 200 years. Analytical methods used in the investigations are discussed together with the diffusion of Rb and Sr within lunar basalt. Isochron diagrams for various minerals are presented.

  14. The age and thermal history of Cerro Rico de Potosi, Bolivia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, C.G.; Zartman, R.E.; McKee, E.H.; Rye, R.O.; Naeser, C.W.; Sanjines, V.O.; Ericksen, G.E.; Tavera, V.F.

    1996-01-01

    Cerro Rico de Potosi, Bolivia, is the world's largest silver deposit and has been mined since the sixteenth century for silver, and for tin and zinc during the twentieth century, together with by-product copper and lead. The deposit consists primarily of veins that cut an altered igneous body that we interpret to be a dacitic volcanic dome and its underlying tuff ring and explosion breccia. The deposit is compositionally and thermally zoned, having a core of cassiterite, wolframite, bismuthinite, and arsenopyrite surrounded by a peripheral, lower-temperature mineral assemblage consisting principally of sphalerite, galena, lead sulfosalt, and silver minerals. The low-temperature assemblage also was superim-posed on the high-temperature assemblage in response to cooling of the main hydrothermal system. Both the dacite dome and the ore fluids were derived from a larger magmatic hydrothermal source at depth. The dome was repeatedly fractured by recurrent movement on the fault system that guided its initial emplacement. The dome was extruded at 13.8 ?? 0.2 Ma (2??), based on U-Th-Pb dating of zircon. Mineralization and alteration occurred within about 0.3 my of dome emplacement, as indicated by a 40Ar/39Ar date of 13.76 ?? 0.10 Ma (1??) for sericite from the pervasive quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration associated with the main-stage, high-temperature, mineralization. The last thermal event able to reset zircon fission tracks occurred no later than 12.5 ?? 1.1 Ma (1??). as indicated by fission-tract dating. Minor sericite. and magmatic-steam alunite veins, were episodically formed around 11 Ma and between 8.3 and 5.7 Ma; the younger episodes occurring at the time of extensional fracturing at Cerro Rico and widespread volcanism in the adjacent Los Frailes volcanic field. None of these younger events appear to be signific-ant thermal/mineralizing events: the exceptionally flat thermal release pattern of 39Ar from sericite and the results of the fission-tract dating of

  15. Thermal history sensors for non-destructive temperature measurements in harsh environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pilgrim, C. C.; Heyes, A. L.; Feist, J. P.

    2014-02-18

    The operating temperature is a critical physical parameter in many engineering applications, however, can be very challenging to measure in certain environments, particularly when access is limited or on rotating components. A new quantitative non-destructive temperature measurement technique has been proposed which relies on thermally induced permanent changes in ceramic phosphors. This technique has several distinct advantages over current methods for many different applications. The robust ceramic material stores the temperature information allowing long term thermal exposures in harsh environment to be measured at a convenient time. Additionally, rare earth dopants make the ceramic phosphorescent so that the temperature information can be interpreted by automated interrogation of the phosphorescent light. This technique has been demonstrated by application of YAG doped with dysprosium and europium as coatings through the air-plasma spray process. Either material can be used to measure temperature over a wide range, namely between 300°C and 900°C. Furthermore, results show that the material records the peak exposure temperature and prolonged exposure at lower temperatures would have no effect on the temperature measurement. This indicates that these materials could be used to measure peak operating temperatures in long-term testing.

  16. Implications of an internal dynamo for the thermal history of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassen, P.; Young, R. E.; Reynolds, R. T.; Schubert, G.

    1976-01-01

    Constraints placed on the thermal evolution of Mercury by the dynamo model of the planet's magnetic field are investigated. It is assumed that Mercury is a differentiated planet possessing an iron-nickel core with a radius approximately three-fourths of the planetary radius, that the mantle is made of silicates with thermal and rheological properties similar to those of earth's upper mantle, and that differentiation was a global process which resulted in the removal of radioactive heat sources from the core and the upward segregation of heat sources in the mantle. These assumptions are found to lead to the conclusion that the existence of a molten core requires the retention of a minimum concentration of heat sources throughout the mantle, the value being comparable to the mantle-wide average concentration for earth. Thus, it is suggested that the differentiation of Mercury could not have resulted in the complete removal of heat sources from the mantle into a crust near the planet's surface.

  17. Thermal history sensors for non-destructive temperature measurements in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilgrim, C. C.; Heyes, A. L.; Feist, J. P.

    2014-02-01

    The operating temperature is a critical physical parameter in many engineering applications, however, can be very challenging to measure in certain environments, particularly when access is limited or on rotating components. A new quantitative non-destructive temperature measurement technique has been proposed which relies on thermally induced permanent changes in ceramic phosphors. This technique has several distinct advantages over current methods for many different applications. The robust ceramic material stores the temperature information allowing long term thermal exposures in harsh environment to be measured at a convenient time. Additionally, rare earth dopants make the ceramic phosphorescent so that the temperature information can be interpreted by automated interrogation of the phosphorescent light. This technique has been demonstrated by application of YAG doped with dysprosium and europium as coatings through the air-plasma spray process. Either material can be used to measure temperature over a wide range, namely between 300°C and 900°C. Furthermore, results show that the material records the peak exposure temperature and prolonged exposure at lower temperatures would have no effect on the temperature measurement. This indicates that these materials could be used to measure peak operating temperatures in long-term testing.

  18. Fission-track dating: application to the thermal history of mountains and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Naeser, C.W.; Naeser, N.D.

    1985-01-01

    Fission tracks are cylindrical zones of structural damage found in minerals and glasses. They are formed by the passage of a massive highly-charged ion produced from the spontaneous fission of incorporated /sup 238/U. Fission tracks are stable in most minerals at temperatures <50/sup 0/C, but if a mineral is heated above its track stability zone, the track will fade or anneal. Each mineral species has a characteristic temperature zone over which track annealing takes place, and the extent of this annealing is related to both the temperature and the length of time at that temperature. A short heating event at high temperature will produce the same observed annealing as low temperature heating of long duration. For times greater than approx. =10/sup 6/ years, the temperature range, depending on duration of heating, for total annealing in the three minerals most commonly dated by fission tracks are: apatite 105/sup 0/ to 135/sup 0/C, zircon approx.160/sup 0/ to approx.240/sup 0/C, and sphene approx.250/sup 0/ +/- ./sup 0/C. By looking at the pattern of ages of one or more of these minerals, as a function of depth or elevation, it is possible to determine the paleotemperature history, and the burial or uplift/erosion history, of sedimentary basins and mountain ranges. The distribution of fission-track ages of detrital apatite from Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Wagon Wheel no. 1 well in the northern Green River basin indicates that these rocks have cooled by at least 20/sup 0/C since the beginning of the Pliocene. Likewise, anomalously young apatite ages from Precambrian rocks at the base of the Wasatch Mountains in Utah show that this range has been uplifted and cooled by at least 100/sup 0/C in the last 5 Ma.

  19. Deciphering the thermal and mixing history of the Pleistocene rhyolite magma chamber at Augustine Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, P. A.; Webster, J. D.; Mandeville, C. W.; Monteleone, B.; Shimizu, N.; Goldoff, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent activity at Augustine Volcano, located in Cook Inlet, Alaska, has been dominated by intermediate composition lavas and relatively small explosions. Earlier in Augustine's history, however, a thick (~30 m) rhyolite fall was erupted ca. 25 ka, containing at least three distinct rhyolite lithologies. Numerous studies have documented evidence of magma mixing in the more recently-erupted material. Here we attempt to evaluate similar mixing events that may have affected the 25 ka rhyolitic magma prior to its eruption. Basaltic to basaltic-andesitic deposits are found interbedded with the rhyolite at Augustine, so at least two magmas were present in Augustine's plumbing system at the same or nearly the same time. Hints at interactions between two or more magmas are also evident on a smaller scale. Xenocrysts of olivine and clinopyroxene are present in the rhyolite, each with mafic melt inclusions. Additionally, two of the three rhyolitic lithologies studied contain high-aluminum amphiboles that are compositionally similar to amphiboles from mafic enclaves entrained during the 2006 eruption and thus may be xenocrystic. To further investigate possible heating by secondary melts and the history of mixing, we use the titanium-in-quartz geothermometer (TitaniQ) on chemical zonation in quartz phenocrysts. We find that most quartz has a distinct 3-zone pattern, though one lithology also contains some complex zoning patterns in phenocryst cores, perhaps suggesting a xenocrystic origin. Additionally, we examine relationships between trace elements in the silicate melt inclusions from a variety of phenocryst types to determine if there is evidence for input of additional magma of different compositions. Finally, we apply results of a preliminary investigation of the mineralogy of a high-phosphorus dacite that stratigraphically overlies the rhyolite to assess their similarity and the degree of mixing, if any, that may have led to the transition from rhyolitic to dacitic magma.

  20. A Selected Operational History of the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) for International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Vipul P.; Winton, Dale; Ibarra, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    The Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) has been developed jointly by Boeing Corporation, Huntsville, Alabama and Honeywell Engines & Systems, Torrance, California to meet the internal thermal control needs for the International Space Station (ISS). The ITCS provides heat removal for the critical life support systems and thermal conditioning for numerous experiment racks. The ITCS will be fitted on a number of modules on the ISS. The first US Element containing the ITCS, Node 1, was launched in December 1998. Since Node 1 does not contain a pump to circulate the fluid it was not filled with ITCS fluid until after the US Laboratory Module was installed. The second US Element module, US Laboratory Module, which contains the pumps and all the major ITCS control hardware, was launched in February 2001. The third US Element containing the ITCS, the US Airlock, was launched in July 2001. The dual loop system of the ITCS is comprised of a lowtemperature loop (LTL) and a moderate-temperature loop (MTL). Each loop has a pump package assembly (PPA), a system flow control assembly (SFCA), a threeway mixing valve (TWMV), several rack flow control assemblies (RFCA), cold plates, pressure sensors, temperature sensors, pump bypass assembly (PBA) and a heat exchanger. In addition, the MTL has an additional TWMV, a payload regeneration heat exchanger (P/RHE) and a manual flow control valve (MFCV). The LTL has a service performance and checkout unit (SPCU) heat exchanger. The two loops are linked via one loop crossover assembly (LCA) providing cross loop capabilities and a single PPA, two-loop functionality. One important parameter monitored by the ground stations and on-orbit is the amount of fluid leakage from the ITCS. ISS fluid leakage is of importance since ITCS fluid is costly to re-supply, may be difficult to clean up in zero-g, and if uncontained could lead to equipment failures and potential hazards. This paper examines the nominal leakage observed over period of a year

  1. Inferring the IGM thermal history during reionisation with the Lyman-α forest power spectrum at redshift z ≃ 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Fahad; Bolton, James S.; Becker, George D.

    2016-08-01

    We use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to assess the feasibility of constraining the thermal history of the intergalactic medium during reionisation with the Ly{α } forest at z ≃ 5 . The integrated thermal history has a measureable impact on the transmitted flux power spectrum that can be isolated from Doppler broadening at this redshift. We parameterise this using the cumulative energy per proton, u0, deposited into a gas parcel at the mean background density, a quantity that is tightly linked with the gas density power spectrum in the simulations. We construct mock observations of the line of sight Ly{α } forest power spectrum and use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach to recover u0 at redshifts 5 ⪉ z ⪉ 12. A statistical uncertainty of ˜20 per cent is expected (at 68 per cent confidence) at z ≃ 5 using high resolution spectra with a total redshift path length of Δz = 4 and a typical signal-to-noise ratio of S/N=15 per pixel. Estimates for the expected systematic uncertainties are comparable, such that existing data should enable a measurement of u0 to within ˜30 per cent. This translates to distinguishing between reionisation scenarios with similar instantaneous temperatures at z ≃ 5, but with an energy deposited per proton that differs by 2-3 eV over the redshift interval 5⪉ z ⪉ 12. For an initial temperature of T˜ 104 K following reionisation, this corresponds to the difference between early (zre = 12) and late (zre = 7) reionisation in our models.

  2. Tracking the Early Thermal History of Asteroids with Trace Siderophiles in Meteorite Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrin, J. S.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Humayun, M.

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental process in the formation of differentiated bodies is the segregation of metal-sulfide and silicate phases, leading to the formation of a metallic core. The only known direct record of this process is preserved in some primitive achondrites, such as the acapulcoites and lodranites. These meteorites, thought to originate from the same parent asteroid, are the products of thermal metamorphism and igneous processing of a chondritic precursor. Collectively, they have experienced a range of peak metamorphic temperatures relevant to the onset of metal-sulfide partial melting and melt migration. We assessed the siderophile element composition of their metals in an effort to determine the conditions and extent of metal-sulfide melt extraction and thereby gain insight into the earliest stages of core formation.

  3. Thermal histories of CO3 chondrites - Application of olivine diffusion modelling to parent body metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Rhian H.; Rubie, David C.

    1991-01-01

    The petrologic sequence observed in the CO3 chondrite group has been suggested to be the result of thermal metamorphism on a parent body. A model developed to examine the possibility that chondrule and matrix olivines equilibrated in situ, during parent body metamorphism is presented. The model considers Fe-Mg interdiffusion between chondrule and matrix olivines. Zoning profiles comparable to those observed in chondrule olivines from partially equilibrated members of the series are reproduced successfully. Metamorphism of CO3 chondrites on a parent body is therefore a viable model for the observed equilibration. Results indicate that peak metamorphic temperatures experienced by the CO3 chondrites were around 500 C, and that the range of peak temperatures between unequilibrated and equilibrated subtypes was relatively narrow, around 100 C.

  4. Prediction of thermal and mechanical stress-strain responses of TMC's subjected to complex TMF histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Mirdamadi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and analytical evaluation of cross-plied laminates of Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn (Ti-15-3) matrix reinforced with continuous silicon-carbide fibers (SCS-6) subjected to a complex TMF loading profile. Thermomechanical fatigue test techniques were developed to conduct a simulation of a generic hypersonic flight profile. A micromechanical analysis was used. The analysis predicts the stress-strain response of the laminate and of the constituents in each ply during thermal and mechanical cycling by using only constituent properties as input. The fiber was modeled as elastic with transverse orthotropic and temperature-dependent properties. The matrix was modeled using a thermoviscoplastic constitutive relation. The fiber transverse modulus was reduced in the analysis to simulate the fiber-matrix interface failures. Excellent correlation was found between measured and predicted laminate stress-strain response due to generic hypersonic flight profile when fiber debonding was modeled.

  5. The International Space Station 2B Photovoltaic Thermal Control System (PVTCS) Leak: An Operational History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vareha, Anthony N.

    2014-01-01

    As early as 2004, the Photovoltaic Thermal Control System (PVTCS) for the International Space Station's 2B electrical power channel began slowly leaking ammonia overboard. Initially, the operations strategy was "feed the leak," a strategy successfully put into action via Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) during the STS-134 Space Shuttle mission. This recharge was to have allowed for continued power channel operation into 2014 or 2015, at which point another EVA would have been required. In mid-2012, the leak rate increased from 1.5lbm/year to approximately 5lbm/year. As a result, an EVA was planned and executed within a 5 week timeframe to drastically alter the architecture of the PVTCS via connection to an adjacent dormant thermal control system. This EVA, US EVA 20, was successfully executed on November 1, 2012 and left the 2B PVTCS in a configuration where the system was now being adequately cooled via a different radiator than what the system was designed to utilize. Data monitoring over the next several months showed that the isolated radiator had not been leaking, and the system itself continued to leak steadily until May 9th, 2013. It was on this day that the ISS crew noticed the visible presence of ammonia crystals escaping from the 2B channel's truss segment, signifying a rapid acceleration of the leak from 5lbm/year to 5lbm/day. Within 48 hours of the crew noticing the leak, US EVA 21 was in progress to replace the coolant pump - the only remaining replaceable leak source. This was successful, and telemetry monitoring has shown that indeed the coolant pump was the leak source and was thus isolated from the running 2B PVTCS. This paper will explore the management of the 2B PVTCS leak from the operations perspective.

  6. Calculations of the moon's thermal history at different concentrations of radioactive elements, taking into account differentiation on melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ornatskaya, O. I.; Alber, Y. I.; Ryazantseva, I. L.

    1977-01-01

    Calculations of the thermal history of the moon were done by solving the thermal conductivity equation for the case in which the heat sources are the long lived radioactive elements Th, U, and K-40. The concentrations of these elements were adjusted to give 4 variations of heat flow. Calculations indicated that the moon's interior was heated to melting during the first 0.7 to 2.3 x 10 to the 9th power years. The maximum fusion involved practically the entire moon to a distance from 15 to 45 km beneath the surface, and started 3.5 to 4.0 x 10 to the 9th power years ago, or 2.5 x 3.0 x 10 to the 9th power years ago and continued for 1 to 2 x 10 to the 9th power years. The moon today is cooling. The current thickness of the solid crust is from 150 to 200 km and the heat flow exceeds the stationary value 1.5 fold.

  7. Identical metabolic rate and thermal conductance in Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) subspecies with contrasting nonbreeding life histories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Closely related species or subspecies can exhibit metabolic differences that reflect site-specific environmental conditions. Whether such differences represent fixed traits or flexible adjustments to local conditions, however, is difficult to predict across taxa. The nominate race of Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) exhibits the most northerly nonbreeding distribution of any shorebird in the North Pacific, being common during winter in cold, dark locations as far north as upper Cook Inlet, Alaska (61°N). By contrast, the tschuktschorum subspecies migrates to sites ranging from about 59°N to more benign locations as far south as ~37°N. These distributional extremes exert contrasting energetic demands, and we measured common metabolic parameters in the two subspecies held under identical laboratory conditions to determine whether differences in these parameters are reflected by their nonbreeding life histories. Basal metabolic rate and thermal conductance did not differ between subspecies, and the subspecies had a similar metabolic response to temperatures below their thermoneutral zone. Relatively low thermal conductance values may, however, reflect intrinsic metabolic adaptations to northerly latitudes. In the absence of differences in basic metabolic parameters, the two subspecies’ nonbreeding distributions will likely be more strongly influenced by adaptations to regional variation in ecological factors such as prey density, prey quality, and foraging habitat.

  8. Low-Ca pyroxenes from LL group chondritic meteorites: Crystal structural studies and implications for their thermal histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artioli, G.; Davoli, G.

    1994-12-01

    Crystal structural refinements of one orthorhombic (Pbca) and two monoclinic (P21/c) single crystals, from chondrules of low-Ca pyroxenes from unequilibrated chondritic meteorites of the LL group, were carried out. The intracrystalline Fe-Mg distribution between the M1 and M2 crystallographic sites of the Parnallee (LL-3) orthoenstatite is suggestive of very rapid cooling, whereas both the structural state and intracrystalline Fe-Mg distribution in the Soko Banja (LL-4) and Jolomba (LL-6) clinoenstaties indicate rapid cooling from the high temperature polymorphs, with no significant re-equilibration at lower temperatures. These results imply that thermal metamorphism in the parent body, if present, was insufficient to allow re-equilibration of the pyroxene minerals to low temperature, ordered crystal structures. The data also indicate that, assuming low or mild pressure and shock effects, there is no well defined correlation between equilibrium temperature of the mineral phases and the alleged petrologic type of the meteorites. This evidence is consistent with a rubble pile model for the parent body accretional history, or with an onion shell model with very low thermal peak metamorphism, as is assumed for a very small object.

  9. Magmas, Mushes and Mobility: Thermal Histories of Magma Reservoirs from Combined U-Series and Diffusion Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, K. M.; Rubin, A. E.; Schrecengost, K.; Kent, A. J.; Huber, C.

    2014-12-01

    The thermal conditions of magma storage control many aspects of the dynamics of a magma reservoir system. For example, the temperature of magma storage directly relates to the crystallinity, and magmas stored at relatively low temperatures in a crystal mush (more than 40-50% crystalline) must be remobilized (e.g., by heating) before they can be erupted. A better understanding of the duration of magma storage at largely-liquid vs. largely-solid conditions is thus critical to understanding crustal magmatic processes such as magma mixing and for quantifying the hazard potential of a given volcano. Although mineral thermometry reflects the conditions of crystal growth or equilibration, these may not correspond to the thermal conditions of crystal storage. The duration of crystal storage at high temperatures can be quantified by comparing U-series crystal ages with the time scales over which disequilibrium trace-element profiles in the same crystals would be erased by diffusion. In the case of Mount Hood, OR, such a comparison for the two most recent eruptions shows that <12% of the total lifetime of plagioclase crystals (minimum 21 kyr) was spent at temperatures high enough that the magma would be easily mobilized. Partial data sets for other systems suggest such behavior is common, although the diffusion and U-series ages in these cases are from different samples and may not be directly comparable. We will present preliminary data combining U-series dating and diffusion timescales on the same samples for other volcanic systems (e.g., Lassen Volcanic Center, Mount St. Helens, Okataina Volcanic Center, New Zealand). Combining these data with numerical models offers additional insights into the controls on the conditions of storage. In addition, extension of this approach to combining U-Th ages with time scales of Li diffusion in zircon offers a promising new method to quantify thermal histories of silicic reservoir systems.

  10. Earth thermal history simulations with layering at various depths in the mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costin, S.; Butler, S.

    2009-05-01

    Understanding Earth's heat energy budget over all of geological time presents a number of challenges. The current measured surface heat flow is significantly greater than the geochemically estimated internal heating rate which requires a significant degree of mantle secular cooling. This degree of secular cooling is difficult to obtain if the mantle lost heat efficiently at early times. One possible mechanism to decrease convective efficiency at early times is mantle layering at 660-km depth. Also, the persistence of Earth's magnetic field over the last 3.5 Gyrs combined with the relatively high estimates for the current core temperature require that either the core was initially much hotter than the mantle, or that there is radioactive internal heating in the mantle, or that a mechanism, such as a stagnant lower mantle layer acts to significantly decrease the heat flow efficiency from the core to the mantle. In this contribution we will present simulations with mantle layering at 660-km depth and demonstrate that mantle layering is not an effective mechanism for storing mantle heat at early times. Simulations with a stagnant layer in D', that persists over much of Earth's history, will also be presented and we will demonstrate that as long as this layer is not strongly enriched in radioactive elements, it can act to substantially increase the predicted age of the inner core and allow a long lived geodynamo.

  11. Thermal history of the Acoculco geothermal system, eastern Mexico: Insights from numerical modeling and radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canet, Carles; Trillaud, Frederic; Prol-Ledesma, Rosa María; González-Hernández, Galia; Peláez, Berenice; Hernández-Cruz, Berenice; Sánchez-Córdova, María M.

    2015-10-01

    Acoculco is a geothermal prospective area hosted by a volcanic caldera complex in the eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Surface manifestations are scarce and consist of gas discharges (CO2-rich) and acid-sulfate springs of low temperature, whereas hydrothermal explosive activity is profusely manifested by meter-scale craters and mounds of hydrothermal debris and breccias. Silicic alteration extends for several square kilometers around the zone with gas manifestations and explosive features, affecting surficial volcanic rocks, primarily tuffs and breccias. In the subsurface, an argillic alteration zone (ammonium illite) extends down to a depth of ∼ 600 m, and underneath it a propylitic zone (epidote-calcite-chlorite) occurs down to ∼ 1000 m. Thermal logs from an exploratory borehole (EAC-1, drilled in 1995 down to 1810 m) showed a conductive heat transfer regime under high geothermal gradient (∼ 140 °C/1000 m). In contrast, the thermal profile established from temperatures of homogenization of fluid inclusions-measured on core samples from the same drill hole-suggests that convection occurred in the past through the upper ~ 1400 m of the geothermal system. A drop in permeability due to the precipitation of alteration minerals would have triggered the cessation of the convective heat transfer regime to give place to a conductive one. With the purpose of determining when the transition of heat transfer regime occurred, we developed a 1D model that simulates the time-depth distribution of temperature. According to our numerical simulations, this transition happened ca. 7000 years ago; this date is very recent compared to the lifespan of the geothermal system. In addition, radiocarbon chronology indicates that the hydrothermal explosive activity postdates the end of the convective heat transfer regime, having dated at least three explosive events, at 4867-5295, 1049-1417 and 543-709 y cal. BP. Therefore, hydrothermal explosions arise from the self-sealing of

  12. CO/sub 2/ greenhouse effect and the thermal history of the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, G.; Miskolci, F.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of CO/sub 2/ for a wide range of atmospheric concentrations has been computed in an attempt to study the effects of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations (which are currently increasing at a rate of 1 ppM/year) on terrestrial temperature and to contribute to the understanding of the CO/sub 2/ greenhouse effect on Venus. The atmospheric absorption of thick CO/sub 2/ layers was determined in order to understand the thermal stability on the earth's surface in spite of atmospheric composition changes (the mean chemical composition changed from CO/sub 2/ to O/sub 2/ to N/sub 2/ in the last 0.75 billion years). The calculated greenhouse effect was then combined with other long-term phenomena which influenced the temperature. It was estimated that the surface temperature increase did not reach the boiling point of water for CO/sub 2/ concentrations that were thousands of times larger than the present concentrations, however, higher energy CO/sub 2/ bands and/or an increase in atmospheric H/sub 2/O may have changed the greenhouse effect.

  13. Carbon-rich aggregates in type 3 ordinary chondrites - Characterization, origins, and thermal history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, Adrian J.

    1990-01-01

    Carbon-rich aggregates from three type 3.4-3.6 ordinary chondrites and two chondritic clasts have been characterized in detail, using TEM techniques. The aggregates in all the meteorites studied range in size from 5-1000 microns and consist of a fine scale intergrowth of poorly graphitized carbon, amorphous carbon, Fe,Ni metal, and minor chromite. Contrary to previous reports, well-crystallized graphite and magnetite are absent. The association of Fe,Ni metal and carbonaceous material suggests that the original carbonaceous material may have formed by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) type reactions at low temperatures (less than 400 K), possibly in the solar nebula. This carbonaceous material probably consisted of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, kerogen-like material, and other complex organic molecules. The aggregates were subsequently accreted onto the ordinary chondrite parent bodies and underwent planetary thermal processing which resulted in the catalytic graphitization of hydrocarbons, in the presence of Fe,Ni metal, to produce poorly graphitized carbon. None of the meteorites studied experienced temperatures sufficiently high to produce crystalline, ordered graphite. Using the empirical geothermometer of Rietmeijer and Mackinnon (1985), the measured d(002) spacings of poorly graphitized carbon show that graphitization occurred at temperatures between 300 and 450 C. This range of temperatures is significantly lower than the generally quoted metamorphic temperatures for type 3.4-3.6 ordinary chondrites (about 450-500 C).

  14. Chemical zoning and homogenization of olivines in ordinary chondrites and implications for thermal histories of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyamoto, Masamichi; Mckay, David S.; Mckay, Gordon A.; Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The extent and degree of homogenization of chemical zoning of olivines in type 3 ordinary chondrites is studied in order to obtain some constraints on cooling histories of chondrites. Based on Mg-Fe and CaO zoning, olivines in type 3 chondrites are classified into four types. A single chondrule usually contains olivines with the same type of zoning. Microporphyritic olivines show all four zoning types. Barred olivines usually show almost homogenized chemical zoning. The cooling rates or burial depths needed to homogenize the chemical zoning are calculated by solving the diffusion equation, using the zoning profiles as an initial condition. Mg-Fe zoning of olivine may be altered during initial cooling, whereas CaO zoning is hardly changed. Barred olivines may be homogenized during initial cooling because their size is relatively small. To simulated microporphyritic olivine chondrules, cooling from just below the liquidus at moderately high rates is preferable to cooling from above the liquidus at low rates. For postaccumulation metamorphism of type 3 chondrites to keep Mg-Fe zoning unaltered, the maximum metamorphic temperature must be less than about 400 C if cooling rates based on Fe-Ni data are assumed. Calculated cooling rates for both Fa and CaO homogenization are consistent with those by Fe-Ni data for type 4 chondrites. A hot ejecta blanket several tens of meters thick on the surface of a parent body is sufficient to homogenize Mg-Fe zoning if the temperature of the blanket is 600-700 C. Burial depths for petrologic types of ordinary chondrites in a parent body heated by Al-26 are broadly consistent with those previously proposed.

  15. Chondrule thermal history from unequilibrated H chondrites: A transmission and analytical electron microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraris, C.; Folco, L.; Mellini, M.

    2002-10-01

    Sixteen texturally different (porphyritic, barred, radial, cryptocrystalline) FeO-rich chondrules from the unequilibrated ordinary chondrites Brownfield, Frontier Mountain (FRO) 90003 and FRO 90032 were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy and then thoroughly studied by transmission and analytical electron microscopy. Nanotextural and nanochemical data indicate similar thermal evolution for chondrules of the same textural groups; minor, yet meaningful differences occur among the different groups. Olivine is the earliest phase formed and crystallizes between 1500 and 1400 deg C. Protoenstatite crystallizes at temperatures higher than 1350-1200 deg C; it later inverts to clinoenstatite in the 1250-1200 deg C range. Enstatite is surrounded by pigeonitic or (less frequently) augitic rims; the minimal crystallization temperature for the rims is 1000 C; high pigeonite later inverts to low pigeonite, between 935 and 845 deg C. The outer pigeonitic or augitic rims are constantly exsolved, producing sigmoidal augite or enstatite precipitates; sigmoidal precipitates record exsolution temperatures between 1000 and 640 deg C. Cooling rate (determined using the speedometer based upon ortho-clinoenstatite intergrowth) was in the order of 50-3000 deg C/h at the clinoenstatite-orthoenstatite transition temperature (close to 1250-1200 deg C), but decreased to 5-10 deg C/h or slower at the exsolution temperature (between 1000 and 650 deg C), thus revealing nonlinear cooling paths. Nanoscale observations indicate that the individual chondrules formed and cooled separately from 1500 deg down to at least 650 deg C. Accretion into chondritic parent body occurred at temperatures lower than 650 deg C.

  16. Modelling of the thermal history of metamorphic zoning in the Connemara region (western Ireland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdatto, V. V.; Polyansky, O. P.

    2004-02-01

    The Connemara region of the Irish Caledonides is a classic example of regional-scale metamorphism of low pressure and high temperature. This terrane is considered as part of a fold belt comprising metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks that are correlated with the Neoproterozoic-Lower Paleozoic Dalradian Supergroup of Scotland. In mid-Ordovician time, the extensive and high-temperature metamorphism was superimposed on the Dalradian rocks resulting in the Connemara zoning. The key feature of the zoning is elevated horizontal thermal gradient of ca. 14 °C/km. Geological data and geochronological evidence point to a causative link between metamorphism and associated magmatic intrusions, and a brief period of development for the metamorphic zoning. Magmatic intrusion into the middle part of continental crust is treated as a most plausible source of heat for metamorphism, and other conjectures as to the origin of the zoning (flow of hot fluid through the permeable rocks, fracture conduit flushed by flowing magma) are believed to be improbable. To examine in sufficient detail the problem of the nature of heat source, a series of appropriate calculations have been performed to reach the best agreement between the observed and simulated spatial distribution of maximum temperatures at different times. The mathematical modelling shows that the temperature-spatial structure of the Connemara zoning is best explained by the model version based on mid-crustal heating above the upper contact of magmatic intrusive body gently curved and tilted at an angle between 20° and 40°, with an initial temperature of the magma appropriate to a basaltic melt. The model estimate of total lifetime of the temperature anomaly in the crust is of the order of 5-6 Ma. In general, this is in rather good agreement with the currently available evidence of geochronological duration of metamorphism and magmatism in Connemara.

  17. Peak metamorphic temperature and thermal history of the Southern Alps (New Zealand)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyssac, O.; Cox, S. C.; Vry, J.; Herman, F.

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Alps orogen of New Zealand results from late Cenozoic convergence between the Indo-Australian and Pacific plates and is one of the most active mountain belts in the world. Metamorphic rocks carrying a polymetamorphic legacy, ranging from low-greenschist to high-grade amphibolites, are exhumed in the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault. On a regional scale, the metamorphic grade has previously been described in terms of metamorphic zones and mineral isograds; application of quantitative petrology being severely limited owing to unfavorable quartzofeldspathic lithologies. This study quantifies peak metamorphic temperatures (T) in a 300 × 20 km area, based on samples forming 13 transects along-strike from Haast in the south to Hokitika in the north, using thermometry based on Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material (RSCM). Peak metamorphic T decreases across each transect from ≥ 640 °C locally in the direct vicinity of the Alpine Fault to less than 330 °C at the drainage divide 15-20 km southeast of the fault. Thermal field gradients exhibit a degree of similarity from the southernmost to the northernmost transects, are greater in low-grade semischist than high-grade schist, are affected by folding or discontinuous juxtaposition of metamorphic zones, and contain limited information on crustal-scale geothermal gradients. Temperatures derived by RSCM thermometry are slightly (≤ 50 °C) higher than those derived by traditional quantitative petrology using garnet-biotite thermometry and THERMOCALC modeling. The age of RSCM T appears to be mostly pre-Cenozoic over most of the area except in central Southern Alps (Franz Josef-Fox area), where the amphibolite facies schists have T of likely Cenozoic age. The RSCM T data place some constraints on the mode of exhumation along the Alpine Fault and have implications for models of Southern Alps tectonics.

  18. Numerical models of the Earth’s thermal history: Effects of inner-core solidification and core potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, S. L.; Peltier, W. R.; Costin, S. O.

    2005-09-01

    Recently there has been renewed interest in the evolution of the inner core and in the possibility that radioactive potassium might be found in significant quantities in the core. The arguments for core potassium come from considerations of the age of the inner core and the energy required to sustain the geodynamo [Nimmo, F., Price, G.D., Brodholt, J., Gubbins, D., 2004. The influence of potassium on core and geodynamo evolution. Geophys. J. Int. 156, 363-376; Labrosse, S., Poirier, J.-P., Le Mouël, J.-L., 2001. The age of the inner core. Earth Planet Sci. Lett. 190, 111-123; Labrosse, S., 2003. Thermal and magnetic evolution of the Earth's core. Phys. Earth Planet Int. 140, 127-143; Buffett, B.A., 2003. The thermal state of Earth's core. Science 299, 1675-1677] and from new high pressure physics analyses [Lee, K., Jeanloz, R., 2003. High-pressure alloying of potassium and iron: radioactivity in the Earth's core? Geophys. Res. Lett. 30 (23); Murthy, V.M., van Westrenen, W., Fei, Y.W., 2003. Experimental evidence that potassium is a substantial radioactive heat source in planetary cores. Nature 423, 163-165; Gessmann, C.K., Wood, B.J., 2002. Potassium in the Earth's core? Earth Planet Sci. Lett. 200, 63-78]. The Earth's core is also located at the lower boundary of the convecting mantle and the presence of radioactive heat sources in the core will affect the flux of heat between these two regions and will, as a result, have a significant impact on the Earth's thermal history. In this paper, we present Earth thermal history simulations in which we calculate fluid flow in a spherical shell representing the mantle, coupled with a core of a given heat capacity with varying degrees of internal heating in the form of K40 and varying initial core temperatures. The mantle model includes the effects of the temperature dependence of viscosity, decaying radioactive heat sources, and mantle phase transitions. The core model includes the thermal effects of inner core

  19. Geology and Thermal History of Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Keith E.

    1978-01-01

    Mammoth Hot Springs, located about 8 km inside the north entrance to Yellowstone National Park, consists of nearly 100 hot springs scattered over a score of steplike travertine terraces. The travertine deposits range in age from late Pleistocene to the present. Sporadic records of hot-spring activity suggest that most of the current major springs have been intermittently active since at least 1871. Water moving along the Norris-Mammoth fault zone is heated by partly molten magma and enriched in calcium and bicarbonate. Upon reaching Mammoth this thermal water (temperature about 73?C) moves up through the old terrace deposits along preexisting vertical linear planes of weakness. As the water reaches the surface, pressure is released, carbon dioxide escapes as a gas, and bicarbonate in the water is partitioned into more carbon dioxide and carbonate; the carbonate then combines with calcium to precipitate calcium carbonate, forming travertine. The travertine usually precipitates rapidly from solution and is lightweight and porous; however, dense travertine, such as is found in core from the 113-m research drill hole Y-10 located on one of the upper terraces, forms beneath the surface by deposition in the pore spaces of older deposits. The terraces abound with unusual hot-spring deposits such as terracettes, cones, and fissure ridges. Semicircular ledges (ranging in width from about 0.3 m to as much as 2.5 m), called terracettes, formed by deposition of travertine around slowly rising pools. Complex steplike arrangements of terracettes have developed along runoff channels of some hot springs. A few hot springs have deposited cone-shaped mounds, most of which reach heights of 1-2 m before becoming dormant. However, one long-inactive cone named Liberty Cap attained a height of about 14 m. Fissure ridges are linear mounds of travertine deposited from numerous hot-spring vents along a medial fracture zone. The ridges range in height from about 1 to 6 m and in length from a

  20. Thermal History of São João Nepomuceno (IVA) Iron Meteorite Inferred from Ganguly's Cooling Rate Model and 57Fe Mössbauer Spectroscopy Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, E.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Varela, M. E.

    2016-08-01

    The intracrystalline Fe-Mg distribution in orthopyroxenes, as measured by means of 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and associated to Ganguly’s cooling rate numerical method, are used to infer the thermal history of São João Nepomuceno (IVA) meteorite.

  1. Thermal history of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whelan, J.F.; Neymark, L.A.; Moscati, R.J.; Marshall, B.D.; Roedder, E.

    2008-01-01

    of elevated temperatures persisting in ash flow tuffs adjacent to parent calderas for as much as ???8 Ma is a new finding, but consistent with thermal modeling. Simulations using the HEAT code demonstrate that prolonged cooling of the unsaturated zone is consistent with magmatic heat inputs and deep-seated (sub-water table) hydrothermal activity generated by the large magma body ???8 km to the north that produced the 15-11 Ma ash flows and ash falls that make up Yucca Mountain. The evidence discussed in this and preceding papers strongly supports unsaturated zone deposition of the secondary minerals from descending meteoric waters. Although depositional temperatures reflect conductive (and possibly vapor-phase convective) heating of the unsaturated zone related to regional magmatic sources until perhaps 6 Ma, depositional conditions similar to the present-day unsaturated zone have prevailed for at least the past 2-4 Ma.

  2. Thermal history of Iodranites Yamato 74357 and MAC88177 as inferred from the chemical zoning of pyroxene and olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, M.; Takeda, H.

    1994-03-01

    The chemical zoning profiles of pyroxene and olivine in the Yamato (Y) 74357 and MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 88177 acapulcoite-lodranite primitive achondrites were measured by using an electron probe microanalyzer in order to study their cooling histories. The reverse zoning of Fe and Mg, and MnO enrichment were observed within a few tens of micrometers from the rim of orthopyroxene in Y74357; this is probably related to reduction. The CaO of orthopyroxene in Y74357 and MAC88177 decreases gradually toward the rim, as do the Cr2O3, Al2O3, TiO2, and Na2O) in orthopyroxene and augite. These results suggest that interstitial melt was present and was then extracted at a late stage in the formation of these meteorites. In addition to these observations, the absence of Fe-Mg reverse zoning and MnO enrichment at the rim of MAC88177 orthopyroxene implies that the reduction process of Y74357 took place after partial melting. A calculated cooling rate of 2-3 C/yr gives the best fit for the observed Fe-Mg and CaO profiles of orthopyroxene, and CaO of olivine in Y74357, suggesting that the zonings were formed during the same event that probably caused the reduction. Thermal model calculations show that the maximum attainable temperature in the parent body was about 1000 C, if the decay of Al-26 is the heat source and if the Al-26/Al-27 ratio is 5 X 10-6, identical to that used for the ordinary chondrite parent body. Partial melt was probably produced at this temperature; this is an important part of the history of some primitive achondrites.

  3. Potential of Conodont (U-Th)/He Thermochronometry to Resolve Shallow Crustal Thermal Histories in Carbonates and Shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landman, R.; Flowers, R. M.; Rosenau, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    Acquisition of thermochronology data in carbonates and shales has traditionally been elusive owing to the absence of dateable minerals of suitable size for analysis. Development of such a thermochronometer is highly attractive owing to the widespread occurrence of these lithologies - including in large sections of sedimentary basins where thermal histories are relevant for hydrocarbon exploration - as well as the possibility of coupling this tool with other geochemical proxies in these units. Conodont (U-Th)/He thermochonometry has the potential to fill this niche. Conodonts are toothlike bioapatite structures common in Paleozoic through early Mesozoic marine carbonates and shales. They are well-known to the petroleum industry through use of their color alteration index (CAI) as a semi-quantitative indicator of peak temperature. Moreover, the only published conodont He study showed intriguing promise (Peppe and Reiners, 2007). Here we present a conodont (U-Th)/He thermochronology dataset from the Illinois Basin that displays both the potential of this tool and the outstanding questions that remain in its development. We acquired conodont He data for 7 drillcore samples of Pennsylvanian marine black shale and limestone. The conodonts have CAI values of 1-1.5, indicating maximum burial temperatures of ≤ 90 °C. First, the conodonts yield He dates substantially younger than their depositional age, indicating that the ≤ 90 °C temperatures were sufficient to cause He loss, and therefore implying that the conodont He closure temperature is no higher than the conventional apatite He system (70-80 °C). This result is compatible with conodont laboratory diffusion experiments. Second, most of our conodont dates are < 90 Ma, consistent with regional apatite He data for basement drillcore samples and suggesting that the conodonts and apatites record similar thermal histories. Finally, several samples contain dates that range from 100 to 250 Ma. The least reproducible

  4. Thermal and impact history of the H chondrite parent asteroid during metamorphism: Constraints from metallic Fe-Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Krot, Tatiana V.; Goldstein, Joseph I.; Wakita, Shigeru

    2014-07-01

    We have studied cloudy taenite, metallographic cooling rates, and shock effects in 30 H3-6 chondrites to elucidate the thermal and early impact history of the H chondrite parent body. We focused on H chondrites with old Ar-Ar ages (>4.4 Gyr) and unshocked and mildly shocked H chondrites, as strongly shocked chondrites with such old ages are very rare. Cooling rates for most H chondrites at 500 °C are 10-50 °C/Myr and do not decrease systematically with increasing petrologic type as predicted by the onion-shell model in which types 3-5 are arranged in concentric layers around a type 6 core. Some type 4 chondrites cooled slower than some type 6 chondrites and type 3 chondrites did not cool faster than other types, contrary to the onion-shell model. Cloudy taenite particle sizes, which range from 40 to 120 nm, are inversely correlated with metallographic cooling rates and show that the latter were not compromised by shock heating. The three H4 chondrites that were used to develop the onion-shell model, Ste. Marguerite, Beaver Creek, and Forest Vale, cooled through 500 °C at ⩾5000 °C/Myr. Our thermal modeling shows that these rates are 50× higher than could be achieved in a body that was heated by 26Al and cooled without disturbance by impact. Published Ar-Ar ages do not decrease systematically with increasing petrologic type but do correlate inversely with cloudy taenite particle size suggesting that impact mixing decreased during metamorphism. Metal and silicate compositions in regolith breccias show that impacts mixed material after metamorphism without causing significant heating. Impacts during metamorphism created Portales Valley and two other H6 chondrites with large metallic veins, excavated the fast-cooled H4 chondrites around 3-4 Myr after accretion, and mixed petrologic types. Metallographic data do not require catastrophic disruption by impact during cooling.

  5. Preliminary fission track ages for samples from western Maine: Implications for the low temperature thermal history of the region

    SciTech Connect

    Lux, D.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Johnson, K. )

    1992-01-01

    In order to elucidate the low temperature cooling history of the region, 12 preliminary samples from a N-S traverse from the central Sebago batholith to the Chain of Ponds pluton were selected for fission track dating. The range of Ar-40/Ar-39 ages from the selected samples is 140 Ma (371--231 Ma) for biotites, 63 Ma (304--241 Ma) for muscovites and 61 Ma (375--304 Ma) for hornblendes. Twelve samples were dated by the external detector method and yield ages between 114 and 79 Ma. The southern most samples from the Sebago batholith and Songo pluton, within the highest metamorphic zones, are the youngest and range from 101 to 79 Ma. Those from the Mooselookmeguntic and Chain of Ponds plutons, within lower metamorphic zones, vary between 114 and 92 Ma. This general discordance trend is similar but of much smaller magnitude than the regional pattern of Ar-40/Ar-39 cooling ages. The much smaller range of apatite ages than biotite ages suggests that large differences in the thermal regime across of the region during Late Paleozoic time had largely been erased by the Early Cretaceous. The new fission track ages are interpreted to represent regional cooling through the apatite closure temperature, assumed to be ca 100 C. Young apatite ages may be the result of a regional thermal disturbance related to the intrusion of magmas of the White Mountains Plutonic Suite, as the youngest plutons are similar in age to the apatites. Alternatively, they could be the result of regional exhumation of the Acadian orogen. The authors conclude that the latter interpretation is more consistent with their data and attribute the ages to time of regional exhumation and uplift through the apatite closure temperature.

  6. Tectono-thermal History of the Southern Nenana Basin, Interior Alaska: Implications for Conventional and Unconventional Hydrocarbon Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, N. C.; Hanks, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Tertiary Nenana basin of Interior Alaska is currently the focus of both new oil exploration and coalbed methane exploitation and is being evaluated as a potential CO2sequestration site. The basin first formed as a Late Paleocene extensional rift with the deposition of oil and gas-prone, coal-bearing non-marine sediments with excellent source potential. Basin inversion during the Early Eocene-Early Oligocene times resulted in folding and erosion of higher stratigraphic levels, forming excellent structural and stratigraphic traps. Initiation of active faulting on its eastern margin in the middle Oligocene caused slow tectonic subsidence that resulted in the deposition of reservoir and seal rocks of the Usibelli Group. Onset of rapid tectonic subsidence in Pliocene that continues to the present-day has provided significant pressure and temperature gradient for the source rocks. Apatite fission-track and vitrinite reflectance data reveals two major paleo-thermal episodes: Late Paleocene to Early Eocene (60 Ma to 54.8 Ma) and Late Miocene to present-day (7 Ma to present). These episodes of maximum paleotemperatures have implications for the evolution of source rock maturity within the basin. In this study, we are also investigating the potential for coalbed methane production from the Late Paleocene coals via injection of CO2. Our preliminary analyses demonstrate that 150 MMSCF of methane could be produced while 33000 tonnes of CO2 per injection well (base case of ~9 years) can be sequestered in the vicinity of existing infrastructure. However, these volumes of sequestered CO2and coal bed methane recovery are estimates and are sensitive to the reservoir's geomechanical and flow properties. Keywords: extensional rift, seismic, subsidence, thermal history, fission track, vitrinite reflectance, coal bed methane, Nenana basin, CO2 sequestration

  7. Thermal history from both sides of the South Atlantic passive margin - A comparison: Argentinean pampa vs. South African escarpement.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollenz, Sebastian; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.

    2014-05-01

    thermal history of the Early Cretaceous Brandberg and Okenyenya igneous complexes on Namibia's passive margin. Tectonics. 24, TC3006, doi:10.1029/2004TC001688 Torsvik, T.H., Rousse, S., Labails, C., Smethurst, M. A. (2009): A new scheme for the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean and the dissection of an Aptian salt basin. Geophys. J. Int. 177, 1315-1333.

  8. Thermal history of type 3 chondrites from the Antarctic meteorite collection determined by Raman spectroscopy of their polyaromatic carbonaceous matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, Lydie; Quirico, Eric; Flandinet, Laurène; Montagnac, Gilles

    2016-09-01

    This paper is focused on the characterization of the thermal history of 151 CV, CO and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs) from the NASA Antarctic meteorite collection, using an approach based on the structure of the included polyaromatic carbonaceous matter determined by Raman spectroscopy. 114 out of these 151 chondrites provided Raman spectra of carbonaceous matter and allowing to assign a petrologic type, which mostly reflects the peak temperature experienced by the rock on the parent body. A thorough review of literature shows however that it is not possible to deduce a peak temperature because accurate calibration is not available. Twenty-three new weakly metamorphosed chondrites have been identified: MIL 07671 (CV3.1); DOM 08006 (CO3.0); DOM 03238, MIL 05024, MIL 05104, MIL 07193 (CO3.1); TIL 82408, LAR 06279 (LL3.05-3.1); EET 90628 (L3.0); GRO 06054, QUE 97008 (L3.05), ALHA 77176, EET 90066, LAR 04380, MET 96515, MIL 05050 (L3.1); ALHA 78133, EET 87735, EET 90909, LEW 87208, PRE 95401 (L3.05-3.1); MCY 05218 (H3.05-3.1) and MET 00506 (H3.1). This study confirms that the width of the D band (FWHMD) and the ratio of the peak intensity of the D and G bands (ID/IG) are the most adapted tracers of the extent of thermal metamorphism in type 3 chondrites. It also unambiguously shows, thanks to the large number of samples, that the width of the G band (FWHMG) does not correlate with the maturity of polyaromatic carbonaceous matter. This parameter is nevertheless very valuable because it shows that Raman spectra of CV chondrites preserve memory of either the metamorphic conditions (possibly oxidation controlled by aqueous alteration) or the nature of the organic precursor. Oxidation memory is our preferred interpretation, however an extensive petrologic characterization of this CV series is required to get firm conclusions. Pre-graphitic carbonaceous matter is reported in seven chondrites and is even the only carbonaceous material detected in the chondrites

  9. The growth history of the Lago Della Vacca (Southern Adamello Massive, Italy) intrusion from field observations, thermal and rheological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, A.; Annen, C.; Blundy, J. D.; Caricchi, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Lago Della Vacca granitoid is an intrusive body emplaced at about 4-6 km in up to 1 My. The core of the body is characterised by the presence of dyke-like structures, enclave-swarms and randomly distributed enclaves, which appear undeformed. Enclaves become oblate with the short axis perpendicular to the foliation, which, in turn follows the margin of the plutonic body (John and Blundy, 1993). Geothermometry and experimental data have been used to constrain the temperature of injection of the mafic component (1273-1323 K), the temperature of the host granitic magma (1173-1223), and to characterise the evolution of crystallinity with temperature for both magmas (Blundy and Sparks, 1992). Based on these data thermal and rheological modelling have been combined to interpret the growth and deformation history of the Lago della Vacca intrusive body. The pluton was modeled as a series of incrementally emplaced nested cylinders with 1D-cylindrical conductive heat transfer. The evolution of temperature and melt fraction distribution in the pluton and country rock were determined and used as input parameters for the rheological modelling. The rheology of each magma depends on the viscosity of the melt and, more importantly, on crystallinity. Field observations suggest that the mafic magma was injected as dykes. Their partial or total disaggregation produced mafic enclaves. The presence of randomly distributed enclaves in the core of Lago Della Vacca body indicates that convection was active in this portion of the intrusion. The undeformed nature of the enclaves in this region also implies that the contrast in temperature between host magma and mafic material produced a sudden (hours) rheological inversion with the mafic magma becoming more viscous than the felsic end-member. In these conditions, the enclaves would be transported passively by the felsic-host without suffering any substantial deformation. Thermal modelling indicates that to maintain the core of the pluton

  10. The Evolution of Structural Order as a Measure of Thermal History of Coke in the Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, Maria; Khanna, Rita; Ökvist, Lena Sundqvist; Sahajwalla, Veena; Björkman, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Investigations were carried out on cokes heat treated in the laboratory and on cokes extracted from the experimental blast furnace (EBF) raceway and hearth. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed to investigate changes in structural order ( L c), chemical transformations in coke ash along with comparative thermodynamic equilibrium studies and the influence of melt. Three data processing approaches were used to compute L c values as a function of temperature and time and linear correlations were established between L c and heat treatment temperatures during laboratory investigations. These were used to estimate temperatures experienced by coke in various regions of EBF and estimated raceway temperatures were seen to follow the profile of combustion peak. The MgAl2O4 spinel was observed in coke submerged in slag during laboratory studies and in cokes found further into the raceway. Coke in contact with hot metal showed XRD peaks corresponding to presence of Fe3Si. The intensity of SiO2 peak in coke ash was seen to decrease with increasing temperature and disappeared at around 1770 K (1500 °C) due to the formation of SiC. This study has shown that the evolution of structural order and chemical transformations in coke could be used to estimate its thermal history in blast furnaces.

  11. Effects of thermal history and microstructure on phosphorus and manganese segregation at grain boundaries in C-Mn welds

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, P.; Faulkner, R.G

    2003-08-15

    This work describes a model development to predict the microstructural behaviour of submerged arc C-Mn weld materials used in pressure vessels. Element segregation can be predicted according to the typical operating conditions and microstructure of the materials. Phosphorus, of great interest because it causes embrittlement, is enhanced at the grain boundary and increases with operating temperature and time. Its interaction with carbon and manganese is described. Site competition has to be applied; its prediction results fit best to the experimental data. Sufficient experimental data have been taken by application of a high-resolution analytical transmission electron microscope. The thermodynamic software package MTDATA to determine the solubility of second phases, such as cementite and alloy carbides, is applied. MTDATA is a software/data package for the calculation of phase equilibria in multicomponent multiphase systems. It uses, as a basis, critically assessed thermodynamic data. By using these data, reduced free amount of solute in the alloy, needed as an input to segregation modelling, is predictable. The final grain boundary segregation consists of various segregation types during the thermal history and is the sum of each single step with a final check on the maximum equilibrium segregation, which cannot be exceeded. Weld materials have a very complex microstructure, resulting in coarse and fine grains. For each grain boundary type, prior austenite and ferrite grain boundaries in coarse grain and ferrite grain boundaries in fine grain, the final segregation level has been predicted and good agreement with practical results has been shown.

  12. Thermal history of the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary at Arrow Canyon, NV, USA: Insights from carbonate clumped isotopes and fluid inclusion microthermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenton, B.; Grossman, E. L.; Passey, B. H.; Henkes, G. A.; Becker, S. P.; Pottorf, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Constraining the temperature-time history of sedimentary basins is critical for understanding basin evolution and related problems, such as petroleum systems analysis and genesis of metallic ore deposits. The importance of burial history studies is confirmed by the abundance and diversity of techniques aimed at acquiring thermal history information. Often, multiple techniques are required to fully characterize sediment thermal histories because each tool targets different burial temperatures (e.g., maximum burial temperature, T-t points, or cooling rates) and different indicators may be limited by suitable study material or geologic setting. Therefore it is important to test new techniques, such as clumped isotopes, that may aid in reconstructing basin thermal histories. The potential utility of clumped isotopes as a thermal history tool is suggested by the observation of elevated clumped isotope temperatures in nominally well-preserved fossils, and also from recent laboratory heating experiments showing that C-O bonds can reorder in the solid-state during heating. While this phenomenon conceals primary paleoclimate information, it may record burial temperatures useful for constraining basin thermal histories. Here we present clumped isotope measurements from brachiopods, crinoids, diagenetic cements, and bulk matrix material collected from within ~ 50 m of the global stratotype section and point (GSSP) for the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary along with new fluid inclusion microthermometry data. Preliminary clumped isotope temperatures range from ~100-165 °C and generally cluster based on component type. Secondary fluid inclusion assemblages in blocky calcite cement indicate that strata surrounding the GSSP experienced at least 175-180 °C during burial in the Antler foreland basin. The fact that clumped isotope temperatures in all carbonate components are lower than independently constrained peak temperature estimates from fluid inclusions suggests that

  13. Burial and thermal history of the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado, and petroleum potential of the Middle Pennsylvanian Paradox Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nuccio, Vito F.; Condon, Steven M.

    1996-01-01

    The Ismay?Desert Creek interval and Cane Creek cycle of the Alkali Gulch interval of the Middle Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin of Utah and Colorado contain excellent organic-rich source rocks having total organic carbon contents ranging from 0.5 to 11.0 percent. The source rocks in both intervals contain types I, II, and III organic matter and are potential source rocks for both oil and gas. Organic matter in the Ismay?Desert Creek interval and Cane Creek cycle of the Alkali Gulch interval (hereinafter referred to in this report as the ?Cane Creek cycle?) probably is more terrestrial in origin in the eastern part of the basin and is interpreted to have contributed to some of the gas produced there. Thermal maturity increases from southwest to northeast for both the Ismay?Desert Creek interval and Cane Creek cycle, following structural and burial trends throughout the basin. In the northernmost part of the basin, the combination of a relatively thick Tertiary sedimentary sequence and high basinal heat flow has produced very high thermal maturities. Although general thermal maturity trends are similar for both the Ismay?Desert Creek interval and Cane Creek cycle, actual maturity levels are higher for the Cane Creek due to the additional thickness (as much as several thousand feet) of Middle Pennsylvanian section. Throughout most of the basin, the Ismay?Desert Creek interval is mature and in the petroleum-generation window (0.10 to 0.50 production index (PI)), and both oil and gas are produced; in the south-central to southwestern part of the basin, however, the interval is marginally mature (0.10 PI) in the central part of the basin and is overmature (past the petroleum-generation window (>0.50 PI)) throughout most of the eastern part of the basin. The Cane Creek cycle generally produces oil and associated gas throughout the western and central parts of the basin and thermogenic gas in the eastern part of the basin. Burial and thermal-history

  14. Thermal Histories of Earth, Moon, Mars and Vesta, and A Thermal Signal for the Onset of Terrestrial-like Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putirka, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Mantle potential temperatures (Tp) reflect mantle circulation and planetary cooling, and thus may provide clues as to why Earth is unique amongst the terrestrial planetary bodies. A re-evaluation of Tp estimates for Earth, Mars, Moon, and Vesta, reveals an anticipated decrease in maximum Tp as planet size decreases, at least if we apply a 4.3 Ga age to shergottites (e.g., Bouvier et al., 2009; Werner et al., 2014), and use the highest MgO komatiites from Earth's Archean eon (27-30% MgO, e.g., Green et al., 1975). With these assumptions, Earth and Mars yield time-Tp paths indicative of secular cooling that appears to be largely monotonic following the end of accretion. These two cooling trends further provide intriguing support for Stevenson's (2003) hypothesis that smaller planets cool at similar rates, but always maintain lower temperatures. One key difference between Earth and the other bodies, though, is that Earth exhibits a clear split in Phanerozoic terrestrial mantle temperatures, into plume- and ambient-Tp, although there is a hint of a parallel process on Mars at 1.3 Ga, if we accept that the high MgO Nakhla D composition is a liquid (Longhi and Pan, 1989; Treiman 1986). The onset of Tp bi-modality may be a harbinger of a transition from a stagnant lid to a plume/plate convective regime; in the former, only hot plumes from the core-mantle boundary contribute to volcanism, whereas in a plume/plate mode, small-scale convection of cooler ambient mantle, mostly at rifts and subduction zones, also contributes to surface volcanism. The contrasts between Earth and the other bodies imply that planetary radii and initial temperatures exert the primary control on whether or not modern terrestrial tectonics is able to develop. Exploration of Mars is still at too early a stage to infer much regarding its internal thermal state at 1.3 Ga, but clearly the study of young volcanic features there are of prime importance, perhaps much more so for understanding planetary and

  15. 500 Myr of thermal history elucidated by multi-method detrital thermochronology of North Gondwana Cambrian sandstone (Eilat area, Israel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, P.; Avigad, D.

    2009-04-01

    Eilat. The detrital apatites we studied all have extremely rounded cores suggestive of a distant provenance, but some grains also feature distinct euhedral U-rich apatite overgrowth rims. Authigenic apatite may have grown during the late Devonian thermal event we dated by ZFT, coinciding with existing Rb-Sr ages from authigenic clays in the same deposits and leading to the conclusion that the Devonian event was probably hydrothermal. Like the ZFT ages, the detrital apatite fission track (AFT) ages were also completely reset after deposition. Sixty single grain detrital apatite fission track (AFT) ages group at ~270 Ma with significant dispersion. Inverse modeling of the AFT data indicate extended and/or repeated residence in the AFT partial annealing zone, in turn suggesting an episodic burial-erosion history during the Mesozoic caused by low-amplitude vertical motions. Seven detrital apatite (U-Th)/He ages scatter between 33 and 77 Ma, possibly resulting from extreme compositional zonation associated with the authigenic U-rich overgrowths. The ~70 Ma (U-Th)/He ages are more likely to be accurate, setting 1-2 km as an upper limit (depending on the geothermal gradient) on the post-Cretaceous exhumation of the Cambrian sandstone and showing no evidence for substantial denudation related to Tertiary rifting of the Red Sea.

  16. The Cosmological Impact of Luminous TeV Blazars. II. Rewriting the Thermal History of the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Philip; Broderick, Avery E.; Pfrommer, Christoph

    2012-06-01

    The universe is opaque to extragalactic very high energy gamma rays (VHEGRs, E > 100 GeV) because they annihilate and pair produce on the extragalactic background light. The resulting ultrarelativistic pairs are commonly assumed to lose energy primarily through inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons, reprocessing the original emission from TeV to GeV energies. In Broderick et al., we argued that this is not the case; powerful plasma instabilities driven by the highly anisotropic nature of the ultrarelativistic pair distribution provide a plausible way to dissipate the kinetic energy of the TeV-generated pairs locally, heating the intergalactic medium (IGM). Here, we explore the effect of this heating on the thermal history of the IGM. We collate the observed extragalactic VHEGR sources to determine a local VHEGR heating rate. Given the pointed nature of VHEGR observations, we estimate the correction for the various selection effects using Fermi observations of high- and intermediate-peaked BL Lac objects. As the extragalactic component of the local VHEGR flux is dominated by TeV blazars, we then estimate the evolution of the TeV blazar luminosity density by tying it to the well-observed quasar luminosity density and producing a VHEGR heating rate as a function of redshift. This heating is relatively homogeneous for z <~ 4, but there is greater spatial variation at higher redshift (order unity at z ~ 6) because of the reduced number of blazars that contribute to local heating. We show that this new heating process dominates photoheating in the low-redshift evolution of the IGM and calculate the effect of this heating in a one-zone model. As a consequence, the inclusion of TeV blazar heating qualitatively and quantitatively changes the structure and history of the IGM. Due to the homogeneous nature of the extragalactic background light, TeV blazars produce a uniform volumetric heating rate. This heating is sufficient to increase the

  17. Thermal and impact histories of reheated group IVA, IVB, and ungrouped iron meteorites and their parent asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Goldstein, J. I.; Scott, E. R. D.; Michael, J. R.; Kotula, P. G.; Pham, T.; McCoy, T. J.

    2011-09-01

    Abstract- The microstructures of six reheated iron meteorites—two IVA irons, Maria Elena (1935), Fuzzy Creek; one IVB iron, Ternera; and three ungrouped irons, Hammond, Babb’s Mill (Blake’s Iron), and Babb’s Mill (Troost’s Iron)—were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron-probe microanalysis, and electron backscatter diffraction techniques to determine their thermal and shock history and that of their parent asteroids. Maria Elena and Hammond were heated below approximately 700-750 °C, so that kamacite was recrystallized and taenite was exsolved in kamacite and was spheroidized in plessite. Both meteorites retained a record of the original Widmanstätten pattern. The other four, which show no trace of their original microstructure, were heated above 600-700 °C and recrystallized to form 10-20 μm wide homogeneous taenite grains. On cooling, kamacite formed on taenite grain boundaries with their close-packed planes aligned. Formation of homogeneous 20 μm wide taenite grains with diverse orientations would have required as long as approximately 800 yr at 600 °C or approximately 1 h at 1300 °C. All six irons contain approximately 5-10 μm wide taenite grains with internal microprecipitates of kamacite and nanometer-scale M-shaped Ni profiles that reach approximately 40% Ni indicating cooling over 100-10,000 yr. Un-decomposed high-Ni martensite (α2) in taenite—the first occurrence in irons—appears to be a characteristic of strongly reheated irons. From our studies and published work, we identified four progressive stages of shock and reheating in IVA irons using these criteria: cloudy taenite, M-shaped Ni profiles in taenite, Neumann twin lamellae, martensite, shock-hatched kamacite, recrystallization, microprecipitates of taenite, and shock-melted troilite. Maria Elena and Fuzzy Creek represent stages 3 and 4, respectively. Although not all reheated irons contain evidence for shock, it was probably the main

  18. Cation diffusion in calcite: determining closure temperatures and the thermal history for the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite.

    PubMed

    Fisler, D K; Cygan, R T

    1998-07-01

    The presence of zoned Fe, Mg, Ca, and Mn in the carbonate phases associated with the cracks and inclusions of the Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 meteorite provides evidence for constraining the thermal history of the meteorite. Using self- and tracer-diffusion coefficients obtained from laboratory experiments on natural calcite, cooling rates are calculated for various temperatures and diffusion distances to assist in the evaluation of the compositional zoning associated with the carbonate phases in ALH 84001. The closure temperature model provides the average temperature below which compositional zoning will be preserved for a given cooling rate, that is, the temperature at which diffusion will be ineffective in homogenizing the phase. The validity of various theories for the formation of the carbonate globules may be examined, therefore, in view of the diffusion-limited kinetic constraints. Experiments using a thin film-mineral diffusion couple and ion microprobe for depth profiling analysis were performed for the temperature range of 550-800 degrees C to determine self- and tracer-diffusion coefficients for Ca and Mg and in calcite. The resulting activation energies for Ca (Ea(Ca) = 271 +/- 80 kJ/mol) and for Mg (Ea(Mg) = 284 +/- 74 kJ/mol) were used then to calculate a series of cooling rate, grain size, and closure temperature curves. The data indicate, for example, that by the diffusion of Mg in calcite, a 10 micrometers compositional zone would be completely homogenized at a temperature of 300 degrees C for cooling rates <100 K/Ma. These data provide no constraint on formation models that propose a low-temperature fluid precipitation mechanism; however, they indicate that the carbonate globules were not exposed to a high-temperature environment for long time scales following formation. PMID:11543076

  19. Cation diffusion in calcite: determining closure temperatures and the thermal history for the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite.

    PubMed

    Fisler, D K; Cygan, R T

    1998-07-01

    The presence of zoned Fe, Mg, Ca, and Mn in the carbonate phases associated with the cracks and inclusions of the Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 meteorite provides evidence for constraining the thermal history of the meteorite. Using self- and tracer-diffusion coefficients obtained from laboratory experiments on natural calcite, cooling rates are calculated for various temperatures and diffusion distances to assist in the evaluation of the compositional zoning associated with the carbonate phases in ALH 84001. The closure temperature model provides the average temperature below which compositional zoning will be preserved for a given cooling rate, that is, the temperature at which diffusion will be ineffective in homogenizing the phase. The validity of various theories for the formation of the carbonate globules may be examined, therefore, in view of the diffusion-limited kinetic constraints. Experiments using a thin film-mineral diffusion couple and ion microprobe for depth profiling analysis were performed for the temperature range of 550-800 degrees C to determine self- and tracer-diffusion coefficients for Ca and Mg and in calcite. The resulting activation energies for Ca (Ea(Ca) = 271 +/- 80 kJ/mol) and for Mg (Ea(Mg) = 284 +/- 74 kJ/mol) were used then to calculate a series of cooling rate, grain size, and closure temperature curves. The data indicate, for example, that by the diffusion of Mg in calcite, a 10 micrometers compositional zone would be completely homogenized at a temperature of 300 degrees C for cooling rates <100 K/Ma. These data provide no constraint on formation models that propose a low-temperature fluid precipitation mechanism; however, they indicate that the carbonate globules were not exposed to a high-temperature environment for long time scales following formation.

  20. Thermal history effects and methyl tunneling dynamics in a supramolecular complex of calixarene and para-xylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panesar, K. S.; Horsewill, A. J.; Cuda, F.; Carravetta, M.; Mamone, S.; Danquigny, A.; Grossel, M. C.; Levitt, M. H.

    2008-04-01

    The low-temperature structure and dynamics of guest molecules of p-xylene incorporated in the isopropyl-calix[4] arene(2:1) p-xylene complex have been investigated by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Using one-dimensional H1-decoupled C13 cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning (MAS) NMR and two-dimensional H1-C13 correlation spectroscopy, a full assignment of the C13 and H1 chemical shifts has been made. Using H1 NMR relaxometry, the effects of thermal history on the structure of the system have been investigated. Rapidly cooled samples have H1 spin-lattice relaxation times T1, which at low temperature (T<60K) are typically two orders of magnitude faster than those observed in annealed samples which have been cooled slowly over many hours. In both forms, the low-temperature relaxation is driven by the dynamics of the weakly hindered methyl rotors of the p-xylene guest. The substantial difference in T1 is attributed in the rapidly cooled sample to disorder in the structure of the complex leading to a wide distribution of correlation times and methyl barrier heights. A comparison of the linewidths and splittings in the high resolution C13 MAS spectra of the two forms provides structural insight into the nature of the disorder. Using H1 field-cycling NMR relaxometry, the methyl dynamics of the p-xylene guest in the annealed sample have been fully characterized. The B-field dependence of the H1 T1 maps out the spectral density from which the correlation times are directly measured. The methyl barrier heights are determined from an analysis of the temperature dependence.

  1. Developmental and Immediate Thermal Environments Shape Energetic Trade-Offs, Growth Efficiency, and Metabolic Rate in Divergent Life-History Ecotypes of the Garter Snake Thamnophis elegans.

    PubMed

    Gangloff, Eric J; Vleck, David; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    Interactions at all levels of ecology are influenced by the rate at which energy is obtained, converted, and allocated. Trade-offs in energy allocation within individuals in turn form the basis for life-history theory. Here we describe tests of the influences of temperature, developmental environment, and genetic background on measures of growth efficiency and resting metabolic rate in an ectothermic vertebrate, the western terrestrial garter snake (Thamnophis elegans). After raising captive-born snakes from divergent life-history ecotypes on thermal regimes mimicking natural habitat differences (2 × 2 experimental design of ecotype and thermal environment), we measured oxygen consumption rate at temperatures spanning the activity range of this species. We found ecotypic differences in the reaction norms of snakes across the measured range of temperatures and a temperature-dependent allometric relationship between mass and metabolic rate predicted by the metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis. Additionally, we present evidence of within-individual trade-offs between growth efficiency and resting metabolic rate, as predicted by classic life-history theory. These observations help illuminate the ultimate and proximate factors that underlie variation in these interrelated physiological and life-history traits. PMID:26658251

  2. Magnetic hysteresis properties and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy of iron and stony-iron meteorites: Implications for mineralogy and thermal history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, E.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Fillion, G.

    2015-05-01

    Since the solid matter in our solar system began to assemble 4.57 billion years ago, meteorites have recorded a large range of processes, including metamorphism, melting, irradiation and hypervelocity impacts. These processes as well as solar system magnetic fields can be accessed through the investigation of magnetic properties of meteorites. In this work, we present magnetic hysteresis properties, isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition curves and 57Fe Mössbauer spectra for nineteen iron and eleven stony-iron meteorites. These data will be the background for a discussion about the thermal and shock history of these meteorites. Although Mössbauer spectroscopy and hysteresis measurements are not able to provide cooling rates like the conventional metallographic method does, we show that the combination of the ordering degree of taenite phase measured by Mössbauer spectroscopy and hysteresis properties are useful for constraining the thermal and shock history of meteorites. In particular, strong shock and the associated thermal event that result in disordering of tetrataenite can be easily identified.

  3. Skylab extravehicular mobility unit thermal simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, C. W.; Phillips, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The analytical methods, thermal model, and user's instructions for the Skylab Extravehicular Mobility Unit (SEMU) routine are presented. This digital computer program was developed for detailed thermal performance predictions of the SEMU on the NASA-JSC Univac 1108 computer system. It accounts for conductive, convective, and radiant heat transfer as well as fluid flow and special component characterization. The program provides thermal performance predictions for a 967 node thermal model in one thirty-sixth (1/36) of mission time when operated at a calculating interval of three minutes (mission time). The program has the operational flexibility to: (1) accept card or magnetic tape data input for the thermal model describing the SEMU structure, fluid systems, crewman and component performance, (2) accept card and/or magnetic tape input of internally generated heat and heat influx from the space environment, and (3) output tabular or plotted histories of temperature, flow rates, and other parameters describing system operating modes.

  4. Extremely extended dust shells around evolved intermediate mass stars: Probing mass loss histories, thermal pulses and stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mchunu, Basil Menzi

    Intermediate mass stars (0.8 -- 8 M⊙ ) at the asymptotic giant branch phase (AGB) suffer intensive mass loss, which leads to the formation of a circumstellar shell (s) of gas and dust in their circumstellar envelope. At the end of the AGB phase, the mass-loss decreases or stops and the circumstellar envelope begins to drift away from the star. If the velocity of the AGB phase wind has been relatively constant, then dust or molecular emission furthest from the star represents the oldest mass loss, while material closer to the star represents more recent mass loss. Therefore, the history of mass loss during the AGB phase is imprinted on the dust shells of the post-AGB envelope. Thus, by studying the distribution of matterial in the form of dust emission in the circumstellar shells of late evolved stars (i.e. the post AGB phases are pre-planetary nebula (PPN) and the planetary nebula (PN)) we can gain a better understanding of the mass-loss processes involved in the evolution of intermediate mass stars. I studied two groups of intermediate mass stars, namely six oxygen rich and six carbon rich candidates. In this thesis a study of evolution of intermadiate mass stars is confronted by means of observations, in which far-infrared (FIR) images, are used to study the physical properties and the material distribution of dust shells of AGB and post AGB circumstellar envelope. Infrared radiation from thermal dust emission can be used to probe the entire dust shell because, near to mid-infrared radiation arises solely from the hotest regions close to the star; while the outer regions away from the star are cool such that they emitt at longer infrared wavelengths. Essentially, radiation in the FIR to submillimiter wavelengths is emittted by the entire dust shell and hence can be used to probe the entire dusty envelope. Therefore far-infrared emission by late evolved stars can be used to probe the large scale-structure of AGB and post-AGB circumstellar shells. Our results

  5. Variscan to Neogene thermal and exhumation history at the Moroccan passive continental margin assessed by low temperature thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehrt, M.; Glasmacher, U. A.; Stockli, D. F.; Kluth, O.; Jabour, H.

    2012-04-01

    In North Africa, a large amount of Mesozoic terrigenous sedimentary rocks are deposited in most of the basins along the continental margin indicating a major episode of erosion occurred during the rift and early post-rift period in the Central Atlantic. In the Tarfaya-Dakhla Basin, Morocco the sedimentary cover reaches thicknesses of up to 9000 m. The presence of high surface elevations in the Anti-Atlas mountain belt (2500 m) indicates a potential source area for the surrounding basins. The NE-SW oriented Anti-Atlas of Morocco is located at the northwestern fringe of the West African Craton and south of the High Atlas and represents the Phanerozoic foreland of the Late Paleozoic North African Variscides and the Cenozoic Atlas Belt. Variscan deformation affected most of Morocco. Paleozoic basins were folded and thrusted, with the major collision dated as late Devonian to Late Carboniferous. Zircon fission-track ages of 287 (±23) to 331 (±24) Ma confirmed the main exhumation referred to the Variscan folding, followed by rapid exhumation and the post-folding erosion. Currently, phases of uplift and exhumation in the Anti-Atlas during the Central Atlantic rifting and places where the associated erosion products are deposited are poorly constrained and there is little quantitative data available at present. The objective of the study is to determine the thermal and exhumation history of the Anti-Atlas and the connected Tarfaya-Dakhla Basin at the Moroccan passive continental margin. Besides zircon fission-track dating, apatite and zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He and apatite fission-track analyses and furthermore 2-D modelling with 'HeFTy' software has been carried out at Precambrian rocks of the Western Anti-Atlas and Cretaceous to Neogene sedimentary rocks from the Northern Tarfaya-Dakhla Basin. The apatite fission-track ages of 120 (±13) to 189 (±14) Ma in the Anti-Atlas and 176 (±20) to 216 (±18) Ma in the Tarfaya Basin indicate very obvious a Central Atlantic opening

  6. Influence of thermal history on the photostructural changes in glassy As{sub 15}S{sub 85} studied by Raman scattering and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kolar, J. E-mail: sny@iceht.forth.gr; Strizik, L.; Kohoutek, T.; Wagner, T.; Voyiatzis, G. A.; Chrissanthopoulos, A.; Yannopoulos, S. N. E-mail: sny@iceht.forth.gr

    2013-11-28

    Photostructural changes—the hallmark of non-crystalline chalcogenides—are in essence the basis of a number of photoinduced effects, i.e., changes of their physical properties, which are exploited in a variety of applications, especially in photonics and optoelectronics. Despite the vast number of investigations of photostructural changes, there is currently lack of systematic studies on how the thermal history, which affects glass structure, modifies the extent of photostructural changes. In this article, we study the role of thermal history on photostructural changes in glassy As{sub 15}S{sub 85}. This particular sulfur-rich composition has been chosen based on the colossal photostructural response it exhibits under near-band gap light irradiation, which inherently originates from its nanoscale phase-separated nature. To control the thermal history, the glass was quenched to various temperatures and each of these quenched products was annealed under four different conditions. Off-resonant Raman scattering was used to study the equilibrium study of each product. Structural changes of interest involve changes of the sulfur atoms participating into S{sub 8} rings and S{sub n} chains. Their ratio was found to depend on quenching/annealing conditions. Near-band gap light was used to perturb the rings-to-chain ratio and at the same time to record these changes through Raman scattering, revealing an intricate behavior of photostructural changes. Ab initio calculations were employed to determine the stability of various sulfur clusters/molecules thus aiding the correlation of the particular photo-response of glassy As{sub 15}S{sub 85} with its structural constituents.

  7. Thermal evolution of Lower Paleozoic sedimentary successions from organic and inorganic studies: the case history of the Holy Cross Mountains (central Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trolese, Matteo; Stefano Celano, Antonio; Corrado, Sveva; Caricchi, Chiara; Schito, Andrea; Aldega, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The rapid increase in shale gas production in the USA has triggered a growing interest in unconventional resources in Eastern and Northern Europe. In this framework, the potential shale gas reserves in Poland are the most promising in Europe, extending from the Baltic Sea to the Ukraine border. In this area, the Baltic, Podlasie and Lublin basins have already become objective of shale gas exploration and the Holy Cross Mountains (HCM, Central Poland) represents the outcropping analog of the buried targeted Lower Paleozoic successions, providing a unique opportunity to study and assess source rock potential. In this work, we provide new thermal maturity data of Paleozoic rocks exposed in the HCM. A multi-method approach, coupling organic matter/graptolites (i.e., marine organoclasts) optical analysis and X-ray diffraction of clay-sized fraction of sediments, was applied to constrain the burial - thermal evolution of the sedimentary succession. The investigated area of the HCM includes two different tectonic blocks: the Łysogóry region to the North and the Kielce region to the South, separated by the Holy Cross Fault (HCF). lllite content in mixed layer illite-smectite determinations and vitrinite/graptolites reflectance measurements (Roeq%), performed on samples (Cambrian - Devonian) collected from both the regions, show a substantial difference between the two blocks in terms of thermal maturity and burial history. Roeq% values in the southern block range from 0.5% to 1.0%, with few exceptions, indicating early to mid-mature stage of hydrocarbon generation. Samples collected in the northern block show much higher values, mainly from 1.2% up to 1.7%, representative of the gas generation window. The I-S ordering type also shows relevant differences in the two blocks. In the southern block, mixed-layered clay minerals varies from R1 (short-range) to R3 (long-range), whereas R3 structures are recorded in the northern block. Vitrinite reflectance and mixed-layer I

  8. Numerical investigation of thermal history and residual stress of grown multi-crystalline silicon at the various growth stages for PV applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-05-01

    The directional solidification is a very important technique for growing high quality multi-crystalline silicon at large scale for PV solar cells. Time dependent numerical modelling of the temperature distribution, residual stress in multi-crystalline silicon ingots grown by directional solidification has been investigated for five growth stage. The computation was carried in a 2D axis symmetric model by the finite volume method. The history of temperature distribution, stress generation, are tracked in our modelling continuously to consider the growth process from the beginning to the end of solidification process. This paper is aimed to achieve an advanced understanding of the thermal and mechanical behavior of grown crystal.

  9. In hot and cold water: differential life-history traits are key to success in contrasting thermal deep-sea environments.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Leigh; Copley, Jonathan T; Tyler, Paul A; Thatje, Sven

    2015-07-01

    Few species of reptant decapod crustaceans thrive in the cold-stenothermal waters of the Southern Ocean. However, abundant populations of a new species of anomuran crab, Kiwa tyleri, occur at hydrothermal vent fields on the East Scotia Ridge. As a result of local thermal conditions at the vents, these crabs are not restricted by the physiological limits that otherwise exclude reptant decapods south of the polar front. We reveal the adult life history of this species by piecing together variation in microdistribution, body size frequency, sex ratio, and ovarian and embryonic development, which indicates a pattern in the distribution of female Kiwaidae in relation to their reproductive development. High-density 'Kiwa' assemblages observed in close proximity to sources of vent fluids are constrained by the thermal limit of elevated temperatures and the availability of resources for chemosynthetic nutrition. Although adult Kiwaidae depend on epibiotic chemosynthetic bacteria for nutrition, females move offsite after extrusion of their eggs to protect brooding embryos from the chemically harsh, thermally fluctuating vent environment. Consequently, brooding females in the periphery of the vent field are in turn restricted by low-temperature physiological boundaries of the deep-water Southern Ocean environment. Females have a high reproductive investment in few, large, yolky eggs, facilitating full lecithotrophy, with the release of larvae prolonged, and asynchronous. After embryos are released, larvae are reliant on locating isolated active areas of hydrothermal flow in order to settle and survive as chemosynthetic adults. Where the cold water restricts the ability of all adult stages to migrate over long distances, these low temperatures may facilitate the larvae in the location of vent sites by extending the larval development period through hypometabolism. These differential life-history adaptations to contrasting thermal environments lead to a disjunct life history

  10. Pyroclastic Flow (Post-)Emplacement Thermal History Derived From Titanomagnetite Curie Temperatures: Mt. St. Helens and Soufrière Hills as Test Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, J.; Jackson, M.; Lappe, S. C. L. L.; Solheid, P.; Stinton, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Pumice blocks and ash matrix sampled from the 1980 pyroclastic flows at Mt. St. Helens and the 2010 flow at Soufrière Hills, Montserrat, display magnetic Curie temperatures (TC) that vary strongly with depth in the flow. We demonstrate that these TC variations result from variable degrees of cation ordering within Mg- and Al-bearing titanomagnetites, and that the degree of ordering is dependent on the emplacement temperature and post-emplacement thermal history of the sample. Curie temperatures are lowest at the tops of flows where rapid cooling has quenched in a relatively low degree of cation order. Samples that cooled more slowly at depth in the flow evolved towards a higher degree of cation order with a correspondingly higher TC. Isothermal annealing experiments in the laboratory have allowed us to document the time-temperature evolution of the cation ordering and Curie temperature, and we use this data in combination with conductive cooling calculations to forward model stratigraphic variations in TC as a function of emplacement temperature (e.g., Fig.1). Preliminary results show that modeled emplacement temperatures (Templ) are reasonably close to measured or estimated emplacement temperatures. Thermal demagnetization data from lithic clasts incorporated into some flows supports the modeled emplacement temperatures; a low-temperature overprint in the direction of the present-day field is removed at ~Templ. However, the documented variation of TC with thermal history means that care should be taken in interpreting this more traditional lithic-based paleomagnetic paleothermometry data. Modification of Curie and blocking temperatures both during natural cooling and during laboratory thermal treatments could affect lithic-based emplacement temperature estimates.

  11. Impacts of pore- and petro-fabrics, mineral composition and diagenetic history on the bulk thermal conductivity of sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabawy, Bassem S.; Géraud, Yves

    2016-03-01

    The present study aims to model the bulk thermal fabric of the highly porous (26.5 ≤ øHe ≤ 39.0%) siliceous Nubia sandstones in south Egypt, as well as their pore- and petro-anisotropy. The thermal fabric concept is used in the present study to describe the magnitude and direction of the thermal foliation 'F', lineation 'L' and anisotropy 'λ'. Cementation, pressure solution, compaction and the authigenic clay content are the main pore volume-controlling factors, whereas the cement dissolution and fracturing are the most important porosity-enhancing factors. The bulk thermal fabric of the Nubia sandstone is raised mostly from the contribution of the mineral composition and the pore volume. The kaolinite content and pore volume are the main reducing factors for the measured bulk thermal conductivity 'k', whereas the quartz content is the most important enhancing factors. The optical scanning technique, which is one of the most accurate and precise techniques, was applied for measuring the bulk thermal conductivity 'k' of the studied samples. For the dry state, the average thermal condutivity 'kav' in the NE-SW, NW-SE and vertical directions, varies from 1.53 to 2.40, 1.54 to 2.36 and from 1.31 to 2.20 W/(mK), respectively. On other hand, 'kav' for the saline water-saturated state for the NE-SW, NW-SE and vertical directions varies between 2.94 & 4.42, 2.90 & 4.31 and between 2.39 & 3.65 W/(mK), respectively. The present thermal pore fabric is slightly anisotropic, 'λ' varies from 1.10 to 1.41, refers mostly to the NW-SE direction (kmax direction, elongation direction), whereas the petro-fabric refers to NE-SW direction (kmax direction, elongation direction). This gives rise to a conclusion that the pore- and petro-fabrics have two different origins. Therefore, studying the thermal conductivity of the Nubia sandstone in 3-D indicates a pore fabric elongation fluctuating around the N-S direction.

  12. Mechanical properties of Inconel 718 and Nickel 201 alloys after thermal histories simulating brazing and high temperature service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made to evaluate two nickel base alloys (Nickel-201 and Inconel-718) in three heat treated conditions. These conditions were: (1) annealed; (2) after thermal exposure simulating a braze cycle; and (3) after a thermal exposure simulating a braze cycle plus one operational lifetime of high temperature service. For the Nickel-201, two different braze cycle temperatures were evaluated. A braze cycle utilizing a lower braze temperature resulted in less grain growth for Nickel-201 than the standard braze cycle used for joining Nickel-201 to Inconel-718. It was determined, however, that Nickel-201, was marginal for temperatures investigated due to large grain growth. After the thermal exposures described above, the mechanical properties of Nickel-201 were degraded, whereas similar exposure on Inconel-718 actually strengthened the material compared with the annealed condition. The investigation included tensile tests at both room temperature and elevated temperatures, stress-rupture tests, and metallographic examination.

  13. Evidence for differences in the thermal histories of Antarctic and non-Antarctic H chondrites with cosmic-ray exposure ages less than 20 Ma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.; Benoit, Paul; Batchelor, J. David

    1991-01-01

    Antarctic H chondrites show a different range of induced thermoluminescence properties compared with those of H chondrites that have fallen elsewhere in the world. Recent noble gas data of Schultz et al. (1991) show that this difference is displayed most dramatically by meteorites with cosmic-ray exposure ages less than 20 Ma, and they confirm that the differences cannot be attributed to weathering or to the presence of a great many fragments of an unusual Antarctic meteorite. Annealing experiments on an H5 chondrite, and other measurements on a variety of ordinary chondrites, have shown that induced TL properties are sensitive to the thermal histories of the meteorities. It is concluded that the events(s) that released the less than 20 Ma samples, which are predominantly those with exposure ages of 8 + or - 2 Ma, produced two groups with different thermal histories, one that came to earth several 100,000 years ago and that are currently only found in Antarctica, and one that is currently falling on the earth.

  14. Regional fluid flow as a factor in the thermal history of the Illinois basin: Constraints from fluid inclusions and the maturity of Pennsylvanian coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, E.L.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Hatch, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance measurements on Pennsylvanian coals in the Illinois basin indicate significantly higher thermal maturity than can be explained by present-day burial depths. An interval of additional sedimentary section, now removed by erosion, has been suggested to account for the discrepancy. Although burial could indeed account for the observed maturity levels of organic matter, fluid-inclusion temperatures provide a stringent additional constraint. In this article, we combine measurements of coal maturity with fluid-inclusion temperatures from three sites to constrain the basin's thermal and burial history: the Fluorspar district at the Illinois basin's southern margin, the Upper Mississippi Valley zinc district at the basin's northern margin, and a north-central location. Two-dimensional numerical modeling of a north-south cross section through the basin tests scenarios both with and without regional fluid flow. Vitrinite reflectance values can be matched assuming burial by 1.8-2.8 km of southward-thickening additional, post-Pennsylvanian sedimentary section. In the central and northern Illinois basin, however, these burial depths and temperatures are not sufficient to account for the fluid-inclusion data. To account for both parameters with burial alone does not appear feasible. In contrast, our best hypothesis assumes a wedge of post-Pennsylvanian sediment-thickening southward to about 1.2 km and a brief period of magmatism in the Fluorspar district. Significant advective heat redistribution by northward regional fluid flow accounts for fluid-inclusion temperatures and coal maturities throughout the basin. The modeling results demonstrate the potential contribution of advective heat transport to the thermal history of the Illinois basin.

  15. Evaluation of the thermal history of bovine milk from the lactosylation of whey proteins: an investigation by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Losito, Ilario; Carbonara, Teresa; Monaci, Linda; Palmisano, Francesco

    2007-12-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-ESI-MS) has been used for analysis of the native and lactosylated forms of the main whey proteins, alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulins A and B, in commercial bovine milk samples after different thermal treatment (pasteurisation and ultra high-temperature, UHT, treatment), of different lipid content, and of different brands, to find markers of the thermal history of the milk. A new quantification strategy was developed, based on peak-area integration after multiple ion current extraction and considering all the ions detectable in the multi-charge ESI mass spectrum for each type of protein. Validation of the procedure for native forms was first accomplished by calibration with model solutions. Linearity was always good. Sensitivity was different for alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulins; the signal was stronger for the latter with only a slight difference between variants A and B of beta-lactoglobulins. Application of the quantification approach to pasteurised and UHT milk samples showed that the distributions of the three proteins and of their three main forms (native, and mono and bi-lactosylated) in whey extracts can be used as statistically robust discriminatory properties for recognition of commercial thermal treatment of milk. PMID:17673990

  16. Shock-thermal history of Kapoeta howardite matter on data of thermoluminescence analysis of individual mineral grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivliev, A. I.; Kashkarov, L. L.; Korotkova, Yu. YU.

    1993-01-01

    The artificially induced thermoluminescence (TL) was measured in OPx grains from Kapoeta howardite. The TL glow curves for individual OPx grains are significantly distinguished from each other both by their shape and TL sensitivity; five groups of OPx grains were characterized. The observed variety of glow curves of OPx grains could be caused by their distinct shock-thermal events at the regolith stage of meteorite parent body formation.

  17. Thermal History of the Central Pyrenees: Combining Low-Temperature Thermochronology and Thermal Modeling to Constrain the Formation of Convergent Orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, J. R.; Fitzgerald, P. G.; Baldwin, S. L.; Muñoz, J.

    2008-12-01

    Constraining the timing of thrusting is fundamental to understanding the tectonic evolution of convergent orogens. Without external constraints, it is difficult to directly tie low-temperature thermochronology to thrust fault activity in convergent orogens. This is largely because thrust faults do not exhume, and therefore do not directly cool, rocks. Topography generated in convergent orogens can cool rocks, either via lateral heat loss from the flanks of orogens ("topographic cooling") or more typically by increasing erosion rates. Neither of these scenarios can be simply applied to the Pyrenees. Prior to the Late Cretaceous initiation of convergence between the Iberian and European plates, the region that makes up the Pyrenees was part of a broad shallow marine basin. Many of the major thrust faults that were active during convergence are inverted low-angle extensional faults. Therefore, a significant amount of convergence and thrust faulting was accommodated prior to emergence above sea-level of the proto-Pyrenees, and hence there was no significant erodable topography. Topographic cooling is unlikely to be significant in the Pyrenees due to their relatively long wavelength and moderate amplitude. However, rocks in the footwall of thrust faults will record the onset of faulting as heating events. In the Pyrenees we are applying 40Ar/39Ar K-feldspar multi-diffusion domain (MDD) modeling and apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology to examine the onset and magnitude of thrust faulting in the Axial Zone of the central and west-central Pyrenees. Both MDD modeling and AFT thermochronology can record heating events and can therefore provide quantitative constraints on the timing and rate of thrust fault activity in convergent orogens. MDD thermal models from granitic massifs in the Orri thrust sheet (the footwall of the Gavarnie Thrust) suggest reheating beginning at 65-60 Ma. This is interpreted to reflect burial due to thrusting beneath the Nogueres thrust

  18. Cenozoic thermal history of the Bohai Bay Basin: constraints from heat flow and coupled basin?mountain modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lijuan; Wang, Jiyang

    Heat flow measurements show a moderate thermal background (∼61 mW/m 2) in the Bohai Bay Basin, which although experienced multi-phase rifting in the Cenozoic era. In contrast, its surrounding mountain areas are characterized by low heat flow. Constraint by heat flow measurements, the thermal evolution of the Bohai Bay Basin during the Cenozoic era was performed by a numerical basin-mountain model. The model incorporates differential lithosphere stretching and shortening by finite-element method in the Lagrangian frame. The predicted heat flow in the center of the three depressions of the Bohai Bay Basin is calculated to have varied between 51 and 63 mW/m 2 through the Cenozoic evolution, indicating a rather smooth variation of basin thermal state, and a cooling trend from the Oligocene to present-day. Model results also suggest that the Taihang Mountains probably uplifted in the Quaternary, which resulted in low heat flow in the mountain area. Both heat flow constraints and modeling imply that a new phase of rifting in the Pliocene existed in the Huanghua and Bozhong Depressions, which was suggested by tectonic subsidence analysis.

  19. Cenozoic thermal history of the Bohai Bay Basin: constraints from heat flow and coupled basin-mountain modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; Wang, J.

    2003-04-01

    Bohai Bay Basin is located in the east of North China Craton. Heat flow measurements show a moderate thermal background (~ 61 mW/m2) in the Bohai Bay Basin, which although experienced multi-phase rifting in the Cenozoic era. In contrast, its surrounding mountain areas are characterized by low heat flow. Constraint by heat flow measurements, the thermal evolution of the Bohai Bay Basin during the Cenozoic era was performed by a numerical basin-mountain model. The model incorporates differential lithosphere stretching and shortening by finite-element method in the Lagrangian frame. The predicted heat flow in the center of the three depressions of the Bohai Bay Basin is calculated to have varied between 51 mW/m2 and 63 mW/m2 through the Cenozoic evolution, indicating a rather smooth variation of basin thermal state, and a cooling trend from the Oligocene to present-day. Model results also suggest that the Taihang Mountains probably uplifted in the Quaternary, which resulted in low heat flow in the mountain area. Both heat flow constraints and modeling imply that a new phase of rifting in the Pliocene existed in the Huanghua and Bozhong Depressions, which was suggested by tectonic subsidence analysis.

  20. The thermal history of the Karoo Moatize-Minjova Basin, Tete Province, Mozambique: An integrated vitrinite reflectance and apatite fission track thermochronology study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Paulo; Cogné, Nathan; Chew, David M.; Rodrigues, Bruno; Jorge, Raul C. G. S.; Marques, João; Jamal, Daud; Vasconcelos, Lopo

    2015-12-01

    The Moatize-Minjova Basin is a Karoo-aged rift basin located in the Tete Province of central Mozambique along the present-day Zambezi River valley. In this basin the Permian Moatize and Matinde formations consist of interbedded carbonaceous mudstones and sandstones with coal seams. The thermal history has been determined using rock samples from two coal exploration boreholes (ca. 500 m depth) to constrain the burial and exhumation history of the basin. Organic maturation levels were determined using vitrinite reflectance and spore fluorescence/colour. Ages and rates of tectonic uplift and denudation have been assessed by apatite fission track analysis. The thermal history was modelled by inverse modelling of the fission track and vitrinite reflectance data. The Moatize Formation attained a coal rank of bituminous coals with low to medium volatiles (1.3-1.7%Rr). Organic maturation levels increase in a linear fashion downhole in the two boreholes, indicating that burial was the main process controlling peak temperature maturation. Calculated palaeogeothermal gradients range from 59 °C/km to 40 °C/km. According to the models, peak burial temperatures were attained shortly (3-10 Ma) after deposition. Apatite fission track ages [146 to 84 Ma (Cretaceous)] are younger than the stratigraphic age. Thermal modelling indicates two episodes of cooling and exhumation: a first period of rapid cooling between 240 and 230 Ma (Middle - Upper Triassic boundary) implying 2500-3000 m of denudation; and a second period, also of rapid cooling, from 6 Ma (late Miocene) onwards implying 1000-1500 m of denudation. The first episode is related to the main compressional deformation event within the Cape Fold Belt in South Africa, which transferred stress northwards on pre-existing transtensional fault systems within the Karoo rift basins, causing tectonic inversion and uplift. During the Mesozoic and most of the Cenozoic the basin is characterized by very slow cooling. The second period

  1. Thermal history of the westernmost Eastern Alps (Penninic Rhenodanubian Flysch nappes, Helvetic nappes, and Subalpine Molasse thrust sheets)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerlauth, Michael; Bertrand, Audrey; Rantitsch, Gerd; Groß, Doris; Ortner, Hugo; Pomella, Hannah; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    The frontal part of the westernmost Eastern Alps comprises from top to bottom of the Austroalpine and Penninic nappes, Ultrahelvetic slices, and two Helvetic thrust sheets, thrust upon the northern Alpine Molasse Basin. The thermal evolution of the Penninic Rhenodanubian Flysch nappes, the Helvetic nappes, and the allochthonous part of the Alpine Molasse Basin is constrained by vitrinite reflectance measurements and apatite fission track dating and implemented in a tectonic evolution scheme. Within the Helvetic nappes, vitrinite reflectance increases regionally from north to south and stratigraphically from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Wang Formation to the Toarcian Mols Member. Apatite fission track ages from Penninic and Subalpine Molasse units are consistently younger than the deposition age. They indicate therefore a post-depositional thermal overprint exceeding approximately 120 °C, the upper temperature limit of the apatite partial annealing zone. 1D thermal modelling suggests that the Penninic nappes attained deepest burial between the latest Cretaceous and Early Palaeocene with the Penninic basal thrust being located at approximately 8 km in the north compared to approximately 12 km in the south. Deepest burial of the upper Helvetic nappe occurred between the latest Eocene and Early Miocene. Its base was buried down to approximately 10.5 km in the north compared to 11.5 km in the south. Exhumation of the entire nappe stack started in the Early to Middle Miocene. For both Penninic and Helvetic models, a heatflow minimum during the Cenozoic deformation (max. 27-32 mW/m2), followed by an increase from the Middle Miocene onwards (up to 60 mW/m2), was assumed.

  2. Thermal history of the Pan-African/Brasiliano Borborema Province of northeast Brazil deduced from 40Ar/ 39Ar analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, M.; de Figueiredo, L. Lambert; Caby, R.; Féraud, G.; Ruffet, G.; Vauchez, A.

    1998-02-01

    Detailed step heating 40Ar/ 39Ar analyses were performed on different minerals from magmatic and metamorphic rocks of the Borborema Province. This region, located in northeast Brazil, belongs to the Pan-African/Brasiliano belt which is about 1000 km wide and 600 km long. Twenty-six single grains of amphibole, muscovite and biotite were extracted from eighteen samples selected in an area of about 17,500 km 2 (250 km by 70 km) in the Patos region. This region has been affected by a continental-scale shear zone system. Well-defined 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages and an U sbnd Pb analysis on zircon [Leterrier, J., Jardim de Sà, E.F, Bertrand, J.M. and Pin, C., 1994. Ages U sbnd Pb sur zircon de granitoïdes brasilianos de la ceinture du Serido (Province Borborema, NE brésil). C.R. Acad. Sci., Paris, 318: 1505-1511] allow the definition of a homogeneous and unusual slow cooling history (3-4°C/Ma) and suggest a rather slow uplift rate between 580 and 500 Ma, followed by a fast cooling of the whole studied area around 500 Ma. Rapid cooling is suggested by concordant plateau ages on muscovite and biotite. The existence of such an event at the end of the belt history is in agreement with data obtained on other major belts such as the Alpine-Himalayan system or the Hercynian belt.

  3. Chromite and olivine in type II chondrules in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites - Implications for thermal histories and group differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Prinz, Martin

    1991-01-01

    Unequilibrated chromite and olivine margin compositions in type II chondrules are noted to differ systematically among three of the chondrite groups, suggesting that type II liquids differed in composition among the groups. These differences may be interpreted as indicators of different chemical compositions of the precursor solids which underwent melting, or, perhaps, as differences in the extent to which immiscible metal sulfide droplets were lost during chondrule formation. Because zinc is detectable only in type II chromites which have undergone reequilibration, the high zinc contents reported for chondritic chromites in other studies probably reflect redistribution during thermal metamorphism.

  4. Postmetamorphic unroofing history deduced from petrology, fluid inclusions, thermochronometry, and thermal modeling: An example from southwestern New England

    SciTech Connect

    Hames, W.E.; Tracy, R.J.; Bodnar, R.J. )

    1989-08-01

    Nonlinear unroofing rates from {approximately}10 to <1 mm/yr following high-pressure Acadian (Devonian) metamorphism have been documented in southwestern New England by using combined petrologic, fluid inclusion, thermochronometric, and thermal modeling techniques. Thermobarometry of pelitic schists from the Rowe-Hawley belt of western Connecticut indicates peak Acadian pressure-temperature conditions of 8.2 kbar and 575C. Densities of CO{sub 2}- and H{sub 2}O-rich fluid inclusions require nearly isothermal decompression followed by more isobaric cooling from these conditions. Comparison of this observed path to those generated by thermal models suggests that decompression was characterized by initial rapid upward en bloc velocity ({approximately}1 cm/yr) of brief duration, followed by much slower unroofing rates ({le}0.3 mm/yr). Published geochronologic ages in this region constrain the rapid uplift to the Middle Devonian, and uplift slowed dramatically by the end of the Devonian. This differential uplift has major implications for interpretation of Devonian igneous activity and sedimentation in southwestern New England.

  5. Fluid inclusions and biomarkers in the Upper Mississippi Valley zinc-lead district; implications for the fluid-flow and thermal history of the Illinois Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, E. Lanier; Goldhaber, Martin B.

    1996-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi Valley zinc-lead district is hosted by Ordovician carbonate rocks at the northern margin of the Illinois Basin. Fluid inclusion temperature measurements on Early Permian sphalerite ore from the district are predominantly between 90?C and I50?C. These temperatures are greater than can be explained by their reconstructed burial depth, which was a maximum of approximately 1 km at the time of mineralization. In contrast to the temperatures of mineral formation derived from fluid inclusions, biomarker maturities in the Upper Mississippi Valley district give an estimate of total thermal exposure integrated over time. Temperatures from fluid inclusions trapped during ore genesis with biomarker maturities were combined to construct an estimate of the district's overall thermal history and, by inference, the late Paleozoic thermal and hydrologic history of the Illinois Basin. Circulation of groundwater through regional aquifers, given sufficient flow rates, can redistribute heat from deep in a sedimentary basin to its shallower margins. Evidence for regional-scale circulation of fluids is provided by paleomagnetic studies, regionally correlated zoned dolomite, fluid inclusions, and thermal maturity of organic matter. Evidence for igneous acti vity contemporaneous with mineralization in the vicinity of the Upper Mississippi Valley district is absent. Regional fluid and heat circulation is the most likely explanation for the elevated fluid inclusion temperatures (relative to maximum estimated burial depth) in the Upper Mississippi Valley district. One plausible driving mechanism and flow path for the ore-forming fluids is groundwater recharge in the late Paleozoic Appalachian-Ouachita mountain belt and northward flow through the Reelfoot rift and the proto- Illinois Basin to the Upper Mississippi Valley district. Warm fluid flowing laterally through Cambrian and Ordovician aquifers would then move vertically upward through the fractures that control

  6. Applications of detrital geochronology and thermochronology from glacial deposits to the Paleozoic and Mesozoic thermal history of the Ross Embayment, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welke, Bethany; Licht, Kathy; Hennessy, Andrea; Hemming, Sidney; Pierce Davis, Elizabeth; Kassab, Christine

    2016-07-01

    Till from moraines at the heads of six major outlet glaciers in the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) and from till beneath three West Antarctic ice streams have a ubiquitous zircon U-Pb age population spanning the time of the Ross/Pan-African Orogenies (610-475 Ma). Geochronology and thermochronology of detrital minerals in these Antarctic glacial tills reveal two different thermal histories for the central and southern TAM. Double-dating of the zircons reveals a geographically widespread (U-Th)/He (ZHe) population of 180-130 Ma in most of the till samples. Sandstone outcrops at Shackleton Glacier, and three Beacon Supergroup sandstone clasts from three moraines, have ZHe ages that fall entirely within this range. The similar population and proximity of many of the till samples to Beacon outcrops lead us to suggest that this extensive ZHe population in the tills is derived from Beacon Supergroup rocks and reflects the thermal response of the Beacon Basin to the breakup of Gondwana. A second population of older (>200 Ma) ZHe ages in tills at the head of Byrd, Nimrod, and Reedy Glaciers. For the tills at the head of the Nimrod and Byrd Glaciers, integrating the double-dated zircon results with 40Ar/39Ar of hornblende, muscovite and biotite, and U-Pb and (U-Th-Sm)/He double-dates on apatite yields a typical pattern of early rapid orogenic cooling (˜4-10°C/Myr) 590-475 Ma after the emplacement of the Granite Harbour Intrusives. Low temperature thermochronometers at these sites yield variable but quite old ages (ZHe 480-70 Ma and AHe 200-70 Ma) that require a long history at low temperature.

  7. Radiogenic Heat Production in the Cretaceous Sediments of Yola Arm of Nigeria Benue Trough: Implications for Thermal History and Hydrocarbon Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehinola, O. A.; Joshua, E. O.; Opeloye, S. A.; Ademola, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    Yola Arm is an east-west extension of the upper Benue Trough of Nigeria with Cretaceous sediments of Albian to Coniacian ages. Thirteen samples which are mainly sandstone, shale, mudstone, clay, siltstone, limestone and coal were collected from six different geological units namely: Bima Sandstone (BS), Yolde Formation (YF), Dukul Formation (DF), Sukuliye Formation (SF), Numanhan Formation (NF) and Lamja Sandstone (LS). This is to determine their radioactive heat production and implications for thermal history and hydrocarbon generation. The result shows that concentration and rate of heat production of 40K, 232Th, and 238U in the samples varies widely with lithologies and stratigraphic intervals. Three groups of total heat production (HP) were identified and designated as low (LHP), moderate (MHP), and high (HHP). The LHP includes sandstones of BS, limestone of DF and coal of LS with total heat production of <750 pW/Kg. Clay of BS, siltstone of YF, limestone of SF and NF, and sandstone of LS belong to MHP with total heat production of between 750 and 1500 pW/Kg. Shale of YF, SF and NF with total heat production of >1500 pW/Kg belong to HHP. The HHP group corresponds to shale units at different ages in the study area, and may have produced enough heat for hydrocarbon generation. The total heat production studies have suggested that the Cretaceous sediments experienced complex temperature history with at least two sudden thermal pulses. They could have been related to Cretaceous synsedimentary volcanism or to the emplacement of the basaltic pluton.

  8. Postshock Annealing and Postannealing Shock in Equilibrated Ordinary Chondrites: Implications for the Thermal and Shock Histories of Chondritic Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    In addition to shock effects in olivine, plagioclase, orthopyroxene and Ca-pyroxene, petrographic shock indicators in equilibrated ordinary chondrites (OC) include chromite veinlets, chromite-plagioclase assemblages, polycrystalline troilite, metallic Cu, irregularly shaped troilite grains within metallic Fe-Ni, rapidly solidified metal-sulfide intergrowths, martensite and various types of plessite, metal-sulfide veins, large metal and/or sulfide nodules, silicate melt veins, silicate darkening, low-Ca clinopyroxene, silicate melt pockets, and large regions of silicate melt. The presence of some of these indicators in every petrologic type-4 to -6 ordinary chondrite (OC) demonstrates that collisional events caused all equilibrated OC to reach shock stages S3-S6. Those type-4 to -6 OC that are classified as shock-stage S1 (on the basis of sharp optical extinction in olivine) underwent postshock annealing due to burial beneath materials heated by the impact event. Those type-4 to -6 OC that are classified S2 (on the basis of undulose extinction and lack of planar fractures in olivine) were shocked to stage S3-S6, annealed to stage S1 and then shocked again to stage S2. Some OC were probably shocked to stage 253 after annealing. It seems likely that many OC experienced multiple episodes of shock and annealing. Because 40Ar-39Ar chronological data indicate that MIL 99301 (LL6, Sl) was annealed approximately 4.26 Ga ago, presumably as a consequence of a major impact, it seems reasonable to suggest that other equilibrated S1 and S2 OC (which contain relict shock features) were also annealed by impacts. Because some type-6 S1 OC (e.g., Guarena, Kernouve, Portales Valley, all of which contain relict shock features) were annealed 4.44-4.45 Ga ago (during a period when impacts were prevalent and most OC were thermally metamorphosed), it follows that impact-induced annealing could have contributed significantly to OC thermal metamorphism.

  9. Thermal history of the Maramureş area (Northern Romania) constrained by zircon fission track analysis: Cretaceous metamorphism and Late Cretaceous to Paleocene exhumation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Heike R.; Tischler, Matthias; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Schmid, Stefan M.

    2013-10-01

    This study presents zircon fission track data from the Bucovinian nappe stack (northern part of the Inner Eastern Carpathians, Rodna Mountains) and a neighbouring part of the Biharia nappe system (Preluca massif) in order to unravel the thermal history of the area and its structural evolution by integrating the fission track data with published data on the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the area. The increase of metamorphic temperatures towards the SW detected by the zircon fission track data suggests SW-wards increasing tectonic overburden (up to at least 15 km) and hence top NE thrusting. Sub-greenschist facies conditions during the Alpine metamorphic overprint only caused partial annealing of fission tracks in zircon in the external main chain of the Central Eastern Carpathians. Full annealing of zircon points to at least 300 °C in the more internal elements (Rodna Mountains and Preluca massif). The zircon fission track central and single grain ages largely reflect Late Cretaceous cooling and exhumation. A combination of fission track data and stratigraphic constraints points to predominantly tectonic differential exhumation by some 7-11 km, connected to massive Late Cretaceous extension not yet detected in the area. Later events such as the latest Cretaceous ("Laramian") juxtaposition of the nappe pile with the internal Moldavides, causing exhumation by erosion, re-burial by sedimentation and tectonic loading during the Cenozoic had no impact on the zircon fission track data; unfortunately it prevented a study of the low temperature part of the Late Cretaceous exhumation history.

  10. Behavioral genetics: scientific and social acceptance.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, David R

    2003-01-01

    Human behavioral genetics can be broadly defined as the attempt to characterize and define the genetic or hereditary basis for human behavior. Examination of the history of these scientific enterprises reveals episodes of controversy, and an apparent distinction between scientific and social acceptance of the genetic nature of such complex behaviors. This essay will review the history and methodology of behavioral genetics research, including a more detailed look at case histories involving behavioral genetic research for aggressive behavior and alcoholism. It includes a discussion of the scientific versus social qualities of the acceptance of behavioral genetics research, as well as the development of a general model for scientific acceptance involving the researchers, the scientific literature, the scientific peer group, the mainstream media, and the public at large. From this model follows a discussion of the means and complications by which behavioral genetics research may be accepted by society, and an analysis of how future studies might be conducted.

  11. Thermal and petroleum-generation history of the Mississippian Eleana Formation and Tertiary source rocks, Yucca Mountain Area, Southern Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    A geochemical and geologic assessment of petroleum potential in the Yucca Mountain area indicates little remaining potential for significant oil and gas generation in the Mississippian Eleana Formation or related Paleozoic rocks, and good but a really restricted potential in Tertiary rocks in Area 8 of the Nevada Test Site. Mesozoic source rocks are not present in the Yucca Mountain area. The Tertiary source rocks in Area 8 of the Nevada Test Site are typically carbon-rich, and where hydrogen-rich, they are good oil-prone source rocks that are immature to marginally mature with respect to oil and gas generation. A geologically similar occurrence of hydrothermally altered Tertiary source rocks at north Bare Mountain retains little hydrocarbon generation capacity. The implication is that hydrocarbons were generated during hydrothermal alteration and have since migrated out of the source rocks or alive been lost during exhumation. A reconstructed thermal history of the Yucca Mountain area, based on the Eleana Formation, indicates petroleum was generated in the Late Paleozoic and possibly Early Mesozoic and that the oil was lost or metamorphosed to pyrobitumen during later heating, probably related to igneous activity. The Tertiary rocks are still capable of generating oil and gas, but little potential exists for a major hydrocarbon discovery due to the restricted occurrence of good source rocks and their marginal thermal maturity when situated away from intrusions.

  12. Constraints on the thermal history of Taylorsville Basin, Virginia, U.S.A., from fluid-inclusion and fission-track analyses: Implications for subsurface geomicrobiology experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tseng, H.-Y.; Onstott, T.C.; Burruss, R.C.; Miller, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Microbial populations have been found at the depth of 2621-2804 m in a borehole near the center of Triassic Taylorsville Basin, Virginia. To constrain possible scenarios for long-term survival in or introduction of these microbial populations to the deep subsurface, we attempted to refine models of thermal and burial history of the basin by analyzing aqueous and gaseous fluid inclusions in calcite/quartz veins or cements in cuttings from the same borehole. These results are complemented by fission-track data from the adjacent boreholes. Homogenization temperatures of secondary aqueous fluid inclusions range from 120?? to 210??C between 2027- and 3069-m depth, with highest temperatures in the deepest samples. The salinities of these aqueous inclusions range from 0 to ??? 4.3 eq wt% NaCl. Four samples from the depth between 2413 and 2931 m contain both two-phase aqueous and one-phase methane-rich inclusions in healed microcracks. The relative CH4 and CO2 contents of these gaseous inclusions was estimated by microthermometry and laser Raman spectroscopy. If both types of inclusions in sample 2931 m were trapped simultaneously, the density of the methane-rich inclusions calculated from the Peng - Robinson equation of state implies an entrapment pressure of 360 ?? 20 bar at the homogenization temperature (162.5 ?? 12.5??C) of the aqueous inclusions. This pressure falls between the hydrostatic and lithostatic pressures at the present depth 2931 m of burial. If we assume that the pressure regime was hydrostatic at the time of trapping, then the inclusions were trapped at 3.6 km in a thermal gradient of ??? 40??C/km. The high temperatures recorded by the secondary aqueous inclusions are consistent with the pervasive resetting of zircon and apatite fission-track dates. In order to fit the fission-track length distributions of the apatite data, however, a cooling rate of 1-2??C/Ma following the thermal maximum is required. To match the integrated dates, the thermal maximum

  13. Noble gases and halogens in Graves Nunataks 06129: The complex thermal history of a felsic asteroid crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claydon, Jennifer L.; Crowther, Sarah A.; Fernandes, Vera A.; Gilmour, Jamie D.

    2015-06-01

    The meteorite Graves Nunataks 06128/06129 is a rare example of felsic asteroidal crust. Knowledge of its history can help shed light on the evolution processes of planetesimals. The noble gases can be used to constrain both the chronology of meteorites and the processes that result in movements of volatile elements on asteroidal bodies. We have examined the I-Xe and Ar-Ar systems of the plagioclase-rich achondrite, Graves Nunataks 06129 by high-resolution laser step-heating of irradiated samples. Iodine and 129Xe∗ are both present but are released at different temperatures and do not show a correlation, therefore the I-Xe system in GRA 06129 has no chronological significance. We propose that radiogenic 129Xe∗ was lost from primary phases and parentless 129Xe∗ was later introduced into the rock by interaction with a fluid sourced from a reservoir that evolved with a high I/Xe ratio. This could have been the same halogen-rich fluid that induced the conversion of merrillite and pyroxene into chlorapatite. Inherited 40Ar (i.e. not generated by in situ decay of 40K) is also present in one of three fragments studied here and may have been introduced at the same time as parentless 129Xe∗.

  14. Re-Righting History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornhill, Esmeralda

    1993-01-01

    The traditionally accepted version of the world's story, which ignores achievements and concerns of whole segments of humanity, needs correcting, as a self-determination act of reconstruction and deconstruction by African Americans. Evidence of African presence in the Americas before Columbus and aspects of Canadian history exemplify history that…

  15. The Effects of Thermal History on Nucleation of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystals, or Hot Protein and Cold Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Michael; Judge, Russell; Pusey, Marc

    2000-01-01

    Chicken egg white lysozyme has a well characterized thermally driven phase transition. Between pH 4.2 and 5.2, the transition temperature, as defined by the point where the tetragonal and orthorhombic solubilities are equal, is a function of the pH, salt (precipitant) type and concentration, and most likely of the buffer concentration as well. This phase transition can be carried out with protein solution alone, prior to addition of precipitant solution. Warming a lysozyme solution above the phase transition point, then cooling it back below this point, has been shown to affect the subsequent nucleation rate, as determined by the numbers and size of crystals formed, but not the growth rate for the tetragonal crystal form . We have now measured the kinetics of this process and investigated its reversibility. The transition effects are progressive with temperature, having a half time of about 1 hour at 37C at pH 4.8. After holding a lysozyme solution at 37C (prior to addition of precipitant) for 16 hours, then cooling it back to 4C no return to the pre-warmed nucleation kinetics are observed after at least 4 weeks. Orthorhombic lysozyme crystals apparently do not undergo the flow-induced growth cessation of tetragonal lysozyme crystals. Putting the protein in the orthorhombic form does not affect the averaged face growth kinetics, only nucleation, for tetragonal crystals. This differential behaviour may be exploited to elucidate how and where flow affects the lysozyme crystal growth process. The presentation will focus on the results of these and ongoing studies in this area.

  16. Development of an optical thermal history coating sensor based on the oxidation of a divalent rare earth ion phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yáñez-González, Álvaro; Ruiz-Trejo, Enrique; van Wachem, Berend; Skinner, Stephen; Beyrau, Frank; Heyes, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of temperatures in gas turbines, boilers, heat exchangers and other components exposed to hot gases is essential to design energy efficient systems and improve maintenance procedures. When on-line measurements, such as those performed with thermocouples and pyrometers, are not possible or inconvenient, the maximum temperatures of operation can be recorded and measured off-line after operation. Although thermal paints have been used for many years for this purpose, a novel technique based on irreversible changes in the optical properties of thermographic phosphors, can overcome some of the disadvantages of previous methods. In particular, oxidation of the divalent rare earth ion phosphor BaMgAl10O17:Eu (BAM:Eu) has shown great potential for temperature sensing between 700 °C and 1200 °C. The emission spectra of this phosphor change with temperature, which permits to define an intensity ratio between different lines in the spectra that can be used as a measurand of the temperature. In this paper, the study of the sensing capabilities of a sensor coating based on BAM:Eu phosphor material is addressed for the first time. The sensitivity of the intensity ratio is investigated in the temperature range from 800 °C to 1100 °C, and is proved to be affected by ionic diffusion of transition metals from the substrate. The use of an interlayer made of zirconia proves efficient in reducing ionic diffusion and coatings with this diffusion barrier present sensitivity comparable to that of the powder material.

  17. Depositional and thermal history of Lower Triassic rocks in southwestern Montana and adjacent parts of Wyoming and Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Paull, R.K.; Paull, R.A.; Kraemer, B.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Forty-two stratigraphic sections in Montana and adjacent parts of Wyoming and Idaho provide the framework for a conodont biostratigraphic and carbonate sedimentologic analysis of Lower Triassic marine rocks. From oldest to youngest, these units are the Dinwoody, Woodside (Red Peak to the east), and Thaynes Formations. The Dinwoody disconformably overlies Upper Permian rocks with little or no physical evidence of a 1 to 6-m.y. hiatus. The initial Triassic transgression was extensive and geologically instantaneous across the study area, and it resulted in deposition of interbedded calcareous mudstone, siltstone, and limestone. The Dinwoody varies in thickness from zero on the northeast to greater than 270 m in the southwest. Maximum thicknesses of Woodside red beds and Thaynes carbonates and siltstones are 244 and 400 m, respectively. Post-Triassic erosion progressively truncated the Thaynes, Woodside, and Dinwoody from north to south across the region. The western margin of the Triassic seaway in the study area is obscured by erosion, structural complexities, igneous activity, and younger sedimentary deposits. The sparse and scattered exposures that remain provide an intriguing mosaic of depositional environments that range from shallow marine to basinal and represent most of Early Triassic time. Lower Triassic rocks produce gas in the Wyoming-Idaho thrust belt, and similar potential may exist in Montana. Conodonts recovered from surface exposures are thermally unaltered except in close proximity to intrusive bodies and within the Medicine Lodge thrust system. This establishes that subsurface units in much of the study area are within the temperature regime for dry gas generation.

  18. Deformation and thermal histories of ordinary chondrites: Evidence for post-deformation annealing and syn-metamorphic shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, Alex; Hugo, Richard; Hutson, Melinda

    2015-08-01

    We show that olivine microstructures in seven metamorphosed ordinary chondrites of different groups studied with optical and transmission electron microscopy can be used to evaluate the post-deformation cooling setting of the meteorites, and to discriminate between collisions affecting cold and warm parent bodies. The L6 chondrites Park (shock stage S1), Bruderheim (S4), Leedey (S4), and Morrow County (S5) were affected by variable shock deformation followed by relatively rapid cooling, and probably cooled as fragments liberated by impact in near-surface settings. In contrast, Kernouvé (H6 S1), Portales Valley (H6/7 S1), and MIL 99301 (LL6 S1) appear to have cooled slowly after shock, probably by deep burial in warm materials. In these chondrites, post-deformation annealing lowered apparent optical strain levels in olivine. Additionally, Kernouvé, Morrow County, Park, MIL 99301, and possibly Portales Valley, show evidence for having been deformed at an elevated temperature (⩾800-1000 °C). The high temperatures for Morrow County can be explained by dynamic heating during intense shock, but Kernouvé, Park, and MIL 99301 were probably shocked while the H, L and LL parent bodies were warm, during early, endogenically-driven thermal metamorphism. Thus, whereas the S4 and S5 chondrites experienced purely shock-induced heating and cooling, all the S1 chondrites examined show evidence for static heating consistent with either syn-metamorphic shock (Kernouvé, MIL 99301, Park), post-deformation burial in warm materials (Kernouvé, MIL 99301, Portales Valley), or both. The results show the pitfalls in relying on optical shock classification alone to infer an absence of shock and to construct cooling stratigraphy models for parent bodies. Moreover, they provide support for the idea that "secondary" metamorphic and "tertiary" shock processes overlapped in time shortly after the accretion of chondritic planetesimals, and that impacts into warm asteroidal bodies were

  19. Geochronological constraints (40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb) on the thermal history of the Tolumne Intrusive Suite (Sierra Nevada, California)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundil, R.; Nomade, S.; Paterson, S. R.; Renne, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    The Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (TIS) in the Eastern Sierra Nevada is considered a type example of a batholith and represents a spectacularly exposed, protracted record of internal differentiation and plutonic assembly in a large, open-system, continental arc magma chamber. One of the recent advances in our understanding of magmatic systems is the recognition that a substantial number are constructed episodically over timescales of up to millions of years for larger plutons. The main objective of this study is to investigate the episodic growth and evolution of magmatic systems by integrating thermal, geochronologic, geochemical, and crystal size distribution (CSD) studies with ongoing field studies of the TIS. Here we present high-resolution U/Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology from the TIS (which was assembled between 93 and 85 Ma, Coleman et al., 2004) and adjacent older units in order to unravel the time scales of its assemblage and thermal history. 25 Samples were collected along a SW-NE corridor (ca 30 km) across the TIS, including older plutons to the SW (El Capitan) and the NE (Soldier Lake (SDL) and Green Lake plutons (GRL)). So far, conventional U/Pb single-zircon analyses yield weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 165.0 ± 0.3 Ma for the GRL and a preliminary age of ca. 95 Ma for the SDL, which are interpreted as emplacement ages (all uncertainties are given at the 2σ level). 40Ar/39Ar analyses were performed on two different biotite and hornblende grain size fractions (800-900μ m and 150-180μ m) from each sample. As expected, isotherms in the eastern pendant of the Sierra Nevada move towards the TIS as a result of its cooling between 85 to 80 Ma. The gradient of temperature at the time of the emplacement of the Cathedral Peak (CP) Pluton (U/Pb zircon age of ca 88 Ma, Coleman, 2004) was about 150° C to 200° C per 5 km. The western margin of the GRL (at 5 km distance from the TIS) is thermally affected by the TIS as indicated by biotite ages that are reset (ca

  20. Thermal history and extensional exhumation of a high-temperature crystalline complex (Hırkadağ Massif, Central Anatolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Côme; Kalijn Peters, M.; Wehrens, Philip C.; Brouwer, Fraukje M.; van Roermund, Herman L. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex (CACC) is a large continental domain exposed in central Turkey that was affected by high temperature metamorphism during the Late Cretaceous. As a result of this event, Paleozoic sediments became metamorphosed, initially under Barrovian conditions, then overprinted locally by high temperature-low pressure metamorphism, and intruded by widespread batholiths. In this study we focus on the crystalline Hırkadağ Massif located in the central part of the CACC, where we applied an integrated approach involving metamorphic, structural and geochronological analysis in order to elucidate its tectonic history from burial to exhumation. Our metamorphic study reveals that conditions of metamorphism reached ~ 7-8 kbar/700 °C and were relatively homogeneous at the scale of the Hırkadağ Massif. Coeval with the regional metamorphism, the rocks were intensely deformed as reflected by isoclinal folding, the development of a pervasive foliation and top-to-the-SE shearing. This was followed by decompression to pressures of ~ 3-4 kbar at 800 °C, which may be linked to the emplacement of local granodioritic intrusions at ~ 77 Ma. Subsequent cooling of the Hırkadağ high-grade metamorphic and intrusive rocks is indicated by 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages of 68.8 ± 0.9 Ma (biotite) and 67.0 ± 1.2 Ma (potassium feldspar). Evidence for tectonic exhumation has been identified within the marbles at the NE margin of the Hırkadağ Massif, in the form of discrete protomylonitic and mylonitic shear bands showing a consistent N40-60 top-to-NE sense of shear. Further east, the contact between brecciated mylonitic marbles and non-metamorphic conglomerates preserves the typical structural features of an upper-crustal detachment fault. Restoration of the Hırkadağ Massif and the CACC to their late Cretaceous configuration suggests that the LP-HT metamorphism, magmatism and extensional structures evolved as a result of the development and exhumation of a ~ N

  1. Thermal History and Volatile Partitioning between Proto-Atmosphere and Interior of Mars Accreted in a Solar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Hiroaki; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi

    2015-11-01

    Recent precise Hf-W chronometry of Martian meteorites reveals that Mars had likely reached the half of its present mass within 3 Myr from the birth of the solar system (Dauphas and Pourmand, 2011). Hence, the accretion is considered to almost proceed within the solar nebula associated with the capture of nebula gas components. At the same time, the impact degassing may inevitably occur because impact velocity increases high enough for such degassing when a proto-planet gets larger than around lunar size. Thus, we can expect the formation of a hybrid-type proto-atmosphere that consists of nebula gas and degassed one.This study analyzes the thermal structure of this proto-atmosphere sustained by accretional heating by building a 1D radiative-convective equilibrium model. Raw materials of Mars are supposed to be volatile-rich on the basis of the geochemical systematics of Mars meteorites (Dreibus and Wanke, 1988). The composition of degassed component comprised of H2, H2O, CH4, and CO is determined by chemical equilibrium with silicate and metal under the physical condition of locally heated region generated by each impact (Kuramoto, 1997). Degassed component lies beneath the nebula gas atmosphere at altitudes below the compositional boundary height that would change depending on the amount of degassed component. The accretion time is taken to be from 1 to 6 Myr.Our model predicts that the surface temperature exceeds the liquidus temperature of rock when a proto Mars grows larger than 0.7 times of its present mass for the longest accretion time case. In this case, the magma ocean mass just after the end of accretion is 0.2 times of its present mass if heat transfer and heat sources such as short-lived radionuclides are neglected in the interior. The corresponding amount of water dissolved into the magma ocean would be around 1.8 times the present Earth ocean mass. These results suggest that the earliest Mars would be hot enough to form deep magma oceans, which

  2. Mineralogy and Ar-39 - Ar-40 of an old pristine basalt: Thermal history of the HED parent body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Mori, Hiroshi; Bogard, Donald D.

    1994-01-01

    Previous investigations of mineral chemistry and Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages indicated that clast,84 from eucrite Yamato 75011 had preserved the pristine nature of its initial crystallization during an early stage of the HED parent body. Microscale mineralogy and Ar-39-Ar-40 ages of this clast, however, revealed local disturbance of microtextures and partially reset ages. This evidence suggests that, in addition to initial crystallization and rapid cooling, the Y75011,84 clast experienced shock deformation, reheating of short duration at higher temperature, and brecciation. These characteristics suggest two or more impact events. Fe-rich olivine filling fractures in pyroxene may have been introduced during the accompanying shock fracturing. The inferred Ar-39-Ar-40 degassing ages for Y75011 matrix and clast, 84 are 3.94 +/- 0.04 Ga and 3.98 +/- 0.03 Ga, respectively. The suggested degassing age for a clast from Y790020, believed to be paired with Y75011, is approximately 4.03 Ga, but could be younger. We consider it likely that all three samples experienced a common degassing event 3.95 +/- 0.05 Ga ago, but we cannot rule out two or more events spaced over a approximately 0.1 Ga interval. Higher temperature extractions of the two clast samples show significantly older apparent ages up to approximately 4.5 Ga and suggest that the time/temperature regime of this event was not sufficient to degas Ar totally. Most likely, the K-Ar ages were reset by thermal metamorphism associated with one or more impact events associated with shock fracturing, formation of Fe-rich olivine veins, and/or meteorite brecciation. The pyroxene annealing that commonly occurs in many eucrites is likely to be a much earlier process than the impact-produced textural changes and reset K-Ar ages observed in these meteorites. The existence of mineralogical and chronological evidence for metamorphism in an otherwise pristine eucrite suggests that the HED parent body experienced an extensive degree of

  3. Chromite-plagioclase assemblages as a new shock indicator; implications for the shock and thermal histories of ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2003-07-01

    events. The melt was jetted from the impact site and formed droplets due to surface tension. Crystallization of these droplets may have commenced in flight, prior to landing on the parent-body surface. Chromite-plagioclase assemblages and chromite veinlets occur in 25 out of 25 shock-stage S1 OC of petrologic type 5 and 6 that I examined. Although these rocks contain unstrained olivine with sharp optical extinction, most possess other shock indicators such as extensive silicate darkening, numerous occurrences of metallic Cu, polycrystalline troilite, and opaque veins. It seems likely that these rocks were shocked to levels at least as high as shock-stage S3 and then annealed by heat generated during the shock event. During annealing, the olivine crystal lattices healed but other shock indicators survived. Published Ar-Ar age data for some S1 OC indicate that many shock and annealing events occurred very early in the history of the parent asteroids. The common occurrence of shocked and annealed OC is consistent with collisions being a major mechanism responsible for metamorphosing OC.

  4. Chromite-Plagioclase Assemblages as a New Shock Indicator; Implications for the Shock and Thermal Histories of Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    -energy shock events. The melt was jetted from the impact site and formed droplets due to surface tension. Crystallization of these droplets may have commenced in flight, prior to landing on the parent-body surface. Chromite-plagioclase assemblages and chromite veinlets occur in 25 out of 25 shock-stage S1 OC of petrologic type 5 and 6 that I examined. Although these rocks contain unstrained olivine with sharp optical extinction, most possess other shock indicators such as extensive silicate darkening, numerous occurrences of metallic Cu, polycrystalline troilite, and opaque veins. It seems likely that these rocks were shocked to levels at least as high as shock-stage S3 and then annealed by heat generated during the shock event. During annealing, the olivine crystal lattices healed but other shock indicators survived. Published Ar-Ar age data for some SI OC indicate that many shock and annealing events occurred very early in the history of the parent asteroids. The common occurrence of shocked and annealed OC is consistent with collisions being a major mechanism responsible for metamorphosing OC.

  5. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; McCurdy, David A.

    1992-04-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  6. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  7. Thermal history, exhumation, uplift, and long-term landscape evolution of the Eastern Great and Northern Lesser Caucasus, Azerbaijan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilger, Tatiana; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton; Mosar, Jon

    2015-04-01

    The Caucasus orogen (Great and Lesser Caucasus) is the highest mountain range between Asia and Europe, whose growth takes place since the beginning of the Cenozoic (Mosar et al. 2010). The orogen has evolved as a result of the active north directed convergence of the Arabian plate (Nikishin et al. 2001). The Great Caucasus (GC) represents a doubly verging fold-and-thrust belt, with a per-and a retro wedge actively propagating into the foreland sedimentary basins to the south and to the north (Sholpo 1993). Thermochronometric techniques (fission-track, (U-Th-Sm)/He, each on apatite and zircon) are used to reconstruct the thermal evolution of the upper crust, the subsidence, as well as the rock and surface uplift of the Eastern GC and Northern Lesser Caucasus and to connect them with the thrust kinematics of the GC. Samples were taken along different transects in Eastern GC and Northern Lesser Caucasus in Azerbaijan. Most samples of Eastern GC are Lower Jurassic age sandstones (deep marine and slope facies). Several sedimentary rock samples of Cretaceous, Miocene, Pliocene and Quaternary age were taken from the outcrops in the Kura basin and along rivers in the Eastern GC. Samples of the Lesser Caucasus are igneous and sedimentary origin and have Lower Jurassic to Holocene age. The first AFT-data in the Eastern Great Caucasus were investigated. All researched samples show recessed AF-ages. Most dated sedimentary samples have several populations of apatite minerals. Apatite minerals have low U-concentration (up to 10 ppm). Most dated samples taken in Aalenian sandstone have very young AFT-ages (up to 10 Ma). Some samples show Oligocene AF-ages of 23-28Ma. The preliminary data confirm orogeny in the Eastern Great Caucasus since Oligocene and propagation of orogeny since middle Miocene (Mosar et al. 2010). References Mosar, J., Kangarli, T., Bochud, M., Glasmacher, U.A., Rast, A., Brunet, M.-F. & Sosson, M. 2010. Cenozoic-Recent tectonics and uplift in the Greater

  8. Investigation of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade volcanic arc: First phase of a program for scientific drilling in the Cascade Range

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    A phased, multihole drilling program with associated science is proposed as a means of furthering our understanding of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade Range of Washington, Oregon, and northern California. The information obtained from drilling and ancillary geological and geophysical investigations will contribute to our knowledge in the following general areas: (1) the magnitude of the regional background heat flow of parts of the Quaternary volcanic belt dominated by the most abundant volcanic rock types, basalt and basaltic andesite; (2) the nature of the heat source responsible for the regional heat-flow anomaly; (3) the characteristics of the regional hydrothermal and cold-water circulation; the rates of volcanism for comparison with models for the rate and direction of plate convergence of the Cascades; (5) the history of deformation and volcanism in the volcanic arc that can be related to subduction; (6) the present-day stress regime of the volcanic arc and the relation of these stresses to plate interactions and possible large earthquakes; and the current geometry of the subducted oceanic plate below the Cascade Range and the relationship of the plate to the distribution of heat flow, Quaternary volcanism, and Quaternary deformation. Phase I research will be directed toward a detailed investigation of the Santiam Pass segment. In concert with the Santiam Pass research, a detailed study of the nearby Breitenbush Hot Springs area is also recommended as a component of Phase I. The object of the Breitenbush research is to study one of the hottest known Cascade hydrothermal systems, which coincidentally also has a good geological and geophysical data base. A coordinated program of drilling, sampling, subsurface measurements, and surface surveys will be associated with the drilling of several holes.

  9. Thermal and exhumation history of the central Tianshan (NW China): Constraints by U-Pb geochronology and Ar-Ar and (U-Th)/He thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.; Chen, W.; Hodges, K. V.; Xiao, W.; Van Soest, M. C.; Cai, K.; Zhang, B.; Mercer, C. M.; Yuan, C.

    2015-12-01

    Geochronology and thermochronology using multiple mineral-isotopic chronometers reveals the thermo-tectonic history of the central Tianshan (NW China) from emplacement to exhumation. Granites from the central Tianshan, which are associated with the southward subduction of the northern Tianshan Ocean, have been dated at 362-354 Ma using the LA-ICP-MS Zircon U-Pb method. A younger diorite sample (282 ± 1 Ma, Zircon U-Pb method by LA-ICP-MS) from northern Tianshan formed during the final closure of the Northern Tianshan Ocean when the Junggar Block collided with the Yili-Central Tianshan Block. 40Ar/39Ar step-wise heating plateau dates (biotite Ar/Ar: 312-293 Ma; Plagioclase Ar/Ar: 270-229 Ma) from the Central Tianshan show rapid post-magmatic cooling during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian followed by a more modest rate of cooling from the middle Permian to the middle Jurassic. The northern Tianshan diorite (biotite Ar/Ar: 240 ± 1 Ma) also reveals a middle Jurassic cooling. Apatite (U-Th )/He dates from the central Tianshan samples range from ca. 130 Ma to ca. 116 Ma. The Apatite (U-Th )/He date for the northern Tianshan sample is ca. 27 Ma. Previous studies also reported Apatite (U-Th)/He ages of ca. 44 Ma-11 Ma in the Baluntai area of the southern Central Tianshan[1]. Two episodes of cooling are distinguished by thermal history modelling: (1) Mesozoic cooling occurred as the result of the exhumation and tectonic reactivation of the central Tianshan; and (2) The Tianshan orogenic belt has been rapidly exhumed since the Middle Cenozoic. References [1] Lü, H.H., Chang, Y., Wang, W., Zhou, Z.Y., 2013. Rapid exhumation of the Tianshan Mountains since the early Miocene: Evidence from combined apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He thermochronology. Science China: Earth Sciences, 43(12): 1964-1974 (in Chinese).

  10. Cooling pattern and mineralization history of the Saint Sylvestre and western Marche leucogranite pluton, French Massif Central: II. Thermal modelling and implications for the mechanisms of uranium mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaillet, S.; Cuney, M.; le Carlier de Veslud, C.; Cheilletz, A.; Royer, J. J.

    1996-12-01

    A two-dimensional (2-D) thermal modelling of the Saint Sylvestre-western Marche leucogranite complex (northwestern Limousin, French Massif Central, FMC) was conducted to help constrain the cooling history and the uranium mineralization postdating the time of intrusion by 40-50 m.y. Numerical simulation of the post-emplacement cooling of the complex (<700°C) indicates that the pluton thermally equilibrated with its country rocks (at around 360-400°C and a mean depth of 10.5 km) by conduction in as little as 4 m.y. after its intrusion age (324 ± 4 Ma). Integration of the regional 40Ar/39Ar muscovite data in the 2-D model with an assumed universal Ar closure temperature of 325 ± 25°C reveals several sub-stages in the subsolidus cooling of the complex. The cooling pattern regionally defined by the muscovite data indicates that cooling was driven by the extensional exhumation and erosion of the thickened crust (+ intrusion) at a mean denudation rate of 0.3 mm y-1 Complete cooling below 325°C ended at 301 Ma via a transient faster denudation rate of 1.5 mm y-1 at the Westphalian-Stephanian boundary. The genetic relationships between the fluid circulations, the mineralization, and the cooling history of the pluton are discussed with particular emphasis on the tectonic process driving exhumation (extension). The initiation of the regional uplift at ∼320 Ma triggered at depth the circulation of in situ derived low-density aqueous fluids that reacted with the granite to form large vertical dissolution conduits (episyenites) characterized by the strong leaching of SiO2. The hydrothermal alteration was further enhanced during uplift by the structurally focused throughput of large volumes of aqueous fluids along brittle faults cutting across the laccolith. These conduits acted more than 20-30 m.y. after the trap formation as preferential channelways for the U-ore deposition at 270-280 Ma, due to sustained hydrothermal circulation adjacent to the high-heat producing

  11. College Student Invulnerability Beliefs and HIV Vaccine Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravert, Russell D.; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine behavioral history, beliefs, and vaccine characteristics as predictors of HIV vaccine acceptability. Methods: Two hundred forty-five US under graduates were surveyed regarding their sexual history, risk beliefs, and likelihood of accepting hypothetical HIV vaccines. Results: Multivariate regression analysis indicated that…

  12. Thermal History of the Bandelier Magmatic System: Evidence for Magmatic Injection and Recharge at 1.61 Ma as Revealed by Cathodoluminescence and Titanium Geothermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, M. E.; Hanson, J. B.; Minarik, W. G.; Stix, J.

    2009-12-01

    The rhyolitic Valles Caldera complex, New Mexico, is one of the type examples of resurgent calderas, and has experienced two well-studied caldera-forming eruptions. The first formed the Lower Bandelier Tuff (LBT) at 1.61 Ma, and the second emplaced the Upper Bandelier Tuff (UBT) at 1.22-1.26 Ma. During the time between the LBT and UBT, the much smaller-scale Cerro Toledo Rhyolite (CTR) was sporadically erupted. Quartz crystals from these stages of activity were imaged using cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy, and growth zones in certain quartzes, due to varying Ti content, were revealed. Using a titanium-in-quartz geothermometer, crystallization temperatures were obtained. LBT quartzes are unzoned, with temperatures clustering between 660-715°C when a calculated aTiO2 of 0.4 is applied to the system. These near-solidus temperatures imply that the LBT magma chamber was highly crystalline at one point. However, the low crystal content and the widespread presence of resorption features on LBT crystals require that pervasive melting affected the LBT magma chamber at some point prior to eruption. This melting is hypothesized to result from a hot magmatic injection into the system, with the injection also being a likely trigger of the cataclysmic LBT volcanism. The earliest erupted CTR units contain many zoned quartz crystals. Inner zones are usually rounded and invariably reveal cold (~660-700°C) cores and hot (~750-825°C) rims. We interpret these results as thermal evidence of magmatic recharge, where new magma mixed vigorously with leftover magma, and high-temperature rims crystallized around low-temperature restitic quartz cores. Thermal data for the rest of the CTR record the continuing cooling and evolution of this mixture of magma, while results for the culminating UBT reveal generally unzoned quartz crystals with a roughly constant temperature of 685 to 725°C. Altogether, these results present an unprecedented glimpse into the thermal history of the

  13. Part 1: Aspects of lithospheric evolution on Venus. Part 2: Thermal and collisional histories of chondrite parent bodies. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimm, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    The geological evolution of distinctly different kinds of solar system objects is addressed. Venus has been observed over the past decade by orbital radars on both American and Soviet spacecraft. These surface measurements provide clues to the structure and evolution of the lithosphere. The parent bodies of chondritic meteorites, thought to resemble asteroids, represent the other end of the size spectrum of terrestrial objects. Their early thermal and collisional histories may be constrained by the chemical and textural record preserved in meteorite samples. Impact craters on Venus have been observed by the Soviet Venera 15/16 spacecraft. A formalism is presented by which the size-frequency distribution of impact craters may be used to estimate upper bounds on the mean global rates of volcanic resurfacing and lithospheric recycling on that planet over the past several hundred million years. The impact crater density reported from Venera observations, if valid for the entire Venus surface, indicates a mean volcanic flux no greater than 2 cu km/y, corresponding to a maximum average rate of resurfacing of about 4 km/b.y. For the lowest estimated mean crater retention age of the surface of Venus imaged by Venera 15/16, the rate of lithospheric recycling on Venus does not exceed 1.5 sq km/y. Ordinary chondrite meteorites show textural and chemical patterns indicative of varying intensities of thermal metamorphism. The conventional onion-shell model, which envisions highly metamorphosed material in the core and less intensely heated rocks near the surface, predicts an inverse relation between peak temperature and cooking rate, but none has been observed. A metamorphosed-planetesimal model is devised to explain this discrepancy, whereby heating occurs in planetesimals a few kilometers in radius which then accrete to form 100-km-radius parent bodies. Cooling rates are then randomly controlled by burial depth. Thermal and collisional constraints are examined, and the model

  14. K/Ar mineral geochronology of the northern part of the Sithonia Plutonic Complex (Chalkidiki, Greece): implications for its thermal history and geodynamic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipera, Kyriaki; Koroneos, Antonis; Soldatos, Triantafyllos; Pécskay, Zoltán; Christofides, Georgios

    2013-04-01

    New K/Ar mineral ages of thirty nine samples (biotite, muscovite, K-feldspar) from the two-mica granodiorite to granite and leucogranite of the northern part of the Sithonia Plutonic Complex (Chalkidiki, Greece) are given in the present study. These data along with existing Rb/Sr mica and U/Pb zircon ages are used to investigate the thermal history of the plutonic complex and shed light on the process that affected it, and caused discordant Rb/Sr and K/Ar mineral ages. The K/Ar mineral dating yielded ages ranging from 38 to 49 Ma for muscovites, 32 to 47 Ma for biotites and 37 to 43 Ma for K-feldspars, respectively. The comparison of the K/Ar, Rb/Sr and U/Pb mineral ages and the closure temperatures of the different isotopic systems for the different minerals indicate a rapid cooling rate for the Sithonia pluton. The latter supports the hypothesis that the pluton was formed in a post orogenic extensional regime. Moreover, the K/Ar mineral isochrones indicate that a reheating of the pluton took place before 37 Ma and partially rejuvenated the K/Ar and Rb/Sr isotopic system of the minerals

  15. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of hypabyssal igneous rocks in the Maranon Basin of Peru - A record of thermal history, structure, and alteration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prueher, L.M.; Erlich, R.; Snee, L.W.

    2005-01-01

    Hypabyssal andesites and dacites from the Balsapuerto Dome in the Mara?on Basin of Peru record the thermal, tectonic, and alteration history of the area. The Mara?on Basin is one of 19 sub-Andean foreland basins. The hypabyssal rocks in the Balsapuerto Dome are one of four known occurrences of subvolcanic rocks along the deformation front in Peru. This dome is a potential petroleum structural trap. Petroleum seeps near the dome indicate that a source for the petroleum is present, but the extent and amount of petroleum development is unknown. The Balsapuerto hypabyssal rocks are plagioclase-, hornblende-, pyroxene-phyric andesites to dacites. Some parts of the dome are pervasively altered to a hydrothermal assemblage of quartz-sericite-pyrite. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology shows that thermal activity related to emplacement of these subvolcanic rocks took place between 12-10 Ma, subsequent to the major periods of Andean folding and faulting, previously assumed to have occurred about 9 Ma. Eleven argon mineral age-spectrum analyses were completed. Argon apparent ages on amphibole range from 12.7 to 11.6 Ma, and the age spectra are simple, which indicates that the ages are very close to emplacement ages. Potassium feldspar yields an argon age spectrum ranging in age from 12.5 to 11.4 Ma, reflecting the period during which the potassium feldspar closed to argon diffusion between the temperature range of 350?C to about 150?C; thus the potassium feldspar age spectrum reflects a cooling profile throughout this temperature range. This age range is consistent with ages of emplacement for the entire igneous complex indicating that an increased thermal state existed in the area for at least 1.0 m.y. Combined with the coexisting hornblende age, this rock cooled from ~580?C to ~150?C in ~1.2 m.y. resulting in an average cooling rate of 358?C /m.y. White mica, or sericite, formed as a later alteration phase associated with quartz- sericite- pyrite and propylitic alteration in some

  16. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  17. Understanding the thermal history, exhumation patterns, and role of fault systems on Goodenough Island, Papua New Guinea: Insights from 3D thermo-kinematic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermudez, M. A.; Baldwin, S.; Fitzgerald, P. G.; Braun, J.

    2012-12-01

    -derived vs observed thermochronologic data and long AFT lengths. The best-fit scenario suggests exhumation starting at 8-6 Ma at very high rates (8-10 km/Myr), followed by deceleration between 2-0.7 Ma, then very rapid (1-15 km/Myr) exhumation starting ca. 0.7 Ma. However, buoyancy models alone do not reproduce the rock exhumation patterns recorded on Goodenough Island. Models that involve low-angle normal faulting, in combination with buoyancy models more accurately reproduce the variability of the thermochronologic database. In all these models, at least three exhumation phases are necessary to reproduce the variability in thermal histories preserved in exhumed rocks on Goodenough Island.

  18. Thermal history of the Sabero Coalfield (Southern Cantabrian Zone, NW Spain) as revealed by apatite fission track analyses from tonstein horizons: implications for timing of coalification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botor, Dariusz; Anczkiewicz, Aneta A.

    2015-10-01

    Apatite fission track (AFT) central ages from Carboniferous (Stephanian) tonsteins of the Sabero Coalfield, NW Spain, range from 140.8 ± 7.5 to 65.8 ± 8.1 Ma (Cretaceous), with mean c-axis projected track length values ranging from 12.5 to 13.4 μm. Mean random vitrinite reflectance ( R r) of these samples ranges from 0.91 to 1.20 %, which can be translated into maximum palaeotemperatures of ca. 130 to 180 °C. All analysed samples experienced substantial post-depositional annealing. The considerably younger AFT ages compared to the depositional ages of the samples and R r data indicate the certainty of the occurrence of at least one heating event after the deposition of strata. The unimodal track length distributions, the relatively short mean track length, and the rather low standard deviation (SD) (1.0-1.6 μm) indicate a relatively simple thermal history that could be related to the post-Late Variscan heating event followed by prolonged residence in the apatite partial annealing zone (APAZ). Geological data combined with thermal models of AFT data indicate that Stephanian strata reached the maximum palaeotemperatures in the Permian period, which was therefore the major time of the coalification processes. The Permian magmatic activity was responsible for a high heat flow, which, with the added effect of sedimentary burial, could account for the resetting of the AFT system. It appears that the fault-related hydrothermal activity could have redistributed heat in areas of significant subsidence. Cooling occurred in the Triassic-Cretaceous times after a high heat flow Permian regime. A post-Permian maturation of the Stephanian organic matter is not very likely, since there is no evidence of a high Mesozoic burial that was sufficient to cause a significant increase in the palaeotemperatures. Finally, exhumation and associated erosion rates may possibly have been faster in the Tertiary, causing the present exposure of the studied rocks.

  19. Age and thermal history of the Geysers plutonic complex (felsite unit), Geysers geothermal field, California: A 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalrymple, G.B.; Grove, M.; Lovera, O.M.; Harrison, T.M.; Hulen, J.B.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Sixty-nine ion microprobe spot analyses of zircons from four granite samples from the plutonic complex that underlies the Geysers geothermal field yield 207Pb/206Pb vs. 238U/206Pb concordia ages ranging from 1.13 ?? 0.04 Ma to 1.25 ?? 0.04 (1??) Ma. The weighted mean of the U/Pb model ages is 1.18 ?? 0.03 Ma. The U-Pb ages coincide closely with 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum plateau and 'terminal' ages from coexisting K-feldspars and with the eruption ages of overlying volcanic rocks. The data indicate that the granite crystallized at 1.18 Ma and had cooled below 350??C by ~0.9-1.0 Ma. Interpretation of the feldspar 40Ar/39Ar age data using multi-diffusion domain theory indicates that post-emplacement rapid cooling was succeeded either by slower cooling from 350??to 300??C between 1.0 and 0.4 Ma or transitory reheating to 300-350??C at about 0.4-0.6 Ma. Subsequent rapid cooling to below 260??C between 0.4 and 0.2 Ma is in agreement with previous proposals that vapor-dominated conditions were initiated within the hydrothermal system at this time. Heat flow calculations constrained with K-feldspar thermal histories and the present elevated regional heat flow anomaly demonstrate that appreciable heat input from sources external to the known Geysers plutonic complex is required to maintain the geothermal system. This requirement is satisfied by either a large, underlying, convecting magma chamber (now solidified) emplaced at 1.2 Ma or episodic intrusion of smaller bodies from 1.2 to 0.6 Ma.

  20. Reconstruction of pre-rift Pyrenean relief in the Oligo-Quitanian Camargue Basin (Gulf of Lion passive margin, SE France): Implications on thermal history of basins

    SciTech Connect

    Benedicto, A.; Labaume, P.; Seranne, M.

    1995-08-01

    Fault reconstruction techniques commonly assume horizontal pre-rift level datum to calculate fault geometry from hanging-wall geometry or viceversa. Example from Camargue basin shows that neglecting pre-rift relief may lead to important errors in calculating the fault and hanging-wall geometries, and the total extension. These errors have direct implications on reconstruction of the thermal history of basins. The Camargue basin results front NW-SE extension and rifting of the Gulf of Lion passive margin. More than 4000m of Oligo-Aquitanian syn-rift series unconformably overlie a crust previously thickened during Pyrenean orogeny. The half-graben basin is controlled by the SE-dipping listric Nimes basement fault which generated a typical roll-over. As both fault and hanging-wall geometries are constrained, the pre-rift surface topography can be restored, using three reconstruction techniques. Either the constant-bed-length and constant-heave techniques produce a depression in the axis of the basin and a relief (1500m and 12(X)m respectively) atop the roll-over. The simple-shear (a=60{degrees}) technique generates a 1500m topography atop the roll-over, more coherent with regional data. Testing the hypothesis of a pre-rift horizontal datum leads to a roll-over 1400m too deep. Pre-rift surface elevation corresponds to the residual topography herited from the Pyrenean orogeny. Consequently, there has been some 1000m subsidence more than predicted by the syn-rift sedimentary record.

  1. Acceptability of BCG vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mande, R

    1977-01-01

    The acceptability of BCG vaccination varies a great deal according to the country and to the period when the vaccine is given. The incidence of complications has not always a direct influence on this acceptability, which depends, for a very large part, on the risk of tuberculosis in a given country at a given time.

  2. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, J. C. , Jr.; Parker, J. V.; Hinckley, W. B.; Hosack, K. W.; Mills, D.; Parsons, W. M.; Scudder, D. W.; Stokes, J. L.; Tabaka, L. J.; Thompson, M. C.; Wysocki, Frederick Joseph; Campbell, T. N.; Lancaster, D. L.; Tom, C. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  3. Micrometer-scale U-Pb age domains in eucrite zircons, impact re-setting, and the thermal history of the HED parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, M. D.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Bottke, W. F.; Abramov, O.

    2015-01-01

    Meteoritic zircons are rare, but some are documented to occur in asteroidal meteorites, including those of the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) achondrite clan (Rubin, A. [1997]. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 32, 231-247). The HEDs are widely considered to originate from the Asteroid 4 Vesta. Vesta and the other large main belt asteroids record an early bombardment history. To explore this record, we describe sub-micrometer distributions of trace elements (U, Th) and 235,238U-207,206Pb ages from four zircons (>7-40 μm ∅) separated from bulk samples of the brecciated eucrite Millbillillie. Ultra-high resolution (∼100 nm) ion microprobe depth profiles reveal different zircon age domains correlative to mineral chemistry and to possible impact scenarios. Our new U-Pb zircon geochronology shows that Vesta's crust solidified within a few million years of Solar System formation (4561 ± 13 Ma), in good agreement with previous work (e.g. Carlson, R.W., Lugmair, G.W. [2000]. Timescales of planetesimal formation and differentiation based on extinct and extant radioisotopes. In: Canup, R., Righter, K. (Eds.), Origin of the Earth and Moon. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 25-44). Younger zircon age domains (ca. 4530 Ma) also record crustal processes, but these are interpreted to be exogenous because they are well after the effective extinction of 26Al (t1/2 = 0.72 Myr). An origin via impact-resetting was evaluated with a suite of analytical impact models. Output shows that if a single impactor was responsible for the ca. 4530 Ma zircon ages, it had to have been ⩾10 km in diameter and at high enough velocity (>5 km s-1) to account for the thermal field required to re-set U-Pb ages. Such an impact would have penetrated at least 10 km into Vesta's crust. Later events at ca. 4200 Ma are documented in HED apatite 235,238U-207,206Pb ages (Zhou, Q. et al. [2011]. Early basaltic volcanism and Late Heavy Bombardment on Vesta: U-Pb ages of small zircons and phosphates in

  4. Micrometer-scale U–Pb age domains in eucrite zircons, impact re-setting, and the thermal history of the HED parent body

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopkins, M.D.; Mojzsis, S.J.; Bottke, W.F.; Abramov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Meteoritic zircons are rare, but some are documented to occur in asteroidal meteorites, including those of the howardite–eucrite–diogenite (HED) achondrite clan (Rubin, A. [1997]. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 32, 231–247). The HEDs are widely considered to originate from the Asteroid 4 Vesta. Vesta and the other large main belt asteroids record an early bombardment history. To explore this record, we describe sub-micrometer distributions of trace elements (U, Th) and 235,238U–207,206Pb ages from four zircons (>7–40 μm ∅) separated from bulk samples of the brecciated eucrite Millbillillie. Ultra-high resolution (∼100 nm) ion microprobe depth profiles reveal different zircon age domains correlative to mineral chemistry and to possible impact scenarios. Our new U–Pb zircon geochronology shows that Vesta’s crust solidified within a few million years of Solar System formation (4561 ± 13 Ma), in good agreement with previous work (e.g. Carlson, R.W., Lugmair, G.W. [2000]. Timescales of planetesimal formation and differentiation based on extinct and extant radioisotopes. In: Canup, R., Righter, K. (Eds.), Origin of the Earth and Moon. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 25–44). Younger zircon age domains (ca. 4530 Ma) also record crustal processes, but these are interpreted to be exogenous because they are well after the effective extinction of 26Al (t1/2 = 0.72 Myr). An origin via impact-resetting was evaluated with a suite of analytical impact models. Output shows that if a single impactor was responsible for the ca. 4530 Ma zircon ages, it had to have been ⩾10 km in diameter and at high enough velocity (>5 km s−1) to account for the thermal field required to re-set U–Pb ages. Such an impact would have penetrated at least 10 km into Vesta’s crust. Later events at ca. 4200 Ma are documented in HED apatite 235,238U–207,206Pb ages (Zhou, Q. et al. [2011]. Early basaltic volcanism and Late Heavy Bombardment on Vesta: U–Pb ages of small

  5. Acceptance procedures: Microfilm printer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Acceptance tests were made for a special order automatic additive color microfilm printer. Tests include film capacity, film transport, resolution, illumination uniformity, exposure range checks, and color cuing considerations.

  6. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator F7 Flight Unit Acceptance Buy Off

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-20

    These are viewgraphs from the subject presentation. The LMMS E-7 history is outlined; Qualification and use of the F-7 GPHS-RTG for the Cassini mission; and the F-7 acceptance test program and performance are described.

  7. New geochronological constraints on the thermal and exhumation history of the Lesser and Higher Himalayan Crystalline Units in the Kullu–Kinnaur area of Himachal Pradesh (India)

    PubMed Central

    Thöni, M.; Miller, C.; Hager, C.; Grasemann, B.; Horschinegg, M.

    2012-01-01

    New geochronological, petrological and structural data from the Beas–Sutlej area of Himachal Pradesh (India) are used to reconstruct the tectonothermal and exhumation history of this part of the Himalayan orogen. Sm–Nd garnet ages at 40.5 ± 1.3 Ma obtained on a pegmatoid from the inverse metamorphic High Himalayan Crystalline (HHC) in the Malana–Parbati area probably mark local melting during initial decompression. Ongoing exhumation in ductilely deformed leuco-gneiss is constrained by Sm–Nd garnet ages at 29 ± 1 Ma and white mica Rb–Sr ages around 24–20 Ma, while Bt Rb–Sr ages indicate a drop of regional metamorphic temperatures below 300 °C between 15 and 12 Ma. The deep Sutlej gorge exposes medium-grade paragneisses and Proterozoic orthogneisses of the Lesser Himalayan Crystalline (LHC), overthrust by the HHC along the Main Central Thrust (MCT). Mica cooling ages in the HHC are in the range of 14–11 Ma. Above the extruded wedge of the HHC, the Leo Pargil leucogranite and associated dykes intrude the Haimanta Unit (HU) below the weakly metamorphic Palaeo-Mesozoic sediments of the Tethyan Himalayas (TH). The Leo Pargil leucogranite yielded a mean Sm–Nd garnet age of 19 ± 1 Ma and Rb–Sr muscovite and biotite cooling ages between 16.4 and 11.6 Ma. Marked young extrusion of LHC units resulted in differentiated exhumation/cooling of more frontal parts of the orogen. Very young ductile deformation of LHC gneisses near Wangtu is constrained by late-kinematic pegmatite intrusions crosscutting the main mylonitic foliation. Sm–Nd garnet and Rb–Sr muscovite ages of these pegmatites range between 7.9 ± 0.9 and 5.5 ± 0.1 Ma. Published apatite FT ages down to 0.6 Ma also document accelerated diachronous sub-recent exhumation of different parts of the orogen. Together with geochronological data from the literature, the new results demonstrate that the HHC and the HU were deformed by shortening and crustal thickening during the

  8. New geochronological constraints on the thermal and exhumation history of the Lesser and Higher Himalayan Crystalline Units in the Kullu–Kinnaur area of Himachal Pradesh (India)

    PubMed Central

    Thöni, M.; Miller, C.; Hager, C.; Grasemann, B.; Horschinegg, M.

    2012-01-01

    New geochronological, petrological and structural data from the Beas–Sutlej area of Himachal Pradesh (India) are used to reconstruct the tectonothermal and exhumation history of this part of the Himalayan orogen. Sm–Nd garnet ages at 40.5 ± 1.3 Ma obtained on a pegmatoid from the inverse metamorphic High Himalayan Crystalline (HHC) in the Malana–Parbati area probably mark local melting during initial decompression. Ongoing exhumation in ductilely deformed leuco-gneiss is constrained by Sm–Nd garnet ages at 29 ± 1 Ma and white mica Rb–Sr ages around 24–20 Ma, while Bt Rb–Sr ages indicate a drop of regional metamorphic temperatures below 300 °C between 15 and 12 Ma. The deep Sutlej gorge exposes medium-grade paragneisses and Proterozoic orthogneisses of the Lesser Himalayan Crystalline (LHC), overthrust by the HHC along the Main Central Thrust (MCT). Mica cooling ages in the HHC are in the range of 14–11 Ma. Above the extruded wedge of the HHC, the Leo Pargil leucogranite and associated dykes intrude the Haimanta Unit (HU) below the weakly metamorphic Palaeo-Mesozoic sediments of the Tethyan Himalayas (TH). The Leo Pargil leucogranite yielded a mean Sm–Nd garnet age of 19 ± 1 Ma and Rb–Sr muscovite and biotite cooling ages between 16.4 and 11.6 Ma. Marked young extrusion of LHC units resulted in differentiated exhumation/cooling of more frontal parts of the orogen. Very young ductile deformation of LHC gneisses near Wangtu is constrained by late-kinematic pegmatite intrusions crosscutting the main mylonitic foliation. Sm–Nd garnet and Rb–Sr muscovite ages of these pegmatites range between 7.9 ± 0.9 and 5.5 ± 0.1 Ma. Published apatite FT ages down to 0.6 Ma also document accelerated diachronous sub-recent exhumation of different parts of the orogen. Together with geochronological data from the literature, the new results demonstrate that the HHC and the HU were deformed by shortening and crustal thickening during the

  9. New geochronological constraints on the thermal and exhumation history of the Lesser and Higher Himalayan Crystalline Units in the Kullu-Kinnaur area of Himachal Pradesh (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thöni, M.; Miller, C.; Hager, C.; Grasemann, B.; Horschinegg, M.

    2012-06-01

    New geochronological, petrological and structural data from the Beas-Sutlej area of Himachal Pradesh (India) are used to reconstruct the tectonothermal and exhumation history of this part of the Himalayan orogen. Sm-Nd garnet ages at 40.5 ± 1.3 Ma obtained on a pegmatoid from the inverse metamorphic High Himalayan Crystalline (HHC) in the Malana-Parbati area probably mark local melting during initial decompression. Ongoing exhumation in ductilely deformed leuco-gneiss is constrained by Sm-Nd garnet ages at 29 ± 1 Ma and white mica Rb-Sr ages around 24-20 Ma, while Bt Rb-Sr ages indicate a drop of regional metamorphic temperatures below 300 °C between 15 and 12 Ma. The deep Sutlej gorge exposes medium-grade paragneisses and Proterozoic orthogneisses of the Lesser Himalayan Crystalline (LHC), overthrust by the HHC along the Main Central Thrust (MCT). Mica cooling ages in the HHC are in the range of 14-11 Ma. Above the extruded wedge of the HHC, the Leo Pargil leucogranite and associated dykes intrude the Haimanta Unit (HU) below the weakly metamorphic Palaeo-Mesozoic sediments of the Tethyan Himalayas (TH). The Leo Pargil leucogranite yielded a mean Sm-Nd garnet age of 19 ± 1 Ma and Rb-Sr muscovite and biotite cooling ages between 16.4 and 11.6 Ma. Marked young extrusion of LHC units resulted in differentiated exhumation/cooling of more frontal parts of the orogen. Very young ductile deformation of LHC gneisses near Wangtu is constrained by late-kinematic pegmatite intrusions crosscutting the main mylonitic foliation. Sm-Nd garnet and Rb-Sr muscovite ages of these pegmatites range between 7.9 ± 0.9 and 5.5 ± 0.1 Ma. Published apatite FT ages down to 0.6 Ma also document accelerated diachronous sub-recent exhumation of different parts of the orogen. Together with geochronological data from the literature, the new results demonstrate that the HHC and the HU were deformed by shortening and crustal thickening during the Eohimalayan phase (Late Eocene

  10. Intellectual History, Social History, Cultural History...and Our History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, David Paul

    1990-01-01

    Defines and explores the links among intellectual, social, and cultural history. Warns that an adequate foundation must be laid in the economic and institutional social history of mass media before communication historians jump into cultural history. (SR)

  11. Thermal and tectonic history in the steamboat hills geothermal field: Determination of the age of active hydrothermal activity by application of AFTA{sup {trademark}} (apatite fission track analysis)

    SciTech Connect

    Duddy, I.R.; Green, P.F.; Kamp, P.C. van de

    1995-12-31

    This study, in the Steamboat Hills area of the Carson segment of the northern Walker Lane Belt, was initiated to provide a regional thermal history framework and to investigate the age of the active local hydrothermal system. Seven outcrop samples, representing ?Cretaceous granodiorite and ?Triassic Peavine sequence metamorphosed volcanic flow and volcaniclastic rocks plus six samples of Peavine rocks in vertical sequence from an 0.8 km deep geothermal corehole have been analyzed using AFTA (apatite fission track analysis) and zircon fission track analysis.

  12. Smaller hospitals accept advertising.

    PubMed

    Mackesy, R

    1988-07-01

    Administrators at small- and medium-sized hospitals gradually have accepted the role of marketing in their organizations, albeit at a much slower rate than larger institutions. This update of a 1983 survey tracks the increasing competitiveness, complexity and specialization of providing health care and of advertising a small hospital's services. PMID:10288550

  13. Students Accepted on Probation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorberbaum, Caroline S.

    This report is a justification of the Dalton Junior College admissions policy designed to help students who had had academic and/or social difficulties at other schools. These students were accepted on probation, their problems carefully analyzed, and much effort devoted to those with low academic potential. They received extensive academic and…

  14. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  15. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  16. Experimental and theoretical study of thermal performance of a hybrid solar system at Living History Farms. Final report, September 19, 1977-August 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report chronicles the development and study of the salt gradient solar pond and hybrid solar house at the Farm of Today and Tomorrow at Living History Farms. The background of the project is given and includes conceptualization to present status. The construction history is summarized. The instrumentation and experimental results from the solar pond are discussed, as well as conclusions in regard to solar pond operation and gradient zone stability. To date the solar pond has operated for over a year and has supplied interesting experimental observations about stability of the salt gradient. The solar house is still under construction.

  17. Billion year thermal histories constrained by zircon (U-Th)/He age-eU correlations: Examples from the Laramide and Sevier Provinces of the western U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenthner, William; Orme, Devon; Reiners, Peter; Laskowski, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in zircon (U-Th)/He low-temperature thermochronology have shown that radiation damage plays an important role in governing the kinetics of He diffusion in zircon and therefore affects ages. This effect manifests as positive and negative correlations between zircon He ages and effective uranium (eU), a proxy for relative damage. These correlations both explain dataset complexity and greatly expand the scope of time-temperature space that can be constrained with zircon He ages. Here, we present examples of both of these attributes with two datasets from the western United States. The first dataset comes from Wyoming craton crystalline rocks exposed in the hanging wall of a major Laramide thrust fault in the Wind River Range. Zircons (54 single grains) show a range of He ages from 540 Ma at low eU concentrations to an age-eU "pediment" of multiple ~40 Ma ages that span eU concentrations from 1000-7000 ppm. With a model that describes the coevolution of damage, diffusivity, and He age, this age-eU correlation is used to constrain the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic thermal history of Laurentian basement in the northern Rocky Mountain region. Our best fit history includes two phases of cooling at 1800-1600 Ma and 900-700 Ma followed by reheating during the Phanerozoic to maximum temperatures between 160-125°C, and final Laramide cooling to 50°C between 60-40 Ma. This thermal history is therefore consistent with more recent cooling related to the Laramide orogeny, as well as cooling associated with Yavapai-Mazatazal tectonism and two phases of Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic intracratonic extension. The second dataset consists of detrital zircon grains collected from sedimentary units in the Oquirrh Mountains of central Utah. These data are complex and difficult to interpret as the samples contain grains that are only partially reset and possess different pre-depositional thermal histories. In order to explain this complexity and constrain burial and

  18. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  19. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  20. Interpreting the paleozoogeography and sea level history of thermally anomalous marine terrace faunas: a case study from the the Last Interglacial Complex of San Clemente Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Groves, Lindsey T.; Schumann, R. Randall

    2014-01-01

    Marine invertebrate faunas with mixtures of extralimital southern and extralimital northern faunal elements, called thermally anomalous faunas, have been recognized for more than a century in the Quaternary marine terrace record of the Pacific Coast of North America. Although many mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, no single explanation seems to be applicable to all localities where thermally anomalous faunas have been observed. Here, we describe one such thermally anomalous fossil fauna that was studied on the second emergent marine terrace at Eel Point on San Clemente Island. The Eel Point terrace complex is a composite feature, consisting of a narrow upper bench (terrace 2a) and a broader lower bench (terrace 2b). Terrace 2b, previously dated from ~128 ka to ~114 ka, was thought to date solely to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5.5, representing the peak of the last interglacial period. Nevertheless, the fauna contains an extralimital northern species and several northward-ranging species, as well as an extralimital southern species and several southward-ranging species. Similar faunas with thermally anomalous elements have also been reported from San Nicolas Island, Point Loma (San Diego County), and Cayucos (San Luis Obispo County), California. U-series dating of corals at those localities shows that the thermally anomalous faunas may be the result of mixing of fossils from both the ~100-ka (cool-water) and the ~120-ka (warm-water) sea level high stands. Submergence, erosion, and fossil mixing of the ~120-ka terraces by the ~100-ka high-sea stand may have been possible due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) effects on North America, which could have resulted in a higher-than-present local sea level stand at ~100 ka. The terrace elevation spacing on San Clemente Island is very similar to that on San Nicolas Island, and we hypothesize that a similar mixing took place on San Clemente Island. Existing fossil records from older terraces

  1. Effects of load and thermal histories on mechanical behavior of materials; Proceedings of the Symposium, Denver, CO, Feb. 25, 26, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Liaw, P.K.; Nicholas, T.

    1987-01-01

    This volume includes topics on fatigue crack propagation; isothermal and thermal-mechanical fatigue; and microstructure, fracture, and damage. Papers are presented on transients in fatigue crack growth, elevated-temperature fatigue crack propagation, the role of crack closure in crack retardation in P/M and I/M aluminum alloys, the acoustic interrogation of fatigue overload effects, and the effects of frequency and environment on crack growth in Inconel 718. Special attention is given to isothermal fatigue failure mechanisms in low-tin lead-based solder, the stress and strain controlled low-cycle fatigue of Pb-Sn solder for electronic packaging applications, load sequence effects on the deformation of isolated microplastic grains, and thermal fatigue of stainless steel. Other papers are on the influence of thermal aging on the creep crack growth behavior of a Cr-Mo steel, the effect of cyclic loading on the fracture toughness of a modified 4340 steel, and the effects of hot rolling condition and boron microalloying on phase transformation and microstructure in niobium-bearing interstitial free steel.

  2. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  3. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  4. Degassing of argon from microclines within the thermal aureole of the Obsidian Dome conduit, Long Valley caldera, California: Constraints on emplacement history

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F.J. ); Harrison, T.M. )

    1990-03-10

    Age spectra for microlines separated from samples obtained within the thermal aureole of the conduit to Obsidian Dome are compared with those from a reference sample collected in an area removed from the thermal effects of intrusion. The age spectra are characterized by a zero-age plateau at low fractional release and by an {approximately}80 Ma plateau at higher fractional releases. These plateaus correspond to subparallel arrays in the Arrhenius data. These arrays are attributed to two discrete diffusion domain size fractions characterized by identical activation energies but by discrete and different frequency grain size fractions. The relative losses of radiogenic {sup 40}Ar do not show a systematic pattern when compared on the basis of total radiogenic {sup 40}Ar loss. The losses first increase and then fall with distance from the contact. However, when the data composing the high-temperature array of the Arrhenius data are considered (the large diffusion domain size fraction), the pattern is consistent with that predicted by conductive heating of the aureole. This agreement requires the aureole to have been uniformly preheated to a temperature of {approximately} 250 C prior to intrusion of the rhyolite dike and surrounding breccia funnel that make up the vent structure. Further, the data require that the material forming the breccia funnel must have been heated to a temperature approaching that of the magma prior to emplacement.

  5. Cermet fuel thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Peddicord, K.L. ); Alvis, J.M. Jr.; Thomas, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    Cermets have been proposed as a candidate fuel for space reactors for several reasons, including their potential for high thermal conductivity. However, there is currently no accepted model for cermet fuel thermal conductivity. The objective of the work reported in this paper was to (a) investigate the adequacy of existing models; (b) develop, if necessary, an improved model; and (c) provide recommendations for future work on cermet thermal conductivity. The results from this work indicate that further work is needed to accurately characterize cermet fuel thermal conductivity. It was determined that particle shape and orientation have a large impact on cermet thermal conductivity.

  6. On-Machine Acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, K.F.

    2000-02-14

    Probing processes are used intermittently and not effectively as an on-line measurement device. This project was needed to evolve machine probing from merely a setup aid to an on-the-machine inspection system. Use of probing for on-machine inspection would significantly decrease cycle time by elimination of the need for first-piece inspection (at a remote location). Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) had the manufacturing facility and the ability to integrate the system into production. The Contractor had a system that could optimize the machine tool to compensate for thermal growth and related error.

  7. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's history with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology goes back to the earliest days of the Agency. The Manned Lunar Rover Vehicle and the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications p...

  8. Spectroscopic investigations of neptunium`s and plutonium`s oxidation states in sol-gel glasses as a function of initial valance and thermal history

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, N.A.; Haire, R.G.; Dai, S.

    1996-12-01

    Several oxidation states of neptunium and plutonium, Pu(III),Pu (IV), PU(VI), Np(IV), Np(V) and Np (VI), were studied in glasses prepared by a sol-gel technology. The oxidation state of these actinides was determined primarily by absorption spectrometry and followed as a function of the solidification process, subsequent aging and thermal treatments. It was determined that the initial oxidation state of the actinides in the starting solutions was essentially maintained through the solidification process to form the glasses. However, during densification and removal of residual solvents at elevated temperatures, both actinides in the different sol-gel products converted completely to their tetravalent states. These results are discussed in terms of our findings in comparable studies that only the tetravalent states of plutonium and neptunium are formed in glasses prepared by dissolving their dioxides in different molten- glass formulations.

  9. Thermal history of low metamorphic grade Paleoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of the Penokean orogen, Lake Superior region: Evidence for a widespread 1786 Ma overprint based on xenotime geochronology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallini, D.A.; Cannon, W.F.; Schulz, K.J.; McNaughton, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Paleoproterozoic strata in northern Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota were deposited between 2.3 and 1.75 Ga within the rifted margin and subsequent foreland basin of the Penokean orogen. These strata show evidence for multiple regional metamorphic events previously attributed entirely to the Penokean orogeny (1875-1835 Ma). Metasandstones from the Marquette Range Supergroup and the Animikie, Mille Lacs, and North Range Groups were sampled at multiple localities across Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan for metamorphic xenotime suitable for in situ SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology. All samples are from the northern Penokean foreland basin where the metamorphic grade is greenschist to sub-greenschist and the strata are virtually undeformed. Xenotime U-Pb ages in these samples have a bimodal population with means of 1786 ?? 4 Ma (n = 32) and 1861 ?? 10 Ma (n = 9). Xenotime of both ages are contained in metasandstones from the basal Chocolay Group in Michigan and Wisconsin and the Mille Lacs Group and North Range Groups in Minnesota. The older age records a regional low-temperature thermal event that is slightly older than the overlying Menominee Group in Michigan and the Animikie Group in Minnesota and Ontario. This 1861 Ma event coincides with regional uplift that led to the formation of the unconformity between the Menominee Group and the overlying Baraga Group in Michigan; hence xenotime growth must have occurred at shallow burial depths. Younger units from the Menominee and Baraga Groups in Michigan and the Animikie Group in Minnesota, record only the 1786 Ma event. A dominant 1800-1790 Ma metamorphic monazite population that overprints Penokean-interval monazite has been documented within amphibolite- to granulite-facies rocks immediately north of the Niagara Fault Zone within the vicinity of gneiss domes and granitic plutons. In contrast, the 1786 Ma xenotime ages are from low-grade, virtually undeformed rocks 50-150 km from the high-grade zones and thus do not appear

  10. Images and the History Lecture: Teaching the History Channel Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coohill, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    No sensible historian would argue that using images in history lectures is a pedagogical waste of time. All people seem to accept the idea that visual elements (paintings, photographs, films, maps, charts, etc.) enhance the retention of historical information and add greatly to student enjoyment of the subject. However, there seems to be very…

  11. Burial history and thermal maturity, Rocky Mountain front ranges, foothills, and foreland, east-central British Columbia and adjacent Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Kalkreuth, W.; McMechan, M.

    1988-11-01

    The regional pattern of maturation of Cretaceous strata in the study area was determined from vitrinite-reflectance measurements. Maturation increases from west to east across the Foothills to a maximum near the eastern limit of Foothills deformation and decreases farther east. Maturation along the eastern limit of deformation also decreases northward significantly. Reflectance measurements from Carboniferous strata exposed in the Front Ranges are much lower than values from the Lower Cretaceous near the eastern limit of deformation. Modeling using burial history curves indicates the regional maturation pattern largely reflects variations in the depth and/or duration of burial beneath Maastrichtian-Eocene foredeep deposits. However, differential vertical movements associated with the Peace River arch/embayment in the Carboniferous, Triassic, Early Cretaceous and Maastrichtian-Eocene had an important effect on the maturation pattern. Determined and estimated maturation levels for reservoir strata are consistent with the known occurrences of gas fields and oil pools, except along the relatively unexplored western margin of the study area. There, moderate maturation levels indicate a potential for wet-gas or oil preservation in shallow structures containing Triassic and Lower Carboniferous carbonates in the south. In the north, structures in the western Foothills deforming Triassic strata with lower levels of maturation are breached. 15 figures.

  12. Late stage Imbrium volcanism on the Moon: Evidence for two source regions and implications for the thermal history of Mare Imbrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Zhu, M.-H.; Zou, Y. L.

    2016-07-01

    Large open fissures or volcanic rifts can form in volcanic terrain and they are also conduits for magma ascending through the lunar crust. On the Moon, we investigated two volcanic source regions within Mare Imbrium by tracking surface morphologic features and compositional information. The Euler source region is situated at the southwest edge of the basin, while the Lambert source region lies off the south margin of the Imbrium mascon. Survey of dike surface manifestations in Euler source site suggest that dikes are the possible source of the local upper basaltic flows and the last lava phases with well developed scarps near the Euler crater, which extend northeast to the basin center. The Euler dike swarm are radial to the basin and reveal possible dike-to-conduit transition mechanism. They reveal radial subsurface fractures which may be tensional cracks preceding to the emplacement of the last stage of the mare fill. Of these, the largest dike has a more than 100 km length. The spatial arrangement of tectonic and volcanic features in Lambert source site is directly or indirectly controlled by the regional compression and extension stresses associated with flexure in response to mascon and basalt loading. In addition, compositional variation trends show a general southwest-to-northeast flooding direction of the exposed high-Ti basalts. This will have important implications for both the Imbrium basin's mare volcanism and for the thermal evolution of Mare Imbrium and the Moon.

  13. Canadian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Libraries in Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes 22 articles that address Canadian history and the importance of having students honor Canada's past by providing articles relating to the areas of History and Social Studies covering: historical fiction as instructional material; Canadian scientists; agricultural fairs; the Historical Foundation; social science books on Canada; student…

  14. Tertiary structure and thermal history of the Harquahala and Buckskin Mountains, west central Arizona: Implications for denudation by a major detachment fault system

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, S.M. ); Fryxell, J.E. ); Sutter, J.F. )

    1990-11-10

    The Harquahala and Buckskin Mountains lie in the footwall of the Whipple-Buckskin-Bullard detachment system. In the Harquahala Mountains, Mesozoic fabric and structure are progressively more intensely overprinted by penetrative Tertiary deformation toward the northeastern part of the range. Tertiary mylonitic deformation is recognized by the presence of deformed Miocene mafic dikes and characteristic textural features. Evidence of Tertiary plastic deformation is absent southwest of Sunset Pass. In the central and southwestern Harquahala Mountains, {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar age spectra from K-feldspar, muscovite, and hornblende and total gas ages from biotite indicate Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary cooling to argon closure temperatures. Biotite and K-feldspar from the area northeast of Sunset Pass record rapid early to middle Miocene cooling. Reconstruction of the original geometry of the detachment system indicate that the initial dip of the detachment fault was most probably between 30{degree} and 40{degree}. Thus the Harquahala Mountains are a tilted block exposing of the order of a 10-km section through the pre-Tertiary crust. Heterogeneous Proterozoic gneiss, sparse Paleozoic and Mesozoic metasedimentary rocks, and an Oligocene plutonic complex are extensively overprinted by Tertiary mylonitic fabrics in the Buckskin Mountains Hornblende {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar cooling ages suggest that most of these rocks were below hornblende closure temperature by early Tertiary time, except in the vicinity of the Oligocene plutonic complex. Feldspar and biotite {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar cooling ages suggest that the footwall of the Whipple detachment system experienced a more uniform cooling history in the Buckskin Mountains than in the Harquahala Mountains; cooling ages between about 13 and 20 Ma are recorded throughout the range with no consistent spatial pattern of ages.

  15. A Technique for Transient Thermal Testing of Thick Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Thomas J.; Richards, W. Lance; Gong, Leslie

    1997-01-01

    A new open-loop heat flux control technique has been developed to conduct transient thermal testing of thick, thermally-conductive aerospace structures. This technique uses calibration of the radiant heater system power level as a function of heat flux, predicted aerodynamic heat flux, and the properties of an instrumented test article. An iterative process was used to generate open-loop heater power profiles prior to each transient thermal test. Differences between the measured and predicted surface temperatures were used to refine the heater power level command profiles through the iteration process. This iteration process has reduced the effects of environmental and test system design factors, which are normally compensated for by closed-loop temperature control, to acceptable levels. The final revised heater power profiles resulted in measured temperature time histories which deviated less than 25 F from the predicted surface temperatures.

  16. Acceptance of nicotine dependence treatment among currently depressed smokers.

    PubMed

    Haug, Nancy A; Hall, Sharon M; Prochaska, Judith J; Rosen, Amy B; Tsoh, Janice Y; Humfleet, Gary; Delucchi, Kevin; Rossi, Joseph S; Redding, Colleen A; Eisendrath, Stuart

    2005-04-01

    This study reports on baseline characteristics associated with acceptance and refusal of available smoking treatment among currently depressed smokers in a psychiatric outpatient clinic who were enrolled in a larger clinical trial. The sample (N=154) was 68% female and 72% White, with a mean age of 41.4 years and average smoking rate of 17 cigarettes/day. All participants were assigned to a repeated contact experimental condition; received a stage-based expert system program to facilitate treatment acceptance; and were then offered smoking treatment, consisting of behavioral counseling, nicotine patch, and bupropion. Acceptors (n=53) were defined as those accepting behavioral counseling and pharmacological treatment at some point during the 18-month study, whereas refusers (n=101) received only the expert system. The number of days to treatment acceptance was significantly predicted by stage of change, with those in preparation entering treatment more quickly than contemplators or precontemplators. In a logistic regression, the variables most strongly associated with accepting treatment were current use of psychiatric medication and perceived success for quitting. Severity of depressive symptoms, duration of depression history, and history of recurrent depression were not related to treatment acceptance. Findings have implications for the psychiatric assessment and treatment of smokers in clinical settings. Psychiatric medication may play a significant role in smoking cessation treatment acceptance by currently depressed smokers. PMID:16036278

  17. Thermal History of Planetary Objects: From Asteroids to super-Earths, from plate-tectonics to life (Runcorn-Florensky Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spohn, Tilman

    2013-04-01

    Convection in the interiors of planetesimals (asteroids), planets, and satellites is driving the thermal and chemical evolution of these bodies including the generation of possible magnetic fields. The wide size range induces a wide of range of time scales from hundreds of thousands of years for small planetesimals to a few tens of Gigayears for massive super-Earths. Evolution calculations are often based on energy (and entropy) balances parameterizing the transport properties of the interior in suitable ways. These thereby allow incorporating (in parameterized forms) interesting physical processes that depend in one way or another on the transport properties of the interior. The interior will usually be chemically layered in mantles and cores and include ice layers if icy satellites are considered. In addition to magnetic field generation calculated via energy balances of the core and using semi-empirical dynamo strength relations, processes that can be considered include sintering and compaction for small bodies and mantle (or ice) melting, differentiation and even continental growth for full-scaled terrestrial planets. The rheology of the interior is considered temperature and pressure dependent and the concentration of volatiles can be important. For super-Earths, probably the most critical consideration is how the mantle rheology would vary with pressure and thus with depth. It is possible that the increasing pressure will frustrate deep mantle convection thereby reducing the vigor of mantle convection. Possibly, the generation of a magnetic field in a putative iron-rich core will be impossible, if super-Earths at all have earth-like cores. On a much smaller scale, the decay of short-lived radioactives suffices to heat and melt planetesimals, the melting being helped by the low thermal conductivity of the initially porous body. This allows planets to form from pre-differentiated planetesimals thus helping to differentiate and form cores rapidly. On active

  18. Cenozoic tectono-thermal history of the Tordrillo Mountains, Alaska: Paleocene-Eocene ridge subduction, decreasing relief, and late Neogene faulting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benowitz, Jeff A.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Layer, Paul W.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Wallace, Wes K.; Gillis, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Topographic development inboard of the continental margin is a predicted response to ridge subduction. New thermochronology results from the western Alaska Range document ridge subduction related orogenesis. K-feldspar thermochronology (KFAT) of bedrock samples from the Tordrillo Mountains in the western Alaska Range complement existing U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar and AFT (apatite fission track) data to provide constraints on Paleocene pluton emplacement, and cooling as well as Late Eocene to Miocene vertical movements and exhumation along fault-bounded blocks. Based on the KFAT analysis we infer rapid exhumation-related cooling during the Eocene in the Tordrillo Mountains. Our KFAT cooling ages are coeval with deposition of clastic sediments in the Cook Inlet, Matanuska Valley and Tanana basins, which reflect high-energy depositional environments. The Tordrillo Mountains KFAT cooling ages are also the same as cooling ages in the Iliamna Lake region, the Kichatna Mountains of the western Alaska Range, and Mt. Logan in the Wrangell-St. Elias Mountains, thus rapid cooling at this time encompasses a broad region inboard of, and parallel to, the continental margin extending for several hundred kilometers. We infer these cooling events and deposition of clastic rocks are related to thermal effects that track the eastward passage of a slab window in Paleocene-Eocene time related to the subduction of the proposed Resurrection-Kula spreading ridge. In addition, we conclude that the reconstructed KFATmax negative age-elevation relationship is likely related to a long period of decreasing relief in the Tordrillo Mountains.

  19. Cenozoic tectono-thermal history of the Tordrillo Mountains, Alaska: Paleocene-Eocene ridge subduction, decreasing relief, and late Neogene faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benowitz, Jeff A.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Layer, Paul W.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Wallace, Wes K.; Gillis, Robert J.

    2012-04-01

    Topographic development inboard of the continental margin is a predicted response to ridge subduction. New thermochronology results from the western Alaska Range document ridge subduction related orogenesis. K-feldspar thermochronology (KFAT) of bedrock samples from the Tordrillo Mountains in the western Alaska Range complement existing U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar and AFT (apatite fission track) data to provide constraints on Paleocene pluton emplacement, and cooling as well as Late Eocene to Miocene vertical movements and exhumation along fault-bounded blocks. Based on the KFAT analysis we infer rapid exhumation-related cooling during the Eocene in the Tordrillo Mountains. Our KFAT cooling ages are coeval with deposition of clastic sediments in the Cook Inlet, Matanuska Valley and Tanana basins, which reflect high-energy depositional environments. The Tordrillo Mountains KFAT cooling ages are also the same as cooling ages in the Iliamna Lake region, the Kichatna Mountains of the western Alaska Range, and Mt. Logan in the Wrangell-St. Elias Mountains, thus rapid cooling at this time encompasses a broad region inboard of, and parallel to, the continental margin extending for several hundred kilometers. We infer these cooling events and deposition of clastic rocks are related to thermal effects that track the eastward passage of a slab window in Paleocene-Eocene time related to the subduction of the proposed Resurrection-Kula spreading ridge. In addition, we conclude that the reconstructed KFATmax negative age-elevation relationship is likely related to a long period of decreasing relief in the Tordrillo Mountains.

  20. ASME PTC 46 -- Acceptance test code for overall plant performance

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, J.R.; Yost, J.G.

    1999-11-01

    ASME published PTC 46 in 1996 after five years of development. PTC 46 is the first industry standard providing explicit procedures for conducting acceptance tests to determine the overall thermal performance and output of power generating units. It is applicable to any heat cycle power generating unit. This survey paper provides an overview of PTC 46 and discusses how PTC 46 can be used for acceptance testing of new combined cycle and fossil steam power generating units. Several technical papers have been previously presented that provide more detailed information and discussion on the use of PTC 46 in acceptance testing.

  1. Laennec: his medical history.

    PubMed Central

    Keers, R Y

    1981-01-01

    Critical study of the career of Théophile Laënnec, with particular reference to his medical history, gives cause to query the commonly accepted belief that his whole life was a constant battle against pulmonary tuberculosis. He developed respiratory symptoms almost immediately on his arrival in Paris but they were those of bronchial asthma and responded promptly and completely to a change of environment. It was only in the concluding years of his life and when he was worn out by overwork that the symptoms of tuberculosis appeared and thereafter the disease progressed rapidly to its fatal termination. PMID:7022739

  2. Space thermal control development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, M. J.; Grodzka, P. G.; Oneill, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations on a number of various phase change materials (PCMs) and PCMs in combination with metals and other materials are reported. The evaluations include the following PCM system performance characteristics: PCM and PCM/filler thermal diffusivities, the effects of long-term thermal cycling, PCM-container compatibility, and catalyst effectiveness and stability. Three PCMs demonstrated performance acceptable enough to be considered for use in prototype aluminum thermal control devices. These three PCMs are lithium nitrate trihydrate with zinc hydroxy nitrate catalyst, acetamide, and myristic acid. Of the fillers tested, aluminum honeycomb filler was found to offer the most increase in system thermal diffusivity.

  3. 79 FR 60188 - Nonmetallic Thermal Insulation for Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-10-06

    ... COMMISSION Nonmetallic Thermal Insulation for Austenitic Stainless Steel AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... of the NRC considers acceptable when selecting and using nonmetallic thermal insulation in the..., ``Nonmetallic Thermal Insulation for Austenitic Stainless Steel,'' is temporarily identified by its task...

  4. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  5. Improving Critical Thinking Skills in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savich, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project was to investigate approaches and techniques that would improve critical thinking skills in history classes at the secondary level. Students demonstrated apathy and boredom in history classes where the emphasis was on rote memorization and the regurgitation of accepted facts and conclusions. The problem…

  6. Do We Still Need Women's History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler-Harris, Alice

    2007-01-01

    In the spring of 2007, the Organization of American Historians (the nation's premier body of professional historians, teachers, and public advocates of U.S. history) asked the author to take a look at what had changed in the profession with regard to the history of women and gender over the 100-year life span of the group. She accepted because she…

  7. Treatment Acceptability of Alternative Marital Therapies: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Philip H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the acceptability of four therapeutic models (i.e., behavioral, psychoanalytic, systems, and eclectic) used in treatment of marital discord. Subjects (N=88) evaluated four treatment sequences as they applied to a marital case history. Results showed that, among varying treatments, behavioral and systems approaches were rated more…

  8. 7 CFR 400.53 - Yield certification and acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Yield certification and acceptability. 400.53 Section 400.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History §...

  9. 12 CFR 250.165 - Bankers' acceptances: definition of participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the acceptance at the time the BA is presented for payment. H. Rep. No. 97-629, 97th Cong., 2nd Sess. 15 (1982); 128 Cong. Rec. H 4647 (daily ed. July 27, 1982) (remarks by Rep. Barnard): and 128 Cong. Rec. H 8462 (daily ed. October 1, 1982) (remarks by Rep. Barnard). The legislative history...

  10. 12 CFR 250.165 - Bankers' acceptances: definition of participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the acceptance at the time the BA is presented for payment. H. Rep. No. 97-629, 97th Cong., 2nd Sess. 15 (1982); 128 Cong. Rec. H 4647 (daily ed. July 27, 1982) (remarks by Rep. Barnard): and 128 Cong. Rec. H 8462 (daily ed. October 1, 1982) (remarks by Rep. Barnard). The legislative history...

  11. 12 CFR 250.165 - Bankers' acceptances: definition of participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the acceptance at the time the BA is presented for payment. H. Rep. No. 97-629, 97th Cong., 2nd Sess. 15 (1982); 128 Cong. Rec. H 4647 (daily ed. July 27, 1982) (remarks by Rep. Barnard): and 128 Cong. Rec. H 8462 (daily ed. October 1, 1982) (remarks by Rep. Barnard). The legislative history...

  12. 7 CFR 400.53 - Yield certification and acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Yield certification and acceptability. 400.53 Section 400.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History §...

  13. 7 CFR 400.53 - Yield certification and acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... well as harvested and appraised production by unit. (2) The insured must certify the accuracy of the... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History § 400.53 Yield certification and acceptability. (a) Production reports must be provided to the crop...

  14. 7 CFR 400.53 - Yield certification and acceptability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... well as harvested and appraised production by unit. (2) The insured must certify the accuracy of the... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History § 400.53 Yield certification and acceptability. (a) Production reports must be provided to the crop...

  15. Linking the thermal evolution and emplacement history of an upper-crustal pluton to its lower-crustal roots using zircon geochronology and geochemistry (southern Adamello batholith, N. Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broderick, C.; Wotzlaw, J. F.; Frick, D. A.; Gerdes, A.; Ulianov, A.; Günther, D.; Schaltegger, U.

    2015-09-01

    The Val Fredda igneous complex in the southern Adamello batholith (N. Italy) consists of dioritic to gabbroic sills and dykes that were injected at 6-10 km depth into partly crystallized tonalites and granodiorites. High-precision U-Pb age determinations by chemical abrasion-isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) show very similar dispersion of zircon U-Pb dates over 90-200 ka and identical age distributions with a dominant mode at 42.5 Ma for six samples ranging in composition from gabbro to granodiorite. The co-variation of the probability density curves of zircon dates from mafic and felsic units suggests that they shared a common thermal history with periods of enhanced and reduced zircon growth, reflecting lowered and increased magma temperatures, respectively. However, trace element compositions, Ti-in-zircon temperatures and Hf isotopic compositions of zircon from mafic lithologies are distinctly different from those in felsic zircon and suggest their crystallization occurred in isotopically and chemically diverse magma batches. These magma batches formed in the lower crust from mingling and mixing of residual melts (derived from fractional crystallization of mainly amphibole from basaltic melt) with crustal partial melts at high temperatures above zircon saturation. Zircons crystallized during incipient cooling of these magmas and were entrained into the ascending melts, which were emplaced and rapidly solidified in the upper crust. The reported age dispersions imply that fractional crystallization and hybridization in the lower-to-middle crust, ascent into the upper crust and solidification did not last for more than 200 ka. The small magma volumes and flux also preclude significant zircon crystallization at the upper crustal emplacement level.

  16. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  17. Dissolution test acceptance sampling plans.

    PubMed

    Tsong, Y; Hammerstrom, T; Lin, K; Ong, T E

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) general monograph provides a standard for dissolution compliance with the requirements as stated in the individual USP monograph for a tablet or capsule dosage form. The acceptance rules recommended by USP have important roles in the quality control process. The USP rules and their modifications are often used as an industrial lot release sampling plan, where a lot is accepted when the tablets or capsules sampled are accepted as proof of compliance with the requirement. In this paper, the operating characteristics of the USP acceptance rules are reviewed and compared to a selected modification. The operating characteristics curves show that the USP acceptance rules are sensitive to the true mean dissolution and do not reject a lot or batch that has a large percentage of tablets that dissolve with less than the dissolution specification.

  18. Which Factors Form Older Adults' Acceptance of Mobile Information and Communication Technologies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkowska, Wiktoria; Ziefle, Martina

    Technology acceptance has become a key concept for the successful rollout of technical devices. Though the concept is intensively studied for nearly 20 years now, still, many open questions remain. This especially applies to technology acceptance of older users, which are known to be very sensitive to suboptimal interfaces and show considerable reservations towards the usage of new technology. This study investigates long- und short-term effects on technology acceptance for a personal digital assistant (PDA) in older users. We examined the influence of users' personal factors (computer expertise, technical self-confidence) on acceptance (long-term effects). To assess short-term effects on acceptance, PDA acceptance was measured, after participants were given a PDA tutor training and interacted with a simulated PDA. According to the findings, individual factors largely determine people's acceptance showing that acceptance is mainly influenced by the individuals' learning history with technology. Though, also the tutorial training significantly affected acceptance outcomes, especially in the older group.

  19. Dynamic thermal environment and thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Ouyang, Q; Cao, B; Zhou, X; Yu, J

    2016-02-01

    Research has shown that a stable thermal environment with tight temperature control cannot bring occupants more thermal comfort. Instead, such an environment will incur higher energy costs and produce greater CO2 emissions. Furthermore, this may lead to the degeneration of occupants' inherent ability to combat thermal stress, thereby weakening thermal adaptability. Measured data from many field investigations have shown that the human body has a higher acceptance to the thermal environment in free-running buildings than to that in air-conditioned buildings with similar average parameters. In naturally ventilated environments, occupants have reported superior thermal comfort votes and much greater thermal comfort temperature ranges compared to air-conditioned environments. This phenomenon is an integral part of the adaptive thermal comfort model. In addition, climate chamber experiments have proven that people prefer natural wind to mechanical wind in warm conditions; in other words, dynamic airflow can provide a superior cooling effect. However, these findings also indicate that significant questions related to thermal comfort remain unanswered. For example, what is the cause of these phenomena? How we can build a comfortable and healthy indoor environment for human beings? This article summarizes a series of research achievements in recent decades, tries to address some of these unanswered questions, and attempts to summarize certain problems for future research.

  20. Dynamic thermal environment and thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Ouyang, Q; Cao, B; Zhou, X; Yu, J

    2016-02-01

    Research has shown that a stable thermal environment with tight temperature control cannot bring occupants more thermal comfort. Instead, such an environment will incur higher energy costs and produce greater CO2 emissions. Furthermore, this may lead to the degeneration of occupants' inherent ability to combat thermal stress, thereby weakening thermal adaptability. Measured data from many field investigations have shown that the human body has a higher acceptance to the thermal environment in free-running buildings than to that in air-conditioned buildings with similar average parameters. In naturally ventilated environments, occupants have reported superior thermal comfort votes and much greater thermal comfort temperature ranges compared to air-conditioned environments. This phenomenon is an integral part of the adaptive thermal comfort model. In addition, climate chamber experiments have proven that people prefer natural wind to mechanical wind in warm conditions; in other words, dynamic airflow can provide a superior cooling effect. However, these findings also indicate that significant questions related to thermal comfort remain unanswered. For example, what is the cause of these phenomena? How we can build a comfortable and healthy indoor environment for human beings? This article summarizes a series of research achievements in recent decades, tries to address some of these unanswered questions, and attempts to summarize certain problems for future research. PMID:26171688

  1. 40 CFR 240.200 - Solid wastes accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid wastes accepted. 240.200 Section 240.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.200...

  2. 40 CFR 240.200 - Solid wastes accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid wastes accepted. 240.200 Section 240.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.200...

  3. Payload test philosophy. [JPL views on qualification/acceptance testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gindorf, T.

    1979-01-01

    The general philosophy of how JPL views payload qualification/acceptance testing for programs that are done either in-house or by contractors is described. Particular attention is given to mission risk classifications, preliminary critical design reviews, environmental design requirements, the thermal and dynamics development tests, and the flight spacecraft system test.

  4. 40 CFR 240.200 - Solid wastes accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid wastes accepted. 240.200 Section 240.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.200...

  5. 40 CFR 240.200 - Solid wastes accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid wastes accepted. 240.200 Section 240.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.200...

  6. 40 CFR 240.200 - Solid wastes accepted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Solid wastes accepted. 240.200 Section 240.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.200...

  7. Extending the Technology Acceptance Model: Policy Acceptance Model (PAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Tamra

    There has been extensive research on how new ideas and technologies are accepted in society. This has resulted in the creation of many models that are used to discover and assess the contributing factors. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is one that is a widely accepted model. This model examines people's acceptance of new technologies based on variables that directly correlate to how the end user views the product. This paper introduces the Policy Acceptance Model (PAM), an expansion of TAM, which is designed for the analysis and evaluation of acceptance of new policy implementation. PAM includes the traditional constructs of TAM and adds the variables of age, ethnicity, and family. The model is demonstrated using a survey of people's attitude toward the upcoming healthcare reform in the United States (US) from 72 survey respondents. The aim is that the theory behind this model can be used as a framework that will be applicable to studies looking at the introduction of any new or modified policies.

  8. Lunar History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    This section of the workshop describes the history of the moon, and offers explanations for the importance of understanding lunar history for engineers and users of lunar simulants. Included are summaries of the initial impact that is currently in favor as explaining the moon's formation, the crust generation, the creation of craters by impactors, the era of the lunar cataclysm, which some believe effected the evolution of life on earth, the nature of lunar impacts, crater morphology, which includes pictures of lunar craters that show the different types of craters, more recent events include effect of micrometeorites, solar wind, radiation and generation of agglutinates. Also included is a glossary of terms.

  9. L-286 Acceptance Test Record

    SciTech Connect

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-14

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  10. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  11. Arguing History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    The history of science illustrates some exciting--and sometimes controversial--moments. Unfortunately, textbooks tend to focus on results in a scientific discipline and only occasionally showcase an interesting historical vignette, telling the story behind those results. Although required studies may leave teachers little classroom time for…

  12. Minting History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Presents a project where fourth-grade students depicted images on coins to reflect important conflicts in Canadian history, such as September 11, 2001. Explains how to create the coins in detail. States that the students each wrote a "proclamation" that described their time period depicted on the coins. (CMK)

  13. Why History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the way in which studying history contributes to intellectual development. Identifies five mental attributes it enhances: perspective--gained from placing people, events, institutions against larger background; encounter--confronting great ideas, personalities, etc.; relativism in a pluralistic world--developed from immersion in other…

  14. Making History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shein, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Jennifer Dorman was in a fix. Teaching ninth-grade US history at Holicong Middle School in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, Dorman wanted to tap into her students' interest in creating "something of value not just for their teachers, but something they could share with other students and people." But that required something a conventional paper-based…

  15. Humanistic History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrow, Alvin J.

    1982-01-01

    Utilizing the theories of McGregor, Maslow, and Herzberg, presents a model for teaching history which involves students in designing their own course objectives. Includes humanistic approaches, organizational management assumptions, and models with motivational, hygiene, physiological, and safety factors. (DMM)

  16. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF GEOLOGIC HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Hensel, S.; Lee, S.

    2010-04-20

    The engineering design of disposal of the high level waste (HLW) packages in a geologic repository requires a thermal analysis to provide the temperature history of the packages. Calculated temperatures are used to demonstrate compliance with criteria for waste acceptance into the geologic disposal gallery system and as input to assess the transient thermal characteristics of the vitrified HLW Package. The objective of the work was to evaluate the thermal performance of the supercontainer containing the vitrified HLW in a non-backfilled and unventilated underground disposal gallery. In order to achieve the objective, transient computational models for a geologic vitrified HLW package were developed by using a computational fluid dynamics method, and calculations for the HLW disposal gallery of the current Belgian geological repository reference design were performed. An initial two-dimensional model was used to conduct some parametric sensitivity studies to better understand the geologic system's thermal response. The effect of heat decay, number of co-disposed supercontainers, domain size, humidity, thermal conductivity and thermal emissivity were studied. Later, a more accurate three-dimensional model was developed by considering the conduction-convection cooling mechanism coupled with radiation, and the effect of the number of supercontainers (3, 4 and 8) was studied in more detail, as well as a bounding case with zero heat flux at both ends. The modeling methodology and results of the sensitivity studies will be presented.

  17. Thermal history of a metamorphic core complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dokka, R. K.; Mahaffie, M. J.; Snoke, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    Fission track (FT) thermochronology studies of lower plate rocks of the Ruby Mountains-East Humbolt Range metamorphic core complex provide important constraints on the timing an nature of major middle Tertiary extension of northeast Nevada. Rocks analyzed include several varieties of mylonitic orthogneiss as well as amphibolitic orthognesses from the non-mylonitic infrastructural core. Oligocene-age porphyritic biotite granodiorite of the Harrison Pass pluton was also studied. The minerals dated include apatite, zircon, and sphene and were obtained from the same rocks that have been previously studied. FT ages are concordant and range in age from 26.4 Ma to 23.8 Ma, with all showing overlap at 1 sigma between 25.4 to 23.4 Ma. Concordancy of all FT ages from all structural levels indicates that the lower plate cooled rapidly from temperatures above approx. 285 C (assumed sphene closure temperature (2)) to below approx. 150 C (assumed apatite closure temperature) near the beginning of the Miocene. This suggests that the lower plate cooled at a rate of at least approx. 36 deg C/Ma during this event. Rapid cooling of the region is considered to reflect large-scale tectonic denudation (intracrustal thinning), the vertical complement to intense crustal extension. FT data firmly establish the upper limit on the timing of mylonitization during detachment faulting and also coincide with the age of extensive landscape disruption.

  18. 76 FR 44013 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Implementation of Acceptable Full-Length and Abbreviated Donor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Implementation of Acceptable Full- Length and Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaires and Accompanying Materials for Use in Screening Donors of Source Plasma; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  19. Burial history, thermal maturity, and oil and gas generation history of petroleum systems in the Wind River Basin Province, central Wyoming: Chapter 6 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Laura N.R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Lewan, Michael D.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of oil and gas generation were modeled for eight key source rock units at nine well locations throughout the Wind River Basin Province. Petroleum source rocks include the Permian Phosphoria Formation, the Cretaceous Mowry Shale, Cody Shale, and Mesaverde, Meeteetse, and Lance Formations, and the Tertiary (Paleocene) Fort Union Formation, including the Waltman Shale Member. Within the province boundary, the Phosphoria is thin and only locally rich in organic carbon. Phosphoria oil produced from reservoirs in the province is thought to have migrated from the Wyoming and Idaho thrust belt. Locations (wells) selected for burial history reconstructions include three in the deepest parts of the province (Adams OAB-17, Bighorn 1-5, and Coastal Owl Creek); three at intermediate depths (Hells Half Acre, Shell 33X-10, and West Poison Spider); and three at relatively shallow locations (Young Ranch, Amoco Unit 100, and Conoco-Coal Bank). The thermal maturity of source rocks is greatest in the deep northern and central parts of the province and decreases to the south and east toward the basin margins. The results of the modeling indicate that, in the deepest areas, (1) peak petroleum generation from Cretaceous rocks occurred from Late Cretaceous through middle Eocene time, and (2) onset of oil generation from the Waltman Shale Member occurred from late Eocene to early Miocene time. Based on modeling results, gas generation from the cracking of Phosphoria oil reservoired in the Park City Formation reached a peak in the late Paleocene/early Eocene (58 to 55 Ma) only in the deepest parts of the province. The Mowry Shale and Cody Shale (in the eastern half of the basin) contain a mix of Type-II and Type-III kerogens. Oil generation from predominantly Type-II source rocks of these units in the deepest parts of the province reached peak rates during the latest Cretaceous to early Eocene (65 to 55 Ma). Only in these areas of the basin did

  20. River history.

    PubMed

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2012-05-13

    During the last half century, advances in geomorphology-abetted by conceptual and technical developments in geophysics, geochemistry, remote sensing, geodesy, computing and ecology-have enhanced the potential value of fluvial history for reconstructing erosional and depositional sequences on the Earth and on Mars and for evaluating climatic and tectonic changes, the impact of fluvial processes on human settlement and health, and the problems faced in managing unstable fluvial systems. PMID:22474674

  1. River history.

    PubMed

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2012-05-13

    During the last half century, advances in geomorphology-abetted by conceptual and technical developments in geophysics, geochemistry, remote sensing, geodesy, computing and ecology-have enhanced the potential value of fluvial history for reconstructing erosional and depositional sequences on the Earth and on Mars and for evaluating climatic and tectonic changes, the impact of fluvial processes on human settlement and health, and the problems faced in managing unstable fluvial systems.

  2. Putting it all together: Exhumation histories from a formal combination of heat flow and a suite of thermochronometers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    d'Alessio, M. A.; Williams, C.F.

    2007-01-01

    A suite of new techniques in thermochronometry allow analysis of the thermal history of a sample over a broad range of temperature sensitivities. New analysis tools must be developed that fully and formally integrate these techniques, allowing a single geologic interpretation of the rate and timing of exhumation and burial events consistent with all data. We integrate a thermal model of burial and exhumation, (U-Th)/He age modeling, and fission track age and length modeling. We then use a genetic algorithm to efficiently explore possible time-exhumation histories of a vertical sample profile (such as a borehole), simultaneously solving for exhumation and burial rates as well as changes in background heat flow. We formally combine all data in a rigorous statistical fashion. By parameterizing the model in terms of exhumation rather than time-temperature paths (as traditionally done in fission track modeling), we can ensure that exhumation histories result in a sedimentary basin whose thickness is consistent with the observed basin, a physically based constraint that eliminates otherwise acceptable thermal histories. We apply the technique to heat flow and thermochronometry data from the 2.1 -km-deep San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth pilot hole near the San Andreas fault, California. We find that the site experienced <1 km of exhumation or burial since the onset of San Andreas fault activity ???30 Ma.

  3. Plasma Hazards and Acceptance for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Extravehicular activity(EVA) is accepted by NASA and other space faring agencies as a necessary risk in order to build and maintain a safe and efficient laboratory in space. EVAs are used for standard construction and as contingency operations to repair critical equipment for vehicle sustainability and safety of the entire crew in the habitable volume. There are many hazards that are assessed for even the most mundane EVA for astronauts, and the vast majority of these are adequately controlled per the rules of the International Space Station Program. The need for EVA repair and construction has driven acceptance of a possible catastrophic hazard to the EVA crewmember which cannot currently be controlled adequately. That hazard is electrical shock from the very environment in which they work. This paper describes the environment, causes and contributors to the shock of EVA crewmembers attributed to the ionospheric plasma environment in low Earth orbit. It will detail the hazard history, and acceptance process for the risk associated with these hazards that give assurance to a safe EVA. In addition to the hazard acceptance process this paper will explore other factors that go into the decision to accept a risk including criticality of task, hardware design and capability, and the probability of hazard occurrence. Also included will be the required interaction between organizations at NASA(EVA Office, Environments, Engineering, Mission Operations, Safety) in order to build and eventually gain adequate acceptance rationale for a hazard of this kind. During the course of the discussion, all current methods of mitigating the hazard will be identified. This paper will capture the history of the plasma hazard analysis and processes used by the International Space Station Program to formally assess and qualify the risk. The paper will discuss steps that have been taken to identify and perform required analysis of the floating potential shock hazard from the ISS environment

  4. From requirements to acceptance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Lionel; Pasquier, Helene

    1993-01-01

    From user requirements definition to accepted software system, the software project management wants to be sure that the system will meet the requirements. For the development of a telecommunication satellites Control Centre, C.N.E.S. has used new rules to make the use of tracing matrix easier. From Requirements to Acceptance Tests, each item of a document must have an identifier. A unique matrix traces the system and allows the tracking of the consequences of a change in the requirements. A tool has been developed, to import documents into a relational data base. Each record of the data base corresponds to an item of a document, the access key is the item identifier. Tracing matrix is also processed, providing automatically links between the different documents. It enables the reading on the same screen of traced items. For example one can read simultaneously the User Requirements items, the corresponding Software Requirements items and the Acceptance Tests.

  5. Advanced Metallic Thermal Protection System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, M. L.; Chen, R. R.; Schmidt, I. H.; Dorsey, J. T.; Poteet, C. C.; Bird, R. K.

    2002-01-01

    A new Adaptable, Robust, Metallic, Operable, Reusable (ARMOR) thermal protection system (TPS) concept has been designed, analyzed, and fabricated. In addition to the inherent tailorable robustness of metallic TPS, ARMOR TPS offers improved features based on lessons learned from previous metallic TPS development efforts. A specific location on a single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle was selected to develop loads and requirements needed to design prototype ARMOR TPS panels. The design loads include ascent and entry heating rate histories, pressures, acoustics, and accelerations. Additional TPS design issues were identified and discussed. An iterative sizing procedure was used to size the ARMOR TPS panels for thermal and structural loads as part of an integrated TPS/cryogenic tank structural wall. The TPS panels were sized to maintain acceptable temperatures on the underlying structure and to operate under the design structural loading. Detailed creep analyses were also performed on critical components of the ARMOR TPS panels. A lightweight, thermally compliant TPS support system (TPSS) was designed to connect the TPS to the cryogenic tank structure. Four 18-inch-square ARMOR TPS panels were fabricated. Details of the fabrication process are presented. Details of the TPSS for connecting the ARMOR TPS panels to the externally stiffened cryogenic tank structure are also described. Test plans for the fabricated hardware are presented.

  6. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  7. Imaginary Companions and Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Tracy R.

    2004-01-01

    Early research on imaginary companions suggests that children who create them do so to compensate for poor social relationships. Consequently, the peer acceptance of children with imaginary companions was compared to that of their peers. Sociometrics were conducted on 88 preschool-aged children; 11 had invisible companions, 16 had personified…

  8. Acceptance of Others (Number Form).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, James R.; Laverty, Grace E.

    As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SWF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Acceptance of Others (Number Form) was prepared to determine pupil's attitudes toward classmates. Given a list of all class members, pupils are asked to circle a number from 1…

  9. W-025, acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Roscha, V.

    1994-10-04

    This acceptance test report (ATR) has been prepared to establish the results of the field testing conducted on W-025 to demonstrate that the electrical/instrumentation systems functioned as intended by design. This is part of the RMW Land Disposal Facility.

  10. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  11. Helping Our Children Accept Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Mae

    1984-01-01

    Parents of a child with muscular dystrophy recount their reactions to learning of the diagnosis, their gradual acceptance, and their son's resistance, which was gradually lessened when he was provided with more information and treated more normally as a member of the family. (CL)

  12. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This is the introductory article to a special series in Cognitive and Behavioral Practice on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Instead of each article herein reviewing the basics of ACT, this article contains that review. This article provides a description of where ACT fits within the larger category of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT):…

  13. Who accepts first aid training?

    PubMed

    Pearn, J; Dawson, B; Leditschke, F; Petrie, G; Nixon, J

    1980-09-01

    The percentage of individuals trained in first aid skills in the general community is inadequate. We report here a study to investigate factors which influence motivation to accept voluntary training in first aid. A group of 700 randomly selected owners of inground swimming pools (a parental high-risk group) was offered a course of formal first aid instruction. Nine per cent attended the offered training course. The time commitment involved in traditional courses (eight training nights spread over four weeks) is not a deterrent, the same percentage accepting such courses as that who accept a course of one night's instruction. Cost is an important deterrent factor, consumer resistance rising over 15 cost units (one cost unit = the price of a loaf of bread). The level of competent first aid training within the community can be raised by (a) keeping to traditional course content, but (b) by ensuring a higher acceptance rate of first aid courses by a new approach to publicity campaigns, to convince prospective students of the real worth of first aid training. Questions concerning who should be taught first aid, and factors influencing motivation, are discussed.

  14. Cygnus History

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Henderson, Raymond E. Gignac, Douglas E. Good, Mark D. Hansen, Charles V. Mitton; Daniel S. Nelson, Eugene C. Ormond; Steve R. Cordova, Isidro Molina; John R. Smith, Evan A. Rose

    2009-07-02

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site. The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images for dynamic plutonium experiments. This work will recount and discuss salient maintenance and operational issues encountered during the history of Cygnus. A brief description of Cygnus systems and rational for design selections will set the stage for this historical narrative. It is intended to highlight the team-derived solutions for technical problems encountered during extended periods of maintenance and operation. While many of the issues are typical to pulsed power systems, some of the solutions are unique. It is hoped that other source teams will benefit from this presentation, as well as other necessary disciplines (e.g., source users, system architects, facility designers and managers, funding managers, and team leaders).

  15. Contrasting Oligocene and Miocene thermal histories from the hanging wall and footwall of the South Tibetan detachment in the central Himalaya from 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology, Marsyandi Valley, central Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Margaret E.; Hodges, Kip V.

    1998-10-01

    In the Marsyandi valley of central Nepal, a major strand of the South Tibetan detachment system, the 18-22 Ma Chame detachment, places epidote-amphibolite to amphibolite facies calc-silicate rocks and marbles of the Tibetan sedimentary sequence on amphibolite facies pelitic gneisses and calc-silicate rocks of the Greater Himalayan sequence. Although the resulting metamorphic discontinuity is minor and sometimes cryptic, 40Ar/39Ar thermochronologic results from the area reveal that the hanging wall and footwall of the detachment had distinctive thermal histories. Hanging wall phlogopites and biotites yield cooling ages of 27.1 - 29.9 Ma, compared with footwall biotite ages of 14.1 - 16.6 Ma. U-Pb monazite thermochronology demonstrates that the Greater Himalayan sequence experienced peak amphibolite facies conditions at approximately 22 Ma, but the 40Ar/39Ar results require hanging wall metamorphism to be an Oligocene (or older) phenomenon. These events are interpreted as representing the "Neohimalayan" and "Eohimalayan" metamorphic phases proposed by previous workers in the central Himalaya. Some of the dated hanging wall phlogopites grew synchronously with development of SW vergent macroscopic folds in the Tibetan sedimentary sequence, implying that Eohimalayan metamorphism was associated with an important phase of crustal shortening in this sector of the Himalaya. Despite the intensity of Neohimalayan metamorphism below the Chame detachment, evidence for Eohimalayan metamorphism and igneous activity is preserved in the footwall rocks of the Marsyandi drainage. Inherited approximately 35 Ma monazites of either metamorphic or igneous origin have been found in the upper Greater Himalayan sequence in this area, and one hornblende separate from the uppermost footwall yields a 40Ar/39Ar age of 30.0 ± 3.0 Ma. This hornblende date and a similar result from the same structural level in the nearby Kali Gandaki valley, if robust, suggest that the duration of the

  16. Thermal flow monitor: Design and performance in acid rain stacks 1991--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Groce, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    Implementation of Title IV of the Clean Air Act greatly expanded the market of mass flow measurement in utility flue gas ducts and stacks. Lessons learned from recent experience in this demanding application resulted in the rapid evolution of equipment designed to ensure accuracy, reliability and ease of maintenance. Thermal technology, one of three accepted methods of mass flow measurement, has proven to be an extremely accurate and reliable means of measuring mass flow for utility emissions monitoring purposes. This paper offers an overview of thermal flow monitor performance in Part 75 utility applications for Phase 1 and 2 flow measurement. The paper first addresses the history and evaluation of thermal technology for CEM applications, Next, the paper outlines performance results.

  17. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  18. Sweeteners: consumer acceptance in tea.

    PubMed

    Sprowl, D J; Ehrcke, L A

    1984-09-01

    Sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin were compared for consumer preference, aftertaste, and cost to determine acceptability of the sweeteners. A 23-member taste panel evaluated tea samples for preference and aftertaste. Mean retail cost of the sweeteners were calculated and adjusted to take sweetening power into consideration. Sucrose was the least expensive and most preferred sweetener. No significant difference in preference for fructose and aspartame was found, but both sweeteners were rated significantly lower than sucrose. Saccharin was the most disliked sweetener. Fructose was the most expensive sweetener and aspartame the next most expensive. Scores for aftertaste followed the same pattern as those for preference. Thus, a strong, unpleasant aftertaste seems to be associated with a dislike for a sweetener. From the results of this study, it seems that there is no completely acceptable low-calorie substitute for sucrose available to consumers.

  19. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  20. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  1. 48 CFR 12.402 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 12.402 Section... Acceptance. (a) The acceptance paragraph in 52.212-4 is based upon the assumption that the Government will rely on the contractor's assurances that the commercial item tendered for acceptance conforms to...

  2. Teaching First Nations History as Canadian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Graham

    2000-01-01

    Argues for the integration of aboriginal content into social studies by teaching First Nations history as Canadian history. Provides an overview of this integrated history, focusing on Atlantic Canada. Addresses such topics as extending the coverage 10,000 years prior, the parallel between human history and environmental change, and cultural…

  3. The Future of History and History Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commager, Henry Steele

    1983-01-01

    Technical history, a quantitative record of history strengthened by new techniques in mathematics, computer science, and other fields has advantages over former approaches to history--history as philosophy and historical theology. For example, it makes available more source materials. However, it has drawbacks, e.g., it directs research to highly…

  4. Thermal evolution of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkani-Hamed, J.; Toksoz, M. N.

    1984-01-01

    A modification of the Boussinesq fluid assumption is the basis of the present theory of three-dimensional and finite amplitude convection in a viscous spherical shell with temperature- and pressure-dependent physical parameters. The theory is applied to the definition of thermal evolution models for Venus which emphasize the effects of certain physical parameters on thermal evolution, rather than the specific thermal history of the planet. It is suggested that a significant portion of the present temperature in the mantle and surface heat flux of Venus is due to the decay of a high temperature that was established in the planet at the completion of its core formation, and that Venus has been highly convective over the course of its history, until about 0.5 Ga ago.

  5. Ras history

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Although the roots of Ras sprouted from the rich history of retrovirus research, it was the discovery of mutationally activated RAS genes in human cancer in 1982 that stimulated an intensive research effort to understand Ras protein structure, biochemistry and biology. While the ultimate goal has been developing anti-Ras drugs for cancer treatment, discoveries from Ras have laid the foundation for three broad areas of science. First, they focused studies on the origins of cancer to the molecular level, with the subsequent discovery of genes mutated in cancer that now number in the thousands. Second, elucidation of the biochemical mechanisms by which Ras facilitates signal transduction established many of our fundamental concepts of how a normal cell orchestrates responses to extracellular cues. Third, Ras proteins are also founding members of a large superfamily of small GTPases that regulate all key cellular processes and established the versatile role of small GTP-binding proteins in biology. We highlight some of the key findings of the last 28 years. PMID:21686117

  6. History of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bork, Kennard B.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights geological history activities during 1982. These include formation of The History of Earth Sciences Societies, publication of a new journal ("Earth Sciences History: The Journal of the History of Earth Sciences Societies"), and presentation of the first history of geology award. Comments on geological history publications are also…

  7. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) Battery History and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalskrishna M.; Tiller, Smith E.

    1999-01-01

    The "International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) Battery History and Performance" report provides the information on the cell/battery design, battery performance during the thirty eight (38) solar eclipse seasons and the end-of-life test data. It is noteworthy that IUE spacecraft was an in-house project and that the batteries were designed, fabricated and tested (Qualification and Acceptance) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. A detailed information is given on the cell and battery design criteria and the designs, on the Qualification and the Acceptance tests, and on the cell life cycling tests. The environmental, thermal, and vibration tests were performed on the batteries at the battery level as well as with the interface on the spacecraft. The telemetry data were acquired, analyzed, and trended for various parameters over the mission life. Rigorous and diligent battery management programs were developed and implemented from time to time to extend the mission life over eighteen plus years. Prior to the termination of spacecraft operation, special tests were conducted to check the battery switching operation, battery residual capacity, third electrode performance and battery impedance.

  8. Behavioural activation: history, evidence and promise.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Puspitasari, Ajeng J; Santos, Maria M; Nagy, Gabriela A

    2012-05-01

    Behavioural activation holds promise to reduce the global burden of depression as a treatment approach that is effective, easy to teach, scalable and acceptable to providers and patients across settings and cultures. This editorial reviews the history of behavioural activation, what it is, current evidence for its use and future directions.

  9. People for Education: A Critical Policy History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue; Brewer, Curtis A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate how history informs how policy meanings are constructed and the rhetorical strategies used to convince others to accept these meanings. We have two goals: (a) to show how a group of non-governmental actors, People for Education, became part of Ontario, Canada's policy discursive network; and (b) to demonstrate…

  10. KSC History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dethloff, Henry C.

    2001-01-01

    The KSC History Project focuses on archival research and oral history interviews on the history of Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Related projects include the preparation of a precis and chapter outline for a proposed book-length narrative history, a bibliography of key primary and secondary resources, a brief monograph overview of the history of KSC, and a monograph on the history of safety at the Center. Finally, there is work on the development of a web page and a personal history data base associated with the oral history project. The KSC History Project has been a joint endeavor between Henry C. Dethloff and Dr. Noble Lee Snaples, Jr.

  11. History of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Mott T.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) geologists and the history of geology; (2) American historians and the history of geology; (3) history of geology in the 1980s; (4) sources for the history of geology (bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, periodicals, public/official histories, compilations, and books); (5) research opportunities; and (6) other…

  12. [Where is Iowa History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of "The Goldfinch" focuses on Iowa history. The booklet is divided into two sections. Section 1, "Features," contains the following: (1) "Looking for History"; (2) "Talking History"; (3) "Climbing the Family Tree"; (4) "Tribal Storytelling"; (5) "News About You"; (6) "History Hangouts"; (7) "Documenting History"; (8) "Textiles Tell the…

  13. Computer acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer.

  14. Oral History and Problematic Questions Promote Issues-Centered Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penyak, Lee M.; Duray, Pamela B.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Oral History Project at the American School Foundation in Mexico City, Mexico that focuses on examining the Mexican countryside through oral history projects, infusing art and photography within the issues-centered framework, and promoting the acceptance of other cultures. Views the teacher as a facilitator whereas the students…

  15. Temperature, activity, and lizard life histories

    SciTech Connect

    Adolph, S.C.; Porter, W.P. )

    1993-08-01

    Lizard life-history characteristics vary widely among species and populations. Most authors seek adaptive or phylogenetic explanations for life-history patterns, which are usually presumed to reflect genetic differences. However, lizard life histories are often phenotypically plastic, varying in response to temperature, food availability, and other environmental factors. Despite the importance of temperature to lizard ecology and physiology, its effects on life histories have received relatively little attention. The authors present a theoretical model predicting the proximate consequences of the thermal environment for lizard life histories. Temperature, by affecting activity times, can cause variation in annual survival rate and fecundity, leading to a negative correlation between survival rate and fecundity among populations in different thermal environments. Thus, physiological and evolutionary models predict the same qualitative pattern of life-history variation in lizards. They tested their model with published life-history data from field studies of the lizard Sceloporus undulatus, using climate and geographical data to reconstruct estimated annual activity seasons. Among populations, annual activity times were negatively correlated with annual survival rate and positively correlated with annual fecundity. Proximate effects of temperature may confound comparative analyses of lizard life-history variation and should be included in future evolutionary models. 125 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an agency... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance....

  17. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  18. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  19. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  20. Apollo experience report environmental acceptance testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, C. H. M.

    1976-01-01

    Environmental acceptance testing was used extensively to screen selected spacecraft hardware for workmanship defects and manufacturing flaws. The minimum acceptance levels and durations and methods for their establishment are described. Component selection and test monitoring, as well as test implementation requirements, are included. Apollo spacecraft environmental acceptance test results are summarized, and recommendations for future programs are presented.

  1. 48 CFR 245.606-3 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 245.606-3..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 245.606-3 Acceptance. (a) If the schedules are acceptable, the plant clearance...

  2. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  3. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  4. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  5. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  6. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  7. How a tolerant past affects the present: historical tolerance and the acceptance of Muslim expressive rights.

    PubMed

    Smeekes, Anouk; Verkuyten, Maykel; Poppe, Edwin

    2012-11-01

    Three studies, conducted in The Netherlands, examined the relationship between a tolerant representation of national history and the acceptance of Muslim expressive rights. Following self-categorization theory, it was hypothesized that historical tolerance would be associated with greater acceptance of Muslim expressive rights, especially for natives who strongly identify with their national in-group. Furthermore, it was predicted that the positive effect of representations of historical tolerance on higher identifiers' acceptance could be explained by reduced perceptions of identity incompatibility. The results of Study 1 confirmed the first hypothesis, and the results of Study 2 and Study 3 supported the second hypothesis. These findings underline the importance of historical representations of the nation for understanding current reactions toward immigrants. Importantly, the results show that a tolerant representation of national history can elevate acceptance of immigrants, especially among natives who feel a relatively strong sense of belonging to their nation.

  8. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers.

  9. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers. PMID:27494790

  10. Method for measuring thermal properties using a long-wavelength infrared thermal image

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Charles L.; Costin, Laurence S.; Smith, Jody L.; Moya, Mary M.; Mercier, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-30

    A method for estimating the thermal properties of surface materials using long-wavelength thermal imagery by exploiting the differential heating histories of ground points in the vicinity of shadows. The use of differential heating histories of different ground points of the same surface material allows the use of a single image acquisition step to provide the necessary variation in measured parameters for calculation of the thermal properties of surface materials.

  11. Apollo experience report: Acceptance checkout equipment for the Apollo spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burtzlaff, I. J.

    1972-01-01

    The acceptance checkout equipment for the Apollo spacecraft is described, and the history of the major equipment modifications that were required to meet the Apollo Program checkout requirements is traced. Some major problem areas are outlined, and a discussion of future checkout methods is included. The concept of the future checkout methods presented provides for an increase in test equipment standardization among NASA programs and among all testing phases within a program. The capability for increased automation and reduction in the test equipment inventory is provided in the proposed concept.

  12. Acceptance in Romantic Relationships: The Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, Brian D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Despite the recent emphasis on acceptance in romantic relationships, no validated measure of relationship acceptance presently exists. To fill this gap, the 20-item Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory (FAPBI; A. Christensen & N. S. Jacobson, 1997) was created to assess separately the acceptability and frequency of both…

  13. History of infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper overviews the history of infrared detector materials starting with Herschel's experiment with thermometer on February 11th, 1800. Infrared detectors are in general used to detect, image, and measure patterns of the thermal heat radiation which all objects emit. At the beginning, their development was connected with thermal detectors, such as thermocouples and bolometers, which are still used today and which are generally sensitive to all infrared wavelengths and operate at room temperature. The second kind of detectors, called the photon detectors, was mainly developed during the 20th Century to improve sensitivity and response time. These detectors have been extensively developed since the 1940's. Lead sulphide (PbS) was the first practical IR detector with sensitivity to infrared wavelengths up to ˜3 μm. After World War II infrared detector technology development was and continues to be primarily driven by military applications. Discovery of variable band gap HgCdTe ternary alloy by Lawson and co-workers in 1959 opened a new area in IR detector technology and has provided an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Many of these advances were transferred to IR astronomy from Departments of Defence research. Later on civilian applications of infrared technology are frequently called "dual-use technology applications." One should point out the growing utilisation of IR technologies in the civilian sphere based on the use of new materials and technologies, as well as the noticeable price decrease in these high cost technologies. In the last four decades different types of detectors are combined with electronic readouts to make detector focal plane arrays (FPAs). Development in FPA technology has revolutionized infrared imaging. Progress in integrated circuit design and fabrication techniques has resulted in continued rapid growth in the size and performance of these solid state arrays.

  14. Relative thermalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rio, Lídia; Hutter, Adrian; Renner, Renato; Wehner, Stephanie

    2016-08-01

    Locally thermal quantum systems may contradict traditional thermodynamics: heat can flow from a cold body to a hotter one, if the two are highly entangled. We show that to recover thermodynamic laws, we must use a stronger notion of thermalization: a system S is thermal relative to a reference R if S is both locally thermal and uncorrelated with R . Considering a general quantum reference is particularly relevant for a thermodynamic treatment of nanoscale quantum systems. We derive a technical condition for relative thermalization in terms of conditional entropies. Established results on local thermalization, which implicitly assume a classical reference, follow as special cases.

  15. Relative thermalization.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Lídia; Hutter, Adrian; Renner, Renato; Wehner, Stephanie

    2016-08-01

    Locally thermal quantum systems may contradict traditional thermodynamics: heat can flow from a cold body to a hotter one, if the two are highly entangled. We show that to recover thermodynamic laws, we must use a stronger notion of thermalization: a system S is thermal relative to a reference R if S is both locally thermal and uncorrelated with R. Considering a general quantum reference is particularly relevant for a thermodynamic treatment of nanoscale quantum systems. We derive a technical condition for relative thermalization in terms of conditional entropies. Established results on local thermalization, which implicitly assume a classical reference, follow as special cases. PMID:27627243

  16. Microforms and Sport History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Explores the importance of sport history as it reflects the social and cultural history of the United States. Discussion covers the various sport history materials that are available in microform, including the Spalding Collection, twentieth-century microfilm sources, and sports and social history (Sports Periodicals microfilm series). (EJS)

  17. What Is Literary "History"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Wendell V.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the meaning of the word "history" as used in the common phrase "literary history" by critics and scholars. Asserts the differences between historical scholarship and literary history. Argues that the grounding activity of literary history is insulated from the relativism insisted upon by poststructuralist theorizing. (HB)

  18. Treatment acceptability among mexican american parents.

    PubMed

    Borrego, Joaquin; Ibanez, Elizabeth S; Spendlove, Stuart J; Pemberton, Joy R

    2007-09-01

    There is a void in the literature with regard to Hispanic parents' views about common interventions for children with behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment acceptability of child management techniques in a Mexican American sample. Parents' acculturation was also examined to determine if it would account for differences in treatment acceptability. Mexican American parents found response cost, a punishment-based technique, more acceptable than positive reinforcement-based techniques (e.g., differential attention). Results suggest that Mexican American parents' acculturation has little impact on acceptability of child management interventions. No association was found between mothers' acculturation and treatment acceptability. However, more acculturated Mexican American fathers viewed token economy as more acceptable than less acculturated fathers. Results are discussed in the context of clinical work and research with Mexican Americans.

  19. Thermal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wunderlich, B. )

    1990-01-01

    This book presents the basic theory and techniques of thermal analysis. It discusses a range of applications and instrumentation from all fields of applied and basic research, and concludes with problem sets. Topics covered include: The Basics of Thermal Analysis; Thermometry; Differential Thermal Analysis; Calorimetry; Thermomechanical Analysis and Dilatometry; and Thermogravimetry.

  20. Acceptability of blood and blood substitutes.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, E; Prowse, C; Townsend, E; Spence, A; Hilten, J A van; Lowe, K

    2008-03-01

    Alternatives to donor blood have been developed in part to meet increasing demand. However, new biotechnologies are often associated with increased perceptions of risk and low acceptance. This paper reviews developments of alternatives and presents data, from a field-based experiment in the UK and Holland, on the risks and acceptance of donor blood and alternatives (chemical, genetically modified and bovine). UK groups perceived all substitutes as riskier than the Dutch. There is a negative association between perceived risk and acceptability. Solutions to increasing acceptance are discussed in terms of implicit attitudes, product naming and emotional responses.

  1. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  2. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  3. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  4. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  5. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  6. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  7. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  8. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  9. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  10. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  11. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  12. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  13. Surgical history of ancient China: part 1.

    PubMed

    Fu, Louis

    2009-12-01

    Although surgery was an accepted and quite proficient craft very early on in Chinese history, it has deteriorated through the ages. Despite the fact that anaesthetic agents in major surgery were employed during the third century, Chinese surgery is conspicuous by its stagnation. Reverence for the dead, filial piety, abhorrence of shedding blood and other conservative attitudes make it impossible for any accurate knowledge of the human anatomy and physiology, without which surgery cannot progress. This article surveys some highlights in the history of surgery in ancient China and examines the factors responsible for its decline. The second concluding part deals with orthopaedics.

  14. In acceptance we trust? Conceptualising acceptance as a viable approach to NGO security management.

    PubMed

    Fast, Larissa A; Freeman, C Faith; O'Neill, Michael; Rowley, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    This paper documents current understanding of acceptance as a security management approach and explores issues and challenges non-governmental organisations (NGOs) confront when implementing an acceptance approach to security management. It argues that the failure of organisations to systematise and clearly articulate acceptance as a distinct security management approach and a lack of organisational policies and procedures concerning acceptance hinder its efficacy as a security management approach. The paper identifies key and cross-cutting components of acceptance that are critical to its effective implementation in order to advance a comprehensive and systematic concept of acceptance. The key components of acceptance illustrate how organisational and staff functions affect positively or negatively an organisation's acceptance, and include: an organisation's principles and mission, communications, negotiation, programming, relationships and networks, stakeholder and context analysis, staffing, and image. The paper contends that acceptance is linked not only to good programming, but also to overall organisational management and structures. PMID:23278470

  15. National History Day 1991: Rights in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorn, Cathy

    1990-01-01

    The 1991 National History Day theme observes the Bill of Rights bicentennial, culminating in performing and essay writing contests, designed to demonstrate the importance of the Bill of Rights. Considers various subjects and methodologies available for student contestants, encouraging them to explore global topics as well as U. S. history. (NL)

  16. Hometown History: The Hometown History Activity Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This booklet contains activities designed to investigate local history. The booklet's three activities will help young people learn fascinating stories from the past about their own neighborhoods. One activity is "Oral History," where a student can interview an older person about his or her experiences. Another activity is called "Building in…

  17. Simple approximations for estimating quickly the motion and timing of salt diapir rise, overhang development, and associated thermal anomalies using present-day observations: Case history from the Gulf of Mexico and Danish North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, I. ); Thomsen, R.O. )

    1993-09-01

    Estimates of the upward motion of salt, due solely to buoyancy forces, through deposited and depositing sedimentary cover can be split into several parts: the critical thickness of sedimentary cover necessary to cause an underlying salt to become buoyant; the critical thickness of sedimentary cover necessary for a salt diapir to reach the sediment mudline in the absence of an impeding pressure of competent sediments opposing salt rise and in the absence of significant overpressure (both differential impedance and differential overpressure will slow the rise of the salt to the mudline); the effective speed of motion of the salt through the nonimpeding sediments during the salt's buoyant-ascent phase; current observed salt-top depth below mudline versus nonimpeded predicted salt-top depth leading to (a) minimum estimate of mechanical strength of competent resistive layers, and (b) an approximate estimate of buoyancy pressure of salt attempting to penetrate the resistive cover layer; uplift estimate of the overlying competent sediments because of the buoyancy pressure, in relation to observed uplift, leading to an estimate of salt-diapir rise speed since reaching the impeding formation; timing estimates of [open quotes]mushroom cap[close quotes] development of salt since emplacement of the resistive overlying layer and an estimate of the lateral competence of sedimentary beds ahead of the mushroom-salt sheet cap as a consequence of the observed mushroom extent; an estimate of evolving thermal anomalies around the dynamic salt/sediment system as a consequence of high-salt thermal conductivity. Such simple rough estimation methods are important in assessing the local and regional factors influencing the dynamic, thermal, and hydrocarbon retention factors in basinal sediments influenced by salt. Examples from the Gulf of Mexico and the Danish North Sea illustrate how to use both seismic and/or downhole data to perform the simple estimates.

  18. 12 CFR 250.164 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 250.164 Section 250.164 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MISCELLANEOUS INTERPRETATIONS Interpretations § 250.164 Bankers' acceptances. (a) Section 207 of the Bank...

  19. 48 CFR 3011.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 3011.103 Section 3011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Developing Requirements Documents 3011.103 Market acceptance. (a) Contracting officers may act on behalf...

  20. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 411.103... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.103 Market... accordance with FAR 11.103(a), the market acceptability of their items to be offered. (b) The...

  1. 48 CFR 3011.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 3011.103 Section 3011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Developing Requirements Documents 3011.103 Market acceptance. (a) Contracting officers may act on behalf...

  2. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 411.103... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.103 Market... accordance with FAR 11.103(a), the market acceptability of their items to be offered. (b) The...

  3. 12 CFR 615.5550 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Bankers' Acceptances § 615.5550 Bankers' acceptances. Banks... cooperatives' board of directors, under established policies, may delegate this authority to management....

  4. Mindfulness, Acceptance and Catastrophizing in Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Maaike J.; Steinhagen, Hannemike E.; Versteegen, Gerbrig J.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Sanderman, Robbert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Catastrophizing is often the primary target of the cognitive-behavioral treatment of chronic pain. Recent literature on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) suggests an important role in the pain experience for the concepts mindfulness and acceptance. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of mindfulness and general psychological acceptance on pain-related catastrophizing in patients with chronic pain. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted, including 87 chronic pain patients from an academic outpatient pain center. Results The results show that general psychological acceptance (measured with the AAQ-II) is a strong predictor of pain-related catastrophizing, independent of gender, age and pain intensity. Mindfulness (measured with the MAAS) did not predict levels of pain-related catastrophizing. Discussion Acceptance of psychological experiences outside of pain itself is related to catastrophizing. Thus, acceptance seems to play a role in the pain experience and should be part of the treatment of chronic pain. The focus of the ACT treatment of chronic pain does not necessarily have to be on acceptance of pain per se, but may be aimed at acceptance of unwanted experiences in general. Mindfulness in the sense of “acting with awareness” is however not related to catastrophizing. Based on our research findings in comparisons with those of other authors, we recommend a broader conceptualization of mindfulness and the use of a multifaceted questionnaire for mindfulness instead of the unidimensional MAAS. PMID:24489915

  5. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development.

  6. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become effective... extended by the authorized officer. Refusal of an applicant to sign and accept a special use...

  7. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become effective... extended by the authorized officer. Refusal of an applicant to sign and accept a special use...

  8. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become effective... extended by the authorized officer. Refusal of an applicant to sign and accept a special use...

  9. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become effective... extended by the authorized officer. Refusal of an applicant to sign and accept a special use...

  10. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become effective... extended by the authorized officer. Refusal of an applicant to sign and accept a special use...

  11. Improving Acceptance of Automated Counseling Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James H.; And Others

    This paper discusses factors that may influence the acceptance of automated counseling procedures by the military. A consensual model of the change process is presented which structures organizational readiness, the change strategy, and acceptance as integrated variables to be considered in a successful installation. A basic introduction to the…

  12. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... supported by market research; (4) Include consideration of items supplied satisfactorily under recent or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a)...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2303 - Construction acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2303 Construction acceptance. No person may place in...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 1205.326 Section 1205.326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 1205.326 Section 1205.326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  16. 12 CFR 250.164 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 250.164 Section 250.164... reserve requirements under section 7 of the International Banking Act of 1978 (12 U.S.C. 3105). The Board..., Form FR Y-7, are also to be used in the calculation of the acceptance limits applicable to...

  17. 16 CFR 1110.5 - Acceptable certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptable certificates. 1110.5 Section 1110.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CERTIFICATES OF COMPLIANCE § 1110.5 Acceptable certificates. A certificate that is in hard copy or...

  18. Enzyme Reactions and Acceptability of Plant Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, James K.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an overview of enzyme reactions which contribute to the character and acceptability of plant foods. A detailed discussion of polyphenoloxidase is also provided as an example of an enzyme which can markedly affect the character and acceptability of such foods. (JN)

  19. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development. PMID:22416723

  20. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  1. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  2. Neural indicators of emotion regulation via acceptance vs reappraisal in remitted major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Smoski, Moria J; Keng, Shian-Ling; Ji, Jie Lisa; Moore, Tyler; Minkel, Jared; Dichter, Gabriel S

    2015-09-01

    Mood disorders are characterized by impaired emotion regulation abilities, reflected in alterations in frontolimbic brain functioning during regulation. However, little is known about differences in brain function when comparing regulatory strategies. Reappraisal and emotional acceptance are effective in downregulating negative affect, and are components of effective depression psychotherapies. Investigating neural mechanisms of reappraisal vs emotional acceptance in remitted major depressive disorder (rMDD) may yield novel mechanistic insights into depression risk and prevention. Thirty-seven individuals (18 rMDD, 19 controls) were assessed during a functional magnetic resonance imaging task requiring reappraisal, emotional acceptance or no explicit regulation while viewing sad images. Lower negative affect was reported following reappraisal than acceptance, and was lower following acceptance than no explicit regulation. In controls, the acceptance > reappraisal contrast revealed greater activation in left insular cortex and right prefrontal gyrus, and less activation in several other prefrontal regions. Compared with controls, the rMDD group had greater paracingulate and right midfrontal gyrus (BA 8) activation during reappraisal relative to acceptance. Compared with reappraisal, acceptance is associated with activation in regions linked to somatic and emotion awareness, although this activation is associated with less reduction in negative affect. Additionally, a history of MDD moderated these effects.

  3. Who accepts responsibility for their transgressions?

    PubMed

    Schumann, Karina; Dweck, Carol S

    2014-12-01

    After committing an offense, transgressors can optimize their chances of reconciling with the victim by accepting responsibility. However, transgressors may be motivated to avoid admitting fault because it can feel threatening to accept blame for harmful behavior. Who, then, is likely to accept responsibility for a transgression? We examined how implicit theories of personality--whether people see personality as malleable (incremental theory) or fixed (entity theory)--influence transgressors' likelihood of accepting responsibility. We argue that incremental theorists may feel less threatened by accepting responsibility because they are more likely to view the situation as an opportunity for them to grow as a person and develop their relationship with the victim. We found support for our predictions across four studies using a combination of real-world and hypothetical offenses, and correlational and experimental methods. These studies therefore identify an important individual difference factor that can lead to more effective responses from transgressors. PMID:25252938

  4. Understanding diversity: the importance of social acceptance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jacqueline M; Hamilton, David L

    2015-04-01

    Two studies investigated how people define and perceive diversity in the historically majority-group dominated contexts of business and academia. We hypothesized that individuals construe diversity as both the numeric representation of racial minorities and the social acceptance of racial minorities within a group. In Study 1, undergraduates' (especially minorities') perceptions of campus diversity were predicted by perceived social acceptance on a college campus, above and beyond perceived minority representation. Study 2 showed that increases in a company's representation and social acceptance independently led to increases in perceived diversity of the company among Whites. Among non-Whites, representation and social acceptance only increased perceived diversity of the company when both qualities were high. Together these findings demonstrate the importance of both representation and social acceptance to the achievement of diversity in groups and that perceiver race influences the relative importance of these two components of diversity.

  5. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  6. HAD Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  7. KSC History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snaples, Lee

    2001-01-01

    The project is a joint endeavor between Dr. Henry Dethloff and myself and is producing a number of products related to KSC history. This report is a summary of those projects. First, there is an overview monograph covering KSC history. Second, there is a chapter outline for an eventual book-length history. Third, there is monograph on safety at KSC. Finally, there is a web page and database dedicated to the KSC oral history project.

  8. Film and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaber, Robin L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on using film to teach history. Includes Web sites in five areas: (1) film and education; (2) history of cinema; (3) film and history resources; (4) film and women; and (5) film organizations. (CMK)

  9. History of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Albert E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the history of American physics, indicating that much effort has been on the atomic bond and high-energy physics, to the detriment of other topics and areas. To offset this tendency, significant research is going on in the history of solid-state physics, with glimmerings in the history of physics education. (JN)

  10. Bibliography on Oral History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waserman, Manfred J., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography covers articles and books dealing with oral history published between 1950 and 1970. In addition to works treating oral history as a methodology for historical discovery, the guide includes a separate annotated list of twenty selected books that use oral history material in the development of their themes and…

  11. Who Owns History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Sheldon

    1995-01-01

    Presents an interview with historian Cary Carson of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation and author William Styron on the role of history in society. Outlines the once-proposed Disney history theme park near Mannassas, Virginia. Discusses historical interpretation, museums, historical sites, and popular history. (CFR)

  12. The Trouble with History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John

    1990-01-01

    Cites the problems associated with teaching history: (1) lack of consensus on what and how to teach; (2) the adult perspective from which it is taught; (3) the abstract nature of history content; and (4) the concept of time. Concludes that efforts to include adolescent knowledge, skills, and attitudes should be considered in the history program.…

  13. Conducting the Medical History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Martin A.; Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    A key portion of the medical evaluation of child sexual abuse is the medical history. This differs from interviews or histories obtained by other professionals in that it is focuses more on the health and well-being of the child. Careful questions should be asked about all aspects of the child's medical history by a skilled, compassionate,…

  14. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Cancer.gov

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  15. History of Science and History of Philologies.

    PubMed

    Daston, Lorraine; Most, Glenn W

    2015-06-01

    While both the sciences and the humanities, as currently defined, may be too heterogeneous to be encompassed within a unified historical framework, there is good reason to believe that the history of science and the history of philologies both have much to gain by joining forces. This collaboration has already yielded striking results in the case of the history of science and humanist learning in early modern Europe. This essay argues that first, philology and at least some of the sciences (e.g., astronomy) remained intertwined in consequential ways well into the modern period in Western cultures; and second, widening the scope of inquiry to include other philological traditions in non-Western cultures offers rich possibilities for a comparative history of learned practices. The focus on practices is key; by shifting the emphasis from what is studied to how it is studied, deep commonalities emerge among disciplines--and intellectual traditions--now classified as disparate.

  16. Consumer Acceptance of Dry Dog Food Variations

    PubMed Central

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri; Swaney-Stueve, Marianne; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Pet owners evaluated dry dog food samples available in the US market. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Abstract The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Eight dry dog food samples available in the US market were evaluated by pet owners. In this study, consumers evaluated overall liking, aroma, and appearance liking of the products. Consumers were also asked to predict their purchase intent, their dog’s liking, and cost of the samples. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Overall liking clusters were not related to income, age, gender, or education, indicating that general consumer demographics do not appear to play a main role in individual consumer acceptance of dog food products. PMID:26480043

  17. Current Technology for Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, Stephen J. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    Interest in thermal protection systems for high-speed vehicles is increasing because of the stringent requirements of such new projects as the Space Exploration Initiative, the National Aero-Space Plane, and the High-Speed Civil Transport, as well as the needs for improved capabilities in existing thermal protection systems in the Space Shuttle and in turbojet engines. This selection of 13 papers from NASA and industry summarizes the history and operational experience of thermal protection systems utilized in the national space program to date, and also covers recent development efforts in thermal insulation, refractory materials and coatings, actively cooled structures, and two-phase thermal control systems.

  18. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-07-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal.

  19. Approaches to acceptable risk: a critical guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fischhoff, B.; Lichtenstein, S.; Slovic, P.; Keeney, R.; Derby, S.

    1980-12-01

    Acceptable-risk decisions are an essential step in the management of technological hazards. In many situations, they constitute the weak (or missing) link in the management process. The absence of an adequate decision-making methodology often produces indecision, inconsistency, and dissatisfaction. The result is neither good for hazard management nor good for society. This report offers a critical analysis of the viability of various approaches as guides to acceptable-risk decisions. This report seeks to define acceptable-risk decisions and to examine some frequently proposed, but inappropriate, solutions. 255 refs., 22 figs., 25 tabs.

  20. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  1. Nonthermal histories and implications for structure formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, JiJi; Özsoy, Ogan; Watson, Scott

    2014-08-01

    We examine the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a nonthermal inflationary history with a late-time matter domination period prior to big bang nucleosynthesis. Such a cosmology could arise naturally in the well-motivated moduli scenario in the context of supersymmetry (SUSY)—in particular in models of split SUSY. Subhorizon dark matter perturbations grow linearly during the matter dominated phase before reheating and can lead to an enhancement in the growth of substructure on small scales, even in the presence of dark matter annihilations. This suggests that a new scale (the horizon size at reheating) could be important for determining the primordial matter power spectrum. However, we find that in many nonthermal models free-streaming effects or kinetic decoupling after reheating can completely erase the enhancement leading to small-scale structures. In particular, in the moduli scenario with wino or Higgsino dark matter we find that the dark matter particles produced from moduli decays would thermalize with radiation and kinetically decouple below the reheating temperature. Thus, the growth of dark matter perturbations is not sustained, and the predictions for the matter power spectrum are similar to a standard thermal history. We comment on possible exceptions, but these appear difficult to realize within standard moduli scenarios. We conclude that although enhanced structure does not provide a new probe for investigating the cosmic dark ages within these models, it does suggest that nonthermal histories offer a robust alternative to a strictly thermal post inflationary history.

  2. A simplified model for thermal-wave cavity self-consistent measurement of thermal diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun; Zhou, Jianqin; Gu, Caikang; Neill, Stuart; Michaelian, Kirk H.; Fairbridge, Craig; Astrath, Nelson G. C.; Baesso, Mauro L.

    2013-12-01

    A simplified theoretical model was developed for the thermal-wave cavity (TWC) technique in this study. This model takes thermal radiation into account and can be employed for absolute measurements of the thermal diffusivity of gas and liquid samples without any knowledge of geometrical and thermal parameters of the components of the TWC. Using this model and cavity-length scans, thermal diffusivities of air and distilled water were accurately and precisely measured as (2.191 ± 0.004) × 10-5 and (1.427 ± 0.009) × 10-7 m2 s-1, respectively, in very good agreement with accepted literature values.

  3. Chinese Nurses' Acceptance of PDA: A Cross-Sectional Survey Using a Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanling; Xiao, Qian; Sun, Liu; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study explores Chinese nurses' acceptance of PDA, using a questionnaire based on the framework of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). 357 nurses were involved in the study. The results reveal the scores of the nurses' acceptance of PDA were means 3.18~3.36 in four dimensions. The younger of nurses, the higher nurses' title, the longer previous usage time, the more experienced using PDA, and the more acceptance of PDA. Therefore, the hospital administrators may change strategies to enhance nurses' acceptance of PDA, and promote the wide application of PDA.

  4. Why Litigation-Driven History Matters: Lessons Learned from the Secret History of TCE.

    PubMed

    Zahniser, Keith A

    2015-02-01

    Litigation drives extensive historical research but often allows only select observers to see the results. Historians have conducted untold studies for litigation that become "secret histories" because these histories are not published. An example is the historical use and regulation of the chemical trichloroethylene (TCE), a hazardous chemical at issue in much environmental litigation, but a topic virtually absent in the secondary literature. This practice seems to contravene accepted standards of open scholarship. Although not directly aligned with the traditional academic model of historical practice, however, historical research and writing for litigation achieve legitimate and important results without abandoning the discipline's professional standards. History done by consultants for litigation is neither a history of compromised standards nor as "secret" as feared.

  5. KSC History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Patrick K.

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 NASA/ASEE KSC History Project focused on a series of seven history initiatives designed to acquire, preserve, and interpret the history of Kennedy Space Center. These seven projects included the co-authoring of Voices From the Cape, historical work with NASA historian Roger Launius, the completion of a series of oral histories with key KSC personnel, a monograph on Public Affairs, the development of a Historical Concept Map (CMap) for history knowledge preservation, advice on KSC history database and web interface capabilities, the development of a KSC oral history program and guidelines of training and collection, and the development of collaborative relationships between Kennedy Space Center, the University of West Florida, and the University of Central Florida.

  6. KSC History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Patrick K.

    2003-01-01

    The 2003 NASA/ASEE KSC History Project focused on a series of six history initiatives designed to acquire, preserve, and interpret the history of Kennedy Space Center. These six projects included the completion of Voices From the Cape, historical work co-authored with NASA historian Roger Launius, the completion of a series of oral histories with key KSC personnel, expansion of monograph on Public Affairs into two comprehensive pieces on KSC press operations and KSC visitor operations, the expansion of KSC Historical Concept Maps (Cmap) for history knowledge preservation, the expansion of the KSC oral history program through the administration of an oral history workshop for KSC-based practitioners, and the continued collaborative relationships between Kennedy Space Center, the University of West Florida, the University of Central Florida and other institutions including the University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

  7. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... acceptance. (a) The head of the contracting activity (HCA) may determine that offerors must demonstrate, in... officer shall place a copy of this determination, signed by the HCA, in the solicitation file....

  8. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... acceptance. (a) The head of the contracting activity (HCA) may determine that offerors must demonstrate, in... officer shall place a copy of this determination, signed by the HCA, in the solicitation file....

  9. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... acceptance. (a) The head of the contracting activity (HCA) may determine that offerors must demonstrate, in... officer shall place a copy of this determination, signed by the HCA, in the solicitation file....

  10. Gas characterization system software acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, C.V.

    1996-02-27

    This document details the Software Acceptance Testing of gas characterization systems. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases.

  11. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1999-05-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the Nevada Test Site.

  12. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  15. What Are Acceptable Limits of Radiation?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Brad Gersey, lead research scientist at the Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration, or CRESSE, at Prairie View A&M University, describes the legal and acceptable limits ...

  16. 78 FR 8189 - Acceptance of Concurrent Jurisdiction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... accepted concurrent legislative jurisdiction from the State of Washington over lands and waters administered by the National Park Service within the boundaries of Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area. DATES: Effective Date: Concurrent legislative jurisdiction within Lake Roosevelt National...

  17. Integrated Model for E-Learning Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadiani; Rodziah, A.; Hasan, S. M.; Rusli, A.; Noraini, C.

    2016-01-01

    E-learning is not going to work if the system is not used in accordance with user needs. User Interface is very important to encourage using the application. Many theories had discuss about user interface usability evaluation and technology acceptance separately, actually why we do not make it correlation between interface usability evaluation and user acceptance to enhance e-learning process. Therefore, the evaluation model for e-learning interface acceptance is considered important to investigate. The aim of this study is to propose the integrated e-learning user interface acceptance evaluation model. This model was combined some theories of e-learning interface measurement such as, user learning style, usability evaluation, and the user benefit. We formulated in constructive questionnaires which were shared at 125 English Language School (ELS) students. This research statistics used Structural Equation Model using LISREL v8.80 and MANOVA analysis.

  18. THERMAL REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal remediation is being proposed by Region I for remediation of the overburden soil and groundwater at the Solvent Recovery Services New England Superfund site. This presentation at the public meeting will acquaint area residents with thermal remediation. The two types of ...

  19. Thermal Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Norman

    The role that a good thermal environment plays in the educational process is discussed. Design implications arise from an analysis of the heating and ventilating principles as apply to vocational-technical facilities. The importance of integrating thermal components in the total design is emphasized. (JS)

  20. Critical Issues in the History of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, Steven J. (Editor); Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    At a May 1981 "Proseminar in Space History"held at the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum (NASM) in Washington, DC, historians came together to consider the state of the discipline of space history. It was an historic occasion. The community of scholars interested in the history of spaceflight was not large; previously, well-meaning but untrained aficionados consumed with artifacts had dominated the field, to the exclusion of the larger context. At a fundamental level, this proseminar represented a "declaration of independence" for what might be called the "new aerospace history." In retrospect, it may be interpreted as marking the rise of space history as a recognizable subdiscipline within the field of U.S. history. Bringing together a diverse collection of scholars to review the state of the art in space history, this proseminar helped in a fundamental manner to define the field and to chart a course for future research. Its participants set about the task of charting a course for collecting, preserving, and disseminating the history of space exploration within a larger context of space policy and technology. In large measure, the course charted by the participants in this 1981 proseminar aided in advancing a very successful agenda of historical research, writing, and understanding of space history. Not every research project has yielded acceptable results, nor can it be expected to do so, but the sum of the effort since 1981 has been impressive. The opportunities for both the exploration of space and for recording its history have been significant. Both endeavors are noble and aimed at the enhancement of humanity. Whither the history of spaceflight? Only time will tell. But there has been an emergent "new aerospace history" of which space history is a central part that moves beyond an overriding concern for the details of the artifact to emphasize the broader role of the spacecraft. More importantly, it emphasizes the whole technological