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Sample records for acceptable tolerability profile

  1. Authentic tolerance: between forbearance and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Von Bergen, C W; Von Bergen, Beth A; Stubblefield, Claire; Bandow, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Promoting tolerance is seen as a key weapon in battling prejudice in diversity and multicultural training but its meaning has been modified recently. The classical definition of tolerance meant that others are entitled to their opinions and have the right to express them and that even though one may disagree with them, one can live in peace with such differences. In recent years, however, tolerance has come to mean that all ideas and practices must be accepted and affirmed and where appreciation and valuing of differences is the ultimate virtue. Such a neo-classical definition has alienated many who value equality and justice and limits the effectiveness of diversity initiatives that teach the promotion of tolerance. The authors offer authentic tolerance as an alternative, incorporating respect and civility toward others, not necessarily approval of their beliefs and behavior. All persons are equal, but all opinions and conduct are not equal. PMID:23362691

  2. Adenovirus type 35-vectored tuberculosis vaccine has an acceptable safety and tolerability profile in healthy, BCG-vaccinated, QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold (+) Kenyan adults without evidence of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Douglas S; Owira, Victorine; Polhemus, Mark; Otieno, Lucas; Andagalu, Ben; Ogutu, Bernhards; Waitumbi, John; Hawkridge, Anthony; Shepherd, Barbara; Pau, Maria Grazia; Sadoff, Jerald; Douoguih, Macaya; McClain, J Bruce

    2016-05-01

    In a Phase 1 trial, we evaluated the safety of AERAS-402, an adenovirus 35-vectored TB vaccine candidate expressing 3 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) immunodominant antigens, in subjects with and without latent Mtb infection. HIV-negative, BCG-vaccinated Kenyan adults without evidence of tuberculosis, 10 QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-G)(-) and 10 QFT-G(+), were randomized 4:1 to receive AERAS-402 or placebo as two doses, on Days 0 and 56, with follow up to Day 182. There were no deaths, serious adverse events or withdrawals. For 1 AERAS-402 QFT-G(-) and 1 AERAS-402 QFT-G(+) subject, there were 3 self-limiting severe AEs of injection site pain: 1 after the first vaccination and 1 after each vaccination, respectively. Two additional severe AEs considered vaccine-related were reported after the first vaccination in AERAS-402 QFT-G(+) subjects: elevated blood creatine phosphokinase and neutropenia, the latter slowly improving but remaining abnormal until study end. AERAS-402 was not detected in urine or throat cultures for any subject. In intracellular cytokine staining studies, curtailed by technical issues, we saw modest CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to Mtb Ag85A/b peptide pools among both QFT-G(-) and (+) subjects, with trends in the CD4+ T cells suggestive of boosting after the second vaccine dose, slightly more so in QFT-G(+) subjects. CD4+ and CD8+ responses to Mtb antigen TB10.4 were minimal. Increases in Adenovirus 35 neutralizing antibodies from screening to end of study, seen in 50% of AERAS-402 recipients, were mostly minimal. This small study confirms acceptable safety and tolerability profiles for AERAS-402, in line with other Phase 1 studies of AERAS-402, now to include QFT-G(+) subjects. PMID:27026148

  3. Tolerance, Acceptance and the Virtue of Orthonomy: A Reply to Lawrence Blum and Brenda Almond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciurria, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In the "Journal of Moral Education," 39(2), Brenda Almond and Lawrence Blum debate the importance of tolerance versus acceptance in sex education. Blum defines acceptance as "positive regard", in contradistinction to mere tolerance, "a live and let live attitude toward others, an acceptance of coexistence, but with a disapproval of that "other"".…

  4. Consumer acceptance and sensory profiling of reengineered kitoza products.

    PubMed

    Pintado, Ana I E; Monteiro, Maria J P; Talon, Régine; Leroy, Sabine; Scislowski, Valérie; Fliedel, Geneviève; Rakoto, Danielle; Maraval, Isabelle; Costa, Ana I A; Silva, Ana P; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Manuela M E

    2016-05-01

    Kitoza refers to a traditional way of preparing beef and pork in Madagascar. However, in order to improve some drawbacks previous identified, the product was submitted to a reengineering process. The acceptance and sensory profiling of improved Kitoza products among Portuguese consumers was investigated. A local smoked loin sausage was selected as basis for comparison. Firstly, a Focus Group study was performed to identify sensory descriptors for Kitoza products and explore product perception. Subsequently, a Flash Profile and a consumer sensory acceptance study were conducted. Flash Profile's results showed that beef- and pork-based Kitoza products investigated differed considerably in all sensory dimensions. The Portuguese sausage was characterized as having a more intense and lasting after taste, as well as displaying a higher degree of (meat) doneness. The acceptance study yielded higher overall liking ratings for pork- than for beef-based Kitoza, although the Portuguese sausage remained the most appreciated product. PMID:26769507

  5. Labeling Sexual Victimization Experiences: The Role of Sexism, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Tolerance for Sexual Harassment.

    PubMed

    LeMaire, Kelly L; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether attitudinal variables, such as benevolent and hostile sexism toward men and women, female rape myth acceptance, and tolerance of sexual harassment are related to women labeling their sexual assault experiences as rape. In a sample of 276 female college students, 71 (25.7%) reported at least one experience that met the operational definition of rape, although only 46.5% of those women labeled the experience "rape." Benevolent sexism, tolerance of sexual harassment, and rape myth acceptance, but not hostile sexism, significantly predicted labeling of previous sexual assault experiences by the victims. Specifically, those with more benevolent sexist attitudes toward both men and women, greater rape myth acceptance, and more tolerant attitudes of sexual harassment were less likely to label their past sexual assault experience as rape. The results are discussed for their clinical and theoretical implications. PMID:26832168

  6. The evolution of acceptance and tolerance in hosts of avian brood parasites.

    PubMed

    Medina, Iliana; Langmore, Naomi E

    2016-08-01

    Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of their hosts, which rear the parasite's progeny. The costs of parasitism have selected for the evolution of defence strategies in many host species. Most research has focused on resistance strategies, where hosts minimize the number of successful parasitism events using defences such as mobbing of adult brood parasites or rejection of parasite eggs. However, many hosts do not exhibit resistance. Here we explore why some hosts accept parasite eggs in their nests and how this is related to the virulence of the parasite. We also explore the extent to which acceptance of parasites can be explained by the evolution of tolerance; a strategy in which the host accepts the parasite but adjusts its life history or other traits to minimize the costs of parasitism. We review examples of tolerance in hosts of brood parasites (such as modifications to clutch size and multi-broodedness), and utilize the literature on host-pathogen interactions and plant herbivory to analyse the prevalence of each type of defence (tolerance or resistance) and their evolution. We conclude that (i) the interactions between brood parasites and their hosts provide a highly tractable system for studying the evolution of tolerance, (ii) studies of host defences against brood parasites should investigate both resistance and tolerance, and (iii) tolerance and resistance can lead to contrasting evolutionary scenarios. PMID:25765722

  7. The Impact of Demand Characteristics on Brief Acceptance- and Control-Based Interventions for Pain Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Bryan; Forsyth, John P.; Maher, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    The present analog study compared the effectiveness of an acceptance- and control-based intervention on pain tolerance using a cold pressor task, and is a partial replication and extension of the Hayes, Bissett et al. (Hayes, S. C., Bissett, R.T., Korn, Z., Zettle, R. D., Rosenfarb, I. S., Cooper, L. D., & Grundt, A. M. (1999). "The impact of…

  8. Comparative Expression Profiling of Desiccation Tolerant and Sensitive Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought tolerance and desiccation tolerance have often been cited as manifestations of the same mechanism: desiccation tolerance being the extreme form of drought tolerance. However, there is a fundamental difference between drought and desiccation tolerance; drought tolerance mechanisms include way...

  9. Patient tolerance and acceptance of colesevelam hydrochloride: focus on type-2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Luigi; DeSantis, Evelyn Hermes

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease with a U.S. prevalence of 25.8 million, and 90-95% of all cases are type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite the known mortality and morbidity associated with T2DM, the majority of patients do not achieve their hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) goals. Nonadherence is one of the contributing factors to the lackluster attainment of treatment goals. Drug tolerability may impact medication nonadherence; therefore, strategies to improve tolerability are important. Colesevelam, a second-generation bile acid resin, was designed with greater specificity and affinity for bile acids. Its physiochemical attributes contribute to an improved tolerability profile. Colesevelam has demonstrated efficacy in lowering HbA1c in addition to low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, although clinical outcomes data are lacking. Several mechanisms of colesevelam's effect in T2DM have been proposed, including effects on insulin sensitivity and secretion, incretin effects, changes in bile acid composition, and splanchnic sequestration of mealtime glucose. Colesevelam is associated with reductions in HbA1c in T2DM patients ranging from 0.32 to 1.1 percentage points. Colesevelam is generally well tolerated, and indirect comparisons with cholestyramine suggest that it is associated with fewer gastrointestinal symptoms. Reported adherence and persistence to colesevelam treatment in observational studies are 33.3% and 49%, respectively. PMID:25628509

  10. Stress Tolerance Profiling of a Collection of Extant Salt-Tolerant Rice Varieties and Transgenic Plants Overexpressing Abiotic Stress Tolerance Genes.

    PubMed

    Kurotani, Ken-ichi; Yamanaka, Kazumasa; Toda, Yosuke; Ogawa, Daisuke; Tanaka, Maiko; Kozawa, Hirotsugu; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Hakata, Makoto; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Hattori, Tsukaho; Takeda, Shin

    2015-10-01

    Environmental stress tolerance is an important trait for crop improvement. In recent decades, numerous genes that confer tolerance to abiotic stress such as salinity were reported. However, the levels of salt tolerance differ greatly depending on growth conditions, and mechanisms underlying the complicated nature of stress tolerance are far from being fully understood. In this study, we investigated the profiles of stress tolerance of nine salt-tolerant rice varieties and transgenic rice lines carrying constitutively expressed genes that are potentially involved in salt tolerance, by evaluating their growth and viability under salt, heat, ionic and hyperosmotic stress conditions. Profiling of the extant varieties and selected chromosome segment substitution lines showed that salt tolerance in a greenhouse condition was more tightly correlated with ionic stress tolerance than osmotic stresses. In Nona Bokra, one of the most salt-tolerant varieties, the contribution of the previously identified sodium transporter HKT1;5 to salt tolerance was fairly limited. In addition, Nona Bokra exhibited high tolerance to all the stresses imposed. More surprisingly, comparative evaluation of 74 stress tolerance genes revealed that the most striking effect to enhance salt tolerance was conferred by overexpressing CYP94C2b, which promotes deactivation of jasmonate. In contrast, genes encoding ABA signaling factors conferred multiple stress tolerance. Genes conferring tolerance to both heat and hyperosmotic stresses were preferentially linked to functional categories related to heat shock proteins, scavenging of reactive oxygen species and Ca(2+) signaling. These comparative profiling data provide a new basis for understanding the ability of plants to grow under harsh environmental conditions. PMID:26329877

  11. Tolerability and cosmetic acceptability of a body wash in atopic dermatitis-prone subjects.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Staci; Meckfessel, Matthew H; Lio, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disease characterized by eczematous eruptions and impaired skin barrier function. Patients, as well as their families, frequently report reductions in quality of life. Pruritus, lack of sleep, and impaired social functioning all contribute to this reduction. A skincare regimen of gentle cleansing and daily moisturization is integral to managing atopic dermatitis. While there are a multitude of reports supporting the use of moisturizers, there is a paucity regarding the use of cleansers, especially cleansers formulated with ingredients known to improve skin hydration. A clinical study was conducted to assess the tolerability and cosmetic acceptability of a body wash formulated with the filaggrin break-down products arginine and pyrrolidone carboxylic acid in subjects with atopic dermatitis-prone skin (Cetaphil® RestoraDerm® Body Wash). The results of this study indicate that Cetaphil RestoraDerm Body Wash was well tolerated, reduced itch, improved quality of life, and was well-liked by subjects with atopic dermatitis-prone skin. PMID:25226012

  12. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

  13. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

  14. The moderating and mediating roles of self-acceptance and tolerance to others in the relationship between mindfulness and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Oei, Tian Ps; Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Xiaoming; Ding, Chen

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the moderating and mediating influences of self-acceptance and tolerance to others in the relationship between mindfulness and subjective well-being. In total, 301 (130 males) university students completed the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, Index of Well-being, Self-acceptance Questionnaire, and Tolerance Scale. The results showed that the positive link between mindfulness and subjective well-being was significantly mediated by self-acceptance only. Tolerance played a moderating role. The implications of the results for relevant research and mindfulness training were discussed. PMID:25395155

  15. Zero-Tolerance Policies and Youth: Protection or Profiling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Patrick; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze and explore the various uses of zero-tolerance among youth in the United States. The authors illustrate the origin, goals, problems, and perceptions associated with this "crime-control measure" among youth within educational settings.

  16. Local tolerance testing under REACH: Accepted non-animal methods are not on equal footing with animal tests.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G; Hill, Erin H; Curren, Rodger D; Raabe, Hans A; Kolle, Susanne N; Teubner, Wera; Mehling, Annette; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-07-01

    In general, no single non-animal method can cover the complexity of any given animal test. Therefore, fixed sets of in vitro (and in chemico) methods have been combined into testing strategies for skin and eye irritation and skin sensitisation testing, with pre-defined prediction models for substance classification. Many of these methods have been adopted as OECD test guidelines. Various testing strategies have been successfully validated in extensive in-house and inter-laboratory studies, but they have not yet received formal acceptance for substance classification. Therefore, under the European REACH Regulation, data from testing strategies can, in general, only be used in so-called weight-of-evidence approaches. While animal testing data generated under the specific REACH information requirements are per se sufficient, the sufficiency of weight-of-evidence approaches can be questioned under the REACH system, and further animal testing can be required. This constitutes an imbalance between the regulatory acceptance of data from approved non-animal methods and animal tests that is not justified on scientific grounds. To ensure that testing strategies for local tolerance testing truly serve to replace animal testing for the REACH registration 2018 deadline (when the majority of existing chemicals have to be registered), clarity on their regulatory acceptance as complete replacements is urgently required. PMID:27494627

  17. KSC 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) Operational Acceptance Test (OAT) Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbre, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents analysis results of the Kennedy Space Center updated 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) Operational Acceptance Test (OAT). This test was designed to demonstrate that the new DRWP operates in a similar manner to the previous DRWP for use as a situational awareness asset for mission operations at the Eastern Range to identify rapid changes in the wind environment that weather balloons cannot depict. Data examination and two analyses showed that the updated DRWP meets the specifications in the OAT test plan and performs at least as well as the previous DRWP. Data examination verified that the DRWP provides complete profiles every five minutes from 1.8-19.5 km in vertical increments of 150 m. Analysis of 5,426 wind component reports from 49 concurrent DRWP and balloon profiles presented root mean square (RMS) wind component differences around 2.0 m/s. The DRWP's effective vertical resolution (EVR) was found to be 300 m for both the westerly and southerly wind component, which the best EVR possible given the DRWP's vertical sampling interval. A third analysis quantified the sensitivity to rejecting data that do not have adequate signal by assessing the number of first-guess propagations at each altitude. This report documents the data, quality control procedures, methodology, and results of each analysis. It also shows that analysis of the updated DRWP produced results that were at least as good as the previous DRWP with proper rationale. The report recommends acceptance of the updated DRWP for situational awareness usage as per the OAT's intent.

  18. Metabolic Profiling of the Response to an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Detects Subtle Metabolic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Wopereis, Suzan; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Erk, Marjan J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; van Vliet, Trinette; Cnubben, Nicole H. P.; Smilde, Age K.; van der Greef, Jan; van Ommen, Ben; Hendriks, Henk F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight is increasing globally and has become a serious health problem. Low-grade chronic inflammation in overweight subjects is thought to play an important role in disease development. Novel tools to understand these processes are needed. Metabolic profiling is one such tool that can provide novel insights into the impact of treatments on metabolism. Methodology To study the metabolic changes induced by a mild anti-inflammatory drug intervention, plasma metabolic profiling was applied in overweight human volunteers with elevated levels of the inflammatory plasma marker C-reactive protein. Liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometric methods were used to detect high and low abundant plasma metabolites both in fasted conditions and during an oral glucose tolerance test. This is based on the concept that the resilience of the system can be assessed after perturbing a homeostatic situation. Conclusions Metabolic changes were subtle and were only detected using metabolic profiling in combination with an oral glucose tolerance test. The repeated measurements during the oral glucose tolerance test increased statistical power, but the metabolic perturbation also revealed metabolites that respond differentially to the oral glucose tolerance test. Specifically, multiple metabolic intermediates of the glutathione synthesis pathway showed time-dependent suppression in response to the glucose challenge test. The fact that this is an insulin sensitive pathway suggests that inflammatory modulation may alter insulin signaling in overweight men. PMID:19242536

  19. Results of the NASA Kennedy Space Center 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Operational Acceptance Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbre', Robert E., Jr.; Decker, Ryan K.; Leahy, Frank B.; Huddleston, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of the new Kennedy Space Center (KSC) 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) Operational Acceptance Test (OAT). The goal of the OAT was to verify the data quality of the new DRWP against the performance of the previous DRWP in order to use wind data derived by the new DRWP for space launch vehicle operations support at the Eastern Range. The previous DRWP was used as a situational awareness asset for mission operations to identify rapid changes in the wind environment that weather balloons cannot depict. The Marshall Space Flight Center's Natural Environments Branch assessed data from the new DRWP collected during Jan-Feb 2015 against a specified set of test criteria. Data examination verified that the DRWP provides complete profiles every five minutes from 1.8-19.5 km in vertical increments of 150 m. Analysis of 49 concurrent DRWP and balloon profiles presented root mean square wind component differences around 2.0 m/s. Evaluation of the DRWP's coherence between five-minute wind pairs found the effective vertical resolution to be Nyquist-limited at 300 m for both wind components. In addition, the sensitivity to rejecting data that do not have adequate signal was quantified. This paper documents the data, quality control procedures, methodology, and results of each analysis.

  20. Galactinol synthase transcriptional profile in two genotypes of Coffea canephora with contrasting tolerance to drought

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Tiago Benedito Dos; de Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Nagashima, Getúlio Takashi; Petkowicz, Carmen Lucia de Oliveira; Carpentieri-Pípolo, Valéria; Pereira, Luiz Filipe Protasio; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves

    2015-01-01

    Increased synthesis of galactinol and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) has been reported in vegetative tissues in response to a range of abiotic stresses. In this work, we evaluated the transcriptional profile of a Coffea canephora galactinol synthase gene (CcGolS1) in two clones that differed in tolerance to water deficit in order to assess the contribution of this gene to drought tolerance. The expression of CcGolS1 in leaves was differentially regulated by water deficit, depending on the intensity of stress and the genotype. In clone 109A (drought-susceptible), the abundance of CcGolS1 transcripts decreased upon exposure to drought, reaching minimum values during recovery from severe water deficit and stress. In contrast, CcGolS1 gene expression in clone 14 (drought-tolerant) was stimulated by water deficit. Changes in galactinol and RFO content did not correlate with variation in the steady-state transcript level. However, the magnitude of increase in RFO accumulation was higher in the tolerant cultivar, mainly under severe water deficit. The finding that the drought-tolerant coffee clone showed enhanced accumulation of CcGolS1 transcripts and RFOs under water deficit suggests the possibility of using this gene to improve drought tolerance in this important crop. PMID:26273221

  1. Short communication: Sensory profile and acceptability of a cow milk cheese manufactured by adding jenny milk.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, C; Faraone, D; Paolino, R; Freschi, P; Musto, M

    2016-01-01

    The addition of jenny milk during cheesemaking has been recommended as a viable alternative to egg lysozyme for controlling late blowing defects. However, little is known on the sensory properties of the cheeses made with jenny milk. In this study, the effect of the addition of jenny milk during cheesemaking on sensory properties and consumer acceptability of cheese was evaluated. A sensory profile was carried out by 10 trained panelists on 4 cow milk cheese types. Two types of cheeses were made by adding jenny milk to cow milk during cheesemaking; the cheeses were then left to ripen for 45 and 120 d. The remaining 2 cheese types were made with only cow milk and were also left to ripen for 45 and 120 d. The attributes generated by a quantitative descriptive analysis sensory panel were effective for discriminating the 4 products. Among them, added jenny milk samples aged for 45 d had the highest intensity of some appearance descriptors (structure and color uniformity), as well as the highest intensity of sweetness. The analysis of acceptability data obtained from 89 consumers showed that added jenny milk aged for 45 d was the most preferred type of cheese, whereas no significant differences were found among the other products, which had higher intensity of bitter, salty, acid milk, and so on. PMID:26506544

  2. Comparative efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine in child and adolescent ADHD: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Maneeton, Benchalak; Maneeton, Narong; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Suttajit, Sirijit; Narkpongphun, Assawin; Srisurapanont, Manit; Woottiluk, Pakapan

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that lisdexamfetamine (LDX) is efficacious in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objectives Aims of this study were to systematically review the efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of LDX in child and adolescent ADHD. Any randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of LDX versus placebo carried out in children and adolescents with ADHD were included. Data sources The searches of the SCOPUS, MEDLINE, CINAHL and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were performed in September 2014. Additional searches in the ClinicalTrials. gov and EU Clinical Trials Register database were conducted. Study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions This review included all RCTs of LDX versus placebo which were carried out in children and adolescents up to 18 years old. Additionally, the included studies must have reported the final outcomes of: i) severity of ADHD symptoms with standardized scales, ii) rates of improvement, iii) rates of discontinuation. To be more thorough, the languages of such RCTs were not limited. Study appraisal and synthesis methods The abstracts from databases were inspected and the full text versions of relevant trials were examined and extracted for important outcomes. The efficacious measurements included either the pooled mean end-point or changed scores of ADHD rating scales, and the rate of improvement. Acceptability and tolerability were measured by the pooled overall discontinuation rate and the pooled discontinuation rate due to adverse events, respectively. A random effect model technique was utilized to synthesize the mean differences (either standardized mean differences or weighted mean differences) and relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 1,016 children and adolescents with ADHD were included. The dosage of LDX was 30 to 70 mg/day. The pooled mean change scores of LDX-treated group was significantly greater than that

  3. Profiling and Racial Profiling: An Interactive Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semple, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Racial Profiling has been recognized as a serious problem that affects many segments of our society and is especially notable in law enforcement. Governments and police services have pronounced that racial profiling is not acceptable and will not be tolerated. They have gone to great lengths in trying to eradicate racial profiling through…

  4. Accepting Tolerance and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoss, Madeleine; Wylie, Roslyn

    Exploring diversity instills in children an awareness and respect for themselves and others. Research projects that address stereotyping, race relations, and prejudice within ourselves can be developed through collaboration between the librarian and classroom teacher (who may themselves be of different cultures). These research projects help…

  5. A Bayesian framework systematic review and meta-analysis of anesthetic agents effectiveness/tolerability profile in electroconvulsive therapy for major depression

    PubMed Central

    Fond, Guillaume; Bennabi, Djamila; Haffen, Emmanuel; Brunel, Lore; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Loundou, Anderson; Lançon, Christophe; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Auquier, Pascal; Boyer, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability/acceptability of 6 anesthetic agents in ECT for depressive disorders. We systematically reviewed 14 double-blind randomized controlled trials (610 participants). Efficacy was measured by the mean scores on validated depression scales at 6 ECT (or the nearest score if not available), number of responders at the end of treatment and seizure duration. The acceptability was measured by the proportion of patients who dropped out of the allocated treatment, and the tolerability by the number of serious adverse events and post-treatment cognition assessment. After excluding the trials responsible for heterogeneity, depression scores of patients who were administered methohexital were found to be significantly more improved than those who received propofol (p = 0.001). On the contrary, those who were administered propofol had lower depression scores than those with thiopental at the end of treatment (p = 0.002). Compared to propofol, methohexital was found to be significantly associated with higher seizure duration (p = 0.018). No difference was found for the acceptability profile (all p > 0.05). In summary, ketamine and methohexital may be preferred to propofol or thiopental in regard of effectiveness in depression scores and increased seizure duration. Further studies are warranted to compare ketamine and methohexital. PMID:26806849

  6. Identification of Drought Tolerance Markers in a Diverse Population of Rice Cultivars by Expression and Metabolite Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Degenkolbe, Thomas; Do, Phuc T.; Kopka, Joachim; Zuther, Ellen; Hincha, Dirk K.; Köhl, Karin I.

    2013-01-01

    Rice provides about half of the calories consumed in Asian countries, but its productivity is often reduced by drought, especially when grown under rain-fed conditions. Cultivars with increased drought tolerance have been bred over centuries. Slow selection for drought tolerance on the basis of phenotypic traits may be accelerated by using molecular markers identified through expression and metabolic profiling. Previously, we identified 46 candidate genes with significant genotype × environment interaction in an expression profiling study on four cultivars with contrasting drought tolerance. These potential markers and in addition GC-MS quantified metabolites were tested in 21 cultivars from both indica and japonica background that varied in drought tolerance. Leaf blades were sampled from this population of cultivars grown under control or long-term drought condition and subjected to expression analysis by qRT-PCR and metabolite profiling. Under drought stress, metabolite levels correlated mainly negatively with performance parameters, but eight metabolites correlated positively. For 28 genes, a significant correlation between expression level and performance under drought was confirmed. Negative correlations were predominant. Among those with significant positive correlation was the gene coding for a cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. This enzyme catalyzes a highly regulated step in C-metabolism. The metabolic and transcript marker candidates for drought tolerance were identified in a highly diverse population of cultivars. Thus, these markers may be used to select for tolerance in a wide range of rice germplasms. PMID:23717458

  7. Transcriptome Profiling of Huanglongbing (HLB) Tolerant and Susceptible Citrus Plants Reveals the Role of Basal Resistance in HLB Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunsheng; Zhou, Lijuan; Yu, Xiaoyue; Stover, Ed; Luo, Feng; Duan, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is currently the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. Although there is no immune cultivar, field tolerance to HLB within citrus and citrus relatives has been observed at the USDA Picos farm at Ft. Pierce, Florida, where plants have been exposed to a very high level of HLB pressure since 2006. In this study, we used RNA-Seq to evaluate expression differences between two closely related cultivars after HLB infection: HLB-tolerant “Jackson” grapefruit-like-hybrid trees and HLB susceptible “Marsh” grapefruit trees. A total of 686 genes were differentially expressed (DE) between the two cultivars. Among them, 247 genes were up-expressed and 439 were down-expressed in tolerant citrus trees. We also identified a total of 619 genes with significant differential expression of alternative splicing isoforms between HLB tolerant and HLB susceptible citrus trees. We analyzed the functional categories of DE genes using two methods, and revealed that multiple pathways have been suppressed or activated in the HLB tolerant citrus trees, which lead to the activation of the basal resistance or immunity of citrus plants. We have experimentally verified the expressions of 14 up-expressed genes and 19 down-expressed genes on HLB-tolerant “Jackson” trees and HLB-susceptible “Marsh” trees using real time PCR. The results showed that the expression of most genes were in agreement with the RNA-Seq results. This study provided new insights into HLB-tolerance and useful guidance for breeding HLB-tolerant citrus in the future. PMID:27446161

  8. Root transcript profiling of two Rorippa species reveals gene clusters associated with extreme submergence tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Rashmi; Mustroph, Angelika; Boonman, Alex; Akman, Melis; Ammerlaan, Ankie M H; Breit, Timo; Schranz, M Eric; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; van Tienderen, Peter H

    2013-11-01

    Complete submergence represses photosynthesis and aerobic respiration, causing rapid mortality in most terrestrial plants. However, some plants have evolved traits allowing them to survive prolonged flooding, such as species of the genus Rorippa, close relatives of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We studied plant survival, changes in carbohydrate and metabolite concentrations, and transcriptome responses to submergence of two species, Rorippa sylvestris and Rorippa amphibia. We exploited the close relationship between Rorippa species and the model species Arabidopsis by using Arabidopsis GeneChip microarrays for whole-genome transcript profiling of roots of young plants exposed to a 24-h submergence treatment or air. A probe mask was used based on hybridization of genomic DNA of both species to the arrays, so that weak probe signals due to Rorippa species/Arabidopsis mismatches were removed. Furthermore, we compared Rorippa species microarray results with those obtained for roots of submerged Arabidopsis plants. Both Rorippa species could tolerate deep submergence, with R. sylvestris surviving much longer than R. amphibia. Submergence resulted in the induction of genes involved in glycolysis and fermentation and the repression of many energy-consuming pathways, similar to the low-oxygen and submergence response of Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa). The qualitative responses of both Rorippa species to submergence appeared roughly similar but differed quantitatively. Notably, glycolysis and fermentation genes and a gene encoding sucrose synthase were more strongly induced in the less tolerant R. amphibia than in R. sylvestris. A comparison with Arabidopsis microarray studies on submerged roots revealed some interesting differences and potential tolerance-related genes in Rorippa species. PMID:24077074

  9. The fatty acid profile of rainbow trout liver cells modulates their tolerance to methylmercury and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Ferain, Aline; Bonnineau, Chloé; Neefs, Ineke; Rees, Jean François; Larondelle, Yvan; Schamphelaere, Karel A C De; Debier, Cathy

    2016-08-01

    The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of fish tissues, which generally reflects that of the diet, affects various cellular properties such as membrane structure and fluidity, energy metabolism and susceptibility to oxidative stress. Since these cellular parameters can play an important role in the cellular response to organic and inorganic pollutants, a variation of the PUFA supply might modify the toxicity induced by such xenobiotics. In this work, we investigated whether the cellular fatty acid profile has an impact on the in vitro cell sensitivity to two environmental pollutants: methylmercury and cadmium. Firstly, the fatty acid composition of the rainbow trout liver cell line RTL-W1 was modified by enriching the growth medium with either alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6), arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) or docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-6). These modified cells and their control (no PUFA enrichment) were then challenged for 24h with increasing concentrations of methylmercury or cadmium. We observed that (i) the phospholipid composition of the RTL-W1 cells was profoundly modulated by changing the PUFA content of the growth medium: major modifications were a high incorporation of the supplemented PUFA in the cellular phospholipids, the appearance of direct elongation and desaturation metabolites in the cellular phospholipids as well as a change in the gross phospholipid composition (PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) levels and n-3/n-6 ratio); (ii) ALA, EPA and DPA enrichment significantly protected the RTL-W1 cells against both methylmercury and cadmium; (iv) DHA enrichment significantly protected the cells against cadmium but not methylmercury; (v) AA and LA enrichment had no impact on the cell tolerance to both methylmercury and cadmium; (vi) the abundance of 20:3n-6, a metabolite of the n-6 biotransformation pathway, in

  10. Results of the Updated NASA Kennedy Space Center 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler Operational Acceptance Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbre', Robert E., Jr.; Deker, Ryan K.; Leahy, Frank B.; Huddleston, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    We present here the methodology and results of the Operational Acceptance Test (OAT) performed on the new Kennedy Space Center (KSC) 50-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP). On day-of-launch (DOL), space launch vehicle operators have used data from the DRWP to invalidate winds in prelaunch loads and trajectory assessments due to the DRWP's capability to quickly identify changes in the wind profile within a rapidly-changing wind environment. The previous DRWP has been replaced with a completely new system, which needs to undergo certification testing before being accepted for use in range operations. The new DRWP replaces the previous three-beam system made of coaxial cables and a copper wire ground plane with a four-beam system that uses Yagi antennae with enhanced beam steering capability. In addition, the new system contains updated user interface software while maintaining the same general capability as the previous system. The new DRWP continues to use the Median Filter First Guess (MFFG) algorithm to generate a wind profile from Doppler spectra at each range gate. DeTect (2015) contains further details on the upgrade. The OAT is a short-term test designed so that end users can utilize the new DRWP in a similar manner to the previous DRWP during mission operations at the Eastern Range in the midst of a long-term certification process. This paper describes the Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch's (MSFC NE's) analyses to verify the quality and accuracy of the DRWP's meteorological data output as compared to the previous DRWP. Ultimately, each launch vehicle program has the responsibility to certify the system for their own use.

  11. Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    PubMed

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Shen, Yuchi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Methven, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability. PMID:25156799

  12. Comparative efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of dexmethylphenidate versus placebo in child and adolescent ADHD: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Maneeton, Narong; Maneeton, Benchalak; Woottiluk, Pakapan; Suttajit, Sirijit; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Charnsil, Chawanun; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2015-01-01

    Background The efficacy of dexmethylphenidate (d-MPH) has been proven in the treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective The aim of this systematic review is to determine the efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of d-MPH in child and adolescent ADHD. Methods The searches of SCOPUS, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were performed in February 2015. All randomized controlled trials of d-MPH versus placebo that were performed in children and adolescents with ADHD up to 18 years of age were included in the study. The efficacy was measured by using the pooled mean-endpoint or mean-changed scores of ADHD rating scales and the response rate. Acceptability and tolerability were measured by using the pooled rates of overall discontinuation and discontinuation due to adverse events, respectively. Results A total of 1,124 children and adolescents diagnosed as having ADHD were included in this review. In a laboratory school setting, the pooled mean-change and mean-endpoint scores in the d-MPH-treated group were significantly greater than those of the placebo-treated group with standardized mean difference (95% confidence interval [CI]) of −1.20 (−1.73, −0.67), I2=95%. Additionally, the pooled mean-changed scores of the ADHD rating scales for teachers and parents in the d-MPH-treated group were significantly greater than that of the placebo-treated group with weighted mean difference (95% CI) of −13.01 (−15.97, −10.05), I2=0% and (95% CI) of −12.99 (−15.57, −10.42), I2=0%, respectively. The pooled response rate in the d-MPH-treated groups had a significance higher than that of the placebo-treated group. The rates of pooled overall discontinuation and discontinuation due to adverse events between the two groups were not significantly different. Conclusion Based on the findings in this review, it can be concluded that d-MPH medication is efficacious and tolerable in child and

  13. Tolerance and Acceptance Results of a Palladium-103 Permanent Breast Seed Implant Phase I/II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pignol, Jean-Philippe Rakovitch, Eileen; Keller, Brian M.; Sankreacha, Raxa; Chartier, Carole

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To test, in a prospective Phase I/II trial, a partial breast irradiation technique using a {sup 103}Pd permanent breast seed implant (PBSI) realized in a single 1-h procedure under sedation and local freezing. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had infiltrating ductal carcinoma {<=}3 cm in diameter, surgical margin {>=}2 mm, no extensive intraductal component, no lymphovascular invasion, and negative lymph nodes. Patients received a permanent seed implant, and a minimal peripheral dose of 90 Gy was prescribed to the clinical target volume, with a margin of 1.5 cm. Results: From May 2004 to April 2007, 67 patients received the PBSI treatment. The procedure was well tolerated, with 17% of patients having significant pain after the procedure. Only 1 patient (1.5%) had an acute skin reaction (Grade 3 according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria). The rates of acute moist desquamation, erythema, and indurations were 10.4%, 42%, and 27%, respectively. At 1 year the rate of Grade 1 telangiectasia was 14%. The rate of skin reaction decreased from 65% to 28% when skin received less than the 85% isodose. According to a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group questionnaire, 80-90% of patients were very satisfied with their treatment, and the remainder were satisfied. One patient (1.5%) developed an abscess, which resolved after the use of antibiotics. There was no recurrence after a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 11-49 months). Conclusions: The feasibility, safety, and tolerability of PBSI compares favorably with that of external beam and other partial breast irradiation techniques.

  14. A comparison of a laboratory and field study of annoyance and acceptability of aircraft noise exposures. [human reactions and tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borsky, P. N.

    1977-01-01

    Residents living in close, middle and distant areas from JFK Airport were included in a field interview and laboratory study. Judgments were made of simulated aircraft noise exposures of comparable community indoor noise levels and mixes of aircraft. Each group of subjects judged the levels of noise typical for its distance area. Four different numbers of flyovers were tested: less than average for each area, the approximate average, the peak number, or worst day, and above peak number. The major findings are: (1) the reported integrated field annoyance is best related to the annoyance reported for the simulated approximate worst day exposure in the laboratory; (2) annoyance is generally less when there are fewer aircraft flyovers, and the subject has less fear of crashes and more favorable attitudes toward airplanes; (3) beliefs in harmful health effects and misfeasance by operators of aircraft are also highly correlated with fear and noise annoyance; (4) in direct retrospective comparisons of number of flights, noise levels and annoyance, subjects more often said the worst day laboratory exposured more like their usual home environments; and (5) subjects do not expect an annoyance-free environment. Half of the subjects can accept an annoyance level of 5 to 6 from a possible annoyance range of 0 to 9, 28% can live with an annoyance intensity of 7, and only 5% can accept the top scores of 8 to 9.

  15. Transcriptional profiling of Al toxicity and tolerance responses in maize roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major factor limiting crop yields on acid soils. Plant species exhibit considerable genotypic variation for Al tolerance, which is being exploited by researchers to identify the mechanisms that underlie this trait. In maize, Al tolerance is a complex phenomenon involving ...

  16. Metabolite Profiling of Low-P Tolerant and Low-P Sensitive Maize Genotypes under Phosphorus Starvation and Restoration Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ganie, Arshid Hussain; Ahmad, Altaf; Pandey, Renu; Aref, Ibrahim M.; Yousuf, Peerzada Yasir; Ahmad, Sayeed; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Background Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most widely cultivated crop plants. Unavoidable economic and environmental problems associated with the excessive use of phosphatic fertilizers demands its better management. The solution lies in improving the phosphorus (P) use efficiency to sustain productivity even at low P levels. Untargeted metabolomic profiling of contrasting genotypes provides a snap shot of whole metabolome which differs under specific conditions. This information provides an understanding of the mechanisms underlying tolerance to P stress and the approach for increasing P-use-efficiency. Methodology/Principal Findings A comparative metabolite-profiling approach based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was applied to investigate the effect of P starvation and its restoration in low-P sensitive (HM-4) and low-P tolerant (PEHM-2) maize genotypes. A comparison of the metabolite profiles of contrasting genotypes in response to P-deficiency revealed distinct differences among low-P sensitive and tolerant genotypes. Another set of these genotypes were grown under P-restoration condition and sampled at different time intervals (3, 5 and 10 days) to investigate if the changes in metabolite profile under P-deficiency was restored. Significant variations in the metabolite pools of these genotypes were observed under P-deficiency which were genotype specific. Out of 180 distinct analytes, 91 were identified. Phosphorus-starvation resulted in accumulation of di- and trisaccharides and metabolites of ammonium metabolism, specifically in leaves, but decreased the levels of phosphate-containing metabolites and organic acids. A sharp increase in the concentrations of glutamine, asparagine, serine and glycine was observed in both shoots and roots under low-P condition. Conclusion The new insights generated on the maize metabolome in resposne to P-starvation and restoration would be useful towards improvement of the P-use efficiency in maize. PMID

  17. Transcriptomics of salinity tolerance capacity in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus): a comparison of gene expression profiles between divergent QTL genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Moira M.; Danzmann, Roy G.

    2013-01-01

    Osmoregulatory capabilities have played an important role in the evolution, dispersal, and diversification of vertebrates. To better understand the genetic architecture of hypo-osmoregulation in fishes and to determine which genes and biological processes affect intraspecific variation in salinity tolerance, we used mRNA sequence libraries from Arctic charr gill tissue to compare gene expression profiles in fish exhibiting divergent salinity tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL) genotypes. We compared differentially expressed genes with QTL positions to gain insight about the nature of the underlying polymorphisms and examined gene expression within the context of genome organization to gain insight about the evolution of hypo-osmoregulation in fishes. mRNA sequencing of 18 gill tissue libraries produced 417 million reads, and the final reduced de novo transcriptome assembly consisted of 92,543 contigs. Families contained a similar number of differentially expressed contigs between high and low salinity tolerance capacity groups, and log2 expression ratios ranged from 10.4 to −8.6. We found that intraspecific variation in salinity tolerance capacity correlated with differential expression of immune response genes. Some differentially expressed genes formed clusters along linkage groups. Most clusters comprised gene pairs, though clusters of three, four, and eight genes were also observed. We postulated that conserved synteny of gene clusters on multiple ancestral and teleost chromosomes may have been preserved via purifying selection. Colocalization of QTL with differentially expressed genes suggests that polymorphisms in cis-regulatory elements are part of a majority of QTL. PMID:24368751

  18. Differential metabolite profiles and salinity tolerance between two genetically related brown-seeded and yellow-seeded Brassica carinata lines.

    PubMed

    Canam, Thomas; Li, Xiang; Holowachuk, Jennifer; Yu, Min; Xia, Jianguo; Mandal, Rupasri; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Bouatra, Souhaila; Sinelnikov, Igor; Yu, Bianyun; Grenkow, Larry; Wishart, David S; Steppuhn, Harold; Falk, Kevin C; Dumonceaux, Tim J; Gruber, Margaret Y

    2013-01-01

    Brassica carinata (Ethiopian mustard) has previously been identified as a potential crop species suitable for marginal land in the North American prairies due to its relatively high salt tolerance. Two genetically related B. carinata lines with brown-seeded (BS) and yellow-seeded (YS) phenotypes were assessed for their tolerance to sodium sulfate. Specifically, each line was greenhouse-grown under 0, 50 and 100mM of salt, and analyzed after four weeks and eight weeks of treatment. Generally, the height of the BS line was greater than the YS line under both salt treatments, indicating enhanced salt tolerance of the BS line. NMR-based metabolite profiling and PCA analyses indicated a more pronounced shift in key stem metabolites after four weeks of treatment with the YS line compared to the BS line. For example, tryptophan and formate levels increased in the YS line after four weeks of 100mM salt treatment, while proline and threonine levels varied uniquely compared to other metabolites of the lines. Together, the data indicate that the brown-seeded line has greater sodium tolerance than the yellow-seed line, provide clues to the biochemical underpinnings for the phenotypic variation, and highlight the utility of B. carinata as a biorefinery crop for saline land. PMID:23199683

  19. Use of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Profiles to Compare Copper-Tolerant and Copper-Sensitive Strains of Pantoea ananatis.

    PubMed

    Nischwitz, C; Gitaitis, R; Sanders, H; Langston, D; Mullinix, B; Torrance, R; Boyhan, G; Zolobowska, L

    2007-10-01

    ABSTRACT A survey was conducted to evaluate differences in fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles among strains of Pantoea ananatis, causal agent of center rot of onion (Allium cepa), isolated from 15 different onion cultivars in three different sites in Georgia. Differences in FAME composition were determined by plotting principal components (PCs) in two-dimensional plots. Euclidean distance squared (ED(2)) values indicated a high degree of similarity among strains. Plotting of PCs calculated from P. ananatis strains capable of growing on media amended with copper sulfate pentahydrate (200 mug/ml) indicated that copper-tolerant strains grouped into tight clusters separate from clusters formed by wild-type strains. However, unlike copper-sensitive strains, the copper-tolerant strains tended to cluster by location. A total of 80, 60, and 73% of the strains from Tift1, Tift2, and Tattnall, respectively, exhibited either confluent growth or partial growth on copper-amended medium. However, all strains were sensitive to a mixture of copper sulfate pentahydrate (200 mug/ml) and maneb (40 mug/ml). When copper-tolerant clones were analyzed and compared with their wild-type parents, in all cases the plotting of PCs developed from copper-tolerant clones formed tight clusters separate from clusters formed by the parents. Eigenvalues generated from these tests indicated that two components provided a good summary of the data, accounting for 98, 98, and 96% of the standardized variance for strains Pna 1-15B, Pna 1-12B, and Pna 2-5A, respectively. Furthermore, feature 4 (cis-9-hexadecenoic acid/2-hydroxy-13-methyltetradecanoic acid) and feature 7 (cis-9/trans-12/cis-7-octadecenoic acid) were the highest or second highest absolute values for PC1 in all three strains of the parents versus copper-tolerant clones, and hexadecanoic acid was the highest absolute value for PC2 in all three strains. Along with those fatty acids, dodecanoic acid and feature 3 (3-hydroxytetradecanoic

  20. Longitudinal Stability of Social Competence Indicators in a Portuguese Sample: Q-Sort Profiles of Social Competence, Measures of Social Engagement, and Peer Sociometric Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, António J.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Peceguina, Inês; Daniel, João R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the temporal stability (over 3 years) of individual differences in 3 domains relevant to preschool children's social competence: social engagement/motivation, profiles of behavior and personality attributes characteristic of socially competent young children, and peer acceptance. Each domain was measured with multiple…

  1. Gene expression profiling of tolerant barley in response to Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aphids are, arguably, the single most damaging group of agricultural insect pests throughout the world. Plant resistance, specifically tolerance, is viewed as an excellent management strategy. Developing testable hypotheses based on genome-wide and more focused methods will help in understanding th...

  2. Global Expression Profiling of Low Temperature Induced Genes in the Chilling Tolerant Japonica Rice Jumli Marshi

    PubMed Central

    Chawade, Aakash; Lindlöf, Angelica; Olsson, Björn; Olsson, Olof

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature is a key factor that limits growth and productivity of many important agronomical crops worldwide. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is negatively affected already at temperatures below +10°C and is therefore denoted as chilling sensitive. However, chilling tolerant rice cultivars exist and can be commercially cultivated at altitudes up to 3,050 meters with temperatures reaching as low as +4°C. In this work, the global transcriptional response to cold stress (+4°C) was studied in the Nepalese highland variety Jumli Marshi (spp. japonica) and 4,636 genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed within 24 hours of cold stress. Comparison with previously published microarray data from one chilling tolerant and two sensitive rice cultivars identified 182 genes differentially expressed (DE) upon cold stress in all four rice cultivars and 511 genes DE only in the chilling tolerant rice. Promoter analysis of the 182 genes suggests a complex cross-talk between ABRE and CBF regulons. Promoter analysis of the 511 genes identified over-represented ABRE motifs but not DRE motifs, suggesting a role for ABA signaling in cold tolerance. Moreover, 2,101 genes were DE in Jumli Marshi alone. By chromosomal localization analysis, 473 of these cold responsive genes were located within 13 different QTLs previously identified as cold associated. PMID:24349120

  3. Metabolite Profiling Reveals Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tn5 Mutant of Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Vasvi; Bhatia, Anil; Bharti, Santosh Kumar; Mishra, Shashank Kumar; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Mishra, Aradhana; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas is an efficient plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR); however, intolerance to drought and high temperature limit its application in agriculture as a bioinoculant. Transposon 5 (Tn5) mutagenesis was used to generate a stress tolerant mutant from a PGPR Pseudomonas putida NBRI1108 isolated from chickpea rhizosphere. A mutant NBRI1108T, selected after screening of nearly 10,000 transconjugants, exhibited significant tolerance towards high temperature and drought. Southern hybridization analysis of EcoRI and XhoI restricted genomic DNA of NBRI1108T confirmed that it had a single Tn5 insertion. The metabolic changes in the polar and non-polar extracts of NBRI1108 and NBRI1108T were examined using 1H, 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirty six chemically diverse metabolites consisting of amino acids, fatty acids and phospholipids were identified and quantified. Insertion of Tn5 influenced amino acid and phospholipid metabolism and resulted in significantly higher concentration of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycinebetaine, glycerophosphatidylcholine (GPC) and putrescine in NBRI1108T as compared to that in NBRI1108. The concentration of glutamic acid, glycinebetaine and GPC increased by 34%, 95% and 100%, respectively in the NBRI1108T as compared to that in NBRI1108. High concentration of glycerophosphatidylethanolamine (GPE) and undetected GPC in NBRI1108 indicates that biosynthesis of GPE may have taken place via the methylation pathway of phospholipid biosynthesis. However, high GPC and low GPE concentration in NBRI1108T suggest that methylation pathway and phosphatidylcholine synthase (PCS) pathway of phospholipid biosynthesis are being followed in the NBRI1108T. Application of multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) on the quantified metabolites revealed clear variations in NBRI1108 and NBRI1108T in polar and non-polar metabolites. Identification of abiotic stress

  4. Evaluation of the safety and tolerability profile of Sativex: is it reassuring enough?

    PubMed

    Wade, Derick

    2012-04-01

    The adoption of new drug therapies involves an assessment of risk:benefit based upon the best clinical evidence, including clinical trials but also everyday clinical practice data collection. However, in the case of Sativex, a cannabinoid medicine containing the two main active ingredients of cannabis, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, the picture is somewhat clouded by preconceived views regarding the world's most widely used illicit drug, herbal cannabis. In this review, I aim to look beyond these preconceptions and evaluate the body of published data concerning this medicine currently approved in different countries for the management of one of the most frequent and disabling symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis, spasticity. In particular, data relevant to areas of concern such as tolerability, safety, psychoactivity, effects on withdrawal (including possible drug tolerance) and finally the potential for abuse/dependence are evaluated. Balancing these risk factors, the main positive clinical data published over the years by the Oxford Centre for Enablement, following on from the first pilot study in 2004, are presented. Based upon our experience, the benefits that are seen initially with Sativex when treating multiple sclerosis spasticity patients are generally maintained during long-term treatment. Furthermore, following withdrawal of Sativex, symptoms often return, but, beyond this, sudden cessation is generally safe with no evidence of physiological or psychological dependence. Dose escalation has not usually been observed in clinical trials or clinical practice after the first titration weeks. Adverse effects occur relatively frequently, but they are usually mild to moderate in intensity and rarely require drug discontinuation. Overall, Sativex appears to be well-tolerated and a useful addition for patients who have failed treatment with traditional antispastic agents. PMID:22509986

  5. Effects of a Follow-On Formula Containing Isomaltulose (Palatinose™) on Metabolic Response, Acceptance, Tolerance and Safety in Infants: A Randomized-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fleddermann, M.; Rauh-Pfeiffer, A.; Demmelmair, H.; Holdt, L.; Teupser, D.; Koletzko, B.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of the dietary glycaemic load on postprandial blood glucose and insulin response might be of importance for fat deposition and risk of obesity. We aimed to investigate the metabolic effects, acceptance and tolerance of a follow-on formula containing the low glycaemic and low insulinaemic carbohydrate isomaltulose replacing high glycaemic maltodextrin. Healthy term infants aged 4 to 8 completed months (n = 50) were randomized to receive the intervention follow-on formula (IF, 2.1g isomaltulose (Palatinose™)/100mL) or an isocaloric conventional formula (CF) providing 2.1g maltodextrin/100mL for four weeks. Plasma insulinaemia 60min after start of feeding (primary outcome) was not statistically different, while glycaemia adjusted for age and time for drinking/volume of meal 60min after start of feeding was 122(105,140) mg/dL in IF (median, interquartile range) and 111(100,123) in CF (p = 0.01). Urinary c-peptide:creatinine ratio did not differ (IF:81.5(44.7, 96.0) vs. CF:56.8(37.5, 129),p = 0.43). Urinary c-peptide:creatinine ratio was correlated total intake of energy (R = 0.31,p = 0.045), protein (R = 0.42,p = 0.006) and fat (R = 0.40,p = 0.01) but not with carbohydrate intake (R = 0.22,p = 0.16). Both formulae were well accepted without differences in time of crying, flatulence, stool characteristics and the occurrence of adverse events. The expected lower postprandial plasma insulin and blood glucose level due to replacement of high glycaemic maltodextrin by low glycaemic isomaltulose were not observed in the single time-point blood analysis. In infants aged 4 to 8 completed months fed a liquid formula, peak blood glucose might be reached earlier than 60min after start of feeding. Non-invasive urinary c-peptide measurements may be a suitable marker of nutritional intake during the previous four days in infants. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01627015 PMID:26987056

  6. Transcriptional Profiling in Cotton Associated with Bacillus Subtilis (UFLA285) Induced Biotic-Stress Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract Lint yield and quality in cotton is greatly affected by water-deficit stress. The principal aim of this study was to identify cotton genes associated metabolic pathways involved in the water-deficit stress response. Gene expression profiles were developed for leaf and root tissues subject...

  7. Root Transcript Profiling of Two Rorippa Species Reveals Gene Clusters Associated with Extreme Submergence Tolerance1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharan, Rashmi; Mustroph, Angelika; Boonman, Alex; Akman, Melis; Ammerlaan, Ankie M.H.; Breit, Timo; Schranz, M. Eric; Voesenek, Laurentius A.C.J.; van Tienderen, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Complete submergence represses photosynthesis and aerobic respiration, causing rapid mortality in most terrestrial plants. However, some plants have evolved traits allowing them to survive prolonged flooding, such as species of the genus Rorippa, close relatives of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We studied plant survival, changes in carbohydrate and metabolite concentrations, and transcriptome responses to submergence of two species, Rorippa sylvestris and Rorippa amphibia. We exploited the close relationship between Rorippa species and the model species Arabidopsis by using Arabidopsis GeneChip microarrays for whole-genome transcript profiling of roots of young plants exposed to a 24-h submergence treatment or air. A probe mask was used based on hybridization of genomic DNA of both species to the arrays, so that weak probe signals due to Rorippa species/Arabidopsis mismatches were removed. Furthermore, we compared Rorippa species microarray results with those obtained for roots of submerged Arabidopsis plants. Both Rorippa species could tolerate deep submergence, with R. sylvestris surviving much longer than R. amphibia. Submergence resulted in the induction of genes involved in glycolysis and fermentation and the repression of many energy-consuming pathways, similar to the low-oxygen and submergence response of Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa). The qualitative responses of both Rorippa species to submergence appeared roughly similar but differed quantitatively. Notably, glycolysis and fermentation genes and a gene encoding sucrose synthase were more strongly induced in the less tolerant R. amphibia than in R. sylvestris. A comparison with Arabidopsis microarray studies on submerged roots revealed some interesting differences and potential tolerance-related genes in Rorippa species. PMID:24077074

  8. Influence of Pre-Fermentation Treatments on Wine Volatile and Sensory Profile of the New Disease Tolerant Cultivar Solaris.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujuan; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Liu, Jing; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2015-01-01

    Solaris is a new disease tolerant cultivar increasingly cultivated in cool climate regions. In order to explore the winemaking processes' potential to make different styles of Solaris wines, the effects of different pre-fermentation treatments (direct press after crushing, whole cluster press, cold maceration, and skin fermentation) on the volatile profile, chemical, and sensory properties of Solaris wines were investigated. Cold maceration treatment for 24 h and fermentation on skin led to wines with lower acidity and higher glycerol and total polyphenol indexes. Sensory analysis showed that cold maceration enhanced "apricot" and "apple" flavor while skin fermentation gave rise to increased "rose" and "elderflower" flavor. The PLS regression model revealed that fruity flavor of cold macerated wines was related to a combination of esters while β-damascenone and linalool were correlated to the "rose" and "elderflower" flavor. This study provides information about pre-fermentation techniques that allowed the possibility of obtaining wines with different styles. PMID:26633351

  9. Physiological performance, secondary metabolite and expression profiling of genes associated with drought tolerance in Withania somnifera.

    PubMed

    Sanchita; Singh, Ruchi; Mishra, Anand; Dhawan, Sunita S; Shirke, Pramod A; Gupta, Madan M; Sharma, Ashok

    2015-11-01

    Physiological, biochemical, and gene expression responses under drought stress were studied in Withania somnifera. Photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content, chlorophyll content, and quantum yield of photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) decreased in response to drought stress. Comparative expression of genes involved in osmoregulation, detoxification, signal transduction, metabolism, and transcription factor was analyzed through quantitative RT-PCR. The genes encoding 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), serine threonine-protein kinase (STK), serine threonine protein phosphatase (PSP), aldehyde dehydrogenase (AD), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase/anthocyanin synthase (LD/AS), HSP, MYB, and WRKY have shown upregulation in response to drought stress condition in leaf tissues. Enhanced detoxification and osmoregulation along with increased withanolides production were also observed under drought stress. The results of this study will be helpful in developing stress-tolerant and high secondary metabolite yielding genotypes. PMID:25691002

  10. Progesterone promotes maternal–fetal tolerance by reducing human maternal T‐cell polyfunctionality and inducing a specific cytokine profile

    PubMed Central

    Eldershaw, Suzy A.; Inman, Charlotte F.; Coomarasamy, Aravinthan; Moss, Paul A. H.; Kilby, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Progesterone is a steroid hormone essential for the maintenance of human pregnancy, and its actions are thought to include promoting maternal immune tolerance of the semiallogenic fetus. We report that exposure of maternal T cells to progesterone at physiological doses induced a unique skewing of the cytokine production profile of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, with reductions not only in potentially deleterious IFN‐γ and TNF‐α production but also in IL‐10 and IL‐5. Conversely, production of IL‐4 was increased. Maternal T cells also became less polyfunctional, focussing cytokine production toward profiles including IL‐4. This was accompanied by reduced T‐cell proliferation. Using fetal and viral antigen‐specific CD8+ T‐cell clones, we confirmed that this as a direct, nonantigen‐specific effect. Yet human T cells lacked conventional nuclear progesterone receptors, implicating a membrane progesterone receptor. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells responded to progesterone in a dose‐dependent manner, with subtle effects at concentrations comparable to those in maternal blood, but profound effects at concentrations similar to those at the maternal–fetal interface. This characterization of how progesterone modulates T‐cell function is important in understanding the normal biology of pregnancy and informing the rational use of progesterone therapy in pregnancies at risk of fetal loss. PMID:26249148

  11. Genome-Wide Functional Profiling Reveals Genes Required for Tolerance to Benzene Metabolites in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    North, Matthew; Tandon, Vickram J.; Thomas, Reuben; Loguinov, Alex; Gerlovina, Inna; Hubbard, Alan E.; Zhang, Luoping; Smith, Martyn T.; Vulpe, Chris D.

    2011-01-01

    Benzene is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and is widely used in industry. Exposure to benzene causes a number of serious health problems, including blood disorders and leukemia. Benzene undergoes complex metabolism in humans, making mechanistic determination of benzene toxicity difficult. We used a functional genomics approach to identify the genes that modulate the cellular toxicity of three of the phenolic metabolites of benzene, hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CAT) and 1,2,4-benzenetriol (BT), in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Benzene metabolites generate oxidative and cytoskeletal stress, and tolerance requires correct regulation of iron homeostasis and the vacuolar ATPase. We have identified a conserved bZIP transcription factor, Yap3p, as important for a HQ-specific response pathway, as well as two genes that encode putative NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductases, PST2 and YCP4. Many of the yeast genes identified have human orthologs that may modulate human benzene toxicity in a similar manner and could play a role in benzene exposure-related disease. PMID:21912624

  12. Proteome profile of salt gland-rich epidermis extracted from a salt-tolerant tree species.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Ang, Yiqian; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Lim, Tit-Meng; Kumar, Prakash; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-10-01

    Preparation of proteins from salt-gland-rich tissues of mangrove plant is necessary for a systematic study of proteins involved in the plant's unique desalination mechanism. Extraction of high-quality proteins from the leaves of mangrove tree species, however, is difficult due to the presence of high levels of endogenous phenolic compounds. In our study, preparation of proteins from only a part of the leaf tissues (i.e. salt gland-rich epidermal layers) was required, rendering extraction even more challenging. By comparing several extraction methods, we developed a reliable procedure for obtaining proteins from salt gland-rich tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. Protein extraction was markedly improved using a phenol-based extraction method. Greater resolution 1D protein gel profiles could be obtained. More promising proteome profiles could be obtained through 1D-LC-MS/MS. The number of proteins detected was twice as much as compared to TUTS extraction method. Focusing on proteins that were solely present in each extraction method, phenol-based extracts contained nearly ten times more proteins than those in the extracts without using phenol. The approach could thus be applied for downstream high-throughput proteomic analyses involving LC-MS/MS or equivalent. The proteomics data presented herein are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001691. PMID:26105009

  13. The affective profiles, psychological well-being, and harmony: environmental mastery and self-acceptance predict the sense of a harmonious life

    PubMed Central

    Al Nima, Ali; Kjell, Oscar N.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background. An important outcome from the debate on whether wellness equals happiness, is the need of research focusing on how psychological well-being might influence humans’ ability to adapt to the changing environment and live in harmony. To get a detailed picture of the influence of positive and negative affect, the current study employed the affective profiles model in which individuals are categorised into groups based on either high positive and low negative affect (self-fulfilling); high positive and high negative affect (high affective); low positive and low negative affect (low affective); and high negative and low positive affect (self-destructive). The aims were to (1) investigate differences between affective profiles in psychological well-being and harmony and (2) how psychological well-being and its dimensions relate to harmony within the four affective profiles. Method. 500 participants (mean age = 34.14 years, SD. = ±12.75 years; 187 males and 313 females) were recruited online and required to answer three self-report measures: The Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule; The Scales of Psychological Well-Being (short version) and The Harmony in Life Scale. We conducted a Multivariate Analysis of Variance where the affective profiles and gender were the independent factors and psychological well-being composite score, its six dimensions as well as the harmony in life score were the dependent factors. In addition, we conducted four multi-group (i.e., the four affective profiles) moderation analyses with the psychological well-being dimensions as predictors and harmony in life as the dependent variables. Results. Individuals categorised as self-fulfilling, as compared to the other profiles, tended to score higher on the psychological well-being dimensions: positive relations, environmental mastery, self-acceptance, autonomy, personal growth, and purpose in life. In addition, 47% to 66% of the variance of the harmony in life was explained by

  14. Upgrading root physiology for stress tolerance by ectomycorrhizas: insights from metabolite and transcriptional profiling into reprogramming for stress anticipation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhi-Bin; Janz, Dennis; Jiang, Xiangning; Göbel, Cornelia; Wildhagen, Henning; Tan, Yupeng; Rennenberg, Heinz; Feussner, Ivo; Polle, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    Ectomycorrhizas (EMs) alleviate stress tolerance of host plants, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. To elucidate the basis of EM-induced physiological changes and their involvement in stress adaptation, we investigated metabolic and transcriptional profiles in EM and non-EM roots of gray poplar (Populus x canescens) in the presence and absence of osmotic stress imposed by excess salinity. Colonization with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus increased root cell volumes, a response associated with carbohydrate accumulation. The stress-related hormones abscisic acid and salicylic acid were increased, whereas jasmonic acid and auxin were decreased in EM compared with non-EM roots. Auxin-responsive reporter plants showed that auxin decreased in the vascular system. The phytohormone changes in EMs are in contrast to those in arbuscular mycorrhizas, suggesting that EMs and arbuscular mycorrhizas recruit different signaling pathways to influence plant stress responses. Transcriptome analyses on a whole genome poplar microarray revealed activation of genes related to abiotic and biotic stress responses as well as of genes involved in vesicle trafficking and suppression of auxin-related pathways. Comparative transcriptome analysis indicated EM-related genes whose transcript abundances were independent of salt stress and a set of salt stress-related genes that were common to EM non-salt-stressed and non-EM salt-stressed plants. Salt-exposed EM roots showed stronger accumulation of myoinositol, abscisic acid, and salicylic acid and higher K(+)-to-Na(+) ratio than stressed non-EM roots. In conclusion, EMs activated stress-related genes and signaling pathways, apparently leading to priming of pathways conferring abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:19812185

  15. Host responses and metabolic profiles of wood components in Dutch elm hybrids with a contrasting tolerance to Dutch elm disease

    PubMed Central

    Ďurkovič, Jaroslav; Kačík, František; Olčák, Dušan; Kučerová, Veronika; Krajňáková, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Changes occurring in the macromolecular traits of cell wall components in elm wood following attack by Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, the causative agent of Dutch elm disease (DED), are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to compare host responses and the metabolic profiles of wood components for two Dutch elm (Ulmus) hybrids, ‘Groeneveld’ (a susceptible clone) and ‘Dodoens’ (a tolerant clone), that have contrasting survival strategies upon infection with the current prevalent strain of DED. Methods Ten-year-old plants of the hybrid elms were inoculated with O. novo-ulmi ssp. americana × novo-ulmi. Measurements were made of the content of main cell wall components and extractives, lignin monomer composition, macromolecular traits of cellulose and neutral saccharide composition. Key Results Upon infection, medium molecular weight macromolecules of cellulose were degraded in both the susceptible and tolerant elm hybrids, resulting in the occurrence of secondary cell wall ruptures and cracks in the vessels, but rarely in the fibres. The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed that loss of crystalline and non-crystalline cellulose regions occurred in parallel. The rate of cellulose degradation was influenced by the syringyl:guaiacyl ratio in lignin. Both hybrids commonly responded to the medium molecular weight cellulose degradation with the biosynthesis of high molecular weight macromolecules of cellulose, resulting in a significant increase in values for the degree of polymerization and polydispersity. Other responses of the hybrids included an increase in lignin content, a decrease in relative proportions of d-glucose, and an increase in proportions of d-xylose. Differential responses between the hybrids were found in the syringyl:guaiacyl ratio in lignin. Conclusions In susceptible ‘Groeneveld’ plants, syringyl-rich lignin provided a far greater degree of protection from cellulose degradation than in ‘Dodoens’, but

  16. "Would you accept having your DNA profile inserted in the National Forensic DNA database? Why?" Results of a questionnaire applied in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Machado, Helena; Silva, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The creation and expansion of forensic DNA databases might involve potential threats to the protection of a range of human rights. At the same time, such databases have social benefits. Based on data collected through an online questionnaire applied to 628 individuals in Portugal, this paper aims to analyze the citizens' willingness to donate voluntarily a sample for profiling and inclusion in the National Forensic DNA Database and the views underpinning such a decision. Nearly one-quarter of the respondents would indicate 'no', and this negative response increased significantly with age and education. The overriding willingness to accept the inclusion of the individual genetic profile indicates an acknowledgement of the investigative potential of forensic DNA technologies and a relegation of civil liberties and human rights to the background, owing to the perceived benefits of protecting both society and the individual from crime. This rationale is mostly expressed by the idea that all citizens should contribute to the expansion of the National Forensic DNA Database for reasons that range from the more abstract assumption that donating a sample for profiling would be helpful in fighting crime to the more concrete suggestion that everyone (criminals and non-criminals) should be in the database. The concerns with the risks of accepting the donation of a sample for genetic profiling and inclusion in the National Forensic DNA Database are mostly related to lack of control and insufficient or unclear regulations concerning safeguarding individuals' data and supervising the access and uses of genetic data. By providing an empirically-grounded understanding of the attitudes regarding willingness to donate voluntary a sample for profiling and inclusion in a National Forensic DNA Database, this study also considers the citizens' perceived benefits and risks of operating forensic DNA databases. These collective views might be useful for the formation of international common

  17. Genes related to huanglongbing tolerance from transcriptome profiles of tolerant ‘Jackson’ grapefruit hybrid and susceptible ‘Marsh’ grapefruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is currently the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. In this study, we examined the expression differences between HLB-tolerant ‘Jackson’ grapefruit hybrid and susceptible ‘Marsh’ grapefruit after HLB infection using RNA-seq. A total of 686 differentially expressed (DE)...

  18. A Comparative Metabolite Profile Assessment of Dehydration Tolerance Strategies in Two Species of Sporobolus: The Desiccation Tolerant S. Stapfianus and the Desiccation Sensitive S. Pyrimidalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An understanding of plant responses to dehydration has important consequences for plant biology in general and directly for agriculture. Over 10% of arable lands are affected by drought, declining average yields for most crops by more than 50%. Thus, improving drought tolerance is a priority area fo...

  19. Comparative metabolic profiling between desiccation-sensitive and desiccation-tolerant species of Selaginella reveals insights into the resurrection trait

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spike-mosses (Selaginellaceae) represent an ancient lineage of vascular plants in which some species have evolved or revolved desiccation tolerance (DT). A sister group comparison was conducted between a desiccation-tolerant species, Selaginella lepidophylla, and a desiccation-sensitive species, S. ...

  20. Identification of differentially expressed genes between sorghum genotypes with contrasting nitrogen stress tolerance by genome-wide transcriptional profiling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sorghum is an important cereal crop, which requires large quantities of nitrogen fertilizer for achieving commercial yields. Identification of the genes responsible for low-N tolerance in sorghum will facilitate understanding of the molecular mechanisms of low-N tolerance, and also facilitate the genetic improvement of sorghum through marker-assisted selection or gene transformation. In this study we compared the transcriptomes of root tissues from seven sorghum genotypes having differential response to low-N stress. Results Illumina RNA-sequencing detected several common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between four low-N tolerant sorghum genotypes (San Chi San, China17, KS78 and high-NUE bulk) and three sensitive genotypes (CK60, BTx623 and low-NUE bulk). In sensitive genotypes, N-stress increased the abundance of DEG transcripts associated with stress responses including oxidative stress and stimuli were abundant. The tolerant genotypes adapt to N deficiency by producing greater root mass for efficient uptake of nutrients. In tolerant genotypes, higher abundance of transcripts related to high affinity nitrate transporters (NRT2.2, NRT2.3, NRT2.5, and NRT2.6) and lysine histidine transporter 1 (LHT1), may suggest an improved uptake efficiency of inorganic and organic forms of nitrogen. Higher abundance of SEC14 cytosolic factor family protein transcript in tolerant genotypes could lead to increased membrane stability and tolerance to N-stress. Conclusions Comparison of transcriptomes between N-stress tolerant and sensitive genotypes revealed several common DEG transcripts. Some of these DEGs were evaluated further by comparing the transcriptomes of genotypes grown under full N. The DEG transcripts showed higher expression in tolerant genotypes could be used for transgenic over-expression in sensitive genotypes of sorghum and related crops for increased tolerance to N-stress, which results in increased nitrogen use efficiency for sustainable

  1. Preclinical safety profile of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1): Mechanism of action of its cytotoxic component retained with improved tolerability

    SciTech Connect

    Poon, Kirsten Achilles; Flagella, Kelly; Beyer, Joseph; Tibbitts, Jay; Kaur, Surinder; Saad, Ola; Yi, Joo-Hee; Girish, Sandhya; Dybdal, Noel; Reynolds, Theresa

    2013-12-01

    Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is the first antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) approved for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. The therapeutic premise of ADCs is based on the hypothesis that targeted delivery of potent cytotoxic drugs to tumors will provide better tolerability and efficacy compared with non-targeted delivery, where poor tolerability can limit efficacious doses. Here, we present results from preclinical studies characterizing the toxicity profile of T-DM1, including limited assessment of unconjugated DM1. T-DM1 binds primate ErbB2 and human HER2 but not the rodent homolog c-neu. Therefore, antigen-dependent and non-antigen-dependent toxicity was evaluated in monkeys and rats, respectively, in both single- and repeat-dose studies; toxicity of DM1 was assessed in rats only. T-DM1 was well tolerated at doses up to 40 mg/kg (∼ 4400 μg DM1/m{sup 2}) and 30 mg/kg (∼ 6000 μg DM1/m{sup 2}) in rats and monkeys, respectively. In contrast, DM1 was only tolerated up to 0.2 mg/kg (1600 μg DM1/m{sup 2}). This suggests that at least two-fold higher doses of the cytotoxic agent are tolerated in T-DM1, supporting the premise of ADCs to improve the therapeutic index. In addition, T-DM1 and DM1 safety profiles were similar and consistent with the mechanism of action of DM1 (i.e., microtubule disruption). Findings included hepatic, bone marrow/hematologic (primarily platelet), lymphoid organ, and neuronal toxicities, and increased numbers of cells of epithelial and phagocytic origin in metaphase arrest. These adverse effects did not worsen with chronic dosing in monkeys and are consistent with those reported in T-DM1-treated patients to date. - Highlights: • T-DM1 was well tolerated in preclinical studies in rats and cynomolgus monkeys. • T-DM1 is associated with bone marrow/hematologic, hepatic, and neuronal toxicities. • T-DM1 toxicities are related to DM1 mechanisms of action and pharmacologic

  2. Superior Glucose Tolerance and Metabolomic Profiles, Independent of Adiposity, in HIV-Infected Women Compared With Men on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Koethe, John R; Jenkins, Cathy A; Petucci, Christopher; Culver, Jeffrey; Shepherd, Bryan E; Sterling, Timothy R

    2016-05-01

    significantly differ according to HIV-status.HIV-infected women on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based ART had superior glucose tolerance and lower plasma metabolites associated with the development of diabetes compared with men with similar metabolic disease risk profiles. The relationship between sex and plasma metabolite levels did not significantly differ according to HIV-status among obese subjects, suggesting the observed sex-differences may not be specific to HIV infection. PMID:27175676

  3. Superior Glucose Tolerance and Metabolomic Profiles, Independent of Adiposity, in HIV-Infected Women Compared With Men on Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Koethe, John R.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Petucci, Christopher; Culver, Jeffrey; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Sterling, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    levels did not significantly differ according to HIV-status. HIV-infected women on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based ART had superior glucose tolerance and lower plasma metabolites associated with the development of diabetes compared with men with similar metabolic disease risk profiles. The relationship between sex and plasma metabolite levels did not significantly differ according to HIV-status among obese subjects, suggesting the observed sex-differences may not be specific to HIV infection. PMID:27175676

  4. Long-Term Boron-Excess-Induced Alterations of Gene Profiles in Roots of Two Citrus Species Differing in Boron-Tolerance Revealed by cDNA-AFLP

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Peng; Qi, Yi-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Ye, Xin; Huang, Jing-Hao; Chen, Li-Song

    2016-01-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is observed in some citrus orchards in China. However, limited data are available on the molecular mechanisms of citrus B-toxicity and B-tolerance. Using cDNA-AFLP, we identified 20 up- and 52 down-regulated genes, and 44 up- and 66 down-regulated genes from excess B-treated Citrus sinensis and Citrus grandis roots, respectively, thereby demonstrating that gene expression profiles were more affected in the latter. In addition, phosphorus and total soluble protein concentrations were lowered only in excess B-treated C. grandis roots. Apparently, C. sinensis had higher B-tolerance than C. grandis. Our results suggested that the following several aspects were responsible for the difference in the B-tolerance between the two citrus species including: (a) B-excess induced Root Hair Defective 3 expression in C. sinensis roots, and repressed villin4 expression in C. grandis roots; accordingly, root growth was less inhibited by B-excess in the former; (b) antioxidant systems were impaired in excess B-treated C. grandis roots, hence accelerating root senescence; (c) genes related to Ca2+ signals were inhibited (induced) by B-excess in C. grandis (C. sinensis) roots. B-excess-responsive genes related to energy (i.e., alternative oxidase and cytochrome P450), lipid (i.e., Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 9 and citrus dioxygenase), and nucleic acid (i.e., HDA19, histone 4, and ribonucleotide reductase RNR1 like protein) metabolisms also possibly accounted for the difference in the B-tolerance between the two citrus species. These data increased our understanding of the mechanisms on citrus B-toxicity and B-tolerance at transcriptional level. PMID:27446128

  5. Long-Term Boron-Excess-Induced Alterations of Gene Profiles in Roots of Two Citrus Species Differing in Boron-Tolerance Revealed by cDNA-AFLP.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng; Qi, Yi-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Ye, Xin; Huang, Jing-Hao; Chen, Li-Song

    2016-01-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is observed in some citrus orchards in China. However, limited data are available on the molecular mechanisms of citrus B-toxicity and B-tolerance. Using cDNA-AFLP, we identified 20 up- and 52 down-regulated genes, and 44 up- and 66 down-regulated genes from excess B-treated Citrus sinensis and Citrus grandis roots, respectively, thereby demonstrating that gene expression profiles were more affected in the latter. In addition, phosphorus and total soluble protein concentrations were lowered only in excess B-treated C. grandis roots. Apparently, C. sinensis had higher B-tolerance than C. grandis. Our results suggested that the following several aspects were responsible for the difference in the B-tolerance between the two citrus species including: (a) B-excess induced Root Hair Defective 3 expression in C. sinensis roots, and repressed villin4 expression in C. grandis roots; accordingly, root growth was less inhibited by B-excess in the former; (b) antioxidant systems were impaired in excess B-treated C. grandis roots, hence accelerating root senescence; (c) genes related to Ca(2+) signals were inhibited (induced) by B-excess in C. grandis (C. sinensis) roots. B-excess-responsive genes related to energy (i.e., alternative oxidase and cytochrome P450), lipid (i.e., Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 9 and citrus dioxygenase), and nucleic acid (i.e., HDA19, histone 4, and ribonucleotide reductase RNR1 like protein) metabolisms also possibly accounted for the difference in the B-tolerance between the two citrus species. These data increased our understanding of the mechanisms on citrus B-toxicity and B-tolerance at transcriptional level. PMID:27446128

  6. Metabolomic profiling in Selaginella lepidophylla at various hydration states provides new insights into the mechanistic basis of desiccation tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selaginella lepidophylla is one of only a few species of spike mosses (Selaginellaceae) that have evolved desiccation tolerance (DT) or the ability to ‘resurrect’ from an air-dried state. In order to understand the metabolic basis of DT, S. lepidophylla was subjected to a five-stage, rehydration/de...

  7. Comprehensive transcript profiling of two grapevine rootstock genotypes contrasting in drought susceptibility links the phenylpropanoid pathway to enhanced tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Maza, Elie; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Pitacco, Andrea; Telatin, Andrea; D’Angelo, Michela; Feltrin, Erika; Negri, Alfredo Simone; Prinsi, Bhakti; Valle, Giorgio; Ramina, Angelo; Bouzayen, Mondher; Bonghi, Claudio; Lucchin, Margherita

    2015-01-01

    In light of ongoing climate changes in wine-growing regions, the selection of drought-tolerant rootstocks is becoming a crucial factor for developing a sustainable viticulture. In this study, M4, a new rootstock genotype that shows tolerance to drought, was compared from a genomic and transcriptomic point of view with the less drought-tolerant genotype 101.14. The root and leaf transcriptome of both 101.14 and the M4 rootstock genotype was analysed, following exposure to progressive drought conditions. Multifactorial analyses indicated that stress treatment represents the main factor driving differential gene expression in roots, whereas in leaves the genotype is the prominent factor. Upon stress, M4 roots and leaves showed a higher induction of resveratrol and flavonoid biosynthetic genes, respectively. The higher expression of VvSTS genes in M4, confirmed by the accumulation of higher levels of resveratrol in M4 roots compared with 101.14, was coupled to an up-regulation of several VvWRKY transcription factors. Interestingly, VvSTS promoter analyses performed on both the resequenced genomes highlighted a significantly higher number of W-BOX elements in the tolerant genotype. It is proposed that the elevated synthesis of resveratrol in M4 roots upon water stress could enhance the plant’s ability to cope with the oxidative stress usually associated with water deficit. PMID:26038306

  8. Development of a beef flavor lexicon and its application to compare the flavor profile and consumer acceptance of rib steaks from grass- or grain-fed cattle.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Curtis; Tansawat, Rossarin; Cornforth, Daren; Ward, Robert; Martini, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    Ten panelists were selected from the local community to develop a meat lexicon composed of 18 terms that describe flavor attributes found in red meats. This flavor lexicon was used to compare the flavor profile of meat from beef cattle finished on grass or grain. Steaks from grass-fed animals were significantly (P<0.05) higher in barny, bitter, gamey, and grassy flavor, and lower in juicy and umami notes. Gamey, barny, bitter and grassy were some of the attributes inversely correlated to the degree of liking of the meat and therefore can be classified as "negative" attributes. Brothy, umami, roast beef, juicy, browned, fatty and salty are some of the attributes positively correlated to the degree of liking of beef and therefore can be identified as attributes that drive consumers' acceptance. Steaks from grass-fed cattle were rated by consumers as slightly liked (6.08 on a 9-point scale), while steaks from grain-fed animals were rated as moderately liked (7.05 on a 9-point scale). PMID:21703775

  9. Longitudinal stability of social competence indicators in a Portuguese sample: Q-sort profiles of social competence, measures of social engagement, and peer sociometric acceptance.

    PubMed

    Santos, António J; Vaughn, Brian E; Peceguina, Inês; Daniel, João R

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the temporal stability (over 3 years) of individual differences in 3 domains relevant to preschool children's social competence: social engagement/motivation, profiles of behavior and personality attributes characteristic of socially competent young children, and peer acceptance. Each domain was measured with multiple indicators. Sociometric status categories (Asher & Dodge, 1986) and reciprocated friendships were derived from sociometric data. Composites for social competence domains were significantly associated across all time points. Within age-periods, social competence domains were associated with both sociometric and friendship status categories; however, neither sociometric status nor reciprocated friendships were stable over time. Nevertheless, analyses examining the social competence antecedents to reciprocated friendship at age-4 and age-5 suggested that more socially competent children in the prior year were more likely to have a reciprocated friendship in the current year. Popular and rejected sociometric status categories were also associated with social competence indicators in prior years, but this was most clearly seen at age-5. PMID:24015691

  10. Intolerant tolerance.

    PubMed

    Khushf, G

    1994-04-01

    The Hyde Amendment and Roman Catholic attempts to put restrictions on Title X funding have been criticized for being intolerant. However, such criticism fails to appreciate that there are two competing notions of tolerance, one focusing on the limits of state force and accepting pluralism as unavoidable, and the other focusing on the limits of knowledge and advancing pluralism as a good. These two types of tolerance, illustrated in the writings of John Locke and J.S. Mill, each involve an intolerance. In a pluralistic context where the free exercise of religion is respected, John Locke's account of tolerance is preferable. However, it (in a reconstructed form) leads to a minimal state. Positive entitlements to benefits like artificial contraception or nontherapeutic abortions can legitimately be resisted, because an intolerance has already been shown with respect to those that consider the benefit immoral, since their resources have been coopted by taxation to advance an end that is contrary to their own. There is a sliding scale from tolerance (viewed as forbearance) to the affirmation of communal integrity, and this scale maps on to the continuum from negative to positive rights. PMID:8051515

  11. LEA polypeptide profiling of recalcitrant and orthodox legume seeds reveals ABI3-regulated LEA protein abundance linked to desiccation tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Hundertmark, Michaela; Buitink, Julia

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to orthodox seeds that acquire desiccation tolerance during maturation, recalcitrant seeds are unable to survive drying. These desiccation-sensitive seeds constitute an interesting model for comparative analysis with phylogenetically close species that are desiccation tolerant. Considering the importance of LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins as protective molecules both in drought and in desiccation tolerance, the heat-stable proteome was characterized in cotyledons of the legume Castanospermum australe and it was compared with that of the orthodox model legume Medicago truncatula. RNA sequencing identified transcripts of 16 homologues out of 17 LEA genes for which polypeptides are detected in M. truncatula seeds. It is shown that for 12 LEA genes, polypeptides were either absent or strongly reduced in C. australe cotyledons compared with M. truncatula seeds. Instead, osmotically responsive, non-seed-specific dehydrins accumulated to high levels in the recalcitrant cotyledons compared with orthodox seeds. Next, M. truncatula mutants of the ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) gene were characterized. Mature Mtabi3 seeds were found to be desiccation sensitive when dried below a critical water content of 0.4g H2O g DW–1. Characterization of the LEA proteome of the Mtabi3 seeds revealed a subset of LEA proteins with severely reduced abundance that were also found to be reduced or absent in C. australe cotyledons. Transcripts of these genes were indeed shown to be ABI3 responsive. The results highlight those LEA proteins that are critical to desiccation tolerance and suggest that comparable regulatory pathways responsible for their accumulation are missing in both desiccation-sensitive genotypes, revealing new insights into the mechanistic basis of the recalcitrant trait in seeds. PMID:24043848

  12. Halopriming mediated salt and iso-osmotic PEG stress tolerance and, gene expression profiling in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).

    PubMed

    Patade, Vikas Yadav; Bhargava, Sujata; Suprasanna, Penna

    2012-10-01

    Seed priming is a well known pre-germination strategy that improves seed performance. However, biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying priming mediated stress tolerance are little understood. Here, we report results of the study on growth, physiological characteristics and expression of stress responsive genes in salt primed sugarcane cv. Co 86032 plants in response to salt (NaCl, 150 mM) or iso-osmotic (-0.7 MPa) polyethylene glycol-PEG 8000 (20 % w/v) stress exposure for 15 days. Variable growth, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidant capacity was revealed among the primed and non-primed plants. The primed plants showed better tolerance to the salt or PEG stress, as revealed by better growth and lower membrane damage, through better antioxidant capacity as compared to the respective non-primed controls. Further, steady state transcript expression analysis revealed up regulation of sodium proton antiporter (NHX) while, down regulation of sucrose transporter (SUT1), delta ( 1 )-pyrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) and proline dehydrogenase (PDH) in primed plants on exposure to the stress as compared to the non-primed plants. Transcript abundance of catalase (CAT2) decreased by about 25 % in leaves of non-primed stressed plants, however, the expression was maintained in leaves of the stressed primed plants to that of non-stressed controls. Thus, the results indicated priming mediated salt and PEG stress tolerance through altered gene expression leading to improved antioxidant capacity in sugarcane. PMID:22740137

  13. Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Profiles seven Black, Native American, and Chicano artists and art teachers: Hale A. Woodruff, Allan Houser, Luis Jimenez, Betrand D. Phillips, James E. Pate, I, and Fernando Navarro. This article is part of a theme issue on multicultural art. (SJL)

  14. A fixed-dose combination tablet of gemigliptin and metformin sustained release has comparable pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and tolerability profiles to separate tablets in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-In; Lee, Howard; Oh, Jaeseong; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Jang, In-Jin; Kim, Jeong-Ae; Jung, Jong Hyuk; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Background In type 2 diabetes mellitus, fixed-dose combination (FDC) can provide the complementary benefits of correction of multiple pathophysiologic defects such as dysfunctions in glycemic or metabolic control while improving compliance compared with separate tablets taken together. The objective of the study reported here was to compare the pharmacodynamic (PD), pharmacokinetic (PK), and tolerability profiles of gemigliptin and extended-release metformin (metformin XR) between FDC and separate tablets. Methods A randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-way, two-period, crossover study was conducted in 28 healthy male volunteers. Two FDC tablets of gemigliptin/metformin 25/500 mg or separate tablets of gemigliptin (50 mg ×1) and metformin XR (500 mg ×2) were orally administered in each period. Serial blood samples were collected up to 48 hours post-dose to determine dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) activity using spectrophotometric assay and concentrations of gemigliptin and metformin using tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean ratios (GMRs) of FDC to separate tablet formulations and their 90% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to compare the PD and PK parameters between the two formulations. Tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Results The plasma DPP-4 activity–time curves of the FDC and the separate tablets almost overlapped, leading to a GMR (90% CI) of the FDC to separate tablets for the plasma DPP-4 activity and its maximum inhibition of 1.00 (0.97–1.04) and 0.92 (0.82–1.05), respectively. Likewise, all of the GMRs (90% CIs) of FDC to separate tablets for the area under the plasma concentration–time curve and maximum plasma concentration of gemigliptin and metformin fell entirely within the conventional bioequivalence range of 0.80–1.25. Both the FDC and separate tablets were well tolerated. Conclusion The PD, PK, and tolerability profiles of gemigliptin and metformin XR in FDC and separate tablets were found to be comparable

  15. Tolerability and patient compliance.

    PubMed

    Roose, S P

    1999-01-01

    Currently available antidepressants interact with several types of receptors, which may explain both wanted and unwanted effects of these drugs. These effects are different and distinctive, and knowledge about them may help clinicians understand differences between compounds in terms of their tolerability profiles. Given roughly comparable efficacy, tolerability profile is the critical determinant in selecting an antidepressant medication for a particular patient. In addition, tolerability is inseparably linked to patient compliance, both in acute and long-term treatment, and ultimately to overall success of treatment. Refinement in pharmacologic profiles of all newly introduced antidepressants resulted in overall advantages in tolerability in comparison with older tricyclic compounds. However, differences in receptor interactions between antidepressants are directly reflected in tolerability (adverse event) profiles. Among new antidepressants, mirtazapine and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors share favorable overall tolerability and safety, especially with respect to low premature termination rates because of adverse events, cardiac safety, and safety in overdose. However, the different pharmacologic profile of mirtazapine is reflected in its different tolerability profile. Because of interactions with the histamine (H1) receptor, mirtazapine may be related to transient initial somnolence and weight gain in some patients. Its serotonin-2 (5-HT2)-blocking properties may account for lack of sexual dysfunction, insomnia, nervousness, and agitation. Mirtazapine's 5-HT3-blocking properties are unique among all currently available antidepressants and may account for lack of gastrointestinal adverse events. PMID:10446736

  16. Modulating the Gut Microbiota Improves Glucose Tolerance, Lipoprotein Profile and Atherosclerotic Plaque Development in ApoE-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Rune, Ida; Rolin, Bidda; Larsen, Christian; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Kanter, Jenny E; Bornfeldt, Karin E; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Buschard, Karsten; Kirk, Rikke Kaae; Christoffersen, Berit; Fels, Johannes Josef; Josefsen, Knud; Kihl, Pernille; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the gut microbiota (GM) in disease development has recently received increased attention, and numerous approaches have been made to better understand this important interplay. For example, metabolites derived from the GM have been shown to promote atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to increase CVD risk factors. Popular interest in the role of the intestine in a variety of disease states has now resulted in a significant proportion of individuals without coeliac disease switching to gluten-free diets. The effect of gluten-free diets on atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors is largely unknown. We therefore investigated the effect of a gluten-free high-fat cholesterol-rich diet, as compared to the same diet in which the gluten peptide gliadin had been added back, on atherosclerosis and several cardiovascular risk factors in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice. The gluten-free diet transiently altered GM composition in these mice, as compared to the gliadin-supplemented diet, but did not alter body weights, glucose tolerance, insulin levels, plasma lipids, or atherosclerosis. In parallel, other Apoe-/- mice fed the same diets were treated with ampicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic known to affect GM composition. Ampicillin-treatment had a marked and sustained effect on GM composition, as expected. Furthermore, although ampicillin-treated mice were slightly heavier than controls, ampicillin-treatment transiently improved glucose tolerance both in the absence or presence of gliadin, reduced plasma LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels, and reduced aortic atherosclerotic lesion area. These results demonstrate that a gluten-free diet does not seem to have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis or several CVD risk factors in this mouse model, but that sustained alteration of GM composition with a broad-spectrum antibiotic has beneficial effects on CVD risk factors and atherosclerosis. These findings

  17. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats. Methods Late stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ), respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i. p. injections of chicory extract (125 mg/kg body weight, for 28 days). Body weight and fasting blood sugar (FBS) were measured weekly. Blood was analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and sera for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), nitric oxide (NO), triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), total protein, and insulin on days 10 and 28 after treatment. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) along with insulin determination was performed on a different set of rats in which the chicory-treated groups received the extract for 10 days. Results During 4 weeks of treatment, chicory prevented body-weight loss and decreased FBS. ALT activities and levels of TG, TC and HbA1c decreased, and concentration of NO increased in the chicory treated groups (p < 0.05). Unlike late-stage diabetes, fasting serum insulin concentrations were higher and GTT pattern approximated to normal in chicory-treated early-stage diabetic rats. Conclusions Chicory appeared to have short-term (about 2 hours, as far as GTT is concerned) and long-term (28 days, in this study) effects on diabetes. Chicory may be useful as a natural dietary supplement for slowing down the pace of diabetes progress, and delaying the development of its complications. PMID:23352214

  18. Modulating the Gut Microbiota Improves Glucose Tolerance, Lipoprotein Profile and Atherosclerotic Plaque Development in ApoE-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rune, Ida; Rolin, Bidda; Larsen, Christian; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Kanter, Jenny E.; Bornfeldt, Karin E.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Buschard, Karsten; Kirk, Rikke Kaae; Christoffersen, Berit; Fels, Johannes Josef; Josefsen, Knud; Kihl, Pernille; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the gut microbiota (GM) in disease development has recently received increased attention, and numerous approaches have been made to better understand this important interplay. For example, metabolites derived from the GM have been shown to promote atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to increase CVD risk factors. Popular interest in the role of the intestine in a variety of disease states has now resulted in a significant proportion of individuals without coeliac disease switching to gluten-free diets. The effect of gluten-free diets on atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors is largely unknown. We therefore investigated the effect of a gluten-free high-fat cholesterol-rich diet, as compared to the same diet in which the gluten peptide gliadin had been added back, on atherosclerosis and several cardiovascular risk factors in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice. The gluten-free diet transiently altered GM composition in these mice, as compared to the gliadin-supplemented diet, but did not alter body weights, glucose tolerance, insulin levels, plasma lipids, or atherosclerosis. In parallel, other Apoe-/- mice fed the same diets were treated with ampicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic known to affect GM composition. Ampicillin-treatment had a marked and sustained effect on GM composition, as expected. Furthermore, although ampicillin-treated mice were slightly heavier than controls, ampicillin-treatment transiently improved glucose tolerance both in the absence or presence of gliadin, reduced plasma LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels, and reduced aortic atherosclerotic lesion area. These results demonstrate that a gluten-free diet does not seem to have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis or several CVD risk factors in this mouse model, but that sustained alteration of GM composition with a broad-spectrum antibiotic has beneficial effects on CVD risk factors and atherosclerosis. These findings

  19. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  20. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  1. Tolerating Zero Tolerance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Brian N.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of zero tolerance dates back to the mid-1990s when New Jersey was creating laws to address nuisance crimes in communities. The main goal of these neighborhood crime policies was to have zero tolerance for petty crime such as graffiti or littering so as to keep more serious crimes from occurring. Next came the war on drugs. In federal…

  2. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars—“Dubai bean” and “Ningjiang-3”, which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively—were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic

  3. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic engineering, and

  4. (E)-Propyl α-Cyano-4-Hydroxyl Cinnamylate: A High Sensitive and Salt Tolerant Matrix for Intact Protein Profiling by MALDI Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng; Xiao, Zhaohui; Xiao, Chunsheng; Wang, Huixin; Wang, Bing; Li, Ying; Chen, Xuesi; Guo, Xinhua

    2016-04-01

    Low-abundance samples and salt interference are always of great challenges for the practical protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Herein, a series of carboxyl-esterified derivatives of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) were synthesized and evaluated as matrices for MALDI-MS analysis of protein. Among them, (E)-propyl α-cyano-4-hydroxyl cinnamylate (CHCA-C3) was found to exhibit excellent assay performance for intact proteins by improving the detection sensitivity 10 folds compared with the traditional matrices [i.e., super2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (superDHB), sinapic acid (SA), and CHCA]. In addition, CHCA-C3 was shown to have high tolerance to salts, the ion signal of myoglobin was readily detected even in the presence of urea (8 M), NH4HCO3 (2 M), and KH2PO4 (500 mM), meanwhile sample washability was robust. These achievements were mainly attributed to improved ablation ability and increased hydrophobicity or affinity of CHCA-C3 to proteins in comparison with hydrophilic matrixes, leading to more efficient ionization of analyte. Furthermore, direct analysis of proteins from crude egg white demonstrated that CHCA-C3 was a highly efficient matrix for the analysis of low-abundance proteins in complex biological samples. These outstanding performances indicate the tremendous potential use of CHCA-C3 in protein profiling by MALDI-MS.

  5. Transcriptome Profiling and Physiological Studies Reveal a Major Role for Aromatic Amino Acids in Mercury Stress Tolerance in Rice Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Ngoc Nam; Huang, Li-Yao; Chen, Ying-Chih; Cheng, Kai-Teng; Huang, Tsai-Lien; Lin, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a serious environmental pollution threat to the planet. The accumulation of Hg in plants disrupts many cellular-level functions and inhibits growth and development, but the mechanism is not fully understood. To gain more insight into the cellular response to Hg, we performed a large-scale analysis of the rice transcriptome during Hg stress. Genes induced with short-term exposure represented functional categories of cell-wall formation, chemical detoxification, secondary metabolism, signal transduction and abiotic stress response. Moreover, Hg stress upregulated several genes involved in aromatic amino acids (Phe and Trp) and increased the level of free Phe and Trp content. Exogenous application of Phe and Trp to rice roots enhanced tolerance to Hg and effectively reduced Hg-induced production of reactive oxygen species. Hg induced calcium accumulation and activated mitogen-activated protein kinase. Further characterization of the Hg-responsive genes we identified may be helpful for better understanding the mechanisms of Hg in plants. PMID:24840062

  6. Identification of Biochemical Pathways Associated with Lead Tolerance and Detoxification in Chrysopogon zizanioides L. Nash (Vetiver) by Metabolic Profiling.

    PubMed

    Pidatala, Venkataramana R; Li, Kefeng; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Ramakrishna, Wusirika; Datta, Rupali

    2016-03-01

    Lead (Pb) is a major urban pollutant, due to deteriorating lead-based paint in houses built before 1978. Phytoremediation is an inexpensive and effective technique for remediation of Pb-contaminated homes. Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides), a noninvasive, fast-growing grass with high biomass, can tolerate and accumulate large quantities of Pb in its tissues. Lead is known to induce phytochelatins and antioxidative enzymes in vetiver; however, the overall impact of Pb stress on metabolic pathways of vetiver is unknown. In the current study, vetiver plants were treated with different concentrations of Pb in a hydroponic setup. Metabolites were extracted and analyzed using LC/MS/MS. Multivariate analysis of metabolites in both root and shoot tissue showed tremendous induction in key metabolic pathways including sugar metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and an increase in production of osmoprotectants, such as betaine and polyols, and metal-chelating organic acids. The data obtained provide a comprehensive insight into the overall stress response mechanisms in vetiver. PMID:26843403

  7. Transcriptome Profiling of Selectively Bred Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas Families that Differ in Tolerance of Heat Shock

    PubMed Central

    Bayne, Christopher J.; Camara, Mark D.; Cunningham, Charles; Jenny, Matthew J.; Langdon, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Sessile inhabitants of marine intertidal environments commonly face heat stress, an important component of summer mortality syndrome in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Marker-aided selection programs would be useful for developing oyster strains that resist summer mortality; however, there is currently a need to identify candidate genes associated with stress tolerance and to develop molecular markers associated with those genes. To identify candidate genes for further study, we used cDNA microarrays to test the hypothesis that oyster families that had high (>64%) or low (<29%) survival of heat shock (43°C, 1 h) differ in their transcriptional responses to stress. Based upon data generated by the microarray and by real-time quantitative PCR, we found that transcription after heat shock increased for genes putatively encoding heat shock proteins and genes for proteins that synthesize lipids, protect against bacterial infection, and regulate spawning, whereas transcription decreased for genes for proteins that mobilize lipids and detoxify reactive oxygen species. RNAs putatively identified as heat shock protein 27, collagen, peroxinectin, S-crystallin, and two genes with no match in Genbank had higher transcript concentrations in low-surviving families than in high-surviving families, whereas concentration of putative cystatin B mRNA was greater in high-surviving families. These ESTs should be studied further for use in marker-aided selection programs. Low survival of heat shock could result from a complex interaction of cell damage, opportunistic infection, and metabolic exhaustion. PMID:19205802

  8. Transcriptome profiling and physiological studies reveal a major role for aromatic amino acids in mercury stress tolerance in rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-An; Chi, Wen-Chang; Trinh, Ngoc Nam; Huang, Li-Yao; Chen, Ying-Chih; Cheng, Kai-Teng; Huang, Tsai-Lien; Lin, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a serious environmental pollution threat to the planet. The accumulation of Hg in plants disrupts many cellular-level functions and inhibits growth and development, but the mechanism is not fully understood. To gain more insight into the cellular response to Hg, we performed a large-scale analysis of the rice transcriptome during Hg stress. Genes induced with short-term exposure represented functional categories of cell-wall formation, chemical detoxification, secondary metabolism, signal transduction and abiotic stress response. Moreover, Hg stress upregulated several genes involved in aromatic amino acids (Phe and Trp) and increased the level of free Phe and Trp content. Exogenous application of Phe and Trp to rice roots enhanced tolerance to Hg and effectively reduced Hg-induced production of reactive oxygen species. Hg induced calcium accumulation and activated mitogen-activated protein kinase. Further characterization of the Hg-responsive genes we identified may be helpful for better understanding the mechanisms of Hg in plants. PMID:24840062

  9. Racial Profiling and Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: How Zero Tolerance Policies and High Stakes Testing Subvert Academic Excellence and Racial Equity. Research Report [and] Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tammy; Boyden, Jennifer Emiko; Pittz, William J.

    This report analyzes current public education policies, procedures, and practices that compound racial inequities by profiling students of color. Such practices divert resources away from proven solutions that advance academic excellence. Bias in high-stakes testing serves to increase student achievement gaps. Zero-tolerance and maximum-security…

  10. Purification and photobiochemical profile of photosystem 1 from a high-salt tolerant, oleaginous Chlorella (Trebouxiophycaea, Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    McConnell, Michael D; Lowry, David; Rowan, Troy N; van Dijk, Karin; Redding, Kevin E

    2015-06-01

    The eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been studied extensively within the biofuel industry as a model organism, as researchers look towards algae to provide chemical feedstocks (i.e., lipids) for the production of liquid transportation fuels. C. reinhardtii, however, is unsuitable for high-level production of such precursors due to its relatively poor lipid accumulation and fresh-water demand. In this study we offer insight into the primary light harvesting and electron transfer reactions that occur during phototropic growth in a high-salt tolerant strain of Chlorella (a novel strain introduced here as NE1401), a single-celled eukaryotic algae also in the phylum Chlorophyta. Under nutrient starvation many eukaryotic algae increase dramatically the amount of lipids stored in lipid bodies within their cell interiors. Microscopy and lipid analyses indicate that Chlorella sp. NE1401 may become a superior candidate for algal biofuels production. We have purified highly active Photosystem 1 (PS1) complexes to study in vitro, so that we may understand further the photobiochemisty of this promising biofuel producer and how its characteristics compare and contrast with that of the better understood C. reinhardtii. Our findings suggest that the PS1 complex from Chlorella sp. NE1401 demonstrates similar characteristics to that of C. reinhardtii with respect to light-harvesting and electron transfer reactions. We also illustrate that the relative extent of the light state transition performed by Chlorella sp. NE1401 is smaller compared to C. reinhardtii, although they are triggered by the same dynamic light stresses. PMID:25600216

  11. Profile of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly long-acting injectable in the management of schizophrenia: long-term safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability – a review

    PubMed Central

    González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Catalán, Rosa; Penadés, Rafael; Garcia-Rizo, Clemente; Bioque, Miquel; Parellada, Eduard; Bernardo, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Short-term studies focused on once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP) at doses of 25 mg eq, 50 mg eq, 75 mg eq, 100 mg eq, or 150 mg eq have shown its efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of schizophrenia patients. However, few open-label and long-term studies are available regarding this new pharmacological formulation. Thus, our main aim was to review the scientific evidence on efficacy, safety, tolerability, and preference of PP in these populations. Method Electronic searches were conducted by using PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. All relevant studies published from 2009 until January 2015 were included without any language restriction if patients met diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, and adequate information on efficacy, safety, and tolerability of once-monthly PP was available. Results Nineteen studies were identified irrespective of the study design and duration of the follow-up period. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials found that schizophrenia patients receiving PP showed a significant improvement in psychotic symptoms and similar adverse events compared to placebo and suggested that all doses of PP were efficacious and well tolerated. Other studies demonstrated noninferiority of PP compared to risperidone long-acting injectable in recently diagnosed schizophrenia patients, chronically ill patients, as well as in acute and nonacute symptomatic schizophrenia patients, and a similar proportion of treatment-emergent adverse events between both groups were also noted. Conclusion Several studies have demonstrated that schizophrenia patients treated with PP show higher rates of improvement of psychotic symptoms compared to placebo, and similar efficacy and tolerability outcomes were noted when comparing PP to risperidone long-acting injectable or oral, paliperidone extended release. PMID:26082620

  12. NMR-metabolomics profiling of mammary gland secretory tissue and milk serum in two goat breeds with different levels of tolerance to seasonal weight loss.

    PubMed

    Palma, Mariana; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Castro, Noemí; Arguëllo, Anastasio; Capote, Juan; Matzapetakis, Manolis; de Almeida, André Martinho

    2016-06-21

    Goats are of special importance in the Mediterranean and tropical regions for producing a variety of dairy products. The scarcity of pastures during the dry season leads to seasonal weight loss (SWL), which affects milk production. In this work, we studied the effect of feed-restriction on two dairy goat breeds, with different tolerance levels to SWL: the Majorera breed (tolerant) and the Palmera breed (susceptible). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to compare the metabolome of an aqueous fraction of the mammary gland and milk serum from both breeds. Goats in mid-lactation were divided by breed, and each in two feed-regime groups: the control group and the restricted-fed group (to achieve 15-20% reduction of body weight at the end of the experiment). Milk and mammary gland samples were collected at the end of the experimental period (23rd day). (1)H NMR spectra were collected from the aqueous extract of the mammary gland biopsies and the milk serum. Profiling analysis has led to the identification of 46 metabolites in the aqueous extract of the mammary gland. Lactose, glutamate, glycine and lactate were found to be the most abundant. Analysis of milk serum allowed the identification of 50 metabolites, the most abundant being lactose, citrate and creatine. Significant differences were observed, in mammary gland biopsies and milk serum, between control and restricted-fed groups in both breeds, albeit with no differences between the breeds. Variations seem to be related to metabolism adaptation to the low-energy diet and are indicative of breed-specific microflora. Milk serum showed more metabolites varying between control and restricted groups, than the mammary gland. The Majorera breed also showed more variations than the Palmera breed in milk samples, which could be an indication of a prompt adaptation to SWL by the Majorera breed. PMID:27001028

  13. Upgrading Root Physiology for Stress Tolerance by Ectomycorrhizas: Insights from Metabolite and Transcriptional Profiling into Reprogramming for Stress Anticipation1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhi-Bin; Janz, Dennis; Jiang, Xiangning; Göbel, Cornelia; Wildhagen, Henning; Tan, Yupeng; Rennenberg, Heinz; Feussner, Ivo; Polle, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizas (EMs) alleviate stress tolerance of host plants, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. To elucidate the basis of EM-induced physiological changes and their involvement in stress adaptation, we investigated metabolic and transcriptional profiles in EM and non-EM roots of gray poplar (Populus × canescens) in the presence and absence of osmotic stress imposed by excess salinity. Colonization with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus increased root cell volumes, a response associated with carbohydrate accumulation. The stress-related hormones abscisic acid and salicylic acid were increased, whereas jasmonic acid and auxin were decreased in EM compared with non-EM roots. Auxin-responsive reporter plants showed that auxin decreased in the vascular system. The phytohormone changes in EMs are in contrast to those in arbuscular mycorrhizas, suggesting that EMs and arbuscular mycorrhizas recruit different signaling pathways to influence plant stress responses. Transcriptome analyses on a whole genome poplar microarray revealed activation of genes related to abiotic and biotic stress responses as well as of genes involved in vesicle trafficking and suppression of auxin-related pathways. Comparative transcriptome analysis indicated EM-related genes whose transcript abundances were independent of salt stress and a set of salt stress-related genes that were common to EM non-salt-stressed and non-EM salt-stressed plants. Salt-exposed EM roots showed stronger accumulation of myoinositol, abscisic acid, and salicylic acid and higher K+-to-Na+ ratio than stressed non-EM roots. In conclusion, EMs activated stress-related genes and signaling pathways, apparently leading to priming of pathways conferring abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:19812185

  14. Transcriptomic profiling to identify genes involved in Fusarium mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone tolerance in the mycoparasitic fungus Clonostachys rosea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clonostachys rosea strain IK726 is a mycoparasitic fungus capable of controlling mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species, including F. graminearum and F. culmorum, known to produce Zearalenone (ZEA) and Deoxynivalenol (DON). DON is a type B trichothecene known to interfere with protein synthesis in eukaryotes. ZEA is a estrogenic-mimicing mycotoxin that exhibits antifungal growth. C. rosea produces the enzyme zearalenone hydrolase (ZHD101), which degrades ZEA. However, the molecular basis of resistance to DON in C. rosea is not understood. We have exploited a genome-wide transcriptomic approach to identify genes induced by DON and ZEA in order to investigate the molecular basis of mycotoxin resistance C. rosea. Results We generated DON- and ZEA-induced cDNA libraries based on suppression subtractive hybridization. A total of 443 and 446 sequenced clones (corresponding to 58 and 65 genes) from the DON- and ZEA-induced library, respectively, were analysed. DON-induced transcripts represented genes encoding metabolic enzymes such as cytochrome P450, cytochrome c oxidase and stress response proteins. In contrast, transcripts encoding the ZEA-detoxifying enzyme ZHD101 and those encoding a number of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter transcripts were highly frequent in the ZEA-induced library. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis predicted that all transcripts with similarity to ABC transporters could be ascribed to only 2 ABC transporters genes, and phylogenetic analysis of the predicted ABC transporters suggested that they belong to group G (pleiotropic drug transporters) of the fungal ABC transporter gene family. This is the first report suggesting involvement of ABC transporters in ZEA tolerance. Expression patterns of a selected set of DON- and ZEA-induced genes were validated by the use of quantitative RT-PCR after exposure to the toxins. The qRT-PCR results obtained confirm the expression patterns suggested from the EST redundancy data. Conclusion The

  15. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  16. Tolerance Induction in Liver.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M H; Geramizadeh, B; Malek-Hosseini, S A

    2015-01-01

    Liver is an exclusive anatomical and immunological organ that displays a considerable tolerance effect. Liver allograft acceptance is shown to occur spontaneously within different species. Although in human transplant patients tolerance is rarely seen, the severity level and cellular mechanisms of transplant rejection vary. Non-paranchymal liver cells, including Kupffer cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatic stellate cells, and resident dendritic cells may participate in liver tolerogenicity. The mentioned cells secret anti-inflammatory cytokines such as TGF-β and IL-10 and express negative co-stimulatory molecules like PD-L1 to mediate immunosuppression. Other mechanisms such as microchimerism, soluble major histocompatibility complex and regulatory T cells may take part in tolerance induction. Understanding the mechanisms involved in liver transplant rejection/tolerance helps us to improve therapeutic options to induce hepatic tolerance. PMID:26082828

  17. Building America Top Innovations 2014 Profile: ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This 2014 Top Innovations profile describes Building America research and support in developing and gaining adoption of ASHRAE 62.2, a residential ventilation standard that is critical to transforming the U.S. housing industry to high-performance homes.

  18. Mechanism Analysis of Acid Tolerance Response of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum BBMN 68 by Gene Expression Profile Using RNA-Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Junhua; Zhang, Bing; Guo, Huiyuan; Cui, Jianyun; Jiang, Lu; Song, Shuhui; Sun, Min; Ren, Fazheng

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the mechanism of the acid tolerance response (ATR) in Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum BBMN68, we optimized the acid-adaptation condition to stimulate ATR effectively and analyzed the change of gene expression profile after acid-adaptation using high-throughput RNA-Seq. After acid-adaptation at pH 4.5 for 2 hours, the survival rate of BBMN68 at lethal pH 3.5 for 120 min was increased by 70 fold and the expression of 293 genes were upregulated by more than 2 fold, and 245 genes were downregulated by more than 2 fold. Gene expression profiling of ATR in BBMN68 suggested that, when the bacteria faced acid stress, the cells strengthened the integrity of cell wall and changed the permeability of membrane to keep the H+ from entering. Once the H+ entered the cytoplasm, the cells showed four main responses: First, the F0F1-ATPase system was initiated to discharge H+. Second, the ability to produce NH3 by cysteine-cystathionine-cycle was strengthened to neutralize excess H+. Third, the cells started NER-UVR and NER-VSR systems to minimize the damage to DNA and upregulated HtpX, IbpA, and γ-glutamylcysteine production to protect proteins against damage. Fourth, the cells initiated global response signals ((p)ppGpp, polyP, and Sec-SRP) to bring the whole cell into a state of response to the stress. The cells also secreted the quorum sensing signal (AI-2) to communicate between intraspecies cells by the cellular signal system, such as two-component systems, to improve the overall survival rate. Besides, the cells varied the pathways of producing energy by shifting to BCAA metabolism and enhanced the ability to utilize sugar to supply sufficient energy for the operation of the mechanism mentioned above. Based on these reults, it was inferred that, during industrial applications, the acid resistance of bifidobacteria could be improved by adding BCAA, γ-glutamylcysteine, cysteine, and cystathionine into the acid-stress environment. PMID:23236393

  19. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M

    1994-01-01

    In Bangladesh, the assistant administrator of USAID gave an acceptance speech at an awards ceremony on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of oral rehydration solution (ORS). The ceremony celebrated the key role of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) in the discovery of ORS. Its research activities over the last 25 years have brought ORS to every village in the world, preventing more than a million deaths each year. ORS is the most important medical advance of the 20th century. It is affordable and client-oriented, a true appropriate technology. USAID has provided more than US$ 40 million to ICDDR,B for diarrheal disease and measles research, urban and rural applied family planning and maternal and child health research, and vaccine development. ICDDR,B began as the relatively small Cholera Research Laboratory and has grown into an acclaimed international center for health, family planning, and population research. It leads the world in diarrheal disease research. ICDDR,B is the leading center for applied health research in South Asia. It trains public health specialists from around the world. The government of Bangladesh and the international donor community have actively joined in support of ICDDR,B. The government applies the results of ICDDR,B research to its programs to improve the health and well-being of Bangladeshis. ICDDR,B now also studies acute respiratory diseases and measles. Population and health comprise 1 of USAID's 4 strategic priorities, the others being economic growth, environment, and democracy, USAID promotes people's participation in these 4 areas and in the design and implementation of development projects. USAID is committed to the use and improvement of ORS and to complementary strategies that further reduce diarrhea-related deaths. Continued collaboration with a strong user perspective and integrated services will lead to sustainable development. PMID:12345470

  20. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, C K

    1994-01-01

    I am proud and honored to accept this award on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh, and the millions of Bangladeshi children saved by oral rehydration solution. The Government of Bangladesh is grateful for this recognition of its commitment to international health and population research and cost-effective health care for all. The Government of Bangladesh has already made remarkable strides forward in the health and population sector, and this was recognized in UNICEF's 1993 "State of the World's Children". The national contraceptive prevalence rate, at 40%, is higher than that of many developed countries. It is appropriate that Bangladesh, where ORS was discovered, has the largest ORS production capacity in the world. It was remarkable that after the devastating cyclone in 1991, the country was able to produce enough ORS to meet the needs and remain self-sufficient. Similarly, Bangladesh has one of the most effective, flexible and efficient control of diarrheal disease and epidemic response program in the world. Through the country, doctors have been trained in diarrheal disease management, and stores of ORS are maintained ready for any outbreak. Despite grim predictions after the 1991 cyclone and the 1993 floods, relatively few people died from diarrheal disease. This is indicative of the strength of the national program. I want to take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of ICDDR, B and the important role it plays in supporting the Government's efforts in the health and population sector. The partnership between the Government of Bangladesh and ICDDR, B has already borne great fruit, and I hope and believe that it will continue to do so for many years in the future. Thank you. PMID:12345479

  1. Lipid profiles of detergent resistant fractions of the plasma membrane in oat and rye in association with cold acclimation and freezing tolerance.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Imai, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Yukio; Uemura, Matsuo

    2016-04-01

    Cold acclimation (CA) results in alteration of the plasma membrane (PM) lipid composition in plants, which plays a crucial role in the acquisition of freezing tolerance via membrane stabilization. Recent studies have indicated that PM structure is consistent with the fluid mosaic model but is laterally non-homogenous and contains microdomains enriched in sterols, sphingolipids and specific proteins. In plant cells, the function of these microdomains in relation to CA and freezing tolerance is not yet fully understood. The present study aimed to investigate the lipid compositions of detergent resistant fractions of the PM (DRM) which are considered to represent microdomains. They were prepared from leaves of low-freezing tolerant oat and high-freezing tolerant rye. The DRMs contained higher proportions of sterols, sphingolipids and saturated phospholipids than the PM. In particular, one of the sterol lipid classes, acylated sterylglycoside, was the predominant sterol in oat DRM while rye DRM contained free sterol as the major sterol. Oat and rye showed different patterns (or changes) of sterols and 2-hydroxy fatty acids of sphingolipids of DRM lipids during CA. Taken together, these results suggest that CA-induced changes of lipid classes and molecular species in DRMs are associated with changes in the thermodynamic properties and physiological functions of microdomains during CA and hence, influence plant freezing tolerance. PMID:26904981

  2. Temperature profiles of ethanol tolerance: effects of ethanol on the minimum and the maximum temperatures for growth of the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces fragilis

    SciTech Connect

    Sa-Correia, I.; Van Uden, N.

    1983-06-01

    Difficulties experienced by brewers with yeast performance in the brewing of lager at low temperatures has led the authors to study the effect of ethanol on the minimum temperature for growth (T. min). It has been found that both the maximum temperature (T max) and T min were adversely affected by ethanol and that ethanol tolerance prevailed at intermediate temperatures. (Refs. 8).

  3. Exploiting Tolerance Processes in Transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, Herman; Cobbold, Stephen

    2004-07-01

    The full potential of organ transplantation has not yet been realized because of the hazards associated with the long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs. Modern research into mechanisms of immune tolerance offers the promise of reprogramming the immune system, so as to harness the body's natural tolerance mechanisms in the service of graft acceptance. This would allow the minimization of immunosuppressive treatment and offers the prospect of eventually weaning transplant recipients off their drugs.

  4. Elimination of a disulfide bridge in Aspergillus niger NRRL 3135 Phytase (PhyA) enhances heat tolerance and optimizes its temperature versus activity profile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The utilization of microbial phytases in animal feed, rich in phytate, and intended for animals with simple stomachs is now widely accepted. The commercial phytases currently available are all histidine acid phosphatases (HAP) and have been termed histidine acid phytases (HAPhy). The HAPhy enables ...

  5. The fault-tolerant multiprocessor computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, T. B., III (Editor); Lala, J. H. (Editor); Goldberg, J. (Editor); Kautz, W. H. (Editor); Melliar-Smith, P. M. (Editor); Green, M. W. (Editor); Levitt, K. N. (Editor); Schwartz, R. L. (Editor); Weinstock, C. B. (Editor); Palumbo, D. L. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The development and evaluation of fault-tolerant computer architectures and software-implemented fault tolerance (SIFT) for use in advanced NASA vehicles and potentially in flight-control systems are described in a collection of previously published reports prepared for NASA. Topics addressed include the principles of fault-tolerant multiprocessor (FTMP) operation; processor and slave regional designs; FTMP executive, facilities, acceptance-test/diagnostic, applications, and support software; FTM reliability and availability models; SIFT hardware design; and SIFT validation and verification.

  6. An open-label, in-use study assessing the warming sensation accompanying IFF Flavour 316282 and the acceptability and local tolerability of a syrup containing paracetamol and pseudoephedrine for the short-term treatment of symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Monnet, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective was to assess the warming sensation caused by IFF Flavour 316282 in a syrup used for short-term treatment by patients suffering from nasal congestion and mild to moderate body pain, headache, fever or sore throat associated with an upper respiratory tract infection. Methods: A single cohort, single treatment arm, open-label study. Subjects received one 30 mL dose of syrup containing IFF Flavour 316282, paracetamol and pseudoephedrine and recorded onset and disappearance of any warming sensation in the mouth/throat. Subjects’ assessments of strength and appeal of the sensation, taste, texture and acceptability of the product was investigated using questionnaires. Results: A total of 56 subjects were included; 53 (94.6%) experienced a warming sensation. The median duration of the warming sensation was 114 s (95% confidence interval: 87–120 s). All subjects rated the syrup as excellent, good or fair for treating their symptoms; 100% and 94.6% of subjects respectively described texture and taste as excellent, good or fair. There were no safety concerns, and the syrup was well tolerated. Most subjects liked the warming sensation. Conclusions: IFF Flavour 316282 in a syrup for treatment of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms is associated with a warming sensation. The syrup is well tolerated, safe and palatable. PMID:26770771

  7. Straining GOR tolerance determinations are a measure of G-duration not G-level tolerance.

    PubMed

    Burton, R R

    1999-03-01

    Straining gradual G onset rate (GOR) tolerances are considered by physiologists as a measure of G-level tolerance. Using recently developed G-level and G-duration mathematical models, it was found that straining GOR tolerances may well be a measure of tolerance to G-duration. G-duration tolerance was determined to be limited with the onset of fatigue and not cardiovascular insufficiency. G-level tolerances that were predicted using a mathematical model were higher than determined using straining GOR tolerance measurements of subjects on a centrifuge. Also the G-duration tolerance mathematical model showed that those centrifuge subjects had not expended all of their "energy reserve" during their sustained G exposure most probably because of the onset of fatigue. Even if they were able to use all of their potential energy reserve, their G-duration tolerance would not have allowed them to reach the maximum G-level predicted with the G-level tolerance model. It is therefore concluded that the straining GOR tolerance profile, with G onset rates of 0.1G/s, is not a measure of G-level tolerance, as has been assumed, but is a measure of G-duration tolerance. These findings have significant safety implications world-wide since this straining GOR profile is commonly used as a G-level tolerance fighter-pilot-selection determination; i.e. pilot selection standards for G-level tolerance are not a measure of G-level tolerance. In testing equipment design changes, the proper G tolerance profiles must be used to correctly measure its impact on G tolerance. PMID:11543406

  8. A multicenter, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the safety profile, tolerability, and efficacy of rofecoxib in advanced elderly patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Truitt, K E; Sperling, R S; Ettinger, W H; Greenwald, M; DeTora, L; Zeng, Q; Bolognese, J; Ehrich, E

    2001-04-01

    This 6-week study was conducted to test the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of rofecoxib (a selective COX-2 inhibitor) compared to nabumetone (a non-selective NSAID) and placebo in osteoarthritis (OA) patients aged 80 and older. Three hundred forty-one patients, mean age 83 years, were randomized. Allocations were made in an approximately 1:2:1:2 ratio (placebo: 12.5 mg rofecoxib: 25 mg rofecoxib: 1500 mg nabumetone). Least square mean changes from baseline in the primary efficacy endpoint, Patient Global Assessment of Disease Status, were as follows (with negative numbers indicating improvement): -14.85 mm for placebo; -25.34 mm for 12.5 mg rofecoxib; -25.40 mm for 25 mg of rofecoxib; and -25.95 mm for nabumetone (p<0.001 for all active treatments vs placebo.) Results from secondary endpoints, including the 3 WOMAC sub-scales (pain, stiffness, and disability) and the Investigator Global Assessment of Disease Status, were consistent with those for the primary endpoint. No significant between-group differences were observed in the proportions of patients who discontinued treatment due to either clinical or laboratory adverse experiences. Renal safety (edema and hypertension adverse experiences) was similar for rofecoxib and nabumetone. No gastroduodenal ulcers occurred; however, the demonstration of gastrointestinal risk with rofecoxib or nabumetone was beyond the scope of this trial. We conclude that in patients 80 years and older, rofecoxib, 12.5 mg and 25 mg once daily, demonstrated clinical efficacy for the treatment for OA as did 1500 mg of nabumetone. Rofecoxib and nabumetone were generally well tolerated in this elderly population. PMID:11405384

  9. Transplantation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Emma M; Game, David S; Lechler, Robert I

    2014-12-01

    Although transplantation has been a standard medical practice for decades, marked morbidity from the use of immunosuppressive drugs and poor long-term graft survival remain important limitations in the field. Since the first solid organ transplant between the Herrick twins in 1954, transplantation immunology has sought to move away from harmful, broad-spectrum immunosuppressive regimens that carry with them the long-term risk of potentially life-threatening opportunistic infections, cardiovascular disease, and malignancy, as well as graft toxicity and loss, towards tolerogenic strategies that promote long-term graft survival. Reports of "transplant tolerance" in kidney and liver allograft recipients whose immunosuppressive drugs were discontinued for medical or non-compliant reasons, together with results from experimental models of transplantation, provide the proof-of-principle that achieving tolerance in organ transplantation is fundamentally possible. However, translating the reconstitution of immune tolerance into the clinical setting is a daunting challenge fraught with the complexities of multiple interacting mechanisms overlaid on a background of variation in disease. In this article, we explore the basic science underlying mechanisms of tolerance and review the latest clinical advances in the quest for transplantation tolerance. PMID:24213880

  10. Religious Tolerance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue looks at three issues of religious tolerance. The first article examines a case recently decided by the United States Supreme Court on student-led prayers at school events. The second article explores the persecution suffered by members of the Mormon religion during the 19th century. The final article looks at Martin Luther and…

  11. Acceptance- versus Change-Based Pain Management: The Role of Psychological Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacker, Kara J.; Herbert, James D.; Forman, Evan M.; Kounios, John

    2012-01-01

    This study compared two theoretically opposed strategies for acute pain management: an acceptance-based and a change-based approach. These two strategies were compared in a within-subjects design using the cold pressor test as an acute pain induction method. Participants completed a baseline pain tolerance assessment followed by one of the two…

  12. Evaluation of the adverse event profile and pharmacodynamics of toceranib phosphate administered to dogs with solid tumors at doses below the maximum tolerated dose

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The receptor kinase inhibitor toceranib phosphate (Palladia) was approved for use in dogs in 2009 using a dose of 3.25 mg/kg administered every other day. Preliminary data suggests that lower doses of toeceranib may be associated with a reduced adverse event profile while maintaining sufficient drug exposure to provide biologic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the Cmax of toceranib in dogs with solid tumors receiving 2.5-2.75 mg/kg every other day and to document the adverse events associated with this dose rate. Secondary objectives included determination of plasma VEGF concentrations in treated dogs and response to therapy. Results Dogs with solid tumors were administered toceranib at an intended target dose ranging from 2.5-2.75 mg/kg every other day and plasma samples were obtained for analysis of toceranib and VEGF plasma concentrations on days 0, 7, 14 and 30 of the study at 6 and 8 hours post drug administration. Additionally, plasma samples were obtained at 0, 1, 2, 6, 8, and 12 hours from dogs on day 30 for confirmation of Cmax. Response to therapy was assessed using standard RECIST criteria and adverse events were characterized using the VCOG-CTCAE. Toceranib administered at doses between 2.4-2.9 mg/kg every other day resulted in an average 6–8 hr plasma concentration ranging from 100–120 ng/ml, well above the 40 ng/ml concentration associated with target inhibition. Plasma VEGF concentrations increased significantly over the 30 day treatment period indicating that VEGFR2 inhibition was likely achieved in the majority of dogs. The lower doses of toceranib used in this study were associated with a substantially reduced adverse event profile compared to the established label dose of 3.25 mg/kg EOD. Conclusions Doses of toceranib ranging from 2.4-2.9 mg/kg every other day provide drug exposure considered sufficient for target inhibition while resulting in an adverse event profile substantially reduced from that

  13. Molecular profiling of a case of advanced pancreatic cancer identifies an active and tolerable combination of targeted therapy with backbone chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Benny; Vanderwalde, Ari; Javadi, Nader; Feldman, Rebecca; Reddy, Sandeep Bobby

    2016-04-01

    Typical survival with common 1(st)-line regimens for pancreatic cancer range from 6-11 months. We report a case of a patient with stage IVB pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with gemcitabine and erlotinib who stopped therapy after 3 months without achieving a response due to intolerance. To decide upon additional treatment options, molecular analysis was performed on liver metastasis which revealed KRAS, FBXW7, APC, and ATM mutations, with thymidylate synthase (TS) negativity and PD-1 positivity. Based on this profile of TS negativity and ATM mutation, a combination strategy was devised consisting of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, bevacizumab and vorinostat. The patient had a near complete response to therapy with this regimen. In refractory metastatic pancreatic cancer, responses of this magnitude are rarely seen. To our knowledge, this represents the first demonstrated activity of this combination in the metastatic setting which could prompt further investigation of its use in large scale clinical trials. PMID:27034805

  14. Molecular profiling of a case of advanced pancreatic cancer identifies an active and tolerable combination of targeted therapy with backbone chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Vanderwalde, Ari; Javadi, Nader; Feldman, Rebecca; Reddy, Sandeep Bobby

    2016-01-01

    Typical survival with common 1st-line regimens for pancreatic cancer range from 6-11 months. We report a case of a patient with stage IVB pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with gemcitabine and erlotinib who stopped therapy after 3 months without achieving a response due to intolerance. To decide upon additional treatment options, molecular analysis was performed on liver metastasis which revealed KRAS, FBXW7, APC, and ATM mutations, with thymidylate synthase (TS) negativity and PD-1 positivity. Based on this profile of TS negativity and ATM mutation, a combination strategy was devised consisting of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, bevacizumab and vorinostat. The patient had a near complete response to therapy with this regimen. In refractory metastatic pancreatic cancer, responses of this magnitude are rarely seen. To our knowledge, this represents the first demonstrated activity of this combination in the metastatic setting which could prompt further investigation of its use in large scale clinical trials. PMID:27034805

  15. Social Acceptance of Wind: A Brief Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation discusses concepts and trends in social acceptance of wind energy, profiles recent research findings, and discussions mitigation strategies intended to resolve wind power social acceptance challenges as informed by published research and the experiences of individuals participating in the International Energy Agencies Working Group on Social Acceptance of Wind Energy

  16. Reconfigurable fault tolerant avionics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, M. M.; Asami, K.; Cho, Mengu

    This paper presents the design of a reconfigurable avionics system based on modern Static Random Access Memory (SRAM)-based Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) to be used in future generations of nano satellites. A major concern in satellite systems and especially nano satellites is to build robust systems with low-power consumption profiles. The system is designed to be flexible by providing the capability of reconfiguring itself based on its orbital position. As Single Event Upsets (SEU) do not have the same severity and intensity in all orbital locations, having the maximum at the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and the polar cusps, the system does not have to be fully protected all the time in its orbit. An acceptable level of protection against high-energy cosmic rays and charged particles roaming in space is provided within the majority of the orbit through software fault tolerance. Check pointing and roll back, besides control flow assertions, is used for that level of protection. In the minority part of the orbit where severe SEUs are expected to exist, a reconfiguration for the system FPGA is initiated where the processor systems are triplicated and protection through Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) with feedback is provided. This technique of reconfiguring the system as per the level of the threat expected from SEU-induced faults helps in reducing the average dynamic power consumption of the system to one-third of its maximum. This technique can be viewed as a smart protection through system reconfiguration. The system is built on the commercial version of the (XC5VLX50) Xilinx Virtex5 FPGA on bulk silicon with 324 IO. Simulations of orbit SEU rates were carried out using the SPENVIS web-based software package.

  17. A new evaluation method for +Gz tolerance with loratadine by using a near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Onozawa, Akihiko; Kikukawa, Azusa; Miyamoto, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    Background Loratadine (Claritin®), an over the counter antihistamine in U.S. and UK, is acceptable for use without adverse side effects by aircrew with mild or moderate allergic or other situations requiring an antihistamine. Although +Gz (head to foot direction) tolerance testing for aircrew with loratadine has not been documented in the published literature, it is commonly accepted that loratadine dose not effect +Gz tolerance. The purpose of this study was to offer and validate a new evaluation method for +Gz tolerance testing with loratadine by using a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Methods A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover protocol was used to administer 10 mg of loratadine or placebo in nine healthy subjects. The subjects didn't wear anti-G suit. The +Gz exposure profiles consisted of, in series, a gradual onset ran (0.1 G·sec-1) to the subject's visual end-point (peripheral light loss) or loss of consciousness (GLOC), and rapid onset run (1.0 G·sec-1) to the subject's same end-point. In this study, G-level tolerance was defined as the +Gz level at visual end-point and/or at GLOC. As a subject's G-duration tolerance, we measured the total time (seconds) during rapid onset run. Otherwise, to confirm the effect of loratadine on +Gz tolerance, we measured the cerebral NIRS variables (hemoglobin concentration changes and tissue oxygenation index) as a new quantitative method for +Gz tolerance during a centrifuge experiments. Results No significant differences were observed in +Gz tolerance (+Gz level, duration time and NIRS variables) between subjects taking loratadine and placebo. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that loratadine has no detectable effect on +Gz tolerance by using a new method with cerebral NIRS variables and the traditional method with +Gz level and duration time. This study represents the first use of a quantitative parameter such as cerebral NIRS variables to assess the effects of a drug on acceleration

  18. Acceptable Tolerances for Matching Icing Similarity Parameters in Scaling Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews past work and presents new data to evaluate how changes in similarity parameters affect ice shapes and how closely scale values of the parameters should match reference values. Experimental ice shapes presented are from tests by various researchers in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel. The parameters reviewed are the modified inertia parameter (which determines the stagnation collection efficiency), accumulation parameter, freezing fraction, Reynolds number, and Weber number. It was demonstrated that a good match of scale and reference ice shapes could sometimes be achieved even when values of the modified inertia parameter did not match precisely. Consequently, there can be some flexibility in setting scale droplet size, which is the test condition determined from the modified inertia parameter. A recommended guideline is that the modified inertia parameter be chosen so that the scale stagnation collection efficiency is within 10 percent of the reference value. The scale accumulation parameter and freezing fraction should also be within 10 percent of their reference values. The Weber number based on droplet size and water properties appears to be a more important scaling parameter than one based on model size and air properties. Scale values of both the Reynolds and Weber numbers need to be in the range of 60 to 160 percent of the corresponding reference values. The effects of variations in other similarity parameters have yet to be established.

  19. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. COCHRANE; J.V. PARKER; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  20. Acceptance, values, and probability.

    PubMed

    Steel, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This essay makes a case for regarding personal probabilities used in Bayesian analyses of confirmation as objects of acceptance and rejection. That in turn entails that personal probabilities are subject to the argument from inductive risk, which aims to show non-epistemic values can legitimately influence scientific decisions about which hypotheses to accept. In a Bayesian context, the argument from inductive risk suggests that value judgments can influence decisions about which probability models to accept for likelihoods and priors. As a consequence, if the argument from inductive risk is sound, then non-epistemic values can affect not only the level of evidence deemed necessary to accept a hypothesis but also degrees of confirmation themselves. PMID:26386533

  1. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Presents the Newbery Medal acceptance speech of Russell Freedman, writer of children's nonfiction. Discusses the place of nonfiction in the world of children's literature, the evolution of children's biographies, and the author's work on "Lincoln." (ARH)

  2. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    Reprints the text of Ms. Cleary's Newbery medal acceptance speech in which she gives personal history concerning her development as a writer and her response to the letters she receives from children. (CRH)

  3. Caldecott Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provensen, Alice; Provensen, Martin

    1984-01-01

    Reprints the text of the Provensens' Caldecott medal acceptance speech in which they describe their early interest in libraries and literature, the collaborative aspect of their work, and their current interest in aviation. (CRH)

  4. Children acceptance of laser dental treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazea, Andreea; Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the dental anxiety level and the degree of acceptance of laser assisted pedodontic treatments from the children part. Also, we want to underline the advantages of laser use in pediatric dentistry, to make this technology widely used in treating dental problems of our children patients. Methods: Thirty pediatric dental patients presented in the Department of Pedodontics, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babeş", Timişoara were evaluated using the Wong-Baker pain rating scale, wich was administered postoperatory to all patients, to assess their level of laser therapy acceptance. Results: Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (WBFPS) has good validity and high specificity; generally it's easy for children to use, easy to compare and has good feasibility. Laser treatment has been accepted and tolerated by pediatric patients for its ability to reduce or eliminate pain. Around 70% of the total sample showed an excellent acceptance of laser dental treatment. Conclusions: Laser technology is useful and effective in many clinical situations encountered in pediatric dentistry and a good level of pacient acceptance is reported during all laser procedures on hard and soft tissues.

  5. Review of tolerances at the Final Focus Test Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Bulos, F.; Burke, D.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Roy, G.; Yamamoto, N.

    1991-05-01

    We review the tolerances associated with the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB). We have computed the acceptability window of the input beam for orbit jitter, emittance beta functions mismatch, incoming dispersion and coupling; tolerances on magnet alignment, strength and multipole content; and the initial tuneability capture of the line. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Spontaneous resolution of acute rejection and tolerance induction with IL-2 fusion protein in vascularized composite allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Jindal, R; Unadkat, J; Zhang, W; Zhang, D; Ng, T W; Wang, Y; Jiang, J; Lakkis, F; Rubin, P; Lee, W P A; Gorantla, V S; Zheng, X X

    2015-05-01

    Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) has emerged as a treatment option for treating nonlife-threatening conditions. Therefore, in order to make VCA a safe reconstruction option, there is a need to minimize immunosuppression, develop tolerance-inducing strategies and elucidate the mechanisms of VCA rejection and tolerance. In this study we explored the effects of hIL-2/Fc (a long-lasting human IL-2 fusion protein), in combination with antilymphocyte serum (ALS) and short-term cyclosporine A (CsA), on graft survival, regulatory T cell (Treg) proliferation and tolerance induction in a rat hind-limb transplant model. We demonstrate that hIL-2/Fc therapy tips the immune balance, increasing Treg proliferation and suppressing effector T cells, and permits VCA tolerance as demonstrated by long-term allograft survival and donor-antigen acceptance. Moreover, we observe two distinct types of acute rejection (AR), progressive and reversible, within hIL-2/Fc plus ALS and CsA treated recipients. Our study shows differential gene expression profiles of FoxP3 versus GzmB, Prf1 or interferon-γ in these two types of AR, with reversible rejection demonstrating higher Treg to Teff gene expression. This correlation of gene expression profile at the first clinical sign of AR with VCA outcomes can provide the basis for further inquiry into the mechanistic aspects of VCA rejection and future drug targets. PMID:25676865

  7. Accept or divert?

    PubMed

    Angelucci, P A

    1999-09-01

    Stretching scarce resources is more than a managerial issue. Should you accept the patient to an understaffed ICU or divert him to another facility? The intense "medical utility" controversy focuses on a situation that critical care nurses now face every day. PMID:10614370

  8. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  9. 1984 Newbery Acceptance Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    This acceptance speech for an award honoring "Dear Mr. Henshaw," a book about feelings of a lonely child of divorce intended for eight-, nine-, and ten-year-olds, highlights children's letters to author. Changes in society that affect children, the inception of "Dear Mr. Henshaw," and children's reactions to books are highlighted. (EJS)

  10. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  11. UGV acceptance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Robin R.

    2006-05-01

    With over 100 models of unmanned vehicles now available for military and civilian safety, security or rescue applications, it is important to for agencies to establish acceptance testing. However, there appears to be no general guidelines for what constitutes a reasonable acceptance test. This paper describes i) a preliminary method for acceptance testing by a customer of the mechanical and electrical components of an unmanned ground vehicle system, ii) how it has been applied to a man-packable micro-robot, and iii) discusses the value of testing both to ensure that the customer has a workable system and to improve design. The test method automated the operation of the robot to repeatedly exercise all aspects and combinations of components on the robot for 6 hours. The acceptance testing process uncovered many failures consistent with those shown to occur in the field, showing that testing by the user does predict failures. The process also demonstrated that the testing by the manufacturer can provide important design data that can be used to identify, diagnose, and prevent long-term problems. Also, the structured testing environment showed that sensor systems can be used to predict errors and changes in performance, as well as uncovering unmodeled behavior in subsystems.

  12. Flexibility and applicability of β-expectation tolerance interval approach to assess the fitness of purpose of pharmaceutical analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Bouabidi, A; Talbi, M; Bourichi, H; Bouklouze, A; El Karbane, M; Boulanger, B; Brik, Y; Hubert, Ph; Rozet, E

    2012-12-01

    An innovative versatile strategy using Total Error has been proposed to decide about the method's validity that controls the risk of accepting an unsuitable assay together with the ability to predict the reliability of future results. This strategy is based on the simultaneous combination of systematic (bias) and random (imprecision) error of analytical methods. Using validation standards, both types of error are combined through the use of a prediction interval or β-expectation tolerance interval. Finally, an accuracy profile is built by connecting, on one hand all the upper tolerance limits, and on the other hand all the lower tolerance limits. This profile combined with pre-specified acceptance limits allows the evaluation of the validity of any quantitative analytical method and thus their fitness for their intended purpose. In this work, the approach of accuracy profile was evaluated on several types of analytical methods encountered in the pharmaceutical industrial field and also covering different pharmaceutical matrices. The four studied examples depicted the flexibility and applicability of this approach for different matrices ranging from tablets to syrups, different techniques such as liquid chromatography, or UV spectrophotometry, and for different categories of assays commonly encountered in the pharmaceutical industry i.e. content assays, dissolution assays, and quantitative impurity assays. The accuracy profile approach assesses the fitness of purpose of these methods for their future routine application. It also allows the selection of the most suitable calibration curve, the adequate evaluation of a potential matrix effect and propose efficient solution and the correct definition of the limits of quantification of the studied analytical procedures. PMID:22615163

  13. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    MCDOWELL, A.K.; TRINER, G.C.

    2002-03-28

    DOE Order 435.1 requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic (TRU) waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of waste at TSD units operated by WMP. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Revisions to the acceptance criteria document require an Unreviewed Safety Question review to document that the changes are consistent with current applicable safety analysis. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility; and T-Plant facility. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the waste specification records (WSRds) and/or waste stream profile sheet approvals. The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite

  14. Hand to Hand: Teaching Tolerance and Social Justice One Child at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakin, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Tolerance connotes patience, forbearance, and impartiality, as well as open-mindedness. In early childhood, possessing tolerance would refer to children's burgeoning awareness of themselves in relation to others, and the capability to accept appearance and behavior different from one's own. But is teaching tolerance, additionally considered the…

  15. Comparison of acceptance and distraction strategies in coping with experimentally induced pain

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Hazel; Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; McGuire, Brian E

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compared an acceptance-based strategy with a control-based strategy (distraction) in terms of the ability of participants to tolerate a painful stimulus, across two experiments. In addition, participants were either actively encouraged, or not, to link pain tolerance with pursuit of valued goals to examine the impact of pursuing a personally meaningful goal or value on the extent to which pain will be tolerated. Methods Participants in experiment 1 (n=41) and experiment 2 (n=52) were equally assigned to acceptance or distraction protocols. Further, half the participants in each group generated examples from their own lives in which they had pursued a valued objective, while the other half did not. In experiment 2, the values focus was enhanced to examine the impact on pain tolerance. Results There were no significant differences overall between the acceptance and distraction groups on pain tolerance in either experiment. However, in experiment 2, individuals classified as accepting in terms of general coping style and who were assigned to the acceptance strategy showed significantly better pain tolerance than accepting individuals who were in the distraction condition. Across both experiments, those with strong goal-driven values in both protocols were more tolerant of pain. Participants appeared to have more difficulty adhering to acceptance than to distraction as a strategy. Conclusion Acceptance may be associated with better tolerance of pain, but may also be more difficult to operationalize than distraction in experimental studies. Matching coping style and coping strategy may be most effective, and enhancement of goal-driven values may assist in pain coping. PMID:25834464

  16. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  17. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  18. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  19. Normothermic central hypovolemia tolerance reflects hyperthermic tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Schlader, Zachary J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To test the hypothesis that those who are highly tolerant to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) while normothermic are also highly tolerant to this challenge while hyperthermic. Methods Sixty pairs of normothermic and hyperthermic LBNP tests to pre-syncope were evaluated. LBNP tolerance was quantified via the cumulative stress index (CSI), which is calculated as the sum of the product of the LBNP level and the duration of each level until test termination (i.e., 20 mmHg × 3 min + 30 mmHg × 3 min, etc.). CSI was compared between normothermic and hyperthermic trials. Internal and skin temperatures, heart rate, and arterial pressure were measured throughout. Results Hyperthermia reduced (P<0.001) CSI from 997 ± 437 to 303 ± 213 mmHg min. There was a positive correlation between normothermic and hyperthermic LBNP tolerance (R2 = 0.38; P<0.001). As a secondary analysis, the 20 trials with the highest LBNP tolerance while normothermic were identified (indicated as the HIGH group; CSI 1,467 ± 356 mmHg min), as were the 20 trials with the lowest normothermic tolerance (indicated as the LOW group; CSI 565 ± 166 mmHg min; P<0.001 between groups). While hyperthermia unanimously reduced CSI in both HIGH and LOW groups, in this hyperthermic condition CSI was ~threefold higher in the HIGH group (474 ± 226 mmHg min) relative to the LOW group (160 ± 115 mmHg min; P<0.001). Conclusions LBNP tolerance while hyperthermic is related to normothermic tolerance and, associated with this finding, those who have a high LBNP tolerance while normothermic remain relatively tolerant when hyperthermic. PMID:24700256

  20. Lactose tolerance tests

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen in the air you breathe out. ...

  1. Software Fault Tolerance: A Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2000-01-01

    Because of our present inability to produce error-free software, software fault tolerance is and will continue to be an important consideration in software systems. The root cause of software design errors is the complexity of the systems. Compounding the problems in building correct software is the difficulty in assessing the correctness of software for highly complex systems. After a brief overview of the software development processes, we note how hard-to-detect design faults are likely to be introduced during development and how software faults tend to be state-dependent and activated by particular input sequences. Although component reliability is an important quality measure for system level analysis, software reliability is hard to characterize and the use of post-verification reliability estimates remains a controversial issue. For some applications software safety is more important than reliability, and fault tolerance techniques used in those applications are aimed at preventing catastrophes. Single version software fault tolerance techniques discussed include system structuring and closure, atomic actions, inline fault detection, exception handling, and others. Multiversion techniques are based on the assumption that software built differently should fail differently and thus, if one of the redundant versions fails, it is expected that at least one of the other versions will provide an acceptable output. Recovery blocks, N-version programming, and other multiversion techniques are reviewed.

  2. Tolerance bands for functional data.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, Lasitha N; Choudhary, Pankaj K

    2016-06-01

    Often the object of inference in biomedical applications is a range that brackets a given fraction of individual observations in a population. A classical estimate of this range for univariate measurements is a "tolerance interval." This article develops its natural extension for functional measurements, a "tolerance band," and proposes a methodology for constructing its pointwise and simultaneous versions that incorporates both sparse and dense functional data. Assuming that the measurements are observed with noise, the methodology uses functional principal component analysis in a mixed model framework to represent the measurements and employs bootstrapping to approximate the tolerance factors needed for the bands. The proposed bands also account for uncertainty in the principal components decomposition. Simulations show that the methodology has, generally, acceptable performance unless the data are quite sparse and unbalanced, in which case the bands may be somewhat liberal. The methodology is illustrated using two real datasets, a sparse dataset involving CD4 cell counts and a dense dataset involving core body temperatures. PMID:26574904

  3. Rotorcraft Damage Tolerance Evaluated by Computational Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon; Abdi, Frank

    2000-01-01

    An integrally stiffened graphite/epoxy composite rotorcraft structure is evaluated via computational simulation. A computer code that scales up constituent micromechanics level material properties to the structure level and accounts for all possible failure modes is used for the simulation of composite degradation under loading. Damage initiation, growth, accumulation, and propagation to fracture are included in the simulation. Design implications with regard to defect and damage tolerance of integrally stiffened composite structures are examined. A procedure is outlined regarding the use of this type of information for setting quality acceptance criteria, design allowables, damage tolerance, and retirement-for-cause criteria.

  4. Transplantation tolerance--a historical introduction.

    PubMed

    Brent, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    The concept of immunological tolerance--the state of specific unresponsiveness to allogeneic transplants and all manner of other antigens--began in 1945 with R.D. Owen's finding that cattle dizygotic twins are red blood cell chimeras. Peter Medawar's group in Birmingham likewise discovered, quite independently, that cattle dizygotic twins accept each others' skin grafts. These findings, together with F.M. Burnet and F. Fenner's speculations in 1949, prompted Medawar, together with R.E. Billingham and L. Brent, now at University College London, to embark on an extensive series of experiments that established immunological tolerance as a fundamental phenomenon, forming a new branch of immunology. PMID:26694700

  5. Zero Tolerance in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henault, Cherry

    2001-01-01

    Questions the effectiveness of the widespread use of zero-tolerance policies enacted by school boards to punish students who violate weapon and drug rules. Suggests that enforcement of zero-tolerance policies has not been equitable. Reviews proposal for alternative to zero tolerance. (PKP)

  6. "Infectious" Transplantation Tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shixin; Cobbold, Stephen P.; Pope, Heather; Elliott, James; Kioussis, Dimitris; Davies, Joanna; Waldmann, Herman

    1993-02-01

    The maintenance of transplantation tolerance induced in adult mice after short-term treatment with nonlytic monoclonal antibodies to CD4 and CD8 was investigated. CD4^+ T cells from tolerant mice disabled naive lymphocytes so that they too could not reject the graft. The naive lymphocytes that had been so disabled also became tolerant and, in turn, developed the capacity to specifically disable other naive lymphocytes. This process of "infectious" tolerance explains why no further immunosuppression was needed to maintain long-term transplantation tolerance.

  7. Assessing tolerance for wildlife: Clarifying relations between concepts and measures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruskotter, Jeremy T.; Singh, Ajay; Fulton, David C.; Slagle, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Two parallel lines of inquiry, tolerance for and acceptance of wildlife populations, have arisen in the applied literature on wildlife conservation to assess probability of successfully establishing or increasing populations of controversial species. Neither of these lines is well grounded in social science theory, and diverse measures have been employed to assess tolerance, which inhibits comparability across studies. We empirically tested behavioral measures of tolerance against self-reports of previous policy-relevant behavior and behavioral intentions. Both composite behavioral measures were strongly correlated (r > .70) with two attitudinal measures of tolerance commonly employed in the literature. The strong correlation between attitudinal and behavioral measures suggests existing attitudinal measures represent valid, parsimonious measures of tolerance that may be useful when behavioral measures are too cumbersome or misreporting of behavior is anticipated. Our results demonstrate how behavioral measures of tolerance provide additional, useful information beyond general attitudinal measures.

  8. Transplantation tolerance from a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Starzl, Thomas E.; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    2011-01-01

    Although transplantation immunology as a distinctive field began with the development of experimental models that showed the feasibility of bone marrow transplantation, organ engraftment was accomplished first in humans, and was thought for many years to occur by drastically different mechanisms. Here, we present our view of the concepts of allograft acceptance and acquired tolerance from a historical perspective, and attempt to amalgamate them into simple and unifying rules that might guide improvements in clinical therapy. PMID:11905833

  9. Extreme flooding tolerance in Rorippa.

    PubMed

    Akman, Melis; Bhikharie, Amit; Mustroph, Angelika; Sasidharan, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen stress imposed by floods creates a strong selection force shaping plant ecosystems in flood-prone areas. Plants inhabiting these environments adopt various adaptations and survival strategies to cope with increasing water depths. Two Rorippa species, R. sylvestris and R. amphibia that grow in naturally flooded areas, have high submergence tolerance achieved by the so-called quiescence and escape strategies, respectively. In order to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in these strategies, we investigated submergence-induced changes in gene expression in flooded roots of Rorippa species. There was a higher induction of glycolysis and fermentation genes and faster carbohydrate reduction in R. amphibia, indicating a higher demand for energy potentially leading to faster mortality by starvation. Moreover, R. sylvestris showed induction of genes improving submergence tolerance, potentially enhancing survival in prolonged floods. Additionally, we compared transcript profiles of these 2 tolerant species to relatively intolerant Arabidopsis and found that only Rorippa species induced various inorganic pyrophosphate dependent genes, alternatives to ATP demanding pathways, thereby conserving energy, and potentially explaining the difference in flooding survival between Rorippa and Arabidopsis. PMID:24525961

  10. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; McCurdy, David A.

    1992-04-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  11. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  12. Network Candidate Genes in Breeding for Drought Tolerant Crops

    PubMed Central

    Krannich, Christoph Tim; Maletzki, Lisa; Kurowsky, Christina; Horn, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Climate change leading to increased periods of low water availability as well as increasing demands for food in the coming years makes breeding for drought tolerant crops a high priority. Plants have developed diverse strategies and mechanisms to survive drought stress. However, most of these represent drought escape or avoidance strategies like early flowering or low stomatal conductance that are not applicable in breeding for crops with high yields under drought conditions. Even though a great deal of research is ongoing, especially in cereals, in this regard, not all mechanisms involved in drought tolerance are yet understood. The identification of candidate genes for drought tolerance that have a high potential to be used for breeding drought tolerant crops represents a challenge. Breeding for drought tolerant crops has to focus on acceptable yields under water-limited conditions and not on survival. However, as more and more knowledge about the complex networks and the cross talk during drought is available, more options are revealed. In addition, it has to be considered that conditioning a crop for drought tolerance might require the production of metabolites and might cost the plants energy and resources that cannot be used in terms of yield. Recent research indicates that yield penalty exists and efficient breeding for drought tolerant crops with acceptable yields under well-watered and drought conditions might require uncoupling yield penalty from drought tolerance. PMID:26193269

  13. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  14. Study of the tevatron nonlinear acceptance by computer simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Willeke, F.

    1983-11-01

    In this report, the results of computer calculations of nonlinear acceptance reduction caused by nonlinear fields in the TEVATRON are presented. A set of test particles has been traced during many revolutions in the accelerator in order to determine the maximum stable amplitude in the presence of nonlinear fields. Sources of nonlinear fields are designed imperfections of dipole and quadrupole magnets, fluctuations due to manufacturing tolerances, and sextupole fields needed to compensate for chromaticity.

  15. Sulfur tolerant anode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

  16. Damage-Tolerant Composites Made By Stitching Carbon Fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Marvin B.; Smith, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    Work conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to investigate stitching combined with resin transfer molding to make composites more tolerant of damage and potentially cost competitive with metals. Composite materials tailored for damage tolerance by stitching layers of dry carbon fabric with closely spaced threads to provide reinforcement through thickness. Epoxy resin then infused into stitched preforms, and epoxy was cured. Various stitching patterns and thread materials evaluated by use of flat plate specimens. Also, blade-stiffened structural elements fabricated and tested. Stitched flat laminates showed outstanding damage tolerance, excellent compression strength in notched specimens, and acceptable fatigue behavior. Development of particular interest to aircraft and automotive industries.

  17. Frost tolerance in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When conducting studies to characterize and determine the underlying mechanisms for freezing tolerance, it is essential to take into account that the type and form of freezing injury varies with the species and its degree of freezing tolerance. There are at least seven different patterns of freezin...

  18. Moving Beyond Tolerance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirone, Bill

    2001-01-01

    Operating under the umbrella of the Santa Barbara County Education Office, the Beyond Tolerance Educational Center serves as a resource for educators. It provides county schools with information and programs that promote social awareness and tolerance while teaching kids the dangers of hatred and discrimination. (MLH)

  19. A Lesson in Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnt, Marlene

    2004-01-01

    This article describes one classroom's experience integrating a three-part lesson that focused on tolerance. In the lesson, students examined works by American folk-art painter Edward Hicks, researched quotes about tolerance in society, and applied calligraphy skills to an original composition.

  20. Maize aluminum tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is one of the most economically important food crops grown on acid soils, where aluminum (Al) toxicity greatly limits crop yields. Considerable variation for Al tolerance exists in maize, and this variation has been exploited for many years by plant breeders to enhance maize Al tolerance. Curr...

  1. Accepters and Rejecters of Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Harriett A.; Elton, Charles F.

    Personality differences between students who accept or reject proffered counseling assistance were investigated by comparing personality traits of 116 male students at the University of Kentucky who accepted or rejected letters of invitation to group counseling. Factor analysis of Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) scores to two groups of 60 and…

  2. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  3. Antimicrobial Tolerance in Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Philip S

    2015-06-01

    The tolerance of microorganisms in biofilms to antimicrobial agents is examined through a meta-analysis of literature data. A numerical tolerance factor comparing the rates of killing in the planktonic and biofilm states is defined to provide a quantitative basis for the analysis. Tolerance factors for biocides and antibiotics range over three orders of magnitude. This variation is not explained by taking into account the molecular weight of the agent, the chemistry of the agent, the substratum material, or the speciation of the microorganisms. Tolerance factors do depend on the areal cell density of the biofilm at the time of treatment and on the age of the biofilm as grown in a particular experimental system. This suggests that there is something that happens during biofilm maturation, either physical or physiological, that is essential for full biofilm tolerance. Experimental measurements of antimicrobial penetration times in biofilms range over orders of magnitude, with slower penetration (>12 min) observed for reactive oxidants and cationic molecules. These agents are retarded through the interaction of reaction, sorption, and diffusion. The specific physiological status of microbial cells in a biofilm contributes to antimicrobial tolerance. A conceptual framework for categorizing physiological cell states is discussed in the context of antimicrobial susceptibility. It is likely that biofilms harbor cells in multiple states simultaneously (e.g., growing, stress-adapted, dormant, inactive) and that this physiological heterogeneity is an important factor in the tolerance of the biofilm state. PMID:26185072

  4. Antimicrobial Tolerance in Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    The tolerance of microorganisms in biofilms to antimicrobial agents is examined through a meta-analysis of literature data. A numerical tolerance factor comparing the rates of killing in the planktonic and biofilm states is defined to provide a quantitative basis for the analysis. Tolerance factors for biocides and antibiotics range over three orders of magnitude. This variation is not explained by taking into account the molecular weight of the agent, the chemistry of the agent, the substratum material, or the speciation of the microorganisms. Tolerance factors do depend on the areal cell density of the biofilm at the time of treatment and on the age of the biofilm as grown in a particular experimental system. This suggests that there is something that happens during biofilm maturation, either physical or physiological, that is essential for full biofilm tolerance. Experimental measurements of antimicrobial penetration times in biofilms range over orders of magnitude, with slower penetration (>12 min) observed for reactive oxidants and cationic molecules. These agents are retarded through the interaction of reaction, sorption, and diffusion. The specific physiological status of microbial cells in a biofilm contributes to antimicrobial tolerance. A conceptual framework for categorizing physiological cell states is discussed in the context of antimicrobial susceptibility. It is likely that biofilms harbor cells in multiple states simultaneously (e.g., growing, stress-adapted, dormant, inactive) and that this physiological heterogeneity is an important factor in the tolerance of the biofilm state. PMID:26185072

  5. Directionality between Tolerance of Deviance and Deviant Behavior Is Age-Moderated in Chronically Stressed Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, Ty A.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Gold, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Problem behavior theory posits that tolerance of deviance is an antecedent to antisocial behavior and substance use. In contrast, cognitive dissonance theory implies that acceptability of a behavior may increase after experiencing the behavior. Using structural equation modeling, this investigation tested whether changes in tolerance of deviance…

  6. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  7. L-286 Acceptance Test Record

    SciTech Connect

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-14

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  8. Composites Damage Tolerance Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    The Composite Damage Tolerance Workshop included participants from NASA, academia, and private industry. The objectives of the workshop were to begin dialogue in order to establish a working group within the Agency, create awareness of damage tolerance requirements for Constellation, and discuss potential composite hardware for the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) Upper Stage (US) and Crew Module. It was proposed that a composites damage tolerance working group be created that acts within the framework of the existing NASA Fracture Control Methodology Panel. The working group charter would be to identify damage tolerance gaps and obstacles for implementation of composite structures into manned space flight systems and to develop strategies and recommendations to overcome these obstacles.

  9. Radiation Tolerant Antifuse FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jih-Jong; Cronquist, Brian; McCollum, John; Parker, Wanida; Katz, Rich; Kleyner, Igor; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The total dose performance of the antifuse FPGA for space applications is summarized. Optimization of the radiation tolerance in the fabless model is the main theme. Mechanisms to explain the variation in different products are discussed.

  10. [INABILITY TO TOLERATE COSMETICS].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    2016-05-01

    Inability to tolerate cosmetics can result from distinct mechanisms which appear as the so-called sensitive skin corresponding to one aspect of invisible dermatosis, or which corresponds to manifestations of a contact allergic or irritation dermatitis. PMID:27337844

  11. DNA damage tolerance.

    PubMed

    Branzei, Dana; Psakhye, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    Accurate chromosomal DNA replication is fundamental for optimal cellular function and genome integrity. Replication perturbations activate DNA damage tolerance pathways, which are crucial to complete genome duplication as well as to prevent formation of deleterious double strand breaks. Cells use two general strategies to tolerate lesions: recombination to a homologous template, and trans-lesion synthesis with specialized polymerases. While key players of these processes have been outlined, much less is known on their choreography and regulation. Recent advances have uncovered principles by which DNA damage tolerance is regulated locally and temporally - in relation to replication timing and cell cycle stage -, and are beginning to elucidate the DNA dynamics that mediate lesion tolerance and influence chromosome structure during replication. PMID:27060551

  12. Freeform solar concentrator with a highly asymmetric acceptance cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheelwright, Brian; Angel, J. Roger P.; Coughenour, Blake; Hammer, Kimberly

    2014-10-01

    A solar concentrator with a highly asymmetric acceptance cone is investigated. Concentrating photovoltaic systems require dual-axis sun tracking to maintain nominal concentration throughout the day. In addition to collecting direct rays from the solar disk, which subtends ~0.53 degrees, concentrating optics must allow for in-field tracking errors due to mechanical misalignment of the module, wind loading, and control loop biases. The angular range over which the concentrator maintains <90% of on-axis throughput is defined as the optical acceptance angle. Concentrators with substantial rotational symmetry likewise exhibit rotationally symmetric acceptance angles. In the field, this is sometimes a poor match with azimuth-elevation trackers, which have inherently asymmetric tracking performance. Pedestal-mounted trackers with low torsional stiffness about the vertical axis have better elevation tracking than azimuthal tracking. Conversely, trackers which rotate on large-footprint circular tracks are often limited by elevation tracking performance. We show that a line-focus concentrator, composed of a parabolic trough primary reflector and freeform refractive secondary, can be tailored to have a highly asymmetric acceptance angle. The design is suitable for a tracker with excellent tracking accuracy in the elevation direction, and poor accuracy in the azimuthal direction. In the 1000X design given, when trough optical errors (2mrad rms slope deviation) are accounted for, the azimuthal acceptance angle is +/- 1.65°, while the elevation acceptance angle is only +/-0.29°. This acceptance angle does not include the angular width of the sun, which consumes nearly all of the elevation tolerance at this concentration level. By decreasing the average concentration, the elevation acceptance angle can be increased. This is well-suited for a pedestal alt-azimuth tracker with a low cost slew bearing (without anti-backlash features).

  13. BIOMARKERS OF OPERATIONAL TOLERANCE IN SOLID ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Heidt, Sebastiaan; Wood, Kathryn J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Long-term immunosuppressive therapy represents a huge burden on transplant recipients, but currently cannot be omitted. Improving long-term transplant outcome by immunosuppressive drug withdrawal may be achieved in patients who have developed (partial) immunological unresponsiveness towards their graft, either spontaneously or through tolerance induction. Reliable biomarkers are essential to define such immunological unresponsiveness and will facilitate controlled immunosuppressive drug weaning as well as provide surrogate end-points for tolerance induction trials. Areas covered Tolerance biomarkers have been defined for both liver and kidney transplantation and can accurately identify operationally tolerant transplant recipients retrospectively. These two tolerance fingerprints are remarkably different, indicating the involvement of distinct mechanisms. Limited data suggest that tolerance biomarkers can be detected in immunosuppressed transplant recipients. Whether these patients can safely have their immunosuppressive drugs withdrawn needs to be established. Expert opinion Mechanistic interpretation of the kidney transplant tolerance biomarker profile dominated by B cell markers remains a challenge in light of experimental evidence suggesting the pivotal involvement of regulatory T cells. Therefore, defining animal models that resemble human transplant tolerance is crucial in understanding the underlying mechanisms. Additionally, to ensure patient safety while monitoring for tolerance, it is essential to develop biomarkers to non-invasively detect early signs of rejection as well. PMID:22988481

  14. Autonomous Congestion Control in Delay-Tolerant Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott; Jennings, Esther; Schoolcraft, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    This presentation highlights communication congestion control in delay-tolerant networks (DTNs). Large-scale future space exploration will offer complex communication challenges that may be best addressed by establishing a network infrastructure. However, current internet techniques for congestion control are not well suited for operation of a network over interplanetary distances. An alternative, delay-tolerant technique for congestion control in a delay-tolerant network is presented. A simple DTN was constructed and an experimental congestion control mechanism was applied. The mechanism appeared to be effective and each router was able to make its bundle acceptance decisions autonomously. Future research will examine more complex topologies and alternative bundle acceptance rules that might enhance performance.

  15. Quantification of uncertainty in machining operations for on-machine acceptance.

    SciTech Connect

    Claudet, Andre A.; Tran, Hy D.; Su, Jiann-Chemg

    2008-09-01

    Manufactured parts are designed with acceptance tolerances, i.e. deviations from ideal design conditions, due to unavoidable errors in the manufacturing process. It is necessary to measure and evaluate the manufactured part, compared to the nominal design, to determine whether the part meets design specifications. The scope of this research project is dimensional acceptance of machined parts; specifically, parts machined using numerically controlled (NC, or also CNC for Computer Numerically Controlled) machines. In the design/build/accept cycle, the designer will specify both a nominal value, and an acceptable tolerance. As part of the typical design/build/accept business practice, it is required to verify that the part did meet acceptable values prior to acceptance. Manufacturing cost must include not only raw materials and added labor, but also the cost of ensuring conformance to specifications. Ensuring conformance is a substantial portion of the cost of manufacturing. In this project, the costs of measurements were approximately 50% of the cost of the machined part. In production, cost of measurement would be smaller, but still a substantial proportion of manufacturing cost. The results of this research project will point to a science-based approach to reducing the cost of ensuring conformance to specifications. The approach that we take is to determine, a priori, how well a CNC machine can manufacture a particular geometry from stock. Based on the knowledge of the manufacturing process, we are then able to decide features which need further measurements from features which can be accepted 'as is' from the CNC. By calibration of the machine tool, and establishing a machining accuracy ratio, we can validate the ability of CNC to fabricate to a particular level of tolerance. This will eliminate the costs of checking for conformance for relatively large tolerances.

  16. [A comparative analysis of effectiveness, tolerance and cost of second generation antidepressants in France].

    PubMed

    Fond, Guillaume

    2015-03-01

    While French authorities point to the need for rational prescribing, especially concerning psychotropic drugs, few data on the prescription of second-generation antidepressants (SGA) are synthesized for clinicians' use. Our objective is to carry out a comparative analysis of effectiveness and tolerability / acceptability of SGA. Considering the benefit/risk ratio and the cost (generic), the first-line treatment for a major depressive episode may be currently sertraline (50 mg / d). It may however have more digestive side effects than other SSRIs (due to the serotonin action), which calls for caution while increasing doses. Fluoxetine seems relevant in treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia (20mg / d) and in bulimia (60mg / d). Fluvoxamine seems relevant in the case of sexual side effects with a previous SSRI, in treatment of anxiety disorders (it's affinity for sigma receptors may confer a specific action) and in psychotic depression. Mirtazapine may be a treatment of interest when a fast remission of depressive symptoms (especially insomnia) is warranted but its tolerance profile makes it difficult to use. PMID:26367397

  17. Potential of accuracy profile for method validation in inductively coupled plasma spectrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mermet, J. M.; Granier, G.

    2012-10-01

    Method validation is usually performed over a range of concentrations for which analytical criteria must be verified. One important criterion in quantitative analysis is accuracy, i.e. the contribution of both trueness and precision. The study of accuracy over this range is called an accuracy profile and provides experimental tolerance intervals. Comparison with acceptability limits fixed by the end user defines a validity domain. This work describes the computation involved in the building of the tolerance intervals, particularly for the intermediate precision with within-laboratory experiments and for the reproducibility with interlaboratory studies. Computation is based on ISO 5725-4 and on previously published work. Moreover, the bias uncertainty is also computed to verify the bias contribution to accuracy. The various types of accuracy profile behavior are exemplified with results obtained by using ICP-MS and ICP-AES. This procedure allows the analyst to define unambiguously a validity domain for a given accuracy. However, because the experiments are time-consuming, the accuracy profile method is mainly dedicated to method validation.

  18. Perceptual Tolerance Intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasilewski, Piotr; Peters, James F.; Ramanna, Sheela

    This paper elaborates on the introduction of perceptual tolerance intersection of sets as an example of a near set operation. Such operations are motivated by the need to consider similarities between digital images viewed as disjoint sets of points. The proposed approach is in keeping with work by E.C. Zeeman on tolerance spaces and visual perception and work by J.H. Poincaré on sets of similar sensations used to define representative spaces (aka tolerance spaces) such as visual, tactile and motile spaces. Perceptual tolerance intersection of sets is a direct consequence of recent work on near sets. The theory of perceptual set intersection has many practical applications such as a solution to the problem of how one goes about measuring the closeness of digital images. The main contribution of this article is a description-based approach to formulating perceptual set intersections between disjoint sets that resemble each other. A practical application of the proposed approach is the discovery of resemblances between sets of points in digital image regions that represent tolerance rough sets.

  19. Defining acceptable conditions in wilderness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggenbuck, J. W.; Williams, D. R.; Watson, A. E.

    1993-03-01

    The limits of acceptable change (LAC) planning framework recognizes that forest managers must decide what indicators of wilderness conditions best represent resource naturalness and high-quality visitor experiences and how much change from the pristine is acceptable for each indicator. Visitor opinions on the aspects of the wilderness that have great impact on their experience can provide valuable input to selection of indicators. Cohutta, Georgia; Caney Creek, Arkansas; Upland Island, Texas; and Rattlesnake, Montana, wilderness visitors have high shared agreement that littering and damage to trees in campsites, noise, and seeing wildlife are very important influences on wilderness experiences. Camping within sight or sound of other people influences experience quality more than do encounters on the trails. Visitors’ standards of acceptable conditions within wilderness vary considerably, suggesting a potential need to manage different zones within wilderness for different clientele groups and experiences. Standards across wildernesses, however, are remarkably similar.

  20. From requirements to acceptance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Lionel; Pasquier, Helene

    1993-01-01

    From user requirements definition to accepted software system, the software project management wants to be sure that the system will meet the requirements. For the development of a telecommunication satellites Control Centre, C.N.E.S. has used new rules to make the use of tracing matrix easier. From Requirements to Acceptance Tests, each item of a document must have an identifier. A unique matrix traces the system and allows the tracking of the consequences of a change in the requirements. A tool has been developed, to import documents into a relational data base. Each record of the data base corresponds to an item of a document, the access key is the item identifier. Tracing matrix is also processed, providing automatically links between the different documents. It enables the reading on the same screen of traced items. For example one can read simultaneously the User Requirements items, the corresponding Software Requirements items and the Acceptance Tests.

  1. Effect of lower and upper parabolic dips in refractive index profile on performance of coaxial fiber Raman gain amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karak, Anup; Pramanik, Sanchita; Sarkar, Somenath

    2016-03-01

    An investigation on the effect of practically possible upper and lower parabolic dips in the refractive index profile of the inner core of the coaxial fiber Raman gain amplifier is reported using matrix method for single pump. It is seen that for lower parabolic dip, the tolerable limits of dip parameters correspond to dip depth of 0.25% and dip width of 25% of the respective parameters for ideal step index profile case and agree with the earlier predicted linear dip. However, for upper parabolic dip, one gets higher gain and better flatness at these limits. Even up to 1% of the dip depth for 25% of dip width or 75% of dip width for 0.25% of the dip depth or 0.5% of dip depth and 50% of dip width, one can expect performance as good as that of the ideal one. However, since system designers will be aimed to produce ideal profile, our recommendation is to keep tolerable limits within 0.25% of dip depth and 25% of dip width of respective parameters. But one can accept profile with upper parabolic dip if there is deviation within the above relaxation limits for such dip.

  2. The MAGNEX large acceptance spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Carbone, D.; Foti, A.

    2010-03-01

    The main features of the MAGNEX large acceptance magnetic spectrometer are described. It has a quadrupole + dipole layout and a hybrid detector located at the focal plane. The aberrations due to the large angular (50 msr) and momentum (+- 13%) acceptance are reduced by an accurate hardware design and then compensated by an innovative software ray-reconstruction technique. The obtained resolution in energy, angle and mass are presented in the paper. MAGNEX has been used up to now for different experiments in nuclear physics and astrophysics confirming to be a multipurpose device.

  3. [Safety profile of dolutegravir].

    PubMed

    Rivero, Antonio; Domingo, Pere

    2015-03-01

    Integrase inhibitors are the latest drug family to be added to the therapeutic arsenal against human immunodeficiency virus infection. Drugs in this family that do not require pharmacological boosting are characterized by a very good safety profile. The latest integrase inhibitor to be approved for use is dolutegravir. In clinical trials, dolutegravir has shown an excellent tolerability profile, both in antiretroviral-naïve and previously treated patients. Discontinuation rates due to adverse effects were 2% and 3%, respectively. The most frequent adverse effects were nausea, headache, diarrhea and sleep disturbance. A severe hypersensitivity reaction has been reported in only one patient. In patients coinfected with hepatropic viruses, the safety profile is similar to that in patients without coinfection. The lipid profile of dolutegravir is similar to that of raltegravir and superior to those of Atripla® and darunavir/ritonavir. Dolutegravir induces an early, predictable and non-progressive increase in serum creatinine of around 10% of baseline values in treatment-naïve patients and of 14% in treatment-experienced patients. This increase is due to inhibition of tubular creatinine secretion through the OCT2 receptor and does not lead to a real decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate with algorithms that include serum creatinine. The effect of the combination of dolutegravir plus Kivexa(®) on biomarkers of bone remodeling is lower than that of Atripla(®). Dolutegravir has an excellent tolerability profile with no current evidence of long-term adverse effects. Its use is accompanied by an early and non-progressive increase in serum creatinine due to OCT2 receptor inhibition. In combination with abacavir/lamivudine, dolutegravir has a lower impact than enofovir/emtricitabine/efavirenz on bone remodelling markers. PMID:25858606

  4. Damage Tolerance of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Fracture control requirements have been developed to address damage tolerance of composites for manned space flight hardware. The requirements provide the framework for critical and noncritical hardware assessment and testing. The need for damage threat assessments, impact damage protection plans, and nondestructive evaluation are also addressed. Hardware intended to be damage tolerant have extensive coupon, sub-element, and full-scale testing requirements in-line with the Building Block Approach concept from the MIL-HDBK-17, Department of Defense Composite Materials Handbook.

  5. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    DOEpatents

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  6. Toward Human-Carnivore Coexistence: Understanding Tolerance for Tigers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Inskip, Chloe; Carter, Neil; Riley, Shawn; Roberts, Thomas; MacMillan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Fostering local community tolerance for endangered carnivores, such as tigers (Panthera tigris), is a core component of many conservation strategies. Identification of antecedents of tolerance will facilitate the development of effective tolerance-building conservation action and secure local community support for, and involvement in, conservation initiatives. We use a stated preference approach for measuring tolerance, based on the 'Wildlife Stakeholder Acceptance Capacity' concept, to explore villagers' tolerance levels for tigers in the Bangladesh Sundarbans, an area where, at the time of the research, human-tiger conflict was severe. We apply structural equation modeling to test an a priori defined theoretical model of tolerance and identify the experiential and psychological basis of tolerance in this community. Our results indicate that beliefs about tigers and about the perceived current tiger population trend are predictors of tolerance for tigers. Positive beliefs about tigers and a belief that the tiger population is not currently increasing are both associated with greater stated tolerance for the species. Contrary to commonly-held notions, negative experiences with tigers do not directly affect tolerance levels; instead, their effect is mediated by villagers' beliefs about tigers and risk perceptions concerning human-tiger conflict incidents. These findings highlight a need to explore and understand the socio-psychological factors that encourage tolerance towards endangered species. Our research also demonstrates the applicability of this approach to tolerance research to a wide range of socio-economic and cultural contexts and reveals its capacity to enhance carnivore conservation efforts worldwide. PMID:26760035

  7. Toward Human-Carnivore Coexistence: Understanding Tolerance for Tigers in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Inskip, Chloe; Roberts, Thomas; MacMillan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Fostering local community tolerance for endangered carnivores, such as tigers (Panthera tigris), is a core component of many conservation strategies. Identification of antecedents of tolerance will facilitate the development of effective tolerance-building conservation action and secure local community support for, and involvement in, conservation initiatives. We use a stated preference approach for measuring tolerance, based on the ‘Wildlife Stakeholder Acceptance Capacity’ concept, to explore villagers’ tolerance levels for tigers in the Bangladesh Sundarbans, an area where, at the time of the research, human-tiger conflict was severe. We apply structural equation modeling to test an a priori defined theoretical model of tolerance and identify the experiential and psychological basis of tolerance in this community. Our results indicate that beliefs about tigers and about the perceived current tiger population trend are predictors of tolerance for tigers. Positive beliefs about tigers and a belief that the tiger population is not currently increasing are both associated with greater stated tolerance for the species. Contrary to commonly-held notions, negative experiences with tigers do not directly affect tolerance levels; instead, their effect is mediated by villagers’ beliefs about tigers and risk perceptions concerning human-tiger conflict incidents. These findings highlight a need to explore and understand the socio-psychological factors that encourage tolerance towards endangered species. Our research also demonstrates the applicability of this approach to tolerance research to a wide range of socio-economic and cultural contexts and reveals its capacity to enhance carnivore conservation efforts worldwide. PMID:26760035

  8. Nitrogen trailer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-02-12

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0249. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-108 Rev.0. The equipment being tested is a portable contained nitrogen supply. The test was conducted at Norco`s facility.

  9. Helping Our Children Accept Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Mae

    1984-01-01

    Parents of a child with muscular dystrophy recount their reactions to learning of the diagnosis, their gradual acceptance, and their son's resistance, which was gradually lessened when he was provided with more information and treated more normally as a member of the family. (CL)

  10. Acceptability of Treatments for Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra Maria

    2007-01-01

    This study focused on various treatments for addressing incidents of plagiarism by college students. College students rated the acceptability of different responses by college faculty to a case description of a college student who engaged in plagiarism. The findings revealed that students found some methods of addressing this problem behavior by…

  11. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  12. Practical Differential Profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, M; De Supinski, B R

    2007-02-04

    Comparing performance profiles from two runs is an essential performance analysis step that users routinely perform. In this work we present eGprof, a tool that facilitates these comparisons through differential profiling inside gprof. We chose this approach, rather than designing a new tool, since gprof is one of the few performance analysis tools accepted and used by a large community of users. eGprof allows users to 'subtract' two performance profiles directly. It also includes callgraph visualization to highlight the differences in graphical form. Along with the design of this tool, we present several case studies that show how eGprof can be used to find and to study the differences of two application executions quickly and hence can aid the user in this most common step in performance analysis. We do this without requiring major changes on the side of the user, the most important factor in guaranteeing the adoption of our tool by code teams.

  13. Salinity and High Temperature Tolerance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] from a Physiological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    HanumanthaRao, Bindumadhava; Nair, Ramakrishnan M.; Nayyar, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic constraints seriously affect the productivity of agriculture worldwide. The broadly recognized benefits of legumes in cropping systems—biological nitrogen fixation, improving soil fertility and broadening cereal-based agro-ecologies, are desirable now more than ever. Legume production is affected by hostile environments, especially soil salinity and high temperatures (HTs). Among legumes, mungbean has acceptable intrinsic tolerance mechanisms, but many agro-physiological characteristics of the Vigna species remain to be explored. Mungbean has a distinct advantage of being short-duration and can grow in wide range of soils and environments (as mono or relay legume). This review focuses on salinity and HT stresses on mungbean grown as a fallow crop (mungbean-rice-wheat to replace fallow-rice-wheat) and/or a relay crop in cereal cropping systems. Salinity tolerance comprises multifaceted responses at the molecular, physiological and plant canopy levels. In HTs, adaptation of physiological and biochemical processes gradually may lead to improvement of heat tolerance in plants. At the field level, managing or manipulating cultural practices can mitigate adverse effects of salinity and HT. Greater understanding of physiological and biochemical mechanisms regulating these two stresses will contribute to an evolving profile of the genes, proteins, and metabolites responsible for mungbean survival. We focus on abiotic stresses in legumes in general and mungbean in particular, and highlight gaps that need to be bridged through future mungbean research. Recent findings largely from physiological and biochemical fronts are examined, along with a few agronomic and farm-based management strategies to mitigate stress under field conditions. PMID:27446183

  14. Salinity and High Temperature Tolerance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] from a Physiological Perspective.

    PubMed

    HanumanthaRao, Bindumadhava; Nair, Ramakrishnan M; Nayyar, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic constraints seriously affect the productivity of agriculture worldwide. The broadly recognized benefits of legumes in cropping systems-biological nitrogen fixation, improving soil fertility and broadening cereal-based agro-ecologies, are desirable now more than ever. Legume production is affected by hostile environments, especially soil salinity and high temperatures (HTs). Among legumes, mungbean has acceptable intrinsic tolerance mechanisms, but many agro-physiological characteristics of the Vigna species remain to be explored. Mungbean has a distinct advantage of being short-duration and can grow in wide range of soils and environments (as mono or relay legume). This review focuses on salinity and HT stresses on mungbean grown as a fallow crop (mungbean-rice-wheat to replace fallow-rice-wheat) and/or a relay crop in cereal cropping systems. Salinity tolerance comprises multifaceted responses at the molecular, physiological and plant canopy levels. In HTs, adaptation of physiological and biochemical processes gradually may lead to improvement of heat tolerance in plants. At the field level, managing or manipulating cultural practices can mitigate adverse effects of salinity and HT. Greater understanding of physiological and biochemical mechanisms regulating these two stresses will contribute to an evolving profile of the genes, proteins, and metabolites responsible for mungbean survival. We focus on abiotic stresses in legumes in general and mungbean in particular, and highlight gaps that need to be bridged through future mungbean research. Recent findings largely from physiological and biochemical fronts are examined, along with a few agronomic and farm-based management strategies to mitigate stress under field conditions. PMID:27446183

  15. Tolerant (parallel) Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiNucci, David C.; Bailey, David H. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    In order to be truly portable, a program must be tolerant of a wide range of development and execution environments, and a parallel program is just one which must be tolerant of a very wide range. This paper first defines the term "tolerant programming", then describes many layers of tools to accomplish it. The primary focus is on F-Nets, a formal model for expressing computation as a folded partial-ordering of operations, thereby providing an architecture-independent expression of tolerant parallel algorithms. For implementing F-Nets, Cooperative Data Sharing (CDS) is a subroutine package for implementing communication efficiently in a large number of environments (e.g. shared memory and message passing). Software Cabling (SC), a very-high-level graphical programming language for building large F-Nets, possesses many of the features normally expected from today's computer languages (e.g. data abstraction, array operations). Finally, L2(sup 3) is a CASE tool which facilitates the construction, compilation, execution, and debugging of SC programs.

  16. Zero Tolerance Expulsions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1999-01-01

    Most courts have flexibly interpreted the constitutional requirement of procedural and substantive due process in favor of zero-tolerance expulsion decisions. While being sensitive to community intolerance for threats to school safety (student possession of guns or drugs), school leaders should modulate development and enforcement of expulsion…

  17. Teaching Tolerance Magazine, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, Jim, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This magazine provides teachers with classroom learning materials to help children learn to be tolerant with others. Articles in the magazine are: "A Standard to Sustain" (Mary M. Harrison); "Let's Just Play" (Janet Schmidt); "Who's Helen Keller?" (Ruth Shagoury Hubbard); "Margins of Error" (Joe Parsons); "Out of the Shadows" (Elizabeth Hunt);…

  18. Pesticide tolerance in amphibians: induced tolerance in susceptible populations, constitutive tolerance in tolerant populations

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Jessica; Morehouse, Nathan I; Relyea, Rick

    2013-01-01

    The role of plasticity in shaping adaptations is important to understanding the expression of traits within individuals and the evolution of populations. With increasing human impacts on the environment, one challenge is to consider how plasticity shapes responses to anthropogenic stressors such as contaminants. To our knowledge, only one study (using mosquitoes) has considered the possibility of induced insecticide tolerance. Using populations of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) located close to and far from agricultural fields, we discovered that exposing some populations of embryos and hatchlings to sublethal concentrations of the insecticide carbaryl induced higher tolerance to a subsequent lethal concentration later in life. Interestingly, the inducible populations were located >800 m from agricultural areas and were the most susceptible to the insecticide. In contrast, the noninducible populations were located close to agricultural areas and were the least susceptible. We also found that sublethal concentrations of carbaryl induced higher tadpole AChE concentrations in several cases. This is the first study to demonstrate inducible tolerance in a vertebrate species and the pattern of inducible and constitutive tolerance among populations suggests the process of genetic assimilation. PMID:24187585

  19. Cuphea tolerates clopyralid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea is a new crop of temperate regions that produces seed oil with medium-chain length fatty acids, which can substitute for imported coconut and palm kernels oils. Only four herbicides are known to be tolerated by cuphea to date. More herbicides, especially POST products, are needed for continue...

  20. Biocide tolerance in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ortega Morente, Elena; Fernández-Fuentes, Miguel Angel; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Abriouel, Hikmate; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    Biocides have been employed for centuries, so today a wide range of compounds showing different levels of antimicrobial activity have become available. At the present time, understanding the mechanisms of action of biocides has also become an important issue with the emergence of bacterial tolerance to biocides and the suggestion that biocide and antibiotic resistance in bacteria might be linked. While most of the mechanisms providing antibiotic resistance are agent specific, providing resistance to a single antimicrobial or class of antimicrobial, there are currently numerous examples of efflux systems that accommodate and, thus, provide tolerance to a broad range of structurally unrelated antimicrobials, both antibiotics and biocides. If biocide tolerance becomes increasingly common and it is linked to antibiotic resistance, not only resistant (even multi-resistant) bacteria could be passed along the food chain, but also there are resistance determinants that can spread and lead to the emergence of new resistant microorganisms, which can only be detected and monitored when the building blocks of resistance traits are understood on the molecular level. This review summarizes the main advances reached in understanding the mechanism of action of biocides, the mechanisms of bacterial resistance to both biocides and antibiotics, and the incidence of biocide tolerance in bacteria of concern to human health and the food industry. PMID:23340387

  1. Tolerance through Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Carolyn

    In this project, eighth grade students are exposed to black history, literature, music, and art to enhance the understanding of diversity and to establish an atmosphere of tolerance for diversity. Students are asked to choose a personality or significant historical event to research and present to the class. They focus on issues such as prejudice,…

  2. Zero Tolerance versus Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    In a case involving questionable canine search-and-seizure practices, a circuit court upheld a school board's decision to terminate a teacher's contract. While touting zero tolerance, the board fired an honored teacher 3 years from retirement who may not have known about the marijuana cigarette in her car. (MLH)

  3. Glucose Tolerance and Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langseth, Lillian; Dowd, Judith

    Examined were medical records of 265 hyperkinetic children (7-9 years old). Clinical blood chemistries, hematology, and 5-hour glucose tolerance test (GTT) results indicated that hematocrit levels were low in 27% of the Ss, eosinophil levels were abnormally high in 86% of the Ss, and GTT results were abnormal in a maority of Ss. (CL)

  4. Tolerability of ziprasidone: an expanding perspective.

    PubMed

    Daniel, David G

    2003-01-01

    Although atypical antipsychotic agents have improved the management of patients with schizophrenia, their utility has been hindered by some limitations, including significant weight gain, glucose metabolism disturbances, and increases in total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In addition to its low liability for movement disorders and its favorable tolerability record in short- and long-term clinical trials, ziprasidone is associated with a favorable metabolic safety profile (in terms of its effect on plasma lipid and glucose levels) and a negligible effect on weight. The limited effect of ziprasidone on the corrected QT interval (QTc) has also been well characterized, and experience to date has not demonstrated any increased risk of clinical events attributable to QTc prolongation. This review of pharmacokinetic and clinical trials of ziprasidone versus placebo and active comparators focuses on the safety and tolerability of both the intramuscular and oral formulations. PMID:14728089

  5. Validated Fault Tolerant Architectures for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on validated fault tolerant architectures for space station are presented. Topics covered include: fault tolerance approach; advanced information processing system (AIPS); and fault tolerant parallel processor (FTPP).

  6. Defect tolerance of pressurized fiber composite shell structures

    SciTech Connect

    Gotsis, P.K.; Chamis, C.C.; Minnetyan, L.

    1996-12-31

    Progressive damage and fracture of pressurized graphite/epoxy thin composite shells are evaluated via computational simulation. An integrated computer code that scales up constituent micromechanics level material properties to the structure level and accounts for all possible failure modes is used for the simulation of composite degradation under loading. Damage initiation, growth, accumulation, and propagation to fracture are included in the simulation. Design implications with regard to defect and damage tolerance of thin walled composite cylindrical shells are examined. A procedure is outlined regarding the use of this type of information for setting quality acceptance criteria, design allowables, damage tolerance, and retirement-for-cause criteria.

  7. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  8. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  9. Reactor tank UT acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1990-01-30

    The SRS reactor tanks are constructed of type 304 stainless steel, with 0.5 inch thick walls. An ultrasonic (UT) in-service inspection program has been developed for examination of these tanks, in accordance with the ISI Plan for the Savannah River Production Reactors Process Water System (DPSTM-88-100-1). Prior to initiation of these inspections, criteria for the disposition of any indications that might be found are required. A working group has been formed to review available information on the SRS reactor tanks and develop acceptance criteria. This working group includes nationally recognized experts in the nuclear industry. The working group has met three times and produced three documents describing the proposed acceptance criteria, the technical basis for the criteria and a proposed initial sampling plan. This report transmits these three documents, which were prepared in accordance with the technical task plan and quality assurance plan for this task, task 88-001-A- 1. In addition, this report summarizes the acceptance criteria and proposed sampling plan, and provides further interpretation of the intent of these three documents where necessary.

  10. 12 CFR 7.1007 - Acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptances. 7.1007 Section 7.1007 Banks and... § 7.1007 Acceptances. A national bank is not limited in the character of acceptances it may make in financing credit transactions. Bankers' acceptances may be used for such purpose, since the making...

  11. 12 CFR 7.1007 - Acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptances. 7.1007 Section 7.1007 Banks and... § 7.1007 Acceptances. A national bank is not limited in the character of acceptances it may make in financing credit transactions. Bankers' acceptances may be used for such purpose, since the making...

  12. 21 CFR 820.86 - Acceptance status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance status. 820.86 Section 820.86 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Acceptance Activities § 820.86 Acceptance status. Each manufacturer shall identify by suitable means the acceptance status of product, to indicate the conformance or...

  13. 12 CFR 615.5550 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 615.5550 Section 615.5550... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Bankers' Acceptances § 615.5550 Bankers' acceptances. Banks for cooperatives may rediscount with other purchasers the acceptances they have created. The bank...

  14. 48 CFR 245.606-3 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 245.606-3... Contractor Inventory 245.606-3 Acceptance. (a) If the schedules are acceptable, the plant clearance officer shall, within 15 days, complete and send the contractor a DD Form 1637, Notice of Acceptance...

  15. 48 CFR 12.402 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acceptance. 12.402 Section... Acceptance. (a) The acceptance paragraph in 52.212-4 is based upon the assumption that the Government will rely on the contractor's assurances that the commercial item tendered for acceptance conforms to...

  16. 21 CFR 820.86 - Acceptance status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acceptance status. 820.86 Section 820.86 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Acceptance Activities § 820.86 Acceptance status. Each manufacturer shall identify by suitable means the acceptance status of product, to indicate the conformance or...

  17. 12 CFR 615.5550 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 615.5550 Section 615.5550... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Bankers' Acceptances § 615.5550 Bankers' acceptances. Banks for cooperatives may rediscount with other purchasers the acceptances they have created. The bank...

  18. 48 CFR 12.402 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 12.402 Section... Acceptance. (a) The acceptance paragraph in 52.212-4 is based upon the assumption that the Government will rely on the contractor's assurances that the commercial item tendered for acceptance conforms to...

  19. Starshade Shape Tolerances and Mechanical Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dailey, Dean; Glassman, T.; NWO Study Team

    2009-01-01

    Starshade Shape Tolerances and Mechanical Deployment Dean Dailey, Tiffany Glassman, NWO Study Team The primary purpose of the New Worlds Observer (NWO) Starshade is to suppress the light from a star to 10-10 without blocking the light from planets in the habitable zone of that star. In order to successfully deploy a properly functioning Starshade 10s of meters in diameter, we must know precisely how much the shape of the Starshade is allowed to deviate from the theoretical profile without causing its performance to fall below the established threshold. We use a simulation of the optical performance of the Starshade to establish the tolerance of the Starshade to various shape deformations. These Starshade shape tolerance terms are combined into a budget set of the maximum level of tolerable deformations. These budgets become the deployed dimensional stability requirements for structural engineering to use in accessing competing deployment concepts. The effects that we consider to determine if a deployment scheme will meet the shape tolerance requirements include: 1. Mechanical piece-part manufacturing error 2. Mechanical assembly errors 3. 1 G assembly shape verification error 4. Launch Shift 5. Deployment repeatability errors 6. Thermal distortion errors 7. On-orbit dynamics - jitter 8. CME errors (coefficient of moisture expansion) 9. Contamination errors Deployed dimensional stability performance margins can then be determined for each deployment concept over each shape distortion effect and a suitable deployment concept can be selected. Each of these effects are described along with the sensitivity analysis to their contribution to the overall performance.

  20. Implementing fault-tolerant sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith

    1989-01-01

    One aspect of fault tolerance in process control programs is the ability to tolerate sensor failure. A methodology is presented for transforming a process control program that cannot tolerate sensor failures to one that can. Additionally, a hierarchy of failure models is identified.

  1. Zero Tolerance Policies. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Much of this brief comes from the ERIC Digest on Zero Tolerance Policies (ERIC #: ED451579). State legislatures and school boards are adopting a growing number of zero-tolerance polices toward weapons, guns, and violence. Zero-tolerance polices are rules intended to address specific school-safety issues. Despite the controversies that it has…

  2. Learning Style Profile: Examiner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, James W.; Monk, John S.

    This examiner's manual accompanies the Learning Style Profile (LSP), which measures cognitive skills as well as affective and environmental preferences. Charles Letteri's General Operations Model was accepted as the prototype for relating learning styles to cognitive information processing. The LSP was developed from 1983 to 1986; several versions…

  3. Laeve-[1-3H]Methadone disposition in tolerant dogs.

    PubMed

    Misra, A L; Bloch, R; Vadlamani, N L; Mulé, S J

    1975-04-01

    1. Following a subcutaneous dose (4mg/kg) of [3H]methadone, peak levels of drug occurred in plasma, tissues and selected areas of the central nervous system (CNS) 2h after injection in both non-tolerant and tolerant dogs. Highest concentrations of methadone were attained in bile and lung compared to other tissues. 2. Levels of methadone in plasma, tissue and CNS of tolerant and non-tolerant animals were not markedly different up to 8h after injection, but a much faster rate of egression of free drug (lower t1/2) was observed subsequently in tolerant dogs. 3. Peak levels of methadone in various areas of the CNS ranged between 2-7 (spinal cord) to 3-6 (thalamus) mug/g in non-tolerant and 3-0 -rebellum) to 4-1 (thalamus) mug/g in tolerant dogs 2h after injection. No marked accumulation of methadone occurred in selected areas of the CNS in spite of the persistence of drug in these areas. 4. The plasma protein electrophoretic profiles did not differ between control, non-tolerant and tolerant dogs. 5. Similar qualitative patterns of metabolites were observed in non-tolerant and tolerant dogs and the development of tolerance did not appear to modify the metabolic pathways of methadone. PMID:1154803

  4. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle R.; Allcorn, Eric

    2015-10-01

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  5. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  6. Impurity tolerant electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Paffett, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    This project has two central goals. The primary research effort addresses fundamental aspects of Pt electrocatalyst poisoning by CO and an understanding of practical schemes for improving the CO tolerance of electrocatalytic materials. The second mission of this work is an attempt to address, on a fundamental level, the surface chemical properties that enhance the direct electrooxidation of methanol at binary Pt alloy electrode surfaces. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Drought Tolerance in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Prodhan, Zakaria Hossain; Faruq, Golam

    2013-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress. PMID:24319376

  8. Biocular image misalignment tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalich, Melvyn E.; Rash, Clarence E.; van de Pol, Corina; Rowe, Terri L.; Lont, Lisa M.; Peterson, R. David

    2003-09-01

    Biocular helmet-mounted display (HMD) design flexibility and cost are directly related to image misalignment tolerance standards. Currently recommended tolerance levels are based on highly variable data from a number of studies. This paper presents progress of an ongoing study to evaluate optometric measures sensitive to misalignment in partial-overlap biocular optical systems like that proposed for the Comanche RAH-66 helicopter helmet integrated display sighting system (HIDSS). Horizontal divergent and relative vertical misalignments (offsets) of see-through biocular symbology viewed against a simulated daytime background were chosen for this study. Misalignments within and just beyond current tolerance recommendations were evaluated using pre, pre and post, and during measures of visual performance. Data were obtained from seven experimental and four control subjects. The diplopia responses from experimental and control subjects were essentially the same. However, accommodative facility showed a rate decrement following exposure to both types of misalignment. Horizontal heterophorias showed definite post-misalignment increases. Subject responses to questionnaires universally indicated increased adaptation to (ease with) visual tasks over the testing period.

  9. Drought tolerance in wheat.

    PubMed

    Nezhadahmadi, Arash; Prodhan, Zakaria Hossain; Faruq, Golam

    2013-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress. PMID:24319376

  10. Damage tolerance for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The damage tolerance experience in the United States Air Force with military aircraft and in the commercial world with large transport category aircraft indicates that a similar success could be achieved in commuter aircraft. The damage tolerance process is described for the purpose of defining the approach that could be used for these aircraft to ensure structural integrity. Results of some of the damage tolerance assessments for this class of aircraft are examined to illustrate the benefits derived from this approach. Recommendations are given for future damage tolerance assessment of existing commuter aircraft and on the incorporation of damage tolerance capability in new designs.

  11. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple doses of a novel sigma-1 receptor antagonist in three randomized phase I studies

    PubMed Central

    Abadias, Montserrat; Escriche, Marisol; Vaqué, Anna; Sust, Mariano; Encina, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    AIM To assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects of a novel, highly selective, sigma-1 receptor antagonist (S1RA). METHODS Three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluated single oral doses (5–500 mg, study 101; 500–800 mg, study 106) and multiple doses (50–400 mg once daily for 8 days, study 102) of S1RA. Safety and tolerability were assessed by adverse event reporting, clinical laboratory, physical examinations, vital signs and electrocardiography, including Holter monitoring. Pharmacodynamic assessments included computerized cognitive testing. Plasma samples were analyzed using validated HPLC-MS/MS methods. RESULTS One hundred and seventy-five subjects were enrolled. Single and multiple doses were safe and well tolerated, with no serious adverse events. The most common side effects were headache and dizziness. The highest single doses were associated with some mild to moderate transient CNS effects. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached. There were no clinically significant changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG), 24 h Holter monitoring, or in vital signs and laboratory assessments. Subjective CNS pharmacodynamics evaluations showed no relevant differences vs. placebo. Cognitive testing showed no effects on visual memory, executive function, attention or somnolence, while revealing some transient slowing of response for simple reaction time and choice reaction time at 2 h following the administration of higher doses. A fast absorption, rapid distribution and slow elimination were observed (tmax 0.75–2.0 h, t1/2 compatible with once a day administration) and steady-state was reached. No gender differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS S1RA exhibited an acceptable safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile in healthy subjects over the dose range studied. PMID:22607269

  12. Variation and fitness costs for tolerance to different types of herbivore damage in Boechera stricta genotypes with contrasting glucosinolate structures

    PubMed Central

    Manzaneda, Antonio J.; Prasad, Kasavajhala V. S. K.; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Summary Analyses of plant tolerance in response to different modes of herbivory are essential to understand plant defense evolution, yet are still scarce. Allocation costs and trade-offs between tolerance and plant chemical defenses may influence genetic variation for tolerance. However, variation in defenses occurs also for presence or absence of discrete chemical structures, yet, effects of intra-specific polymorphisms on tolerance to multiple herbivores have not been evaluated.Here, in a glasshouse experiment, we investigated variation for tolerance to different types of herbivory damage, and direct allocation costs in 10 genotypes of Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae), a wild relative of Arabidopsis, with contrasting foliar glucosinolate chemical structures (methionine-derived glucosinolates vs glucosinolates derived from branched-chain amino acids).We found significant genetic variation for tolerance to different types of herbivory. Structural variations in the glucosinolate profile did not influence tolerance to damage, but predicted plant fitness. Levels of constitutive and induced glucosinolates varied between genotypes with different structural profiles, but we did not detect any cost of tolerance explaining genetic variation in tolerance among genotypes.Trade-offs among plant tolerance to multiple herbivores may not explain the existence of intermediate levels of tolerance to damage in plants with contrasting chemical defensive profiles. PMID:20663059

  13. Fingerprints of transplant tolerance suggest opportunities for immunosuppression minimization.

    PubMed

    Sarwal, Minnie M

    2016-03-01

    HLA incompatible organ transplant tolerance is the holy grail of transplantation. Stable engraftment of an HLA mismatched allograft and life-long tolerance induction, though feasible in highly selected cohorts with depletional protocols, is not ready for generalized application to the entire transplant recipient pool. It has thus been important to harness biomarkers that can uncover mechanisms and tools for monitoring HLA mismatched recipients that develop a state of operational tolerance, during accidental immunosuppression withdrawal secondary to problems of over-immunosuppression (infection or malignancy) or toxicity (mostly cosmetic or cardiovascular). A restricted and unpredictable group of patients can demonstrate a clinical state of operational tolerance, manifested by state of stable graft function of a graft with HLA mismatches between recipient and donor, intact immune responses to third party antigens and no measurable immunosuppression. These patients have served as the basis for the discovery of clinically correlative biomarkers, in distal biofluids (mainly blood), that can define the existing state of operational clinical tolerance. Operationally tolerant patients are rare, as withdrawal of immunosuppression most often results in rejection and graft loss. Nevertheless, operationally tolerant kidney, liver and heart allograft recipients have been reported. The presence of similar biomarker signature profiles in HLA mismatched transplant recipients on immunosuppression, suggests the feasibility of utilizing these biomarkers for educated immunosuppression minimization with a view to retaining immunological quiescence, while reducing the maintenance immunosuppression burden to a "safe" alloimmune threshold. Though clinical operational tolerance is rare, as immunosuppression cessation most often results in increased alloimmunity and rejection, the biomarker profile studies that have harnessed whole genome profiling suggest that the frequency of this state

  14. Reconfigurable Fault Tolerance for FPGAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The invention allows a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) or similar device to be efficiently reconfigured in whole or in part to provide higher capacity, non-redundant operation. The redundant device consists of functional units such as adders or multipliers, configuration memory for the functional units, a programmable routing method, configuration memory for the routing method, and various other features such as block RAM, I/O (random access memory, input/output) capability, dedicated carry logic, etc. The redundant device has three identical sets of functional units and routing resources and majority voters that correct errors. The configuration memory may or may not be redundant, depending on need. For example, SRAM-based FPGAs will need some type of radiation-tolerant configuration memory, or they will need triple-redundant configuration memory. Flash or anti-fuse devices will generally not need redundant configuration memory. Some means of loading and verifying the configuration memory is also required. These are all components of the pre-existing redundant FPGA. This innovation modifies the voter to accept a MODE input, which specifies whether ordinary voting is to occur, or if redundancy is to be split. Generally, additional routing resources will also be required to pass data between sections of the device created by splitting the redundancy. In redundancy mode, the voters produce an output corresponding to the two inputs that agree, in the usual fashion. In the split mode, the voters select just one input and convey this to the output, ignoring the other inputs. In a dual-redundant system (as opposed to triple-redundant), instead of a voter, there is some means to latch or gate a state update only when both inputs agree. In this case, the invention would require modification of the latch or gate so that it would operate normally in redundant mode, and would separately latch or gate the inputs in non-redundant mode.

  15. G-tolerance standards for aircrew training and selection.

    PubMed

    Gillingham, K K

    1987-10-01

    G tolerance widely among individuals. It stands to reason that aircrew with higher G tolerance are less likely to experience symptoms of G stress in flight than are those with lower G tolerance, and that they can fly highly maneuverable aircraft with greater safety and effectiveness. To assure that aircrew with abnormally low G tolerance are not assigned to aircraft that operate in the high-G environment, a G-tolerance standard and the means to implement that standard are necessary. Since 1977, for human centrifuge operations, the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine has used an informal G-tolerance standard for selecting experimental subjects, evaluating medically disqualified aircrew, and ensuring efficacy of high-G training for aircrew. That standard consists of the subject's being able to sustain a rapidly applied +7-Gz load for 15 s, without totally losing peripheral vision or losing consciousness, while wearing a functioning anti-G suit, performing an anti-G straining maneuver, and sitting in a conventionally configured fighter aircraft seal. Inability to tolerate a 7-G, 15-s, rapid-onset G profile in a centrifuge is also the basis of internationally recognized (NATO, ASCC) definitions of low G tolerance. The rationale for choosing the 7-G, 15-s standard is discussed. Experience with use of this standard, and the equivalent standard of 8 G for 15 s when the F-16-configured seat is used, reveals that fewer than 1% of actively flying aircrew are unable to meet the standard. Eventually a formal, more stringent, G-tolerance standard may become a valuable component of the means of selecting and training aircrew for high-performance fighter aircraft. PMID:3675463

  16. Software reliability through fault-avoidance and fault-tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vouk, Mladen A.; Mcallister, David F.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty independently developed but functionally equivalent software versions were used to investigate and compare empirically some properties of N-version programming, Recovery Block, and Consensus Recovery Block, using the majority and consensus voting algorithms. This was also compared with another hybrid fault-tolerant scheme called Acceptance Voting, using dynamic versions of consensus and majority voting. Consensus voting provides adaptation of the voting strategy to varying component reliability, failure correlation, and output space characteristics. Since failure correlation among versions effectively reduces the cardinality of the space in which the voter make decisions, consensus voting is usually preferable to simple majority voting in any fault-tolerant system. When versions have considerably different reliabilities, the version with the best reliability will perform better than any of the fault-tolerant techniques.

  17. THE RARITY OF DNA PROFILES1

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Bruce S.

    2008-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that forensic DNA profiles are rare, so it was a surprise to some people that different people represented in offender databases are being found to have the same profile. In the first place this is just an illustration of the birthday problem, but a deeper analysis must take into account dependencies among profiles caused by family or population membership. PMID:19030117

  18. Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1994-12-01

    The removal of cell-bound water through air drying and the addition of water to air-dried cells are forces that have played a pivotal role in the evolution of the prokaryotes. In bacterial cells that have been subjected to air drying, the evaporation of free cytoplasmic water (Vf) can be instantaneous, and an equilibrium between cell-bound water (Vb) and the environmental water (vapor) potential (psi wv) may be achieved rapidly. In the air-dried state some bacteria survive only for seconds whereas others can tolerate desiccation for thousands, perhaps millions, of years. The desiccated (anhydrobiotic) cell is characterized by its singular lack of water--with contents as low as 0.02 g of H2O g (dry weight)-1. At these levels the monolayer coverage by water of macromolecules, including DNA and proteins, is disturbed. As a consequence the mechanisms that confer desiccation tolerance upon air-dried bacteria are markedly different from those, such as the mechanism of preferential exclusion of compatible solutes, that preserve the integrity of salt-, osmotically, and freeze-thaw-stressed cells. Desiccation tolerance reflects a complex array of interactions at the structural, physiological, and molecular levels. Many of the mechanisms remain cryptic, but it is clear that they involve interactions, such as those between proteins and co-solvents, that derive from the unique properties of the water molecule. A water replacement hypothesis accounts for how the nonreducing disaccharides trehalose and sucrose preserve the integrity of membranes and proteins. Nevertheless, we have virtually no insight into the state of the cytoplasm of an air-dried cell. There is no evidence for any obvious adaptations of proteins that can counter the effects of air drying or for the occurrence of any proteins that provide a direct and a tangible contribution to cell stability. Among the prokaryotes that can exist as anhydrobiotic cells, the cyanobacteria have a marked capacity to do so. One

  19. Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Potts, M

    1994-01-01

    The removal of cell-bound water through air drying and the addition of water to air-dried cells are forces that have played a pivotal role in the evolution of the prokaryotes. In bacterial cells that have been subjected to air drying, the evaporation of free cytoplasmic water (Vf) can be instantaneous, and an equilibrium between cell-bound water (Vb) and the environmental water (vapor) potential (psi wv) may be achieved rapidly. In the air-dried state some bacteria survive only for seconds whereas others can tolerate desiccation for thousands, perhaps millions, of years. The desiccated (anhydrobiotic) cell is characterized by its singular lack of water--with contents as low as 0.02 g of H2O g (dry weight)-1. At these levels the monolayer coverage by water of macromolecules, including DNA and proteins, is disturbed. As a consequence the mechanisms that confer desiccation tolerance upon air-dried bacteria are markedly different from those, such as the mechanism of preferential exclusion of compatible solutes, that preserve the integrity of salt-, osmotically, and freeze-thaw-stressed cells. Desiccation tolerance reflects a complex array of interactions at the structural, physiological, and molecular levels. Many of the mechanisms remain cryptic, but it is clear that they involve interactions, such as those between proteins and co-solvents, that derive from the unique properties of the water molecule. A water replacement hypothesis accounts for how the nonreducing disaccharides trehalose and sucrose preserve the integrity of membranes and proteins. Nevertheless, we have virtually no insight into the state of the cytoplasm of an air-dried cell. There is no evidence for any obvious adaptations of proteins that can counter the effects of air drying or for the occurrence of any proteins that provide a direct and a tangible contribution to cell stability. Among the prokaryotes that can exist as anhydrobiotic cells, the cyanobacteria have a marked capacity to do so. One

  20. Toxicity and clinical tolerance of lonidamine.

    PubMed

    Robustelli della Cuna, G; Pedrazzoli, P

    1991-04-01

    The new anticancer agent lonidamine has been recently revisited for the treatment of various solid tumors, due to its peculiar and unusual mechanism of action (ie, interference with energy metabolism of tumor cells, morphologically displayed by the appearance of "condensed mitochondria"). First generation trials have in fact demonstrated therapeutic activity and an unusual toxicity profile. Lonidamine is devoid of conventional side effects induced by antiproliferative agents (ie, myelosuppression, stomatitis, cystitis, alopecia, renal, hepatic, and cardiac toxicity). No serious or life-threatening adverse reactions have been recorded even over long term treatment periods. Given as a single agent (in daily doses ranging between 300 and 900 mg) lonidamine induces the following side effects: myalgia, testicular pain, asthenia, ototoxicity, nausea and vomiting, gastric pain, and drowsiness. Hyperesthesia and photophobia have also been reported. In combination with radiotherapy (in oral daily doses ranging between 300 and 450 mg) lonidamine was well tolerated, without any reported evidence of additional toxicity. When associated with cytotoxic agents no enhanced toxicity was observed. In particular, myelosuppression and other conventional nonhematological adverse reactions were never greater than would be expected with chemotherapy alone. The same applies to toxicity and tolerance of lonidamine when used concurrently with hypertermia. The data collected from large series of cancer patients treated with this new agent show that lonidamine is a safe drug whether used alone or in combination with other effective anticancer treatments. The reported therapeutic efficacy and the peculiar toxic profile make lonidamine an interesting new drug for future clinical trials. PMID:2031192

  1. 48 CFR 811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 811.103 Section 811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND... acceptance....

  2. 48 CFR 811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 811.103 Section 811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND... acceptance....

  3. Computer acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer. PMID:22317258

  4. Intelligent failure-tolerant control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of failure-tolerant control is presented, beginning with robust control, progressing through parallel and analytical redundancy, and ending with rule-based systems and artificial neural networks. By design or implementation, failure-tolerant control systems are 'intelligent' systems. All failure-tolerant systems require some degrees of robustness to protect against catastrophic failure; failure tolerance often can be improved by adaptivity in decision-making and control, as well as by redundancy in measurement and actuation. Reliability, maintainability, and survivability can be enhanced by failure tolerance, although each objective poses different goals for control system design. Artificial intelligence concepts are helpful for integrating and codifying failure-tolerant control systems, not as alternatives but as adjuncts to conventional design methods.

  5. Tolerability of hypertonic injectables.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei

    2015-07-25

    Injectable drug products are ideally developed as isotonic solutions. Often, hypertonic injectables may have to be marketed for a variety of reasons such as product solubilization and stabilization. A key concern during product formulation development is the local and systemic tolerability of hypertonic products upon injection. This report reviews and discusses the tolerability in terms of local discomfort, irritation, sensation of heat and pain, along with other observed side effects of hypertonicity in both in-vitro systems and in-vivo animal and human models. These side effects clearly depend on the degree of hypertonicity. The sensation of pain among different injection routes seems to follow this order: intramuscular>subcutaneous>intravenous or intravascular. It is recommended that the upper osmolality limit should be generally controlled under 600 mOsm/kg for drug products intended for intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. For drug products intended for intravenous or intravascular injection, the recommended upper limit should be generally controlled under 1,000 mOsm/kg for small-volume injections (≤ 100 mL) and 500 mOsm/kg for large-volume injections (>100mL). Several options are available for minimization of hypertonicity-induced pain upon product administration. PMID:26027488

  6. SFT: Scalable Fault Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Petrini, Fabrizio; Nieplocha, Jarek; Tipparaju, Vinod

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we will present a new technology that we are currently developing within the SFT: Scalable Fault Tolerance FastOS project which seeks to implement fault tolerance at the operating system level. Major design goals include dynamic reallocation of resources to allow continuing execution in the presence of hardware failures, very high scalability, high efficiency (low overhead), and transparency—requiring no changes to user applications. Our technology is based on a global coordination mechanism, that enforces transparent recovery lines in the system, and TICK, a lightweight, incremental checkpointing software architecture implemented as a Linux kernel module. TICK is completely user-transparent and does not require any changes to user code or system libraries; it is highly responsive: an interrupt, such as a timer interrupt, can trigger a checkpoint in as little as 2.5μs; and it supports incremental and full checkpoints with minimal overhead—less than 6% with full checkpointing to disk performed as frequently as once per minute.

  7. 7 CFR 966.29 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 966.29 Section 966.29 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Committee § 966.29 Acceptance. Any person selected as a committee member or alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the Secretary within ten days after being notified...

  8. 7 CFR 924.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 924.25 Section 924.25 Agriculture....25 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a member or as an alternate member of the committee shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the Secretary promptly after being notified...

  9. 7 CFR 924.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 924.25 Section 924.25 Agriculture....25 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a member or as an alternate member of the committee shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the Secretary promptly after being notified...

  10. 7 CFR 923.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 923.25 Section 923.25 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 923.25 Acceptance. Any person prior... written acceptance of willingness to serve on the committee....

  11. 7 CFR 993.31 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 993.31 Section 993.31 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Prune Marketing Committee § 993.31 Acceptance. Each person selected as a... with the Secretary a written acceptance within 15 days after receiving notice of his selection....

  12. 7 CFR 1215.23 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 1215.23 Section 1215.23 Agriculture... Acceptance. Each individual nominated for membership of the Board shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the Secretary at the time of nomination....

  13. 7 CFR 906.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 906.25 Section 906.25 Agriculture... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee § 906.25 Acceptance. Any person selected as a committee member or alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the...

  14. 7 CFR 946.26 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 946.26 Section 946.26 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 946.26 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a committee member or as an alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with...

  15. 7 CFR 959.29 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 959.29 Section 959.29 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Committee § 959.29 Acceptance. Any person selected as a committee member or alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance within ten days after being notified of such selection....

  16. 12 CFR 250.164 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 250.164 Section 250.164... MISCELLANEOUS INTERPRETATIONS Interpretations § 250.164 Bankers' acceptances. (a) Section 207 of the Bank Export... bankers' acceptances (“BAs”) that may be created by an individual member bank from 50 per cent (or 100...

  17. 24 CFR 3282.355 - Submission acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Submission acceptance. 3282.355... § 3282.355 Submission acceptance. (a) A party whose submission is determined by the Department to be adequate shall be granted provisional acceptance until December 15, 1976, or for a six month period...

  18. 7 CFR 906.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 906.25 Section 906.25 Agriculture... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Committee § 906.25 Acceptance. Any person selected as a committee member or alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the...

  19. 24 CFR 3282.355 - Submission acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submission acceptance. 3282.355... § 3282.355 Submission acceptance. (a) A party whose submission is determined by the Department to be adequate shall be granted provisional acceptance until December 15, 1976, or for a six month period...

  20. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  1. 7 CFR 1250.330 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 1250.330 Section 1250.330 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Egg Board § 1250.330 Acceptance. Any person appointed by the Secretary as a member, or as an alternate member, of the Board shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with...

  2. 7 CFR 923.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 923.25 Section 923.25 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 923.25 Acceptance. Any person prior... written acceptance of willingness to serve on the committee....

  3. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 1205.326 Section 1205.326 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a member or as an alternate member of the Board shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with...

  4. 7 CFR 953.21 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 953.21 Section 953.21 Agriculture... STATES Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 953.21 Acceptance. Any person selected by the... acceptance with the Secretary within the time specified by the Secretary....

  5. 12 CFR 250.164 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 250.164 Section 250.164... MISCELLANEOUS INTERPRETATIONS Interpretations § 250.164 Bankers' acceptances. (a) Section 207 of the Bank Export... bankers' acceptances (“BAs”) that may be created by an individual member bank from 50 per cent (or 100...

  6. 7 CFR 966.29 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 966.29 Section 966.29 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Committee § 966.29 Acceptance. Any person selected as a committee member or alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the Secretary within ten days after being notified...

  7. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  8. 7 CFR 1215.23 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 1215.23 Section 1215.23 Agriculture... Acceptance. Each individual nominated for membership of the Board shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the Secretary at the time of nomination....

  9. 7 CFR 946.26 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 946.26 Section 946.26 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 946.26 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a committee member or as an alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 1205.326 Section 1205.326 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a member or as an alternate member of the Board shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with...

  11. 7 CFR 953.21 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 953.21 Section 953.21 Agriculture... STATES Order Regulating Handling Administrative Committee § 953.21 Acceptance. Any person selected by the... acceptance with the Secretary within the time specified by the Secretary....

  12. 7 CFR 1250.330 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 1250.330 Section 1250.330 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Egg Board § 1250.330 Acceptance. Any person appointed by the Secretary as a member, or as an alternate member, of the Board shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with...

  13. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  14. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  15. 7 CFR 1210.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 1210.323 Section 1210.323 Agriculture... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan National Watermelon Promotion Board § 1210.323 Acceptance. Each person nominated for membership on the Board shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with...

  16. 7 CFR 959.29 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 959.29 Section 959.29 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Committee § 959.29 Acceptance. Any person selected as a committee member or alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance within ten days after being notified of such selection....

  17. 7 CFR 993.31 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 993.31 Section 993.31 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Prune Marketing Committee § 993.31 Acceptance. Each person selected as a... with the Secretary a written acceptance within 15 days after receiving notice of his selection....

  18. 7 CFR 915.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 915.25 Section 915.25 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 915.25 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a member or as an alternate member of the committee shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with...

  19. 7 CFR 1210.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 1210.323 Section 1210.323 Agriculture... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan National Watermelon Promotion Board § 1210.323 Acceptance. Each person nominated for membership on the Board shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with...

  20. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  1. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  2. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  3. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) 41 U.S...) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an agency under current...

  4. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  5. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  6. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Market acceptance. 2911.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  7. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  8. The Relationship between Treatment Acceptability and Familism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pemberton, Joy R.; Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have examined the acceptability of treatments for children with disruptive behaviors. However, few studies to date have tested the effects of home environment variables such as family support on treatment acceptability. In the current study, parents' level of familism was used to predict their willingness to accept several behavioral…

  9. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  10. Fault-tolerant processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A fault-tolerant, fiber optic interconnect, or backplane, which serves as a via for data transfer between modules. Fault tolerance algorithms are embedded in the backplane by dividing the backplane into a read bus and a write bus and placing a redundancy management unit (RMU) between the read bus and the write bus so that all data transmitted by the write bus is subjected to the fault tolerance algorithms before the data is passed for distribution to the read bus. The RMU provides both backplane control and fault tolerance.

  11. Mathematical models for predicting G-duration tolerances.

    PubMed

    Burton, R R

    2000-10-01

    Mathematical models that predict fatigue-based G-duration tolerances for relaxed and straining subjects are developed and validated using published data. These models are based on regression analysis calculations using published G-duration tolerance data of relaxed subjects exposed to 3-5 G and subjects exposed to 6-9 G using an anti-G suit and performing the anti-G straining maneuver. These G-duration models are derived from published G-level tolerance models based on intravascular hydrostatic pressures and physiologic responses to maximum voluntary contractions (MVC%). Included in the validation of these models are the baroreceptor and muscle contraction cardiovascular reflexes that support arterial BP. A basic energy pool that supports a G-duration of 140 s for G exposures > 5 G is theorized. Because of the long duration of sustained G exposures in these models, the physiologic dynamics involved in predicting straining G-duration tolerances, are identified and validated using different time periods, i.e., Phases I and II. These models, based on sustained G exposures to a constant G level are also applicable to exposures of variable G levels known as simulated aerial combat maneuver (SACM) G-profile tolerances. G-duration tolerances > 9 G are predicted using these models for subjects using reclined-seat backs and positive pressure breathing. PMID:11051304

  12. Fault tolerant architecture for artificial olfactory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfivand, Nasser; Nizar Hamidon, Mohd; Abdolzadeh, Vida

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, to cover and mask the faults that occur in the sensing unit of an artificial olfactory system, a novel architecture is offered. The proposed architecture is able to tolerate failures in the sensors of the array and the faults that occur are masked. The proposed architecture for extracting the correct results from the output of the sensors can provide the quality of service for generated data from the sensor array. The results of various evaluations and analysis proved that the proposed architecture has acceptable performance in comparison with the classic form of the sensor array in gas identification. According to the results, achieving a high odor discrimination based on the suggested architecture is possible.

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of Sunflower Genotypes with Contrasting Oxidative Stress Tolerance Reveals Individual- and Combined- Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ramu, Vemanna S.; Paramanantham, Anjugam; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Mohan-Raju, Basavaiah; Udayakumar, Makarla

    2016-01-01

    In nature plants are often simultaneously challenged by different biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the mechanisms underlying plant responses against single stress have been studied considerably, plant tolerance mechanisms under combined stress is not understood. Also, the mechanism used to combat independently and sequentially occurring many number of biotic and abiotic stresses has also not systematically studied. From this context, in this study, we attempted to explore the shared response of sunflower plants to many independent stresses by using meta-analysis of publically available transcriptome data and transcript profiling by quantitative PCR. Further, we have also analyzed the possible role of the genes so identified in contributing to combined stress tolerance. Meta-analysis of transcriptomic data from many abiotic and biotic stresses indicated the common representation of oxidative stress responsive genes. Further, menadione-mediated oxidative stress in sunflower seedlings showed similar pattern of changes in the oxidative stress related genes. Based on this a large scale screening of 55 sunflower genotypes was performed under menadione stress and those contrasting in oxidative stress tolerance were identified. Further to confirm the role of genes identified in individual and combined stress tolerance the contrasting genotypes were individually and simultaneously challenged with few abiotic and biotic stresses. The tolerant hybrid showed reduced levels of stress damage both under combined stress and few independent stresses. Transcript profiling of the genes identified from meta-analysis in the tolerant hybrid also indicated that the selected genes were up-regulated under individual and combined stresses. Our results indicate that menadione-based screening can identify genotypes not only tolerant to multiple number of individual biotic and abiotic stresses, but also the combined stresses. PMID:27314499

  14. Shuttle/Centaur G-prime composite adapters damage tolerance/repair test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sollars, Teresa A.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Shuttle/Centaur Composite Adapters Damage Tolerance/Repair Test program had as its goals the determination of probable and potentially critical defects or damages on the adapters' strength and stability, as well as the adequacy of repairs on significantly damaged areas and the generation of NDT data for the upgrading of acceptance criteria. Such rational accept/reject criteria and repair methods reduce both engineering liason costs and any unnecessary parts-scrapping. Successful 'damage tolerant' design ensures that degradations of strength and stability due to undetected defects or damage will not be catastrophic.

  15. Imprecision profiling.

    PubMed

    Sadler, William A

    2008-08-01

    * Imprecision profiles express precision characteristics of an assay over a range of concentration values. They can convert large quantities of potentially complex data into an easily interpreted graphical summary. * Imprecision profile estimation does not require precisely structured data. This implies that structured method evaluation data can be easily compared with, or merged with, less structured internal quality control (QC) data (or with data from any other source). * Although originally conceived for immunoassays, imprecision profiles could, in principle, be used as a summary method with any measurement system where precision varies with level of measurand. PMID:18852854

  16. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers. PMID:27494790

  17. Tolerance at arm's length: the Dutch experience.

    PubMed

    Schuijer, J

    1990-01-01

    With respect to pedophilia and the age of consent, the Netherlands warrants special attention. Although pedophilia is not as widely accepted in the Netherlands as sometimes is supposed, developments in the judicial practice showed a growing reservedness. These developments are a spin-off of related developments in Dutch society. The tolerance in the Dutch society has roots that go far back in history and is also a consequence of the way this society is structured. The social changes of the sixties and seventies resulted in a "tolerance at arm's length" for pedophiles, which proved to be deceptive when the Dutch government proposed to lower the age of consent in 1985. It resulted in a vehement public outcry. The prevailing sex laws have been the prime target of protagonists of pedophile emancipation. Around 1960, organized as a group, they started to undertake several activities. In the course of their existence, they came to redefine the issue of pedophilia as one of youth emancipation. PMID:2086632

  18. Noise tolerant dendritic lattice associative memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Gerhard X.; Schmalz, Mark S.; Hayden, Eric; Tucker, Marc

    2011-09-01

    Linear classifiers based on computation over the real numbers R (e.g., with operations of addition and multiplication) denoted by (R, +, x), have been represented extensively in the literature of pattern recognition. However, a different approach to pattern classification involves the use of addition, maximum, and minimum operations over the reals in the algebra (R, +, maximum, minimum) These pattern classifiers, based on lattice algebra, have been shown to exhibit superior information storage capacity, fast training and short convergence times, high pattern classification accuracy, and low computational cost. Such attributes are not always found, for example, in classical neural nets based on the linear inner product. In a special type of lattice associative memory (LAM), called a dendritic LAM or DLAM, it is possible to achieve noise-tolerant pattern classification by varying the design of noise or error acceptance bounds. This paper presents theory and algorithmic approaches for the computation of noise-tolerant lattice associative memories (LAMs) under a variety of input constraints. Of particular interest are the classification of nonergodic data in noise regimes with time-varying statistics. DLAMs, which are a specialization of LAMs derived from concepts of biological neural networks, have successfully been applied to pattern classification from hyperspectral remote sensing data, as well as spatial object recognition from digital imagery. The authors' recent research in the development of DLAMs is overviewed, with experimental results that show utility for a wide variety of pattern classification applications. Performance results are presented in terms of measured computational cost, noise tolerance, classification accuracy, and throughput for a variety of input data and noise levels.

  19. Fault Tolerant State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Gary R.; Taft, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    State machines are commonly used to control sequential logic in FPGAs and ASKS. An errant state machine can cause considerable damage to the device it is controlling. For example in space applications, the FPGA might be controlling Pyros, which when fired at the wrong time will cause a mission failure. Even a well designed state machine can be subject to random errors us a result of SEUs from the radiation environment in space. There are various ways to encode the states of a state machine, and the type of encoding makes a large difference in the susceptibility of the state machine to radiation. In this paper we compare 4 methods of state machine encoding and find which method gives the best fault tolerance, as well as determining the resources needed for each method.

  20. [Radiation Tolerant Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Research work in the providing radiation tolerant electronics to NASA and the commercial sector is reported herein. There are four major sections to this report: (1) Special purpose VLSI technology section discusses the status of the VLSI projects as well as the new background technologies that have been developed; (2) Lossless data compression results provide the background and direction of new data compression pursued under this grant; (3) Commercial technology transfer presents an itemization of the commercial technology transfer; and (4) Delivery of VLSI to the Government is a solution and progress report that shows how the Government and Government contractors are gaining access to the technology that has been developed by the MRC.

  1. Tolerances in panoramic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Simon; Dallaire, Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Almost every aspect concerning the optical design of panoramic lenses brings new challenges to optical designers. Examples of these include ray tracing programs having problems finding the entrance pupil which is moving through the field-of-view, optimization, production particularities due to the shape of the lenses, and ways of tolerancing these systems having strong distortion. This last topic will be discussed in this paper. We will start from a historical perspective on the understanding of panoramic imagery. This will lead us to the modern panoramic imager called the Panomorph lens. We will discuss the particular case of the tolerance of the front surface (most of the time a freeform surface) and the impact on the image quality, both image footprint and field curvature. We will explain the behavior using first and second order approaches.

  2. ABSL 18650HC Lot Acceptance Test- Ensuring Consistency And Flight Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, Rachel; Thwaite, Carl

    2011-10-01

    ABSL manufactures Space batteries using commercial cells. As the battery sizing is based on test data from cells purchased up to 10 years ago, a rigorous programme of testing is carried out to ensure batch consistency, flight quality and any implications for sizing are found early. A Lot Acceptance Test (LAT) is carried out on each new batch of cells purchased. A selection of cells undergo tests on their build quality, environmental tolerance, safety devices and lifetime degradation. This process will be described, along with issues such as setting acceptance criteria, comparison of results between batches, and what happens if a batch fails.

  3. The role of experiential avoidance in acute pain tolerance: a laboratory test.

    PubMed

    Feldner, Matthew T; Hekmat, Hamid; Zvolensky, Michael J; Vowles, Kevin E; Secrist, Zachary; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2006-06-01

    The present investigation examined the role of experiential avoidance in terms of acute pain tolerance and subsequent recovery. Seventy nonclinical participants completed the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire and underwent a well-established cold pressor task. Results indicated that individuals reporting higher levels of experiential avoidance had lower pain endurance and tolerance and recovered more slowly from this particular type of aversive event. Consistent with theoretical prediction, these findings suggest that experiential avoidance may play a role in tolerance of acute pain. PMID:15882839

  4. Leadership Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teach, Beverly; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents profiles of two leaders in the field of educational media and technology: Carolyn Guss and Mendel Sherman, both retired professors from Indiana University's program in Information Systems Technology. (KRN)

  5. Pioneer Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Channa Beth

    1987-01-01

    Profiles Herbert A. Sweet, founder and director of Acorn Farms Day Camp (Indiana) for 44 years. Includes reminiscences about the camp's program, staffing, food, World War II, affiliation with the American Camping Association, and camps/directors of today. (NEC)

  6. Pathways to Tolerance: Student Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Dorothy, Ed.; Stanhope, Victoria, Ed.

    Ideas for schools to support tolerance and celebrate student diversity are presented in this volume of reprinted articles. Titles include: (1) "One of Us, One of Them: Lessons in Diversity for a School Psychologist" (M. M. Chittooran); (2) "The Tolerance-in-Action Campaign" (H. M. Knoff); (3) "Immigrant Parents and the School" (R. Rhodes, D.…

  7. Acceptance in Romantic Relationships: The Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, Brian D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Despite the recent emphasis on acceptance in romantic relationships, no validated measure of relationship acceptance presently exists. To fill this gap, the 20-item Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory (FAPBI; A. Christensen & N. S. Jacobson, 1997) was created to assess separately the acceptability and frequency of both…

  8. Understanding kick tolerance and its significance in drilling planning and execution

    SciTech Connect

    Redmann, K.P. Jr. )

    1991-12-01

    Kick tolerance is a drilling parameter that has prompted both confusion and misunderstanding in the drilling industry, yet its importance to drilling engineers may be increasing exponentially. The increasing number of worldwide drilling catastrophes may spur government agencies to tighten controls on casing-setting-depth criteria, requiring pipe to be set once minimal kick tolerance values are reached. A thorough understanding of kick tolerance is necessary in both drilling operations and casing program design. Confusion involving kick tolerance may be attributed to the concept of zero gain, which is commonly referred to in many accepted definitions of kick tolerance. This paper presents an innovative approach to determining true kick tolerance that not only incorporates the conditions of an influx within the wellbore but also considers the possible reduction in kick tolerance caused by the circulation of that influx from the wellbore. New techniques are available for hand-held calculators, which are now more accurate in determining influx pressure and volume anywhere within the wellbore. In this paper a typical well example with illustrations describes kick tolerance and emphasizes the influence of other drilling parameters. Integration of kick- tolerance considerations into the well planning process also is demonstrated.

  9. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selectionmore » and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.« less

  10. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.

  11. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  12. The beginning of clinical tolerance in solid organ allografts.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Anthony P

    2004-06-01

    Development of effective multidrug immunosuppressive regimens and improvements in the management of chronically immunosuppressed patients have produced extraordinary patient and allograft survival in clinical organ transplantation. Unfortunately, significant problems of morbidity and mortality related to chronic immunosuppression remain. Thus, there is an enormous motivation and interest in inducing specific unresponsiveness (tolerance) to clinical solid organ allografts. Operational clinical tolerance may be defined as stable, normal graft function in the total absence of a requirement for maintenance immunosuppression. Alternatively, the concept of employing tolerogenic strategies to permit graft acceptance with dramatically reduced immunosuppression requirements is referred to as prope' or minimal immunosuppression tolerance. There have been isolated examples of clinical tolerance, usually in the context of spontaneous or induced donor chimerism, excellent HLA matching, and/or drug weaning or patient noncompliance. The various attempts that are currently being employed to induce some type of clinical tolerance are reviewed in this manuscript. Strategies in which all immunosuppression was to be withdrawn from the recipient (donor-specific unresponsiveness) are first discussed. These include strategies that utilize initial immunoablation with varying doses of irradiation and/or lymphocytic antibodies with or without donor-specific bone marrow infusion and short-term standard immunosuppressive therapy. Strategies to induce prope' or minimal immunosuppression tolerance that utilize induction lymphoablation with polyclonal or monoclonal antilymphocyte antibodies, with or without donor bone marrow infusion, followed by limited low-dose immunosuppressive therapy are also discussed. The ethical considerations in testing clinical tolerance strategies and protocols are discussed in detail. The limited number of clinical tolerance studies already available affirms that

  13. Comparative acceptability of transnasal esophagoscopy and capsule esophagoscopy: a randomized controlled trial in a veteran population

    PubMed Central

    Chak, Amitabh; Alashkar, Bronia M.; Isenberg, Gerard A.; Chandar, Apoorva K.; Greer, Katarina B.; Hepner, Ashley; Pulice, Richard D.; Vemana, Srikrishna; Falck-Ytter, Yngve; Faulx, Ashley L.

    2014-01-01

    Background EGD screening for Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is costly with insufficient evidence to support its effectiveness. Objective To compare acceptance and tolerability of 2 novel unsedated office-based endoscopic screening techniques. Design Randomized block study design with allocation concealment. Setting Outpatient clinic setting at a Veteran Affairs (VA) medical center. Patients A total of 184 veterans with or without GERD symptoms. Interventions (1) Transnasal esophagoscopy (TNE); (2) Capsule esophagoscopy (ECE). Main outcome measurements (1) Acceptance of TNE and ECE; (2) Tolerability of TNE and ECE and effectiveness of BE screening. Results Esophageal screening was accepted by 184 of 1210 (15.2%) veterans. The majority were men (96%) and African American (58%) with a mean age of 58. 9 (8.1) years. Five (5%) TNE subjects and 2 (2%) ECE subjects refused the assigned procedure after randomization (p = 0.25). Eleven (12.6%) patients randomized to TNE crossed the minimal clinically important threshold for overall procedure tolerability as opposed to none randomized to ECE (p = 0.001). Effectiveness of BE screening was not significantly different in both procedures (TNE vs. ECE = 3.2% vs. 5.4%, p = 0.47). Overall, BE was present in 8 of 75 (10.6%) whites, and 0 of 107 African American veterans (p < 0.001). Limitations General veteran population may not reflect the screening population for BE. Conclusions Despite a small proportion of veterans expressing interest in esophageal screening, both TNE and ECE were feasible in the outpatient clinic setting and accepted by >95% who did. Screening was only effective in Caucasians. Moderate differences in tolerability between TNE and ECE notwithstanding, cost considerations along with availability of equipment and trained personnel should guide the modality to be used for BE screening. PMID:24973176

  14. Ecotoxicological assessment of soil microbial community tolerance to glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Allegrini, Marco; Zabaloy, María Celina; Gómez, Elena del V

    2015-11-15

    Glyphosate is the most used herbicide worldwide. While contrasting results have been observed related with its impact on soil microbial communities, more studies are necessary to elucidate the potential effects of the herbicide. Differences in tolerance detected by Pollution Induced Community Tolerance (PICT) approach could reflect these effects. The objective of the present study was to assess the tolerance to glyphosate (the active ingredient and a commercial formulation) of contrasting soils with (H) and without (NH) history of exposure. The hypothesis of a higher tolerance in H soils due to a sustained selection pressure on community structure was tested through the PICT approach. Results indicated that tolerance to glyphosate is not consistent with previous history of exposure to the herbicide either for the active ingredient or for a commercial formulation. Soils of H and NH sites were also characterized in order to determine to what extent they differ in their functional diversity and structure of microbial communities. Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and Quantitative Real Time PCR (Q-PCR) indicated high similarity of Eubacteria profiles as well as no significant differences in abundance, respectively, between H and NH sites. Community level physiological profiling (CLPP) indicated some differences in respiration of specific sources but functional diversity was very similar as reflected by catabolic evenness (E). These results support PICT assay, which ideally requires soils with differences in their exposure to the contaminant but minor differences in other characteristics. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of PICT approach with glyphosate examining tolerance at soil microbial community level. PMID:26150308

  15. Real World Experiences: Pirfenidone and Nintedanib are Effective and Well Tolerated Treatments for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Gareth; Toellner, Hannah; Morris, Helen; Leonard, Colm; Chaudhuri, Nazia

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) now has two licensed treatments available. Pirfenidone was the first drug to be licensed and approved for use, followed by nintedanib. We set out our real world experience with these agents in terms of their adverse events profile outside the restrictions of a clinical trial. We have demonstrated in the real world setting, that side effects are common and predominantly gastrointestinal with both therapies. Our study shows that the side effects can be effectively managed in the majority of patients with an acceptable discontinuation rate similar to that seen in the clinical trials. These findings are compelling despite the fact that the patients in our study are older, have severer disease as depicted by baseline lung function and more co-morbidities. Our data provides ongoing evidence of the safety and tolerability of both pirfenidone and nintedanib in patients who would not have met the rigorous criteria to be included in a clinical trial. Both these agents are effective in the management of IPF and slow the progression of this debilitating life limiting condition. PMID:27598213

  16. [Immune tolerance after renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Krajewska, Magdalena; Weyde, Wacław; Klinger, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Progress in immunosuppressive therapy has improved short-term survival of renal allografts by decreasing the frequency of acute rejections. However, the long-term survival of renal grafts has not improved. Transplanted kidneys are lost in the late period after transplantation as a result of vasculopathy and chronic rejection. Immunological tolerance means the lack of immunological activity towards certain antigens while the response towards others remains correct. The induction of immunological tolerance of donor antigens (transplant tolerance) is examined intensively to work out treatment methods which will allow prevention of chronic allograft rejection. The paper includes an overview of current knowledge on allograft tolerance. Immune response to alloantigens is described and the mechanisms of immunological tolerance induction (including clonal deletion, anergy connected with the microchimerism phenomenon, and active suppression caused by regulatory lymphocytes) are characterized. The role of dendritic cells in the process of inducing and maintaining tolerance is highlighted. Tolerance-inducing strategies in renal transplant recipients and clinically applied evaluation methods are presented. At present, optimizing recipient matching is used to decrease the risk of graft rejection. Hopefully, gene therapy will be possible in the near future. However, before introducing such a procedure into clinical studies, optimal therapy conditions and risk evaluation must be defined in tests on animals. PMID:16552396

  17. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  18. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  19. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  20. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  1. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  2. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  3. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  4. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  5. Contingencies promote delay tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ghaemmaghami, Mahshid; Hanley, Gregory P; Jessel, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    The effectiveness of functional communication training as treatment for problem behavior depends on the extent to which treatment can be extended to typical environments that include unavoidable and unpredictable reinforcement delays. Time-based progressive delay (TBPD) often results in the loss of acquired communication responses and the resurgence of problem behavior, whereas contingency-based progressive delay (CBPD) appears to be effective for increasing tolerance for delayed reinforcement. No direct comparison of TBPD and CBPD has, however, been conducted. We used single-subject designs to compare the relative efficacy of TBPD and CBPD. Four individuals who engaged in problem behavior (e.g., aggression, vocal and motor disruptions, self-injury) participated. Results were consistent across all participants, and showed lower rates of problem behavior and collateral responses during CBPD than during TBPD. The generality of CBPD treatment effects, including optimal rates of communication and compliance with demands, was demonstrated across a small but heterogeneous group of participants, reinforcement contingencies, and contexts. PMID:27449401

  6. In acceptance we trust? Conceptualising acceptance as a viable approach to NGO security management.

    PubMed

    Fast, Larissa A; Freeman, C Faith; O'Neill, Michael; Rowley, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    This paper documents current understanding of acceptance as a security management approach and explores issues and challenges non-governmental organisations (NGOs) confront when implementing an acceptance approach to security management. It argues that the failure of organisations to systematise and clearly articulate acceptance as a distinct security management approach and a lack of organisational policies and procedures concerning acceptance hinder its efficacy as a security management approach. The paper identifies key and cross-cutting components of acceptance that are critical to its effective implementation in order to advance a comprehensive and systematic concept of acceptance. The key components of acceptance illustrate how organisational and staff functions affect positively or negatively an organisation's acceptance, and include: an organisation's principles and mission, communications, negotiation, programming, relationships and networks, stakeholder and context analysis, staffing, and image. The paper contends that acceptance is linked not only to good programming, but also to overall organisational management and structures. PMID:23278470

  7. Electron beam energy QA - a note on measurement tolerances.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Juergen; Nyflot, Matthew J; Smith, Wade P; Wottoon, Landon S; Young, Lori; Yang, Fei; Kim, Minsun; Hendrickson, Kristi R G; Ford, Eric; Kalet, Alan M; Cao, Ning; Dempsey, Claire; Sandison, George A

    2016-01-01

    Monthly QA is recommended to verify the constancy of high-energy electron beams generated for clinical use by linear accelerators. The tolerances are defined as 2%/2 mm in beam penetration according to AAPM task group report 142. The practical implementation is typically achieved by measuring the ratio of readings at two different depths, preferably near the depth of maximum dose and at the depth corresponding to half the dose maximum. Based on beam commissioning data, we show that the relationship between the ranges of energy ratios for different electron energies is highly nonlinear. We provide a formalism that translates measurement deviations in the reference ratios into change in beam penetration for electron energies for six Elekta (6-18 MeV) and eight Varian (6-22 MeV) electron beams. Experimental checks were conducted for each Elekta energy to compare calcu-lated values with measurements, and it was shown that they are in agreement. For example, for a 6 MeV beam a deviation in the measured ionization ratio of ± 15% might still be acceptable (i.e., be within ± 2 mm), whereas for an 18 MeV beam the corresponding tolerance might be ± 6%. These values strongly depend on the initial ratio chosen. In summary, the relationship between differences of the ionization ratio and the corresponding beam energy are derived. The findings can be translated into acceptable tolerance values for monthly QA of electron beam energies. PMID:27074488

  8. Mixed chimerism to induce tolerance for solid organ transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, S.M.; Nalesnik, M.; Hronakes, M.L.; Oh, E.; Ildstad, S.T. )

    1991-04-01

    Chimerism, or the coexistence of tissue elements from more than one genetically different strain or species in an organism, is the only experimental state that results in the induction of donor-specific transplantation tolerance. Transplantation of a mixture of T-cell-depleted syngeneic (host-type) plus T-cell-depleted allogeneic (donor) bone marrow into a normal adult recipient mouse (A + B----A) results in mixed allogeneic chimerism. Recipient mice exhibit donor-specific transplantation tolerance, yet have full immunocompetence to recognize and respond to third-party transplantation antigens. After complete hematolymphopoietic repopulation at 28 days, animals accept a donor-specific skin graft but reject major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus-disparate third-party grafts. We now report that permanent graft acceptance can also be achieved when the graft is placed at the time of bone marrow transplantation. Histologically, grafts were viable and had only minimal inflammatory changes. This model may have potential future clinical application for the induction of donor-specific transplantation tolerance.

  9. Profile video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voglewede, Paul E.; Zampieron, Jeffrey

    2009-05-01

    For unattended persistent surveillance there is a need for a system which provides the following information: target classification, target quantity estimate, cargo presence and characterization, direction of travel, and action. Over highly bandwidth restricted links, such as Iridium, SATCOM or HF, the data rates of common techniques are too high, even after aggressive compression, to deliver the required intelligence in a timely, low power manner. We propose the following solution to this data rate problem: Profile Video. Profile video is a new technique which provides all of the required information in a very low data-rate package.

  10. Pornography, public acceptance and sex related crime: a review.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Milton

    2009-01-01

    A vocal segment of the population has serious concerns about the effect of pornography in society and challenges its public use and acceptance. This manuscript reviews the major issues associated with the availability of sexually explicit material. It has been found everywhere it was scientifically investigated that as pornography has increased in availability, sex crimes have either decreased or not increased. It is further been found that sexual erotica has not only wide spread personal acceptance and use but general tolerance for its availability to adults. This attitude is seen by both men and women and not only in urban communities but also in reputed conservative ones as well. Further this finding holds nationally in the United States and in widely different countries around the world. Indeed, no country where this matter has been scientifically studied has yet been found to think pornography ought be restricted from adults. The only consistent finding is that adults prefer to have the material restricted from children's production or use. PMID:19665229

  11. When is diagnostic testing inappropriate or irrational? Acceptable regret approach.

    PubMed

    Hozo, Iztok; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    The authors provide a new model within the framework of theories of bounded rationality for the observed physicians' behavior that their ordering of diagnostic tests may not be rational. Contrary to the prevailing thinking, the authors find that physicians do not act irrationally or inappropriately when they order diagnostic tests in usual clinical practice. When acceptable regret (i.e., regret that a decision maker finds tolerable upon making a wrong decision) is taken into account, the authors show that physicians tend to order diagnostic tests at a higher level of pretest probability of disease than predicted by expected utility theory. They also show why physicians tend to overtest when regret about erroneous decisions is extremely small. Finally, they explain variations in the practice of medicine. They demonstrate that in the same clinical situation, different decision makers might have different acceptable regret thresholds for withholding treatment, for ordering a diagnostic test, or for administering treatment. This in turn means that for some decision makers, the most rational strategy is to do nothing, whereas for others, it may be to order a diagnostic test, and still for others, choosing treatment may be the most rational course of action. PMID:18480041

  12. Disruption of Murine Cardiac Allograft Acceptance by Latent Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Charles H.; Bickerstaff, Alice A.; Wang, Jiao-Jing; Zimmerman, Peter D.; Forster, Meghan R.; Nadasdy, Tibor; Colvin, Robert B.; Hadley, Gregg A.; Orosz, Charles G.

    2008-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation is a well described complication of solid organ transplantation. These studies were performed to 1.) determine if cardiac allograft transplantation of latently infected recipients results in reactivation of CMV, and 2.) determine what impact CMV might have on development of graft acceptance/tolerance. BALB/c cardiac allografts were transplanted into C57BL/6 mice with/without latent murine CMV (MCMV). Recipients were treated with gallium nitrate induction and monitored for graft survival, viral immunity, and donor reactive DTH responses. Latently infected allograft recipients had ∼80% graft loss by 100 days after transplant, compared with ∼8% graft loss in naïve recipients. PCR evaluation demonstrated that MCMV was transmitted to cardiac grafts in all latently infected recipients, and 4/8 allografts had active viral transcription compared to 0/6 isografts. Latently infected allograft recipients showed intragraft IFN-α expression consistent with MCMV reactivation, but MCMV did not appear to negatively influence regulatory gene expression. Infected allograft recipients had disruption of splenocyte DTH regulation, but recipient splenocytes remained unresponsive to donor antigen even after allograft losses. These data suggest that transplantation in an environment of latent CMV infection may reactivate virus, and that intragraft responses disrupt development of allograft acceptance. PMID:18976295

  13. Blood tolerant laccase by directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Mate, Diana M; Gonzalez-Perez, David; Falk, Magnus; Kittl, Roman; Pita, Marcos; De Lacey, Antonio L; Ludwig, Roland; Shleev, Sergey; Alcalde, Miguel

    2013-02-21

    High-redox potential laccases are powerful biocatalysts with a wide range of applications in biotechnology. We have converted a thermostable laccase from a white-rot fungus into a blood tolerant laccase. Adapting the fitness of this laccase to the specific composition of human blood (above neutral pH, high chloride concentration) required several generations of directed evolution in a surrogate complex blood medium. Our evolved laccase was tested in both human plasma and blood, displaying catalytic activity while retaining a high redox potential at the T1 copper site. Mutations introduced in the second coordination sphere of the T1 site shifted the pH activity profile and drastically reduced the inhibitory effect of chloride. This proof of concept that laccases can be adapted to function in extreme conditions opens an array of opportunities for implantable nanobiodevices, chemical syntheses, and detoxification. PMID:23438751

  14. Freeze-Tolerant Condensers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Christopher J.; Elkouhk, Nabil

    2004-01-01

    Two condensers designed for use in dissipating heat carried by working fluids feature two-phase, self-adjusting configurations such that their working lengths automatically vary to suit their input power levels and/or heat-sink temperatures. A key advantage of these condensers is that they can function even if the temperatures of their heat sinks fall below the freezing temperatures of their working fluids and the fluids freeze. The condensers can even be restarted from the frozen condition. The top part of the figure depicts the layout of the first condenser. A two-phase (liquid and vapor) condenser/vapor tube is thermally connected to a heat sink typically, a radiatively or convectively cooled metal panel. A single-phase (liquid) condensate-return tube (return artery) is also thermally connected to the heat sink. At intervals along their lengths, the condenser/vapor tube and the return artery are interconnected through porous plugs. This condenser configuration affords tolerance of freezing, variable effective thermal conductance (such that the return temperature remains nearly constant, independently of the ultimate sink temperature), and overall pressure drop smaller than it would be without the porous interconnections. An additional benefit of this configuration is that the condenser can be made to recover from the completely frozen condition either without using heaters, or else with the help of heaters much smaller than would otherwise be needed. The second condenser affords the same advantages and is based on a similar principle, but it has a different configuration that affords improved flow of working fluid, simplified construction, reduced weight, and faster recovery from a frozen condition.

  15. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Curtis; Chichester, Heather; Johns, Jesse; Teague, Melissa; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  16. Analytical method transfer: new descriptive approach for acceptance criteria definition.

    PubMed

    de Fontenay, Gérald

    2008-01-01

    Within the pharmaceutical industry, method transfers are now commonplace during the life cycle of an analytical method. Setting acceptance criteria for analytical transfers is, however, much more difficult than usually described. Criteria which are too wide may lead to the acceptance of a laboratory providing non-equivalent results, resulting in bad release/reject decisions for pharmaceutical products (a consumer risk). On the contrary, criteria which are too tight may lead to the rejection of an equivalent laboratory, resulting in time costs and delay in the transfer process (an industrial risk). The consumer risk has to be controlled first. But the risk does depend on the method capability (tolerance to method precision ratio). Analytical transfers were simulated for different scenarios (different method capabilities and transfer designs, 10,000 simulations per test). The results of the simulations showed that the method capability has a strong influence on the probability of success of its transfer. For the transfer design, the number of independent analytical runs to be performed on a same batch has much more influence than the number of replicates per run, especially when the inter-day variability of the method is high. A classic descriptive approach for analytical method transfer does not take into account the variability of the method, and therefore, no risks are controlled. Tools for designing analytical transfers and defining a new descriptive acceptance criterion, which take into account the intra- and inter-day variability of the method, are provided for a better risk evaluation by non-statisticians. PMID:17961955

  17. 48 CFR 3011.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 3011.103 Section 3011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Developing Requirements Documents 3011.103 Market acceptance. (a) Contracting officers may act on behalf...

  18. 7 CFR 930.26 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 930.26 Section 930.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Administrative Body § 930.26 Acceptance. Each person to be appointed by the Secretary as a member or as...

  19. 48 CFR 2811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2811.103 Section 2811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMPETITION AND... acceptance. Pursuant to FAR 11.103, the HCA or designee at a level not lower than the BPC has the...

  20. 48 CFR 1311.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 1311.103 Section 1311.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND... acceptance. The designee authorized as the head of the agency is set forth in CAM 1301.70....

  1. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acceptance. 251.62 Section 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become...

  2. 48 CFR 3011.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 3011.103 Section 3011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Developing Requirements Documents 3011.103 Market acceptance. (a) Contracting officers may act on behalf...

  3. 48 CFR 1011.103 - Market Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market Acceptance. 1011.103 Section 1011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMPETITION AND... Acceptance. (a) BCPOs can act on behalf of the head of the agency in this subpart only. BCPOs,...

  4. 7 CFR 916.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 916.25 Section 916.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 916.25 Acceptance. Each person to be selected by the Secretary as...

  5. 43 CFR 3452.1-3 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acceptance. 3452.1-3 Section 3452.1-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT..., Cancellation, and Termination § 3452.1-3 Acceptance. The effective date of the lease relinquishment shall,...

  6. 48 CFR 1311.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 1311.103 Section 1311.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND... acceptance. The designee authorized as the head of the agency is set forth in CAM 1301.70....

  7. 7 CFR 916.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 916.25 Section 916.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 916.25 Acceptance. Each person to be selected by the Secretary as...

  8. 7 CFR 920.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 920.25 Section 920.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Administrative Body § 920.25 Acceptance. Each person to be selected by the Secretary as a member or as...

  9. 5 CFR 1655.11 - Loan acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR 1653.3(c); or (f) The participant has received a taxable loan distribution from the TSP within the... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan acceptance. 1655.11 Section 1655.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD LOAN PROGRAM § 1655.11 Loan acceptance....

  10. 7 CFR 930.26 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 930.26 Section 930.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Administrative Body § 930.26 Acceptance. Each person to be appointed by the Secretary as a member or as...

  11. 7 CFR 945.27 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 945.27 Section 945.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... § 945.27 Acceptance. Any person nominated to serve on the committee as a member or as an alternate...

  12. 19 CFR 114.21 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance. 114.21 Section 114.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARNETS Processing of Carnets § 114.21 Acceptance. A carnet executed in accordance with § 114.3 shall...

  13. 19 CFR 114.21 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acceptance. 114.21 Section 114.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARNETS Processing of Carnets § 114.21 Acceptance. A carnet executed in accordance with § 114.3 shall...

  14. 7 CFR 920.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 920.25 Section 920.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Administrative Body § 920.25 Acceptance. Each person to be selected by the Secretary as a member or as...

  15. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 932.32 Section 932.32 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a member or as an alternate member of the committee shall qualify by filing a written...

  16. 5 CFR 1655.11 - Loan acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR 1653.3(c); or (f) The participant has received a taxable loan distribution from the TSP within the... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan acceptance. 1655.11 Section 1655.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD LOAN PROGRAM § 1655.11 Loan acceptance....

  17. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 411.103 Section 411.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND... acceptance. (a) The head of the contracting activity (HCA) may determine that offerors must demonstrate,...

  18. 7 CFR 989.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 989.32 Section 989.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Raisin Administrative Committee § 989.32 Acceptance. Each person to...

  19. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 932.32 Section 932.32 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a member or as an alternate member of the committee shall qualify by filing a written...

  20. 7 CFR 945.27 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 945.27 Section 945.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... § 945.27 Acceptance. Any person nominated to serve on the committee as a member or as an alternate...

  1. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 411.103 Section 411.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND... acceptance. (a) The head of the contracting activity (HCA) may determine that offerors must demonstrate,...

  2. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance. 251.62 Section 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become...

  3. 49 CFR 193.2303 - Construction acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2303 Construction acceptance. No person may place in...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2303 - Construction acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2303 Construction acceptance. No person may place in...

  5. Why Do Women Accept the Rape Myth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabone, Christopher; And Others

    The rape myth, defined as prejudicial, stereotyped, or false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists, is accepted by individuals from varied walks of life, including women. It has been suggested that rape myth acceptance (RMA) among women serves a protective function by enabling women to dissociate themselves from a rape victim's experience.…

  6. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  7. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  8. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Market acceptance. 411.103... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.103 Market... accordance with FAR 11.103(a), the market acceptability of their items to be offered. (b) The...

  9. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Market acceptance. 411.103... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.103 Market... accordance with FAR 11.103(a), the market acceptability of their items to be offered. (b) The...

  10. 48 CFR 3011.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Market acceptance. 3011.103 Section 3011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY... Requirements Documents 3011.103 Market acceptance. (a) Contracting officers may act on behalf of the head...

  11. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market acceptance. 411.103... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.103 Market... accordance with FAR 11.103(a), the market acceptability of their items to be offered. (b) The...

  12. 48 CFR 3011.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market acceptance. 3011.103 Section 3011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Developing Requirements Documents 3011.103 Market acceptance. (a) Contracting officers may act on behalf...

  13. 48 CFR 3011.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Market acceptance. 3011.103 Section 3011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Developing Requirements Documents 3011.103 Market acceptance. (a) Contracting officers may act on behalf...

  14. Four therapeutic diets: adherence and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Berkow, Susan E; Barnard, Neal; Eckart, Jill; Katcher, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Many health conditions are treated, at least in part, by therapeutic diets. Although the success of any intervention depends on its acceptability to the patient, the acceptability of therapeutic diets and factors that influence it have been largely neglected in nutrition research. A working definition of acceptability is proposed and an examination and summary are provided of available data on the acceptability of common diet regimens used for medical conditions. The goal is to suggest ways to improve the success of therapeutic diets. The proposed working definition of "acceptability" refers to the user's judgment of the advantages and disadvantages of a therapeutic diet-in relation to palatability, costs, and effects on eating behaviour and health-that influence the likelihood of adherence. Very low-calorie, reduced-fat omnivorous, vegetarian and vegan, and low-carbohydrate diets all achieve acceptability among the majority of users in studies of up to one year, in terms of attrition and adherence rates and results of questionnaires assessing eating behaviours. Longer studies are fewer, but they suggest that vegetarian, vegan, and reduced-fat diets are acceptable, as indicated by sustained changes in nutrient intake. Few studies of this length have been published for very low-calorie or low-carbohydrate diets. Long-term studies of adherence and acceptability of these and other therapeutic diets are warranted. PMID:21144137

  15. Improving Acceptance of Automated Counseling Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James H.; And Others

    This paper discusses factors that may influence the acceptance of automated counseling procedures by the military. A consensual model of the change process is presented which structures organizational readiness, the change strategy, and acceptance as integrated variables to be considered in a successful installation. A basic introduction to the…

  16. Enzyme Reactions and Acceptability of Plant Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, James K.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an overview of enzyme reactions which contribute to the character and acceptability of plant foods. A detailed discussion of polyphenoloxidase is also provided as an example of an enzyme which can markedly affect the character and acceptability of such foods. (JN)

  17. 49 CFR 193.2303 - Construction acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2303 Construction acceptance. No person may place in service... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  18. 34 CFR 668.57 - Acceptable documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptable documentation. 668.57 Section 668.57... Application Information § 668.57 Acceptable documentation. (a) Adjusted Gross Income (AGI), income earned from... applicant, the documentation set forth in paragraph (a)(4) of this section if the individual for the...

  19. The acceptability of ending a patient's life

    PubMed Central

    Guedj, M; Gibert, M; Maudet, A; Munoz, S; Mullet, E; Sorum, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To clarify how lay people and health professionals judge the acceptability of ending the life of a terminally ill patient. Design: Participants judged this acceptability in a set of 16 scenarios that combined four factors: the identity of the actor (patient or physician), the patient's statement or not of a desire to have his life ended, the nature of the action as relatively active (injecting a toxin) or passive (disconnecting life support), and the type of suffering (intractable physical pain, complete dependence, or severe psychiatric illness). Participants: 115 lay people and 72 health professionals (22 nurse's aides, 44 nurses, six physicians) in Toulouse, France. Main measurements: Mean acceptability ratings for each scenario for each group. Results: Life ending interventions are more acceptable to lay people than to the health professionals. For both, acceptability is highest for intractable physical suffering; is higher when patients end their own lives than when physicians do so; and, when physicians are the actors, is higher when patients have expressed a desire to die (voluntary euthanasia) than when they have not (involuntary euthanasia). In contrast, when patients perform the action, acceptability for the lay people and nurse's aides does not depend on whether the patient has expressed a desire to die, while for the nurses and physicians unassisted suicide is more acceptable than physician assisted suicide. Conclusions: Lay participants judge the acceptability of life ending actions in largely the same way as do healthcare professionals. PMID:15923476

  20. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development. PMID:22416723

  1. A Distributive Model of Treatment Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.

    2008-01-01

    A model of treatment acceptability is proposed that distributes overall treatment acceptability into three separate categories of influence. The categories are comprised of societal influences, consultant influences, and influences associated with consumers of treatments. Each of these categories are defined and their inter-relationships within…

  2. 40 CFR 161.70 - Acceptable protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acceptable protocols. 161.70 Section 161.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.70 Acceptable protocols....

  3. 40 CFR 161.70 - Acceptable protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acceptable protocols. 161.70 Section 161.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.70 Acceptable protocols....

  4. The ethical and practical aspects of acceptance and universal patient acceptance.

    PubMed

    Corsino, Bruce V; Patthoff, Donald E

    2006-11-01

    "Acceptance" is an often presupposed, hidden core value and ethic focused on how dental and other health practitioners first accept people as possible patients. The three basic styles of patient acceptance are random, selective, and universal. Reduced public access to care results from the practice of random and selective acceptance. Only universal acceptance creates a potential pathway for improved access to care. The notion of Universal Patient Acceptance (UPA) is discussed here as one kind of applied ethical tool or clinical practice that allows for the ethic of acceptance to be more effectively pursued in daily practice. We suggest that health providers falsely surmise that they already understand and practice Universal Patient Acceptance. That myth and perspective are partly what keeps Acceptance hidden as an ethic and overlooked as a potential way to foster dialogue and indirectly promote better access to care. Without Universal Patient Acceptance, dental and health providers will continue to silently engage in practice patterns that adversely affect public access to care. The actual benefits of Universal Patient Acceptance are the subject of ongoing review and debate. Whatever those benefits might be will not likely be realized until Acceptance and Universal Patient Acceptance are included as part of dental and other health professional codes of ethics and training curricula. That is what we argue for here. PMID:17106034

  5. Modeling of the charge acceptance of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thele, M.; Schiffer, J.; Karden, E.; Surewaard, E.; Sauer, D. U.

    This paper presents a model for flooded and VRLA batteries that is parameterized by impedance spectroscopy and includes the overcharging effects to allow charge-acceptance simulations (e.g. for regenerative-braking drive-cycle profiles). The full dynamic behavior and the short-term charge/discharge history is taken into account. This is achieved by a detailed modeling of the sulfate crystal growth and modeling of the internal gas recombination cycle. The model is applicable in the full realistic temperature and current range of automotive applications. For model validation, several load profiles (covering the dynamics and the current range appearing in electrically assisted or hybrid cars) are examined and the charge-acceptance limiting effects are elaborately discussed. The validation measurements have been performed for different types of lead-acid batteries (flooded and VRLA). The model is therefore an important tool for the development of automotive power nets, but it also allows to analyze different charging strategies and energy gains which can be achieved during regenerative-braking.

  6. Fault-tolerant rotary actuator

    DOEpatents

    Tesar, Delbert

    2006-10-17

    A fault-tolerant actuator module, in a single containment shell, containing two actuator subsystems that are either asymmetrically or symmetrically laid out is provided. Fault tolerance in the actuators of the present invention is achieved by the employment of dual sets of equal resources. Dual resources are integrated into single modules, with each having the external appearance and functionality of a single set of resources.

  7. The desiccation tolerant secrets of Selaginella lepidophylla: what we have learned so far?

    PubMed

    Pampurova, Suzana; Van Dijck, Patrick

    2014-07-01

    Selaginella lepidophylla is a desiccation tolerant plant able to survive complete vegetative tissue dehydration and revive ('resurrect') in water conditions. Vegetative desiccation tolerance is an adaptive feature acquired by S. lepidophylla to withstand the long dry periods in its natural habitat, the Chihuahuan desert. Understanding the molecular basis of its drought stress tolerance may be of great benefit to help in developing novel strategies for improvement of drought stress tolerance in crops. Cell biological (e.g. gene discovery, comparative EST analysis, proteomics, metabolite profiling), ultrastructural and physiological studies have brought modest but already important insights in the desiccation tolerance mechanisms adapted by S. lepidophylla. Until recently, the desiccation tolerant mechanism of S. lepidophylla was related to its high trehalose levels. However, large-scale comparative metabolic analysis between S. lepidophylla and its desiccation susceptible relative Selaginella moellendorffii, unexpectedly revealed that S. moellendorffii contains higher trehalose levels than S. lepidophylla. Interestingly, polyols, such as sorbitol and xylitol are 100× more abundant in S. lepidophylla compared to S. moellendorffii. Whether this is linked to the higher stress tolerance remains to be established. Apart from these metabolites, we will also discuss the ultrastructural features that seem to play an important role in the desiccation tolerance of S. lepidophylla. Finally we discuss desiccation tolerance mechanism in other plant species. PMID:24813728

  8. Acceptance threshold hypothesis is supported by chemical similarity of cuticular hydrocarbons in a stingless bee, Melipona asilvai.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, D L; Nascimento, F S

    2012-11-01

    The ability to discriminate nestmates from non-nestmates in insect societies is essential to protect colonies from conspecific invaders. The acceptance threshold hypothesis predicts that organisms whose recognition systems classify recipients without errors should optimize the balance between acceptance and rejection. In this process, cuticular hydrocarbons play an important role as cues of recognition in social insects. The aims of this study were to determine whether guards exhibit a restrictive level of rejection towards chemically distinct individuals, becoming more permissive during the encounters with either nestmate or non-nestmate individuals bearing chemically similar profiles. The study demonstrates that Melipona asilvai (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) guards exhibit a flexible system of nestmate recognition according to the degree of chemical similarity between the incoming forager and its own cuticular hydrocarbons profile. Guards became less restrictive in their acceptance rates when they encounter non-nestmates with highly similar chemical profiles, which they probably mistake for nestmates, hence broadening their acceptance level. PMID:23053920

  9. Study of fault tolerant software technology for dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Zacharias, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The major aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using systems-based failure detection isolation and compensation (FDIC) techniques in building fault-tolerant software and extending them, whenever possible, to the domain of software fault tolerance. First, it is shown that systems-based FDIC methods can be extended to develop software error detection techniques by using system models for software modules. In particular, it is demonstrated that systems-based FDIC techniques can yield consistency checks that are easier to implement than acceptance tests based on software specifications. Next, it is shown that systems-based failure compensation techniques can be generalized to the domain of software fault tolerance in developing software error recovery procedures. Finally, the feasibility of using fault-tolerant software in flight software is investigated. In particular, possible system and version instabilities, and functional performance degradation that may occur in N-Version programming applications to flight software are illustrated. Finally, a comparative analysis of N-Version and recovery block techniques in the context of generic blocks in flight software is presented.

  10. Virus-specific thermostability and heat inactivation profiles of alphaviruses.

    PubMed

    Park, So Lee; Huang, Yan-Jang S; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Hettenbach, Susan M; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2016-08-01

    Serological diagnosis is a critical component for disease surveillance and is important to address the increase in incidence and disease burden of alphaviruses, such as the chikungunya (CHIKV) and Ross River (RRV) viruses. The gold standard for serological diagnosis is the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), which demonstrates the neutralizing capacity of serum samples after the removal of complement activity and adventitious viruses. This procedure is normally performed following inactivation of the virus at 56°C for 30min. Although this protocol has been widely accepted for the inactivation of envelope RNA viruses, recent studies have demonstrated that prolonged heat inactivation is required to completely inactivate two alphaviruses, Western equine encephalitis virus and CHIKV. Incomplete inactivation of viruses poses a laboratory biosafety risk and can also lead to spurious test results. Despite its importance in ensuring the safety of laboratory personnel as well as test integrity, systematic investigation on the thermostability of alphaviruses has not been performed. In this study, the temperature tolerance and heat inactivation profiles of RRV, Barmah Forest, and o'nyong-nyong viruses were determined. Variations in thermostability were observed within the Semliki forest serocomplex. Therefore, evidence-based heat inactivation procedures for alphaviruses are recommended. PMID:27079828

  11. Hemolymph metabolites and osmolality are tightly linked to cold tolerance of Drosophila species: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Trine; MacMillan, Heath A; Nyberg, Nils; Staerk, Dan; Malmendal, Anders; Overgaard, Johannes

    2016-08-15

    Drosophila, like most insects, are susceptible to low temperatures, and will succumb to temperatures above the freezing point of their hemolymph. For these insects, cold exposure causes a loss of extracellular ion and water homeostasis, leading to chill injury and eventually death. Chill-tolerant species are characterized by lower hemolymph [Na(+)] than chill-susceptible species and this lowered hemolymph [Na(+)] is suggested to improve ion and water homeostasis during cold exposure. It has therefore also been hypothesized that hemolymph Na(+) is replaced by other 'cryoprotective' osmolytes in cold-tolerant species. Here, we compared the hemolymph metabolite profiles of five drosophilid species with marked differences in chill tolerance. All species were examined under 'normal' thermal conditions (i.e. 20°C) and following cold exposure (4 h at 0°C). Under benign conditions, total hemolymph osmolality was similar among all species despite chill-tolerant species having lower hemolymph [Na(+)]. Using NMR spectroscopy, we found that chill-tolerant species instead have higher levels of sugars and free amino acids in their hemolymph, including classical 'cryoprotectants' such as trehalose and proline. In addition, we found that chill-tolerant species maintain a relatively stable hemolymph osmolality and metabolite profile when exposed to cold stress while sensitive species suffer from large increases in osmolality and massive changes in their metabolic profiles during a cold stress. We suggest that the larger contribution of classical cryoprotectants in chill-tolerant Drosophila plays a non-colligative role for cold tolerance that contributes to osmotic and ion homeostasis during cold exposure and, in addition, we discuss how these comparative differences may represent an evolutionary pathway toward more extreme cold tolerance of insects. PMID:27307488

  12. Natural Genetic Variation of Freezing Tolerance in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hannah, Matthew A.; Wiese, Dana; Freund, Susanne; Fiehn, Oliver; Heyer, Arnd G.; Hincha, Dirk K.

    2006-01-01

    Low temperature is a primary determinant of plant growth and survival. Using accessions of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) originating from Scandinavia to the Cape Verde Islands, we show that freezing tolerance of natural accessions correlates with habitat winter temperatures, identifying low temperature as an important selective pressure for Arabidopsis. Combined metabolite and transcript profiling show that during cold exposure, global changes of transcripts, but not of metabolites, correlate with the ability of Arabidopsis to cold acclimate. There are, however, metabolites and transcripts, including several transcription factors, that correlate with freezing tolerance, indicating regulatory pathways that may be of primary importance for this trait. These data identify that enhanced freezing tolerance is associated with the down-regulation of photosynthesis and hormonal responses and the induction of flavonoid metabolism, provide evidence for naturally increased nonacclimated freezing tolerance due to the constitutive activation of the C-repeat binding factors pathway, and identify candidate transcriptional regulators that correlate with freezing tolerance. PMID:16844837

  13. A guidance value of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine in view of acceptable occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Jongeneelen, Frans J

    2014-12-01

    Occupational exposure limits for carcinogens are increasingly based on excess lifetime risks of cancer. Acceptable limits in some countries in Europe are set at 4/1000 (=highest tolerable risk level) and 4/100,000 (=acceptable risk level) based on 40 year working exposure for the occupational population. When an exposure metric is used that is fairly new, epidemiology does not offer dose-response data that is needed for the derivation of a science based limit value. The urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene is a fairly new bioindicator of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Nowadays, measurements of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine are routinely applied to control industrial exposure to PAH as present in coke ovens and primary aluminium production and to control exposure of professionals when handling coal tar derived products. Due to lacking dose-response data from epidemiological studies, a cancer risk based limit of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine cannot be derived. An alternative derivation procedure is proposed for the limit value that can be used as guidance for the intermediate period. For the period in-between, it is suggested to take the 'no observed genotoxic effect level' (=NOGEL) in PAH-exposed workers as the point-of-departure for setting the limit value. The genotoxic endpoints are genotoxic effects in white blood cells of PAH-exposed workers (chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, comet assay, DNA adducts). In order to assess the point-of-departure for limit setting, cross-sectional studies were searched for that report on the response of early genotoxic effects in white blood cells of workers that could be related to the degree of PAH-exposure (expressed as 1-hydroxypyrene in urine). Nine cross-sectional studies were traced that met these requirements. From each study, the concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in end-of-shift urine samples was determined, at which no genotoxic effects was found. From 4 out of 9 studies a no

  14. Immunosuppression and organ transplantation tolerance using total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Slavin, S.; Strober, S.; Fuks, Z.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1980-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is a method which delivers irradiation daily in fractionated doses (200 rads) to lymphoid organs while shielding bones, lungs, and the majority of the gastrointestinal tract. TLI is lymphocytopenic in mice, rats, dogs, and humans, and both T cells and B cells are eliminated from the circulation. TLI permits establishment of specific and long-lasting tolerance to alloantigens. Permanent acceptance of allogeneic bone marrow cells without graft-versus-host disease was achieved in rats and dogs across major histocompatibility barriers. Recipients were tolerant to allografts of skin, hearts, and kidney from animals syngeneic to marrow donors or to organs from the marrow donor. This approach may be suitable for pancreas transplantation in diabetes.

  15. 76 FR 5704 - Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ...This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of sulfentrazone in or on multiple commodities. Additionally, this regulation deletes existing tolerances on commodities superseded by the establishment of crop subgroups. This regulation also deletes a time- limited tolerance on bean, succulent seed without pod (lima bean and cowpea), as the tolerance expired on December 31, 2007.......

  16. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be taken. You will then ...

  17. 78 FR 55635 - Prometryn; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ...This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of prometryn in or on succulent snap bean, dill oil, fresh dillweed leaves, and dried dillweed leaves. This regulation additionally removes the established tolerance with regional restrictions on dill, since it is superseded by the tolerance on fresh dillweed leaves. Interregional Research Project Number 4 (IR-4) requested these tolerances......

  18. Patent profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report presents profiles of US patents in the area of solar energy technology, and in the related areas of wind, geothermal and tide and wave energy. Each profile is divided into three parts. The first part identifies the area which is examined, lists the pertinent US Patent Classification(s), and graphically illustrates patent activity across a designated 10-year span. The second part tabulates the data upon which the graphs of the first part were based, provides a list of assignees for the period 1969 to 1978 both by the number of patents and alphabetically, and presents on alphabetical listing of inventors of unassigned patents. The third part updates the preceding material for the period January-October 1979. (SPH)

  19. Consumer Acceptance of Dry Dog Food Variations

    PubMed Central

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri; Swaney-Stueve, Marianne; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Pet owners evaluated dry dog food samples available in the US market. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Abstract The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Eight dry dog food samples available in the US market were evaluated by pet owners. In this study, consumers evaluated overall liking, aroma, and appearance liking of the products. Consumers were also asked to predict their purchase intent, their dog’s liking, and cost of the samples. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Overall liking clusters were not related to income, age, gender, or education, indicating that general consumer demographics do not appear to play a main role in individual consumer acceptance of dog food products. PMID:26480043

  20. Personality Factors Associated with the Decision to Accept or Reject Mobility Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Adventitiously blind adults (n=79) who had accepted mobility training were compared to 60 subjects who had rejected training. Personality profiles varied significantly between groups on seven scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: psychasthenia; schizophrenia; psychopathic deviate; depression; hypomania; paranoia; and…

  1. Variation tolerant SoC design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhikkottu, Vivek J.

    allocation of shared system resources as a means to combat the adverse impact of within-die variations on multi-core platforms. For multi-threaded programs executing on variation-impacted multi-cores platforms, we make the key observation that thread performance is not only a function of the frequency of the core on which it is executing on, but also depends upon the amount of shared system resources allocated to it. We utilize this insight to design a variation-aware runtime scheme which allocates the ways of a last-level shared L2 cache amongst the different cores/threads of a multi-core platform taking into account both application characteristics as well as chip specific variation profiles. Our experiments on 100 quad-core chips, each with a distinct variation profile, shows on an average 15% performance improvements for a suite of multi-threaded benchmarks. Our final contribution investigates the variation-tolerant design of domain-specific accelerators and demonstrates how the unique architectural properties of these accelerators can be leveraged to create highly effective variation tolerance mechanisms. We explore this concept through the variation-tolerant design of a vector processor that efficiently executes applications from the domains of recognition, mining and synthesis (RMS). We develop a novel design approach for variation tolerance, which leverages the unique nature of the vector reduction operations performed by this processor to effectively predict and preempt the occurrence of timing errors under variations and subsequently restore the correct output at the end of each vector reduction operation. We implement the above predict, preempt and restore operations by suitably enhancing the processor hardware and the application software and demonstrate considerable energy benefits (on an average 32%) across six applications from the domains of RMS. In conclusion, our work provides system designers with powerful tools and mechanisms in their efforts to combat

  2. Consumer acceptance of nutrigenomics-based personalised nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ronteltap, A; van Trijp, J C M; Renes, R J

    2009-01-01

    Nutrigenomics is a new and promising development in nutritional science which aims to understand the fundamental molecular processes affected by foods. Despite general agreement on its promise for better understanding diet-health relationships, less consensus exists among experts on the potential of spin-offs aimed at the consumer such as personalised nutrition. Research into consumer acceptance of such applications is scarce. The present study develops a set of key hypotheses on public acceptance of personalised nutrition and tests these in a representative sample of Dutch consumers. An innovative consumer research methodology is used in which consumers evaluate short films which are systematically varied scenarios for the future of personalised nutrition. Consumer evaluations of these films, which are pre-tested in a pilot study, allow a formal test of how consumer perceptions of personalised nutrition drive consumer acceptance and through which fundamental psychological processes these effects are mediated. Public acceptance is enhanced if consumers can make their genetic profile available free at their own choice, if the actual spin-off products provide a clearly recognisable advantage to the consumer, and are easy to implement into the daily routine. Consumers prefer communication on nutrigenomics and personalised nutrition by expert stakeholders to be univocal and aimed at building support with consumers and their direct environments for this intriguing new development. Additionally, an exploratory segmentation analysis indicated that people have different focal points in their preferences for alternative scenarios of personalised nutrition. The insights obtained from the present study provide guidance for the successful further development of nutrigenomics and its applications. PMID:18479587

  3. Approaches to acceptable risk: a critical guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fischhoff, B.; Lichtenstein, S.; Slovic, P.; Keeney, R.; Derby, S.

    1980-12-01

    Acceptable-risk decisions are an essential step in the management of technological hazards. In many situations, they constitute the weak (or missing) link in the management process. The absence of an adequate decision-making methodology often produces indecision, inconsistency, and dissatisfaction. The result is neither good for hazard management nor good for society. This report offers a critical analysis of the viability of various approaches as guides to acceptable-risk decisions. This report seeks to define acceptable-risk decisions and to examine some frequently proposed, but inappropriate, solutions. 255 refs., 22 figs., 25 tabs.

  4. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  5. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-07-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal.

  6. Tolerance of gastric mucosal flap to postoperative irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Devineni, V.R.; Hayden, R.; Fredrickson, J.; Sicard, G. )

    1991-05-01

    When malignant lesions of the oral cavity, base of tongue, and oropharynx are treated with radical resection, adequate reconstruction is required. The free gastric mucosal flap with microvascular transfer is being used with increasing frequency at Washington University Medical Center. Because of the advanced nature of the primary lesions, most patients also require postoperative radiation therapy. In this paper the tolerance of the gastric mucosal flap to postoperative radiation therapy is reviewed. The changes resulting from radiation therapy in the mucosal flap were found to be acceptable, and no major complications were encountered.

  7. Distress Tolerance Scale: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Among Daily Cigarette Smokers.

    PubMed

    Leyro, Teresa M; Bernstein, Amit; Vujanovic, Anka A; McLeish, Alison C; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    The present investigation evaluated the factor structure of the Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS; Simons and Gaher 2005) among a sample of 173 (54.9% males) daily cigarette smokers (M=16.64 cigarettes per day, SD=7.83). Comparison of a single higher-order model and a hierarchical multidimensional model was conducted using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). In addition, evaluation of the internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity of the better-fitting model was completed. CFA of the DTS indicated a single second-order factor of distress tolerance, and four lower-order factors including Tolerance, Appraisal, Absorption, and Regulation; each factor demonstrated acceptable levels of internal consistency. In addition, the DTS displayed good convergent and discriminant validity with theoretically relevant smoking and affect variables. Results are discussed in terms of explicating the latent structure of distress tolerance, as measured by the DTS, within the context of smoking research. PMID:23935238

  8. Autonomous Congestion Control in Delay-Tolerant Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott; Jennings, Esther; Schoolcraft, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    Congestion control is an important feature that directly affects network performance. Network congestion may cause loss of data or long delays. Although this problem has been studied extensively in the Internet, the solutions for Internet congestion control do not apply readily to challenged network environments such as Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) where end-to-end connectivity may not exist continuously and latency can be high. In DTN, end-to-end rate control is not feasible. This calls for congestion control mechanisms where the decisions can be made autonomously with local information only. We use an economic pricing model and propose a rule-based congestion control mechanism where each router can autonomously decide on whether to accept a bundle (data) based on local information such as available storage and the value and risk of accepting the bundle (derived from historical statistics). Preliminary experimental results show that this congestion control mechanism can protect routers from resource depletion without loss of data.

  9. Autonomous Congestion Control in Delay-Tolerant Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Jennings, Esther H.

    2005-01-01

    Congestion control is an important feature that directly affects network performance. Network congestion may cause loss of data or long delays. Although this problem has been studied extensively in the Internet, the solutions for Internet congestion control do not apply readily to challenged network environments such as Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) where end-to-end connectivity may not exist continuously and latency can be high. In DTN, end-to-end rate control is not feasible. This calls for congestion control mechanisms where the decisions can be made autonomously with local information only. We use an economic pricing model and propose a rule-based congestion control mechanism where each router can autonomously decide on whether to accept a bundle (data) based on local information such as available storage and the value and risk of accepting the bundle (derived from historical statistics).

  10. Gas characterization system software acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, C.V.

    1996-03-28

    This document details the results of software acceptance testing of gas characterization systems. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases.

  11. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  13. 7 CFR 989.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Raisin Administrative Committee § 989.32 Acceptance. Each person to...

  14. 7 CFR 989.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Raisin Administrative Committee § 989.32 Acceptance. Each person to...

  15. Integrated Model for E-Learning Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadiani; Rodziah, A.; Hasan, S. M.; Rusli, A.; Noraini, C.

    2016-01-01

    E-learning is not going to work if the system is not used in accordance with user needs. User Interface is very important to encourage using the application. Many theories had discuss about user interface usability evaluation and technology acceptance separately, actually why we do not make it correlation between interface usability evaluation and user acceptance to enhance e-learning process. Therefore, the evaluation model for e-learning interface acceptance is considered important to investigate. The aim of this study is to propose the integrated e-learning user interface acceptance evaluation model. This model was combined some theories of e-learning interface measurement such as, user learning style, usability evaluation, and the user benefit. We formulated in constructive questionnaires which were shared at 125 English Language School (ELS) students. This research statistics used Structural Equation Model using LISREL v8.80 and MANOVA analysis.

  16. Gas characterization system software acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, C.V.

    1996-02-27

    This document details the Software Acceptance Testing of gas characterization systems. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases.

  17. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1999-05-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the Nevada Test Site.

  18. What Are Acceptable Limits of Radiation?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Brad Gersey, lead research scientist at the Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration, or CRESSE, at Prairie View A&M University, describes the legal and acceptable limits ...

  19. The role of taste in food acceptance at the beginning of complementary feeding.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Camille; Chabanet, Claire; Lange, Christine; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2011-09-26

    Introduction of solid foods is a major step in the establishment of eating behavior and is likely to affect children's health. However, the role of taste in acceptance of new foods, in particular in the first months of complementary feeding, is not fully understood and was the aim of the present study. Infants had to be in good health to participate (N=74). First, the infants' reactions to new foods were recorded by their parents between the ages of 5 and 7 months using a 4-point-scale ranging from very negative to very positive. Taste intensities of infant foods were scored by a trained panel and foods were clustered into groups showing similar taste profiles. Infants' reactions were used to calculate new food acceptance (NFA) defined as the average reaction towards a group of foods showing a similar taste profile. Second, preferences for the five basic tastes over water were measured using a 4-bottle test at 6 months old comparing intake of tastant solutions to water. Taste acceptance was evaluated through ingestion ratio (IR=intake of tastant solutions/intake of tastant solutions and water). NFAs were compared across food groups. Kendall correlations were calculated between NFA and IR. Most reactions (88%) to new foods were positive. However, NFA varied according to the taste profile of the foods: vegetables in which salt or a salty ingredient was added were more accepted than plain vegetables (P<0.01). On average no rejection of basic tastes was observed. For sweet, sour and umami tastes, significant positive correlations were observed between NFA and IR. Healthy foods like vegetables could be easily introduced in the diet of most, but not all infants. The role of taste preferences in new food acceptance was highlighted: a higher acceptance for a taste was associated to an enhanced acceptance of foods bearing this taste. PMID:21554893

  20. Generalized group chain acceptance sampling plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Zakiyah; Mughal, Abdur Razzaque; Aziz, Nazrina

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we proposed an acceptance sampling plan based on generalized group chain truncated life test. The decision on acceptance of a submitted lot can be made by using the cumulative information of the immediately preceding samples. The design parameters of the proposed plan such as the minimum number of groups are found to satisfy the desired quality standard. The benefits of this plan include smaller sample size and reduced overall costs.

  1. Acceptance Test Plan for ANSYS Software

    SciTech Connect

    CREA, B.A.

    2000-10-25

    This plan governs the acceptance testing of the ANSYS software (Full Mechanical Release 5.5) for use on Project Word Management Contract (PHMC) computer systems (either UNIX or Microsoft Windows/NT). There are two phases to the acceptance testing covered by this test plan: program execution in accordance with the guidance provided in installation manuals; and ensuring results of the execution are consistent with the expected physical behavior of the system being modeled.

  2. Intelligent fault-tolerant controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chien Y.

    1987-01-01

    A system with fault tolerant controls is one that can detect, isolate, and estimate failures and perform necessary control reconfiguration based on this new information. Artificial intelligence (AI) is concerned with semantic processing, and it has evolved to include the topics of expert systems and machine learning. This research represents an attempt to apply AI to fault tolerant controls, hence, the name intelligent fault tolerant control (IFTC). A generic solution to the problem is sought, providing a system based on logic in addition to analytical tools, and offering machine learning capabilities. The advantages are that redundant system specific algorithms are no longer needed, that reasonableness is used to quickly choose the correct control strategy, and that the system can adapt to new situations by learning about its effects on system dynamics.

  3. MPI Profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Han, D K; Jones, T R

    2005-02-11

    The Message Passing Interface (MPI) is the de facto message-passing standard for massively parallel programs. It is often the case that application performance is a crucial factor, especially for solving grand challenge problems. While there have been many studies on the scalability of applications, there have not been many focusing on the specific types of MPI calls being made and their impact on application performance. Using a profiling tool called mpiP, a large spectrum of parallel scientific applications were surveyed and their performance results analyzed.

  4. Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

  5. Organ-specific Differences in Achieving Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Madariaga, Maria Lucia L.; Kreisel, Daniel; Madsen, Joren C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review When it comes to tolerance induction, kidney allografts behave differently from heart allografts which behave differently from lung allografts. Here, we examine how and why different organ allografts respond differently to the same tolerance induction protocol. Recent findings Allograft tolerance has been achieved in experimental and clinical kidney transplantation. However, inducing tolerance in experimental recipients of heart and lung allografts has proven to be more challenging. New protocols being developed in nonhuman primates based on mixed chimerism and co-transplantation of tolerogenic organs may provide mechanistic insights to help overcome these challenges. Summary Tolerance induction protocols that are successful in patients transplanted with “tolerance-prone” organs such as kidneys and livers will most likely not succeed in recipients of “tolerance-resistant” organs such as hearts and lungs. Separate clinical trials using more robust tolerance protocols will be required to achieve tolerance in heart and lung recipients. PMID:26147678

  6. Technology Builds Global Acceptance among African Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Martha Tyler; John, Floyd Idwal

    This paper describes how a new university, African Nazarene University (ANU) in Kenya, used various means, including computer technology, for implementing learning goals for students from a wide variety of African countries and tribes. The paper stresses that the school, which opened in 1994 with 65 students, emphasized tolerance of differences…

  7. Lessons on dehydration tolerance from desiccation tolerant plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extremophiles: organisms that thrive (a relative term) in environments where conditions are such that the majority of organisms cannot survive. This is not strictly true if one is describing desiccation-tolerant plants, as other plants do grow around them, but it is certainly true that they can surv...

  8. HIV vaccine acceptability among immigrant Thai residents in Los Angeles: a mixed-method approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Brooks, Ronald A; Newman, Peter A; Seiden, Danielle; Sangthong, Rassamee; Duan, Naihua

    2008-11-01

    This study examined HIV vaccine acceptability among immigrant Thai residents in Los Angeles, California. We combined a qualitative research method (focus groups) with an innovative market research method (conjoint analysis). Focus groups explored social issues, concerns, barriers and motivators associated with HIV vaccine acceptability. Conjoint analysis was used to assess preferences among eight hypothetical HIV vaccines with varying attribute profiles and the impact of various attributes on acceptability. Five main themes were identified in the focus groups regarding acceptance and utilization of preventive HIV vaccines: (1) vaccine characteristics, such as efficacy, physical side-effects and cost, (2) fear of a vaccine, (3) vaccine acceptability and optimism, (4) social and family responses and (5) behavioral disinhibition. Conjoint analysis revealed HIV vaccine acceptability ranging from 7.4 (SD = 19.4) to 85.2 (SD = 24.3) across eight hypothetical vaccines. The vaccine with the highest acceptability had the following attributes: 99% efficacy, no side-effects, 10 years of protection, protects against one sub-type, free, one dose and given by injection. Vaccine efficacy had the greatest impact on acceptability (51.4, p=.005), followed by side-effects (11.1, p=.005) and duration of protection (8.3, p=.005). Despite some apprehensions and concerns, Thai residents perceived an HIV vaccine as making an important contribution to society and to protecting oneself and one's family from HIV infection. Nevertheless, acceptability of a partially efficacious vaccine may be low, suggesting the need for tailored social marketing interventions that might emphasize a collectivistic rather than an individualistic focus. Assessing HIV vaccine acceptability using a mixed-method approach is feasible with Thai residents and should lend itself to HIV vaccine research with other Asian Pacific Islander populations in the US. PMID:18608068

  9. The substrate tolerance of alcohol oxidases.

    PubMed

    Pickl, Mathias; Fuchs, Michael; Glueck, Silvia M; Faber, Kurt

    2015-08-01

    Alcohols are a rich source of compounds from renewable sources, but they have to be activated in order to allow the modification of their carbon backbone. The latter can be achieved via oxidation to the corresponding aldehydes or ketones. As an alternative to (thermodynamically disfavoured) nicotinamide-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases, alcohol oxidases make use of molecular oxygen but their application is under-represented in synthetic biotransformations. In this review, the mechanism of copper-containing and flavoprotein alcohol oxidases is discussed in view of their ability to accept electronically activated or non-activated alcohols and their propensity towards over-oxidation of aldehydes yielding carboxylic acids. In order to facilitate the selection of the optimal enzyme for a given biocatalytic application, the substrate tolerance of alcohol oxidases is compiled and discussed: Substrates are classified into groups (non-activated prim- and sec-alcohols; activated allylic, cinnamic and benzylic alcohols; hydroxy acids; sugar alcohols; nucleotide alcohols; sterols) together with suitable alcohol oxidases, their microbial source, relative activities and (stereo)selectivities. PMID:26153139

  10. Statistical Tolerance and Clearance Analysis for Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Yi, C.

    1996-01-01

    Tolerance is inevitable because manufacturing exactly equal parts is known to be impossible. Furthermore, the specification of tolerances is an integral part of product design since tolerances directly affect the assemblability, functionality, manufacturability, and cost effectiveness of a product. In this paper, we present statistical tolerance and clearance analysis for the assembly. Our proposed work is expected to make the following contributions: (i) to help the designers to evaluate products for assemblability, (ii) to provide a new perspective to tolerance problems, and (iii) to provide a tolerance analysis tool which can be incorporated into a CAD or solid modeling system.

  11. Evaluating contribution of ionic, osmotic and oxidative stress components towards salinity tolerance in barley

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salinity tolerance is a physiologically multi-faceted trait attributed to multiple mechanisms. Three barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties contrasting in their salinity tolerance were used to assess the relative contribution of ionic, osmotic and oxidative stress components towards overall salinity stress tolerance in this species, both at the whole-plant and cellular levels. In addition, transcriptional changes in the gene expression profile were studied for key genes mediating plant ionic and oxidative homeostasis (NHX; RBOH; SOD; AHA and GORK), to compare a contribution of transcriptional and post-translational factors towards the specific components of salinity tolerance. Results Our major findings are two-fold. First, plant tissue tolerance was a dominating component that has determined the overall plant responses to salinity, with root K+ retention ability and reduced sensitivity to stress-induced hydroxyl radical production being the main contributing tolerance mechanisms. Second, it was not possible to infer which cultivars were salinity tolerant based solely on expression profiling of candidate genes at one specific time point. For the genes studied and the time point selected that transcriptional changes in the expression of these specific genes had a small role for barley’s adaptive responses to salinity. Conclusions For better tissue tolerance, sodium sequestration, K+ retention and resistance to oxidative stress all appeared to be crucial. Because these traits are highly interrelated, it is suggested that a major progress in crop breeding for salinity tolerance can be achieved only if these complementary traits are targeted at the same time. This study also highlights the essentiality of post translational modifications in plant adaptive responses to salinity. PMID:24774965

  12. Possible role of plant volatiles in tolerance against huanglongbing in citrus

    PubMed Central

    Hijaz, Faraj; Nehela, Yasser; Killiny, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    abstract Volatile organic compounds (VOC) play an important role in protecting plants from insect and pathogen attack. In this study, we investigated the leaf volatile profiles of 14 citrus varieties. The VOC in citrus leaves were extracted with n-hexane and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, 4six volatile compounds were identified in the n-hexane extract from citrus leaves. Most of the detected compounds belonged to 3 main groups (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and aliphatic aldehydes). Principle component analysis was used to examine the relative distribution of the studied varieties to each other. Interestingly, volatile profiles of varieties that are tolerant to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) were different from those of the susceptible ones. Tolerant and moderately-tolerant cultivars contained relatively higher amounts of volatiles than susceptible varieties. In addition, tolerant varieties were also higher in specific compounds which are known for their antimicrobial activities. These compounds include Aldehydes (undecanal, neral, geranial, and citronellal) and some monoterpenes such as linalool, d-limonene, myrcene, α- and β- phellandrene. In addition, some sesquiterpene compounds including t-caryophellene, γ-elemene, β-elemene, germacrene D, and geranyl acetate were higher in tolerant and moderately tolerant cultivars. Severinia buxifolia which is known for its tolerance to CLas and many other pathogens contained higher levels of santalenes and coumarins. Our results indicated that citrus leaf volatiles might play a role in citrus tolerance to CLas. The results of this study may help in understanding of the mechanism of citrus tolerance against CLas. PMID:26829496

  13. Possible role of plant volatiles in tolerance against huanglongbing in citrus.

    PubMed

    Hijaz, Faraj; Nehela, Yasser; Killiny, Nabil

    2016-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) play an important role in protecting plants from insect and pathogen attack. In this study, we investigated the leaf volatile profiles of 14 citrus varieties. The VOC in citrus leaves were extracted with n-hexane and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, 4six volatile compounds were identified in the n-hexane extract from citrus leaves. Most of the detected compounds belonged to 3 main groups (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and aliphatic aldehydes). Principle component analysis was used to examine the relative distribution of the studied varieties to each other. Interestingly, volatile profiles of varieties that are tolerant to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) were different from those of the susceptible ones. Tolerant and moderately-tolerant cultivars contained relatively higher amounts of volatiles than susceptible varieties. In addition, tolerant varieties were also higher in specific compounds which are known for their antimicrobial activities. These compounds include Aldehydes (undecanal, neral, geranial, and citronellal) and some monoterpenes such as linalool, d-limonene, myrcene, α- and β- phellandrene. In addition, some sesquiterpene compounds including t-caryophellene, γ-elemene, β-elemene, germacrene D, and geranyl acetate were higher in tolerant and moderately tolerant cultivars. Severinia buxifolia which is known for its tolerance to CLas and many other pathogens contained higher levels of santalenes and coumarins. Our results indicated that citrus leaf volatiles might play a role in citrus tolerance to CLas. The results of this study may help in understanding of the mechanism of citrus tolerance against CLas. PMID:26829496

  14. Risk perception and public acceptance toward a highly protested Waste-to-Energy facility.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiangyu; Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Tao, Yun

    2016-02-01

    The application of Waste-to-Energy treatment in Municipal Solid Waste faces strong protest by local communities, especially in cities with high population densities. This study introduces insight into the public awareness, acceptance and risk perception toward Waste-to-Energy through a structured questionnaire survey around a Waste-to-Energy facility in Shanghai, China. The Dichotomous-Choice contingent valuation method was applied to study the willingness to accept of residents as an indicator of risk perception and tolerance. The factors influencing risk perception and the protest response choice were analyzed. The geographical distributions of the acceptance of Waste-to-Energy facility and protest response were explored using geographical information systems. The findings of the research indicated an encouraging vision of promoting Waste-to-Energy, considering its benefits of renewable energy and the conservation of land. A high percentage of protest willingness to accept (50.94%) was highlighted with the effect of income, opinion about Waste-to-Energy, gender and perceived impact. The fuzzy classification among people with different opinions on compensation (valid 0, positive or protest willingness to accept) revealed the existing yet rejected demand of compensation among protesters. Geographical distribution in the public attitude can also be observed. Finally significant statistical relation between knowledge and risk perception indicates the need of risk communication, as well as involving public into whole management process. PMID:26577458

  15. Induction of tolerance to cardiac allografts in lethally irradiated rats reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnett, L.C.

    1983-01-01

    Generally, organ grafts from one individual animal to another are rejected in one-two weeks. However, if the recipients are given Total Body Irradiation (TBI) just prior to grafting, followed by reconstitution of hemopoietic function with syngeneic (recipient-type) bone marrow cells, then vascularized organ grafts are permanently accepted. Initially after irradiation, it is possible to induce tolerance to many strain combinations in rats. This thesis examines the system of TBI as applied to the induction of tolerance in LEW recipients of WF cardiac allografts. These two rat strains are mismatched across the entire major histocompatibility complex. When the LEW recipient are given 860 rads, a WF cardiac allograft and LEW bone marrow on the same day, 60% of the grafts are accepted. Methods employed to improve the rate of graft acceptance include: treating either donor or recipient with small amounts of methotrexate, or waiting until two days after irradiation to repopulate with bone marrow. It seems from these investigations of some of the early events in the induction of tolerance to allografts following TBI and syngeneic marrow reconstitution that an immature cell population in the bone marrow interacts with a radioresistant cell population in the spleen to produce tolerance to completely MHC-mismatched allografts.

  16. AN OVERVIEW ON NON-T CELL PATHWAYS IN TRANSPLANT REJECTION AND TOLERANCE

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wentao; Li, Xian C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent studies have demonstrated unexpected roles for non-T cells, especially innate immune cells, in the regulation of transplant outcomes. In this review, we highlight our recent understanding on the role of NK cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages in the allograft response, and discuss whether such cells can be targeted for the induction of transplant tolerance. Recent findings There are unexpected roles for non-T cells in regulating transplant outcomes, and depending on the models and tolerizing protocols, the innate immune cells contribute significantly to both graft rejection and graft acceptance. Some innate immune cells are potent inflammatory cells directly mediating graft injury, while others regulate effector programs of alloreactive T cells and ultimately determine whether the graft is rejected or accepted. Furthermore, when properly activated, some innate immune cells promote the induction of Foxp3+ Tregs whereas others efficiently kill them, thereby differentially affecting the induction of tolerance. These new findings unravel unexpected complexities of non-T cells in transplant models and may have important clinical implications. Summary The innate immune cells contribute to both graft rejection and acceptance. Thus, a detailed understanding of the exact mechanisms and pathways that govern such opposing effects in transplant models may lead to the design of new tolerance protocols. PMID:20531193

  17. Estimating provisional acceptable residues for extralabel drug use in livestock.

    PubMed

    Baynes, R E; Martín-Jiménez, T; Craigmill, A L; Riviere, J E

    1999-06-01

    In 1996, the United States Congress passed legislation (Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act, AMDUCA), which allows some veterinary or human drugs to be used off label in food-producing animals. In order to implement this Act and protect the U.S. consumer, tolerances or safe concentrations are required before a withdrawal time can be estimated for extralabel drug use. Use of foreign MRLs to satisfy these data needs may not be applicable because of differences in safety standards between the U.S. and other countries. This paper presents strategies that can be used to derive equivalent safe concentrations, referred to as provisional acceptable residues (PARs), that may then be used to estimate drug withdrawal times. Health-based methods are proposed for calculating a PAR for a tissue. Procedure A partitions 50% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) to edible tissues and reserves the remainder for milk. Procedure B equally partitions the ADI into all edible tissues. Procedure C partitions 50% of the ADI to milk and equally partitions the remaining 50% ADI into edible tissues. Simulations were performed for florfenicol, tetracycline, dexamethasone, azaperone, ivermectin, eprinomectin, and doramectin. In general, these simulations resulted in derivation of conservative PARs, which did not result in daily intakes of residues greater than the health-based ADI. These simulations demonstrated that provided the safe concentrations or equivalent PARs are based on rigorous toxicology safety data (e.g., NOELs, ADIs), the safety of food animal products will not be compromised. It is proposed that these PARs can be used for estimating withdrawal times after extralabel drug use or inadvertent exposure to an environmental contaminant where no approved withdrawal time exists. Finally, implementing similar transparent methods could have a positive impact on international harmonization and trade. PMID:10388614

  18. Impact of essential oils on the taste acceptance of tomato juice, vegetable soup, or poultry burgers.

    PubMed

    Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2014-08-01

    Despite the vast body of available literature on the possibilities of essential oils (EOs) as food preservatives or functional ingredients, the sensory impact of their addition to foods has barely been approached. This work focuses on the hedonic taste acceptance of 3 food products (tomato juice, vegetable soup, and poultry burgers) when they are incorporated with potentially antimicrobial concentrations (20 to 200 μL/L) of 6 selected EOs (lemon, pennyroyal mint, thyme, and rosemary) and individual compounds (carvacrol, p-cymene). Although addition of 20 μL/L of pennyroyal mint or lemon EO did not change the taste acceptance of tomato juice, higher concentrations of these compounds or any concentration of the other 4 compounds did. In vegetable soup, the tolerance limit for rosemary EO, thyme EO, carvacrol, or p-cymene was 20 μL/L, while the addition of 200 μL/L of lemon EO was accepted. Tolerance limits in poultry burgers were established in 20 μL/L for carvacrol and thyme EOs, 100 μL/L for pennyroyal mint EO and p-cymene, and 200 μL/L for lemon and rosemary EOs. Moreover, incorporation of pennyroyal mint EO to tomato juice or poultry burgers, and enrichment of vegetable soup with lemon EO, could contribute to the development of food products with an improved sensory appeal. PMID:25077550

  19. Sugarcane Genotype Tolerance to Wireworms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) growers in Florida normally apply a soil insecticide at planting to limit wireworm (Melanotus communis Gyllenhall) damage to seed cane (vegetative plantings of stalks). The objective of this study was to measure the tolerance of eight commercial su...

  20. Biocatalysts with enhanced inhibitor tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Shihui; Linger, Jeffrey; Franden, Mary Ann; Pienkos, Philip T.; Zhang, Min

    2015-12-08

    Disclosed herein are biocatalysts for the production of biofuels, including microorganisms that contain genetic modifications conferring tolerance to growth and fermentation inhibitors found in many cellulosic feedstocks. Methods of converting cellulose-containing materials to fuels and chemicals, as well as methods of fermenting sugars to fuels and chemicals, using these biocatalysts are also disclosed.

  1. "Zero Tolerance" for Free Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hils, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    Argues that school policies of "zero tolerance" of threatening speech may violate a student's First Amendment right to freedom of expression if speech is less than a "true threat." Suggests a two-step analysis to determine if student speech is a "true threat." (PKP)

  2. Stepping Back from Zero Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne-Dianis, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Schools' use of zero tolerance policies has been increasing since the 1980s as part of a societal movement to crack down on drug abuse and violence among youth. But far from making schools safer, this harsh, inflexible approach to discipline has been eroding the culture of schools and creating devastating consequences for children, writes…

  3. Assessing Your Board's Risk Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John S.; Jarvis, William F.

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of the financial crisis, trustees of many endowed nonprofit institutions realized that their portfolio was riskier than they thought and their own ability to tolerate loss wasn't as strong as they imagined. What can board and investment committee members do to improve their ability to assess their--and their institution's--capacity for…

  4. B cells and immunological tolerance.

    PubMed

    Manjarrez-Orduño, Nataly; Quách, Tâm D; Sanz, Iñaki

    2009-02-01

    Work from multiple groups continues to provide additional evidence for the powerful and highly diverse roles, both protective and pathogenic, that B cells play in autoimmune diseases. Similarly, it has become abundantly clear that antibody-independent functions may account for the opposing influences that B cells exercise over other arms of the immune response and ultimately over autoimmunity itself. Finally, it is becoming apparent that the clinical impact of B-cell depletion therapy may be, to a large extent, determined by the functional balance between different B-cell subsets that may be generated by this therapeutic intervention. In this review, we postulate that our perspective of B-cell tolerance and our experimental approach to its understanding are fundamentally changed by this view of B cells. Accordingly, we first discuss current knowledge of B-cell tolerance conventionally defined as the censoring of autoantibody-producing B cells (with an emphasis on human B cells). Therefore, we discuss a different model that contemplates B cells not only as targets of tolerance but also as mediators of tolerance. This model is based on the notion that the onset of clinical autoimmune disease may require a B-cell gain-of-pathogenic function (or a B-cell loss-of-regulatory-function) and that accordingly, disease remission may depend on the restoration of the physiological balance between B-cell pathogenic and protective functions. PMID:19148217

  5. Developing Political Tolerance. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Patricia G.

    Political tolerance is the willingness to extend basic rights and civil liberties to persons and groups whose viewpoints differ from one's own. It is a central tenet of a liberal democracy. The individual rights and freedoms that U.S. citizens value encourage a wide array of ideas and beliefs, some of which may offend segments of the population.…

  6. Tolerance of snakes to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillywhite, H. B.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    Sensitivity of carotid blood flow to increased gravitational force acting in the head-to-tail direction(+Gz) was studied in diverse species of snakes hypothesized to show adaptive variation of response. Tolerance to increased gravity was measured red as the maximum graded acceleration force at which carotid blood flow ceased and was shown to vary according to gravitational adaptation of species defined by their ecology and behavior. Multiple regression analysis showed that gravitational habitat, but not body length, had a significant effect on Gz tolerance. At the extremes, carotid blood flow decreased in response to increasing G force and approached zero near +1 Gz in aquatic and ground-dwelling species, whereas in climbing species carotid flow was maintained at forces in excess of +2 Gz. Tolerant (arboreal) species were able to withstand hypergravic forces of +2 to +3 Gz for periods up to 1 h without cessation of carotid blood flow or loss of body movement and tongue flicking. Data suggest that the relatively tight skin characteristic of tolerant species provides a natural antigravity suit and is of prime importance in counteracting Gz stress on blood circulation.

  7. Civic Tolerance among Honors Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Gordon; Shepherd, Gary

    2014-01-01

    As important as cognitive outcomes are in assessing the educational merits of honors programs, the authors ask whether honors programs affect the values and social attitudes of their students differently than other students: in particular, whether honors students are more or less tolerant than other students and, if so, in what ways and why. There…

  8. Promoting Tolerance in Preservice Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swearingen, Judith A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a social science methods course where preservice teachers taught a unit on controversial topics involving tolerance and intolerance. Students were forbidden to lecture. Permitted methods included cooperative learning, inquiry, simulations, jackdaws, documents, and sociodrama. Student response was generally positive. (MJP)

  9. Toleration, Multiculturalism and Mistaken Belief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standish, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Doubts have been expressed about the virtue of toleration, especially in view of what some have seen as its complicity with a morality of anything goes. More rigorous arguments have been provided by Peter Gardner and Harvey Siegel against the relativism evident in certain versions of multiculturalism and in the new religious studies. This article…

  10. Physiologic correlates to background noise acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampas, Joanna; Harkrider, Ashley; Nabelek, Anna

    2001-05-01

    Acceptance of background noise can be evaluated by having listeners indicate the highest background noise level (BNL) they are willing to accept while following the words of a story presented at their most comfortable listening level (MCL). The difference between the selected MCL and BNL is termed the acceptable noise level (ANL). One of the consistent findings in previous studies of ANL is large intersubject variability in acceptance of background noise. This variability is not related to age, gender, hearing sensitivity, personality, type of background noise, or speech perception in noise performance. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if individual differences in physiological activity measured from the peripheral and central auditory systems of young female adults with normal hearing can account for the variability observed in ANL. Correlations between ANL and various physiological responses, including spontaneous, click-evoked, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem and middle latency evoked potentials, and electroencephalography will be presented. Results may increase understanding of the regions of the auditory system that contribute to individual noise acceptance.

  11. Common mechanism underlies repeated evolution of extreme pollution tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Andrew; Pilcher, Whitney; Champlin, Denise; Nacci, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Human alterations to the environment can exert strong evolutionary pressures, yet contemporary adaptation to human-mediated stressors is rarely documented in wildlife populations. A common-garden experimental design was coupled with comparative transcriptomics to discover evolved mechanisms enabling three populations of killifish resident in urban estuaries to survive normally lethal pollution exposure during development, and to test whether mechanisms are unique or common across populations. We show that killifish populations from these polluted sites have independently converged on a common adaptive mechanism, despite variation in contaminant profiles among sites. These populations are united by a similarly profound desensitization of aryl-hydrocarbon receptor-mediated transcriptional activation, which is associated with extreme tolerance to the lethal effects of toxic dioxin-like pollutants. The rapid, repeated, heritable and convergent nature of evolved tolerance suggests that ancestral killifish populations harboured genotypes that enabled adaptation to twentieth-century industrial pollutants. PMID:21733895

  12. 48 CFR 1346.503 - Place of acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Place of acceptance. 1346... QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 1346.503 Place of acceptance. Insert a clause substantially similar to 1352.246-70, Place of Acceptance, in contracts and solicitations to indicate where the acceptance...

  13. 48 CFR 46.502 - Responsibility for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... acceptance. 46.502 Section 46.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 46.502 Responsibility for acceptance. Acceptance of... to a cognizant contract administration office or to another agency (see 42.202(g)), acceptance...

  14. 5 CFR 2601.204 - Conditions for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions for acceptance. 2601.204... IMPLEMENTATION OF OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS STATUTORY GIFT ACCEPTANCE AUTHORITY Guidelines for Solicitation and Acceptance of Gifts § 2601.204 Conditions for acceptance. (a) No gift may be accepted that: (1)...

  15. 48 CFR 570.111 - Inspection and acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection and acceptance... CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.111 Inspection and acceptance... acceptance document must contain the square footage accepted and the acceptance date. Include the...

  16. 5 CFR 2601.204 - Conditions for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conditions for acceptance. 2601.204... IMPLEMENTATION OF OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS STATUTORY GIFT ACCEPTANCE AUTHORITY Guidelines for Solicitation and Acceptance of Gifts § 2601.204 Conditions for acceptance. (a) No gift may be accepted that: (1)...

  17. 48 CFR 46.502 - Responsibility for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... acceptance. 46.502 Section 46.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 46.502 Responsibility for acceptance. Acceptance of... to a cognizant contract administration office or to another agency (see 42.202(g)), acceptance...

  18. [The acceptability of different oral contraceptive methods].

    PubMed

    Klinger, G; Fritzsche, H; Hempel, E; Carol, W; Böhme, W; Scholz, B; Grass, M; Chemnitius, K H

    1975-05-01

    Results of a survey of contraceptive acceptability are reported. In formation on oral and depot hormonal contraceptives was distributed to 1064 Ovosiston or Nonovlon users, 110 women using depot contraceptives, and 609 women who had never used hormonal contraception. The women's preferences with regard to administration schedule, and their perceptions of effectiveness and safety were noted. Non-users considered daily, weekly, or monthly administration acceptable, while only 2/3 of those taking oral contraceptives thought daily administration convenient. 90.2% of Deposiston patients did not care for daily administration. Deposiston patients also had the greatest confidence in their method. The authors believe on the basis of this survey that weekly administration may be highly acceptable alternative t o conventional oral contraception. PMID:1140078

  19. Conditions for the acceptance of deontic conditionals.

    PubMed

    Over, D E; Manktelow, K I; Hadjichristidis, C

    2004-06-01

    Recent psychological research has investigated how people assess the probability of an indicative conditional. Most people give the conditional probability of q given p as the probability of if p then q. Asking about the probability of an indicative conditional, one is in effect asking about its acceptability. But on what basis are deontic conditionals judged to be acceptable or unacceptable? Using a decision theoretic analysis, we argue that a deontic conditional, of the form if p then must q or if p then may q, will be judged acceptable to the extent that the p & q possibility is preferred to the p & not-q possibility. Two experiments are reported in which this prediction was upheld. There was also evidence that the pragmatic suitability of permission rules is partly determined by evaluations of the not-p & q possibility. Implications of these results for theories of deontic reasoning are discussed. PMID:15285599

  20. Acceptance Priority Ranking & Annual Capacity Report

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-31

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (the Act), assigns the Federal Government the responsibility for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. Section 302(a) of the Act authorizes the Secretary to enter into contracts with the owners and generators of commercial spent nuclear fuel and/or high-level waste. The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (Standard Contract) established the contractual mechanism for the Department's acceptance and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. It includes the requirements and operational responsibilities of the parties to the Standard Contract in the areas of administrative matters, fees, terms of payment, waste acceptance criteria, and waste acceptance procedures. The Standard Contract provides for the acquisition of title to the spent nuclear fuel and/or high-level waste by the Department, its transportation to Federal facilities, and its subsequent disposal.

  1. Long Trace Profiler survey results

    SciTech Connect

    Irick, Steve.

    1999-07-01

    Today the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) is widely accepted as a viable way to measure X-ray mirrors, and at some institutions is the only instrument available for measuring long, high-curvature aspheres. Although some questions of absolute accuracy over the entire LTP measurement range remain unanswered, a comparison of LTPs can still be made to assess measurement variation. Recently a round robin survey of some LTPs within the United States has been made using a single set of mirrors. These mirrors were used to characterize the performance of an LTP over its advertised range of operation. The results of this survey are presented here.

  2. The relationship between maximal lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift in strength-based soldiering tasks.

    PubMed

    Savage, Robert J; Best, Stuart A; Carstairs, Greg L; Ham, Daniel J

    2012-07-01

    Psychophysical assessments, such as the maximum acceptable lift, have been used to establish worker capability and set safe load limits for manual handling tasks in occupational settings. However, in military settings, in which task demand is set and capable workers must be selected, subjective measurements are inadequate, and maximal capacity testing must be used to assess lifting capability. The aim of this study was to establish and compare the relationship between maximal lifting capacity and a self-determined tolerable lifting limit, maximum acceptable lift, across a range of military-relevant lifting tasks. Seventy male soldiers (age 23.7 ± 6.1 years) from the Australian Army performed 7 strength-based lifting tasks to determine their maximum lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift. Comparisons were performed to identify maximum acceptable lift relative to maximum lifting capacity for each individual task. Linear regression was used to identify the relationship across all tasks when the data were pooled. Strong correlations existed between all 7 lifting tasks (rrange = 0.87-0.96, p < 0.05). No differences were found in maximum acceptable lift relative to maximum lifting capacity across all tasks (p = 0.46). When data were pooled, maximum acceptable lift was equal to 84 ± 8% of the maximum lifting capacity. This study is the first to illustrate the strong and consistent relationship between maximum lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift for multiple single lifting tasks. The relationship developed between these indices may be used to help assess self-selected manual handling capability through occupationally relevant maximal performance tests. PMID:22643137

  3. Efficacy and acceptability of perindopril in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sukonthasarn, A; Ratanaprakarn, R; Koanantakul, B; Ngam-Ukos, P

    1994-06-01

    The clinical efficacy and acceptability of once-daily perindopril (4 to 8 mg) monotherapy and in combination with hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg/day) was studied in mild to moderate stable essential hypertensive patients in 4 centres in Thailand. After 2-4 weeks of placebo run-in period, patients received active treatment for 3 months starting with 4 mg perindopril once daily. Dose titration was at second and third month of active treatment if the supine DBP was > 90 mmHg. The dose was doubled and if necessary, 50 mg/day hydrochlorothiazide was added in the last month. The results in 95 patients showed that the mean reduction in supine SBP/DBP at 1, 2 and 3 months of treatment was 10.3/8.0, 13.2/8.7 and 19.1/13.7 mmHg respectively. At the end of the study, 80 per cent of the patients showed normalisation of the supine diastolic blood pressure (supine DBP < or = 90 mmHg) with 30 per cent receiving combined therapy of perindopril and hydrochlorothiazide. There was no significant change in routine haematology or serum biochemistry except for slight increase of potassium levels in patients receiving 8 mg perindopril monotherapy. The incidence of side effects and withdrawal from treatment were quite low. Cough was the major side effect reported comprising 13.6 per cent with only 1 case withdrawn. The study confirms the previous studies that perindopril had satisfactory antihypertensive efficacy and acceptability profiles. PMID:7869013

  4. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities.

  5. 75 FR 81878 - Imazosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of imazosulfuron in or on pepper, bell; pepper, non-bell; rice, grain; and tomato. Valent USA Corporation requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  6. Increased tolerance to humans among disturbed wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Samia, Diogo S. M.; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nomura, Fausto; Rangel, Thiago F.; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    Human disturbance drives the decline of many species, both directly and indirectly. Nonetheless, some species do particularly well around humans. One mechanism that may explain coexistence is the degree to which a species tolerates human disturbance. Here we provide a comprehensive meta-analysis of birds, mammals and lizards to investigate species tolerance of human disturbance and explore the drivers of this tolerance in birds. We find that, overall, disturbed populations of the three major taxa are more tolerant of human disturbance than less disturbed populations. The best predictors of the direction and magnitude of bird tolerance of human disturbance are the type of disturbed area (urbanized birds are more tolerant than rural or suburban populations) and body mass (large birds are more tolerant than small birds). By identifying specific features associated with tolerance, these results guide evidence-based conservation strategies to predict and manage the impacts of increasing human disturbance on birds. PMID:26568451

  7. 76 FR 50893 - Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ...This regulation establishes a tolerance for residues of fluoxastrobin in or on squash/cucumber subgroup 9B. Arysta LifeScience North America, LLC requested this tolerance under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  8. Urbanism, Migration, and Tolerance: A Reassessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Thomas C.

    1991-01-01

    Urbanism's impact on the personality may be stronger than previously thought. Finds that urban residence has a strong positive effect on tolerance. Migration also promotes tolerance, regardless of the size of the destination community. (DM)

  9. 78 FR 23497 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ...This regulation amends existing tolerances for residues of propiconazole in or on multiple commodities which are identified and discussed later in this document. Syngenta Crop Protection, LLC requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  10. 76 FR 69648 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ...This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of trifloxystrobin in or on alfalfa, forage and alfalfa, hay. Bayer CropScience requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1861 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Tolerances § 51.1861 Tolerances. In... percent for tomatoes which are green in color, when any term other than “Green” is specified....

  12. 76 FR 16308 - Dichlormid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of dichlormid in or on field corn, pop corn, and sweet corn commodities. Dow AgroSciences requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  13. Chip level simulation of fault tolerant computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Chip-level modeling techniques in the evaluation of fault tolerant systems were researched. A fault tolerant computer was modeled. An efficient approach to functional fault simulation was developed. Simulation software was also developed.

  14. 7 CFR 51.2928 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apricots Tolerances § 51.2928 Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident..., by count, of the apricots in any sample may be below the minimum size specified. Application...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2928 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apricots Tolerances § 51.2928 Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident..., by count, of the apricots in any sample may be below the minimum size specified. Application...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2928 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apricots Tolerances § 51.2928 Tolerances. In... minimum size: Not more than 10 percent, by count, of the apricots in any sample may be below the...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2928 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apricots Tolerances § 51.2928 Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident..., by count, of the apricots in any sample may be below the minimum size specified. Application...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2928 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apricots Tolerances § 51.2928 Tolerances. In... minimum size: Not more than 10 percent, by count, of the apricots in any sample may be below the...

  19. 77 FR 52246 - Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ...This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of clothianidin in or on rice, grain at 0.01 ppm. Valent U.S.A. Corporation requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  20. Increased tolerance to humans among disturbed wildlife.

    PubMed

    Samia, Diogo S M; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nomura, Fausto; Rangel, Thiago F; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2015-01-01

    Human disturbance drives the decline of many species, both directly and indirectly. Nonetheless, some species do particularly well around humans. One mechanism that may explain coexistence is the degree to which a species tolerates human disturbance. Here we provide a comprehensive meta-analysis of birds, mammals and lizards to investigate species tolerance of human disturbance and explore the drivers of this tolerance in birds. We find that, overall, disturbed populations of the three major taxa are more tolerant of human disturbance than less disturbed populations. The best predictors of the direction and magnitude of bird tolerance of human disturbance are the type of disturbed area (urbanized birds are more tolerant than rural or suburban populations) and body mass (large birds are more tolerant than small birds). By identifying specific features associated with tolerance, these results guide evidence-based conservation strategies to predict and manage the impacts of increasing human disturbance on birds. PMID:26568451

  1. A Developmental View of Children's Behavioral Tolerance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Joan S.; Safran, Stephen P.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of scores of 469 third to sixth graders on the Children's Tolerance Scale yielded significant grade level differences with older children generally the most tolerant. The more outer-directed behaviors were rated as most disturbing. (CL)

  2. 75 FR 75389 - Metrafenone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ...This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of metrafenone (3-bromo-6-methoxy-2-methylphenyl)(2,3,4-trimethoxy-6- methylphenyl)methanone in or on grapes. BASF Corporation requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  3. THE ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES ACCEPTANCE (ETA) PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Christina B. Behr-Andres

    2001-04-01

    The Environmental Technologies Acceptance (ETA) Program at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) is intended to advance the development, commercial acceptance, and timely deployment of selected private sector technologies for the cleanup of sites in the nuclear defense complex as well as the greater market. As shown in Table 1, this cooperative agreement funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) consists of three tasks: Technology Selection, Technology Development, and Technology Verification. As currently conceived, the ETA will address the needs of as many technologies as appropriate under its current 3-year term. This report covers activities during the first 6 months of the 3-year ETA program.

  4. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-10-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  5. Differences in HIV vaccine acceptability between genders.

    PubMed

    Kakinami, Lisa; Newman, Peter A; Lee, Sung-Jae; Duan, Naihua

    2008-05-01

    The development of safe and efficacious preventive HIV vaccines offers the best long-term hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. Nevertheless, suboptimal uptake of safe and efficacious vaccines that already exist suggest that HIV vaccine acceptability cannot be assumed, particularly among communities most vulnerable to HIV. The present study aimed to identify barriers and motivators to future HIV vaccine acceptability among low socioeconomic, ethnically diverse men and women in Los Angeles County. Participants completed a cross-sectional survey assessing their attitudes and beliefs regarding future HIV vaccines. Hypothetical HIV vaccine scenarios were administered to determine HIV vaccine acceptability. Two-sided t-tests were performed, stratified by gender, to examine the association between vaccine acceptability and potential barriers and motivators. Barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability differed between men and women. For women, barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability were related to their intimate relationships (p<0.05), negative experiences with health care providers (p<0.05) and anticipated difficulties procuring insurance (p<0.01). Men were concerned that the vaccine would weaken the immune system (p<0.005) or would affect their HIV test results (p<0.05). Motivators for women included the ability to conceive a child without worrying about contracting HIV (p<0.10) and support from their spouse/significant other for being vaccinated (p<0.10). Motivators for men included feeling safer with sex partners (p<0.05) and social influence from friends to get vaccinated (p<0.005). Family support for HIV immunization was a motivator for both men and women (p<0.10). Gender-specific interventions may increase vaccine acceptability among men and women at elevated risk for HIV infection. Among women, interventions need to focus on addressing barriers due to gendered power dynamics in relationships and discrimination in health care. Among men, education that addresses fears

  6. Safety and Tolerability of Fluconazole in Children

    PubMed Central

    Novelli, Vas; Holzel, Helen

    1999-01-01

    The safety profile of fluconazole was assessed for 562 children (ages, 0 to 17 years) comprising 323 males and 239 females. The data are derived from 12 clinical studies of fluconazole as prophylaxis or treatment for a variety of fungal infections in predominantly immunocompromised patients. Most children received multiple doses of fluconazole in the range of 1 to 12 mg/kg of body weight; a few received single doses. Administration was mainly by oral suspension or intravenous injection. Overall, 58 (10.3%) children reported 80 treatment-related side effects. The most common side effects were associated with the gastrointestinal tract (7.7%) or skin (1.2%). Self-limiting, treatment-related side effects affecting the liver and biliary system were reported in three patients (0.5%). Overall, 18 patients (3.2%) discontinued treatment due to side effects, mainly gastrointestinal symptoms. Dose and age did not appear to influence the incidence and pattern of side effects. Treatment-related laboratory abnormalities were uncommon, the most frequent being transient elevated alanine aminotransferase (4.9%), aspartate aminotransferase (2.7%), and alkaline phosphatase (2.3%) levels. Although 98.6% of patients were taking concomitant medications, no clinical or laboratory interactions were observed. The safety profile of fluconazole was compared with those of other antifungal agents, mostly oral polyenes, by using a subset of data from five controlled studies. Side effects were reported by more patients treated with fluconazole (45 of 382; 11.8%) than by those patients treated with comparable agents (25 of 381; 6.6%); vomiting and diarrhea were the most common events in both groups. The incidence and type of treatment-related laboratory abnormalities were similar for the two groups. In conclusion, fluconazole was well tolerated by the pediatric population, many of whom were suffering from severe underlying disease and were taking a variety of concurrent medications. The safety

  7. Measuring Acceptance of Sleep Difficulties: The Development of the Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Bothelius, Kristoffer; Jernelöv, Susanna; Fredrikson, Mats; McCracken, Lance M.; Kaldo, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Acceptance may be an important therapeutic process in sleep medicine, but valid psychometric instruments measuring acceptance related to sleep difficulties are lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of acceptance in insomnia, and to examine its factor structure as well as construct validity. Design: In a cross-sectional design, a principal component analysis for item reduction was conducted on a first sample (A) and a confirmatory factor analysis on a second sample (B). Construct validity was tested on a combined sample (C). Setting: Questionnaire items were derived from a measure of acceptance in chronic pain, and data were gathered through screening or available from pretreatment assessments in four insomnia treatment trials, administered online, via bibliotherapy and in primary care. Participants: Adults with insomnia: 372 in sample A and 215 in sample B. Sample C (n = 820) included sample A and B with another 233 participants added. Measures: Construct validity was assessed through relations with established acceptance and sleep scales. Results: The principal component analysis presented a two-factor solution with eight items, explaining 65.9% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the solution. Acceptance of sleep problems was more closely related to subjective symptoms and consequences of insomnia than to diary description of sleep, or to acceptance of general private events. Conclusions: The Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire (SPAQ), containing the subscales “Activity Engagement” and “Willingness”, is a valid tool to assess acceptance of insomnia. Citation: Bothelius K, Jernelöv S, Fredrikson M, McCracken LM, Kaldo V. Measuring acceptance of sleep difficulties: the development of the sleep problem acceptance questionnaire. SLEEP 2015;38(11):1815–1822. PMID:26085302

  8. Current migraine management – patient acceptability and future approaches

    PubMed Central

    Fumal, Arnaud; Schoenen, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Despite its high prevalence and individual as well as societal burden, migraine remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. In recent years, the options for the management of migraine patients have greatly expanded. A number of drugs belonging to various pharmacological classes and deliverable by several routes are now available both for the acute and the preventive treatments of migraine. Nevertheless, disability and satisfaction remain low in many subjects because treatments are not accessible, not optimized, not effective, or simply not tolerated. There is thus still considerable room for better education, for more efficient therapies and for greater support from national health systems. In spite of useful internationally accepted guidelines, anti-migraine treatment has to be individually tailored to each patient taking into account the migraine subtype, the ensuing disability, the patient’s previous history and present expectations, and the co-morbid disorders. In this article we will summarize the phenotypic presentations of migraine and review recommendations for acute and preventive treatment, highlighting recent advances which are relevant for clinical practice in terms of both diagnosis and management. PMID:19337450

  9. Safety and Tolerability of Delayed-Release Dimethyl Fumarate Administered with Interferon Beta or Glatiramer Acetate in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Calkwood, Jonathan; Vollmer, Timothy; Fox, Robert J.; Zhang, Ray; Novas, Mark; Sheikh, Sarah I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF; also known as gastroresistant DMF) is indicated for relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study was to explore the safety and tolerability of DMF when administered with interferon beta (IFNβ) or glatiramer acetate (GA). Methods: Patients with relapsing-remitting MS receiving established therapy with the same dose of IFNβ or GA for at least 12 months continued their prescribed therapy for 2 months (monotherapy period) and then received DMF 240 mg three times daily in addition to their prescribed MS therapy for 6 months (add-on therapy period). Safety and magnetic resonance imaging outcomes were monitored monthly. Results: During the add-on therapy period, in the DMF+IFNβ (n = 57) and DMF+GA (n = 47) groups, the overall incidence of adverse events was 95% and 100%, respectively; the most common adverse events were flushing, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. In both groups, mean lymphocyte counts decreased but remained within normal limits, and hepatic transaminase levels increased transiently; no case met Hy's law criteria. There was no overall increased risk of infection. In both groups, gadolinium-enhancing lesion activity and new/enlarging T2 lesions decreased compared with the monotherapy period (exploratory endpoints). Conclusions: The safety profile of DMF taken with IFNβ or GA was acceptable and consistent with the known safety profile of DMF monotherapy. PMID:27252601

  10. Cadmium-tolerant bacteria induce metal stress tolerance in cereals.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Akhtar, Muhammad Javed; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Naveed, Muhammad; Mitter, Birgit; Sessitsch, Angela

    2014-09-01

    Cadmium usually hampers plant growth, but bacterial inoculation may improve stress tolerance in plants to Cd by involving various mechanisms. The objective was to characterize and identify bacteria that improve plant growth under Cd stress and reduce Cd uptake. Cadmium-tolerant bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere soil, which was irrigated with tannery effluent, and six strains were selected as highly tolerant to Cd, showing minimum inhibitory concentration as 500 mg L(-1) or 4.45 mmol L(-1). These strains were identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis and functional analysis in regard to plant growth promotion characteristics. To determine their effect on cereal growth under Cd stress, seeds were inoculated with these strains individually and grown in soil contaminated with three Cd levels (0, 40 and 80 mg kg(-1)). Biomass production, relative water content (RWC), electrolyte leakage (ELL) and tissue Cd concentration were measured. Biomass of both cereals was inhibited strongly when exposed to Cd; however, bacterial inoculation significantly reduced the suppressive effect of Cd on cereal growth and physiology. The bacterial isolates belonged to the genera Klebsiella, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus and Serratia. Maize was more sensitive than wheat to Cd. Klebsiella sp. strain CIK-502 had the most pronounced effects in promoting maize and wheat growth and lowering Cd uptake under Cd stress. PMID:24849374

  11. Reassessment of Phenylalanine Tolerance in Adults with Phenylketonuria is Needed as Body Mass Changes

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Erin L.; Gleason, Sally T.; van Calcar, Sandra C.; Ney, Denise M.

    2009-01-01

    Lifelong treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) includes a phenylalanine (phe) restricted diet that provides sufficient phe for growth and maintenance plus phe-free amino acid formula to meet requirements for protein, energy and micronutrients. Phe tolerance (mg phe/kg body weight/day) is the amount of phe those with PKU can consume and maintain acceptable blood phe levels; it requires individual assessment because of varying phenylalanine hydroxylase activity. The objective was to reassess phe tolerance in 8 adults with PKU considering phe requirements, blood phe levels, genotype and phe tolerance at 5 years of age. Subjects had not received a personalized assessment of phe tolerance in several years, and 5 subjects were overweight, body mass index (BMI) 25–28. With the guidance of a metabolic dietitian, 7 subjects increased phe tolerance (by 15–173%) without significantly increasing blood phe concentration. Increased phe tolerance was associated with both improved dietary compliance and inadequate phe intake at the onset of the protocol compared with current requirements. Improved dietary compliance reflected increased consumption of protein equivalents from amino acid formula and increased frequency of formula intake, from 2.2 to 3 times per day. Predictors of higher final phe tolerance following reassessment included being male and having a lower BMI (R2=0.588). This suggests that the rising trend of overweight and obesity may affect assessment of phe tolerance in adults. Therefore, interaction with the metabolic dietitian to reassess phe tolerance in relation to body mass is essential throughout adulthood to insure adequate intake of phe to support protein synthesis and prevent catabolism. PMID:19747868

  12. Reassessment of phenylalanine tolerance in adults with phenylketonuria is needed as body mass changes.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Erin L; Gleason, Sally T; van Calcar, Sandra C; Ney, Denise M

    2009-12-01

    Lifelong treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) includes a phenylalanine (phe) restricted diet that provides sufficient phe for growth and maintenance plus phe-free amino acid formula to meet requirements for protein, energy and micronutrients. Phe tolerance (mg phe/kg body weight/day) is the amount of phe those with PKU can consume and maintain acceptable blood phe levels; it requires individual assessment because of varying phenylalanine hydroxylase activity. The objective was to reassess phe tolerance in eight adults with PKU considering phe requirements, blood phe levels, genotype and phe tolerance at 5 years of age. Subjects had not received a personalized assessment of phe tolerance in several years, and five subjects were overweight, body mass index (BMI) 25-28. With the guidance of a metabolic dietitian, seven subjects increased phe tolerance (by 15-173%) without significantly increasing blood phe concentration. Increased phe tolerance was associated with both improved dietary compliance and inadequate phe intake at the onset of the protocol compared with current requirements. Improved dietary compliance reflected increased consumption of protein equivalents from amino acid formula and increased frequency of formula intake, from 2.2 to 3 times per day. Predictors of higher final phe tolerance following reassessment included being male and having a lower BMI (R(2)=0.588). This suggests that the rising trend of overweight and obesity may affect assessment of phe tolerance in adults. Therefore, interaction with the metabolic dietitian to reassess phe tolerance in relation to body mass is essential throughout adulthood to insure adequate intake of phe to support protein synthesis and prevent catabolism. PMID:19747868

  13. Increasing ideological tolerance in social psychology.

    PubMed

    Inbar, Yoel; Lammers, Joris

    2015-01-01

    We argue that recognizing current ideological diversity in social psychology and promoting tolerance of minority views is just as important as increasing the number of non-liberal researchers. Increasing tolerance will allow individuals in the minority to express dissenting views, which will improve psychological science by reducing bias. We present four recommendations for increasing tolerance. PMID:26786671

  14. 76 FR 27256 - Saflufenacil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ...This regulation revises or removes certain established tolerances and establishes new tolerances for residues of saflufenacil in or on multiple commodities which are identified and discussed later in this document. BASF Corporation requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  15. 47 CFR 74.161 - Frequency tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency tolerances. 74.161 Section 74.161... Technical Operation and Operators § 74.161 Frequency tolerances. The departure of the carrier frequency or frequencies of an experimental broadcast station must not exceed the tolerance specified in the instrument...

  16. 47 CFR 74.161 - Frequency tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency tolerances. 74.161 Section 74.161... Technical Operation and Operators § 74.161 Frequency tolerances. The departure of the carrier frequency or frequencies of an experimental broadcast station must not exceed the tolerance specified in the instrument...

  17. 47 CFR 74.161 - Frequency tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency tolerances. 74.161 Section 74.161... Technical Operation and Operators § 74.161 Frequency tolerances. The departure of the carrier frequency or frequencies of an experimental broadcast station must not exceed the tolerance specified in the instrument...

  18. 47 CFR 74.561 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.561 Section 74.561... § 74.561 Frequency tolerance. In the bands above 944 MHz, the operating frequency of the transmitter shall be maintained in accordance with the following table: Frequency band (MHz) Tolerance as...

  19. 47 CFR 74.561 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.561 Section 74.561... § 74.561 Frequency tolerance. In the bands above 944 MHz, the operating frequency of the transmitter shall be maintained in accordance with the following table: Frequency band (MHz) Tolerance as...

  20. 47 CFR 74.464 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.464 Section 74.464....464 Frequency tolerance. For operations on frequencies above 25 MHz using authorized bandwidths up to... frequency of each station in compliance with the frequency tolerance requirements of § 90.213 of...