Science.gov

Sample records for acceptable tolerance levels

  1. Authentic tolerance: between forbearance and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Von Bergen, C W; Von Bergen, Beth A; Stubblefield, Claire; Bandow, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Promoting tolerance is seen as a key weapon in battling prejudice in diversity and multicultural training but its meaning has been modified recently. The classical definition of tolerance meant that others are entitled to their opinions and have the right to express them and that even though one may disagree with them, one can live in peace with such differences. In recent years, however, tolerance has come to mean that all ideas and practices must be accepted and affirmed and where appreciation and valuing of differences is the ultimate virtue. Such a neo-classical definition has alienated many who value equality and justice and limits the effectiveness of diversity initiatives that teach the promotion of tolerance. The authors offer authentic tolerance as an alternative, incorporating respect and civility toward others, not necessarily approval of their beliefs and behavior. All persons are equal, but all opinions and conduct are not equal. PMID:23362691

  2. Chip level simulation of fault tolerant computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Chip-level modeling techniques in the evaluation of fault tolerant systems were researched. A fault tolerant computer was modeled. An efficient approach to functional fault simulation was developed. Simulation software was also developed.

  3. Tolerance, Acceptance and the Virtue of Orthonomy: A Reply to Lawrence Blum and Brenda Almond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciurria, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In the "Journal of Moral Education," 39(2), Brenda Almond and Lawrence Blum debate the importance of tolerance versus acceptance in sex education. Blum defines acceptance as "positive regard", in contradistinction to mere tolerance, "a live and let live attitude toward others, an acceptance of coexistence, but with a disapproval of that "other"".…

  4. 5 CFR 531.409 - Acceptable level of competence determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptable level of competence... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.409 Acceptable level of competence... delegated shall determine which employees are performing at an acceptable level of competence. (b) Basis...

  5. 5 CFR 531.409 - Acceptable level of competence determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptable level of competence... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.409 Acceptable level of competence... delegated shall determine which employees are performing at an acceptable level of competence. (b) Basis...

  6. 5 CFR 531.409 - Acceptable level of competence determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptable level of competence... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.409 Acceptable level of competence... delegated shall determine which employees are performing at an acceptable level of competence. (b) Basis...

  7. 5 CFR 531.409 - Acceptable level of competence determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptable level of competence... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.409 Acceptable level of competence... delegated shall determine which employees are performing at an acceptable level of competence. (b) Basis...

  8. A Primer on Architectural Level Fault Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the fundamental concepts of fault tolerant computing. Key topics covered are voting, fault detection, clock synchronization, Byzantine Agreement, diagnosis, and reliability analysis. Low level mechanisms such as Hamming codes or low level communications protocols are not covered. The paper is tutorial in nature and does not cover any topic in detail. The focus is on rationale and approach rather than detailed exposition.

  9. Labeling Sexual Victimization Experiences: The Role of Sexism, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Tolerance for Sexual Harassment.

    PubMed

    LeMaire, Kelly L; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether attitudinal variables, such as benevolent and hostile sexism toward men and women, female rape myth acceptance, and tolerance of sexual harassment are related to women labeling their sexual assault experiences as rape. In a sample of 276 female college students, 71 (25.7%) reported at least one experience that met the operational definition of rape, although only 46.5% of those women labeled the experience "rape." Benevolent sexism, tolerance of sexual harassment, and rape myth acceptance, but not hostile sexism, significantly predicted labeling of previous sexual assault experiences by the victims. Specifically, those with more benevolent sexist attitudes toward both men and women, greater rape myth acceptance, and more tolerant attitudes of sexual harassment were less likely to label their past sexual assault experience as rape. The results are discussed for their clinical and theoretical implications. PMID:26832168

  10. The evolution of acceptance and tolerance in hosts of avian brood parasites.

    PubMed

    Medina, Iliana; Langmore, Naomi E

    2016-08-01

    Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of their hosts, which rear the parasite's progeny. The costs of parasitism have selected for the evolution of defence strategies in many host species. Most research has focused on resistance strategies, where hosts minimize the number of successful parasitism events using defences such as mobbing of adult brood parasites or rejection of parasite eggs. However, many hosts do not exhibit resistance. Here we explore why some hosts accept parasite eggs in their nests and how this is related to the virulence of the parasite. We also explore the extent to which acceptance of parasites can be explained by the evolution of tolerance; a strategy in which the host accepts the parasite but adjusts its life history or other traits to minimize the costs of parasitism. We review examples of tolerance in hosts of brood parasites (such as modifications to clutch size and multi-broodedness), and utilize the literature on host-pathogen interactions and plant herbivory to analyse the prevalence of each type of defence (tolerance or resistance) and their evolution. We conclude that (i) the interactions between brood parasites and their hosts provide a highly tractable system for studying the evolution of tolerance, (ii) studies of host defences against brood parasites should investigate both resistance and tolerance, and (iii) tolerance and resistance can lead to contrasting evolutionary scenarios. PMID:25765722

  11. Plants tolerant of high boron levels.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Kyoko; Takano, Junpei; Omori, Hiroyuki; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Toru

    2007-11-30

    Reduced crop productivity due to soils containing toxic levels of boron (B) is a worldwide problem in food production. It is estimated that up to 17% of the barley yield losses in southern Australia are caused by B toxicity. We found that the expression of AtBOR4, an Arabidopsis paralog of BOR1, the first identified boron transporter gene, generates plants that are tolerant of high B levels. BOR4 is a polarly localized borate exporter that enhances B efflux from roots. The present study is a foundation for the improvement of crop productivity in soils containing excess B, which are distributed in arid areas of the world. PMID:18048682

  12. 5 CFR 531.409 - Acceptable level of competence determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.409 Acceptable level of competence... competence in his or her current position, and the employee has not been given a performance rating in any... acceptable level of competence, the within-grade increase will be granted retroactively to the beginning...

  13. The Impact of Demand Characteristics on Brief Acceptance- and Control-Based Interventions for Pain Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Bryan; Forsyth, John P.; Maher, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    The present analog study compared the effectiveness of an acceptance- and control-based intervention on pain tolerance using a cold pressor task, and is a partial replication and extension of the Hayes, Bissett et al. (Hayes, S. C., Bissett, R.T., Korn, Z., Zettle, R. D., Rosenfarb, I. S., Cooper, L. D., & Grundt, A. M. (1999). "The impact of…

  14. Straining GOR tolerance determinations are a measure of G-duration not G-level tolerance.

    PubMed

    Burton, R R

    1999-03-01

    Straining gradual G onset rate (GOR) tolerances are considered by physiologists as a measure of G-level tolerance. Using recently developed G-level and G-duration mathematical models, it was found that straining GOR tolerances may well be a measure of tolerance to G-duration. G-duration tolerance was determined to be limited with the onset of fatigue and not cardiovascular insufficiency. G-level tolerances that were predicted using a mathematical model were higher than determined using straining GOR tolerance measurements of subjects on a centrifuge. Also the G-duration tolerance mathematical model showed that those centrifuge subjects had not expended all of their "energy reserve" during their sustained G exposure most probably because of the onset of fatigue. Even if they were able to use all of their potential energy reserve, their G-duration tolerance would not have allowed them to reach the maximum G-level predicted with the G-level tolerance model. It is therefore concluded that the straining GOR tolerance profile, with G onset rates of 0.1G/s, is not a measure of G-level tolerance, as has been assumed, but is a measure of G-duration tolerance. These findings have significant safety implications world-wide since this straining GOR profile is commonly used as a G-level tolerance fighter-pilot-selection determination; i.e. pilot selection standards for G-level tolerance are not a measure of G-level tolerance. In testing equipment design changes, the proper G tolerance profiles must be used to correctly measure its impact on G tolerance. PMID:11543406

  15. Measurement of Acceptable Noise Level with Background Music

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Bahng, Junghwa

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Acceptable noise level (ANL) is a measure of the maximum background noise level (BNL) that a person is willing to tolerate while following a target story. Although researchers have used various sources of target sound in ANL measures, a limited type of background noise has been used. Extending the previous study of Gordon-Hickey & Moore (2007), the current study determined the effect of music genre and tempo on ANLs as possible factors affecting ANLs. We also investigated the relationships between individual ANLs and the familiarity of music samples and between music ANLs and subjective preference. Subjects and Methods Forty-one participants were seperated into two groups according to their ANLs, 29 low-ANL listeners and 12 high-ANL listeners. Using Korean ANL material, the individual ANLs were measured based on the listeners' most comfortable listening level and BNL. The ANLs were measured in six conditions, with different music tempo (fast, slow) and genre (K-pop, pop, classical) in a counterbalanced order. Results Overall, ANLs did not differ by the tempo of background music, but music genre significantly affected individual ANLs. We observed relatively higher ANLs with K-pop music and relatively lower ANLs with classical music. This tendency was similar in both low-ANL and high-ANL groups. However, the subjective ratings of music familiarity and preference affected ANLs differently for low-ANL and high-ANL groups. In contrast to the low-ANL listeners, the ANLs of the high-ANL listeners were significantly affected by music familiarity and preference. Conclusions The genre of background music affected ANLs obtained using background music. The degree of music familiarity and preference appears to be associated with individual susceptibility to background music only for listeners who are greatly annoyed by background noise (high-ANL listeners). PMID:26413573

  16. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-02-17

    In June 28, 1997, the Low Level Waste (LLW) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13031A-85. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, lidder/delidder device and the supercompactor were also conducted. As of November 24, 1997, 2 of the 131 test exceptions that affect the LLW glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test Exceptions are provided as appendices to this report.

  17. Chip level simulation of fault tolerant computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Chip level modeling techniques, functional fault simulation, simulation software development, a more efficient, high level version of GSP, and a parallel architecture for functional simulation are discussed.

  18. Tolerability and cosmetic acceptability of a body wash in atopic dermatitis-prone subjects.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Staci; Meckfessel, Matthew H; Lio, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disease characterized by eczematous eruptions and impaired skin barrier function. Patients, as well as their families, frequently report reductions in quality of life. Pruritus, lack of sleep, and impaired social functioning all contribute to this reduction. A skincare regimen of gentle cleansing and daily moisturization is integral to managing atopic dermatitis. While there are a multitude of reports supporting the use of moisturizers, there is a paucity regarding the use of cleansers, especially cleansers formulated with ingredients known to improve skin hydration. A clinical study was conducted to assess the tolerability and cosmetic acceptability of a body wash formulated with the filaggrin break-down products arginine and pyrrolidone carboxylic acid in subjects with atopic dermatitis-prone skin (Cetaphil® RestoraDerm® Body Wash). The results of this study indicate that Cetaphil RestoraDerm Body Wash was well tolerated, reduced itch, improved quality of life, and was well-liked by subjects with atopic dermatitis-prone skin. PMID:25226012

  19. Fault-tolerant three-level inverter

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, John; Xu, Longya; Bhargava, Brij B.

    2006-12-05

    A method for driving a neutral point clamped three-level inverter is provided. In one exemplary embodiment, DC current is received at a neutral point-clamped three-level inverter. The inverter has a plurality of nodes including first, second and third output nodes. The inverter also has a plurality of switches. Faults are checked for in the inverter and predetermined switches are automatically activated responsive to a detected fault such that three-phase electrical power is provided at the output nodes.

  20. Measuring Technology Acceptance Level of Turkish Pre-Service English Teachers by Using Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmizi, Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate technology acceptance of prospective English teachers by using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in Turkish context. The study is based on Structural Equation Model (SEM). The participants of the study from English Language Teaching Departments of Hacettepe, Gazi and Baskent Universities. The participants…

  1. Type of Speech Material Affects Acceptable Noise Level Test Outcome.

    PubMed

    Koch, Xaver; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Goedegebure, André; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test, in which individuals indicate what level of noise they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual's inherent acceptance of competing noise while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test-retest reliability). The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less noise was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was comparable across

  2. Type of Speech Material Affects Acceptable Noise Level Test Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Xaver; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Goedegebure, André; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test, in which individuals indicate what level of noise they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual’s inherent acceptance of competing noise while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test–retest reliability). The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less noise was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was comparable

  3. Enhanced Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computing in d -Level Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Earl T.

    2014-12-01

    Error-correcting codes protect quantum information and form the basis of fault-tolerant quantum computing. Leading proposals for fault-tolerant quantum computation require codes with an exceedingly rare property, a transversal non-Clifford gate. Codes with the desired property are presented for d -level qudit systems with prime d . The codes use n =d -1 qudits and can detect up to ˜d /3 errors. We quantify the performance of these codes for one approach to quantum computation known as magic-state distillation. Unlike prior work, we find performance is always enhanced by increasing d .

  4. The moderating and mediating roles of self-acceptance and tolerance to others in the relationship between mindfulness and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Oei, Tian Ps; Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Xiaoming; Ding, Chen

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the moderating and mediating influences of self-acceptance and tolerance to others in the relationship between mindfulness and subjective well-being. In total, 301 (130 males) university students completed the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, Index of Well-being, Self-acceptance Questionnaire, and Tolerance Scale. The results showed that the positive link between mindfulness and subjective well-being was significantly mediated by self-acceptance only. Tolerance played a moderating role. The implications of the results for relevant research and mindfulness training were discussed. PMID:25395155

  5. Cloning of organic solvent tolerance gene ostA that determines n-hexane tolerance level in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Aono, R; Negishi, T; Nakajima, H

    1994-01-01

    A variety of genes are involved in determining the level of organic solvent tolerance of Escherichia coli K-12. Gene ostA is one of the genes contributing to the level of organic solvent tolerance. This gene was cloned from an n-hexane-tolerant strain of E. coli, JA300. A JA300-based n-hexane-sensitive strain, OST4251, was converted to the n-hexane-tolerant phenotype by transformation with DNA containing the ostA gene derived from JA300. Thus, the cloned ostA gene complemented the n-hexane-sensitive phenotype of OST4251. Images PMID:7811102

  6. Patient tolerance and acceptance of colesevelam hydrochloride: focus on type-2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Luigi; DeSantis, Evelyn Hermes

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease with a U.S. prevalence of 25.8 million, and 90-95% of all cases are type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite the known mortality and morbidity associated with T2DM, the majority of patients do not achieve their hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) goals. Nonadherence is one of the contributing factors to the lackluster attainment of treatment goals. Drug tolerability may impact medication nonadherence; therefore, strategies to improve tolerability are important. Colesevelam, a second-generation bile acid resin, was designed with greater specificity and affinity for bile acids. Its physiochemical attributes contribute to an improved tolerability profile. Colesevelam has demonstrated efficacy in lowering HbA1c in addition to low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, although clinical outcomes data are lacking. Several mechanisms of colesevelam's effect in T2DM have been proposed, including effects on insulin sensitivity and secretion, incretin effects, changes in bile acid composition, and splanchnic sequestration of mealtime glucose. Colesevelam is associated with reductions in HbA1c in T2DM patients ranging from 0.32 to 1.1 percentage points. Colesevelam is generally well tolerated, and indirect comparisons with cholestyramine suggest that it is associated with fewer gastrointestinal symptoms. Reported adherence and persistence to colesevelam treatment in observational studies are 33.3% and 49%, respectively. PMID:25628509

  7. Cadmium tolerance, cysteine and thiol peptide levels in wild type and chromium-tolerant strains of Scenedesmus acutus (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Elena; Gorbi, Gessica; Pawlik-Skowronska, Barbara; Di Toppi, Luigi Sanità; Corradi, Maria Grazia

    2004-07-14

    Two strains of the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus acutus with different sensitivity to hexavalent chromium were compared for their tolerance of cadmium, by means of growth and recovery tests, and determination of cysteine, reduced glutathione and phytochelatin content, after short-term exposure to various cadmium concentrations (from 1.125 to 27 microM). Growth experiments showed that, after 7-day treatments with cadmium, the chromium-tolerant strain reached a significantly higher cell density and, after 24-h exposure to Cd, was able to resume growth significantly better than the wild type. Constitutive level of cysteine was higher in the chromium-tolerant strain, while glutathione levels were similar in the two strains. The higher content of cysteine and the maintenance of both reduced glutathione and phytochelatin high levels in the presence of cadmium, support the higher cadmium co-tolerance of the chromium-tolerant strain in comparison with the wild type one. PMID:15177949

  8. Acceptance Test Report for the 241-AZ-101 Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS, J.E.

    2000-01-27

    This document comprises the Acceptance Test Report for the 241-AZ-101 Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer. This document presents the results of Acceptance Testing of the 241-AZ-101 Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzers (URSILLAs). Testing of the URSILLAs was performed in accordance with ATP-260-001, ''URSILLA Pre-installation Acceptance Test Procedure''. The objective of the testing was to verify that all equipment and components function in accordance with design specifications and original equipment manufacturer's specifications.

  9. Local tolerance testing under REACH: Accepted non-animal methods are not on equal footing with animal tests.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G; Hill, Erin H; Curren, Rodger D; Raabe, Hans A; Kolle, Susanne N; Teubner, Wera; Mehling, Annette; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-07-01

    In general, no single non-animal method can cover the complexity of any given animal test. Therefore, fixed sets of in vitro (and in chemico) methods have been combined into testing strategies for skin and eye irritation and skin sensitisation testing, with pre-defined prediction models for substance classification. Many of these methods have been adopted as OECD test guidelines. Various testing strategies have been successfully validated in extensive in-house and inter-laboratory studies, but they have not yet received formal acceptance for substance classification. Therefore, under the European REACH Regulation, data from testing strategies can, in general, only be used in so-called weight-of-evidence approaches. While animal testing data generated under the specific REACH information requirements are per se sufficient, the sufficiency of weight-of-evidence approaches can be questioned under the REACH system, and further animal testing can be required. This constitutes an imbalance between the regulatory acceptance of data from approved non-animal methods and animal tests that is not justified on scientific grounds. To ensure that testing strategies for local tolerance testing truly serve to replace animal testing for the REACH registration 2018 deadline (when the majority of existing chemicals have to be registered), clarity on their regulatory acceptance as complete replacements is urgently required. PMID:27494627

  10. Defining Acceptable Levels for Ecological Indicators: An Approach for Considering Social Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Robyn L.; Watzin, Mary C.; Manning, Robert E.

    2007-03-01

    Ecological indicators can facilitate an adaptive management approach, but only if acceptable levels for those indicators have been defined so that the data collected can be interpreted. Because acceptable levels are an expression of the desired state of the ecosystem, the process of establishing acceptable levels should incorporate not just ecological understanding but also societal values. The goal of this research was to explore an approach for defining acceptable levels of ecological indicators that explicitly considers social perspectives and values. We used a set of eight indicators that were related to issues of concern in the Lake Champlain Basin. Our approach was based on normative theory. Using a stakeholder survey, we measured respondent normative evaluations of varying levels of our indicators. Aggregated social norm curves were used to determine the level at which indicator values shifted from acceptable to unacceptable conditions. For seven of the eight indicators, clear preferences were interpretable from these norm curves. For example, closures of public beaches because of bacterial contamination and days of intense algae bloom went from acceptable to unacceptable at 7-10 days in a summer season. Survey respondents also indicated that the number of fish caught from Lake Champlain that could be safely consumed each month was unacceptably low and the number of streams draining into the lake that were impaired by storm water was unacceptably high. If indicators that translate ecological conditions into social consequences are carefully selected, we believe the normative approach has considerable merit for defining acceptable levels of valued ecological system components.

  11. How to measure community tolerance levels for noise.

    PubMed

    Taraldsen, Gunnar; Gelderblom, Femke B; Gjestland, Truls T

    2016-07-01

    Relationships between noise exposure and transportation noise induced annoyance have been studied extensively for several decades. The annoyance due to aircraft noise exposure is in the present paper assumed to be influenced by the day-night yearly average sound level (DNL). It has long been recognized that the annoyance also depends on non-DNL factors, but this is complicated-resulting in a variety of different modeling strategies. Motivated by this, the community tolerance level (CTL) was introduced in 2011 for a loudness-based psychometric function. It is a single parameter that accounts for the aggregate influence of other factors. This paper suggests and investigates different methods for the measurement of the CTL. The methods are illustrated on data found in the literature, on recent surveys around two Norwegian airports, and on simulated data. The results from the presented methods differ significantly. An elementary method is shown to give a measurement of the CTL with smaller uncertainty, and is recommended as a replacement for the originally suggested least-squares method. Methods for evaluating the measurement uncertainty are also presented. PMID:27475190

  12. Acceptance and Avoidance Processes at Different Levels of Psychological Recovery from Enduring Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Vinicius R.; Oades, Lindsay G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the use of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance, two key concepts of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), in the psychological recovery process of people with enduring mental illness. Method. Sixty-seven participants were recruited from the metropolitan, regional, and rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. They all presented some form of chronic mental illness (at least 12 months) as reflected in DSM-IV Axis I diagnostic criteria. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-19) was used to measure the presence of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance; the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) was used to examine the levels of psychological recovery; and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being was used to observe if there are benefits in utilizing psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance in the recovery process. Results. An analysis of objectively quantifiable measures found no clear correlation between the use of psychological acceptance and recovery in mental illness as measured by the RAS. The data, however, showed a relationship between psychological acceptance and some components of recovery, thereby demonstrating its possible value in the recovery process. Conclusion. The major contribution of this research was the emerging correlation that was observed between psychological acceptance and positive levels of psychological well-being among individuals with mental illness. PMID:26576412

  13. Public acceptance for centralized storage and repositories of low-level waste session (Panel)

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, H.R.

    1995-12-31

    Participants from various parts of the world will provide a summary of their particular country`s approach to low-level waste management and the cost of public acceptance for low-level waste management facilities. Participants will discuss the number, geographic location, and type of low-level waste repositories and centralized storage facilities located in their countries. Each will discuss the amount, distribution, and duration of funds to gain public acceptance of these facilities. Participants will provide an estimated $/meter for centralized storage facilities and repositories. The panel will include a brief discussion about the ethical aspects of public acceptance costs, approaches for negotiating acceptance, and lessons learned in each country. The audience is invited to participate in the discussion.

  14. Preferred and Minimum Acceptable Listening Levels for Musicians while Using Floor and In-Ear Monitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federman, Jeremy; Ricketts, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact that changing on-stage music and crowd noise levels during musical performance had on preferred listening levels (PLLs) and minimum acceptable listening levels (MALLs) across both floor and in-ear monitors. Method: Participants for this study were 23- to 48-year-old musicians, with and without hearing loss,…

  15. Waste acceptance product specifications for vitrified high-level waste forms. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Applewhite-Ramsey, A.; Sproull, J.F.

    1993-06-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 mandated that all high-level waste (HLW) be sent to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. DOE published the Environmental Assessment in 1982 which identified borosilicate glass as the chosen HLW form.{sup 1} In 1985 the Department of Energy instituted a Waste Acceptance Process to assure that DWPF glass waste forms would be acceptable to such a repository. This assurance was important since production of waste forms will precede repository construction and licensing. As part of this Waste Acceptance Process, the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) formed the Waste Acceptance Committee (WAC). The WAC included representatives from the candidate repository sites, the waste producing sites and DOE. The WAC was responsible for developing the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) which defined the requirements the waste forms must meet to be compatible with the candidate repository geologies.

  16. Comparative efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine in child and adolescent ADHD: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Maneeton, Benchalak; Maneeton, Narong; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Suttajit, Sirijit; Narkpongphun, Assawin; Srisurapanont, Manit; Woottiluk, Pakapan

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that lisdexamfetamine (LDX) is efficacious in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objectives Aims of this study were to systematically review the efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of LDX in child and adolescent ADHD. Any randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of LDX versus placebo carried out in children and adolescents with ADHD were included. Data sources The searches of the SCOPUS, MEDLINE, CINAHL and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were performed in September 2014. Additional searches in the ClinicalTrials. gov and EU Clinical Trials Register database were conducted. Study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions This review included all RCTs of LDX versus placebo which were carried out in children and adolescents up to 18 years old. Additionally, the included studies must have reported the final outcomes of: i) severity of ADHD symptoms with standardized scales, ii) rates of improvement, iii) rates of discontinuation. To be more thorough, the languages of such RCTs were not limited. Study appraisal and synthesis methods The abstracts from databases were inspected and the full text versions of relevant trials were examined and extracted for important outcomes. The efficacious measurements included either the pooled mean end-point or changed scores of ADHD rating scales, and the rate of improvement. Acceptability and tolerability were measured by the pooled overall discontinuation rate and the pooled discontinuation rate due to adverse events, respectively. A random effect model technique was utilized to synthesize the mean differences (either standardized mean differences or weighted mean differences) and relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 1,016 children and adolescents with ADHD were included. The dosage of LDX was 30 to 70 mg/day. The pooled mean change scores of LDX-treated group was significantly greater than that

  17. A FORTRAN IV Program for Multiple-choice Tests with Predetermined Minimal Acceptable Performance Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noe, Michael J.

    1976-01-01

    A Fortran IV multiple choice test scoring program for an IBM 370 computer is described that computes minimally acceptable performance levels and compares student scores to these levels. The program accomodates up to 500 items with no more than nine alternatives from a group of examinees numbering less than 10,000. (Author)

  18. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 509.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  19. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 109.4 Section 109.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 109.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  20. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 509.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  1. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 109.4 Section 109.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 109.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  2. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 509.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  3. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 109.4 Section 109.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 109.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  4. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 509.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  5. A comparison of a laboratory and field study of annoyance and acceptability of aircraft noise exposures. [human reactions and tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borsky, P. N.

    1977-01-01

    Residents living in close, middle and distant areas from JFK Airport were included in a field interview and laboratory study. Judgments were made of simulated aircraft noise exposures of comparable community indoor noise levels and mixes of aircraft. Each group of subjects judged the levels of noise typical for its distance area. Four different numbers of flyovers were tested: less than average for each area, the approximate average, the peak number, or worst day, and above peak number. The major findings are: (1) the reported integrated field annoyance is best related to the annoyance reported for the simulated approximate worst day exposure in the laboratory; (2) annoyance is generally less when there are fewer aircraft flyovers, and the subject has less fear of crashes and more favorable attitudes toward airplanes; (3) beliefs in harmful health effects and misfeasance by operators of aircraft are also highly correlated with fear and noise annoyance; (4) in direct retrospective comparisons of number of flights, noise levels and annoyance, subjects more often said the worst day laboratory exposured more like their usual home environments; and (5) subjects do not expect an annoyance-free environment. Half of the subjects can accept an annoyance level of 5 to 6 from a possible annoyance range of 0 to 9, 28% can live with an annoyance intensity of 7, and only 5% can accept the top scores of 8 to 9.

  6. Association between blood glucose level derived using the oral glucose tolerance test and glycated hemoglobin level

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Young Geon; Park, Jin Soo; Ahn, Young Hwan; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is widely used as a marker of glycemic control. Translation of the HbA1c level to an average blood glucose level is useful because the latter figure is easily understood by patients. We studied the association between blood glucose levels revealed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c levels in a Korean population. Methods: A total of 1,000 subjects aged 30 to 64 years from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort were included. Fasting glucose levels, post-load glucose levels at 30, 60, and 120 minutes into the OGTT, and HbA1c levels were measured. Results: Linear regression of HbA1c with mean blood glucose levels derived using the OGTT revealed a significant correlation between these measures (predicted mean glucose [mg/dL] = 49.4 × HbA1c [%] − 149.6; R2 = 0.54, p < 0.001). Our linear regression equation was quite different from that of the Alc-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study and Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort. Conclusions: Discrepancies between our results and those of the ADAG study and DCCT cohort may be attributable to differences in the test methods used and the extent of insulin secretion. More studies are needed to evaluate the association between HbA1c and self monitoring blood glucose levels. PMID:26898598

  7. Accepting Tolerance and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoss, Madeleine; Wylie, Roslyn

    Exploring diversity instills in children an awareness and respect for themselves and others. Research projects that address stereotyping, race relations, and prejudice within ourselves can be developed through collaboration between the librarian and classroom teacher (who may themselves be of different cultures). These research projects help…

  8. The Relationship between Personality Type and Acceptable Noise Levels: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Cliff; Johnson, Laura V.; Franklin, Clay

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the relationship between acceptable noise level (ANL) and personality. ANL is the difference between a person's most comfortable level for speech and the loudest level of background noise they are willing to accept while listening to speech. Design. Forty young adults with normal hearing participated. ANLs were measured and two personality tests (Big Five Inventory, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) were administered. Results. The analysis revealed a correlation between ANL and the openness and conscientious personality dimensions from the Big Five Inventory; no correlation emerged between ANL and the Myers-Briggs personality types. Conclusions. Lower ANLs are correlated with full-time hearing aid use and the openness personality dimension; higher ANLs are correlated with part-time or hearing aid nonuse and the conscientious personality dimension. Current data suggest that those more open to new experiences may accept more noise and possibly be good hearing aid candidates, while those more conscientious may accept less noise and reject hearing aids, based on their unwillingness to accept background noise. Knowing something about a person's personality type may help audiologists determine if their patients will likely be good candidates for hearing aids. PMID:24349796

  9. An objective method for 3D quality prediction using visual annoyance and acceptability level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaustova, Darya; Fournier, Jérôme; Wyckens, Emmanuel; Le Meur, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    This study proposes a new objective metric for video quality assessment. It predicts the impact of technical quality parameters relevant to visual discomfort on human perception. The proposed metric is based on a 3-level color scale: (1) Green - not annoying, (2) Orange - annoying but acceptable, (3) Red - not acceptable. Therefore, each color category reflects viewers' judgment based on stimulus acceptability and induced visual annoyance. The boundary between the "Green" and "Orange" categories defines the visual annoyance threshold, while the boundary between the "Orange" and "Red" categories defines the acceptability threshold. Once the technical quality parameters are measured, they are compared to perceptual thresholds. Such comparison allows estimating the quality of the 3D video sequence. Besides, the proposed metric is adjustable to service or production requirements by changing the percentage of acceptability and/or visual annoyance. The performance of the metric is evaluated in a subjective experiment that uses three stereoscopic scenes. Five view asymmetries with four degradation levels were introduced into initial test content. The results demonstrate high correlations between subjective scores and objective predictions for all view asymmetries.

  10. Contingent Valuation and Pharmacists' Acceptable Levels of Compensation for Medication Therapy Management Services

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junling; Hong, Song Hee

    2012-01-01

    Background Pharmacists' acceptable level of compensation for medication therapy management (MTM) services needs to be determined using various economic evaluation techniques. Objectives Using contingent valuation method, determine pharmacists' acceptable levels of compensation for MTM services. Methods A mailing survey was used to elicit Tennessee (US) pharmacists' acceptable levels of compensation for a 30-minute MTM session for a new patient with 2 medical conditions, 8 medications, and an annual drug cost of $2,000. Three versions of a series of double-bounded, closed-ended, binary discrete choice questions were asked of pharmacists for their willingness-to-accept (WTA) for an original monetary value ($30, $60, or $90) and then follow-up higher or lower value depending on their responses to the original value. A Kaplan-Meier approach was taken to analyze pharmacists' WTA, and Cox's proportional hazards model was used to examine the effects of pharmacist characteristics on their WTA. Results Three hundred and forty-eight pharmacists responded to the survey. Pharmacists' WTA for the given MTM session had a mean of $63.31 and median of $60. The proportions of pharmacists willing to accept $30, $60, and $90 for the given MTM session were 30.61%, 85.19%, and 91.01%, respectively. Pharmacists' characteristics had statistically significant association with their WTA rates. Conclusions Pharmacists' WTA for the given MTM session is higher than current Medicare MTM programs' compensation levels of $15 to $50 and patients' willingness-to-pay of less than $40. Besides advocating for higher MTM compensation levels by third-party payers, pharmacists also may need to charge patients to reach sufficient compensation levels for MTM services. PMID:22436583

  11. Acceptance of Dog Guides and Daily Stress Levels of Dog Guide Users and Nonusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunaka, Kumiko; Koda, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    The degree of acceptance of dog guides at public facilities, which is required by law in Japan, was investigated, and evidence of rejection was found. Japanese people with visual impairments who used dog guides reported higher daily stress levels than did those who did not use dog guides. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  12. Improving International-Level Chess Players' Performance with an Acceptance-Based Protocol: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Francisco J.; Luciano, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This study compared an individual, 4-hr intervention based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) versus a no-contact control condition in improving the performance of international-level chess players. Five participants received the brief ACT protocol, with each matched to another chess player with similar characteristics in the control…

  13. Acceptance Noise Level: Effects of the Speech Signal, Babble, and Listener Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Lu-Feng; Azcona, Gabrielly; Buten, Lupe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The acceptable noise level (ANL) measure has gained much research/clinical interest in recent years. The present study examined how the characteristics of the speech signal and the babble used in the measure may affect the ANL in listeners with different native languages. Method: Fifteen English monolingual, 16 Russian-English bilingual,…

  14. Development of Crystal-Tolerant High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Schaible, Micah J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Arrigoni, Alyssa L.; Tate, Rachel M.

    2010-12-17

    Twenty five glasses were formulated. They were batched from HLW AZ-101 simulant or raw chemicals and melted and tested with a series of tests to elucidate the effect of spinel-forming components (Ni, Fe, Cr, Mn, and Zn), Al, and noble metals (Rh2O3 and RuO2) on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the high-level waste (HLW) melter. In addition, the processing properties of glasses, such as the viscosity and TL, were measured as a function of temperature and composition. Furthermore, the settling of spinel crystals in transparent low-viscosity fluids was studied at room temperature to access the shape factor and hindered settling coefficient of spinel crystals in the Stokes equation. The experimental results suggest that Ni is the most troublesome component of all the studied spinel-forming components producing settling layers of up to 10.5 mm in just 20 days in Ni-rich glasses if noble metals or a higher concentration of Fe was not introduced in the glass. The layer of this thickness can potentially plug the bottom of the riser, preventing glass from being discharged from the melter. The noble metals, Fe, and Al were the components that significantly slowed down or stopped the accumulation of spinel at the bottom. Particles of Rh2O3 and RuO2, hematite and nepheline, acted as nucleation sites significantly increasing the number of crystals and therefore decreasing the average crystal size. The settling rate of ≤10-μm crystal size around the settling velocity of crystals was too low to produce thick layers. The experimental data for the thickness of settled layers in the glasses prepared from AZ-101 simulant were used to build a linear empirical model that can predict crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass. The developed model predicts the thicknesses of accumulated layers quite well, R2 = 0.985, and can be become an efficient tool for the formulation

  15. Analytical methodology for determination of helicopter IFR precision approach requirements. [pilot workload and acceptance level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phatak, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    A systematic analytical approach to the determination of helicopter IFR precision approach requirements is formulated. The approach is based upon the hypothesis that pilot acceptance level or opinion rating of a given system is inversely related to the degree of pilot involvement in the control task. A nonlinear simulation of the helicopter approach to landing task incorporating appropriate models for UH-1H aircraft, the environmental disturbances and the human pilot was developed as a tool for evaluating the pilot acceptance hypothesis. The simulated pilot model is generic in nature and includes analytical representation of the human information acquisition, processing, and control strategies. Simulation analyses in the flight director mode indicate that the pilot model used is reasonable. Results of the simulation are used to identify candidate pilot workload metrics and to test the well known performance-work-load relationship. A pilot acceptance analytical methodology is formulated as a basis for further investigation, development and validation.

  16. Multiple Stressor Differential Tolerances: Possible Implications at the Population Level

    PubMed Central

    Venâncio, Cátia; Ribeiro, Rui; Soares, Amadeu; Lopes, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The probability of the most sensitive genotypes being eliminated from a population due to a contaminant pulse–genetic erosion–is negatively associated to the within-genotype variation. A sensitive genotype with a small phenotypic variation would be more prone to be lost–a critically sensitive genotype. Furthermore, natural populations inhabiting contaminated sites are usually exposed to several pollutants. Such co- or sequential exposure can have severe effects if at least some tolerant clonal lineages surviving one contaminant are sensitive to the others. Such an inverse relationship coupled with a low within-genotype variation potentially enhances genetic erosion. Accordingly, this study evaluated co-tolerance and the occurrence of clonal lineages critically sensitive to 48-hours lethal exposures of copper, zinc, cobalt, and chromium among eight clonal lineages of the cladocerans Daphnia longispina. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of each metal were found to have the potential to provoke genetic erosion. Pairwise comparisons of LC50, from the eight clonal lineages, revealed neither negative nor positive correlations (r ≤ |0.56|; p ≥ 0.18), but inversely sensitive clonal lineages were found for all pairs of metals. Therefore, besides having the potential to eliminate critically sensitive clonal lineages in a first intermediately lethal pulse, all tested metals may provoke further losses of clonal lineages in an already genetically eroded population. PMID:26990542

  17. Multiple Stressor Differential Tolerances: Possible Implications at the Population Level.

    PubMed

    Venâncio, Cátia; Ribeiro, Rui; Soares, Amadeu; Lopes, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The probability of the most sensitive genotypes being eliminated from a population due to a contaminant pulse--genetic erosion--is negatively associated to the within-genotype variation. A sensitive genotype with a small phenotypic variation would be more prone to be lost-a critically sensitive genotype. Furthermore, natural populations inhabiting contaminated sites are usually exposed to several pollutants. Such co- or sequential exposure can have severe effects if at least some tolerant clonal lineages surviving one contaminant are sensitive to the others. Such an inverse relationship coupled with a low within-genotype variation potentially enhances genetic erosion. Accordingly, this study evaluated co-tolerance and the occurrence of clonal lineages critically sensitive to 48-hours lethal exposures of copper, zinc, cobalt, and chromium among eight clonal lineages of the cladocerans Daphnia longispina. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of each metal were found to have the potential to provoke genetic erosion. Pairwise comparisons of LC50, from the eight clonal lineages, revealed neither negative nor positive correlations (r ≤ |0.56|; p ≥ 0.18), but inversely sensitive clonal lineages were found for all pairs of metals. Therefore, besides having the potential to eliminate critically sensitive clonal lineages in a first intermediately lethal pulse, all tested metals may provoke further losses of clonal lineages in an already genetically eroded population. PMID:26990542

  18. A comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, T.A.

    1997-04-01

    This document, prepared by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, is a comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria. Many of these are draft or preliminary criteria as well as implemented criteria at operating low-level radioactive waste management facilities. Waste acceptance criteria from the following entities are included: US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, South Carolina, Washington, Utah, Nevada, California, illinois, Texas, North Carolina, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, New York, and the Midwest Compact Region. Criteria in the matrix include the following: physical form, chemical form, liquid limits, void space in packages, concentration averaging, types of packaging, chelating agents, solidification media, stability requirements, sorptive media, gas, oil, biological waste, pyrophorics, source material, special nuclear material, package dimensions, incinerator ash, dewatered resin, transuranics, and mixed waste. Each criterion in the matrix is cross-referenced to its source document so that exact requirements can be determined.

  19. Organic Solvent Tolerance of Escherichia coli Is Independent of OmpF Levels in the Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Asako, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Kei; Aono, Rikizo

    1999-01-01

    The organic solvent tolerance of Escherichia coli was measured under conditions in which OmpF levels were controlled by various means as follows: alteration of NaCl concentration in the medium, transformation with a stress-responsive gene (marA, robA, or soxS), or disruption of the ompF gene. It was shown that solvent tolerance of E. coli did not depend upon OmpF levels in the membrane. PMID:9872794

  20. Engineering high-level aluminum tolerance in barley with the ALMT1 gene.

    PubMed

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; Ryan, Peter R; Hebb, Diane M; Yamamoto, Yoko; Sasaki, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2004-10-19

    Acidity is a serious limitation to plant production on many of the world's agricultural soils. Toxic aluminium (Al) cations solubilized by the acidity rapidly inhibit root growth and limit subsequent uptake of water and nutrients. Recent work has shown that the ALMT1 gene of wheat (Triticum aestivum) encodes a malate transporter that is associated with malate efflux and Al tolerance. We generated transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants expressing ALMT1 and assessed their ability to exude malate and withstand Al stress. ALMT1 expression in barley conferred an Al-activated efflux of malate with properties similar to those of Al-tolerant wheat. The transgenic barley showed a high level of Al tolerance when grown in both hydroponic culture and on acid soils. These findings provide additional evidence that ALMT1 is a major Al-tolerance gene and demonstrate its ability to confer effective tolerance to acid soils through a transgenic approach in an important crop species. PMID:15471989

  1. The Effects of Speech Presentation Level on Acceptance of Noise in Listeners with Normal and Impaired Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freyaldenhoven, Melinda C.; Plyler, Patrick N.; Thelin, James W.; Hedrick, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effects of speech presentation level on acceptance of noise in listeners with normal and impaired hearing. Method: Participants were listeners with normal (n = 24) and impaired (n = 46) hearing who were matched for conventional acceptable noise level (ANL). ANL was then measured at 8 fixed speech presentation levels (40,…

  2. ENVIROCARE OF UTAH: EXPANDING WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA TO PROVIDE LOW-LEVEL AND MIXED WASTE DISPOSAL OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, B.; Loveland, K.

    2003-02-27

    Envirocare of Utah operates a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility 80 miles west of Salt Lake City in Clive, Utah. Accepted waste types includes NORM, 11e2 byproduct material, Class A low-level waste, and mixed waste. Since 1988, Envirocare has offered disposal options for environmental restoration waste for both government and commercial remediation projects. Annual waste receipts exceed 12 million cubic feet. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the Envirocare facility have significantly expanded to accommodate the changing needs of restoration projects and waste generators since its inception, including acceptable physical waste forms, radiological acceptance criteria, RCRA requirements and treatment capabilities, PCB acceptance, and liquids acceptance. Additionally, there are many packaging, transportation, and waste management options for waste streams acceptable at Envirocare. Many subcontracting vehicles are also available to waste generators for both government and commercial activities.

  3. Are the noise levels acceptable in a built environment like Hong Kong?

    PubMed

    To, Wai Ming; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Chung, Wai Leung

    2015-01-01

    Governments all over the world have enacted environmental noise directives and noise control ordinances/acts to protect tranquility in residential areas. However, there is a lack of literature on the evaluation of whether the Acceptable Noise Levels (ANLs) stipulated in the directive/ordinance/act are actually achievable. The study aimed at measuring outdoor environmental noise levels in Hong Kong and identifying whether the measured noise levels are lower than the stipulated ANLs at 20 categories of residential areas. Data were gathered from a territory-wide noise survey. Outdoor noise measurements were conducted at 203 residential premises in urban areas, low-density residential areas, rural areas, and other areas. In total, 366 daytime hourly Leq outdoor noise levels, 362 nighttime hourly Leq outdoor noise levels, and 20 sets of daily, that is, 24 L(eq,1-)h outdoor noise levels were recorded. The mean daytime L(eq,1-h) values ranged 54.4-70.8 dBA, while the mean nighttime L(eq,1-h) values ranged 52.6-67.9 dBA. When the measured noise levels were compared with the stipulated ANLs, only three out of the 20 categories of areas had outdoor noise levels below ANLs during daytime. All other areas (and all areas during nighttime) were found to have outdoor noise levels at or above ANLs. PMID:26572703

  4. Are the noise levels acceptable in a built environment like Hong Kong?

    PubMed Central

    To, Wai Ming; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Chung, Wai Leung

    2015-01-01

    Governments all over the world have enacted environmental noise directives and noise control ordinances/acts to protect tranquility in residential areas. However, there is a lack of literature on the evaluation of whether the Acceptable Noise Levels (ANLs) stipulated in the directive/ordinance/act are actually achievable. The study aimed at measuring outdoor environmental noise levels in Hong Kong and identifying whether the measured noise levels are lower than the stipulated ANLs at 20 categories of residential areas. Data were gathered from a territory-wide noise survey. Outdoor noise measurements were conducted at 203 residential premises in urban areas, low-density residential areas, rural areas, and other areas. In total, 366 daytime hourly Leq outdoor noise levels, 362 nighttime hourly Leq outdoor noise levels, and 20 sets of daily, that is, 24 Leq,1-h outdoor noise levels were recorded. The mean daytime Leq,1-h values ranged 54.4-70.8 dBA, while the mean nighttime Leq,1-h values ranged 52.6-67.9 dBA. When the measured noise levels were compared with the stipulated ANLs, only three out of the 20 categories of areas had outdoor noise levels below ANLs during daytime. All other areas (and all areas during nighttime) were found to have outdoor noise levels at or above ANLs. PMID:26572703

  5. Pathway analysis approach for determining acceptable levels of contamination of radionuclides in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Till, J.E.; Moore, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    A methodology for determining acceptable levels for decontamination of soil containing radionuclides at waste sites is described. This methodology calculates the annual radiation dose that an individual receives while living on property that has been decommissioned and decontaminated. Pathways of exposure include direct radiation from ground surfaces, ingestion of contaminated food, inhalation of resuspended radionuclides and drinking contaminated water. Results calculated using this methodology were compared with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for a southeastern U.S. site. There is good agreement between the two methods provided similar assumptions are used.

  6. Effects of a Follow-On Formula Containing Isomaltulose (Palatinose™) on Metabolic Response, Acceptance, Tolerance and Safety in Infants: A Randomized-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fleddermann, M.; Rauh-Pfeiffer, A.; Demmelmair, H.; Holdt, L.; Teupser, D.; Koletzko, B.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of the dietary glycaemic load on postprandial blood glucose and insulin response might be of importance for fat deposition and risk of obesity. We aimed to investigate the metabolic effects, acceptance and tolerance of a follow-on formula containing the low glycaemic and low insulinaemic carbohydrate isomaltulose replacing high glycaemic maltodextrin. Healthy term infants aged 4 to 8 completed months (n = 50) were randomized to receive the intervention follow-on formula (IF, 2.1g isomaltulose (Palatinose™)/100mL) or an isocaloric conventional formula (CF) providing 2.1g maltodextrin/100mL for four weeks. Plasma insulinaemia 60min after start of feeding (primary outcome) was not statistically different, while glycaemia adjusted for age and time for drinking/volume of meal 60min after start of feeding was 122(105,140) mg/dL in IF (median, interquartile range) and 111(100,123) in CF (p = 0.01). Urinary c-peptide:creatinine ratio did not differ (IF:81.5(44.7, 96.0) vs. CF:56.8(37.5, 129),p = 0.43). Urinary c-peptide:creatinine ratio was correlated total intake of energy (R = 0.31,p = 0.045), protein (R = 0.42,p = 0.006) and fat (R = 0.40,p = 0.01) but not with carbohydrate intake (R = 0.22,p = 0.16). Both formulae were well accepted without differences in time of crying, flatulence, stool characteristics and the occurrence of adverse events. The expected lower postprandial plasma insulin and blood glucose level due to replacement of high glycaemic maltodextrin by low glycaemic isomaltulose were not observed in the single time-point blood analysis. In infants aged 4 to 8 completed months fed a liquid formula, peak blood glucose might be reached earlier than 60min after start of feeding. Non-invasive urinary c-peptide measurements may be a suitable marker of nutritional intake during the previous four days in infants. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01627015 PMID:26987056

  7. Complex cross correlators with three-level quantization Design tolerances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addario, L. R.; Thompson, A. R.; Schwab, F. R.; Granlund, J.

    1984-06-01

    It is noted that for cases in which the components behave ideally, digital correlators have been analyzed in considerable detail. Consideration is given here to the effects of the major deviations from ideal behavior that are encountered in practice. Even though attention is restricted to the three-level quantization, the fairly general case of the complex cross correlator is investigated. Among the errors analyzed are quantization threshold errors, quantizer indecision regions, sampler timing skews, quadrature network errors, and numerical errors in algorithms for converting digital measurements to equivalent analog correlations. It is assumed that all the digital operations, including delay, multiplication, summing, and storage, can be implemented without errors. The study is prompted by the requirement for cross-power measurements in Fourier synthesis radio telescopes.

  8. a User-Driven Selection of Vgi Based on Minimum Acceptable Quality Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordogna, G.; Carrara, P.; Criscuolo, L.; Pepe, M.; Rampini, A.

    2015-08-01

    Despite Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) activities are now extremely helpful in a number of scientific applications, researchers and decision makers oppose some resistance to the usage of volunteered contributions, due to quality issues. Several methods and workflows have been proposed to face quality issues in different VGI projects, usually built ad-hoc for specific datasets, thus resulting neither extensible nor transferable. In order to overcome this weakness, the authors propose to perform an user-driven assessment on VGI items in order to filter only those that satisfy minimally acceptable quality levels defined according to their specific quality requirements and project goals. In the present work the users, i.e., information consumers, are seen as decision makers and are allowed to set the minimum acceptable quality levels Thus the approach proposes a user driven assessment of the fitness for use of VGI items. The paper first briefly presents a view on VGI components and suitable quality indices, then it describes a logic architecture for managing them and for enabling a querying mechanism to the datasets. The approach is finally exemplified with a case study simulation.

  9. Diurnal Variation in Oral Glucose Tolerance: Blood Sugar and Plasma Insulin Levels Morning, Afternoon, and Evening

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, R. J.; Baker, I. A.; Keen, H.; Oakley, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects received three oral glucose tolerance tests, in the morning, afternoon, and evening of separate days. The mean blood sugar levels in the afternoon and evening tests were similar, and they were both significantly higher than those in the morning test. Plasma immunoreactive insulin levels, however, were highest in the morning test. The pattern of insulin levels during the afternoon and evening tests resembled that described as typical of maturity-onset diabetes. PMID:5058728

  10. DECOM: A pathway analysis approach for determining acceptable levels of contamination of radionuclides in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Till, J.E.; Moore, R.E.

    1986-02-28

    The purpose of this report is to describe a method for determining acceptable levels for decontamination of soil containing radionuclides at waste sites located on the Savannah River Plant. This task was achieved through development of a computer program called ''DECOM.'' The DECOM code is written in BASIC, runs on an IBM microcomputer (AT, XT, or compatible), is interactive, and calculates the annual radiation dose that an individual receives while living on property that has been decommissioned and decontaminated. User selected pathways of exposure include direct radiation from ground surface, ingestion of contaminated food, inhalation of resuspended radionuclides, and drinking contaminated water. The program requires a minimum of knowledge in radiological assessment. Although default values have been provided for most parameters, the methodology requires the user to define an acceptable effective dose equivalent that the resident can receive. Other input data required to run the code include the concentration of radionuclides in soil and some site specific parameters relating to the characteristics of the area. 37 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Methods for verifying compliance with low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the methods that are currently employed and those that can be used to verify compliance with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This report presents the applicable regulations representing the Federal, State, and site-specific criteria for accepting LLW. Typical LLW generators are summarized, along with descriptions of their waste streams and final waste forms. General procedures and methods used by the LLW generators to verify compliance with the disposal facility WAC are presented. The report was written to provide an understanding of how a regulator could verify compliance with a LLW disposal facility`s WAC. A comprehensive study of the methodology used to verify waste generator compliance with the disposal facility WAC is presented in this report. The study involved compiling the relevant regulations to define the WAC, reviewing regulatory agency inspection programs, and summarizing waste verification technology and equipment. The results of the study indicate that waste generators conduct verification programs that include packaging, classification, characterization, and stabilization elements. The current LLW disposal facilities perform waste verification steps on incoming shipments. A model inspection and verification program, which includes an emphasis on the generator`s waste application documentation of their waste verification program, is recommended. The disposal facility verification procedures primarily involve the use of portable radiological survey instrumentation. The actual verification of generator compliance to the LLW disposal facility WAC is performed through a combination of incoming shipment checks and generator site audits.

  12. Sweet corn hybrid tolerance to weed competition under three weed management levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly all commercial sweet corn fields contain weeds that escaped management and often suffer yield loss due to weed competition. Field trials were conducted from 2009 to 2011 near Prosser, WA and Urbana, IL to evaluate weed response and tolerance of four sweet corn hybrids to three levels of weed...

  13. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Eva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda

    2014-09-15

    Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress. PMID:25113613

  14. Sweet Corn Hybrid Tolerance to Weed Competition under Three Weed Management Levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly all commercial sweet corn fields contain weeds that escaped management and often suffer yield loss due to weed competition. Field trials were conducted from 2009 to 2011 near Prosser, WA and Urbana, IL to evaluate weed response and tolerance of four sweet corn hybrids to three levels of weed...

  15. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels. 109.4 Section 109.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD...

  16. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS UNAVOIDABLE...

  17. Understanding Acceptable Level of Risk: Incorporating the Economic Cost of Under-Managing Invasive Species

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Alisha D.; Hewitt, Chad L.; Kashian, Donna R.

    2015-01-01

    Management of nonindigenous species includes prevention, early detection and rapid response and control. Early detection and rapid response depend on prioritizing and monitoring sites at risk for arrival or secondary spread of nonindigenous species. Such monitoring efforts require sufficient biosecurity budgets to be effective and meet management or policy directives for reduced risk of introduction. Such consideration of risk reduction is rarely considered, however. Here, we review the concepts of acceptable level of risk (ALOR) and associated costs with respect to nonindigenous species and present a framework for aligning risk reduction priorities with available biosecurity resources. We conclude that available biosecurity resources may be insufficient to attain stated and desired risk reduction. This outcome highlights the need to consider policy and management directives when beginning a biosecurity program to determine the feasibility of risk reduction goals, given available resources. PMID:26536244

  18. The ground prototype processor: Level-1 production during Sentinel-2 in-orbit acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, B.; Dechoz, C.; Lachérade, S.; L'Helguen, C.; Raynaud, J.-L.; Trémas, T.; Picard, C.; Rolland, A.

    2015-10-01

    Jointly with the European Commission, the Sentinel-2 earth observation optical mission is developed by the European Space Agency (ESA). Relying on a constellation of satellites put in orbit starting mid-2015, Sentinel-2 will be devoted to the monitoring of land and coastal areas worldwide thanks to an imagery at high revisit (5 days with two satellites), high resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) with large swath (290km), and multi-spectral imagery (13 bands in visible and shortwave infra-red). In this framework, the French Space Agency (CNES: Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) supports ESA on the activities related to Image Quality, defining the image products and prototyping the processing techniques. Scope of this paper is to present the Ground Prototype Processor (GPP) that will be in charge of Level-1 production during Sentinel-2 In Orbit Acceptance phase. GPP has been developed by a European industrial consortium composed of Advanced Computer Systems (ACS), Magellium and DLR on the basis of CNES technical specification of Sentinel-2 data processing and under the joint management of ESA-ESTEC and CNES. It will assure the generation of the products used for Calibration and Validation activities and it will provide the reference data for Sentinel-2 Payload Data Ground Segment Validation. At first, Sentinel-2 end-users products definition is recalled with the associated radiometric and geometric performances; secondly the methods implemented will be presented with an overview of the Ground Image Processing Parameters that need to be tuned during the In Orbit Acceptance phase to assure the required performance of the products. Finally, the complexity of the processing having been showed, the challenges of the production in terms of data volume and processing time will be highlighted. The first Sentinel-2 Level-1 products are shown.

  19. Salt tolerance and stress level affect plant biomass-density relationships and neighbor effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhenxing; Chen, Wenwen; Zhang, Qian; Yang, Haishui; Tang, Jianjun; Weiner, Jacob; Chen, Xin

    2014-07-01

    It has been shown that plant biomass-density relationships are altered under extreme or stressed conditions. We do not know whether variation in biomass-density relationships is a direct result of stress tolerance or occurs via changes in plant-plant interactions. Here, we evaluated biomass-density relationships and neighbor effects in six plant species that differ in salt tolerance in a salt marsh, and conducted a literature review of biomass-density relationship under higher and lower stress levels. Our field study showed that both neighbor effects and the exponent of the biomass-density relationship (α) varied among plant species with different degrees of salt tolerance. There was a positive relationship between neighbor effects (measured as relative interaction index) and α-value among the tested species. The literature review showed that α and its variation increased under higher stress. Our results indicate that plant species with different salinity tolerance differ in the direction and strength of neighbor effects, resulting in variation in biomass-density relationships. Our results support the hypothesis that differences in biomass-density relationships among species are not due to differences in stress tolerance alone, they are mediated by changes in plant-plant interactions.

  20. The relationship between lysine 4 on histone H3 methylation levels of alcohol tolerance genes and changes of ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hang; Ji, Binfeng; Ren, Hongzhen; Meng, Chun

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether epigenetic changes contributed to improve ethanol tolerance in mutant populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae). Two ethanol-tolerant variants of S. cerevisiae were used to evaluate the genetic stability in the process of stress-free passage cultures. We found that acquired ethanol tolerance was lost and transcription level of some genes (HSP104, PRO1, TPS1, and SOD1) closely related to ethanol tolerance decreased significantly after the 10th passage in ethanol-free medium. Tri-methylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4) enhanced at the promoter of HSP104, PRO1, TPS1 and SOD1 in ethanol-tolerant variants of S. cerevisiae was also diminished after tenth passage in stress-free cultures. The ethanol tolerance was reacquired when exogenous SOD1 transferred in some tolerance-lost strains. This showed that H3K4 methylation is involved in phenotypic variation with regard to ethanol tolerance with respect to classic breeding methods used in yeast. PMID:24779776

  1. Comparative efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of dexmethylphenidate versus placebo in child and adolescent ADHD: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Maneeton, Narong; Maneeton, Benchalak; Woottiluk, Pakapan; Suttajit, Sirijit; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Charnsil, Chawanun; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2015-01-01

    Background The efficacy of dexmethylphenidate (d-MPH) has been proven in the treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective The aim of this systematic review is to determine the efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of d-MPH in child and adolescent ADHD. Methods The searches of SCOPUS, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were performed in February 2015. All randomized controlled trials of d-MPH versus placebo that were performed in children and adolescents with ADHD up to 18 years of age were included in the study. The efficacy was measured by using the pooled mean-endpoint or mean-changed scores of ADHD rating scales and the response rate. Acceptability and tolerability were measured by using the pooled rates of overall discontinuation and discontinuation due to adverse events, respectively. Results A total of 1,124 children and adolescents diagnosed as having ADHD were included in this review. In a laboratory school setting, the pooled mean-change and mean-endpoint scores in the d-MPH-treated group were significantly greater than those of the placebo-treated group with standardized mean difference (95% confidence interval [CI]) of −1.20 (−1.73, −0.67), I2=95%. Additionally, the pooled mean-changed scores of the ADHD rating scales for teachers and parents in the d-MPH-treated group were significantly greater than that of the placebo-treated group with weighted mean difference (95% CI) of −13.01 (−15.97, −10.05), I2=0% and (95% CI) of −12.99 (−15.57, −10.42), I2=0%, respectively. The pooled response rate in the d-MPH-treated groups had a significance higher than that of the placebo-treated group. The rates of pooled overall discontinuation and discontinuation due to adverse events between the two groups were not significantly different. Conclusion Based on the findings in this review, it can be concluded that d-MPH medication is efficacious and tolerable in child and

  2. Tolerance and Acceptance Results of a Palladium-103 Permanent Breast Seed Implant Phase I/II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pignol, Jean-Philippe Rakovitch, Eileen; Keller, Brian M.; Sankreacha, Raxa; Chartier, Carole

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To test, in a prospective Phase I/II trial, a partial breast irradiation technique using a {sup 103}Pd permanent breast seed implant (PBSI) realized in a single 1-h procedure under sedation and local freezing. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had infiltrating ductal carcinoma {<=}3 cm in diameter, surgical margin {>=}2 mm, no extensive intraductal component, no lymphovascular invasion, and negative lymph nodes. Patients received a permanent seed implant, and a minimal peripheral dose of 90 Gy was prescribed to the clinical target volume, with a margin of 1.5 cm. Results: From May 2004 to April 2007, 67 patients received the PBSI treatment. The procedure was well tolerated, with 17% of patients having significant pain after the procedure. Only 1 patient (1.5%) had an acute skin reaction (Grade 3 according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria). The rates of acute moist desquamation, erythema, and indurations were 10.4%, 42%, and 27%, respectively. At 1 year the rate of Grade 1 telangiectasia was 14%. The rate of skin reaction decreased from 65% to 28% when skin received less than the 85% isodose. According to a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group questionnaire, 80-90% of patients were very satisfied with their treatment, and the remainder were satisfied. One patient (1.5%) developed an abscess, which resolved after the use of antibiotics. There was no recurrence after a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 11-49 months). Conclusions: The feasibility, safety, and tolerability of PBSI compares favorably with that of external beam and other partial breast irradiation techniques.

  3. Acceptable levels of dioxin contamination in an office building following a transformer fire

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report assesses the health effects of dioxin in order to determine acceptable levels of exposures to dioxin in an office building that had a PCB transformer fire. The Committee concluded that short-term exposures to high concentrations of dioxins (especially 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzodioxin) are associated with chloracne in humans. Studies concerning reproductive effects have not shown adverse effects among progeny of men who were exposed to dioxins. The results of human-cancer studies of exposure to dioxins are inconsistent, but in general the studies are of low power and inconclusive exposure assessment. The overall evidence from human studies does not indicate a greatly increased risk of cancer in association with exposures experienced. Studies in animals have shown increased risk of cancer, adverse reproductive effects, and alterations in immune function. Acute effects include body-weight loss, thymic atrophy, neurotoxicity, and liver effects. Various carcinogenic risk assessments were reviewed and the Committee decided that the approach taken by the New York State Health Department was most appropriate and adopted its exposure guidelines, i.e., 10 pg/cu m for air and 25 ng/sq m for surfaces.

  4. Tolerance Induction in Liver.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M H; Geramizadeh, B; Malek-Hosseini, S A

    2015-01-01

    Liver is an exclusive anatomical and immunological organ that displays a considerable tolerance effect. Liver allograft acceptance is shown to occur spontaneously within different species. Although in human transplant patients tolerance is rarely seen, the severity level and cellular mechanisms of transplant rejection vary. Non-paranchymal liver cells, including Kupffer cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatic stellate cells, and resident dendritic cells may participate in liver tolerogenicity. The mentioned cells secret anti-inflammatory cytokines such as TGF-β and IL-10 and express negative co-stimulatory molecules like PD-L1 to mediate immunosuppression. Other mechanisms such as microchimerism, soluble major histocompatibility complex and regulatory T cells may take part in tolerance induction. Understanding the mechanisms involved in liver transplant rejection/tolerance helps us to improve therapeutic options to induce hepatic tolerance. PMID:26082828

  5. Plasma Lactate Levels Increase during Hyperinsulinemic Euglycemic Clamp and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Feven; Fite, Alemu; Daboul, Nour; Al-Janabi, Wissam; Msallaty, Zaher; Caruso, Michael; Lewis, Monique K; Yi, Zhengping; Diamond, Michael P; Abou-Samra, Abdul-Badi; Seyoum, Berhane

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance, which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), is an early indicator that heralds the occurrence of T2D. It is imperative to understand the metabolic changes that occur at the cellular level in the early stages of insulin resistance. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of circulating lactate levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HIEC) study in normal nondiabetic subjects. Lactate and glycerol were determined every 30 minutes during OGTT and HIEC on 22 participants. Lactate progressively increased throughout the HIEC study period (P < 0.001). Participants with BMI < 30 had significantly higher mean M-values compared to those with BMI ≥ 30 at baseline (P < 0.05). This trend also continued throughout the OGTT. In addition, those with impaired glucose tolerance test (IGT) had significantly higher mean lactate levels compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (P < 0.001). In conclusion, we found that lactate increased during HIEC study, which is a state of hyperinsulinemia similar to the metabolic milieu seen during the early stages in the development of T2D. PMID:25961050

  6. Effect of pure zinc deficiency on glucose tolerance and insulin and glucagon levels

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.Y.; Grandjean, C.J.; Hart, M.H.; Erdman, S.H.; Pour, P.; Vanderhoof, J.A.

    1986-03-05

    The effect of zinc deficiency on glucose tolerance was investigated using intragastric force-feeding to obviate decreased food intake and altered eating patterns. Three groups of weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a purified powdered zinc-deficient diet: zinc-deficient ad libitum fed animals (ZDA); zinc-replete gavage force-fed controls (ZRF) fed the zinc-deficient diet in water with zinc (25 ppm); zinc-deficient gavage force-fed animals (ZDF) fed the zinc-deficient diet in distilled water. A fourth group of zinc-supplemented rats fed the diet ad libitum was included to determine caloric intake for ZDF and ZRF gavage fed groups. After 8 days of feeding, the zinc concentration in the serum and pancreas were lower in both zinc-deficient groups, but the difference was much greater in the ZDF rats than in the ZDA. The ZDF group had impaired glucose tolerance curves, yet blood insulin and glucagon levels were normal. The ZDA group had normal glucose tolerance with low insulin levels compared to the ZRF group. The islet cell morphology among the three dietary groups were similar. These results suggest that the glucose intolerance observed in ZDF rats is not due to altered blood insulin and glucagon levels but rather to peripheral resistance to insulin action.

  7. A Polio Immunization Pamphlet with Increased Appeal and Simplified Language Does Not Improve Comprehension to an Acceptable Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Terry C.; Fredrickson, Doren D.; Arnold, Connie; Murphy, Peggy W.; Herbst, Melissa; Bocchini, Joseph A.

    1998-01-01

    Two polio-vaccine pamphlets written on a sixth-grade level were compared for readability, comprehension, and preference among a broad range of parents. The easy-to-read version was widely preferred, and comprehension was significantly higher. However, the use of instructional graphics was required to achieve an acceptable level of comprehension.…

  8. Fault-tolerance and two-level pipelining in VLSI systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H.T.; Lam, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    The authors address two important issues in systolic array designs: fault-tolerance and two-level pipelining. The proposed systolic fault-tolerant scheme maintains the original data flow pattern by bypassing defective cells with a few registers. As a result, many of the desirable properties of systolic arrays (such as local and regular communication between cells) are preserved. Two-level pipelining refers to the use of pipelined functional units in the implementation of systolic cells. The authors paper addresses the problem of efficiently utilizing pipelined units to increase the overall system throughput. They show that both of these problems can be reduced to the same mathematical problem of incorporating extra delays on certain data paths in originally correct systolic designs. They introduce the mathematical notion of a cut which enables them to handle this problem effectively. The results obtained by applying the techniques described are encouraging. When applied to systolic arrays without feedback cycles, the arrays can tolerate large numbers of failures (with the addition of very little hardware) while maintaining the original throughput. Furthermore, all of the pipeline stages in the cells can be kept fully utilized through the addition of a small number of delay registers. However, adding delays to systolic arrays with cycles typically induces a significant decrease in throughput. In response to this, they have derived a new class of systolic algorithms in which the data cycle around a ring of processing cells. The systolic ring architecture has the property that its performance degrades gracefully as cells fail. Using the cut theory for arrays without feedback and the ring architecture approach for those with feedback, they have effective fault-tolerant and two-level pipelining schemes for most systolic arrays. 24 references.

  9. Oral glucose tolerance test and determination of serum fructosamine level in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Dai; Nakara, Hiromi; Akagi, Keisuke; Ishii, Toshiya; Mizuguchi, Hiroyasu; Nagashima, Yoshikazu; Okaniwa, Azusa

    2004-02-01

    The present communication deals with information regarding the practice of the oral glucose tolerance test and determination of serum fructosamine in laboratory beagles. In the oral glucose tolerance test, a 180-min level was found to be crucial following a gavage administration of 50% glucose solution at 5 mL/kg per body weight under fasting conditions. Serum fructosamine concentration as 'determined by enzymatic assay ranged between 82 and 123 micromol/L (mean of 104 micromol/L), which was about 0.285 to 0.25 times the value obtained by the chemical method described by Johnson and colleagues. Reasons for differences are ascribed to the presence of substances with reducing potential other than fructosamine in the serum. PMID:15018152

  10. A new analysis of hypoxia tolerance in fishes using a database of critical oxygen level (Pcrit)

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Nicholas J.; Urbina, Mauricio A.; Reardon, Erin E.; McKenzie, David J.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common occurrence in aquatic habitats, and it is becoming an increasingly frequent and widespread environmental perturbation, primarily as the result of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment and climate change. An in-depth understanding of the hypoxia tolerance of fishes, and how this varies among individuals and species, is required to make accurate predictions of future ecological impacts and to provide better information for conservation and fisheries management. The critical oxygen level (Pcrit) has been widely used as a quantifiable trait of hypoxia tolerance. It is defined as the oxygen level below which the animal can no longer maintain a stable rate of oxygen uptake (oxyregulate) and uptake becomes dependent on ambient oxygen availability (the animal transitions to oxyconforming). A comprehensive database of Pcrit values, comprising 331 measurements from 96 published studies, covering 151 fish species from 58 families, provides the most extensive and up-to-date analysis of hypoxia tolerance in teleosts. Methodologies for determining Pcrit are critically examined to evaluate its usefulness as an indicator of hypoxia tolerance in fishes. Various abiotic and biotic factors that interact with hypoxia are analysed for their effect on Pcrit, including temperature, CO2, acidification, toxic metals and feeding. Salinity, temperature, body mass and routine metabolic rate were strongly correlated with Pcrit; 20% of variation in the Pcrit data set was explained by these four variables. An important methodological issue not previously considered is the inconsistent increase in partial pressure of CO2 within a closed respirometer during the measurement of Pcrit. Modelling suggests that the final partial pressure of CO2 reached can vary from 650 to 3500 µatm depending on the ambient pH and salinity, with potentially major effects on blood acid–base balance and Pcrit itself. This database will form part of a widely accessible repository of physiological

  11. 41 CFR 102-80.125 - Who has the responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.125 Who has the responsibility for... acceptability must include a review of the fire protection engineer's qualifications, the appropriateness of...

  12. 41 CFR 102-80.125 - Who has the responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.125 Who has the responsibility for... acceptability must include a review of the fire protection engineer's qualifications, the appropriateness of...

  13. 41 CFR 102-80.125 - Who has the responsibility for determining the acceptability of each equivalent level of safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.125 Who has the responsibility for... acceptability must include a review of the fire protection engineer's qualifications, the appropriateness of...

  14. 40 CFR 91.608 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 91.608 Section 91.608 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION...

  15. 40 CFR 90.510 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 90.510 Section 90.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT...

  16. 40 CFR 89.510 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 89.510 Section 89.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE...

  17. Measuring Levels of End-Users' Acceptance and Use of Hybrid Library Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tibenderana, Prisca; Ogao, Patrick; Ikoja-Odongo, J.; Wokadala, James

    2010-01-01

    This study concerns the adoption of Information Communication Technology (ICT) services in libraries. The study collected 445 usable data from university library end-users using a cross-sectional survey instrument. It develops, applies and tests a research model of acceptance and use of such services based on an existing UTAUT model by Venkatesh,…

  18. A Review of Research Instruments Assessing Levels of Student Acceptance of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasri, Pratchayapong

    2014-01-01

    Darwin's theory of evolution by means of natural selection, called evolution for short, is perceived as a unifying theme in biology, forming a major part of all biology syllabuses. It is reported that student acceptance of evolution associates with conceptual understandings of biological contents, nature of science, as well as motivations to…

  19. Comparison of Web 2.0 Technology Acceptance Level Based on Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Sun Joo; Huang, Wen-hao David

    2011-01-01

    In order to inform educators in higher education on the integration of Web 2.0 applications for engaging and effective learning experiences, this survey study compared the use and acceptance of Web 2.0 applications between American and Korean college students through the lens of cultural differences. Undergraduate students were recruited to…

  20. Public acceptability of population-level interventions to reduce alcohol consumption: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Pechey, Rachel; Burge, Peter; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Suhrcke, Marc; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-07-01

    Public acceptability influences policy action, but the most acceptable policies are not always the most effective. This discrete choice experiment provides a novel investigation of the acceptability of different interventions to reduce alcohol consumption and the effect of information on expected effectiveness, using a UK general population sample of 1202 adults. Policy options included high, medium and low intensity versions of: Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) for alcohol; reducing numbers of alcohol retail outlets; and regulating alcohol advertising. Outcomes of interventions were predicted for: alcohol-related crimes; alcohol-related hospital admissions; and heavy drinkers. First, the models obtained were used to predict preferences if expected outcomes of interventions were not taken into account. In such models around half of participants or more were predicted to prefer the status quo over implementing outlet reductions or higher intensity MUP. Second, preferences were predicted when information on expected outcomes was considered, with most participants now choosing any given intervention over the status quo. Acceptability of MUP interventions increased by the greatest extent: from 43% to 63% preferring MUP of £1 to the status quo. Respondents' own drinking behaviour also influenced preferences, with around 90% of non-drinkers being predicted to choose all interventions over the status quo, and with more moderate than heavy drinkers favouring a given policy over the status quo. Importantly, the study findings suggest public acceptability of alcohol interventions is dependent on both the nature of the policy and its expected effectiveness. Policy-makers struggling to mobilise support for hitherto unpopular but promising policies should consider giving greater prominence to their expected outcomes. PMID:24858928

  1. Predicted levels of human radiation tolerance extrapolated from clinical studies of radiation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lushbaugh, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    Results of clinical studies of radiation effects on man are used to evaluate space radiation hazards encountered during manned space travel. Considered are effects of photons as well as of mixed fission neutrons and gamma irradiations in establishing body radiosensitivity and tolerance levels. Upper and lower dose-response-time relations for acute radiation syndromes in patients indicate that man is more than sufficiently radioresistant to make the risks of an early radiation effect during one short space mission intangibly small in relation to the other nonradiation risks involved.

  2. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Colin; Van Der Lans, Ivo; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions. PMID:26389949

  3. Consumer Acceptance of Population-Level Intervention Strategies for Healthy Food Choices: The Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Perceived Fairness.

    PubMed

    Bos, Colin; Lans, Ivo Van Der; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers' freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions. PMID:26389949

  4. Multi-level tolerance opinion dynamics in military command and control networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiao; Shi, Wen; Tan, Gary; Ma, Yaofei

    2015-11-01

    Opinion exchange is useful when a military agent needs to take the opinions of others into account before decision making. Few studies have addressed opinion dynamics in military command and control (C2) organizations, which are often hierarchically ranked in a tree structure. Moreover, military agents should have different tolerance levels when communicating with differentially ranked agents, which is our reasoning for proposing an opinion dynamics model with multi-level tolerance in this study. We can use this model to test opinion dynamics models in depth and further analyze and compare them to traditional tree organizations and other organization forms, including small-world and scale-free networks. Opinion dynamics experiments show that although traditional indices such as a clustering coefficient or the average distance of a small-world network are worse than those of a scale-free network, opinion dynamics indices, which include the number of rounds to fixed opinions, number of opinion clusters, and relative size of the largest small-world cluster are unexpectedly better than those of a scale-free network. Moreover, adding links to a tree network can enhance the tendency to consensus, while a small-world network needs fewer links compared to a scale-free network.

  5. Community response to noise in Vietnam: exposure-response relationships based on the community tolerance level.

    PubMed

    Gjestland, Truls; Nguyen, Thu Lan; Yano, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    Social surveys on noise annoyance have been conducted in five different cities in Vietnam. The surveys included both aircraft noise (three airports) and road traffic noise (five cities). The main objective for these studies was to establish dose-response functions that were representative for Vietnam. The results have been compared with results from similar surveys from other regions. Dose-response functions for aircraft noise in Vietnam showing the percentage of highly annoyed people versus the noise level are nearly identical to those presented in the European Noise Directive [European Commission (2002). http://ec.europa.eu/environment/noise/directive.htm]. For road traffic noise, however, the results indicate that people in Vietnam are more tolerant. The noise levels can be increased by 5-10 dB in order to have a response similar to the curve recommended by the European Commission. PMID:25994692

  6. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  7. Acceptability of entire male pork with various levels of androstenone and skatole by consumers according to their sensitivity to androstenone.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, M; Chevillon, P

    2012-02-01

    Consumer acceptability of entire male pork at eating was assessed in three experiments. The 140 consumers involved in each experiment were classified as insensitive (INSENS) to the odor of pure androstenone or sensitive perceiving it as pleasant (SENS-PLEA) or unpleasant (SENS-UNPL). Entire male pork with very low skatole and androstenone levels (LS-LA) was as well accepted as gilt pork, whatever the consumer category. Entire male pork with elevated levels in both skatole and androstenone (HS-HA) was clearly differentiated from LS-LA pork by SENS-UNPL, but not by SENS-PLEA or INSENS consumers. Whatever the consumer category, entire male pork with elevated levels of androstenone and very low levels of skatole (LS-HA and LS-HHA) were not significantly differentiated from LS-LA pork. The results suggest that, in the conditions of the present experiment, androstenone and skatole totally explain boar taint at eating and that the acceptability threshold for androstenone, in the absence of skatole, is in the range of 2-3 μg/g liquid fat. PMID:21862238

  8. High levels of acceptability of couples-based HIV testing among MSM in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Rentsch, Christopher; Sullivan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The acceptability of couples-based voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) has not been previously investigated among MSM in South Africa. Using online advertisements, data were collected from 486 MSM, who were 18 years of age or older with a current residence in South Africa and had at least one male sex partner in the previous 12 months. The analysis examined associations between individual characteristics and willingness to utilize CVCT services. The willingness to utilize CVCT services was compellingly high (89%) among this sample of mostly White/European African (89%) and HIV-negative (83%) men. MSM who reported higher numbers of completed school years were less likely to report willingness to use CVCT. Willingness did not vary significantly across other individual demographic or behavioral characteristics. Our results show an overwhelmingly high acceptance of CVCT services. Future studies should survey a more heterogeneous population of MSM, explore the complex nature of same-sex male relationships, and why respondents would or would not use these HIV testing services. PMID:22007940

  9. Immobilization and Waste Form Product Acceptance for Low Level and TRU Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzscheiter, E.W.; Harbour, J.R.

    1998-05-01

    The Tanks Focus Area is supporting technology development in immobilization of both High Level (HLW) and Low Level (LLW) radioactive wastes. The HLW process development at Hanford and Idaho is patterned closely after that of the Savannah River (Defense Waste Processing Facility) and West Valley Sites (West Valley Demonstration Project). However, the development and options open to addressing Low Level Waste are diverse and often site specific. To start, it is important to understand the breadth of Low Level Wastes categories.

  10. Quantitative expression analysis of drought responsive genes in clones of Hevea with varying levels of drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Luke, Lisha P; Mohamed Sathik, M B; Thomas, Molly; Kuruvilla, Linu; Sumesh, K V; Annamalainathan, K

    2015-04-01

    In order to meet the ever rising global demand for natural rubber, cultivation of Hevea is being extended to non-traditional regions of India where extreme climatic conditions like drought and low temperature negatively influence the crop performance. In order to ensure maximum productivity, identification of drought tolerant clones of Hevea which can cope up with stress and give better crop yield is essential. Several attempts have been made previously to identify genes that are associated with drought tolerance in Hevea. In the present study, quantitative expression analysis was made using quantitative PCR for seven drought associated transcripts in four clones of Hevea with varying levels of drought tolerance. Among the seven genes studied, Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) kinase, Myeloblastosis (Myb) transcription factor, C-repeat responsive element/Dehydration Responsive Element (CRT/DRE) binding factor and Nuclear Factor Y subunit A (NFYA) showed a positive association with drought tolerance. Transcripts of ascorbate peroxidase and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) did not show any correlation with drought tolerance. Interestingly, catalase gene was found down regulated in all the clones under drought condition. The possible role of these genes based on their level of gene expression in four different clones of Hevea with varying levels of drought tolerance is discussed. PMID:25964712

  11. Estimated Risk Level of Unified Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Dose Tolerance Limits for Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Jimm; Sahgal, Arjun; Soltys, Scott G; Luxton, Gary; Patel, Ashish; Herbert, Scott; Xue, Jinyu; Ma, Lijun; Yorke, Ellen; Adler, John R; Gibbs, Iris C

    2016-04-01

    A literature review of more than 200 stereotactic body radiation therapy spine articles from the past 20 years found only a single article that provided dose-volume data and outcomes for each spinal cord of a clinical dataset: the Gibbs 2007 article (Gibbs et al, 2007(1)), which essentially contains the first 100 stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) spine treatments from Stanford University Medical Center. The dataset is modeled and compared in detail to the rest of the literature review, which found 59 dose tolerance limits for the spinal cord in 1-5 fractions. We partitioned these limits into a unified format of high-risk and low-risk dose tolerance limits. To estimate the corresponding risk level of each limit we used the Gibbs 2007 clinical spinal cord dose-volume data for 102 spinal metastases in 74 patients treated by spinal radiosurgery. In all, 50 of the patients were previously irradiated to a median dose of 40Gy in 2-3Gy fractions and 3 patients developed treatment-related myelopathy. These dose-volume data were digitized into the dose-volume histogram (DVH) Evaluator software tool where parameters of the probit dose-response model were fitted using the maximum likelihood approach (Jackson et al, 1995(3)). Based on this limited dataset, for de novo cases the unified low-risk dose tolerance limits yielded an estimated risk of spinal cord injury of ≤1% in 1-5 fractions, and the high-risk limits yielded an estimated risk of ≤3%. The QUANTEC Dmax limits of 13Gy in a single fraction and 20Gy in 3 fractions had less than 1% risk estimated from this dataset, so we consider these among the low-risk limits. In the previously irradiated cohort, the estimated risk levels for 10 and 14Gy maximum cord dose limits in 5 fractions are 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively. Longer follow-up and more patients are required to improve the risk estimates and provide more complete validation. PMID:27000514

  12. Acceptance and Accuracy of Multiple Choice, Confidence-Level, and Essay Question Formats for Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    The confidence level (information-referenced testing; IRT) design is an attempt to improve upon the multiple choice format by allowing students to express a level of confidence in the answers they choose. In this study, the author evaluated student perceptions of the ease of use and accuracy of and general preference for traditional multiple…

  13. Tinnitus is associated with reduced sound level tolerance in adolescents with normal audiograms and otoacoustic emissions

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Tanit Ganz; Moraes, Fernanda; Casseb, Juliana; Cota, Jaci; Freire, Katya; Roberts, Larry E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroscience research suggests that tinnitus may reflect synaptic loss in the cochlea that does not express in the audiogram but leads to neural changes in auditory pathways that reduce sound level tolerance (SLT). Adolescents (N = 170) completed a questionnaire addressing their prior experience with tinnitus, potentially risky listening habits, and sensitivity to ordinary sounds, followed by psychoacoustic measurements in a sound booth. Among all adolescents 54.7% reported by questionnaire that they had previously experienced tinnitus, while 28.8% heard tinnitus in the booth. Psychoacoustic properties of tinnitus measured in the sound booth corresponded with those of chronic adult tinnitus sufferers. Neither hearing thresholds (≤15 dB HL to 16 kHz) nor otoacoustic emissions discriminated between adolescents reporting or not reporting tinnitus in the sound booth, but loudness discomfort levels (a psychoacoustic measure of SLT) did so, averaging 11.3 dB lower in adolescents experiencing tinnitus in the acoustic chamber. Although risky listening habits were near universal, the teenagers experiencing tinnitus and reduced SLT tended to be more protective of their hearing. Tinnitus and reduced SLT could be early indications of a vulnerability to hidden synaptic injury that is prevalent among adolescents and expressed following exposure to high level environmental sounds. PMID:27265722

  14. Tinnitus is associated with reduced sound level tolerance in adolescents with normal audiograms and otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Tanit Ganz; Moraes, Fernanda; Casseb, Juliana; Cota, Jaci; Freire, Katya; Roberts, Larry E

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroscience research suggests that tinnitus may reflect synaptic loss in the cochlea that does not express in the audiogram but leads to neural changes in auditory pathways that reduce sound level tolerance (SLT). Adolescents (N = 170) completed a questionnaire addressing their prior experience with tinnitus, potentially risky listening habits, and sensitivity to ordinary sounds, followed by psychoacoustic measurements in a sound booth. Among all adolescents 54.7% reported by questionnaire that they had previously experienced tinnitus, while 28.8% heard tinnitus in the booth. Psychoacoustic properties of tinnitus measured in the sound booth corresponded with those of chronic adult tinnitus sufferers. Neither hearing thresholds (≤15 dB HL to 16 kHz) nor otoacoustic emissions discriminated between adolescents reporting or not reporting tinnitus in the sound booth, but loudness discomfort levels (a psychoacoustic measure of SLT) did so, averaging 11.3 dB lower in adolescents experiencing tinnitus in the acoustic chamber. Although risky listening habits were near universal, the teenagers experiencing tinnitus and reduced SLT tended to be more protective of their hearing. Tinnitus and reduced SLT could be early indications of a vulnerability to hidden synaptic injury that is prevalent among adolescents and expressed following exposure to high level environmental sounds. PMID:27265722

  15. ROAD MAP FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Peeler, D.; Herman, C.

    2014-05-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is building a Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is being temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. This road map guides the research and development for formulation and processing of crystaltolerant glasses, identifying near- and long-term activities that need to be completed over the period from 2014 to 2019. The primary objective is to maximize waste loading for Hanford waste glasses without jeopardizing melter operation by crystal accumulation in the melter or melter discharge riser. The potential applicability to the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will also be addressed in this road map. The planned research described in this road map is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (significant reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized if the current constraints (T1% for WTP and TL for DWPF) are approached in an appropriate and technically defensible manner for defense waste and current melter designs. The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal-tolerant high-level waste (HLW) glasses targeting high waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. The modeling effort will be an iterative process, where model form and a broader range of conditions, e.g., glass

  16. Urinary N-acetyl-β-d-Glucosaminidase Levels are Positively Correlated With 2-Hr Plasma Glucose Levels During Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing in Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ouchi, Motoshi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Masao; Motoyama, Masayuki; Ohara, Makoto; Suzuki, Kazunari; Igari, Yoshimasa; Watanabe, Kentaro; Nakano, Hiroshi; Oba, Kenzo

    2012-01-01

    Background Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) excretion is increased in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). This study investigated when during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) the plasma glucose, urine glucose, and insulin levels correlate most strongly with urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) levels in prediabetic subjects. Methods The OGTT was administered to 80 subjects who had not yet received a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) and in whom HbA1c levels were ≤6.8% and fasting plasma glucose levels were <7.0 mmol/l. Forty-two subjects had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 31 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 7 had DM according to World Health Organization criteria. Serum levels of cystatin C, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, the urinary albumin-to-creatinine (Cr) ratio, urinary and serum β2-microglobulin, and urinary NAG were measured as markers of renal function. Results NAG levels were significantly higher in subjects with DM and in subjects with IGT than in subjects with NGT. No significant associations were observed between glycemic status and other markers of renal function. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the NAG level was positively correlated with plasma glucose levels at 120 min of the OGTT and was associated with the glycemic status of prediabetic patients. Conclusion These results suggest that postprandial hyperglycemia is an independent factor that causes renal tubular damage in prediabetes patients. PMID:23143631

  17. Acceptance of Evolution Increases with Student Academic Level: A Comparison Between a Secular and a Religious College.

    PubMed

    Paz-Y-Miño C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina

    2009-12-01

    Acceptance of evolution among the general public, high schools, teachers, and scientists has been documented in the USA; little is known about college students' views on evolution; this population is relevant since it transits from a high-school/parent-protective environment to an independent role in societal decisions. Here we compare perspectives about evolution, creationism, and intelligent design (ID) between a secular (S) and a religious (R) college in the Northeastern USA. Interinstitutional comparisons showed that 64% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 42/62% (S/R) nonmajors supported the exclusive teaching of evolution in science classes; 24/29% (S/R) biology majors vs. 26/38% (S/R) nonmajors perceived ID as both alternative to evolution and/or scientific theory about the origin of life; 76% (mean S + R) biology majors and nonmajors accepted evolutionary explanations about the origin of life; 86% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 79% (mean S + R) nonmajors preferred science courses where human evolution is discussed; 76% (mean S+R) biology majors vs. 79% (mean S + R) nonmajors welcomed questions about evolution in exams and/or thought that such questions should always be in exams; and 66% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 46% (mean S + R) nonmajors admitted they accept evolution openly and/or privately. Intrainstitutional comparisons showed that overall acceptance of evolution among biologists (S or R) increased gradually from the freshman to the senior year, due to exposure to upper-division courses with evolutionary content. College curricular/pedagogical reform should fortify evolution literacy at all education levels, particularly among nonbiologists. PMID:22957109

  18. Acceptance of Evolution Increases with Student Academic Level: A Comparison Between a Secular and a Religious College

    PubMed Central

    Paz-y-Miño C., Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance of evolution among the general public, high schools, teachers, and scientists has been documented in the USA; little is known about college students’ views on evolution; this population is relevant since it transits from a high-school/parent-protective environment to an independent role in societal decisions. Here we compare perspectives about evolution, creationism, and intelligent design (ID) between a secular (S) and a religious (R) college in the Northeastern USA. Interinstitutional comparisons showed that 64% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 42/62% (S/R) nonmajors supported the exclusive teaching of evolution in science classes; 24/29% (S/R) biology majors vs. 26/38% (S/R) nonmajors perceived ID as both alternative to evolution and/or scientific theory about the origin of life; 76% (mean S + R) biology majors and nonmajors accepted evolutionary explanations about the origin of life; 86% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 79% (mean S + R) nonmajors preferred science courses where human evolution is discussed; 76% (mean S+R) biology majors vs. 79% (mean S + R) nonmajors welcomed questions about evolution in exams and/or thought that such questions should always be in exams; and 66% (mean S + R) biology majors vs. 46% (mean S + R) nonmajors admitted they accept evolution openly and/or privately. Intrainstitutional comparisons showed that overall acceptance of evolution among biologists (S or R) increased gradually from the freshman to the senior year, due to exposure to upper-division courses with evolutionary content. College curricular/pedagogical reform should fortify evolution literacy at all education levels, particularly among nonbiologists. PMID:22957109

  19. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food

    PubMed Central

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Sensory analysis was used to determine the changes due to the storage time on extruded pet food prepared from two different rendered protein meals: (i) beef meat and bone meal (BMBM); (ii) chicken byproduct meal (CPBM). Extrusion is a process where feed is pressed through a die in order to create shapes and increase digestibility. Descriptive sensory analysis using a human panel found an increase in undesirable sensory attributes (e.g., oxidized oil, rancid) in extruded pet food over storage time, especially the one prepared from chicken by product meal without antioxidants. The small increase in oxidized and rancid aromas of BMBM samples did not affect pet owners’ acceptability of the products. CPBM samples without antioxidants showed a notable increase in oxidized and rancid aroma over storage time and, thus, affected product acceptability negatively. This finding indicated that human sensory analysis can be used as a tool to track the changes of pet food characteristics due to storage, as well as estimate the shelf-life of the products. Abstract Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products’ shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners’ acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly

  20. Peripheral cues and involvement level: influences on acceptance of a mammography message.

    PubMed

    Kirby, S D; Ureda, J R; Rose, R L; Hussey, J

    1998-01-01

    The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) suggests that some communication elements are processed differently depending on a receiver's involvement with the message topic. We hypothesized that women with high levels of breast cancer involvement would be more influenced by a mammography message's arguments than by the message's peripheral cues and, conversely, that women with low levels of involvement would be more influenced by a mammography message's peripheral cues than by the message's arguments. We exposed 89 low-income African American women aged 40 to 65 years to two repetitions of a mammography promotion public service announcement embedded as a commercial within a television talk show. We used a 2 (involvement level) x 2 (argument strength) x 2 (peripheral cue favorability) factorial posttest-only design. The analysis detected a significant main effect for involvement and an interaction between peripheral cue favorability and involvement. High-involvement women reported stronger intentions than did low-involvement women to seek additional mammography information, regardless of argument strength or cue favorability. Low-involvement women reported stronger intentions to seek more mammography information only when exposed to the favorable cue condition. The analysis detected no effect for argument strength in high- or low-involvement women. The ELM appears useful for designing mammography messages. As many women may have low involvement with breast cancer, mammography promotion messages that include favorable peripheral cues may be more likely to impact mammography information seeking than argument-based-only messages. PMID:10977249

  1. Criteria for acceptable levels of the Shinkansen Super Express train noise and vibration in residential areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Kobayashi, F.; Kanada, S.; Tanahashi, M.; Muramatsu, T.; Yamada, S.

    1982-10-01

    A survey of 1187 housewives living in 18 areas along the Shinkansen Super Express (bullet train) railway was conducted by means of a self-administered health questionnaire (modified Cornell Medical Index). In addition, geographically corresponding measurements of noise level and vibration intensity were taken. The relationship of noise and vibration to positive responses (health complaints) related to bodily symptoms, illness and emotional disturbances was analyzed. The factors which correlated with an increase in the average number of positive responses included noise, vibration, age and health status. Such factors as marital status, educational level, part time work, duration of inhabitancy and occupation of the head of the houshold correlated poorly with the number of positive responses. Unhealthy respondents compared to healthy respondents are more frequently affected by noise and vibration. The rate of positive responses in the visual, respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive and nervous systems, sleep disturbances and emotional disturbances increased accordingly as noise and vibration increased. Combined effects of noise and vibration stimuli on the total number of positive responses (an indicator of general health) were found. This study has produced results indicating that the maximum permissible noise level should not exceed 70 dB(A) in the residential areas along the Shinkansen railway.

  2. Changes in operant behavior of rats exposed to lead at the accepted no-effect level.

    PubMed

    Gross-Selbeck, E; Gross-Selbeck, M

    1981-11-01

    After weaning, male and female Wistar rats were fed a daily diet containing 1 g lead acetate/kg food until a level of about 20 micrograms/100 mL blood was obtained. The male rats were subjected to the different behavioral tests, whereas the females were mated to untreated males and further exposed until weaning of the offspring. Behavioral testing of the male offspring was performed between 3 and 4 months of age. General behavior of both groups was tested in the open-field task including locomotion, local movements, and emotionality. The conditioned instrumental behavior was tested in the Skinner box from simple to more complex programs. The blood-lead level was measured by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. No behavioral changes became apparent in the open-field task and in the preliminary operant training. In the more complex programs (DRH = Differential Reinforcement of High Rates), the rats exposed to lead after weaning showed slight changes of DRH performance. By contrast, in pre- and neonatally exposed animals, DRH performance was significantly increased, although blood-lead levels had returned to normal at the time of testing. A comparison of lead effects in animals to possible effects in man is discussed in this paper, and it is concluded that lead exposure to man at doses which presently are suggested to be innocuous may result in subclinical functional changes of the central nervous system. PMID:7341050

  3. Twitching motility and cAMP levels: signal transduction through a single methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein.

    PubMed

    Jansari, Vibhuti H; Potharla, Vishwakanth Y; Riddell, Geoff T; Bardy, Sonia L

    2016-06-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Chp chemosensory system regulates twitching motility, intracellular adenosine 3('') 5(')-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) levels and is postulated to be involved in directional twitching towards phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Because PilJ is the only methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP) identified in the Chp system, we determined the role of PilJ in mediating signal transduction for the distinct outputs of this system. Mutants that lack the periplasmic domain of PilJ (pilJΔ74-273) showed lower levels of cAMP but retained directional twitching towards PE. While initial studies revealed reduced twitching motility by PilJΔ74-273, this was due to decreased cAMP levels. Our data illustrate the importance of the periplasmic domain of PilJ in regulating cAMP. This is the first time a defined domain within PilJ has been identified as having a distinct role in signal transduction. PMID:27190147

  4. Simulator study of minimum acceptable level of longitudinal stability for a representative STOL configuration during landing approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Deal, P. L.

    1974-01-01

    A fixed-base simulator study was conducted to determine the minimum acceptable level of longitudinal stability for a representative turbofan STOL (short take-off and landing) transport airplane during the landing approach. Real-time digital simulation techniques were used. The computer was programed with equations of motion for six degrees of freedom, and the aerodynamic inputs were based on measured wind-tunnel data. The primary piloting task was an instrument approach to a breakout at a 60-m (200-ft) ceiling.

  5. Use of heat stress responsive gene expression levels for early selection of heat tolerant cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Ji; Jung, Won Yong; Lee, Sang Sook; Song, Jun Ho; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kim, Hyeran; Kim, Chulwook; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2013-01-01

    Cabbage is a relatively robust vegetable at low temperatures. However, at high temperatures, cabbage has disadvantages, such as reduced disease tolerance and lower yields. Thus, selection of heat-tolerant cabbage is an important goal in cabbage breeding. Easier or faster selection of superior varieties of cabbage, which are tolerant to heat and disease and have improved taste and quality, can be achieved with molecular and biological methods. We compared heat-responsive gene expression between a heat-tolerant cabbage line (HTCL), "HO", and a heat-sensitive cabbage line (HSCL), "JK", by Genechip assay. Expression levels of specific heat stress-related genes were increased in response to high-temperature stress, according to Genechip assays. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to compare expression levels of these heat stress-related genes in four HTCLs and four HSCLs. Transcript levels for heat shock protein BoHsp70 and transcription factor BoGRAS (SCL13) were more strongly expressed only in all HTCLs compared to all HSCLs, showing much lower level expressions at the young plant stage under heat stress (HS). Thus, we suggest that expression levels of these genes may be early selection markers for HTCLs in cabbage breeding. In addition, several genes that are involved in the secondary metabolite pathway were differentially regulated in HTCL and HSCL exposed to heat stress. PMID:23736694

  6. Nicosulfuron application in agricultural soils drives the selection towards NS-tolerant microorganisms harboring various levels of sensitivity to nicosulfuron.

    PubMed

    Petric, Ines; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Bru, David; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Kandeler, Ellen; Djuric, Simonida; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-03-01

    The action mode of sulfonylurea herbicides is the inhibition of the acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) required for the biosynthesis of amino acids valine and isoleucine in plants. However, this enzyme is also present in a range of non-targeted organisms, among which soil microorganisms are known for their pivotal role in ecosystem functioning. In order to assess microbial toxicity of sulfonylurea herbicide nicosulfuron (NS), a tiered microcosm (Tier I) to field (Tier II) experiment was designed. Soil bacteria harboring AHAS enzyme tolerant to the herbicide nicosulfuron were enumerated, isolated, taxonomically identified, and physiologically characterized. Results suggested that application of nicosulfuron drives the selection towards NS-tolerant bacteria, with increasing levels of exposure inducing an increase in their abundance and diversity in soil. Tolerance to nicosulfuron was shown to be widespread among the microbial community with various bacteria belonging to Firmicutes (Bacillus) and Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) phyla representing most abundant and diverse clusters. While Arthrobacter bacterial population dominated community evolved under lower (Tier II) nicosulfuron selection pressure, it turns out that Bacillus dominated community evolved under higher (Tier I) nicosulfuron selection pressure. Different NS-tolerant bacteria likewise showed different levels of sensitivity to the nicosulfuron estimated by growth kinetics on nicosulfuron. As evident, Tier I exposure allowed selection of populations able to better cope with nicosulfuron. One could propose that sulfonylureas-tolerant bacterial community could constitute a useful bioindicator of exposure to these herbicides for assessing their ecotoxicity towards soil microorganisms. PMID:26517995

  7. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food.

    PubMed

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products' shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners' acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly trained descriptive panelists for sensory attributes related to oxidation. Samples without preservatives were chosen for the acceptability test, since the differences in sensory characteristics over storage time were more distinguishable in those samples. Pet owners evaluated samples for aroma, appearance and overall liking. Descriptive sensory analysis detected significant changes in oxidized-related sensory characteristics over storage time. However, the differences for CBPM samples were more pronounced and directional. The consumer study showed no differences in pet owners' acceptability for BMBM samples. However, the noticeable increase in aroma characteristics (rancid aroma 0.33-4.21) in CBPM samples over storage time did have a negative effect on consumer's liking (overall liking 5.52-4.95). PMID:27483326

  8. Community structure and nutrient level control the tolerance of autotrophic biofilm to silver contamination.

    PubMed

    Leflaive, J; Felten, V; Ferriol, J; Lamy, A; Ten-Hage, L; Bec, A; Danger, M

    2015-09-01

    Autotrophic biofilms are complex and fundamental biological compartments of many aquatic ecosystems. Since microbial species differ in their sensitivity to stressors, biofilms have long been proposed for assessing the quality of aquatic ecosystems. Among the many stressors impacting aquatic ecosystems, eutrophication and metal pollution are certainly the most common. Despite that these stressors often occur together, their effects on biofilms have been far much studied separately than interactively. In this study, we evaluated the interactive effects of silver (Ag), a reemerging contaminant, and phosphorus (P), a nutrient often associated with freshwater eutrophication, on the structure and functioning of two types of autotrophic biofilms, one dominated by diatoms and another one dominated by cyanobacteria. We hypothesized that P would alleviate the toxic effects of Ag, either directly, through the contribution of P in metal detoxification processes, or indirectly, through P-mediated shifts in biofilm community compositions and associated divergences in metal tolerance. Results showed that Ag impacted biofilm community structure and functioning but only at unrealistic concentrations (50 μg/L). P availability led to significant shifts in biofilm community composition, these changes being more pronounced in diatom- than those in cyanobacteria-dominated biofilm. In addition, P tended to reduce the impact of Ag but only for the cyanobacteria-dominated biofilm. More generally, our results highlight the preponderant role of the initial community structure and nutrient level on biofilm response to metallic pollutants. PMID:25422116

  9. Enhanced levels of nicotianamine promote iron accumulation and tolerance to calcareous soil in soybean.

    PubMed

    Nozoye, Tomoko; Kim, Suyoen; Kakei, Yusuke; Takahashi, Michiko; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient in both plants and humans. Fe deficiency on calcareous soil with low Fe availability is a major agricultural problem. Nicotianamine (NA) is one of the Fe chelator in plants, which is involved in metal translocation into seeds, and serves as an antihypertensive substance in humans. In this study, soybean plants overexpressing the barley NA synthase 1 (HvNAS1) gene driven by the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter were produced using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgenic soybean showed no growth defect and grew normally. The NA content of transgenic soybean seeds was up to four-fold greater than that of non-transgenic (NT) soybean seeds. The level of HvNAS1 expression was positively correlated with the amount of NA, and a high concentration of NA was maintained in the seeds in succeeding generations. The Fe concentration was approximately two-fold greater in transgenic soybean seeds than in NT soybean seeds. Furthermore, the transgenic soybeans showed tolerance to low Fe availability in calcareous soil. Our results suggested that increasing the NA content in soybean seeds by the overexpression of HvNAS1 offers potential benefits for both human health and agricultural productivity. PMID:25047240

  10. Dehydrin, alcohol dehydrogenase, and central metabolite levels are associated with cold tolerance in diploid strawberry (Fragaria spp.).

    PubMed

    Davik, Jahn; Koehler, Gage; From, Britta; Torp, Torfinn; Rohloff, Jens; Eidem, Petter; Wilson, Robert C; Sønsteby, Anita; Randall, Stephen K; Alsheikh, Muath

    2013-01-01

    The use of artificial freezing tests, identification of biomarkers linked to or directly involved in the low-temperature tolerance processes, could prove useful in applied strawberry breeding. This study was conducted to identify genotypes of diploid strawberry that differ in their tolerance to low-temperature stress and to investigate whether a set of candidate proteins and metabolites correlate with the level of tolerance. 17 Fragaria vesca, 2 F. nilgerrensis, 2 F. nubicola, and 1 F. pentaphylla genotypes were evaluated for low-temperature tolerance. Estimates of temperatures where 50 % of the plants survived (LT₅₀) ranged from -4.7 to -12.0 °C between the genotypes. Among the F. vesca genotypes, the LT₅₀ varied from -7.7 °C to -12.0 °C. Among the most tolerant were three F. vesca ssp. bracteata genotypes (FDP821, NCGR424, and NCGR502), while a F. vesca ssp. californica genotype (FDP817) was the least tolerant (LT₅₀) -7.7 °C). Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), total dehydrin expression, and content of central metabolism constituents were assayed in select plants acclimated at 2 °C. The LT₅₀ estimates and the expression of ADH and total dehydrins were highly correlated (r(adh) = -0.87, r (dehyd) = -0.82). Compounds related to the citric acid cycle were quantified in the leaves during acclimation. While several sugars and acids were significantly correlated to the LT₅₀ estimates early in the acclimation period, only galactinol proved to be a good LT₅₀ predictor after 28 days of acclimation (r(galact) = 0.79). It is concluded that ADH, dehydrins, and galactinol show great potential to serve as biomarkers for cold tolerance in diploid strawberry. PMID:23014928

  11. Heat shock proteins in relation to heat stress tolerance of creeping bentgrass at different N levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kehua; Zhang, Xunzhong; Goatley, Mike; Ervin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress is a primary factor causing summer bentgrass decline. Changes in gene expression at the transcriptional and/or translational level are thought to be a fundamental mechanism in plant response to environmental stresses. Heat stress redirects protein synthesis in higher plants and results in stress protein synthesis, particularly heat shock proteins (HSPs). The goal of this work was to analyze the expression pattern of major HSPs in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) during different heat stress periods and to study the influence of nitrogen (N) on the HSP expression patterns. A growth chamber study on 'Penn-A4' creeping bentgrass subjected to 38/28°C day/night for 50 days, was conducted with four nitrate rates (no N-0, low N-2.5, medium N-7.5, and high N-12.5 kg N ha-1) applied biweekly. Visual turfgrass quality (TQ), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), shoot electrolyte leakage (ShEL), and root viability (RV) were monitored, along with the expression pattern of HSPs. There was no difference in measured parameters between treatments until week seven, except TQ at week five. At week seven, grass at medium N had better TQ, NDVI, and Fv/Fm accompanied by lower ShEL and higher RV, suggesting a major role in improved heat tolerance. All the investigated HSPs (HSP101, HSP90, HSP70, and sHSPs) were up-regulated by heat stress. Their expression patterns indicated cooperation between different HSPs and their roles in bentgrass thermotolerance. In addition, their production seems to be resource dependent. This study could further improve our understanding about how different N levels affect bentgrass thermotolerance. PMID:25050702

  12. A Study to Develop a Scale for Determining the Social Acceptance Levels of Special-Needs Students, Participating in Inclusion Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Erdinc; Sahbaz, Umit

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a scale of social acceptance for determining the social acceptance levels of special-needs students, participating in inclusion practices. The target population of the research is 8th grade students of all primary schools in the provincial center of Burdur in the 2008 to 2009 academic year and the target study…

  13. Achromobacter denitrificans Strain YD35 Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Controls NADH Production To Allow Tolerance to Extremely High Nitrite Levels

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Yuki; Shimizu, Motoyuki; Fujita, Tomoya; Nakamura, Akira; Takizawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    We identified the extremely nitrite-tolerant bacterium Achromobacter denitrificans YD35 that can grow in complex medium containing 100 mM nitrite (NO2−) under aerobic conditions. Nitrite induced global proteomic changes and upregulated tricarboxylate (TCA) cycle enzymes as well as antioxidant proteins in YD35. Transposon mutagenesis generated NO2−-hypersensitive mutants of YD35 that had mutations at genes for aconitate hydratase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in the TCA cycle and a pyruvate dehydrogenase (Pdh) E1 component, indicating the importance of TCA cycle metabolism to NO2− tolerance. A mutant in which the pdh gene cluster was disrupted (Δpdh mutant) could not grow in the presence of 100 mM NO2−. Nitrite decreased the cellular NADH/NAD+ ratio and the cellular ATP level. These defects were more severe in the Δpdh mutant, indicating that Pdh contributes to upregulating cellular NADH and ATP and NO2−-tolerant growth. Exogenous acetate, which generates acetyl coenzyme A and then is metabolized by the TCA cycle, compensated for these defects caused by disruption of the pdh gene cluster and those caused by NO2−. These findings demonstrate a link between NO2− tolerance and pyruvate/acetate metabolism through the TCA cycle. The TCA cycle mechanism in YD35 enhances NADH production, and we consider that this contributes to a novel NO2−-tolerating mechanism in this strain. PMID:24413603

  14. Tolerance evaluation of overdosed dietary levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in growing piglets.

    PubMed

    von Rosenberg, S J; Weber, G M; Erhardt, A; Höller, U; Wehr, U A; Rambeck, W A

    2016-04-01

    Forty-eight, cross-bred (GL × LW × P) piglets were used in a 42-day tolerance trial to assess the effects of feeding diets supplemented with vitamin D or increasing levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3 ). Six-week-old piglets (24 castrate males, 24 females) were used. Two replicate groups of 6 piglets were randomized by weight and allocated to four dietary treatments. The control group (T1) was supplemented with 50 μg vitamin D3 /kg feed. The experimental groups received 25-OH-D3 at the recommended dose (T2: 50 μg/kg = 1x), at 250 μg/kg (T3: 5x) or at 500 μg/kg (T4: 10x) respectively. Feed intake and daily weight gain were measured weekly, and the animals were examined by a veterinarian daily. After 42 days, body mass, blood, urine, bone and tissue samples were analysed and a pathology examination conducted. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on final body mass or daily weight gain. The 25-OH-D3 plasma concentration in T1 was 17 ± 3 ng/ml (mean ± SD) while the respective values of the experimental groups were significantly increased in T2, T3 and T4. Tissue concentrations of 25-OH-D3 were higher in liver and muscle for T3 and T4 and in skin for T4 than in T1. However, neither gross pathology nor histology, nor blood and urine characteristics, nor bone parameters were affected by dietary treatments. Weight of organs as well as dry matter, ash and calcium content of kidneys remained unaffected by dietary 25-OH-D3 intake. Furthermore, no changes were observed for general indicators of health. The results of this study demonstrated that feeding piglets with 25-OH-D3 at 5 or 10 times the recommended level had no adverse effects on any of the biological parameters measured. It was concluded that 25-OH-D3 can be regarded as a supplement with a very high safety margin when used at the recommended level. PMID:26248819

  15. Addition of a Gastrointestinal Microbiome Modulator to Metformin Improves Metformin Tolerance and Fasting Glucose Levels

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Jeffrey H.; Johnson, Matthew; Johnson, Jolene; Hsia, Daniel S.; Greenway, Frank L.; Heiman, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adverse effects of metformin are primarily related to gastrointestinal (GI) intolerance that could limit titration to an efficacious dose or cause discontinuation of the medication. Because some metformin side effects may be attributable to shifts in the GI microbiome, we tested whether a GI microbiome modulator (GIMM) used in combination with metformin would ameliorate the GI symptoms. Methods: A 2-period crossover study design was used with 2 treatment sequences, either placebo in period 1 followed by GIMM in period 2 or vice versa. Study periods lasted for 2 weeks, with a 2-week washout period between. During the first week, type 2 diabetes patients (T2D) who experienced metformin GI intolerance took 500 mg metformin along with their assigned NM504 (GIMM) or placebo treatment with breakfast and with dinner. In the second week, the 10 subjects took 500 mg metformin (t.i.d.), with GIMM or placebo consumed with the first and third daily metformin doses. Subjects were permitted to discontinue metformin dosing if it became intolerable. Results: The combination of metformin and GIMM treatment produced a significantly better tolerance score to metformin than the placebo combination (6.78 ± 0.65 [mean ± SEM] versus 4.45 ± 0.69, P = .0006). Mean fasting glucose levels were significantly (P < .02) lower with the metformin–GIMM combination (121.3 ± 7.8 mg/dl) than with metformin-placebo (151.9 ± 7.8 mg/dl). Conclusion: Combining a GI microbiome modulator with metformin might allow the greater use of metformin in T2D patients and improve treatment of the disease. PMID:25802471

  16. Variation in temperature tolerance among families of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is associated with hypoxia tolerance, ventricle size and myoglobin level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fishes, performance failure at high temperature is thought to be due to a limitation on oxygen delivery (the theory of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance, OCLTT), which suggests that thermal tolerance and hypoxia tolerance might be functionally associated. Here we examined variation in...

  17. The degree of acceptability of swine blood values at increasing levels of hemolysis evaluated through visual inspection versus automated quantification.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Guido; Stefani, Anna Lisa; Lippi, Giuseppe; Gagliazzo, Laura; McCormick, Wanda; Gabai, Gianfranco; Bonfanti, Lebana

    2015-05-01

    The pronounced fragility that characterizes swine erythrocytes is likely to produce a variable degree of hemolysis during blood sampling, and the free hemoglobin may then unpredictably bias the quantification of several analytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of acceptability of values obtained for several biochemical parameters at different levels of hemolysis. Progressively increased degrees of physical hemolysis were induced in 3 aliquots of 30 nonhemolytic sera, and the relative effects on the test results were assessed. To define the level of hemolysis, we used both visual estimation (on a scale of 0 to 3+) and analytical assessment (hemolytic index) and identified the best analytical cutoff values for discriminating the visual levels of hemolysis. Hemolysis led to a variable and dose-dependent effect on the test results that was specific for each analyte tested. In mildly hemolyzed specimens, C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, β1-globulin, β2-globulin, α1-globulin, γ-globulin, sodium, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase were not significantly biased, whereas α2-globulin, albumin, urea, creatinine, glucose, total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, nonesterified fatty acids, bilirubin, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, lipase, triglycerides, lactate dehydrogenase, unbound iron-binding capacity, and uric acid were significantly biased. Chloride and total protein were unbiased even in markedly hemolyzed samples. Analytical interference was hypothesized to be the main source of this bias, leading to a nonlinear trend that confirmed the difficulty in establishing reliable coefficients of correction for adjusting the test results. PMID:26038480

  18. Public acceptance activities for the development of new commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity in the United States of America

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, C.B.; Scott, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    In the US, the states are responsible for providing disposal capability for commercial low-level radioactive waste generated within their borders. Public acceptance of state activities toward developing this capability is a key factor in the ultimate success of state efforts. The states are using several different approaches to gain public acceptance for the location and development of new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This presentation describes state efforts to gain public acceptance for siting and developing activities and discusses the lessons learned from these state experiences.

  19. Effects of numerical tolerance levels on an atmospheric chemistry model for mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, D.C.; Burns, D.S.; Shuford, J.

    1996-12-31

    A Box Model was developed to investigate the atmospheric oxidation processes of mercury in the environment. Previous results indicated the most important influences on the atmospheric concentration of HgO(g) are (i) the flux of HgO(g) volatilization, which is related to the surface medium, extent of contamination, and temperature, and (ii) the presence of Cl{sub 2} in the atmosphere. The numerical solver which has been incorporated into the ORganic CHemistry Integrated Dispersion (ORCHID) model uses the Livermore Solver of Ordinary Differential Equations (LSODE). In the solution of the ODE`s, LSODE uses numerical tolerances. The tolerances effect computer run time, the relative accuracy of ODE calculated species concentrations and whether or not LSODE converges to a solution using this system of equations. The effects of varying these tolerances on the solution of the box model and the ORCHID model will be discussed.

  20. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.4 Establishment of tolerances... may be established in subpart D of this part to identify a food containing a naturally...

  1. Comparative analysis of endogenous hormones level in two soybean (Glycine max L.) lines differing in waterlogging tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Ha; Hwang, Sun-Joo; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul L; Lee, Joon-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Dong; Nguyen, Henry T; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogged condition due to flooding is one of the major abiotic stresses that drastically affect the soybean growth and yield around the world. As a result, many breeders have focused on the development of waterlogging tolerance in soybean varieties, and thus, several tolerant varieties were developed. However, the physiological mechanism of waterlogging tolerance is not yet fully understood. We particularly studied the endogenous hormones regulation during waterlogging in two contrasting soybean genotypes. According to our results, adventitious roots were better developed in the waterlogging tolerant line (WTL) than in the waterlogging susceptible line (WSL). Endogenous hormones also showed significant differences between WTL and WSL. The ethylene production ratio was higher in WTL than in WSL, and methionine was higher in WTL than in WSL. Other endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) contents were lower in WTL than in WSL. Conversely, gibberellic acid (GA) showed a tendency to be high in WTL, especially the levels of the bioactive GA4. The ratio of total GA and ABA was significantly higher in WTL than in WSL. Anatomical study of the root revealed that aerenchyma cells in the stele were better developed in WTL than in WSL. PMID:26442028

  2. Comparative analysis of endogenous hormones level in two soybean (Glycine max L.) lines differing in waterlogging tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon-Ha; Hwang, Sun-Joo; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul L.; Lee, Joon-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Dong; Nguyen, Henry T.; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogged condition due to flooding is one of the major abiotic stresses that drastically affect the soybean growth and yield around the world. As a result, many breeders have focused on the development of waterlogging tolerance in soybean varieties, and thus, several tolerant varieties were developed. However, the physiological mechanism of waterlogging tolerance is not yet fully understood. We particularly studied the endogenous hormones regulation during waterlogging in two contrasting soybean genotypes. According to our results, adventitious roots were better developed in the waterlogging tolerant line (WTL) than in the waterlogging susceptible line (WSL). Endogenous hormones also showed significant differences between WTL and WSL. The ethylene production ratio was higher in WTL than in WSL, and methionine was higher in WTL than in WSL. Other endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) contents were lower in WTL than in WSL. Conversely, gibberellic acid (GA) showed a tendency to be high in WTL, especially the levels of the bioactive GA4. The ratio of total GA and ABA was significantly higher in WTL than in WSL. Anatomical study of the root revealed that aerenchyma cells in the stele were better developed in WTL than in WSL. PMID:26442028

  3. Auxotrophic Mutations Reduce Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Very High Levels of Ethanol Stress

    PubMed Central

    Swinnen, Steve; Goovaerts, Annelies; Schaerlaekens, Kristien; Dumortier, Françoise; Verdyck, Pieter; Souvereyns, Kris; Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Foulquié-Moreno, María R.

    2015-01-01

    Very high ethanol tolerance is a distinctive trait of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with notable ecological and industrial importance. Although many genes have been shown to be required for moderate ethanol tolerance (i.e., 6 to 12%) in laboratory strains, little is known of the much higher ethanol tolerance (i.e., 16 to 20%) in natural and industrial strains. We have analyzed the genetic basis of very high ethanol tolerance in a Brazilian bioethanol production strain by genetic mapping with laboratory strains containing artificially inserted oligonucleotide markers. The first locus contained the ura3Δ0 mutation of the laboratory strain as the causative mutation. Analysis of other auxotrophies also revealed significant linkage for LYS2, LEU2, HIS3, and MET15. Tolerance to only very high ethanol concentrations was reduced by auxotrophies, while the effect was reversed at lower concentrations. Evaluation of other stress conditions showed that the link with auxotrophy is dependent on the type of stress and the type of auxotrophy. When the concentration of the auxotrophic nutrient is close to that limiting growth, more stress factors can inhibit growth of an auxotrophic strain. We show that very high ethanol concentrations inhibit the uptake of leucine more than that of uracil, but the 500-fold-lower uracil uptake activity may explain the strong linkage between uracil auxotrophy and ethanol sensitivity compared to leucine auxotrophy. Since very high concentrations of ethanol inhibit the uptake of auxotrophic nutrients, the active uptake of scarce nutrients may be a major limiting factor for growth under conditions of ethanol stress. PMID:26116212

  4. Salt tolerance at single cell level in giant-celled Characeae

    PubMed Central

    Beilby, Mary J.

    2015-01-01

    Characean plants provide an excellent experimental system for electrophysiology and physiology due to: (i) very large cell size, (ii) position on phylogenetic tree near the origin of land plants and (iii) continuous spectrum from very salt sensitive to very salt tolerant species. A range of experimental techniques is described, some unique to characean plants. Application of these methods provided electrical characteristics of membrane transporters, which dominate the membrane conductance under different outside conditions. With this considerable background knowledge the electrophysiology of salt sensitive and salt tolerant genera can be compared under salt and/or osmotic stress. Both salt tolerant and salt sensitive Characeae show a rise in membrane conductance and simultaneous increase in Na+ influx upon exposure to saline medium. Salt tolerant Chara longifolia and Lamprothamnium sp. exhibit proton pump stimulation upon both turgor decrease and salinity increase, allowing the membrane PD to remain negative. The turgor is regulated through the inward K+ rectifier and 2H+/Cl- symporter. Lamprothamnium plants can survive in hypersaline media up to twice seawater strength and withstand large sudden changes in salinity. Salt sensitive C. australis succumbs to 50–100 mM NaCl in few days. Cells exhibit no pump stimulation upon turgor decrease and at best transient pump stimulation upon salinity increase. Turgor is not regulated. The membrane PD exhibits characteristic noise upon exposure to salinity. Depolarization of membrane PD to excitation threshold sets off trains of action potentials, leading to further loses of K+ and Cl-. In final stages of salt damage the H+/OH- channels are thought to become the dominant transporter, dissipating the proton gradient and bringing the cell PD close to 0. The differences in transporter electrophysiology and their synergy under osmotic and/or saline stress in salt sensitive and salt tolerant characean cells are discussed in

  5. Blood levels of branched-chain alpha-keto acids in uremia: effect of an oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schauder, P; Matthaei, D; Henning, H V; Scheler, F; Langenbeck, U

    1981-08-01

    The effect of an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) on serum levels of branched-chain keto acids (BCKA), i.e. alpha-keto-isocaproic acid (KICA), alpha-keto-isovaleric acid (KIVA) and alpha-keto-beta methyl-n-valeric acid (KMVA) as well as on serum insulin, C-peptide and blood glucose levels was determined in uremic patients and in healthy control subjects. In controls, blood levels of KICA, KMVA and KIVA declined significantly following oral administration of 100 glucose. In uremic patients no decline of KICA was observed. The fall of KMVA was diminished, while suppression of KIVA blood levels in response to the oGGT remained unimpaired. Although serum insulin and C-peptide levels in uremic patients were not significantly different from the controls before and throughout the oGTT, six out of eight displayed abnormal glucose tolerance. It is suggested that the response of blood BCKA levels to an oGTT is altered in uremia, an abnormality restricted primarily to KICA and possibly explained by insulin antagonism and/or by insufficient insulin secretion. PMID:7021997

  6. Road Map for Development of Crystal-Tolerant High Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David; Fox, Kevin; Herman, Connie; Kruger, Albert A.

    2014-05-31

    This road map guides the research and development for formulation and processing of crystal-tolerant glasses, identifying near- and long-term activities that need to be completed over the period from 2014 to 2019. The primary objective is to maximize waste loading for Hanford waste glasses without jeopardizing melter operation by crystal accumulation in the melter or melter discharge riser. The potential applicability to the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is also addressed in this road map.

  7. The relationship between hearing aid frequency response and acceptable noise level in patients with sensorineural hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Jalilvand, Hamid; Pourbakht, Akram; Jalaee, Shohreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: When fitting hearing aid as a compensatory device for an impaired cochlea in a patient with sensorineural hearing loss (HL), it is needed to the effective and efficient frequency response would be selected regarding providing the patient's perfect speech perception. There is not any research about the effects of frequency modifications on speech perception in patients with HL regarding the cochlear desensitization. The effect (s) of modifications in frequency response of hearing aid amplification on the results of acceptable noise level (ANL) test is the main aim of this study. Materials and Methods: The amounts of ANL in two conditions of linear amplification (high frequency emphasis [HFE] and mid frequency emphasis [MFE]) were measured. Thirty-two male subjects who participated in this study had the moderate to severe sensorineural HL. Results: There was not any significant difference between ANL in linear amplification of hearing aid with HFE frequency response and ANL in linear amplification of hearing aid with MFE frequency response. Conclusion: The gain modification of frequency response not only does not affect the patient's performance of speech intelligibility in ANL test. This indicates that we need to note to the cochlear desensitization phenomenon when fitting hearing aid as a compensatory device for an impaired cochlea in a patient. The cochlear desensitization has not been considered properly in hearing aid fitting formula which is needed to be explored more about the bio-mechanisms of impaired cochlea. PMID:26918238

  8. A new analysis of hypoxia tolerance in fishes using a database of critical oxygen level (P crit).

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicholas J; Urbina, Mauricio A; Reardon, Erin E; McKenzie, David J; Wilson, Rod W

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common occurrence in aquatic habitats, and it is becoming an increasingly frequent and widespread environmental perturbation, primarily as the result of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment and climate change. An in-depth understanding of the hypoxia tolerance of fishes, and how this varies among individuals and species, is required to make accurate predictions of future ecological impacts and to provide better information for conservation and fisheries management. The critical oxygen level (P crit) has been widely used as a quantifiable trait of hypoxia tolerance. It is defined as the oxygen level below which the animal can no longer maintain a stable rate of oxygen uptake (oxyregulate) and uptake becomes dependent on ambient oxygen availability (the animal transitions to oxyconforming). A comprehensive database of P crit values, comprising 331 measurements from 96 published studies, covering 151 fish species from 58 families, provides the most extensive and up-to-date analysis of hypoxia tolerance in teleosts. Methodologies for determining P crit are critically examined to evaluate its usefulness as an indicator of hypoxia tolerance in fishes. Various abiotic and biotic factors that interact with hypoxia are analysed for their effect on P crit, including temperature, CO2, acidification, toxic metals and feeding. Salinity, temperature, body mass and routine metabolic rate were strongly correlated with P crit; 20% of variation in the P crit data set was explained by these four variables. An important methodological issue not previously considered is the inconsistent increase in partial pressure of CO2 within a closed respirometer during the measurement of P crit. Modelling suggests that the final partial pressure of CO2 reached can vary from 650 to 3500 µatm depending on the ambient pH and salinity, with potentially major effects on blood acid-base balance and P crit itself. This database will form part of a widely accessible repository of

  9. Identification of Leaf Proteins Differentially Accumulated between Wheat Cultivars Distinct in Their Levels of Drought Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhiwei; Dong, Kun; Ge, Pei; Bian, Yanwei; Dong, Liwei; Deng, Xiong; Li, Xiaohui; Yan, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    The drought-tolerant 'Ningchun 47' (NC47) and drought-sensitive 'Chinese Spring' (CS) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were treated with different PEG6000 concentrations at the three-leaf stage. An analysis on the physiological and proteomic changes of wheat seedling in response to drought stress was performed. In total, 146 differentially accumulated protein (DAP) spots were separated and recognised using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In total, 101 DAP spots representing 77 unique proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These proteins were allocated to 10 groups according to putative functions, which were mainly involved in carbon metabolism (23.4%), photosynthesis/respiration (22.1%) and stress/defence/detoxification (18.2%). Some drought stress-related proteins in NC47, such as enolase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2, fibrillin-like protein, 2-Cys peroxiredoxin BAS1 and 70-kDa heat shock protein, were more upregulated than those in CS. Multivariate principal components analysis revealed obvious differences between the control and treatments in both NC47 and CS, while cluster analysis showed that the DAPs displayed five and six accumulation patterns in NC47 and CS, respectively. Protein-protein interaction network analysis showed that some key DAPs, such as 2-Cys peroxiredoxin BAS1, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein, 50S ribosomal protein L1, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoenzyme and 70-kDa heat shock protein, with upregulated accumulation in NC47, had complex interactions with other proteins related to amino acid metabolism, carbon metabolism, energy pathway, signal transduction, stress/defence/detoxification, protein folding and nucleotide metabolism. These proteins could play important roles in drought-stress tolerance and contribute to the relatively stronger drought tolerance of NC47. PMID

  10. Identification of Leaf Proteins Differentially Accumulated between Wheat Cultivars Distinct in Their Levels of Drought Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Yanwei; Dong, Liwei; Deng, Xiong; Li, Xiaohui; Yan, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    The drought-tolerant ‘Ningchun 47’ (NC47) and drought-sensitive ‘Chinese Spring’ (CS) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were treated with different PEG6000 concentrations at the three-leaf stage. An analysis on the physiological and proteomic changes of wheat seedling in response to drought stress was performed. In total, 146 differentially accumulated protein (DAP) spots were separated and recognised using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In total, 101 DAP spots representing 77 unique proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These proteins were allocated to 10 groups according to putative functions, which were mainly involved in carbon metabolism (23.4%), photosynthesis/respiration (22.1%) and stress/defence/detoxification (18.2%). Some drought stress-related proteins in NC47, such as enolase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2, fibrillin-like protein, 2-Cys peroxiredoxin BAS1 and 70-kDa heat shock protein, were more upregulated than those in CS. Multivariate principal components analysis revealed obvious differences between the control and treatments in both NC47 and CS, while cluster analysis showed that the DAPs displayed five and six accumulation patterns in NC47 and CS, respectively. Protein–protein interaction network analysis showed that some key DAPs, such as 2-Cys peroxiredoxin BAS1, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein, 50S ribosomal protein L1, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoenzyme and 70-kDa heat shock protein, with upregulated accumulation in NC47, had complex interactions with other proteins related to amino acid metabolism, carbon metabolism, energy pathway, signal transduction, stress/defence/detoxification, protein folding and nucleotide metabolism. These proteins could play important roles in drought-stress tolerance and contribute to the relatively stronger drought tolerance of NC47

  11. 40 CFR 86.610-98 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for Selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.610-98 Compliance with acceptable... when the decision is made on the last vehicle required to make a decision under paragraph (c) of...

  12. 40 CFR 86.610-98 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for Selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.610-98 Compliance with acceptable... when the decision is made on the last vehicle required to make a decision under paragraph (c) of...

  13. Evaluation of tolerable levels of dietary quercetin for exerting its antioxidative effect in high cholesterol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Keiko; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Terao, Junji

    2010-04-01

    The tolerable level of dietary quercetin for exerting its antioxidative effect was evaluated in high cholesterol-fed rats, using quercetin-containing diets (31-1260 mg quercetin/kg body weight/day) and onion diets (19-94 mg quercetin aglycone equivalent/kg body weight/day), from the viewpoint of a safety assessment. After feeding for 4 weeks, the urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) levels of the quercetin-containing diet groups fed more than 157 mg quercetin/kg body weight/day were higher than the group fed a quercetin-free diet, although the plasma quercetin metabolite levels and plasma antioxidative activity were elevated depending on the amounts of quercetin or onion diet intake. No significant effect on body weight gain by quercetin-containing diets or onion diets was observed. However, ratios of the liver and kidney weights to the body weight were significantly increased in the quercetin-containing diet groups fed more than 314 mg and 157 mg quercetin/kg body weight/day, respectively, and in the onion diet groups fed more than 47 mg quercetin aglycone equivalent/kg body weight/day. These results indicated that the tolerable level for dietary quercetin for exerting its antioxidative effect was between 126 and 157 mg/kg/day for the quercetin diet and between 19 and 34 mg/kg/day for the onion diet. PMID:20138950

  14. Seasonal- and temperature-dependent variation in CNS ascorbate and glutathione levels in anoxia-tolerant turtles.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pinzón, M A; Rice, M E

    1995-12-24

    We determined the ascorbic acid (ascorbate) and glutathione (GSH) contents of eight regions of the CNS from anoxia-tolerant turtles collected in summer and in winter. Ascorbate was of special interest because it is found in exceptionally high levels in the turtle CNS. The temperature-dependence of CNS ascorbate content was established by comparing levels in animals collected from two geographic zones with different average winter temperatures and in animals re-acclimated to different temperatures in the laboratory. The analytical method was liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Turtle ascorbate levels were 30-40% lower in animals acclimatized to winter (2 degrees C) than to summer (23 degrees C) in all regions of the CNS. Similarly, GSH levels were 20-30% lower in winter than in summer. Winter ascorbate levels were higher in turtles from Louisiana (19 degrees C) than in turtles acclimatized to winter in Wisconsin (2 degrees C). Summer and winter levels of ascorbate could be reversed by re-acclimating animals to cold (1 degree C) or warm (23 degrees C) temperatures for at least one week. CNS water content did not differ between cold- and warm-acclimated turtles. Taken together, the data indicated that ascorbate and GSH undergo significant seasonal variation and that the catalyst for change is environmental temperature. Steady-state ascorbate content showed a linear dependence on temperature, with a slope of 1.5% per degree C that was independent of CNS region. Lower levels of cerebral antioxidants in turtles exposed to colder temperatures were consistent with the decreased rate of cerebral metabolism that accompanies winter hibernation. Cerebral ascorbate and GSH levels in the turtle remained similar to or higher than those in mammals, even during winter, however. These findings support the notion that unique mechanisms of antioxidant regulation in the turtle contribute to their tolerance of the hypoxia-reoxygenation that characterizes diving

  15. Abscisic acid enhances tolerance of wheat seedlings to drought and regulates transcript levels of genes encoding ascorbate-glutathione biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liting; Wang, Lina; Yang, Yang; Wang, Pengfei; Guo, Tiancai; Kang, Guozhang

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (ASA) are associated with the abscisic acid (ABA)-induced abiotic tolerance in higher plant, however, its molecular mechanism remains obscure. In this study, exogenous application (10 μM) of ABA significantly increased the tolerance of seedlings of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) suffering from 5 days of 15% polyethylene glycol (PEG)-stimulated drought stress, as demonstrated by increased shoot lengths and shoot and root dry weights, while showing decreased content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Under drought stress conditions, ABA markedly increased content of GSH and ASA in both leaves and roots of ABA-treated plants. Temporal and spatial expression patterns of eight genes encoding ASA and GSH synthesis-related enzymes were measured using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results showed that ABA temporally regulated the transcript levels of genes encoding ASA-GSH cycle enzymes. Moreover, these genes exhibited differential expression patterns between the root and leaf organs of ABA-treated wheat seedlings during drought stress. These results implied that exogenous ABA increased the levels of GSH and ASA in drought-stressed wheat seedlings in time- and organ-specific manners. Moreover, the transcriptional profiles of ASA-GSH synthesis-related enzyme genes in the leaf tissue were compared between ABA- and salicylic acid (SA)-treated wheat seedlings under PEG-stimulated drought stress, suggesting that they increased the content of ASA and GSH by differentially regulating expression levels of ASA-GSH synthesis enzyme genes. Our results increase our understanding of the molecular mechanism of ABA-induced drought tolerance in higher plants. PMID:26175737

  16. Abscisic acid enhances tolerance of wheat seedlings to drought and regulates transcript levels of genes encoding ascorbate-glutathione biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liting; Wang, Lina; Yang, Yang; Wang, Pengfei; Guo, Tiancai; Kang, Guozhang

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (ASA) are associated with the abscisic acid (ABA)-induced abiotic tolerance in higher plant, however, its molecular mechanism remains obscure. In this study, exogenous application (10 μM) of ABA significantly increased the tolerance of seedlings of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) suffering from 5 days of 15% polyethylene glycol (PEG)-stimulated drought stress, as demonstrated by increased shoot lengths and shoot and root dry weights, while showing decreased content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Under drought stress conditions, ABA markedly increased content of GSH and ASA in both leaves and roots of ABA-treated plants. Temporal and spatial expression patterns of eight genes encoding ASA and GSH synthesis-related enzymes were measured using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results showed that ABA temporally regulated the transcript levels of genes encoding ASA-GSH cycle enzymes. Moreover, these genes exhibited differential expression patterns between the root and leaf organs of ABA-treated wheat seedlings during drought stress. These results implied that exogenous ABA increased the levels of GSH and ASA in drought-stressed wheat seedlings in time- and organ-specific manners. Moreover, the transcriptional profiles of ASA-GSH synthesis-related enzyme genes in the leaf tissue were compared between ABA- and salicylic acid (SA)-treated wheat seedlings under PEG-stimulated drought stress, suggesting that they increased the content of ASA and GSH by differentially regulating expression levels of ASA-GSH synthesis enzyme genes. Our results increase our understanding of the molecular mechanism of ABA-induced drought tolerance in higher plants. PMID:26175737

  17. ICE1 of Poncirus trifoliata functions in cold tolerance by modulating polyamine levels through interacting with arginine decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-San; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhu, Dexin; Fu, Xingzheng; Wang, Min; Zhang, Qian; Moriguchi, Takaya; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-01-01

    ICE1 (Inducer of CBF Expression 1) encodes a MYC-like basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor that acts as a central regulator of cold response. In this study, we elucidated the function and underlying mechanisms of PtrICE1 from trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.]. PtrICE1 was upregulated by cold, dehydration, and salt, with the greatest induction under cold conditions. PtrICE1 was localized in the nucleus and could bind to a MYC-recognizing sequence. Ectopic expression of PtrICE1 in tobacco and lemon conferred enhanced tolerance to cold stresses at either chilling or freezing temperatures. Yeast two-hybrid screening revealed that 21 proteins belonged to the PtrICE1 interactome, in which PtADC (arginine decarboxylase) was confirmed as a bona fide protein interacting with PtrICE1. Transcript levels of ADC genes in the transgenic lines were slightly elevated under normal growth condition but substantially increased under cold conditions, consistent with changes in free polyamine levels. By contrast, accumulation of the reactive oxygen species, H2O2 and O2 –, was appreciably alleviated in the transgenic lines under cold stress. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, were detected in the transgenic lines under cold conditions. Taken together, these results demonstrated that PtrICE1 plays a positive role in cold tolerance, which may be due to modulation of polyamine levels through interacting with the ADC gene. PMID:25873670

  18. ICE1 of Poncirus trifoliata functions in cold tolerance by modulating polyamine levels through interacting with arginine decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-San; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhu, Dexin; Fu, Xingzheng; Wang, Min; Zhang, Qian; Moriguchi, Takaya; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-06-01

    ICE1 (Inducer of CBF Expression 1) encodes a MYC-like basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that acts as a central regulator of cold response. In this study, we elucidated the function and underlying mechanisms of PtrICE1 from trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.]. PtrICE1 was upregulated by cold, dehydration, and salt, with the greatest induction under cold conditions. PtrICE1 was localized in the nucleus and could bind to a MYC-recognizing sequence. Ectopic expression of PtrICE1 in tobacco and lemon conferred enhanced tolerance to cold stresses at either chilling or freezing temperatures. Yeast two-hybrid screening revealed that 21 proteins belonged to the PtrICE1 interactome, in which PtADC (arginine decarboxylase) was confirmed as a bona fide protein interacting with PtrICE1. Transcript levels of ADC genes in the transgenic lines were slightly elevated under normal growth condition but substantially increased under cold conditions, consistent with changes in free polyamine levels. By contrast, accumulation of the reactive oxygen species, H2O2 and O2 (-), was appreciably alleviated in the transgenic lines under cold stress. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, were detected in the transgenic lines under cold conditions. Taken together, these results demonstrated that PtrICE1 plays a positive role in cold tolerance, which may be due to modulation of polyamine levels through interacting with the ADC gene. PMID:25873670

  19. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raul M; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m(2)) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m(2)). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  20. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E.; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P.; Luque, Raul M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m2) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m2). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA–IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  1. A Model for Beliefs, Tool Acceptance Levels and Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Science and Technology Preservice Teachers towards Web Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horzum, Mehmet Baris; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    One of the applications applied most nowadays is web based instruction (WBI). Although there are many studies on WBI, no study which researched the relations between beliefs for WBI, WBI tools acceptance levels and web pedagogical content knowledge (WPCK) of science and technology pre-service teachers was found among these studies. The aim of this…

  2. Compliance with Waste Acceptance Criteria of WIPP and NTS for Vitrified Low-Level and TRU Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Harbour, J.R.; Andrews, M.K.

    1998-07-01

    A joint project between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been established to evaluate vitrification as an option for the immobilization of waste within ORNL tank farms. This paper presents details of calculations based on current best available analyses of the Oak Ridge Tanks on the limits for waste loadings imposed by the waste acceptance criteria.

  3. Radiation tolerant fiber Bragg gratings for high temperature monitoring at MGy dose levels.

    PubMed

    Morana, A; Girard, S; Marin, E; Marcandella, C; Paillet, P; Périsse, J; Macé, J-R; Boukenter, A; Cannas, M; Ouerdane, Y

    2014-09-15

    We report a method for fabricating fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) resistant to very severe environments mixing high radiation doses (up to 3 MGy) and high temperatures (up to 230°C). Such FBGs have been written in two types of radiation resistant optical fibers (pure-silica and fluorine-doped cores) by exposures to a 800 nm femtosecond IR laser at power exceeding 500 mW and then subjected to a thermal annealing treatment of 15 min at 750°C. Under radiation, our study reveals that the radiation induced Bragg wavelength shift (BWS) at a 3 MGy dose is strongly reduced compared to responses of FBGs written with nonoptimized conditions. The BWS remains lower than 10 pm for temperatures of irradiation ranging from 25°C to 230°C without noticeable decrease of the FBG peak amplitude. For an applicative point of view, this radiation induced BWS corresponds to an additional error on the temperature measurements lower than 1.5°C, opening the way to the development of radiation-tolerant multi-point temperature sensors for nuclear industry. PMID:26466259

  4. An Arabidopsis Mutant Tolerant to Lethal Ultraviolet-B Levels Shows Constitutively Elevated Accumulation of Flavonoids and Other Phenolics1

    PubMed Central

    Bieza, Kim; Lois, Rodrigo

    2001-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of mutants hypersensitive to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been a powerful tool to learn about the mechanisms that protect plants against UV-induced damage. To increase our understanding of the various mechanisms of defense against UVB radiation, we searched for mutations that would increase the level of tolerance of Arabidopsis plants to UV radiation. We describe a single gene dominant mutation (uvt1) that leads to a remarkable tolerance to UVB radiation conditions that would kill wild-type plants. Pigment analyses show a constitutive increase in accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds in uvt1 that increases the capacity of the leaves to block UVB radiation and therefore is likely to be responsible for the elevated resistance of this mutant to UVB radiation. These increases in absorption in the UV region are due, at least in part, to increases in flavonoid and sinapate accumulation. Expression of chalcone synthase (CHS) mRNA was shown to be constitutively elevated in uvt1 plants, suggesting that the increases in absorption may be a consequence of changes in gene expression. Expression of CHS in uvt1 was shown to be still inducible by UV, indicating that the uvt1 lesion may not affect the UV-mediated regulation of CHS gene expression. Our data support an important role for UV screens in the overall protection of plants to UVB radiation. The uvt1 mutant could prove to be an important tool to elucidate further the exact role of UV-absorbing pigments in UV protection as well as the relative contribution of other mechanisms to the overall tolerance of plants to UV radiation. PMID:11457961

  5. Proglucagon Promoter Cre-Mediated AMPK Deletion in Mice Increases Circulating GLP-1 Levels and Oral Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Sophie R.; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M.; Parker, Helen; Zac-Varghese, Sagen; Bloom, Stephen R.; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Rutter, Guy A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Enteroendocrine L-cells synthesise and release the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in response to food transit. Deletion of the tumour suppressor kinase LKB1 from proglucagon-expressing cells leads to the generation of intestinal polyps but no change in circulating GLP-1 levels. Here, we explore the role of the downstream kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in these cells. Method Loss of AMPK from proglucagon-expressing cells was achieved using a preproglucagon promoter-driven Cre (iGluCre) to catalyse recombination of floxed alleles of AMPKα1 and α2. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were measured using standard protocols. L-cell mass was measured by immunocytochemistry. Hormone and peptide levels were measured by electrochemical-based luminescence detection or radioimmunoassay. Results Recombination with iGluCre led to efficient deletion of AMPK from intestinal L- and pancreatic alpha-cells. In contrast to mice rendered null for LKB1 using the same strategy, mice deleted for AMPK displayed an increase (WT: 0.05 ± 0.01, KO: 0.09±0.02%, p<0.01) in L-cell mass and elevated plasma fasting (WT: 5.62 ± 0.800 pg/ml, KO: 14.5 ± 1.870, p<0.01) and fed (WT: 15.7 ± 1.48pg/ml, KO: 22.0 ± 6.62, p<0.01) GLP-1 levels. Oral, but not intraperitoneal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved by AMPK deletion, whilst insulin and glucagon levels were unchanged despite an increase in alpha to beta cell ratio (WT: 0.23 ± 0.02, KO: 0.33 ± 0.03, p<0.01). Conclusion AMPK restricts L-cell growth and GLP-1 secretion to suppress glucose tolerance. Targeted inhibition of AMPK in L-cells may thus provide a new therapeutic strategy in some forms of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27010458

  6. Effects of castration age, protein level and lysine/methionine ratio in the diet on colour, lipid oxidation and meat acceptability of intensively reared Friesian steers.

    PubMed

    Prado, I N; Campo, M M; Muela, E; Valero, M V; Catalan, O; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C

    2015-08-01

    A total of 64 intensively reared Friesian steers were used in a 2×2×2 design to study the effects of age of castration (15 days old v. 5 months old), dietary protein level (14.6% v. 16.8%; DM basis) and lysine/methionine (lys/met) ratio (3.0 v. 3.4) on meat quality. The lys/met ratio of 3.0 was reached with supplementation of protected methionine. Animals were slaughtered at a live weight of 443.5 ± 26.2 kg at around 12 months of age. Colour and lipid oxidation were measured in the longissimus thoracis muscle throughout the 14 days of display under modified atmospheric and commercial display conditions. A panel of 17 consumers assessed daily the visual acceptability of the meat on display. A consumer acceptability eating test was also performed with 120 consumers in meat aged for 7 days under vacuum conditions. Lipid oxidation was not influenced by castration age and the protein level in the diet. Castration age did not affect meat colour, but meat from the low protein level diet and the low lys/met ratio showed higher redness (a*) from 3 days of display onwards. Nevertheless, from 6 days onwards, consumer visual acceptability was below the level of acceptance in all treatments, and even from 5 days onwards in those animals that underwent early castration and were fed either a high protein diet or a combination diet low in protein content and high in lys/met ratio. The best accepted treatments throughout the display period were those from late castrated animals fed a low protein diet, probably related to other visual aspects. However, the best accepted meat after consumption was that from late castrated animals fed high protein and high lys/met. The addition of protected methionine to reach lys/met levels of 3.0 did not improve beef acceptability, with the high protein diet being preferred by consumers in terms of palatability in late castrated animals. PMID:26190253

  7. Intolerant tolerance.

    PubMed

    Khushf, G

    1994-04-01

    The Hyde Amendment and Roman Catholic attempts to put restrictions on Title X funding have been criticized for being intolerant. However, such criticism fails to appreciate that there are two competing notions of tolerance, one focusing on the limits of state force and accepting pluralism as unavoidable, and the other focusing on the limits of knowledge and advancing pluralism as a good. These two types of tolerance, illustrated in the writings of John Locke and J.S. Mill, each involve an intolerance. In a pluralistic context where the free exercise of religion is respected, John Locke's account of tolerance is preferable. However, it (in a reconstructed form) leads to a minimal state. Positive entitlements to benefits like artificial contraception or nontherapeutic abortions can legitimately be resisted, because an intolerance has already been shown with respect to those that consider the benefit immoral, since their resources have been coopted by taxation to advance an end that is contrary to their own. There is a sliding scale from tolerance (viewed as forbearance) to the affirmation of communal integrity, and this scale maps on to the continuum from negative to positive rights. PMID:8051515

  8. Rotorcraft Damage Tolerance Evaluated by Computational Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon; Abdi, Frank

    2000-01-01

    An integrally stiffened graphite/epoxy composite rotorcraft structure is evaluated via computational simulation. A computer code that scales up constituent micromechanics level material properties to the structure level and accounts for all possible failure modes is used for the simulation of composite degradation under loading. Damage initiation, growth, accumulation, and propagation to fracture are included in the simulation. Design implications with regard to defect and damage tolerance of integrally stiffened composite structures are examined. A procedure is outlined regarding the use of this type of information for setting quality acceptance criteria, design allowables, damage tolerance, and retirement-for-cause criteria.

  9. Children acceptance of laser dental treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazea, Andreea; Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the dental anxiety level and the degree of acceptance of laser assisted pedodontic treatments from the children part. Also, we want to underline the advantages of laser use in pediatric dentistry, to make this technology widely used in treating dental problems of our children patients. Methods: Thirty pediatric dental patients presented in the Department of Pedodontics, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babeş", Timişoara were evaluated using the Wong-Baker pain rating scale, wich was administered postoperatory to all patients, to assess their level of laser therapy acceptance. Results: Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (WBFPS) has good validity and high specificity; generally it's easy for children to use, easy to compare and has good feasibility. Laser treatment has been accepted and tolerated by pediatric patients for its ability to reduce or eliminate pain. Around 70% of the total sample showed an excellent acceptance of laser dental treatment. Conclusions: Laser technology is useful and effective in many clinical situations encountered in pediatric dentistry and a good level of pacient acceptance is reported during all laser procedures on hard and soft tissues.

  10. Are species shade and drought tolerance reflected in leaf-level structural and functional differentiation in Northern Hemisphere temperate woody flora?

    PubMed

    Hallik, Lea; Niinemets, Ulo; Wright, Ian J

    2009-01-01

    Leaf-level determinants of species environmental stress tolerance are still poorly understood. Here, we explored dependencies of species shade (T(shade)) and drought (T(drought)) tolerance scores on key leaf structural and functional traits in 339 Northern Hemisphere temperate woody species. In general, T(shade) was positively associated with leaf life-span (L(L)), and negatively with leaf dry mass (M(A)), nitrogen content (N(A)), and photosynthetic capacity (A(A)) per area, while opposite relationships were observed with drought tolerance. Different trait combinations responsible for T(shade) and T(drought) were observed among the key plant functional types: deciduous and evergreen broadleaves and evergreen conifers. According to principal component analysis, resource-conserving species with low N content and photosynthetic capacity, and high L(L) and M(A), had higher T(drought), consistent with the general stress tolerance strategy, whereas variation in T(shade) did not concur with the postulated stress tolerance strategy. As drought and shade often interact in natural communities, reverse effects of foliar traits on these key environmental stress tolerances demonstrate that species niche differentiation is inherently constrained in temperate woody species. Different combinations of traits among key plant functional types further explain the contrasting bivariate correlations often observed in studies seeking functional explanation of variation in species environmental tolerances. PMID:19674334

  11. Women's Acceptability of Misoprostol Treatment for Incomplete Abortion by Midwives and Physicians - Secondary Outcome Analysis from a Randomized Controlled Equivalence Trial at District Level in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Cleeve, Amanda; Byamugisha, Josaphat; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Mbona Tumwesigye, Nazarius; Atuhairwe, Susan; Faxelid, Elisabeth; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess women´s acceptability of diagnosis and treatment of incomplete abortion with misoprostol by midwives, compared with physicians. Methods This was an analysis of secondary outcomes from a multi-centre randomized controlled equivalence trial at district level in Uganda. Women with first trimester incomplete abortion were randomly allocated to clinical assessment and treatment with misoprostol by a physician or a midwife. The randomisation (1:1) was done in blocks of 12 and stratified for health care facility. Acceptability was measured in expectations and satisfaction at a follow up visit 14–28 days following treatment. Analysis of women’s overall acceptability was done using a generalized linear mixed-effects model with an equivalence range of -4% to 4%. The study was not masked. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.org, NCT 01844024. Results From April 2013 to June 2014, 1108 women were assessed for eligibility of which 1010 were randomized (506 to midwife and 504 to physician). 953 women were successfully followed up and included in the acceptability analysis. 95% (904) of the participants found the treatment satisfactory and overall acceptability was found to be equivalent between the two study groups. Treatment failure, not feeling calm and safe following treatment, experiencing severe abdominal pain or heavy bleeding following treatment, were significantly associated with non-satisfaction. No serious adverse events were recorded. Conclusions Treatment of incomplete abortion with misoprostol by midwives and physician was highly, and equally, acceptable to women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01844024 PMID:26872219

  12. Putrescine is involved in Arabidopsis freezing tolerance and cold acclimation by regulating abscisic acid levels in response to low temperature.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Juan C; López-Cobollo, Rosa; Alcázar, Rubén; Zarza, Xavier; Koncz, Csaba; Altabella, Teresa; Salinas, Julio; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Ferrando, Alejandro

    2008-10-01

    The levels of endogenous polyamines have been shown to increase in plant cells challenged with low temperature; however, the functions of polyamines in the regulation of cold stress responses are unknown. Here, we show that the accumulation of putrescine under cold stress is essential for proper cold acclimation and survival at freezing temperatures because Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants defective in putrescine biosynthesis (adc1, adc2) display reduced freezing tolerance compared to wild-type plants. Genes ADC1 and ADC2 show different transcriptional profiles upon cold treatment; however, they show similar and redundant contributions to cold responses in terms of putrescine accumulation kinetics and freezing sensitivity. Our data also demonstrate that detrimental consequences of putrescine depletion during cold stress are due, at least in part, to alterations in the levels of abscisic acid (ABA). Reduced expression of NCED3, a key gene involved in ABA biosynthesis, and down-regulation of ABA-regulated genes are detected in both adc1 and adc2 mutant plants under cold stress. Complementation analysis of adc mutants with ABA and reciprocal complementation tests of the aba2-3 mutant with putrescine support the conclusion that putrescine controls the levels of ABA in response to low temperature by modulating ABA biosynthesis and gene expression. PMID:18701673

  13. Juvenile King Scallop, Pecten maximus, Is Potentially Tolerant to Low Levels of Ocean Acidification When Food Is Unrestricted

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Matthew Burton; Bean, Tim P.; Hutchinson, Thomas H.; Le Quesne, Will J. F.

    2013-01-01

    The decline in ocean water pH and changes in carbonate saturation states through anthropogenically mediated increases in atmospheric CO2 levels may pose a hazard to marine organisms. This may be particularly acute for those species reliant on calcareous structures like shells and exoskeletons. This is of particular concern in the case of valuable commercially exploited species such as the king scallop, Pecten maximus. In this study we investigated the effects on oxygen consumption, clearance rates and cellular turnover in juvenile P. maximus following 3 months laboratory exposure to four pCO2 treatments (290, 380, 750 and 1140 µatm). None of the exposure levels were found to have significant effect on the clearance rates, respiration rates, condition index or cellular turnover (RNA: DNA) of individuals. While it is clear that some life stages of marine bivalves appear susceptible to future levels of ocean acidification, particularly under food limiting conditions, the results from this study suggest that where food is in abundance, bivalves like juvenile P. maximus may display a tolerance to limited changes in seawater chemistry. PMID:24023928

  14. Role of community tolerance level (CTL) in predicting the prevalence of the annoyance of road and rail noise.

    PubMed

    Schomer, Paul; Mestre, Vincent; Fidell, Sanford; Berry, Bernard; Gjestland, Truls; Vallet, Michel; Reid, Timothy

    2012-04-01

    Fidell et al. [(2011), J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130(2), 791-806] have shown (1) that the rate of growth of annoyance with noise exposure reported in attitudinal surveys of the annoyance of aircraft noise closely resembles the exponential rate of change of loudness with sound level, and (2) that the proportion of a community highly annoyed and the variability in annoyance prevalence rates in communities are well accounted for by a simple model with a single free parameter: a community tolerance level (abbreviated CTL, and represented symbolically in mathematical expressions as L(ct)), expressed in units of DNL. The current study applies the same modeling approach to predicting the prevalence of annoyance of road traffic and rail noise. The prevalence of noise-induced annoyance of all forms of transportation noise is well accounted for by a simple, loudness-like exponential function with community-specific offsets. The model fits all of the road traffic findings well, but the prevalence of annoyance due to rail noise is more accurately predicted separately for interviewing sites with and without high levels of vibration and/or rattle. PMID:22501056

  15. Cleaning level acceptance criteria and a high pressure liquid chromatography procedure for the assay of Meclizine Hydrochloride residue in swabs collected from pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mirza, T; Lunn, M J; Keeley, F J; George, R C; Bodenmiller, J R

    1999-04-01

    A method using pharmacologically based and visual limit of detection criteria to determine the acceptable residue level for Meclizine Hydrochloride (MH) on pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment surfaces after cleaning is described. A formula was used in order to determine the pharmacologically safe cleaning level for MH. This level was termed as specific residual cleaning Level (SRCL) and calculated to be 50 microg 100 cm(-2). The visual limit of detection (VLOD) was determined by spiking different levels of MH on stainless steel plates and having the plates examined by a group of observers. The lowest level that could be visually detected by the majority of the observers, 62.5 microg 100 cm(-2), was considered as the VLOD for MH. The lower of the SRCL and VLOD values, i.e. 50 microg 100 cm(-2), was therefore chosen as the cleaning acceptance criterion. A sensitive reversed-phase HPLC method was developed and validated for the assay of MH in swabs used to test equipment surfaces. Using this method, the mean recoveries of MH from spiked swabs and '180-Grit' stainless steel plates were 87.0 and 89.5% with relative standard deviations (RSD) of +/- 3.3 and +/- 2.4%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the assay of actual swab samples collected from the equipment surfaces. The stability of MH on stainless steel plates, on cleaning swabs and in the extraction solution was investigated. PMID:10698538

  16. Overexpression of Heat Shock Factor Gene HsfA3 Increases Galactinol Levels and Oxidative Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Song, Chieun; Chung, Woo Sik; Lim, Chae Oh

    2016-06-30

    Heat shock factors (Hsfs) are central regulators of abiotic stress responses, especially heat stress responses, in plants. In the current study, we characterized the activity of the Hsf gene HsfA3 in Arabidopsis under oxidative stress conditions. HsfA3 transcription in seedlings was induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and an endogenous H2O2 propagator, 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB). HsfA3-overexpressing transgenic plants exhibited increased oxidative stress tolerance compared to untransformed wild-type plants (WT), as revealed by changes in fresh weight, chlorophyll fluorescence, and ion leakage under light conditions. The expression of several genes encoding galactinol synthase (GolS), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), which function as antioxidants in plant cells, was induced in HsfA3 overexpressors. In addition, galactinol levels were higher in HsfA3 overexpressors than in WT under unstressed conditions. In transient transactivation assays using Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts, HsfA3 activated the transcription of a reporter gene driven by the GolS1 or GolS2 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that GolS1 and GolS2 are directly regulated by HsfA3. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that GolS1 and GolS2 are directly regulated by HsfA3 and that GolS enzymes play an important role in improving oxidative stress tolerance by increasing galactinol biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:27109422

  17. Overexpression of Heat Shock Factor Gene HsfA3 Increases Galactinol Levels and Oxidative Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chieun; Chung, Woo Sik; Lim, Chae Oh

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock factors (Hsfs) are central regulators of abiotic stress responses, especially heat stress responses, in plants. In the current study, we characterized the activity of the Hsf gene HsfA3 in Arabidopsis under oxidative stress conditions. HsfA3 transcription in seedlings was induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and an endogenous H2O2 propagator, 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB). HsfA3-overexpressing transgenic plants exhibited increased oxidative stress tolerance compared to untransformed wild-type plants (WT), as revealed by changes in fresh weight, chlorophyll fluorescence, and ion leakage under light conditions. The expression of several genes encoding galactinol synthase (GolS), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), which function as antioxidants in plant cells, was induced in HsfA3 overexpressors. In addition, galactinol levels were higher in HsfA3 overexpressors than in WT under unstressed conditions. In transient transactivation assays using Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts, HsfA3 activated the transcription of a reporter gene driven by the GolS1 or GolS2 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that GolS1 and GolS2 are directly regulated by HsfA3. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that GolS1 and GolS2 are directly regulated by HsfA3 and that GolS enzymes play an important role in improving oxidative stress tolerance by increasing galactinol biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:27109422

  18. A study on the tolerance level of farmers toward human-wildlife conflict in the forest buffer zones of Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Senthilkumar, K.; Mathialagan, P.; Manivannan, C.; Jayathangaraj, M. G.; Gomathinayagam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this work was to study the tolerance level of farmers toward different human-wildlife conflict (HWC) situations. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 24 villages of nine blocks from Kancheepuram, Coimbatore, Erode, and Krishnagiri districts of Tamil Nadu by personally interviewing 240 farmers affected with four different HWC situations such as human-elephant conflict (HEC), human-wild pig conflict (HPC), human-gaur conflict (HGC), and human-monkey conflict (HMC). A scale developed for this purpose was used to find out the tolerance level of the farmers. Results: In general, the majority (61.70%) of the farmers had medium level of tolerance toward HWC, whereas 25.40% and 12.90% belonged to a high and low category, respectively. The mean tolerance level of the farmer’s encountering HMC is low (8.77) among the other three wild animal conflicts. In tackling HWC, the majority (55.00%) of the HEC farmers drove the elephant once it entered into their farmland. In the HPC, more than three-fourths of the respondents drove away the wild pig once they were found in farmlands. With regard to the HMC, a less number of them (1.70%) drove the monkey away if monkeys were spotted in their village. With regard to HGC, 95.00% of the respondents frightened the gaurs if their family members were threatened by gaurs. Conclusion: The present study suggests that that majority of the farmers had medium level of tolerance toward HWC. The tolerance level of the HMC farmers was lower than other three HWC affected farmers. This study emphasizes the need for necessary training to tackle the problem in an effective manner for wild animal conservation. PMID:27536037

  19. Uptake of manganese in potatoes tolerant of high tissue manganese levels

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, K.B.

    1987-01-01

    Observations on the accumulations of Mn in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum cv. Norland) focused on factors which enabled plants in field studies to withstand high concentrations of Mn in their foliage. A microculture method for assessing nutrient uptake was introduced and applied to studies of the effects of P and temperature on Mn toxicity. Potato plants in microculture behaved similarly in the symptomatology of Mn toxicity to those grown in solution culture but were more responsive to P. The effects of both P and temperature on Mn toxicity in microculture correlated with changes in Mn uptake and with growth reductions due to low P or temperature stress. The uptake of Mn from solution culture increased with increasing P level in solution. This increase was attributed to an increased health and vitality of potato plants under high P and to changes in pH and nutrient solution concentration as plants matured at different rates. When limited control over solution pH and nutrient concentration was provided the effects of P on Mn uptake were largely eliminated. The well-documented time dependence of Mn accumulation was confirmed in a fractionation experiment.

  20. Leaf dhurrin content is a quantitative measure of the level of pre- and post-flowering drought tolerance in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post-flowering drought tolerance is a key trait for increasing the production of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in Mediterranean and semiarid tropical climates. The nonsenescent trait, stay-green, is the most significant criterion for assessing post flowering drought tolerance in sorghum. H...

  1. Tolerating Zero Tolerance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Brian N.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of zero tolerance dates back to the mid-1990s when New Jersey was creating laws to address nuisance crimes in communities. The main goal of these neighborhood crime policies was to have zero tolerance for petty crime such as graffiti or littering so as to keep more serious crimes from occurring. Next came the war on drugs. In federal…

  2. HLA-G Level on Monocytoid Dendritic Cells Correlates with Regulatory T Cell Foxp3 Expression in Liver Transplant Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Castellaneta, Antonino; Mazariegos, George V; Nayyar, Navdeep; Zeevi, Adriana; Thomson, Angus W

    2011-01-01

    Background Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is a non-classical HLA class I molecule expressed as membrane-bound and soluble isoforms. Interaction of HLA-G with its receptor, immunoglobulin (Ig)-like transcript (ILT) 4 on dendritic cells (DC) down-regulates their T cell stimulatory ability. Methods We examined expression of HLA-G, ILT4, other immune regulatory molecules (inducible costimulator ligand and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor-related receptor ligand), and the activation marker CMRF44 on circulating monocytoid (m) and plasmacytoid (p)DC by monoclonal antibody staining and flow cytometry. Three groups of stable liver transplant recipients,-operationally tolerant (TOL), prospective immunosuppressive drug weaning (PW) and maintenance immunosuppression (MI) were studied, together with healthy controls (HC). Serum HLA-G levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results In TOL patients, mDC but not pDC expressed higher HLA-G than in MI patients or HC. In TOL patients, the incidence of CD4+CD25hiCD127− regulatory T cells (Treg) and the intensity of Treg forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) expression were significantly higher than in the MI group. HLA-G expression on circulating mDC correlated significantly with that of Foxp3 in the TOL group. There was no correlation between immunosuppressive drug (tacrolimus) dose or trough level and HLA-G expression or Treg frequency or Foxp3 expression. The incidence of patients with circulating HLA-G levels >100ng/ml was highest in the TOL group, although statistical significance was not achieved. Conclusions Higher HLA-G expression on circulating mDC in TOL recipients compared with MI or HC, suggests a possible role of HLA-G in immune regulation possibly mediated by enhanced host Treg Foxp3 expression. PMID:21423069

  3. Critique of the considerations for establishing the tolerable upper intake level for vitamin D: critical need for revision upwards.

    PubMed

    Vieth, Reinhold

    2006-04-01

    The tolerable upper intake level (UL) for vitamin D is 50 mcg/d (2000 iu/d) in North America and in Europe. In the United Kingdom a guidance level exists for vitamin D, 25 mcg/d (1000 iu/d), defined as the dose "of vitamins and minerals that potentially susceptible individuals could take daily on a life-long basis, without medical supervision in reasonable safety." Exposure of skin to sunshine can safely provide an adult with vitamin D in an amount equivalent to an oral dose of 250 mcg/d. The incremental consumption of 1 mcg/d of vitamin D3 raises serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D ] by approximately 1 nmol/L (0.4 microg/L). Published reports suggest toxicity may occur with 25(OH)D concentrations beyond 500 nmol/L (200 microg/L). Older adults are advised to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentrations >75 nmol/L. The preceding numbers indicate that vitamin D3 intake at the UL raises 25(OH)D by approximately 50 nmol/L and that this may be more desirable than harmful. The past decade has produced separate North American, European, and U.K. reports that address UL or guidance-level values for vitamin D. Despite similar well-defined models for risk assessment, each report has failed to adapt its message to new evidence of no adverse effects at higher doses. Inappropriately low UL values, or guidance values, for vitamin D have hindered objective clinical research on vitamin D nutrition, they have hindered our understanding of its role in disease prevention, and restricted the amount of vitamin D in multivitamins and foods to doses too low to benefit public health. PMID:16549491

  4. Cold response of dedifferentiated barley cells at the gene expression, hormone composition, and freezing tolerance levels: studies on callus cultures.

    PubMed

    Vashegyi, Ildikó; Marozsán-Tóth, Zsuzsa; Galiba, Gábor; Dobrev, Petre I; Vankova, Radomira; Tóth, Balázs

    2013-06-01

    In this study, data is presented how dark-grown, embryogenic barley callus cells respond to cold without any light-dependent, chloroplast-related mechanism, independently of the systemic signals. The expression of HvCBF9, HvCBF14, and HvCOR14b genes, members of one of the most important cold-inducible regulatory system, was measured by real-time PCR. Characteristic of the cold response was similar in the crowns of seedlings and in dark-grown callus cultures, however, gene expression levels were lower in calli. Endogenous concentration of auxins, abscisic acid, and salicylic acid did not change, but phaseic acid and neophaseic acid showed robust accumulation after cold acclimation. Freezing tolerance of the cultures was also higher after 7 days of cold-hardening. The results suggest the presence of a basal, light-independent, cold-responsive activation of the CBF-COR14b pathway in barley cultures. The effects of Dicamba, the exogenous auxin analog used for maintaining tissue cultures were also studied. Dicamba seems to be a general enhancer of the gene expression and physiological responses to cold stress, but has no specific effect on the activation. Our data along with previous findings show that this system might be a suitable model for studying certain basic cellular mechanisms involved in the cold acclimation process in cereals. PMID:22669585

  5. Evaluation and Application of the RD50 for Determining Acceptable Exposure Levels of Airborne Sensory Irritants for the General Public

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, Yu; Alexeeff, George V.; Broadwin, Rachel; Salmon, Andrew G.

    2007-01-01

    Background The RD50 (exposure concentration producing a 50% respiratory rate decrease) test evaluates airborne chemicals for sensory irritation and has become an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard method. Past studies reported good correlations (R2) between RD50s and the occupational exposure limits, particularly threshold limit values (TLVs). Objective The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between RD50s and human sensory irritation responses in a quantitative manner, particularly for chemicals that produce burning sensation of the eyes, nose, or throat, based on lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) reported for human subjects. Methods We compared RD50s with LOAELs and acute reference exposure levels (RELs). RELs, developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, represent a level at which no adverse effects are anticipated after exposure. We collected RD50s from the published literature and evaluated them for consistency with ASTM procedures. We identified LOAELs for human irritation and found 25 chemicals with a corresponding RD50 in mice. Discussion We found the relationship between RD50s and LOAELs as log RD50 = 1.16 (log LOAEL) + 0.77 with an R2 value of 0.80. This strong correlation supports the use of the RD50 in establishing exposure limits for the public. We further identified 16 chemical irritants with both RD50s and corresponding acute RELs, and calculated the relationship as log RD50 = 0.71 (log REL) + 2.55 with an R2 value of 0.71. This relationship could be used to identify health protective values for the public to prevent respiratory or sensory irritation. Conclusion Consequently, we believe that the RD50 has benefits for use in setting protective levels for the health of both workers and the general population. PMID:18007993

  6. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie S.; Rippe, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ± 13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001), but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others. PMID:26512691

  7. Novel Denitrifying Bacterium Ochrobactrum anthropi YD50.2 Tolerates High Levels of Reactive Nitrogen Oxides▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Yuki; Takaya, Naoki; Takizawa, Noboru

    2009-01-01

    Most studies of bacterial denitrification have used nitrate (NO3−) as the first electron acceptor, whereas relatively less is understood about nitrite (NO2−) denitrification. We isolated novel bacteria that proliferated in the presence of high levels of NO2− (72 mM). Strain YD50.2, among several isolates, was taxonomically positioned within the α subclass of Proteobacteria and identified as Ochrobactrum anthropi YD50.2. This strain denitrified NO2−, as well as NO3−. The gene clusters for denitrification (nar, nir, nor, and nos) were cloned from O. anthropi YD50.2, in which the nir and nor operons were linked. We confirmed that nirK in the nir-nor operon produced a functional NO2− reductase containing copper that was involved in bacterial NO2− reduction. The strain denitrified up to 40 mM NO2− to dinitrogen under anaerobic conditions in which other denitrifiers or NO3− reducers such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Ralstonia eutropha and nitrate-respiring Escherichia coli neither proliferated nor reduced NO2−. Under nondenitrifying aerobic conditions, O. anthropi YD50.2 and its type strain ATCC 49188T proliferated even in the presence of higher levels of NO2− (100 mM), and both were considerably more resistant to acidic NO2− than were the other strains noted above. These results indicated that O. anthropi YD50.2 is a novel denitrifier that has evolved reactive nitrogen oxide tolerance mechanisms. PMID:19542343

  8. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie S; Rippe, James M

    2015-10-01

    Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20-60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001), but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others. PMID:26512691

  9. Adenovirus type 35-vectored tuberculosis vaccine has an acceptable safety and tolerability profile in healthy, BCG-vaccinated, QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold (+) Kenyan adults without evidence of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Douglas S; Owira, Victorine; Polhemus, Mark; Otieno, Lucas; Andagalu, Ben; Ogutu, Bernhards; Waitumbi, John; Hawkridge, Anthony; Shepherd, Barbara; Pau, Maria Grazia; Sadoff, Jerald; Douoguih, Macaya; McClain, J Bruce

    2016-05-01

    In a Phase 1 trial, we evaluated the safety of AERAS-402, an adenovirus 35-vectored TB vaccine candidate expressing 3 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) immunodominant antigens, in subjects with and without latent Mtb infection. HIV-negative, BCG-vaccinated Kenyan adults without evidence of tuberculosis, 10 QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-G)(-) and 10 QFT-G(+), were randomized 4:1 to receive AERAS-402 or placebo as two doses, on Days 0 and 56, with follow up to Day 182. There were no deaths, serious adverse events or withdrawals. For 1 AERAS-402 QFT-G(-) and 1 AERAS-402 QFT-G(+) subject, there were 3 self-limiting severe AEs of injection site pain: 1 after the first vaccination and 1 after each vaccination, respectively. Two additional severe AEs considered vaccine-related were reported after the first vaccination in AERAS-402 QFT-G(+) subjects: elevated blood creatine phosphokinase and neutropenia, the latter slowly improving but remaining abnormal until study end. AERAS-402 was not detected in urine or throat cultures for any subject. In intracellular cytokine staining studies, curtailed by technical issues, we saw modest CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to Mtb Ag85A/b peptide pools among both QFT-G(-) and (+) subjects, with trends in the CD4+ T cells suggestive of boosting after the second vaccine dose, slightly more so in QFT-G(+) subjects. CD4+ and CD8+ responses to Mtb antigen TB10.4 were minimal. Increases in Adenovirus 35 neutralizing antibodies from screening to end of study, seen in 50% of AERAS-402 recipients, were mostly minimal. This small study confirms acceptable safety and tolerability profiles for AERAS-402, in line with other Phase 1 studies of AERAS-402, now to include QFT-G(+) subjects. PMID:27026148

  10. Co-expression of NCED and ALO improves vitamin C level and tolerance to drought and chilling in transgenic tobacco and stylo plants.

    PubMed

    Bao, Gegen; Zhuo, Chunliu; Qian, Chunmei; Xiao, Ting; Guo, Zhenfei; Lu, Shaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant adaptive responses to various environmental stresses, while L-ascorbic acid (AsA) that is also named vitamin C is an important antioxidant and involves in plant stress tolerance and the immune system in domestic animals. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and stylo [Stylosanthes guianensis (Aublet) Swartz], a forage legume, plants co-expressing stylo 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (SgNCED1) and yeast D-arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase (ALO) genes were generated in this study, and tolerance to drought and chilling was analysed in comparison with transgenic tobacco overexpressing SgNCED1 or ALO and the wild-type plants. Compared to the SgNCED1 or ALO transgenic plants, in which only ABA or AsA levels were increased, both ABA and AsA levels were increased in transgenic tobacco and stylo plants co-expressing SgNCED1 and ALO genes. Compared to the wild type, an enhanced drought tolerance was observed in SgNCED1 transgenic tobacco plants with induced expression of drought-responsive genes, but not in ALO plants, while an enhanced chilling tolerance was observed in ALO transgenic tobaccos with induced expression of cold-responsive genes, but not in SgNCED1 plants. Co-expression of SgNCED1 and ALO genes resulted in elevated tolerance to both drought and chilling in transgenic tobacco and stylo plants with induced expression of both drought and cold-responsive genes. Our result suggests that co-expression of SgNCED1 and ALO genes is an effective way for use in forage plant improvement for increased tolerance to drought and chilling and nutrition quality. PMID:25865630

  11. Zn2+-induced changes at the root level account for the increased tolerance of acclimated tobacco plants

    PubMed Central

    Bazihizina, Nadia; Taiti, Cosimo; Marti, Lucia; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Spinelli, Francesco; Giordano, Cristiana; Caparrotta, Stefania; Gori, Massimo; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that heavy-metal tolerance can be induced in plants following pre-treatment with non-toxic metal concentrations, but the results are still controversial. In the present study, tobacco plants were exposed to increasing Zn2+ concentrations (up to 250 and/or 500 μM ZnSO4) with or without a 1-week acclimation period with 30 μM ZnSO4. Elevated Zn2+ was highly toxic for plants, and after 3 weeks of treatments there was a marked (≥50%) decline in plant growth in non-acclimated plants. Plant acclimation, on the other hand, increased plant dry mass and leaf area up to 1.6-fold compared with non-acclimated ones. In non-acclimated plants, the addition of 250 μM ZnSO4 led to transient membrane depolarization and stomatal closure within 24h from the addition of the stress; by contrast, the acclimation process was associated with an improved stomatal regulation and a superior ability to maintain a negative root membrane potential, with values on average 37% more negative compared with non-acclimated plants. The different response at the plasma-membrane level between acclimated and non-acclimated plants was associated with an enhanced vacuolar Zn2+ sequestration and up to 2-fold higher expression of the tobacco orthologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana MTP1 gene. Thus, the acclimation process elicited specific detoxification mechanisms in roots that enhanced Zn2+ compartmentalization in vacuoles, thereby improving root membrane functionality and stomatal regulation in leaves following elevated Zn2+ stress. PMID:24928985

  12. Toward Human-Carnivore Coexistence: Understanding Tolerance for Tigers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Inskip, Chloe; Carter, Neil; Riley, Shawn; Roberts, Thomas; MacMillan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Fostering local community tolerance for endangered carnivores, such as tigers (Panthera tigris), is a core component of many conservation strategies. Identification of antecedents of tolerance will facilitate the development of effective tolerance-building conservation action and secure local community support for, and involvement in, conservation initiatives. We use a stated preference approach for measuring tolerance, based on the 'Wildlife Stakeholder Acceptance Capacity' concept, to explore villagers' tolerance levels for tigers in the Bangladesh Sundarbans, an area where, at the time of the research, human-tiger conflict was severe. We apply structural equation modeling to test an a priori defined theoretical model of tolerance and identify the experiential and psychological basis of tolerance in this community. Our results indicate that beliefs about tigers and about the perceived current tiger population trend are predictors of tolerance for tigers. Positive beliefs about tigers and a belief that the tiger population is not currently increasing are both associated with greater stated tolerance for the species. Contrary to commonly-held notions, negative experiences with tigers do not directly affect tolerance levels; instead, their effect is mediated by villagers' beliefs about tigers and risk perceptions concerning human-tiger conflict incidents. These findings highlight a need to explore and understand the socio-psychological factors that encourage tolerance towards endangered species. Our research also demonstrates the applicability of this approach to tolerance research to a wide range of socio-economic and cultural contexts and reveals its capacity to enhance carnivore conservation efforts worldwide. PMID:26760035

  13. Toward Human-Carnivore Coexistence: Understanding Tolerance for Tigers in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Inskip, Chloe; Roberts, Thomas; MacMillan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Fostering local community tolerance for endangered carnivores, such as tigers (Panthera tigris), is a core component of many conservation strategies. Identification of antecedents of tolerance will facilitate the development of effective tolerance-building conservation action and secure local community support for, and involvement in, conservation initiatives. We use a stated preference approach for measuring tolerance, based on the ‘Wildlife Stakeholder Acceptance Capacity’ concept, to explore villagers’ tolerance levels for tigers in the Bangladesh Sundarbans, an area where, at the time of the research, human-tiger conflict was severe. We apply structural equation modeling to test an a priori defined theoretical model of tolerance and identify the experiential and psychological basis of tolerance in this community. Our results indicate that beliefs about tigers and about the perceived current tiger population trend are predictors of tolerance for tigers. Positive beliefs about tigers and a belief that the tiger population is not currently increasing are both associated with greater stated tolerance for the species. Contrary to commonly-held notions, negative experiences with tigers do not directly affect tolerance levels; instead, their effect is mediated by villagers’ beliefs about tigers and risk perceptions concerning human-tiger conflict incidents. These findings highlight a need to explore and understand the socio-psychological factors that encourage tolerance towards endangered species. Our research also demonstrates the applicability of this approach to tolerance research to a wide range of socio-economic and cultural contexts and reveals its capacity to enhance carnivore conservation efforts worldwide. PMID:26760035

  14. The effect of short-term metformin treatment on plasma prolactin levels in bromocriptine-treated patients with hyperprolactinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okrzesik, Joanna; Okopien, Boguslaw

    2015-05-01

    Metformin was found to affect plasma levels of some pituitary hormones. This study was aimed at investigating whether metformin treatment has an impact on plasma prolactin levels in bromocriptine-treated patients with hyperprolactinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance. The study included 27 patients with hyperprolactinaemia, who had been treated for at least 6 months with bromocriptine. Based on prolactin levels, bromocriptine-treated patients were divided into two groups: patients with elevated (group A, n = 12) and patients with normal (group B, n = 15) prolactin levels. The control group included 16 age-, sex- and weight-matched hyperprolactinaemia-free individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (group C).The lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose levels, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ratio (HOMA-IR), glycated haemoglobin, as well as plasma levels of prolactin, thyrotropin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were assessed at baseline and after 4 months of metformin treatment (2.55-3 g daily). In all treatment groups, metformin reduced HOMA-IR, plasma triglycerides and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose. In patients with hyperprolactinaemia, but not in the other groups of patients, metformin slightly reduced plasma levels of prolactin, and this effect correlated weakly with the metabolic effects of this drug. Our study shows that metformin decreases plasma prolactin levels only in patients with elevated levels of this hormone. The obtained results suggest that metformin treatment may bring some benefits to hyperprolactinaemic patients with coexisting glucose metabolism disturbances already receiving dopamine agonist therapy. PMID:25239203

  15. Replacing fish meal by food waste to produce lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Lam, Cheung-Lung; Choi, Wai-Ming; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at using different types of food wastes (mainly containing cereal [food waste A] and meat meal [food waste B]) as major sources of protein to replace the fish meal used in fish feeds to produce quality fish. The traditional fish farming model used to culture low trophic level fish included: bighead, (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), grass carp, (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp, (Cirrhinus molitorella) of omnivorous chain. The results indicated that grass carp and bighead carp fed with food waste feeds were relatively free of PAHs. The results of health risk assessment showed that the fish fed with food waste feeds were safe for consumption from the PAHs perspective. PMID:25880597

  16. ICE1 of Pyrus ussuriensis functions in cold tolerance by enhancing PuDREBa transcriptional levels through interacting with PuHHP1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaosan; Li, Kongqing; Jin, Cong; Zhang, Shaoling

    2015-01-01

    ICE1 transcription factor plays an important role in plant cold stress via regulating the expression of stress-responsive genes. In this study, a PuICE1 gene isolated from Pyrus ussuriensis was characterized for its function in cold tolerance. The expression levels of the PuICE1 were induced by cold, dehydration and salt, with the greatest induction under cold conditions. PuICE1 was localized in the nucleus and could bind specifically to the MYC element in the PuDREBa promoter. The PuICE1 fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain to have transcriptional activation activity. Ectopic expression of the PuICE1 in tomato conferred enhanced tolerance to cold stress at cold temperatures, less electrolyte leakage, less MDA content, higher chlorophyll content, higher survival rate, higher proline content, higher activities of enzymes. In additon, steady-state mRNA levels of six stress-responsive genes coding for either functional or regulatory genes were induced to higher levels in the transgenic lines by cold stress. Yeast two-hybrid, transient assay, split luciferase complementation and BiFC assays all revealed that PuHHP1 protein can physically interact with PuICE1. Taken together, these results demonstrated that PuICE1 plays a positive role in cold tolerance, which may be due to enhancement of PuDREBa transcriptional levels through interacting with the PuHHP1. PMID:26626798

  17. ICE1 of Pyrus ussuriensis functions in cold tolerance by enhancing PuDREBa transcriptional levels through interacting with PuHHP1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaosan; Li, Kongqing; Jin, Cong; Zhang, Shaoling

    2015-01-01

    ICE1 transcription factor plays an important role in plant cold stress via regulating the expression of stress-responsive genes. In this study, a PuICE1 gene isolated from Pyrus ussuriensis was characterized for its function in cold tolerance. The expression levels of the PuICE1 were induced by cold, dehydration and salt, with the greatest induction under cold conditions. PuICE1 was localized in the nucleus and could bind specifically to the MYC element in the PuDREBa promoter. The PuICE1 fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain to have transcriptional activation activity. Ectopic expression of the PuICE1 in tomato conferred enhanced tolerance to cold stress at cold temperatures, less electrolyte leakage, less MDA content, higher chlorophyll content, higher survival rate, higher proline content, higher activities of enzymes. In additon, steady-state mRNA levels of six stress-responsive genes coding for either functional or regulatory genes were induced to higher levels in the transgenic lines by cold stress. Yeast two-hybrid, transient assay, split luciferase complementation and BiFC assays all revealed that PuHHP1 protein can physically interact with PuICE1. Taken together, these results demonstrated that PuICE1 plays a positive role in cold tolerance, which may be due to enhancement of PuDREBa transcriptional levels through interacting with the PuHHP1. PMID:26626798

  18. ICE1 of Pyrus ussuriensis functions in cold tolerance by enhancing PuDREBa transcriptional levels through interacting with PuHHP1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaosan; Li, Kongqing; Jin, Cong; Zhang, Shaoling

    2015-12-01

    ICE1 transcription factor plays an important role in plant cold stress via regulating the expression of stress-responsive genes. In this study, a PuICE1 gene isolated from Pyrus ussuriensis was characterized for its function in cold tolerance. The expression levels of the PuICE1 were induced by cold, dehydration and salt, with the greatest induction under cold conditions. PuICE1 was localized in the nucleus and could bind specifically to the MYC element in the PuDREBa promoter. The PuICE1 fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain to have transcriptional activation activity. Ectopic expression of the PuICE1 in tomato conferred enhanced tolerance to cold stress at cold temperatures, less electrolyte leakage, less MDA content, higher chlorophyll content, higher survival rate, higher proline content, higher activities of enzymes. In additon, steady-state mRNA levels of six stress-responsive genes coding for either functional or regulatory genes were induced to higher levels in the transgenic lines by cold stress. Yeast two-hybrid, transient assay, split luciferase complementation and BiFC assays all revealed that PuHHP1 protein can physically interact with PuICE1. Taken together, these results demonstrated that PuICE1 plays a positive role in cold tolerance, which may be due to enhancement of PuDREBa transcriptional levels through interacting with the PuHHP1.

  19. Effect of electronic dental anesthesia on pain threshold and pain tolerance levels of human teeth subjected to stimulation with an electric pulp tester.

    PubMed Central

    Gerschman, J. A.; Giebartowski, J.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of electronic dental anesthesia on pain threshold and pain tolerance levels of human teeth subjected to stimulation with an electric pulp tester was evaluated. Subjects (n = 120) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups (baseline, placebo, square wave, and postsynaptic wave). Symptom-free right-sided maxillary incisor teeth were tested for anesthesia with an electric pulp tester. Electrostimulation significantly increased the pain perception threshold and pain tolerance level with both the square wave and postsynaptic wave. The postsynaptic wave was more effective than the square wave. Presented at the Satellite Symposium on Advances in the Management of Acute and Chronic Facial Pain associated with the 6th World Congress on Pain, Melbourne, Australia, 1990. Images Figure 1 PMID:1811428

  20. Defining conditions where long-term glucocorticoid treatment has an acceptably low level of harm to facilitate implementation of existing recommendations: viewpoints from an EULAR task force.

    PubMed

    Strehl, Cindy; Bijlsma, Johannes W J; de Wit, Maarten; Boers, Maarten; Caeyers, Nele; Cutolo, Maurizio; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Dixon, William G; Geenen, Rinie; Huizinga, Tom W J; Kent, Alison; de Thurah, Annette Ladefoged; Listing, Joachim; Mariette, Xavier; Ray, David W; Scherer, Hans U; Seror, Raphaèle; Spies, Cornelia M; Tarp, Simon; Wiek, Dieter; Winthrop, Kevin L; Buttgereit, Frank

    2016-06-01

    There is convincing evidence for the known and unambiguously accepted beneficial effects of glucocorticoids at low dosages. However, the implementation of existing recommendations and guidelines on the management of glucocorticoid therapy in rheumatic diseases is lagging behind. As a first step to improve implementation, we aimed at defining conditions under which long-term glucocorticoid therapy may have an acceptably low level of harm. A multidisciplinary European League Against Rheumatism task force group of experts including patients with rheumatic diseases was assembled. After a systematic literature search, breakout groups critically reviewed the evidence on the four most worrisome adverse effects of glucocorticoid therapy (osteoporosis, hyperglycaemia/diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and infections) and presented their results to the other group members following a structured questionnaire for final discussion and consensus finding. Robust evidence on the risk of harm of long-term glucocorticoid therapy was often lacking since relevant study results were often either missing, contradictory or carried a high risk of bias. The group agreed that the risk of harm is low for the majority of patients at long-term dosages of ≤5 mg prednisone equivalent per day, whereas at dosages of >10 mg/day the risk of harm is elevated. At dosages between >5 and ≤10 mg/day, patient-specific characteristics (protective and risk factors) determine the risk of harm. The level of harm of glucocorticoids depends on both dose and patient-specific parameters. General and glucocorticoid-associated risk factors and protective factors such as a healthy lifestyle should be taken into account when evaluating the actual and future risk. PMID:26933146

  1. Field level evaluation of rice introgression lines for heat tolerance and validation of markers linked to spikelet fertility.

    PubMed

    Prasanth, V Vishnu; Basava, Kumari Ramana; Babu, M Suchandranath; V G N, Venkata Tripura; Devi, S J S Rama; Mangrauthia, S K; Voleti, S R; Sarla, N

    2016-04-01

    Rice lines derived from wild species and mutants can serve as a good resource for favorable alleles for heat tolerance. In all, 48 stable lines including 17 KMR3/O. rufipogon introgression lines (KMR3 ILs), 15 Swarna/O. nivara ILs (Swarna ILs) along with their parents, Nagina 22 (N22) and its 4 EMS induced mutants and 7 varieties were evaluated for heat tolerance under irrigated conditions under field in two seasons, wet season 2012 using poly cover house method and dry season 2013 using late sown method. Spikelet fertility (SF), yield per plant (YP) and heat susceptibility index (HSI) for these two traits were considered as criteria to assess heat tolerance compared to control. Four KMR3 ILs and eight Swarna ILs were identified as heat tolerant based on SF and YP and their HSIs in both wet and dry seasons. S-65 and S-70 showed low SF and high YP consistently in response to heat in both seasons. We provide evidence that SF alone may not be the best criterion to assess heat tolerance and including YP is important as lines with low SF but high YP and vice versa were identified under heat stress. Out of 49 SSR markers linked to spikelet fertility, 18 were validated for five traits. RM229 in wet season and RM430 and RM210 in dry season were significantly associated with both SF and its HSI under heat stress. RM430 was also significantly associated with both YP and its HSI in dry season. Thirty two candidate genes were identified close to nine markers associated with traits under heat stress. PMID:27436910

  2. Replacing fish meal by food waste in feed pellets to culture lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of organochlorine pesticides: health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Man, Yu-Bon; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2014-12-01

    The present study used food waste (collected from local hotels and restaurants) feed pellets in polyculture of low-trophic level fish [bighead (Aristichtys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella)] aiming at producing safe and quality products for local consumption. The results indicated that grass carp (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) <0.03; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) 1.42-3.34 ng/g ww) and bighead carp (HCHs<0.03; DDTs 1.55-2.56 ng/g ww) fed with food waste feed pellets were relatively free of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The experimental ponds (water and sediment) were relatively free of OCPs, lowering the possibility of biomagnification of OCPs in the food chains within the ponds. The raw concentrations of OCPs extracted from the fish were not in the bioavailable form, which would ultimately reach bloodstream and exert adverse effects on human body. Health risk assessments based on digestible concentrations are commonly regarded as a more accurate method. The results of health risk assessments based on raw and digestible concentrations showed that the fish fed with food waste feed pellets were safe for consumption from the OCP perspective. PMID:25080070

  3. Genetic Variation of Drought Tolerance in Pinus pinaster at Three Hierarchical Levels: A Comparison of Induced Osmotic Stress and Field Testing

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Maria João; Velasco, Tania; Feito, Isabel; Alía, Ricardo; Majada, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the survival capacity of forest trees to periods of severe water stress could improve knowledge of the adaptive potential of different species under future climatic scenarios. In long lived organisms, like forest trees, the combination of induced osmotic stress treatments and field testing can elucidate the role of drought tolerance during the early stages of establishment, the most critical in the life of the species. We performed a Polyethylene glycol-osmotic induced stress experiment and evaluated two common garden experiments (xeric and mesic sites) to test for survival and growth of a wide range clonal collection of Maritime pine. This study demonstrates the importance of additive vs non additive effects for drought tolerance traits in Pinus pinaster, and shows differences in parameters determining the adaptive trajectories of populations and family and clones within populations. The results show that osmotic adjustment plays an important role in population variation, while biomass allocation and hydric content greatly influence survival at population level. Survival in the induced osmotic stress experiment presented significant correlations with survival in the xeric site, and height growth at the mesic site, at population level, indicating constraints of adaptation for those traits, while at the within population level no significant correlation existed. These results demonstrate that population differentiation and within population genetic variation for drought tolerance follow different patterns. PMID:24223885

  4. Acceptance, values, and probability.

    PubMed

    Steel, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This essay makes a case for regarding personal probabilities used in Bayesian analyses of confirmation as objects of acceptance and rejection. That in turn entails that personal probabilities are subject to the argument from inductive risk, which aims to show non-epistemic values can legitimately influence scientific decisions about which hypotheses to accept. In a Bayesian context, the argument from inductive risk suggests that value judgments can influence decisions about which probability models to accept for likelihoods and priors. As a consequence, if the argument from inductive risk is sound, then non-epistemic values can affect not only the level of evidence deemed necessary to accept a hypothesis but also degrees of confirmation themselves. PMID:26386533

  5. Defect tolerance of pressurized fiber composite shell structures

    SciTech Connect

    Gotsis, P.K.; Chamis, C.C.; Minnetyan, L.

    1996-12-31

    Progressive damage and fracture of pressurized graphite/epoxy thin composite shells are evaluated via computational simulation. An integrated computer code that scales up constituent micromechanics level material properties to the structure level and accounts for all possible failure modes is used for the simulation of composite degradation under loading. Damage initiation, growth, accumulation, and propagation to fracture are included in the simulation. Design implications with regard to defect and damage tolerance of thin walled composite cylindrical shells are examined. A procedure is outlined regarding the use of this type of information for setting quality acceptance criteria, design allowables, damage tolerance, and retirement-for-cause criteria.

  6. Restoration of early rise in plasma insulin levels improves the glucose tolerance of type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Bruttomesso, D; Pianta, A; Mari, A; Valerio, A; Marescotti, M C; Avogaro, A; Tiengo, A; Del Prato, S

    1999-01-01

    production was suppressed in a prompter and more profound manner when lispro was administered (1.39 +/- 0.10 vs. 5.00 +/- 1.22 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1); P < 0.05), while there was no difference in the late prandial phase. These results show that an early rise in plasma insulin levels after the ingestion of a glucose load is associated with a significant improvement in glucose tolerance due to a prompter, though short-lived, suppression of endogenous glucose production. This amelioration in plasma glucose profile prevents late hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Therefore, restoration of a more physiologic profile of prandial plasma insulin profile represents a rational approach for treatment of type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:9892228

  7. Development of a Performance and Processing Property Acceptance Region for Cementitious Low-Level Waste Forms at Savannah River Site - 13174

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, Aaron V.; Reigel, Marissa M.

    2013-07-01

    The Saltstone Production and Disposal Facilities (SPF and SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been treating decontaminated salt solution, a low-level aqueous waste stream (LLW) since facility commissioning in 1990. In 2012, the Saltstone Facilities implemented a new Performance Assessment (PA) that incorporates an alternate design for the disposal facility to ensure that the performance objectives of DOE Order 435.1 and the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) of Fiscal Year 2005 Section 3116 are met. The PA performs long term modeling of the waste form, disposal facility, and disposal site hydrogeology to determine the transport history of radionuclides disposed in the LLW. Saltstone has been successfully used to dispose of LLW in a grout waste form for 15 years. Numerous waste form property assumptions directly impact the fate and transport modeling performed in the PA. The extent of process variability and consequence on performance properties are critical to meeting the assumptions of the PA. The SPF has ensured performance property acceptability by way of implementing control strategies that ensure the process operates within the analyzed limits of variability, but efforts continue to improve the understanding of facility performance in relation to the PA analysis. A similar understanding of the impact of variability on processing parameters is important from the standpoint of the operability of the production facility. The fresh grout slurry properties (particularly slurry rheology and the rate of hydration and structure formation) of the waste form directly impact the pressure and flow rates that can be reliably processed. It is thus equally important to quantify the impact of variability on processing parameters to ensure that the design basis assumptions for the production facility are maintained. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has been pursuing a process that will ultimately establish a property acceptance region (PAR) to incorporate

  8. Conserved synteny at the protein family level reveals genes underlying Shewanella species cold tolerance and predicts their novel phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Karpinets, Tatiana V.; Obraztsova, Anna; Wang, Yanbing; Schmoyer, Denise D.; Kora, Guruprasad; Park, Byung H.; Serres, Margrethe H.; Romine, Margaret F.; Land, Miriam L.; Kothe, Terence B.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Uberbacher, Edward

    2010-03-01

    Bacteria of the genus Shewanella can thrive in different environments and demonstrate significant variability in their metabolic and ecophysiological capabilities including cold and salt tolerance. Genomic characteristics underlying this variability across species are largely unknown. In this study we address the problem by a comparison of the physiological, metabolic and genomic characteristics of 19 sequenced Shewanella species. We have employed two novel approaches based on association of a phenotypic trait with the number of the trait-specific protein families (Pfam domains) and on the conservation of synteny (order in the genome) of the trait-related genes. Our first approach is top-down and involves experimental evaluation and quantification of the species’ cold tolerance followed by identification of the correlated Pfam domains and genes with a conserved synteny. The second, a bottom-up approach, predicts novel phenotypes of the species by calculating profiles of each Pfam domain among their genomes and following pair-wise correlation of the profiles and their network clustering. Using the first approach we find a link between cold and salt tolerance of the species and the presence in the genome of a Na+/H+ antiporter gene cluster. Other cold tolerance related genes includes peptidases, chemotaxis sensory transducer proteins, a cysteine exporter, and helicases. Using the bottom-up approach we found several novel phenotypes in the newly sequenced Shewanella species, including degradation of aromatic compounds by an aerobic hybrid pathway in S. woodyi, degradation of ethanolamine by S. benthica, and propanediol degradation by S. putrefaciens CN32 and S. sp. W3-18-1.

  9. System-level understanding of the potential acid-tolerance components of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ZJJN-3 under extreme acid stress.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shoushuai; Yang, Hailin; Wang, Wu

    2015-09-01

    In previous study, two extremely acidophilic strains Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ZJJN-3 (collection site: bioleaching leachate) and ZJJN-5 (collection site: bioleaching wastewater) were isolated from a typical industrial bio-heap in China. Here, we unraveled the potential acid-tolerance components of ZJJN-3 by comparing the physiological differences with ZJJN-5 under different acid stresses. The parameters used for comparison included intracellular pH (pHin), capsule morphology, fatty acid composition of cell membrane, transcription of key molecular chaperones, H(+)-ATPase activities and NAD(+)/NADH ratio. It was indicated that the acid-tolerance of A. thiooxidans ZJJN-3 was systematically regulated. Capsule first thickened and then shed off along with increased acid stress. Cell membrane maintained the intracellular stability by up-regulating the proportion of unsaturated fatty acid and cyclopropane fatty acids. Meanwhile, the transcription of key repair molecular chaperones (GrpE-DnaK-DnaJ) was up-regulated by 2.2-3.5 folds for ensuring the proper folding of peptide. Moreover, low pHin promoted ZJJN-3 to biosynthesize more H(+)-ATPase for pumping H(+) out of cells. Furthermore, the NAD(+)/NADH ratio increased due to the decreased H(+) concentration. Based on the above physiological analysis, the potential acid-tolerance components of A. thiooxidans ZJJN-3 were first proposed and it would be useful for better understanding how these extremophiles responded to the high acid stress. PMID:26264736

  10. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  11. Normothermic central hypovolemia tolerance reflects hyperthermic tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Schlader, Zachary J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To test the hypothesis that those who are highly tolerant to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) while normothermic are also highly tolerant to this challenge while hyperthermic. Methods Sixty pairs of normothermic and hyperthermic LBNP tests to pre-syncope were evaluated. LBNP tolerance was quantified via the cumulative stress index (CSI), which is calculated as the sum of the product of the LBNP level and the duration of each level until test termination (i.e., 20 mmHg × 3 min + 30 mmHg × 3 min, etc.). CSI was compared between normothermic and hyperthermic trials. Internal and skin temperatures, heart rate, and arterial pressure were measured throughout. Results Hyperthermia reduced (P<0.001) CSI from 997 ± 437 to 303 ± 213 mmHg min. There was a positive correlation between normothermic and hyperthermic LBNP tolerance (R2 = 0.38; P<0.001). As a secondary analysis, the 20 trials with the highest LBNP tolerance while normothermic were identified (indicated as the HIGH group; CSI 1,467 ± 356 mmHg min), as were the 20 trials with the lowest normothermic tolerance (indicated as the LOW group; CSI 565 ± 166 mmHg min; P<0.001 between groups). While hyperthermia unanimously reduced CSI in both HIGH and LOW groups, in this hyperthermic condition CSI was ~threefold higher in the HIGH group (474 ± 226 mmHg min) relative to the LOW group (160 ± 115 mmHg min; P<0.001). Conclusions LBNP tolerance while hyperthermic is related to normothermic tolerance and, associated with this finding, those who have a high LBNP tolerance while normothermic remain relatively tolerant when hyperthermic. PMID:24700256

  12. Software Fault Tolerance: A Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2000-01-01

    Because of our present inability to produce error-free software, software fault tolerance is and will continue to be an important consideration in software systems. The root cause of software design errors is the complexity of the systems. Compounding the problems in building correct software is the difficulty in assessing the correctness of software for highly complex systems. After a brief overview of the software development processes, we note how hard-to-detect design faults are likely to be introduced during development and how software faults tend to be state-dependent and activated by particular input sequences. Although component reliability is an important quality measure for system level analysis, software reliability is hard to characterize and the use of post-verification reliability estimates remains a controversial issue. For some applications software safety is more important than reliability, and fault tolerance techniques used in those applications are aimed at preventing catastrophes. Single version software fault tolerance techniques discussed include system structuring and closure, atomic actions, inline fault detection, exception handling, and others. Multiversion techniques are based on the assumption that software built differently should fail differently and thus, if one of the redundant versions fails, it is expected that at least one of the other versions will provide an acceptable output. Recovery blocks, N-version programming, and other multiversion techniques are reviewed.

  13. Prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) null mice have increased mu opioid receptor levels accompanied by altered morphine-induced antinociception, tolerance and dependence.

    PubMed

    Lutfy, K; Parikh, D; Lee, D L; Liu, Y; Ferrini, M G; Hamid, A; Friedman, T C

    2016-08-01

    Chronic morphine treatment increases the levels of prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) in brain regions involved in nociception, tolerance and dependence. Thus, we tested if PC2 null mice exhibit altered morphine-induced antinociception, tolerance and dependence. PC2 null mice and their wild-type controls were tested for baseline hot plate latency, injected with morphine (1.25-10mg/kg) and tested for antinociception 30min later. For tolerance studies, mice were tested in the hot plate test before and 30min following morphine (5mg/kg) on day 1. Mice then received an additional dose so that the final dose of morphine was 10mg/kg on this day. On days 2-4, mice received additional doses of morphine (20, 40 and 80mg/kg on days 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively). On day 5, mice were tested in the hot plate test before and 30min following morphine (5mg/kg). For withdrawal studies, mice were treated with the escalating doses of morphine (10, 20, 40 and 80mg/kg) for 4days, implanted with a morphine pellet on day 5 and 3 days later injected with naloxone (1mg/kg) and signs of withdrawal were recorded. Morphine dose-dependently induced antinociception and the magnitude of this response was greater in PC2 null mice. Tolerance to morphine was observed in wild-type mice and this phenomenon was blunted in PC2 null mice. Withdrawal signs were also reduced in PC2 null mice. Immunohistochemical studies showed up-regulation of the mu opioid receptor (MOP) protein expression in the periaqueductal gray area, ventral tegmental area, lateral hypothalamus, medial hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and somatosensory cortex in PC2 null mice. Likewise, naloxone specific binding was increased in the brains of these mice compared to their wild-type controls. The results suggest that the PC2-derived peptides may play a functional role in morphine-induced antinociception, tolerance and dependence. Alternatively, lack of opioid peptides led to up-regulation of the MOP and altered morphine

  14. Posiphen as a candidate drug to lower CSF amyloid precursor protein, amyloid-β peptide and τ levels: target engagement, tolerability and pharmacokinetics in humans

    PubMed Central

    Maccecchini, Maria L; Chang, Mee Young; Pan, Catherine; John, Varghese; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Aim A first in human study to evaluate tolerability and pharmacokinetics followed by an early proof of mechanism (POM) study to determine whether the small orally, available molecule, Posiphen tartrate (Posiphen), lowers secreted (s) amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) α and -β, amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), tau (τ) and inflammatory markers in CSF of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Study design Posiphen single and multiple ascending dose phase 1 randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled safety, tolerance, pharmacokinetic studies were undertaken in a total of 120 healthy volunteers to define a dose that was then used in a small non-randomised study of five MCI subjects, used as their own controls, to define target engagement. Main outcome measures Pharmacodynamic: sAPPα, sAPPβ, Aβ42, τ (total (t) and phosphorylated (p)) and inflammatory marker levels were time-dependently measured over 12 h and compared prior to and following 10 days of oral Posiphen treatment in four MCI subjects who completed the study. Pharmacokinetic: plasma and CSF drug and primary metabolite concentrations with estimated brain levels extrapolated from steady-state drug administration in rats. Results Posiphen proved well tolerated and significantly lowered CSF levels of sAPPα, sAPPβ, t-τ, p-τ and specific inflammatory markers, and demonstrated a trend to lower CSF Aβ42. Conclusions These results confirm preclinical POM studies, demonstrate that pharmacologically relevant drug/metabolite levels reach brain and support the continued clinical optimisation and evaluation of Posiphen for MCI and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22791904

  15. Quantification of uncertainty in machining operations for on-machine acceptance.

    SciTech Connect

    Claudet, Andre A.; Tran, Hy D.; Su, Jiann-Chemg

    2008-09-01

    Manufactured parts are designed with acceptance tolerances, i.e. deviations from ideal design conditions, due to unavoidable errors in the manufacturing process. It is necessary to measure and evaluate the manufactured part, compared to the nominal design, to determine whether the part meets design specifications. The scope of this research project is dimensional acceptance of machined parts; specifically, parts machined using numerically controlled (NC, or also CNC for Computer Numerically Controlled) machines. In the design/build/accept cycle, the designer will specify both a nominal value, and an acceptable tolerance. As part of the typical design/build/accept business practice, it is required to verify that the part did meet acceptable values prior to acceptance. Manufacturing cost must include not only raw materials and added labor, but also the cost of ensuring conformance to specifications. Ensuring conformance is a substantial portion of the cost of manufacturing. In this project, the costs of measurements were approximately 50% of the cost of the machined part. In production, cost of measurement would be smaller, but still a substantial proportion of manufacturing cost. The results of this research project will point to a science-based approach to reducing the cost of ensuring conformance to specifications. The approach that we take is to determine, a priori, how well a CNC machine can manufacture a particular geometry from stock. Based on the knowledge of the manufacturing process, we are then able to decide features which need further measurements from features which can be accepted 'as is' from the CNC. By calibration of the machine tool, and establishing a machining accuracy ratio, we can validate the ability of CNC to fabricate to a particular level of tolerance. This will eliminate the costs of checking for conformance for relatively large tolerances.

  16. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M

    1994-01-01

    In Bangladesh, the assistant administrator of USAID gave an acceptance speech at an awards ceremony on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of oral rehydration solution (ORS). The ceremony celebrated the key role of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) in the discovery of ORS. Its research activities over the last 25 years have brought ORS to every village in the world, preventing more than a million deaths each year. ORS is the most important medical advance of the 20th century. It is affordable and client-oriented, a true appropriate technology. USAID has provided more than US$ 40 million to ICDDR,B for diarrheal disease and measles research, urban and rural applied family planning and maternal and child health research, and vaccine development. ICDDR,B began as the relatively small Cholera Research Laboratory and has grown into an acclaimed international center for health, family planning, and population research. It leads the world in diarrheal disease research. ICDDR,B is the leading center for applied health research in South Asia. It trains public health specialists from around the world. The government of Bangladesh and the international donor community have actively joined in support of ICDDR,B. The government applies the results of ICDDR,B research to its programs to improve the health and well-being of Bangladeshis. ICDDR,B now also studies acute respiratory diseases and measles. Population and health comprise 1 of USAID's 4 strategic priorities, the others being economic growth, environment, and democracy, USAID promotes people's participation in these 4 areas and in the design and implementation of development projects. USAID is committed to the use and improvement of ORS and to complementary strategies that further reduce diarrhea-related deaths. Continued collaboration with a strong user perspective and integrated services will lead to sustainable development. PMID:12345470

  17. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, C K

    1994-01-01

    I am proud and honored to accept this award on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh, and the millions of Bangladeshi children saved by oral rehydration solution. The Government of Bangladesh is grateful for this recognition of its commitment to international health and population research and cost-effective health care for all. The Government of Bangladesh has already made remarkable strides forward in the health and population sector, and this was recognized in UNICEF's 1993 "State of the World's Children". The national contraceptive prevalence rate, at 40%, is higher than that of many developed countries. It is appropriate that Bangladesh, where ORS was discovered, has the largest ORS production capacity in the world. It was remarkable that after the devastating cyclone in 1991, the country was able to produce enough ORS to meet the needs and remain self-sufficient. Similarly, Bangladesh has one of the most effective, flexible and efficient control of diarrheal disease and epidemic response program in the world. Through the country, doctors have been trained in diarrheal disease management, and stores of ORS are maintained ready for any outbreak. Despite grim predictions after the 1991 cyclone and the 1993 floods, relatively few people died from diarrheal disease. This is indicative of the strength of the national program. I want to take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of ICDDR, B and the important role it plays in supporting the Government's efforts in the health and population sector. The partnership between the Government of Bangladesh and ICDDR, B has already borne great fruit, and I hope and believe that it will continue to do so for many years in the future. Thank you. PMID:12345479

  18. SU-E-T-586: Optimal Determination of Tolerance Level for Radiation Dose Delivery Verification in An in Vivo Dosimetry System

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y; Souri, S; Gill, G; Rea, A; Kuruvilla, A; Riegel, A; Cao, Y; Jamshidi, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To statistically determine the optimal tolerance level in the verification of delivery dose compared to the planned dose in an in vivo dosimetry system in radiotherapy. Methods: The LANDAUER MicroSTARii dosimetry system with screened nanoDots (optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters) was used for in vivo dose measurements. Ideally, the measured dose should match with the planned dose and falls within a normal distribution. Any deviation from the normal distribution may be redeemed as a mismatch, therefore a potential sign of the dose misadministration. Randomly mis-positioned nanoDots can yield a continuum background distribution. A percentage difference of the measured dose to its corresponding planned dose (ΔD) can be used to analyze combined data sets for different patients. A model of a Gaussian plus a flat function was used to fit the ΔD distribution. Results: Total 434 nanoDot measurements for breast cancer patients were collected across a period of three months. The fit yields a Gaussian mean of 2.9% and a standard deviation (SD) of 5.3%. The observed shift of the mean from zero is attributed to the machine output bias and calibration of the dosimetry system. A pass interval of −2SD to +2SD was applied and a mismatch background was estimated to be 4.8%. With such a tolerance level, one can expect that 99.99% of patients should pass the verification and at most 0.011% might have a potential dose misadministration that may not be detected after 3 times of repeated measurements. After implementation, a number of new start breast cancer patients were monitored and the measured pass rate is consistent with the model prediction. Conclusion: It is feasible to implement an optimal tolerance level in order to maintain a low limit of potential dose misadministration while still to keep a relatively high pass rate in radiotherapy delivery verification.

  19. MEASUREMENT AND CALCULATION OF RADIONUCLIDE ACTIVITIES IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE FOR ACCEPTANCE OF DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY GLASS IN A FEDERAL REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C; David Diprete, D; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-12-31

    This paper describes the results of the analyses of High Level Waste (HLW) sludge slurry samples and of the calculations necessary to decay the radionuclides to meet the reporting requirement in the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) [1]. The concentrations of 45 radionuclides were measured. The results of these analyses provide input for radioactive decay calculations used to project the radionuclide inventory at the specified index years, 2015 and 3115. This information is necessary to complete the Production Records at Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so that the final glass product resulting from Macrobatch 5 (MB5) can eventually be submitted to a Federal Repository. Five of the necessary input radionuclides for the decay calculations could not be measured directly due to their low concentrations and/or analytical interferences. These isotopes are Nb-93m, Pd-107, Cd-113m, Cs-135, and Cm-248. Methods for calculating these species from concentrations of appropriate other radionuclides will be discussed. Also the average age of the MB5 HLW had to be calculated from decay of Sr-90 in order to predict the initial concentration of Nb-93m. As a result of the measurements and calculations, thirty-one WAPS reportable radioactive isotopes were identified for MB5. The total activity of MB5 sludge solids will decrease from 1.6E+04 {micro}Ci (1 {micro}Ci = 3.7E+04 Bq) per gram of total solids in 2008 to 2.3E+01 {micro}Ci per gram of total solids in 3115, a decrease of approximately 700 fold. Finally, evidence will be given for the low observed concentrations of the radionuclides Tc-99, I-129, and Sm-151 in the HLW sludges. These radionuclides were reduced in the MB5 sludge slurry to a fraction of their expected production levels due to SRS processing conditions.

  20. A chloride tolerant laccase from the plant pathogen ascomycete Botrytis aclada expressed at high levels in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Kittl, Roman; Mueangtoom, Kitti; Gonaus, Christoph; Khazaneh, Shima Tahvilda; Sygmund, Christoph; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland

    2012-01-20

    Fungal laccases from basidiomycetous fungi are thoroughly investigated in respect of catalytic mechanism and industrial applications, but the number of reported and well characterized ascomycetous laccases is much smaller although they exhibit interesting catalytic properties. We report on a highly chloride tolerant laccase produced by the plant pathogen ascomycete Botrytis aclada, which was recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris with an extremely high yield and purified to homogeneity. In a fed-batch fermentation, 495 mg L(-1) of laccase was measured in the medium, which is the highest concentration obtained for a laccase by a yeast expression system. The recombinant B. aclada laccase has a typical molecular mass of 61,565 Da for the amino acid chain. The pI is approximately 2.4, a very low value for a laccase. Glycosyl residues attached to the recombinant protein make up for approximately 27% of the total protein mass. B. aclada laccase exhibits very low K(M) values and high substrate turnover numbers for phenolic and non-phenolic substrates at acidic and near neutral pH. The enzyme's stability increases in the presence of chloride ions and, even more important, its substrate turnover is only weakly inhibited by chloride ions (I(50)=1.4M), which is in sharp contrast to most other described laccases. This high chloride tolerance is mandatory for some applications such as implantable biofuel cells and laccase catalyzed reactions, which suffer from the presence of chloride ions. The high expression yield permits fast and easy production for further basic and applied research. PMID:22178779

  1. Lymphatic endothelial cells induce tolerance via PD-L1 and lack of costimulation leading to high-level PD-1 expression on CD8 T cells

    PubMed Central

    Tewalt, Eric F.; Cohen, Jarish N.; Rouhani, Sherin J.; Guidi, Cynthia J.; Qiao, Hui; Fahl, Shawn P.; Conaway, Mark R.; Bender, Timothy P.; Tung, Kenneth S.; Vella, Anthony T.; Adler, Adam J.; Chen, Lieping

    2012-01-01

    Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) induce peripheral tolerance by direct presentation to CD8 T cells (TCD8). We demonstrate that LECs mediate deletion only via programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) ligand 1, despite expressing ligands for the CD160, B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator, and lymphocyte activation gene-3 inhibitory pathways. LECs induce activation and proliferation of TCD8, but lack of costimulation through 4-1BB leads to rapid high-level expression of PD-1, which in turn inhibits up-regulation of the high-affinity IL-2 receptor that is necessary for TCD8 survival. Rescue of tyrosinase-specific TCD8 by interference with PD-1 or provision of costimulation results in autoimmune vitiligo, demonstrating that LECs are significant, albeit suboptimal, antigen-presenting cells. Because LECs express numerous peripheral tissue antigens, lack of costimulation coupled to rapid high-level up-regulation of inhibitory receptors may be generally important in systemic peripheral tolerance. PMID:22993390

  2. Maize ABP9 enhances tolerance to multiple stresses in transgenic Arabidopsis by modulating ABA signaling and cellular levels of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Wang, Lei; Meng, Hui; Wen, Hongtao; Fan, Yunliu; Zhao, Jun

    2011-03-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play critical roles in mediating abiotic stress responses in plants. It is well known that ABA is involved in the modulation of ROS levels by regulating ROS-producing and ROS-scavenging genes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation are poorly understood. Here we show that the expression of maize ABP9 gene, which encodes a bZIP transcription factor capable of binding to the ABRE2 motif in the maize Cat1 promoter, is induced by ABA, H(2)O(2), drought and salt. Constitutive expression of ABP9 in transgenic Arabidopsis leads to remarkably enhanced tolerance to multiple stresses including drought, high salt, freezing temperature and oxidative stresses. ABP9 expressing Arabidopsis plants also exhibit increased sensitivity to exogenously applied ABA during seed germination, root growth and stomatal closure and improved water-conserving capacity. Moreover, constitutive expression of ABP9 causes reduced cellular levels of ROS, alleviated oxidative damage and reduced cell death, accompanied by elevated expression of many stress/ABA responsive genes including those for scavenging and regulating ROS. Taken together, these results suggest that ABP9 may play a pivotal role in plant tolerance to abiotic stresses by fine tuning ABA signaling and control of ROS accumulation. PMID:21327835

  3. The role of experiential avoidance in acute pain tolerance: a laboratory test.

    PubMed

    Feldner, Matthew T; Hekmat, Hamid; Zvolensky, Michael J; Vowles, Kevin E; Secrist, Zachary; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2006-06-01

    The present investigation examined the role of experiential avoidance in terms of acute pain tolerance and subsequent recovery. Seventy nonclinical participants completed the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire and underwent a well-established cold pressor task. Results indicated that individuals reporting higher levels of experiential avoidance had lower pain endurance and tolerance and recovered more slowly from this particular type of aversive event. Consistent with theoretical prediction, these findings suggest that experiential avoidance may play a role in tolerance of acute pain. PMID:15882839

  4. The relationship between glycated hemoglobin and blood glucose levels of 75 and 100 gram oral glucose tolerance test during gestational diabetes diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mert, Meral; Purcu, Serhat; Soyluk, Ozlem; Okuturlar, Yildiz; Karakaya, Pinar; Tamer, Gonca; Adas, Mine; Ekin, Murat; Hatipoglu, Sami; Ure, Oznur Sari; Harmankaya, Ozlem; Kumbasar, Abdulbaki

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an important issue in terms of prevention of maternal and fetal complications. In our study we aimed to evaluate the relation of HbA1c and blood glucose levels of 75 and 50-100 gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in pregnant patients who were screened for GDM. Materials and methods: The parameters of 913 pregnant women screened for GDM are evaluated retrospectively. The two steps screening with 50-100 gram OGTT were used in 576 patients. The remaining 337 patients were screened with 75 gram OGTT. Results: The HbA1c levels of patients having high blood glucose (≥153 mg/dl) levels at 2nd hour in 75 gram OGTT were significantly higher than patients having normal blood glucose levels at 2nd hour of 75 gram OGTT (P=0.038). Correlation analyses showed no significant relation between any blood glucose level of 100 gram OGTT and HbA1c level. Whereas in 75 gram OGTT 1st and 2nd hour blood glucose levels were found to have a significant relation with A1c levels (P=0.001, P=0.001 respectively). Conclusion: HbA1c may be used as an important tool in the diagnosis of GDM. But due to the variation of HbA1c in pregnant women and there is not an absolute cut-off level for A1c, it may be more reliable to evaluate HbA1c level together with the blood glucose levels in OGTT. PMID:26550262

  5. [Analysis of HSP70 mRNA level and association between linked microsatellite loci and heat tolerance traits in dairy cows].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Xin; Li, Da-Qi; Cui, Qun-Wei; Shi, Hong-Xia; Wang, Gen-Lin

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the variation of HSP70 mRNA level in dairy cows and relationships of its closely linked microsatellite loci with heat tolerance traits. Blood samples were collected from ten healthy Holstein cows with the same age and milking stage at different temperatures-humid-index (THI) (86.2, high temperature; 70.9, critical high temperature, and 56.8, optimum temperature). The mRNA levels of HSP70 of lymphocytes in peripheral blood were analyzed using real-time RT-PCR. The mRNA level of HSP70 was increased with the THI; the mRNA level of HSP70 at high temperature was higher than others (P<0.01). This indicated that the bovine HSP70 gene may act as a potential can-didate gene for response to heat shock. Genetic variation of three microsatellite loci BMS468, BM1258, and BM1815, which were closely linked to HSP70 gene on chromosome 23, was analyzed in 160 Holstein cows with non-denaturing poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The association between these microsatellite loci and heat tolerance traits were analyzed by least square linear model. The results showed that 134 bp/128 bp at BMS468 and 186 bp/148 bp at BM1815 were the most favorable genotypes for HTC, red cell potassium, and decrement rate of milk yield in high temperature (P<0.05); 101 bp/99 bp at BM1258 was the most favorable genotype for decrement rate of milk yield in high temperature (P<0.05). PMID:20870615

  6. Tolerable Levels of Nonclinical Vehicles and Formulations Used in Studies by Multiple Routes in Multiple Species With Notes on Methods to Improve Utility.

    PubMed

    Gad, Shayne Cox; Spainhour, Charles B; Shoemake, Catherine; Pallman, Danielle R Stackhouse; Stricker-Krongrad, Alain; Downing, Philip A; Seals, Richard E; Eagle, Leslie Anne; Polhamus, Kara; Daly, Jennifer

    2016-03-01

    Formulation of nonclinical evaluations is a challenge, with the fundamental need to achieve multiples of the clinical exposure complicated by differences in species and routes of administration-specific tolerances, depending on concentrations, volumes, dosing regimen, duration of each administration, and study duration. Current practice to approach these differences is based on individual experience and scattered literature with no comprehensive data source (the most notable exception being our 2006 publication on this same subject). Lack of formulation tolerance data results in excessive animal use, unplanned delays in the evaluation and development of drugs, and vehicle-dependent results. A consulting firm, a chemical company, and 4 contract research organizations conducted a rigorous data mining operation of vehicle data from studies dating from 1991 to 2015, enhancing the data from this author's 2006 publication (3 of the six 2015 contributors were also 2006 contributors). Additional data were found in the published literature. The results identified 108 single-component vehicles (and 305 combination formulations) used in more than 1,040 studies across multiple species (dog, primate, rat, mouse, rabbit, guinea pig, minipig, pig, chick embryo, and cat) by multiple routes for a wide range of study durations. The tabulated data include maximum tolerated use levels by species, route, duration of study, dose-limiting toxicity where reported, review of the available literature on each vehicle, guidance on syringe selection, volume and pH limits by route with basic guidance on nonclinical formulation development, and guidance on factors to be considered in nonclinical route selection. PMID:26755718

  7. Regulation of auxin, abscisic acid and salicylic acid levels by ascorbate application under heat stress in sensitive and tolerant maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Dinler, Burcu Seckin; Demir, Emel; Kompe, Yasemin Ozdener

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of ascorbic acid (5 mM) on some physiological parameters and three hormones (auxin, abscisic acid, salicylic acid) was determined under heat stress (40 °C) in maize tolerant cv. (MAY 69) and sensitive cv. SHEMAL (SH) at 0 h, 4 h and 8 h. Heat stress reduced total chlorophyll content (CHL), relative water content (RWC) and stomatal conductance (gs) in SH but did not lead to changes in MAY 69 at 4 h and 8 h. However, pretreatment with ascorbic acid increased (CHL), (RWC) and (gs) in SH under heat stress while it reduced MDA content significantly in both cv. We also observed that heat stress led to a reduction in SA level but increased ABA and IAA levels in SH, whereas it increased SA and IAA levels but did not change ABA level in MAY 69 at 4 h. Furthermore, in SH, ASC application under heat stress increased SA level and decreased IAA and ABA levels at 4 h, but it had no effect on SA and ABA at 8 h. PMID:25475985

  8. Is salt stress tolerance in Casuarina glauca Sieb. ex Spreng. associated with its nitrogen-fixing root-nodule symbiosis? An analysis at the photosynthetic level.

    PubMed

    Batista-Santos, Paula; Duro, Nuno; Rodrigues, Ana P; Semedo, José N; Alves, Paula; da Costa, Mário; Graça, Inês; Pais, Isabel P; Scotti-Campos, Paula; Lidon, Fernando C; Leitão, António E; Pawlowski, Katharina; Ribeiro-Barros, Ana I; Ramalho, José C

    2015-11-01

    Casuarina glauca is an actinorhizal tree which establishes root-nodule symbiosis with N2-fixing Frankia bacteria. This plant is commonly found in saline zones and is widely used to remediate marginal soils and prevent desertification. The nature of its ability to survive in extreme environments and the extent of Frankia contribution to stress tolerance remain unknown. Thus, we evaluated the ability of C. glauca to cope with salt stress and the influence of the symbiosis on this trait. To this end, we analysed the impact of salt on plant growth, mineral contents, water relations, photosynthetic-related parameters and non-structural sugars in nodulated vs. non-nodulated plants. Although the effects on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance started to become measurable in the presence of 200 mM NaCl, photochemical (e.g., photosynthetic electron flow) and biochemical (e.g., activity of photosynthetic enzymes) parameters were only strongly impaired when NaCl levels reached 600 mM. These results indicate the maintenance of high tissue hydration under salt stress, probably associated with enhanced osmotic potential. Furthermore, the maintenance of photosynthetic assimilation potential (A(max)), together with the increase in the quantum yield of down-regulated energy dissipation of PSII (Y(NPQ)), suggested a down-regulation of photosynthesis instead of photo-damaging effects. A comparison of the impact of increasing NaCl levels on the activities of photosynthetic (RubisCO and ribulose-5 phosphate kinase) and respiratory (pyruvate kinase and NADH-dependent malate dehydrogenase) enzymes vs. photosynthetic electron flow and fluorescence parameters, revealed that biochemical impairments are more limiting than photochemical damage. Altogether, these results indicate that, under controlled conditions, C. glauca tolerates high NaCl levels and that this capacity is linked to photosynthetic adjustments. PMID:26245981

  9. Evolution de la notion d'acceptabilite a travers les niveaux de langue chez des enfants de 6 a 11 ans (Evolution of the Notion of Acceptability across Language Levels among Children Aged Six to Eleven).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanneret, Rene; de Pietro, Jean-Francois

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the child's capacity to judge the acceptability of French interrogative utterances on three levels--familiar, standard, and educated. A second objective was to consider the resulting observations in the light of certain sociocultural parameters. The test, one that had been used for adults in French second…

  10. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: AMSU-A2 METSAT Instrument (S/N 108) Acceptance Level Vibration Tests of Dec 1999/Jan 2000 (S/O 784077, OC-454)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffner, R.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, AMSU-A2 METSAT Instrument (S/N 108) Acceptance Level Vibration Test of Dec 1999/Jan 2000 (S/O 784077, OC-454), for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  11. Freeform solar concentrator with a highly asymmetric acceptance cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheelwright, Brian; Angel, J. Roger P.; Coughenour, Blake; Hammer, Kimberly

    2014-10-01

    A solar concentrator with a highly asymmetric acceptance cone is investigated. Concentrating photovoltaic systems require dual-axis sun tracking to maintain nominal concentration throughout the day. In addition to collecting direct rays from the solar disk, which subtends ~0.53 degrees, concentrating optics must allow for in-field tracking errors due to mechanical misalignment of the module, wind loading, and control loop biases. The angular range over which the concentrator maintains <90% of on-axis throughput is defined as the optical acceptance angle. Concentrators with substantial rotational symmetry likewise exhibit rotationally symmetric acceptance angles. In the field, this is sometimes a poor match with azimuth-elevation trackers, which have inherently asymmetric tracking performance. Pedestal-mounted trackers with low torsional stiffness about the vertical axis have better elevation tracking than azimuthal tracking. Conversely, trackers which rotate on large-footprint circular tracks are often limited by elevation tracking performance. We show that a line-focus concentrator, composed of a parabolic trough primary reflector and freeform refractive secondary, can be tailored to have a highly asymmetric acceptance angle. The design is suitable for a tracker with excellent tracking accuracy in the elevation direction, and poor accuracy in the azimuthal direction. In the 1000X design given, when trough optical errors (2mrad rms slope deviation) are accounted for, the azimuthal acceptance angle is +/- 1.65°, while the elevation acceptance angle is only +/-0.29°. This acceptance angle does not include the angular width of the sun, which consumes nearly all of the elevation tolerance at this concentration level. By decreasing the average concentration, the elevation acceptance angle can be increased. This is well-suited for a pedestal alt-azimuth tracker with a low cost slew bearing (without anti-backlash features).

  12. Exploiting Tolerance Processes in Transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, Herman; Cobbold, Stephen

    2004-07-01

    The full potential of organ transplantation has not yet been realized because of the hazards associated with the long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs. Modern research into mechanisms of immune tolerance offers the promise of reprogramming the immune system, so as to harness the body's natural tolerance mechanisms in the service of graft acceptance. This would allow the minimization of immunosuppressive treatment and offers the prospect of eventually weaning transplant recipients off their drugs.

  13. Effect of feeding crude red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and grain amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus) to hens on total lipids, cholesterol, PUFA levels and acceptability of eggs.

    PubMed

    Punita, A; Chaturvedi, A

    2000-01-01

    Eggs, though a very nutritious food, also have high amounts of cholesterol and hence are not recommended to be consumed regularly by persons having hypercholesterolemia and associated cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this context, an attempt was made in this study to reduce the cholesterol content of eggs by diet manipulation, using two naturally available and already proved hypocholesteromic agents [red palm oil (RPO) and grain amaranth]. Thirteen experimental rations using raw and popped grain Amaranth and RPO were fed to 24 weeks old hens for a period of 6 weeks, singularly and in combinations. Total lipids, cholesterol and PUFA contents were analyzed in the experimental and control eggs. The results showed that RPO and RPO + popped amaranth feeding resulted in a maximum reduction in total lipids and cholesterol contents. Significant increase was observed in linoleic acid content in RPO + popped amaranth; raw amaranth and RPO fed groups. Acceptability studies showed that the products made from lower cholesterol eggs were well accepted. PMID:10898484

  14. Mosapride, a selective serotonin 5-HT4 receptor agonist, and alogliptin, a selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, exert synergic effects on plasma active GLP-1 levels and glucose tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Kaji, Takao

    2015-12-01

    Pharmacologic stimulation of serotonin 5-HT4 receptors increased plasma active glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels independent of feeding, and that pharmacologic stimulation of 5-HT4 receptors and pharmacologic inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 exerted synergic effects on plasma active GLP-1 levels and glucose tolerance in mice. PMID:26497774

  15. Putrescine Is Involved in Arabidopsis Freezing Tolerance and Cold Acclimation by Regulating Abscisic Acid Levels in Response to Low Temperature1

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Juan C.; López-Cobollo, Rosa; Alcázar, Rubén; Zarza, Xavier; Koncz, Csaba; Altabella, Teresa; Salinas, Julio; Tiburcio, Antonio F.; Ferrando, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    The levels of endogenous polyamines have been shown to increase in plant cells challenged with low temperature; however, the functions of polyamines in the regulation of cold stress responses are unknown. Here, we show that the accumulation of putrescine under cold stress is essential for proper cold acclimation and survival at freezing temperatures because Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants defective in putrescine biosynthesis (adc1, adc2) display reduced freezing tolerance compared to wild-type plants. Genes ADC1 and ADC2 show different transcriptional profiles upon cold treatment; however, they show similar and redundant contributions to cold responses in terms of putrescine accumulation kinetics and freezing sensitivity. Our data also demonstrate that detrimental consequences of putrescine depletion during cold stress are due, at least in part, to alterations in the levels of abscisic acid (ABA). Reduced expression of NCED3, a key gene involved in ABA biosynthesis, and down-regulation of ABA-regulated genes are detected in both adc1 and adc2 mutant plants under cold stress. Complementation analysis of adc mutants with ABA and reciprocal complementation tests of the aba2-3 mutant with putrescine support the conclusion that putrescine controls the levels of ABA in response to low temperature by modulating ABA biosynthesis and gene expression. PMID:18701673

  16. Assessing the tolerance of the terrestrial moss Pseudoscleropodium purum to high levels of atmospheric heavy metals: a reciprocal transplant study.

    PubMed

    Boquete, M Teresa; Fernández, J Ángel; Carballeira, Alejo; Aboal, Jesús R

    2013-09-01

    We measured the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in samples of the terrestrial moss Pseudoscleropodium purum reciprocally transplanted between an unpolluted and two polluted sampling sites. At the beginning of the experiment, the concentrations of all these elements differed significantly between mosses from the unpolluted site and mosses from the polluted sites. In general, the concentrations of the heavy metals in mosses from both polluted sites transplanted to the unpolluted site decreased until they reached the same levels as in autotransplants at this site (after 480-840 days). However, the concentrations of all heavy metals in mosses transplanted from the unpolluted site to both polluted sites increased to higher levels than in the autotransplants (except for Cu, Hg and Pb at one of the sampling sites). These results led us to conclude that mosses that have been continuously exposed to high atmospheric deposition of heavy metals undergo an adaptive response (probably genotypic) to such conditions. We therefore recommend active rather than passive biomonitoring of air quality in industrial environments because atmospheric deposition could be underestimated, and also recommend further investigation into the mechanisms involved in this response. PMID:23756214

  17. Systematic analysis of CRISPR-Cas9 mismatch tolerance reveals low levels of off-target activity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Emily M; Haupt, Amanda; Schiel, John A; Chou, Eldon; Machado, Hidevaldo B; Strezoska, Žaklina; Lenger, Steve; McClelland, Shawn; Birmingham, Amanda; Vermeulen, Annaleen; Smith, Anja van Brabant

    2015-10-10

    The discovery that the bacterial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) acquired immune system can be utilized to create double-strand breaks (DSBs) in eukaryotic genomes has resulted in the ability to create genomic changes more easily than with other genome engineering techniques. While there is significant potential for the CRISPR-Cas9 system to advance basic and applied research, several unknowns remain, including the specificity of the RNA-directed DNA cleavage by the small targeting RNA, the CRISPR RNA (crRNA). Here we describe a novel synthetic RNA approach that allows for high-throughput gene editing experiments. This was used with a functional assay for protein disruption to perform high-throughput analysis of crRNA activity and specificity. We performed a comprehensive test of target cleavage using crRNAs that contain one and two nucleotide mismatches to the DNA target in the 20mer targeting region of the crRNA, allowing for the evaluation of hundreds of potential mismatched target sites without the requirement for the off-target sequences and their adjacent PAMs to be present in the genome. Our results demonstrate that while many crRNAs are functional, less than 5% of crRNAs with two mismatches to their target are effective in gene editing; this suggests an overall high level of functionality but low level of off-targeting. PMID:26189696

  18. NMR-metabolomics profiling of mammary gland secretory tissue and milk serum in two goat breeds with different levels of tolerance to seasonal weight loss.

    PubMed

    Palma, Mariana; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Castro, Noemí; Arguëllo, Anastasio; Capote, Juan; Matzapetakis, Manolis; de Almeida, André Martinho

    2016-06-21

    Goats are of special importance in the Mediterranean and tropical regions for producing a variety of dairy products. The scarcity of pastures during the dry season leads to seasonal weight loss (SWL), which affects milk production. In this work, we studied the effect of feed-restriction on two dairy goat breeds, with different tolerance levels to SWL: the Majorera breed (tolerant) and the Palmera breed (susceptible). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to compare the metabolome of an aqueous fraction of the mammary gland and milk serum from both breeds. Goats in mid-lactation were divided by breed, and each in two feed-regime groups: the control group and the restricted-fed group (to achieve 15-20% reduction of body weight at the end of the experiment). Milk and mammary gland samples were collected at the end of the experimental period (23rd day). (1)H NMR spectra were collected from the aqueous extract of the mammary gland biopsies and the milk serum. Profiling analysis has led to the identification of 46 metabolites in the aqueous extract of the mammary gland. Lactose, glutamate, glycine and lactate were found to be the most abundant. Analysis of milk serum allowed the identification of 50 metabolites, the most abundant being lactose, citrate and creatine. Significant differences were observed, in mammary gland biopsies and milk serum, between control and restricted-fed groups in both breeds, albeit with no differences between the breeds. Variations seem to be related to metabolism adaptation to the low-energy diet and are indicative of breed-specific microflora. Milk serum showed more metabolites varying between control and restricted groups, than the mammary gland. The Majorera breed also showed more variations than the Palmera breed in milk samples, which could be an indication of a prompt adaptation to SWL by the Majorera breed. PMID:27001028

  19. Glucose Tolerance and Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langseth, Lillian; Dowd, Judith

    Examined were medical records of 265 hyperkinetic children (7-9 years old). Clinical blood chemistries, hematology, and 5-hour glucose tolerance test (GTT) results indicated that hematocrit levels were low in 27% of the Ss, eosinophil levels were abnormally high in 86% of the Ss, and GTT results were abnormal in a maority of Ss. (CL)

  20. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  1. The fault-tolerant multiprocessor computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, T. B., III (Editor); Lala, J. H. (Editor); Goldberg, J. (Editor); Kautz, W. H. (Editor); Melliar-Smith, P. M. (Editor); Green, M. W. (Editor); Levitt, K. N. (Editor); Schwartz, R. L. (Editor); Weinstock, C. B. (Editor); Palumbo, D. L. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The development and evaluation of fault-tolerant computer architectures and software-implemented fault tolerance (SIFT) for use in advanced NASA vehicles and potentially in flight-control systems are described in a collection of previously published reports prepared for NASA. Topics addressed include the principles of fault-tolerant multiprocessor (FTMP) operation; processor and slave regional designs; FTMP executive, facilities, acceptance-test/diagnostic, applications, and support software; FTM reliability and availability models; SIFT hardware design; and SIFT validation and verification.

  2. Alternation of light/dark period priming enhances clomazone tolerance by increasing the levels of ascorbate and phenolic compounds and ROS detoxification in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plantlets.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Majd; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; El Maâtaoui, Mohamed; Sallanon, Huguette

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the alternation of light/dark periods (AL) (16/8 min light/dark cycles and a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 50 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) for three days) to clarify the mechanisms involved in the clomazone tolerance of tobacco plantlets primed with AL was studied. Clomazone decreased PSII activity, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and the ascorbate and total polyphenol contents and increased H2O2 and starch grain accumulation and the number of the cells that underwent programmed cell death (PCD). The pretreatment with AL reduced the inhibitory effect of clomazone on the PSII activity and photosynthesis, as indicated by the decreases in the H2O2 and starch grain accumulation and the PCD levels, and increased the content of ascorbate and certain phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and rutin. The AL treatment could promote photorespiration via post-illumination burst (PIB) effects. This alternative photorespiratory electron pathway may reduce H2O2 generation via the consumption of photochemical energy, such as NADH+H(+). At 10 days (D10) of AL treatment, this process induced moderate stress which stimulates H2O2 detoxification systems by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the biosynthesis of antioxidant components. Therefore, the PCD levels provoked by clomazone were noticeably decreased. PMID:25863439

  3. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing the Met25 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibit enhanced levels of cysteine and glutathione and increased tolerance to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Matityahu, I; Kachan, L; Bar Ilan, I; Amir, R

    2006-03-01

    The cysteine biosynthesis pathway differs between plants and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeast MET25 gene encoded to O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase (AHS) catalyzed the reaction that form homocysteine, which later can be converted into cystiene. In vitro studies show that this enzyme possesses also the activity of O-acetyl(thiol)lyase (OASTL) that catalyzes synthesis of cysteine in plants. In this study, we generated transgenic tobacco plants expressing the yeast MET25 gene under the control of a constitutive promoter and targeted the yeast protein to the cytosol or to the chloroplasts. Both sets of transgenic plants were taller and greener than wild-type plants. Addition of SO(2), the substrate of the yeast enzyme caused a significant elevation of the glutathione content in representative plants from each of the two sets of transgenic plants expressing the yeast gene. Determination of non-protein thiol content indicated up to four-folds higher cysteine and 2.5-fold glutathione levels in these plants. In addition, the leaf discs of the transgenic plants were more tolerant to toxic levels of sulphite, and to paraquat, an herbicide generating active oxygen species. PMID:16193226

  4. [Activity of Vegetative Nervous System and Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines During Glucose Tolerance Test in Subjects With Optimal and High Normal Blood Pressure].

    PubMed

    Mangileva, T A

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen patients with high normal (main group) and 15 subjects with optimal (control group) blood pressure (BP) were examined. Fasting and postprandial (60 and 120 min after oral intake of glucose) levels of glucose, insulin, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and C-reactive protein were measured. At the same time spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) was done. Body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance index (as HOMA-IR) were calculated. In patients with high normal BP total power of HRV was decreased (p < 0.05) and dynamic changes of HRV after glucose loading were blunted. In persons with optimal BP transient elevation of low frequency component and low/high ratio in 60 min after onset of glucose tolerance test (GTT) were registered; values of both parameters were higher than in the main group (p < 0.05). Changes in vegetative nervous system activity in control group were accompanied by transient elevations of levels of inflammatory cytokines: IL-10 and TNF-α in 60 min, IL-6 in 120 min after GTT onset (p < 0.05), which at that moment were higher than in patients with high normal BP (p < 0.05). Fasting and postprandial insulin concentrations and glucose level 60 min after glucose intake were higher in patients from the main group (p < 0.05). In both groups positive correlations between BMI and HOMA-IR were observed (r1 = 0.70 & r2 = 0.78). Subjects with optimal and high normal BP have different variants of vegetative nervous system reactions to pulsatile hyperglycemia which is accompanied by changes of levels of inflammatory cytokines and worsening of carbohydrate metabolism in patients with high normal BP. PMID:26320287

  5. An open-label, in-use study assessing the warming sensation accompanying IFF Flavour 316282 and the acceptability and local tolerability of a syrup containing paracetamol and pseudoephedrine for the short-term treatment of symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Monnet, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective was to assess the warming sensation caused by IFF Flavour 316282 in a syrup used for short-term treatment by patients suffering from nasal congestion and mild to moderate body pain, headache, fever or sore throat associated with an upper respiratory tract infection. Methods: A single cohort, single treatment arm, open-label study. Subjects received one 30 mL dose of syrup containing IFF Flavour 316282, paracetamol and pseudoephedrine and recorded onset and disappearance of any warming sensation in the mouth/throat. Subjects’ assessments of strength and appeal of the sensation, taste, texture and acceptability of the product was investigated using questionnaires. Results: A total of 56 subjects were included; 53 (94.6%) experienced a warming sensation. The median duration of the warming sensation was 114 s (95% confidence interval: 87–120 s). All subjects rated the syrup as excellent, good or fair for treating their symptoms; 100% and 94.6% of subjects respectively described texture and taste as excellent, good or fair. There were no safety concerns, and the syrup was well tolerated. Most subjects liked the warming sensation. Conclusions: IFF Flavour 316282 in a syrup for treatment of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms is associated with a warming sensation. The syrup is well tolerated, safe and palatable. PMID:26770771

  6. Stress sensitivity is associated with differential accumulation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in maize genotypes with contrasting levels of drought tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought stress decreases crop growth, yield, and can further exacerbate pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. Tolerance and adaptation to drought stress is an important trait of agricultural crops like maize. However, maize genotypes with contrasting drought tolerances have been shown to possess both...

  7. Do Ask, Do Tell: High Levels of Acceptability by Patients of Routine Collection of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data in Four Diverse American Community Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Sean; Singal, Robbie; Grasso, Chris; King, Dana; Mayer, Kenneth; Baker, Kellan; Makadon, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine and The Joint Commission have recommended asking sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) questions in clinical settings and including such data in Electronic Health Records (EHRs). This is increasingly viewed as a critical step toward systematically documenting and addressing health disparities affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. The U.S. government is currently considering whether to include SOGI data collection in the Stage 3 guidelines for the incentive program promoting meaningful use of EHR. However, some have questioned whether acceptable standard measures to collect SOGI data in clinical settings exist. Methods In order to better understand how a diverse group of patients would respond if SOGI questions were asked in primary care settings, 301 randomly selected patients receiving primary care at four health centers across the U.S. were asked SOGI questions and then asked follow-up questions. This sample was mainly heterosexual, racially diverse, and geographically and regionally broad. Results There was a strong consensus among patients surveyed about the importance of asking SOGI questions. Most of the LGBT respondents thought that the questions presented on the survey allowed them to accurately document their SOGI. Most respondents—heterosexual and LGBT—answered the questions, and said that they would answer such questions in the future. While there were some age-related differences, respondents of all ages overwhelmingly expressed support for asking SOGI questions and understood the importance of providers' knowing their patients' SOGI. Conclusions Given current deliberations within national health care regulatory bodies and the government's increased attention to LGBT health disparities, the finding that patients can and will answer SOGI questions has important implications for public policy. This study provides evidence that integrating SOGI data collection into the meaningful

  8. The Relationship between Treatment Acceptability and Familism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pemberton, Joy R.; Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have examined the acceptability of treatments for children with disruptive behaviors. However, few studies to date have tested the effects of home environment variables such as family support on treatment acceptability. In the current study, parents' level of familism was used to predict their willingness to accept several behavioral…

  9. Transplantation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Emma M; Game, David S; Lechler, Robert I

    2014-12-01

    Although transplantation has been a standard medical practice for decades, marked morbidity from the use of immunosuppressive drugs and poor long-term graft survival remain important limitations in the field. Since the first solid organ transplant between the Herrick twins in 1954, transplantation immunology has sought to move away from harmful, broad-spectrum immunosuppressive regimens that carry with them the long-term risk of potentially life-threatening opportunistic infections, cardiovascular disease, and malignancy, as well as graft toxicity and loss, towards tolerogenic strategies that promote long-term graft survival. Reports of "transplant tolerance" in kidney and liver allograft recipients whose immunosuppressive drugs were discontinued for medical or non-compliant reasons, together with results from experimental models of transplantation, provide the proof-of-principle that achieving tolerance in organ transplantation is fundamentally possible. However, translating the reconstitution of immune tolerance into the clinical setting is a daunting challenge fraught with the complexities of multiple interacting mechanisms overlaid on a background of variation in disease. In this article, we explore the basic science underlying mechanisms of tolerance and review the latest clinical advances in the quest for transplantation tolerance. PMID:24213880

  10. A Developmental View of Children's Behavioral Tolerance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Joan S.; Safran, Stephen P.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of scores of 469 third to sixth graders on the Children's Tolerance Scale yielded significant grade level differences with older children generally the most tolerant. The more outer-directed behaviors were rated as most disturbing. (CL)

  11. Characterization of and waste acceptance radionuclide to be reported for the 2nd macro-batch of high-level waste sludge being vitrified in the DWPF melter

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, T.L.

    2000-01-26

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), at the Savannah River Site (SRS), is currently processing the second million gallon batch (Macro-Batch 2) of radioactive sludge slurry into a durable borosilicate glass for permanent geological disposal. To meet the reporting requirements as specified in the Department of Energy's Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS), for the final glass product, the nonradioactive and radioactive compositions must be provided for a Macro-Batch of material. In order to meet this requirement, sludge slurry samples from Macro-Batch 2 were analyzed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). This information is used to complete the necessary Production Records at DWPF so that the final glass product, resulting from Macro Batch 2, may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. This paper describes the results obtained from the analyses of the sludge slurry samples taken from Macro-Batch 2 to meet the reporting requirements of the WAPS. Twenty eight elements were identified for the nonradioactive composition and thirty one for the radioactive composition. The reportable radioisotopes range from C-14 to Cm-246.

  12. Studies on the dynamics of transmission of onchocerciasis in a Sudan-savanna area of North Cameroon V. What is a tolerable level of Annual Transmission Potential?

    PubMed

    Renz, A; Wenk, P; Anderson, J; Fuglsang, H

    1987-06-01

    The prevalence and intensity of infection with Onchocerca volvulus were assessed in population surveys in nine villages, situated at different distances from Simulium damnosum s.l. breeding sites. The prevalence varied from 48 to 89%, the arithmetic mean densities of microfilariae per skin snip were between 16 and 109, and severe ocular lesions were found in from 1 to 22% of patients. Annual Transmission Potentials (ATP) were measured for up to three years in the near vicinity of nine villages at several fly-catching sites. Weighted means of the ATP over the three years, and of the sojourn times of the human population, were calculated at three of the villages, where the prevalence of onchocerciasis was 51, 61 and 89%. An average ATP of 100 larvae or less in the head, thorax and abdomen of the flies was associated with an onchocerciasis prevalence of 50 to 60%, a mean microfilarial density below 40 microfilariae per skin-snip, less than 5% of ocular lesions, and no onchocercal blindness. This value might therefore be considered to be an indication of the level to which the transmission must be reduced in the savanna in order to prevent the occurrence of severe ocular lesions or blindness. It is lower than the present level accepted by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin. PMID:3662668

  13. Blood levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines during an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Eik, W.; Marcon, S.S.; Krupek, T.; Previdelli, I.T.S.; Pereira, O.C.N.; Silva, M.A.R.C.P.; Bazotte, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of postprandial glycemia on blood levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines during an oral glucose tolerance test in non-diabetic patients with symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia. Eleven patients with clinical symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia received an oral glucose solution (75 g) Blood was collected at 0 (baseline), 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after glucose ingestion and the plasma concentrations of interferon-α (IFN-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin-12 (IL-12), interleukin 13 (IL-13), interleukin 15 (IL-15), interleukin 17 (IL-17), IFN-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-basic), eotaxin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and 1β (MIP-1β) were evaluated. Overall, glycemic levels increased, reached its maximum at 30 min (phase 1), returned to baseline levels at 120 min (phase 2), followed by a mild hypoglycemia at 180 min (phase 3). During phase 1, cytokine blood levels were maintained. However, we observed a synchronous fall (P<0.05) in the concentrations of pro-inflammatory (IL-15, IL-17, MCP-1) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (FGF-basic, IL-13, IL-1RA) during phase 2. Furthermore, a simultaneous rise (P<0.05) of pro-inflammatory (IL-2, IL-5, IL-17) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-1RA, IL-2R, IL-13, FGF-basic) occurred during phase 3. Thus, mild acute hypoglycemia but not a physiological increase of glycemia

  14. Glycine Betaine, Carnitine, and Choline Enhance Salinity Tolerance and Prevent the Accumulation of Sodium to a Level Inhibiting Growth of Tetragenococcus halophila

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Hervé; Le Marrec, Claire; Blanco, Carlos; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    Natural-abundance 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance was used to probe the intracellular organic solute content of the moderately halophilic bacterium Tetragenococcus halophila. When grown in complex growth media supplemented or not with NaCl, T. halophila accumulates glycine betaine and carnitine. Unlike other moderate halophiles, T. halophila was not able to produce potent osmoprotectants (such as ectoines and glycine betaine) through de novo synthesis when cultured in defined medium under hyperosmotic constraint. Addition of 2 mM carnitine, glycine betaine, or choline to defined medium improved growth parameters, not only at high salinity (up to 2.5 M NaCl) but also in media lacking NaCl. These compounds were taken up when available in the surrounding medium. The transport activity occurred at low and high salinities and seems to be constitutive. Glycine betaine and carnitine were accumulated by T. halophila in an unmodified form, while exogenously provided choline led to an intracellular accumulation of glycine betaine. This is the first evidence of the existence of a choline-glycine betaine pathway in a lactic acid bacterium. An assay showed that the compatible solutes strikingly repressed the accumulation of glutamate and slightly increased the intracellular potassium level only at high salinity. Interestingly, osmoprotectant-treated cells were able to maintain the intracellular sodium concentration at a relatively constant level (200 to 300 nmol/mg [dry weight]), independent of the NaCl concentration of the medium. In contrast, in the absence of osmoprotectant, the intracellular sodium content increased sharply from 200 to 2,060 nmol/mg (dry weight) when the salinity of the medium was raised from 1 to 2 M. Indeed, the imported compatible solutes play an actual role in regulating the intracellular Na+ content and confer a much higher salt tolerance to T. halophila. PMID:10653711

  15. Distress Tolerance Scale: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Among Daily Cigarette Smokers.

    PubMed

    Leyro, Teresa M; Bernstein, Amit; Vujanovic, Anka A; McLeish, Alison C; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    The present investigation evaluated the factor structure of the Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS; Simons and Gaher 2005) among a sample of 173 (54.9% males) daily cigarette smokers (M=16.64 cigarettes per day, SD=7.83). Comparison of a single higher-order model and a hierarchical multidimensional model was conducted using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). In addition, evaluation of the internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity of the better-fitting model was completed. CFA of the DTS indicated a single second-order factor of distress tolerance, and four lower-order factors including Tolerance, Appraisal, Absorption, and Regulation; each factor demonstrated acceptable levels of internal consistency. In addition, the DTS displayed good convergent and discriminant validity with theoretically relevant smoking and affect variables. Results are discussed in terms of explicating the latent structure of distress tolerance, as measured by the DTS, within the context of smoking research. PMID:23935238

  16. Responses of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, to temperature extremes and dehydration: levels of tolerance, rapid cold hardening and expression of heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Benoit, J B; Lopez-Martinez, G; Teets, N M; Phillips, S A; Denlinger, D L

    2009-12-01

    This study of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, examines tolerance of adult females to extremes in temperature and loss of body water. Although the supercooling point (SCP) of the bed bugs was approximately -20 degrees C, all were killed by a direct 1 h exposure to -16 degrees C. Thus, this species cannot tolerate freezing and is killed at temperatures well above its SCP. Neither cold acclimation at 4 degrees C for 2 weeks nor dehydration (15% loss of water content) enhanced cold tolerance. However, bed bugs have the capacity for rapid cold hardening, i.e. a 1-h exposure to 0 degrees C improved their subsequent tolerance of -14 and -16 degrees C. In response to heat stress, fewer than 20% of the bugs survived a 1-h exposure to 46 degrees C, and nearly all were killed at 48 degrees C. Dehydration, heat acclimation at 30 degrees C for 2 weeks and rapid heat hardening at 37 degrees C for 1 h all failed to improve heat tolerance. Expression of the mRNAs encoding two heat shock proteins (Hsps), Hsp70 and Hsp90, was elevated in response to heat stress, cold stress and during dehydration and rehydration. The response of Hsp90 was more pronounced than that of Hsp70 during dehydration and rehydration. Our results define the tolerance limits for bed bugs to these commonly encountered stresses of temperature and low humidity and indicate a role for Hsps in responding to these stresses. PMID:19941608

  17. Religious Tolerance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue looks at three issues of religious tolerance. The first article examines a case recently decided by the United States Supreme Court on student-led prayers at school events. The second article explores the persecution suffered by members of the Mormon religion during the 19th century. The final article looks at Martin Luther and…

  18. The MyPEEPS randomized controlled trial: A pilot of preliminary efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of a group-level, HIV risk reduction intervention for young men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Marco A.; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Hotton, Anna L.; Johnson, Amy K.; Mustanski, Brian; Garofalo, Robert

    2015-01-01

    An exigent need exists for HIV prevention intervention research targeting young men who have sex with men (MSM) – a group of young adults that, despite composing the highest and most racially disproportionate rates of HIV incidence, has been least often the focus of behavioral intervention research. This pilot study tested a group-based HIV primary prevention intervention for young MSM to evaluate its initial efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability. Participants were randomized (N=101; aged 16-20 years) to one of two group-level, HIV and STI education programs: controls participated in a non-interactive, lecture-based program while intervention participants took part in a highly interactive program tailored to young MSM aged 16-20. Sexual risk and social cognitive outcomes were assessed at baseline, and 6- and 12 weeks post-intervention. Over the entire follow-up period, intervention participants were less likely than controls to engage in any sexual behavior while under the influence of substances (p<0.05), and also observed in this group was a decreasing trend of unprotected anal sex while under the influence of substances (p=.08). Follow-up differences between groups on social cognitive outcomes favored the intervention group, though these differences were non-significant. Acceptability ratings were modest. A 6-session behavioral intervention tailored to young MSM, aged 16-20, is feasible, acceptable, and demonstrates evidence of preliminary efficacy in reducing sexual risk, specifically sexual risk while under the influence of substances. PMID:25135064

  19. Acceptance- versus Change-Based Pain Management: The Role of Psychological Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacker, Kara J.; Herbert, James D.; Forman, Evan M.; Kounios, John

    2012-01-01

    This study compared two theoretically opposed strategies for acute pain management: an acceptance-based and a change-based approach. These two strategies were compared in a within-subjects design using the cold pressor test as an acute pain induction method. Participants completed a baseline pain tolerance assessment followed by one of the two…

  20. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing a native plasma membrane aquaporin MusaPIP1;2 display high tolerance levels to different abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Shareena; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2013-10-01

    Water transport across cellular membranes is regulated by a family of water channel proteins known as aquaporins (AQPs). As most abiotic stresses like suboptimal temperatures, drought or salinity result in cellular dehydration, it is imperative to study the cause-effect relationship between AQPs and the cellular consequences of abiotic stress stimuli. Although plant cells have a high isoform diversity of AQPs, the individual and integrated roles of individual AQPs in optimal and suboptimal physiological conditions remain unclear. Herein, we have identified a plasma membrane intrinsic protein gene (MusaPIP1;2) from banana and characterized it by overexpression in transgenic banana plants. Cellular localization assay performed using MusaPIP1;2::GFP fusion protein indicated that MusaPIP1;2 translocated to plasma membrane in transformed banana cells. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaPIP1;2 constitutively displayed better abiotic stress survival characteristics. The transgenic lines had lower malondialdehyde levels, elevated proline and relative water content and higher photosynthetic efficiency as compared to equivalent controls under different abiotic stress conditions. Greenhouse-maintained hardened transgenic plants showed faster recovery towards normal growth and development after cessation of abiotic stress stimuli, thereby underlining the importance of these plants in actual environmental conditions wherein the stress stimuli is often transient but severe. Further, transgenic plants where the overexpression of MusaPIP1;2 was made conditional by tagging it with a stress-inducible native dehydrin promoter also showed similar stress tolerance characteristics in in vitro and in vivo assays. Plants developed in this study could potentially enable banana cultivation in areas where adverse environmental conditions hitherto preclude commercial banana cultivation. PMID:23745761

  1. High Level Expression of a Novel Family 3 Neutral β-Xylosidase from Humicola insolens Y1 with High Tolerance to D-Xylose

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wei; Shi, Pengjun; Xu, Xinxin; Qian, Lichun; Cui, Ying; Xia, Mengjuan; Yao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    A novel β-xylosidase gene of glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 3, xyl3A, was identified from the thermophilic fungus Humicola insolens Y1, which is an innocuous and non-toxic fungus that produces a wide variety of GHs. The cDNA of xyl3A, 2334 bp in length, encodes a 777-residue polypeptide containing a putative signal peptide of 19 residues. The gene fragment without the signal peptide-coding sequence was cloned and overexpressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 at a high level of 100 mg/L in 1-L Erlenmeyer flasks without fermentation optimization. Recombinant Xyl3A showed both β-xylosidase and α-arabinfuranosidase activities, but had no hydrolysis capacity towards polysaccharides. It was optimally active at pH 6.0 and 60°C with a specific activity of 11.6 U/mg. It exhibited good stability over pH 4.0–9.0 (incubated at 37°C for 1 h) and at temperatures of 60°C and below, retaining over 80% maximum activity. The enzyme had stronger tolerance to xylose than most fungal GH3 β-xylosidases with a high Ki value of 29 mM, which makes Xyl3A more efficient to produce xylose in fermentation process. Sequential combination of Xyl3A following endoxylanase Xyn11A of the same microbial source showed significant synergistic effects on the degradation of various xylans and deconstructed xylo-oligosaccharides to xylose with high efficiency. Moreover, using pNPX as both the donor and acceptor, Xyl3A exhibited a transxylosylation activity to synthesize pNPX2. All these favorable properties suggest that Xyl3A has good potential applications in the bioconversion of hemicelluloses to biofuels. PMID:25658646

  2. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Angela M.; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003–2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19–39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL. PMID:27043623

  3. Submergence Tolerance and Germination Dynamics of Roegneria nutans Seeds in Water-Level Fluctuation Zones with Different Water Rhythms in the Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Bo; Pan, Xiaojiao; Su, Xiaolei

    2016-01-01

    The Three Gorges Dam features two water-level fluctuation zones (WLFZs): the preupland drawdown zone (PU-DZ) and the preriparian drawdown zone (PR-DZ). To investigate the vegetation potential of Roegneria nutans in WLFZs, we compared the submergence tolerance and germination dynamics in the natural riparian zone (NRZ), PU-DZ and PR-DZ. We found that the NRZ seeds maintained an 81.3% intactness rate and >91% germination rate. The final seed germination rate and germination dynamics were consistent with those of the controls. Meanwhile, the PU-DZ seeds submerged at 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 20 m exhibited intactness rates of 70.5%, 79.95%, 40.75%, and 39.87%, respectively, and >75% germination. Furthermore, the PR-DZ seeds exhibited intactness rates of 22.44%, 61.13%, 81.87%, and 15.36% at 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 17 m, respectively, and 80% germination. The germination rates of the intact seeds submerged >10 m were >80%. Finally, the intact seeds germinated quickly in all WLFZs. The high proportion of intact seeds, rapid germination capacity, and high germination rate permit R. nutans seeds to adapt to the complicated water rhythms of the PU-DZ and PR-DZ and indicate the potential for their use in vegetation restoration and recovery. Thus, perennial seeds can be used for vegetation restoration in the WLFZs of large reservoirs and in other regions with water rhythms similar to the Three Gorges Reservoir. PMID:27031104

  4. Higher serum uric acid level increases risk of prehypertension in subjects with normal glucose tolerance, but not pre-diabetes and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wu, I-H; Wu, J-S; Sun, Z-J; Lu, F-H; Chang, C-S; Chang, C-J; Yang, Y-C

    2016-08-01

    Although the association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and prehypertension has been reported in previous studies, it is unknown whether their relationship is similar in subjects with diabetes, pre-diabetes and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). This study thus aimed to investigate the relationship between SUA and prehypertension in subjects with different glycemic status, including NGT, pre-diabetes and diabetes. A total of 12 010 participants were included after excluding subjects with blood pressure ⩾140/90 mm Hg, history of hypertension, leukaemia, lymphoma, hypothyroidism, medication for hypertension and hyperuricemia and missing data. Subjects were divided into four groups based on SUA quartiles (male Q1: ⩽345.0, Q2: 345.0-392.6, Q3: 392.6-440.2, Q4: ⩾440.2 μmol l(-1) and female Q1: ⩽249.8, Q2: 249.8-285.5, Q3: 285.5-333.1, Q4: ⩾333.1 μmol l(-1)). Diabetes, pre-diabetes and NGT were assessed according to the 2010 American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria. Normotension and prehypertension were defined according to the JNC-7 (The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure) criteria. The SUA was significantly higher in prehypertensive subjects as compared with normotensive subjects. SUA, as a continuous variable, was positively associated with prehypertension in subjects with NGT but not pre-diabetes and diabetes. Besides, NGT subjects with the highest quartile of SUA exhibited a higher risk of prehypertension after adjustment for other confounding factors. In pre-diabetes and diabetes groups, none of SUA quartiles was significantly related to prehypertension. SUA was significantly associated with an increased risk of prehypertension in subjects with NGT but insignificantly in subjects with pre-diabetes and diabetes. PMID:26911534

  5. Submergence Tolerance and Germination Dynamics of Roegneria nutans Seeds in Water-Level Fluctuation Zones with Different Water Rhythms in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng; Liu, Jianhui; Zeng, Bo; Pan, Xiaojiao; Su, Xiaolei

    2016-01-01

    The Three Gorges Dam features two water-level fluctuation zones (WLFZs): the preupland drawdown zone (PU-DZ) and the preriparian drawdown zone (PR-DZ). To investigate the vegetation potential of Roegneria nutans in WLFZs, we compared the submergence tolerance and germination dynamics in the natural riparian zone (NRZ), PU-DZ and PR-DZ. We found that the NRZ seeds maintained an 81.3% intactness rate and >91% germination rate. The final seed germination rate and germination dynamics were consistent with those of the controls. Meanwhile, the PU-DZ seeds submerged at 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 20 m exhibited intactness rates of 70.5%, 79.95%, 40.75%, and 39.87%, respectively, and >75% germination. Furthermore, the PR-DZ seeds exhibited intactness rates of 22.44%, 61.13%, 81.87%, and 15.36% at 5 m, 10 m, 15 m, and 17 m, respectively, and 80% germination. The germination rates of the intact seeds submerged >10 m were >80%. Finally, the intact seeds germinated quickly in all WLFZs. The high proportion of intact seeds, rapid germination capacity, and high germination rate permit R. nutans seeds to adapt to the complicated water rhythms of the PU-DZ and PR-DZ and indicate the potential for their use in vegetation restoration and recovery. Thus, perennial seeds can be used for vegetation restoration in the WLFZs of large reservoirs and in other regions with water rhythms similar to the Three Gorges Reservoir. PMID:27031104

  6. Stress Sensitivity Is Associated with Differential Accumulation of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Maize Genotypes with Contrasting Levels of Drought Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liming; Fountain, Jake C.; Wang, Hui; Ni, Xinzhi; Ji, Pingsheng; Lee, Robert D.; Kemerait, Robert C.; Scully, Brian T.; Guo, Baozhu

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress decreases crop growth, yield, and can further exacerbate pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. Tolerance and adaptation to drought stress is an important trait of agricultural crops like maize. However, maize genotypes with contrasting drought tolerances have been shown to possess both common and genotype-specific adaptations to cope with drought stress. In this research, the physiological and metabolic response patterns in the leaves of maize seedlings subjected to drought stress were investigated using six maize genotypes including: A638, B73, Grace-E5, Lo964, Lo1016, and Va35. During drought treatments, drought-sensitive maize seedlings displayed more severe symptoms such as chlorosis and wilting, exhibited significant decreases in photosynthetic parameters, and accumulated significantly more reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) than tolerant genotypes. Sensitive genotypes also showed rapid increases in enzyme activities involved in ROS and RNS metabolism. However, the measured antioxidant enzyme activities were higher in the tolerant genotypes than in the sensitive genotypes in which increased rapidly following drought stress. The results suggest that drought stress causes differential responses to oxidative and nitrosative stress in maize genotypes with tolerant genotypes with slower reaction and less ROS and RNS production than sensitive ones. These differential patterns may be utilized as potential biological markers for use in marker assisted breeding. PMID:26492235

  7. A study of the effect of flight density and background noise on V/STOL acceptability. [effective perceived noise level as measure of annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Hinterkeuser, E. G.; Hackman, R. B.; Davis, J.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted in which test subjects evaluated the sounds of a helicopter, a turbofan STOL and a turbojet airplane while engaged in work and leisure activities. Exposure to a high repetitive density of the aircraft sounds did not make the individual sounds more annoying but did create an unacceptable environment. The application of a time duration term to db(A) resulted in a measure which compared favorably with EPNL as a predictor of annoyance. Temporal variations in background noise level had no significant effect on the rated annoyance.

  8. Biocide tolerance in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ortega Morente, Elena; Fernández-Fuentes, Miguel Angel; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Abriouel, Hikmate; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    Biocides have been employed for centuries, so today a wide range of compounds showing different levels of antimicrobial activity have become available. At the present time, understanding the mechanisms of action of biocides has also become an important issue with the emergence of bacterial tolerance to biocides and the suggestion that biocide and antibiotic resistance in bacteria might be linked. While most of the mechanisms providing antibiotic resistance are agent specific, providing resistance to a single antimicrobial or class of antimicrobial, there are currently numerous examples of efflux systems that accommodate and, thus, provide tolerance to a broad range of structurally unrelated antimicrobials, both antibiotics and biocides. If biocide tolerance becomes increasingly common and it is linked to antibiotic resistance, not only resistant (even multi-resistant) bacteria could be passed along the food chain, but also there are resistance determinants that can spread and lead to the emergence of new resistant microorganisms, which can only be detected and monitored when the building blocks of resistance traits are understood on the molecular level. This review summarizes the main advances reached in understanding the mechanism of action of biocides, the mechanisms of bacterial resistance to both biocides and antibiotics, and the incidence of biocide tolerance in bacteria of concern to human health and the food industry. PMID:23340387

  9. Development of diagnotors based on time-average values of plasma glucose and immunoreactive insulin levels during intravenous glucose tolerance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, Tatyana P.; Malinov, Igor A.; Malinova, Lidia I.; Brook, Sergey B.

    2000-04-01

    The diagnostic algorithm of glucose-insulinic violations for the patients with a clinically obvious atherosclerosis of coronary arteries, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and persons with the heritable predisposition to these forms of pathology was designed. The realization of intravenous glucose tolerance test in specially fitted groups of patients served as basis of the algorithm.

  10. Cultural Diversity in Online Learning: A Study of the Perceived Effects of Dissonance in Levels of Individualism/Collectivism and Tolerance of Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapanes, Marie A.; Smith, Glenn G.; White, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Online learning courses are hypothesized to be influenced by the instructors' and students' cultural values. This study collected survey data from online instructors and students to analyze the effects that Hofstede's individualism/collectivism and ambiguity (in)tolerance cultural dimensions exert on online courses offered from an…

  11. Comparison of the Degree of Exercise Tolerance in Children After Surgical Treatment of Complex Cardiac Defects, Assessed Using Ergospirometry and the Level of Brain Natriuretic Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Boguslaw; Szydlowski, Leslaw; Mazurek, Magdalena; Markiewicz-Loskot, Grazyna; Pajak, Jacek; Morka, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Children who underwent surgery for complex congenital heart defects present worse exercise capacity than their healthy peers. In adults and adolescents, heart failure is assessed on the basis of clinical symptoms using the New York Heart Association (NYHA) score, while in an infant Ross scale; heart failure can also be evaluated by other parameters. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of exercise tolerance in children after surgery for complex heart defects, assessed by the ratio of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the brain natriuretic peptide (N-terminal fragment of the prohormone brain-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]) concentration. The study group consisted of 42 children, ages 9 to 17 years (mean 14.00 ± 2.72). Among them there were 22 children with tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) after total correction, 18 children with transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) after the arterial switch operation, and 2 children with single ventricle (SV) after the Fontan operation. All but 1 child were in NYHA class I. The control group consisted of 20 healthy children. Outcomes of interest were the ratio of VO2max, determined during ergospirometry, and the level of NT-proBNP. The statistical analysis was performed and the groups were considered significantly different for P < 0.05. There was no statistically significant correlation between NT-proBNP and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2) kg−1 min−1 in the study group compared with the control group. The VO2max in the test group had a mean value less (34.6 ± 8.0) than controls (38.4 ± 7.7), and the differences were statistically significant (P = 0.041). In contrast, the average concentration of NT-proBNP in the study group was higher than controls (117.9 ± 74.3 vs 18.0 ± 24.5), and these differences were statistically significant (P < 0.001). After operations for complex heart defects (ToF, TGA, and SV), children have worse heart function parameters and exercise

  12. [Amelioration of glucose tolerance and correction of reactive hypoglycemias induced by intravenous calcium infusion cannot be explained by modifications in blood glucagon levels].

    PubMed

    Vexiau, P; Cathelineau, G; Luyckx, A; Lefebvre, P

    1986-08-01

    Glucagon is not involved in intravenous calcium-induced improvement in glucose tolerance nor in correction of reactive hypoglycemia. Recent investigations have shown that intravenous (IV) calcium infusion improved blood glucose values in patients with moderately impaired glucose tolerance, and suppressed hypoglycemia in patients with isolated reactive hypoglycemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility that these changes were secondary to calcium induced alterations in glucagon (IRG) secretion. Four groups of subjects were studied: group 1: normal controls (n = 7); group 2: patients with isolated hypoglycemia (n = 9); group 3: patients with impaired glucose tolerance without reactive hypoglycemia (n = 9) and group 4: patients with impaired glucose tolerance and reactive hypoglycemia (n = 10). All patients were submitted in randomized order to two 5 hour oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT, 75 g glucose), during a simultaneous infusion, either of saline or of calcium (calcium gluconate 36.3 mEq/5 h.), starting 30 minutes before the OGTT. In none of the groups did calcium infusion influence basal plasma IRG. In group 1 and 3, oral glucose significantly suppressed IRG, and during IV calcium infusion this suppression disappeared. In group 2, glucose ingestion resulted in a paradoxical increase in IRG both during saline and during calcium infusion. In group 4, oral glucose induced a significant drop in plasma IRG and a rebound rise during hypoglycemia, results which were unaffected by IV calcium infusion. These data suggest that glucagon is not involved in the alterations of blood glucose profiles during OGTT observed during intravenous calcium infusion. PMID:3770273

  13. Reassessment of Phenylalanine Tolerance in Adults with Phenylketonuria is Needed as Body Mass Changes

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Erin L.; Gleason, Sally T.; van Calcar, Sandra C.; Ney, Denise M.

    2009-01-01

    Lifelong treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) includes a phenylalanine (phe) restricted diet that provides sufficient phe for growth and maintenance plus phe-free amino acid formula to meet requirements for protein, energy and micronutrients. Phe tolerance (mg phe/kg body weight/day) is the amount of phe those with PKU can consume and maintain acceptable blood phe levels; it requires individual assessment because of varying phenylalanine hydroxylase activity. The objective was to reassess phe tolerance in 8 adults with PKU considering phe requirements, blood phe levels, genotype and phe tolerance at 5 years of age. Subjects had not received a personalized assessment of phe tolerance in several years, and 5 subjects were overweight, body mass index (BMI) 25–28. With the guidance of a metabolic dietitian, 7 subjects increased phe tolerance (by 15–173%) without significantly increasing blood phe concentration. Increased phe tolerance was associated with both improved dietary compliance and inadequate phe intake at the onset of the protocol compared with current requirements. Improved dietary compliance reflected increased consumption of protein equivalents from amino acid formula and increased frequency of formula intake, from 2.2 to 3 times per day. Predictors of higher final phe tolerance following reassessment included being male and having a lower BMI (R2=0.588). This suggests that the rising trend of overweight and obesity may affect assessment of phe tolerance in adults. Therefore, interaction with the metabolic dietitian to reassess phe tolerance in relation to body mass is essential throughout adulthood to insure adequate intake of phe to support protein synthesis and prevent catabolism. PMID:19747868

  14. Reassessment of phenylalanine tolerance in adults with phenylketonuria is needed as body mass changes.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Erin L; Gleason, Sally T; van Calcar, Sandra C; Ney, Denise M

    2009-12-01

    Lifelong treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) includes a phenylalanine (phe) restricted diet that provides sufficient phe for growth and maintenance plus phe-free amino acid formula to meet requirements for protein, energy and micronutrients. Phe tolerance (mg phe/kg body weight/day) is the amount of phe those with PKU can consume and maintain acceptable blood phe levels; it requires individual assessment because of varying phenylalanine hydroxylase activity. The objective was to reassess phe tolerance in eight adults with PKU considering phe requirements, blood phe levels, genotype and phe tolerance at 5 years of age. Subjects had not received a personalized assessment of phe tolerance in several years, and five subjects were overweight, body mass index (BMI) 25-28. With the guidance of a metabolic dietitian, seven subjects increased phe tolerance (by 15-173%) without significantly increasing blood phe concentration. Increased phe tolerance was associated with both improved dietary compliance and inadequate phe intake at the onset of the protocol compared with current requirements. Improved dietary compliance reflected increased consumption of protein equivalents from amino acid formula and increased frequency of formula intake, from 2.2 to 3 times per day. Predictors of higher final phe tolerance following reassessment included being male and having a lower BMI (R(2)=0.588). This suggests that the rising trend of overweight and obesity may affect assessment of phe tolerance in adults. Therefore, interaction with the metabolic dietitian to reassess phe tolerance in relation to body mass is essential throughout adulthood to insure adequate intake of phe to support protein synthesis and prevent catabolism. PMID:19747868

  15. A new evaluation method for +Gz tolerance with loratadine by using a near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Onozawa, Akihiko; Kikukawa, Azusa; Miyamoto, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    Background Loratadine (Claritin®), an over the counter antihistamine in U.S. and UK, is acceptable for use without adverse side effects by aircrew with mild or moderate allergic or other situations requiring an antihistamine. Although +Gz (head to foot direction) tolerance testing for aircrew with loratadine has not been documented in the published literature, it is commonly accepted that loratadine dose not effect +Gz tolerance. The purpose of this study was to offer and validate a new evaluation method for +Gz tolerance testing with loratadine by using a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Methods A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover protocol was used to administer 10 mg of loratadine or placebo in nine healthy subjects. The subjects didn't wear anti-G suit. The +Gz exposure profiles consisted of, in series, a gradual onset ran (0.1 G·sec-1) to the subject's visual end-point (peripheral light loss) or loss of consciousness (GLOC), and rapid onset run (1.0 G·sec-1) to the subject's same end-point. In this study, G-level tolerance was defined as the +Gz level at visual end-point and/or at GLOC. As a subject's G-duration tolerance, we measured the total time (seconds) during rapid onset run. Otherwise, to confirm the effect of loratadine on +Gz tolerance, we measured the cerebral NIRS variables (hemoglobin concentration changes and tissue oxygenation index) as a new quantitative method for +Gz tolerance during a centrifuge experiments. Results No significant differences were observed in +Gz tolerance (+Gz level, duration time and NIRS variables) between subjects taking loratadine and placebo. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that loratadine has no detectable effect on +Gz tolerance by using a new method with cerebral NIRS variables and the traditional method with +Gz level and duration time. This study represents the first use of a quantitative parameter such as cerebral NIRS variables to assess the effects of a drug on acceleration

  16. Acceptable Tolerances for Matching Icing Similarity Parameters in Scaling Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews past work and presents new data to evaluate how changes in similarity parameters affect ice shapes and how closely scale values of the parameters should match reference values. Experimental ice shapes presented are from tests by various researchers in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel. The parameters reviewed are the modified inertia parameter (which determines the stagnation collection efficiency), accumulation parameter, freezing fraction, Reynolds number, and Weber number. It was demonstrated that a good match of scale and reference ice shapes could sometimes be achieved even when values of the modified inertia parameter did not match precisely. Consequently, there can be some flexibility in setting scale droplet size, which is the test condition determined from the modified inertia parameter. A recommended guideline is that the modified inertia parameter be chosen so that the scale stagnation collection efficiency is within 10 percent of the reference value. The scale accumulation parameter and freezing fraction should also be within 10 percent of their reference values. The Weber number based on droplet size and water properties appears to be a more important scaling parameter than one based on model size and air properties. Scale values of both the Reynolds and Weber numbers need to be in the range of 60 to 160 percent of the corresponding reference values. The effects of variations in other similarity parameters have yet to be established.

  17. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. COCHRANE; J.V. PARKER; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  18. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle R.; Allcorn, Eric

    2015-10-01

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  19. Reconfigurable fault tolerant avionics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, M. M.; Asami, K.; Cho, Mengu

    This paper presents the design of a reconfigurable avionics system based on modern Static Random Access Memory (SRAM)-based Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) to be used in future generations of nano satellites. A major concern in satellite systems and especially nano satellites is to build robust systems with low-power consumption profiles. The system is designed to be flexible by providing the capability of reconfiguring itself based on its orbital position. As Single Event Upsets (SEU) do not have the same severity and intensity in all orbital locations, having the maximum at the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and the polar cusps, the system does not have to be fully protected all the time in its orbit. An acceptable level of protection against high-energy cosmic rays and charged particles roaming in space is provided within the majority of the orbit through software fault tolerance. Check pointing and roll back, besides control flow assertions, is used for that level of protection. In the minority part of the orbit where severe SEUs are expected to exist, a reconfiguration for the system FPGA is initiated where the processor systems are triplicated and protection through Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) with feedback is provided. This technique of reconfiguring the system as per the level of the threat expected from SEU-induced faults helps in reducing the average dynamic power consumption of the system to one-third of its maximum. This technique can be viewed as a smart protection through system reconfiguration. The system is built on the commercial version of the (XC5VLX50) Xilinx Virtex5 FPGA on bulk silicon with 324 IO. Simulations of orbit SEU rates were carried out using the SPENVIS web-based software package.

  20. Tolerant (parallel) Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiNucci, David C.; Bailey, David H. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    In order to be truly portable, a program must be tolerant of a wide range of development and execution environments, and a parallel program is just one which must be tolerant of a very wide range. This paper first defines the term "tolerant programming", then describes many layers of tools to accomplish it. The primary focus is on F-Nets, a formal model for expressing computation as a folded partial-ordering of operations, thereby providing an architecture-independent expression of tolerant parallel algorithms. For implementing F-Nets, Cooperative Data Sharing (CDS) is a subroutine package for implementing communication efficiently in a large number of environments (e.g. shared memory and message passing). Software Cabling (SC), a very-high-level graphical programming language for building large F-Nets, possesses many of the features normally expected from today's computer languages (e.g. data abstraction, array operations). Finally, L2(sup 3) is a CASE tool which facilitates the construction, compilation, execution, and debugging of SC programs.

  1. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; McCurdy, David A.

    1992-04-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  2. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  3. Impurity tolerant electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Paffett, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    This project has two central goals. The primary research effort addresses fundamental aspects of Pt electrocatalyst poisoning by CO and an understanding of practical schemes for improving the CO tolerance of electrocatalytic materials. The second mission of this work is an attempt to address, on a fundamental level, the surface chemical properties that enhance the direct electrooxidation of methanol at binary Pt alloy electrode surfaces. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  4. 48 CFR 2811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2811.103 Section 2811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMPETITION AND... acceptance. Pursuant to FAR 11.103, the HCA or designee at a level not lower than the BPC has the...

  5. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  6. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  7. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Presents the Newbery Medal acceptance speech of Russell Freedman, writer of children's nonfiction. Discusses the place of nonfiction in the world of children's literature, the evolution of children's biographies, and the author's work on "Lincoln." (ARH)

  8. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    Reprints the text of Ms. Cleary's Newbery medal acceptance speech in which she gives personal history concerning her development as a writer and her response to the letters she receives from children. (CRH)

  9. Caldecott Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provensen, Alice; Provensen, Martin

    1984-01-01

    Reprints the text of the Provensens' Caldecott medal acceptance speech in which they describe their early interest in libraries and literature, the collaborative aspect of their work, and their current interest in aviation. (CRH)

  10. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development. PMID:22416723

  11. Noise tolerant dendritic lattice associative memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Gerhard X.; Schmalz, Mark S.; Hayden, Eric; Tucker, Marc

    2011-09-01

    Linear classifiers based on computation over the real numbers R (e.g., with operations of addition and multiplication) denoted by (R, +, x), have been represented extensively in the literature of pattern recognition. However, a different approach to pattern classification involves the use of addition, maximum, and minimum operations over the reals in the algebra (R, +, maximum, minimum) These pattern classifiers, based on lattice algebra, have been shown to exhibit superior information storage capacity, fast training and short convergence times, high pattern classification accuracy, and low computational cost. Such attributes are not always found, for example, in classical neural nets based on the linear inner product. In a special type of lattice associative memory (LAM), called a dendritic LAM or DLAM, it is possible to achieve noise-tolerant pattern classification by varying the design of noise or error acceptance bounds. This paper presents theory and algorithmic approaches for the computation of noise-tolerant lattice associative memories (LAMs) under a variety of input constraints. Of particular interest are the classification of nonergodic data in noise regimes with time-varying statistics. DLAMs, which are a specialization of LAMs derived from concepts of biological neural networks, have successfully been applied to pattern classification from hyperspectral remote sensing data, as well as spatial object recognition from digital imagery. The authors' recent research in the development of DLAMs is overviewed, with experimental results that show utility for a wide variety of pattern classification applications. Performance results are presented in terms of measured computational cost, noise tolerance, classification accuracy, and throughput for a variety of input data and noise levels.

  12. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1999-05-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the Nevada Test Site.

  13. Proposal for fabrication-tolerant SOI polarization splitter-rotator based on cascaded MMI couplers and an assisted bi-level taper

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Qi, Minghao; Xuan, Yi; Huang, Haiyang; Li, You; Li, Ming; Chen, Xin; Jia, Qi; Sheng, Zhen; Wu, Aimin; Li, Wei; Wang, Xi; Zou, Shichang; Gan, Fuwan

    2014-01-01

    A novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) polarization splitter-rotator (PSR) with a large fabrication tolerance is proposed based on cascaded multimode interference (MMI) couplers and an assisted mode-evolution taper. The tapers are designed to adiabatically convert the input TM0 mode into the TE1 mode, which will output as the TE0 mode after processed by the subsequent MMI mode converter, 90-degree phase shifter (PS) and MMI 3 dB coupler. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed device has a < 0.5 dB insertion loss with < −17 dB crosstalk in C optical communication band. Fabrication tolerance analysis is also performed with respect to the deviations of MMI coupler width, PS width, slab height and upper-cladding refractive index, showing that this device could work well even when affected by considerable fabrication errors. With such a robust performance with a large bandwidth, this device offers potential applications for CMOS-compatible polarization diversity, especially in the booming 100 Gb/s coherent optical communications based on silicon photonics technology. PMID:25402029

  14. Proposal for fabrication-tolerant SOI polarization splitter-rotator based on cascaded MMI couplers and an assisted bi-level taper.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Qi, Minghao; Xuan, Yi; Huang, Haiyang; Li, You; Li, Ming; Chen, Xin; Jia, Qi; Sheng, Zhen; Wu, Aimin; Li, Wei; Wang, Xi; Zou, Shichang; Gan, Fuwan

    2014-11-17

    A novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) polarization splitter-rotator (PSR) with a large fabrication tolerance is proposed based on cascaded multimode interference (MMI) couplers and an assisted mode-evolution taper. The tapers are designed to adiabatically convert the input TM(0) mode into the TE(1) mode, which will output as the TE(0) mode after processed by the subsequent MMI mode converter, 90-degree phase shifter (PS) and MMI 3 dB coupler. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed device has a < 0.5 dB insertion loss with < -17 dB crosstalk in C optical communication band. Fabrication tolerance analysis is also performed with respect to the deviations of MMI coupler width, PS width, slab height and upper-cladding refractive index, showing that this device could work well even when affected by considerable fabrication errors. With such a robust performance with a large bandwidth, this device offers potential applications for CMOS-compatible polarization diversity, especially in the booming 100 Gb/s coherent optical communications based on silicon photonics technology. PMID:25402029

  15. JcLEA, a novel LEA-like protein from Jatropha curcas, confers a high level of tolerance to dehydration and salinity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing; Zhou, Mingqi; Zhou, Xin; Jin, Yuanjie; Xu, Ming; Lin, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is a highly drought and salt tolerant plant species that is typically used as a traditional folk medicine and biofuel crop in many countries. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie the response to various abiotic environmental stimuli, especially to drought and salt stresses, in J. curcas could be important to crop improvement efforts. In this study, we cloned and characterized the gene for a late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein from J. curcas that we designated JcLEA. Sequence analyses showed that the JcLEA protein belongs to group 5, a subgroup of the LEA protein family. In young seedlings, expression of JcLEA is significantly induced by abscisic acid (ABA), dehydration, and salt stress. Subcellular localization analysis shows that that JcLEA protein is distributed in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Moreover, based on growth status and physiological indices, the overexpression of JcLEA in transgenic Arabidopsis plants conferred increased resistance to both drought and salt stresses compared to the WT. Our data suggests that the group 5 JcLEA protein contributes to drought and salt stress tolerance in plants. Thus, JcLEA is a potential candidate gene for plant genetic modification. PMID:24391737

  16. Parallel fault-tolerant robot control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D. L.; Bennett, J. K.; Walker, I. D.

    1992-01-01

    A shared memory multiprocessor architecture is used to develop a parallel fault-tolerant robot controller. Several versions of the robot controller are developed and compared. A robot simulation is also developed for control observation. Comparison of a serial version of the controller and a parallel version without fault tolerance showed the speedup possible with the coarse-grained parallelism currently employed. The performance degradation due to the addition of processor fault tolerance was demonstrated by comparison of these controllers with their fault-tolerant versions. Comparison of the more fault-tolerant controller with the lower-level fault-tolerant controller showed how varying the amount of redundant data affects performance. The results demonstrate the trade-off between speed performance and processor fault tolerance.

  17. Review of tolerances at the Final Focus Test Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Bulos, F.; Burke, D.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Roy, G.; Yamamoto, N.

    1991-05-01

    We review the tolerances associated with the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB). We have computed the acceptability window of the input beam for orbit jitter, emittance beta functions mismatch, incoming dispersion and coupling; tolerances on magnet alignment, strength and multipole content; and the initial tuneability capture of the line. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Biocular image misalignment tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalich, Melvyn E.; Rash, Clarence E.; van de Pol, Corina; Rowe, Terri L.; Lont, Lisa M.; Peterson, R. David

    2003-09-01

    Biocular helmet-mounted display (HMD) design flexibility and cost are directly related to image misalignment tolerance standards. Currently recommended tolerance levels are based on highly variable data from a number of studies. This paper presents progress of an ongoing study to evaluate optometric measures sensitive to misalignment in partial-overlap biocular optical systems like that proposed for the Comanche RAH-66 helicopter helmet integrated display sighting system (HIDSS). Horizontal divergent and relative vertical misalignments (offsets) of see-through biocular symbology viewed against a simulated daytime background were chosen for this study. Misalignments within and just beyond current tolerance recommendations were evaluated using pre, pre and post, and during measures of visual performance. Data were obtained from seven experimental and four control subjects. The diplopia responses from experimental and control subjects were essentially the same. However, accommodative facility showed a rate decrement following exposure to both types of misalignment. Horizontal heterophorias showed definite post-misalignment increases. Subject responses to questionnaires universally indicated increased adaptation to (ease with) visual tasks over the testing period.

  19. Probability of Future Observations Exceeding One-Sided, Normal, Upper Tolerance Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Timothy S.

    2014-10-29

    Normal tolerance limits are frequently used in dynamic environments specifications of aerospace systems as a method to account for aleatory variability in the environments. Upper tolerance limits, when used in this way, are computed from records of the environment and used to enforce conservatism in the specification by describing upper extreme values the environment may take in the future. Components and systems are designed to withstand these extreme loads to ensure they do not fail under normal use conditions. The degree of conservatism in the upper tolerance limits is controlled by specifying the coverage and confidence level (usually written in “coverage/confidence” form). Moreover, in high-consequence systems it is common to specify tolerance limits at 95% or 99% coverage and confidence at the 50% or 90% level. Despite the ubiquity of upper tolerance limits in the aerospace community, analysts and decision-makers frequently misinterpret their meaning. The misinterpretation extends into the standards that govern much of the acceptance and qualification of commercial and government aerospace systems. As a result, the risk of a future observation of the environment exceeding the upper tolerance limit is sometimes significantly underestimated by decision makers. This note explains the meaning of upper tolerance limits and a related measure, the upper prediction limit. So, the objective of this work is to clarify the probability of exceeding these limits in flight so that decision-makers can better understand the risk associated with exceeding design and test levels during flight and balance the cost of design and development with that of mission failure.

  20. Probability of Future Observations Exceeding One-Sided, Normal, Upper Tolerance Limits

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Edwards, Timothy S.

    2014-10-29

    Normal tolerance limits are frequently used in dynamic environments specifications of aerospace systems as a method to account for aleatory variability in the environments. Upper tolerance limits, when used in this way, are computed from records of the environment and used to enforce conservatism in the specification by describing upper extreme values the environment may take in the future. Components and systems are designed to withstand these extreme loads to ensure they do not fail under normal use conditions. The degree of conservatism in the upper tolerance limits is controlled by specifying the coverage and confidence level (usually written inmore » “coverage/confidence” form). Moreover, in high-consequence systems it is common to specify tolerance limits at 95% or 99% coverage and confidence at the 50% or 90% level. Despite the ubiquity of upper tolerance limits in the aerospace community, analysts and decision-makers frequently misinterpret their meaning. The misinterpretation extends into the standards that govern much of the acceptance and qualification of commercial and government aerospace systems. As a result, the risk of a future observation of the environment exceeding the upper tolerance limit is sometimes significantly underestimated by decision makers. This note explains the meaning of upper tolerance limits and a related measure, the upper prediction limit. So, the objective of this work is to clarify the probability of exceeding these limits in flight so that decision-makers can better understand the risk associated with exceeding design and test levels during flight and balance the cost of design and development with that of mission failure.« less

  1. When is diagnostic testing inappropriate or irrational? Acceptable regret approach.

    PubMed

    Hozo, Iztok; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    The authors provide a new model within the framework of theories of bounded rationality for the observed physicians' behavior that their ordering of diagnostic tests may not be rational. Contrary to the prevailing thinking, the authors find that physicians do not act irrationally or inappropriately when they order diagnostic tests in usual clinical practice. When acceptable regret (i.e., regret that a decision maker finds tolerable upon making a wrong decision) is taken into account, the authors show that physicians tend to order diagnostic tests at a higher level of pretest probability of disease than predicted by expected utility theory. They also show why physicians tend to overtest when regret about erroneous decisions is extremely small. Finally, they explain variations in the practice of medicine. They demonstrate that in the same clinical situation, different decision makers might have different acceptable regret thresholds for withholding treatment, for ordering a diagnostic test, or for administering treatment. This in turn means that for some decision makers, the most rational strategy is to do nothing, whereas for others, it may be to order a diagnostic test, and still for others, choosing treatment may be the most rational course of action. PMID:18480041

  2. Feline Calicivirus Can Tolerate Gross Changes of Its Minor Capsid Protein Expression Levels Induced by Changing Translation Reinitiation Frequency or Use of a Separate VP2-Coding mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Caliciviruses use reinitiation of translation governed by a ‘termination upstream ribosomal binding site’ (TURBS) for expression of their minor capsid protein VP2. Mutation analysis allowed to identify sequences surrounding the translational start/stop site of the feline calicivirus (FCV) that fine tune reinitiation frequency. A selection of these changes was introduced into the infectious FCV cDNA clone to check the influence of altered VP2 levels on virus replication. In addition, full length constructs were established that displayed a conformation, in which VP2 expression occurred under control of a duplicated subgenomic promoter. Viable viruses recovered from such constructs revealed a rather broad range of VP2 expression levels but comparable growth kinetics showing that caliciviruses can tolerate gross changes of the VP2 expression level. PMID:25007260

  3. Haem oxygenase modifies salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis by controlling K+ retention via regulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase and by altering SOS1 transcript levels in roots

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Jayakumar

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is a common denominator in a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses, including salinity. In recent years, haem oxygenase (HO; EC 1.14.99.3) has been described as an important component of the antioxidant defence system in both mammalian and plant systems. Moreover, a recent report on Arabidopsis demonstrated that HO overexpression resulted in an enhanced salinity tolerance in this species. However, physiological mechanisms and downstream targets responsible for the observed salinity tolerance in these HO mutants remain elusive. To address this gap, ion transport characteristics (K+ and H+ fluxes and membrane potentials) and gene expression profiles in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana HO-overexpressing (35S:HY1-1/2/3/4) and loss-of-function (hy-100, ho2, ho3, and ho4) mutants were compared during salinity stress. Upon acute salt stress, HO-overexpressing mutants retained more K+ (less efflux), and exhibited better membrane potential regulation (maintained more negative potential) and higher H+ efflux activity in root epidermis, compared with loss-of-function mutants. Pharmacological experiments suggested that high activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in HO overexpressor mutants provided the proton-motive force required for membrane potential maintenance and, hence, better K+ retention. The gene expression analysis after 12h and 24h of salt stress revealed high expression levels of H+-ATPases (AHA1/2/3) and Na+/H+ antiporter [salt overly sensitive1 (SOS1)] transcripts in the plasma membrane of HO overexpressors. It is concluded that HO modifies salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis by controlling K+ retention via regulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase and by altering SOS1 transcript levels in roots. PMID:23307916

  4. Accept or divert?

    PubMed

    Angelucci, P A

    1999-09-01

    Stretching scarce resources is more than a managerial issue. Should you accept the patient to an understaffed ICU or divert him to another facility? The intense "medical utility" controversy focuses on a situation that critical care nurses now face every day. PMID:10614370

  5. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  6. 1984 Newbery Acceptance Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    This acceptance speech for an award honoring "Dear Mr. Henshaw," a book about feelings of a lonely child of divorce intended for eight-, nine-, and ten-year-olds, highlights children's letters to author. Changes in society that affect children, the inception of "Dear Mr. Henshaw," and children's reactions to books are highlighted. (EJS)

  7. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  8. UGV acceptance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Robin R.

    2006-05-01

    With over 100 models of unmanned vehicles now available for military and civilian safety, security or rescue applications, it is important to for agencies to establish acceptance testing. However, there appears to be no general guidelines for what constitutes a reasonable acceptance test. This paper describes i) a preliminary method for acceptance testing by a customer of the mechanical and electrical components of an unmanned ground vehicle system, ii) how it has been applied to a man-packable micro-robot, and iii) discusses the value of testing both to ensure that the customer has a workable system and to improve design. The test method automated the operation of the robot to repeatedly exercise all aspects and combinations of components on the robot for 6 hours. The acceptance testing process uncovered many failures consistent with those shown to occur in the field, showing that testing by the user does predict failures. The process also demonstrated that the testing by the manufacturer can provide important design data that can be used to identify, diagnose, and prevent long-term problems. Also, the structured testing environment showed that sensor systems can be used to predict errors and changes in performance, as well as uncovering unmodeled behavior in subsystems.

  9. Acceptance Priority Ranking & Annual Capacity Report

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-31

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (the Act), assigns the Federal Government the responsibility for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. Section 302(a) of the Act authorizes the Secretary to enter into contracts with the owners and generators of commercial spent nuclear fuel and/or high-level waste. The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (Standard Contract) established the contractual mechanism for the Department's acceptance and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. It includes the requirements and operational responsibilities of the parties to the Standard Contract in the areas of administrative matters, fees, terms of payment, waste acceptance criteria, and waste acceptance procedures. The Standard Contract provides for the acquisition of title to the spent nuclear fuel and/or high-level waste by the Department, its transportation to Federal facilities, and its subsequent disposal.

  10. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-07-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal.

  11. Hand to Hand: Teaching Tolerance and Social Justice One Child at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakin, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Tolerance connotes patience, forbearance, and impartiality, as well as open-mindedness. In early childhood, possessing tolerance would refer to children's burgeoning awareness of themselves in relation to others, and the capability to accept appearance and behavior different from one's own. But is teaching tolerance, additionally considered the…

  12. Comparison of acceptance and distraction strategies in coping with experimentally induced pain

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Hazel; Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; McGuire, Brian E

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compared an acceptance-based strategy with a control-based strategy (distraction) in terms of the ability of participants to tolerate a painful stimulus, across two experiments. In addition, participants were either actively encouraged, or not, to link pain tolerance with pursuit of valued goals to examine the impact of pursuing a personally meaningful goal or value on the extent to which pain will be tolerated. Methods Participants in experiment 1 (n=41) and experiment 2 (n=52) were equally assigned to acceptance or distraction protocols. Further, half the participants in each group generated examples from their own lives in which they had pursued a valued objective, while the other half did not. In experiment 2, the values focus was enhanced to examine the impact on pain tolerance. Results There were no significant differences overall between the acceptance and distraction groups on pain tolerance in either experiment. However, in experiment 2, individuals classified as accepting in terms of general coping style and who were assigned to the acceptance strategy showed significantly better pain tolerance than accepting individuals who were in the distraction condition. Across both experiments, those with strong goal-driven values in both protocols were more tolerant of pain. Participants appeared to have more difficulty adhering to acceptance than to distraction as a strategy. Conclusion Acceptance may be associated with better tolerance of pain, but may also be more difficult to operationalize than distraction in experimental studies. Matching coping style and coping strategy may be most effective, and enhancement of goal-driven values may assist in pain coping. PMID:25834464

  13. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  14. The protein level of isoenergetic formulae does not modulate postprandial insulin secretion in piglets and has no consequences on later glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Blat, Sophie; Morise, Anne; Sauret, Anne; Louveau, Isabelle; Macé, Katherine; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Sève, Bernard

    2012-07-14

    Early postnatal nutrition is involved in metabolic programming, an excess of protein being suspected to enhance early growth and the propensity to later develop insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that excessive protein intake during the suckling period would overstimulate the endocrine pancreas in the short term and alter durably its maturation, contributing to the later disruption of glucose homeostasis. Normal-birth-weight and low-birth-weight piglets were fed isoenergetic formulae providing an adequate-protein (AP, equivalent to sow milk) or a high-protein (HP, +48 %) supply between 7 and 28 d of age and were fed a standard diet until 70 d of age. During the formula-feeding period, the HP formula did not modify postprandial insulin secretion but transiently increased fasting insulin and the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR, P < 0·05). Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were restored to AP piglets' values 1 month after weaning. The structure of the endocrine pancreas was not affected by the protein content of the formula. The weight at birth had no major effect on the studied parameters. We concluded that a high-protein supply during the suckling period does not interfere with insulin secretion and endocrine pancreas maturation in the short term. It has no consequences either on glucose tolerance 1 month after weaning. The present study demonstrated that up-regulation of postprandial insulin secretion is not involved in higher growth observed in piglets fed a HP formula. PMID:22018265

  15. Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1994-12-01

    The removal of cell-bound water through air drying and the addition of water to air-dried cells are forces that have played a pivotal role in the evolution of the prokaryotes. In bacterial cells that have been subjected to air drying, the evaporation of free cytoplasmic water (Vf) can be instantaneous, and an equilibrium between cell-bound water (Vb) and the environmental water (vapor) potential (psi wv) may be achieved rapidly. In the air-dried state some bacteria survive only for seconds whereas others can tolerate desiccation for thousands, perhaps millions, of years. The desiccated (anhydrobiotic) cell is characterized by its singular lack of water--with contents as low as 0.02 g of H2O g (dry weight)-1. At these levels the monolayer coverage by water of macromolecules, including DNA and proteins, is disturbed. As a consequence the mechanisms that confer desiccation tolerance upon air-dried bacteria are markedly different from those, such as the mechanism of preferential exclusion of compatible solutes, that preserve the integrity of salt-, osmotically, and freeze-thaw-stressed cells. Desiccation tolerance reflects a complex array of interactions at the structural, physiological, and molecular levels. Many of the mechanisms remain cryptic, but it is clear that they involve interactions, such as those between proteins and co-solvents, that derive from the unique properties of the water molecule. A water replacement hypothesis accounts for how the nonreducing disaccharides trehalose and sucrose preserve the integrity of membranes and proteins. Nevertheless, we have virtually no insight into the state of the cytoplasm of an air-dried cell. There is no evidence for any obvious adaptations of proteins that can counter the effects of air drying or for the occurrence of any proteins that provide a direct and a tangible contribution to cell stability. Among the prokaryotes that can exist as anhydrobiotic cells, the cyanobacteria have a marked capacity to do so. One

  16. Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Potts, M

    1994-01-01

    The removal of cell-bound water through air drying and the addition of water to air-dried cells are forces that have played a pivotal role in the evolution of the prokaryotes. In bacterial cells that have been subjected to air drying, the evaporation of free cytoplasmic water (Vf) can be instantaneous, and an equilibrium between cell-bound water (Vb) and the environmental water (vapor) potential (psi wv) may be achieved rapidly. In the air-dried state some bacteria survive only for seconds whereas others can tolerate desiccation for thousands, perhaps millions, of years. The desiccated (anhydrobiotic) cell is characterized by its singular lack of water--with contents as low as 0.02 g of H2O g (dry weight)-1. At these levels the monolayer coverage by water of macromolecules, including DNA and proteins, is disturbed. As a consequence the mechanisms that confer desiccation tolerance upon air-dried bacteria are markedly different from those, such as the mechanism of preferential exclusion of compatible solutes, that preserve the integrity of salt-, osmotically, and freeze-thaw-stressed cells. Desiccation tolerance reflects a complex array of interactions at the structural, physiological, and molecular levels. Many of the mechanisms remain cryptic, but it is clear that they involve interactions, such as those between proteins and co-solvents, that derive from the unique properties of the water molecule. A water replacement hypothesis accounts for how the nonreducing disaccharides trehalose and sucrose preserve the integrity of membranes and proteins. Nevertheless, we have virtually no insight into the state of the cytoplasm of an air-dried cell. There is no evidence for any obvious adaptations of proteins that can counter the effects of air drying or for the occurrence of any proteins that provide a direct and a tangible contribution to cell stability. Among the prokaryotes that can exist as anhydrobiotic cells, the cyanobacteria have a marked capacity to do so. One

  17. +Gz tolerance after 14 days bed rest and the effects of rehydration.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Van Beaumont, W.; Bernauer, E. M.; Haines, R. F.; Sandler, H.; Young, H. L.; Yusken, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Measurement of the reduction in centrifugation tolerance after two weeks of bedrest with moderate daily exercise, with an attempt to determine if rehydration improves +Gz tolerance. There were significant reductions in +Gz tolerance during bedrest periods at three acceleration levels. Rehydration resulted in a significant increase in tolerance at 2.1G but it did not restore tolerance to control levels. Rehydration did not affect tolerance at 3.2G and 3.8G.

  18. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  19. Colour perception with changes in levels of illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baah, Kwame F.; Green, Phil; Pointer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The perceived colour of a stimulus depends on the conditions under which it is viewed. For colours employed as an important cue or identifier, such as signage and brand colours, colour reproduction tolerances are critically important. Typically, such stimuli would be judged using a known level of illumination but, in the target environment, the level of illumination used to view the samples may be entirely different. The effect of changes in the viewing condition on the perceptibility and acceptability of small colour differences should be understood when such tolerances and associated viewing conditions, are specified. A series of psychophysical experiments was conducted to determine whether changes in illumination level significantly alter acceptability and perceptibility thresholds of uniform colour stimuli. It was found that perceived colour discrimination thresholds varied by up to 2.0 ΔE00. For the perceptual correlate of hue however, this value could be of significance if the accepted error of colour difference was at the threshold, thereby yielding the possibility of rejection with changes in illumination level. Lightness and chroma on the other hand, exhibited greater tolerance and were less likely to be rejected with illuminance changes.

  20. Lactose tolerance tests

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen in the air you breathe out. ...

  1. An Investigative Redesign of the ECG and EMG Signal Conditioning Circuits for Two-fault Tolerance and Circuit Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Edward M.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to make the elctrocardiography (ECG) and the electromyography (EMG) signal conditioning circuits two-fault tolerant and to update the circuitry. The present signal conditioning circuits provide at least one level of subject protection against electrical shock hazard but at a level of 100 micro-A (for voltages of up to 200 V). However, it is necessary to provide catastrophic fault tolerance protection for the astronauts and to provide protection at a current level of less that 100 micro-A. For this study, protection at the 10 micro-A level was sought. This is the generally accepted value below which no possibility of microshock exists. Only the possibility of macroshock exists in the case of the signal conditioners. However, this extra amount of protection is desirable. The initial part deals with current limiter circuits followed by an investigation into the signal conditioner specifications and circuit design.

  2. An investigative redesign of the ECG and EMG signal conditioning circuits for two-fault tolerance and circuit improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrien, Edward M.

    1991-12-01

    An investigation was undertaken to make the elctrocardiography (ECG) and the electromyography (EMG) signal conditioning circuits two-fault tolerant and to update the circuitry. The present signal conditioning circuits provide at least one level of subject protection against electrical shock hazard but at a level of 100 micro-A (for voltages of up to 200 V). However, it is necessary to provide catastrophic fault tolerance protection for the astronauts and to provide protection at a current level of less that 100 micro-A. For this study, protection at the 10 micro-A level was sought. This is the generally accepted value below which no possibility of microshock exists. Only the possibility of macroshock exists in the case of the signal conditioners. However, this extra amount of protection is desirable. The initial part deals with current limiter circuits followed by an investigation into the signal conditioner specifications and circuit design.

  3. Tolerance bands for functional data.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, Lasitha N; Choudhary, Pankaj K

    2016-06-01

    Often the object of inference in biomedical applications is a range that brackets a given fraction of individual observations in a population. A classical estimate of this range for univariate measurements is a "tolerance interval." This article develops its natural extension for functional measurements, a "tolerance band," and proposes a methodology for constructing its pointwise and simultaneous versions that incorporates both sparse and dense functional data. Assuming that the measurements are observed with noise, the methodology uses functional principal component analysis in a mixed model framework to represent the measurements and employs bootstrapping to approximate the tolerance factors needed for the bands. The proposed bands also account for uncertainty in the principal components decomposition. Simulations show that the methodology has, generally, acceptable performance unless the data are quite sparse and unbalanced, in which case the bands may be somewhat liberal. The methodology is illustrated using two real datasets, a sparse dataset involving CD4 cell counts and a dense dataset involving core body temperatures. PMID:26574904

  4. Transplantation tolerance--a historical introduction.

    PubMed

    Brent, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    The concept of immunological tolerance--the state of specific unresponsiveness to allogeneic transplants and all manner of other antigens--began in 1945 with R.D. Owen's finding that cattle dizygotic twins are red blood cell chimeras. Peter Medawar's group in Birmingham likewise discovered, quite independently, that cattle dizygotic twins accept each others' skin grafts. These findings, together with F.M. Burnet and F. Fenner's speculations in 1949, prompted Medawar, together with R.E. Billingham and L. Brent, now at University College London, to embark on an extensive series of experiments that established immunological tolerance as a fundamental phenomenon, forming a new branch of immunology. PMID:26694700

  5. TRANSGENIC WHEATS WITH ELEVATED LEVELS OF DX5 AND/OR DY10 HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT GLUTENIN SUBUNITS YIELD DOUGHS WITH INCREASED MIXING STRENGTH AND TOLERANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to test the effects of independently increasing the in vivo levels of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) Dx5 and Dy10 on wheat flour properties, we increased the copy numbers of their corresponding genes by genetic transformation. Thirteen transformants with increases in one o...

  6. Mechanism of boron tolerance in soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Iftikhar; Fujiwara, Toru

    2010-01-01

    Boron (B) is toxic to living cells at levels above a certain threshold. We isolated several B-tolerant bacterial strains from soil samples and studied them for possible mechanisms of B tolerance. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and comparative phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the isolates belong to the following 6 genera: Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Lysinibacillus, Algoriphagus, Gracilibacillus, and Bacillus. These isolates exhibited B-tolerance levels of 80, 100, 150, 300, 450, and 450 mmol/L, respectively, whilst maintaining a significantly lower intracellular B concentration than in the medium. Statistical analysis showed a negative correlation between the protoplasmic B concentration and the degree of tolerance to a high external B concentration. The kinetic assays suggest that the high B efflux and (or) exclusion are the tolerance mechanisms against a high external B concentration in the isolated bacteria. PMID:20130690

  7. SFT: Scalable Fault Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Petrini, Fabrizio; Nieplocha, Jarek; Tipparaju, Vinod

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we will present a new technology that we are currently developing within the SFT: Scalable Fault Tolerance FastOS project which seeks to implement fault tolerance at the operating system level. Major design goals include dynamic reallocation of resources to allow continuing execution in the presence of hardware failures, very high scalability, high efficiency (low overhead), and transparency—requiring no changes to user applications. Our technology is based on a global coordination mechanism, that enforces transparent recovery lines in the system, and TICK, a lightweight, incremental checkpointing software architecture implemented as a Linux kernel module. TICK is completely user-transparent and does not require any changes to user code or system libraries; it is highly responsive: an interrupt, such as a timer interrupt, can trigger a checkpoint in as little as 2.5μs; and it supports incremental and full checkpoints with minimal overhead—less than 6% with full checkpointing to disk performed as frequently as once per minute.

  8. Zero Tolerance in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henault, Cherry

    2001-01-01

    Questions the effectiveness of the widespread use of zero-tolerance policies enacted by school boards to punish students who violate weapon and drug rules. Suggests that enforcement of zero-tolerance policies has not been equitable. Reviews proposal for alternative to zero tolerance. (PKP)

  9. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    MCDOWELL, A.K.; TRINER, G.C.

    2002-03-28

    DOE Order 435.1 requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic (TRU) waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of waste at TSD units operated by WMP. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Revisions to the acceptance criteria document require an Unreviewed Safety Question review to document that the changes are consistent with current applicable safety analysis. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility; and T-Plant facility. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the waste specification records (WSRds) and/or waste stream profile sheet approvals. The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite

  10. Low dose busulfan facilitates chimerism and tolerance in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Anam, Khairul; Black, Alfred T; Hale, Douglas A

    2006-01-01

    T cell depletion, sirolimus and "mega" dose donor specific bone marrow (DSBM) infusion promotes stable multilineage chimerism and indefinite survival of skin allografts in completely mismatched mice. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the addition of low dose busulfan can reduce the amount of DSBM required while preserving efficacy. C57BL/6 recipients of BALB/c skin allografts were treated with alphaCD4 and alphaCD8 monoclonal antibodies, DSBM, sirolimus and various doses of busulfan. The kinetics and phenotype of chimerism and the presence of clonal deletion of alloreactive T-cells were defined using flow cytometry. In vitro reactivity was determined using mixed lymphocyte culture. Second skin grafts confirmed the presence of tolerance. All doses of busulfan resulted in engraftment when combined with this regimen using a reduced dose of donor marrow. The level, kinetics and character of chimerism observed were dose related. Chimerism was associated with indefinite allograft acceptance (>200 days). Tolerance was documented both in vitro/in vivo and was associated with clonal deletion. Addition of a single low dose of busulfan to an established tolerance protocol reduced the required DSBM dose by over 80% while still promoting comparable levels of donor chimerism and donor-specific tolerance. PMID:16431286

  11. Pain Intensity and Patients’ Acceptance of Surgical Complication Risks With Lumbar Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Bono, Christopher M.; Harris, Mitchel B.; Warholic, Natalie; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Carreras, Edward; White, Andrew; Schmitz, Miguel; Wood, Kirkham B.; Losina, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study with prospective recruitment Objective To determine the relationship of pain intensity (back and leg) on patients’ acceptance of surgical complication risks when deciding whether or not to undergo lumbar spinal fusion. Background To formulate informed decisions regarding lumbar fusion surgery, preoperative discussions should include a review of the risk of complications balanced with the likelihood of symptom relief. Pain intensity has the potential to influence a patient’s decision to consent to lumbar fusion. We hypothesized that pain intensity is associated with a patient’s acceptance of surgical complication risks. Methods Patients being seen for the first time by a spine surgeon for treatment of a non-traumatic or non-neoplastic spinal disorder completed a structured questionnaire. It posed 24 scenarios, each presenting a combination of risks of 3 complications (nerve damage, wound infection, nonunion) and probabilities of symptom relief. For each scenario, the patient indicated whether he/she would/would not consent to a fusion for low back pain (LBP). The sum of the scenarios in which the patient responded that he or she would elect surgery was calculated to represent acceptance of surgical complication risks. A variety of other data were also recorded, including age, gender, education level, race, history of non-spinal surgery, duration of pain, and history of spinal injections. Data were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multivariate regression analyses. Results The mean number of scenarios accepted by 118 enrolled subjects was 10.2 (median 8, standard deviation 8.5, range 0 to 24, or 42.5% of scenarios). In general, subjects were more likely to accept scenarios with lower risks and higher efficacy. Spearman’s rank correlation estimates demonstrated a moderate association between the LBP intensity and acceptance of surgical complication risks (r=0.37, p=0.0001) while leg pain intensity had a weak but positive

  12. "Infectious" Transplantation Tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shixin; Cobbold, Stephen P.; Pope, Heather; Elliott, James; Kioussis, Dimitris; Davies, Joanna; Waldmann, Herman

    1993-02-01

    The maintenance of transplantation tolerance induced in adult mice after short-term treatment with nonlytic monoclonal antibodies to CD4 and CD8 was investigated. CD4^+ T cells from tolerant mice disabled naive lymphocytes so that they too could not reject the graft. The naive lymphocytes that had been so disabled also became tolerant and, in turn, developed the capacity to specifically disable other naive lymphocytes. This process of "infectious" tolerance explains why no further immunosuppression was needed to maintain long-term transplantation tolerance.

  13. Assessing tolerance for wildlife: Clarifying relations between concepts and measures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruskotter, Jeremy T.; Singh, Ajay; Fulton, David C.; Slagle, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Two parallel lines of inquiry, tolerance for and acceptance of wildlife populations, have arisen in the applied literature on wildlife conservation to assess probability of successfully establishing or increasing populations of controversial species. Neither of these lines is well grounded in social science theory, and diverse measures have been employed to assess tolerance, which inhibits comparability across studies. We empirically tested behavioral measures of tolerance against self-reports of previous policy-relevant behavior and behavioral intentions. Both composite behavioral measures were strongly correlated (r > .70) with two attitudinal measures of tolerance commonly employed in the literature. The strong correlation between attitudinal and behavioral measures suggests existing attitudinal measures represent valid, parsimonious measures of tolerance that may be useful when behavioral measures are too cumbersome or misreporting of behavior is anticipated. Our results demonstrate how behavioral measures of tolerance provide additional, useful information beyond general attitudinal measures.

  14. Physiologic correlates to background noise acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampas, Joanna; Harkrider, Ashley; Nabelek, Anna

    2001-05-01

    Acceptance of background noise can be evaluated by having listeners indicate the highest background noise level (BNL) they are willing to accept while following the words of a story presented at their most comfortable listening level (MCL). The difference between the selected MCL and BNL is termed the acceptable noise level (ANL). One of the consistent findings in previous studies of ANL is large intersubject variability in acceptance of background noise. This variability is not related to age, gender, hearing sensitivity, personality, type of background noise, or speech perception in noise performance. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if individual differences in physiological activity measured from the peripheral and central auditory systems of young female adults with normal hearing can account for the variability observed in ANL. Correlations between ANL and various physiological responses, including spontaneous, click-evoked, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem and middle latency evoked potentials, and electroencephalography will be presented. Results may increase understanding of the regions of the auditory system that contribute to individual noise acceptance.

  15. 78 FR 32146 - Triforine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...-for Tolerance In the Federal Register of November 9, 2011 (76 FR 69690) (FRL- 9325-1), EPA issued a... and alkaline phosphatase levels. Toxicity was not observed in a rat 21-day dermal toxicity study...

  16. Assessments at multiple levels of biological organization allow for an integrative determination of physiological tolerances to turbidity in an endangered fish species

    PubMed Central

    Hasenbein, Matthias; Fangue, Nann A.; Geist, Juergen; Komoroske, Lisa M.; Truong, Jennifer; McPherson, Rina; Connon, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity can influence trophic levels by altering species composition and can potentially affect fish feeding strategies and predator–prey interactions. The estuarine turbidity maximum, described as an area of increased suspended particles, phytoplankton and zooplankton, generally represents a zone with higher turbidity and enhanced food sources important for successful feeding and growth in many fish species. The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endangered, pelagic fish species endemic to the San Francisco Estuary and Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, USA, where it is associated with turbid waters. Turbidity is known to play an important role for the completion of the species' life cycle; however, turbidity ranges in the Delta are broad, and specific requirements for this fish species are still unknown. To evaluate turbidity requirements for early life stages, late-larval delta smelt were maintained at environmentally relevant turbidity levels ranging from 5 to 250 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for 24 h, after which a combination of physiological endpoints (molecular biomarkers and cortisol), behavioural indices (feeding) and whole-organism measures (survival) were determined. All endpoints delivered consistent results and identified turbidities between 25 and 80 NTU as preferential. Delta smelt survival rates were highest between 12 and 80 NTU and feeding rates were highest between 25 and 80 NTU. Cortisol levels indicated minimal stress between 35 and 80 NTU and were elevated at low turbidities (5, 12 and 25 NTU). Expression of stress-related genes indicated significant responses for gst, hsp70 and glut2 in high turbidities (250 NTU), and principal component analysis on all measured genes revealed a clustering of 25, 35, 50 and 80 NTU separating the medium-turbidity treatments from low- and high-turbidity treatments. Taken together, these data demonstrate that turbidity levels that are either too low or too high affect

  17. Assessments at multiple levels of biological organization allow for an integrative determination of physiological tolerances to turbidity in an endangered fish species.

    PubMed

    Hasenbein, Matthias; Fangue, Nann A; Geist, Juergen; Komoroske, Lisa M; Truong, Jennifer; McPherson, Rina; Connon, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity can influence trophic levels by altering species composition and can potentially affect fish feeding strategies and predator-prey interactions. The estuarine turbidity maximum, described as an area of increased suspended particles, phytoplankton and zooplankton, generally represents a zone with higher turbidity and enhanced food sources important for successful feeding and growth in many fish species. The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endangered, pelagic fish species endemic to the San Francisco Estuary and Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, USA, where it is associated with turbid waters. Turbidity is known to play an important role for the completion of the species' life cycle; however, turbidity ranges in the Delta are broad, and specific requirements for this fish species are still unknown. To evaluate turbidity requirements for early life stages, late-larval delta smelt were maintained at environmentally relevant turbidity levels ranging from 5 to 250 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for 24 h, after which a combination of physiological endpoints (molecular biomarkers and cortisol), behavioural indices (feeding) and whole-organism measures (survival) were determined. All endpoints delivered consistent results and identified turbidities between 25 and 80 NTU as preferential. Delta smelt survival rates were highest between 12 and 80 NTU and feeding rates were highest between 25 and 80 NTU. Cortisol levels indicated minimal stress between 35 and 80 NTU and were elevated at low turbidities (5, 12 and 25 NTU). Expression of stress-related genes indicated significant responses for gst, hsp70 and glut2 in high turbidities (250 NTU), and principal component analysis on all measured genes revealed a clustering of 25, 35, 50 and 80 NTU separating the medium-turbidity treatments from low- and high-turbidity treatments. Taken together, these data demonstrate that turbidity levels that are either too low or too high affect delta

  18. Development of radiation tolerant components for the Quench Protection System at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitterling, O.; Denz, R.; Steckert, J.; Uznanski, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of irradiation campaigns with the high resolution Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) ADS1281. This ADC will be used as part of a revised quench detection circuit for the 600 A corrector magnets at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . To verify the radiation tolerance of the ADC an irradiation campaign using a proton beam, applying doses up to 3,4 kGy was conducted. The resulting data and an analysis of the found failure modes is discussed in this paper. Several mitigation measures are described that allow to reduce the error rate to levels acceptable for operation as part of the LHC QPS.

  19. Transplantation tolerance from a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Starzl, Thomas E.; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    2011-01-01

    Although transplantation immunology as a distinctive field began with the development of experimental models that showed the feasibility of bone marrow transplantation, organ engraftment was accomplished first in humans, and was thought for many years to occur by drastically different mechanisms. Here, we present our view of the concepts of allograft acceptance and acquired tolerance from a historical perspective, and attempt to amalgamate them into simple and unifying rules that might guide improvements in clinical therapy. PMID:11905833

  20. Network Candidate Genes in Breeding for Drought Tolerant Crops

    PubMed Central

    Krannich, Christoph Tim; Maletzki, Lisa; Kurowsky, Christina; Horn, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Climate change leading to increased periods of low water availability as well as increasing demands for food in the coming years makes breeding for drought tolerant crops a high priority. Plants have developed diverse strategies and mechanisms to survive drought stress. However, most of these represent drought escape or avoidance strategies like early flowering or low stomatal conductance that are not applicable in breeding for crops with high yields under drought conditions. Even though a great deal of research is ongoing, especially in cereals, in this regard, not all mechanisms involved in drought tolerance are yet understood. The identification of candidate genes for drought tolerance that have a high potential to be used for breeding drought tolerant crops represents a challenge. Breeding for drought tolerant crops has to focus on acceptable yields under water-limited conditions and not on survival. However, as more and more knowledge about the complex networks and the cross talk during drought is available, more options are revealed. In addition, it has to be considered that conditioning a crop for drought tolerance might require the production of metabolites and might cost the plants energy and resources that cannot be used in terms of yield. Recent research indicates that yield penalty exists and efficient breeding for drought tolerant crops with acceptable yields under well-watered and drought conditions might require uncoupling yield penalty from drought tolerance. PMID:26193269

  1. Evolving an acceptable nuclear power fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.

    1986-10-01

    The following issues are examined: long-term safe nuclear power plant operation; acceptable nuclear waste management and, mainly, high-level waste management; and provision for long-term fissile fuel supply in a long-term nuclear fission economy. (LM)

  2. Accepted Peer Practices in Adventure Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, Karl M., Comp.

    For the purpose of raising the level of safety, encouraging educational institutions and training programs to develop leaders, providing information for programs, establishing a base for communication with land use agencies, and providing information for school and agency custodians of potential students, the manual outlines "Accepted Peer…

  3. Some species tolerate ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-12-01

    Increasing carbon dioxide levels lead to rising ocean acidity, which can harm corals and many other species of ocean life. Acidification causes calcium carbonate, which corals usually need to build skeletons, to dissolve. “Every day, ocean acidification is taking up the weight of 6 million midsize cars' worth of carbon, said Nina Keul, a graduate student at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Germany during a 7 December press conference at the AGU Fall Meeting. Somewhat surprising, though, is that some species are more tolerant of acidic conditions than scientists had expected. For instance, Keul exposed a species of foraminifera, Ammonia tepida, to seawater with varying acidity and varying carbonate ion concentrations. Previous studies had found that foraminifera growth declined with decreasing carbonate levels, but Keul's foraminifera continued to grow in the acidic conditions. She said that the mechanism that allows this species to tolerate the low carbonate conditions is as yet unknown.

  4. Study of the tevatron nonlinear acceptance by computer simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Willeke, F.

    1983-11-01

    In this report, the results of computer calculations of nonlinear acceptance reduction caused by nonlinear fields in the TEVATRON are presented. A set of test particles has been traced during many revolutions in the accelerator in order to determine the maximum stable amplitude in the presence of nonlinear fields. Sources of nonlinear fields are designed imperfections of dipole and quadrupole magnets, fluctuations due to manufacturing tolerances, and sextupole fields needed to compensate for chromaticity.

  5. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-10-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  6. Stress Tolerance Profiling of a Collection of Extant Salt-Tolerant Rice Varieties and Transgenic Plants Overexpressing Abiotic Stress Tolerance Genes.

    PubMed

    Kurotani, Ken-ichi; Yamanaka, Kazumasa; Toda, Yosuke; Ogawa, Daisuke; Tanaka, Maiko; Kozawa, Hirotsugu; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Hakata, Makoto; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Hattori, Tsukaho; Takeda, Shin

    2015-10-01

    Environmental stress tolerance is an important trait for crop improvement. In recent decades, numerous genes that confer tolerance to abiotic stress such as salinity were reported. However, the levels of salt tolerance differ greatly depending on growth conditions, and mechanisms underlying the complicated nature of stress tolerance are far from being fully understood. In this study, we investigated the profiles of stress tolerance of nine salt-tolerant rice varieties and transgenic rice lines carrying constitutively expressed genes that are potentially involved in salt tolerance, by evaluating their growth and viability under salt, heat, ionic and hyperosmotic stress conditions. Profiling of the extant varieties and selected chromosome segment substitution lines showed that salt tolerance in a greenhouse condition was more tightly correlated with ionic stress tolerance than osmotic stresses. In Nona Bokra, one of the most salt-tolerant varieties, the contribution of the previously identified sodium transporter HKT1;5 to salt tolerance was fairly limited. In addition, Nona Bokra exhibited high tolerance to all the stresses imposed. More surprisingly, comparative evaluation of 74 stress tolerance genes revealed that the most striking effect to enhance salt tolerance was conferred by overexpressing CYP94C2b, which promotes deactivation of jasmonate. In contrast, genes encoding ABA signaling factors conferred multiple stress tolerance. Genes conferring tolerance to both heat and hyperosmotic stresses were preferentially linked to functional categories related to heat shock proteins, scavenging of reactive oxygen species and Ca(2+) signaling. These comparative profiling data provide a new basis for understanding the ability of plants to grow under harsh environmental conditions. PMID:26329877

  7. Sulfur tolerant anode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

  8. Patients’ acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Zawawi, Khalid H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study patients’ acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics as a treatment option. Methods Adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment were asked to complete two sets of questionnaires; the first set included questions about age, sex, and level of education and general questions about orthodontic treatment; and the second set was related to the corticotomy-assisted orthodontics. Before answering the corticotomy questions, a brief description of the clinical procedure was explained and photographs of an actual procedure were shown. Results A total of 150 subjects were approached and 129 (86%) agreed to answer the questionnaires (72 male and 57 female patients). Of these, only 3.1% did hear about corticotomy and 7.8% selected corticotomy instead of extraction. Fear from the surgery (53.2%) was the most frequent reason for not selecting corticotomy followed by fear from pain (36.9%). The acceptance of corticotomy between males and females was similar. No relationship was found between the level of education and prior knowledge of the procedure, P=0.857. Prior knowledge about corticotomy was not a factor in selecting it as a treatment option (P=0.556) to reduce the treatment time (P=0.427). Conclusion The acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics as a treatment option was low. Fear from the surgery was the main reason for not selecting it. The acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics was not related to patient’s level of education or sex. PMID:26316719

  9. Heritable pollution tolerance in a marine invader.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Louise A; Brooks, Rob; Johnston, Emma L

    2011-10-01

    The global spread of fouling invasive species is continuing despite the use of antifouling biocides. Furthermore, previous evidence suggests that non-indigenous species introduced via hull fouling may be capable of adapting to metal-polluted environments. Using a laboratory based toxicity assay, we investigated tolerance to copper in the non-indigenous bryozoan Watersipora subtorquata from four source populations. Individual colonies were collected from four sites within Port Hacking (Sydney, Australia) and their offspring exposed to a range of copper concentrations. This approach, using a full-sib, split-family design, tests for a genotype by environment (G×E) interaction. Settlement and complete metamorphosis (recruitment) were measured as ecologically relevant endpoints. Larval sizes were also measured for each colony. Successful recruitment was significantly reduced by the highest copper concentration of 80μgL(-1). While there was no difference in pollution tolerance between sites, there was a significant G×E interaction, with large variation in the response of colony offspring within sites. Larval size differed significantly both between sites and between colonies and was positively correlated with tolerance. The high level of variation in copper tolerance between colonies suggests that there is considerable potential within populations to adapt to elevated copper levels, as tolerance is a heritable trait. Also, colonies that produce large larvae are more tolerant to copper, suggesting that tolerance may be a direct consequence of larger size. PMID:21295292

  10. Over-expression of a tomato N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase gene (SlNAGS1) in Arabidopsis thaliana results in high ornithine levels and increased tolerance in salt and drought stresses

    PubMed Central

    Kalamaki, Mary S.; Alexandrou, Dimitris; Lazari, Diamanto; Merkouropoulos, Georgios; Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Pateraki, Irene; Aggelis, Alexandros; Carrillo-López, Armando; Rubio-Cabetas, Maria J.; Kanellis, Angelos K.

    2009-01-01

    A single copy of the N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase gene (SlNAGS1) has been isolated from tomato. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 604 amino acids and shows a high level of similarity to the predicted Arabidopsis NAGS1 and NAGS2 proteins. Furthermore, the N-terminus ArgB domain and the C-terminus ArgA domain found in SlNAGS1 are similar to the structural arrangements that have been reported for other predicted NAGS proteins. SlNAGS1 was expressed at high levels in all aerial organs, and at basic levels in seeds, whereas it was not detected at all in roots. SlNAGS1 transcript accumulation was noticed transiently in tomato fruit at the red-fruit stage. In addition, an increase of SlNAGS1 transcripts was detected in mature green tomato fruit within the first hour of exposure to low oxygen concentrations. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants have been generated expressing the SlNAGS1 gene under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Three homozygous transgenic lines expressing the transgene (lines 1-7, 3-8, and 6-5) were evaluated further. All three transgenic lines showed a significant accumulation of ornithine in the leaves with line 3-8 exhibiting the highest concentration. The same lines demonstrated higher germination ability compared to wild-type (WT) plants when subjected to 250 mM NaCl. Similarly, mature plants of all three transgenic lines displayed a higher tolerance to salt and drought stress compared to WT plants. Under most experimental conditions, transgenic line 3-8 performed best, while the responses obtained from lines 1-7 and 6-5 depended on the applied stimulus. To our knowledge, this is the first plant NAGS gene to be isolated, characterized, and genetically modified. PMID:19357433

  11. Over-expression of a tomato N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase gene (SlNAGS1) in Arabidopsis thaliana results in high ornithine levels and increased tolerance in salt and drought stresses.

    PubMed

    Kalamaki, Mary S; Alexandrou, Dimitris; Lazari, Diamanto; Merkouropoulos, Georgios; Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Pateraki, Irene; Aggelis, Alexandros; Carrillo-López, Armando; Rubio-Cabetas, Maria J; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2009-01-01

    A single copy of the N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase gene (SlNAGS1) has been isolated from tomato. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 604 amino acids and shows a high level of similarity to the predicted Arabidopsis NAGS1 and NAGS2 proteins. Furthermore, the N-terminus ArgB domain and the C-terminus ArgA domain found in SlNAGS1 are similar to the structural arrangements that have been reported for other predicted NAGS proteins. SlNAGS1 was expressed at high levels in all aerial organs, and at basic levels in seeds, whereas it was not detected at all in roots. SlNAGS1 transcript accumulation was noticed transiently in tomato fruit at the red-fruit stage. In addition, an increase of SlNAGS1 transcripts was detected in mature green tomato fruit within the first hour of exposure to low oxygen concentrations. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants have been generated expressing the SlNAGS1 gene under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Three homozygous transgenic lines expressing the transgene (lines 1-7, 3-8, and 6-5) were evaluated further. All three transgenic lines showed a significant accumulation of ornithine in the leaves with line 3-8 exhibiting the highest concentration. The same lines demonstrated higher germination ability compared to wild-type (WT) plants when subjected to 250 mM NaCl. Similarly, mature plants of all three transgenic lines displayed a higher tolerance to salt and drought stress compared to WT plants. Under most experimental conditions, transgenic line 3-8 performed best, while the responses obtained from lines 1-7 and 6-5 depended on the applied stimulus. To our knowledge, this is the first plant NAGS gene to be isolated, characterized, and genetically modified. PMID:19357433

  12. Failure tolerant operation of kinematically redundant manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Christopher L.; Maciejewski, Anthony A.

    1994-01-01

    Redundant manipulators may compensate for failed joints with their additional degrees of freedom. In this paper such a manipulator is considered fault tolerant if it can guarantee completion of a task after any one of its joints has failed. This fault tolerance of kinematically redundant manipulators is insured here. Methods to analyze the manipulator's work space find regions inherently suitable for critical tasks because of their high level of failure tolerance. Constraints are then placed on the manipulator's range of motion to guarantee completion of a task.

  13. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities.

  14. Damage-Tolerant Composites Made By Stitching Carbon Fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Marvin B.; Smith, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    Work conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to investigate stitching combined with resin transfer molding to make composites more tolerant of damage and potentially cost competitive with metals. Composite materials tailored for damage tolerance by stitching layers of dry carbon fabric with closely spaced threads to provide reinforcement through thickness. Epoxy resin then infused into stitched preforms, and epoxy was cured. Various stitching patterns and thread materials evaluated by use of flat plate specimens. Also, blade-stiffened structural elements fabricated and tested. Stitched flat laminates showed outstanding damage tolerance, excellent compression strength in notched specimens, and acceptable fatigue behavior. Development of particular interest to aircraft and automotive industries.

  15. Paternalism, Obesity, and Tolerable Levels of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity describes an abnormally high fat accumulation that impairs health. It is crudely measured by a body mass index (BMI) of greater than 30 kg/sq meters. Obesity now ranks among the highest of concerns by the World Health Organization (WHO) and not only in countries of affluence; the figures of obesity worldwide have doubled since 1980 and the…

  16. Middle Level WEB: Beyond Zero Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbuch, Chris; Stucker, Keelie

    2012-01-01

    Five years ago, Excelsior Springs (MO) Middle School set a new vision for its future. That marked the beginning of the school's work as a professional learning community (PLC) and has changed its focus and how it measures success. One component of Excelsior Springs's vision is safety: "developing and maintaining a welcoming, orderly, and…

  17. Frost tolerance in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When conducting studies to characterize and determine the underlying mechanisms for freezing tolerance, it is essential to take into account that the type and form of freezing injury varies with the species and its degree of freezing tolerance. There are at least seven different patterns of freezin...

  18. Moving Beyond Tolerance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirone, Bill

    2001-01-01

    Operating under the umbrella of the Santa Barbara County Education Office, the Beyond Tolerance Educational Center serves as a resource for educators. It provides county schools with information and programs that promote social awareness and tolerance while teaching kids the dangers of hatred and discrimination. (MLH)

  19. A Lesson in Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnt, Marlene

    2004-01-01

    This article describes one classroom's experience integrating a three-part lesson that focused on tolerance. In the lesson, students examined works by American folk-art painter Edward Hicks, researched quotes about tolerance in society, and applied calligraphy skills to an original composition.

  20. Maize aluminum tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is one of the most economically important food crops grown on acid soils, where aluminum (Al) toxicity greatly limits crop yields. Considerable variation for Al tolerance exists in maize, and this variation has been exploited for many years by plant breeders to enhance maize Al tolerance. Curr...

  1. Dissociation between peripheral blood chimerism and tolerance to hindlimb composite tissue transplants: preferential localization of chimerism in donor bone

    PubMed Central

    Rahhal, Dina N.; Xu, Hong; Huang, Wei-Chao; Wu, Shengli; Wen, Yujie; Huang, Yiming; Ildstad, Suzanne T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Mixed chimerism induces donor-specific tolerance to composite tissue allotransplants (CTA). In the present studies, we used a nonmyeloablative conditioning approach to establish chimerism and promote CTA acceptance. Methods WF (RT1Au) rats were conditioned with 600-300 cGy total body irradiation (TBI, day-1), 100 × 106 T cell-depleted ACI (RT1Aabl) bone marrow cells were transplanted day 0, followed by a 11-day course of tacrolimus and one dose of anti-lymphocyte serum (day 10). Heterotopic osteomyocutaneous flap transplantation was performed 4-6 weeks after bone marrow transplantation. Results Mixed chimerism was initially achieved in almost all recipients, but long-term acceptance of CTA was only achieved in rats treated with 600 cGy TBI. When anti-αβ-TCR mAb (day-3) was added into the regimens, donor chimerism was similar to recipients preconditioned without anti-αβ-TCR mAb. However, the long-term CTA survival was significantly improved in chimeras receiving ≥ 300 cGy TBI plus anti-αβ-TCR mAb. Higher levels of donor chimerism were associated with CTA acceptance. The majority of flap-acceptors lost peripheral blood (PB) chimerism within 6 months. However, donor chimerism persisted in transplanted bone at significantly higher levels compared to other hematopoietic compartments. The compartment donor chimerism may be responsible for the maintenance of tolerance to CTA. Long-term acceptors were tolerant to a donor skin graft challenge even in the absence of PB chimerism. Conclusions Mixed chimerism established by nonmyeloablative conditioning induces long-term acceptance of CTA which is associated with persistent chimerism preferentially in transplanted donor bone. PMID:19920776

  2. Sequential behavior and its inherent tolerance to memory faults.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    Representation of a memory fault of a sequential machine M by a function mu on the states of M and the result of the fault by an appropriately determined machine M(mu). Given some sequential behavior B, its inherent tolerance to memory faults can then be measured in terms of the minimum memory redundancy required to realize B with a state-assigned machine having fault tolerance type tau and fault tolerance level t. A behavior having maximum inherent tolerance is exhibited, and it is shown that behaviors of the same size can have different inherent tolerance.

  3. Accepters and Rejecters of Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Harriett A.; Elton, Charles F.

    Personality differences between students who accept or reject proffered counseling assistance were investigated by comparing personality traits of 116 male students at the University of Kentucky who accepted or rejected letters of invitation to group counseling. Factor analysis of Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) scores to two groups of 60 and…

  4. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  5. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria, December 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    This document establishes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office waste acceptance criteria. The waste acceptance criteria provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites for storage or disposal.

  6. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept the following: • DOE hazardous and non-hazardous non-radioactive classified waste • DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) • DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW) • U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste The LLW and MLLW listed above may also be classified waste. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and shall be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. Classified waste may be sent to the NNSS as classified matter. Section 3.1.18 provides the requirements that must be met for permanent burial of classified matter. The NNSA/NFO and support contractors are available to assist the generator in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management Operations (EMO) at (702) 295-7063, and the call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  7. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-28

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept DOE non-radioactive classified waste, DOE non-radioactive hazardous classified waste, DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW), DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste for permanent disposal. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and will be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project (WMP) at (702) 295-7063, and your call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  8. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    PubMed

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar. PMID:23871368

  9. Engineering alcohol tolerance in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Felix H.; Ghaderi, Adel; Fink, Gerald R.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol toxicity in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae limits titer and productivity in the industrial production of transportation bioethanol. We show that strengthening the opposing potassium and proton electrochemical membrane gradients is a mechanism that enhances general resistance to multiple alcohols. Elevation of extracellular potassium and pH physically bolster these gradients, increasing tolerance to higher alcohols and ethanol fermentation in commercial and laboratory strains (including a xylose-fermenting strain) under industrial-like conditions. Production per cell remains largely unchanged with improvements deriving from heightened population viability. Likewise, up-regulation of the potassium and proton pumps in the laboratory strain enhances performance to levels exceeding industrial strains. Although genetically complex, alcohol tolerance can thus be dominated by a single cellular process, one controlled by a major physicochemical component but amenable to biological augmentation. PMID:25278607

  10. Software fault tolerance in computer operating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, Ravishankar K.; Lee, Inhwan

    1994-01-01

    This chapter provides data and analysis of the dependability and fault tolerance for three operating systems: the Tandem/GUARDIAN fault-tolerant system, the VAX/VMS distributed system, and the IBM/MVS system. Based on measurements from these systems, basic software error characteristics are investigated. Fault tolerance in operating systems resulting from the use of process pairs and recovery routines is evaluated. Two levels of models are developed to analyze error and recovery processes inside an operating system and interactions among multiple instances of an operating system running in a distributed environment. The measurements show that the use of process pairs in Tandem systems, which was originally intended for tolerating hardware faults, allows the system to tolerate about 70% of defects in system software that result in processor failures. The loose coupling between processors which results in the backup execution (the processor state and the sequence of events occurring) being different from the original execution is a major reason for the measured software fault tolerance. The IBM/MVS system fault tolerance almost doubles when recovery routines are provided, in comparison to the case in which no recovery routines are available. However, even when recovery routines are provided, there is almost a 50% chance of system failure when critical system jobs are involved.

  11. Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, Jason R.

    This investigation explored scientific, religious, and otherwise nonscientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution and related concepts, how students perceived these factors to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution and changes therein, and what patterns arose among students' articulations of how their levels of acceptance of evolution may have changed. This exploration also measured the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following a treatment designed to address factors identified as potentially affecting student acceptance of evolution. Acceptance of evolution was measured using the MATE instrument (Rutledge and Warden, 1999; Rutledge and Sadler, 2007) among participants enrolled in a secondary-level academic program during the summer prior to their final year of high school and as they transitioned to the post-secondary level. Student acceptance of evolution was measured to be significantly higher than pre-treatment levels both immediately following and slightly over one year after treatment. Qualitative data from informal questionnaires, from formal course evaluations, and from semi-structured interviews of students engaged in secondary level education and former students at various stages of post-secondary education confirmed that the suspected factors were perceived by participants to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution. Furthermore, participant reports provided insight regarding the relative effects they perceived these factors to have had on their evolution acceptance levels. Additionally, many participants reported that their science teachers in public schools had avoided, omitted, or denigrated evolution during instruction, and several of these students expressed frustration regarding what they perceived to have been a lack of education of an important scientific principle. Finally, no students expressed feelings of being offended by having been taught about

  12. Antimicrobial Tolerance in Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Philip S

    2015-06-01

    The tolerance of microorganisms in biofilms to antimicrobial agents is examined through a meta-analysis of literature data. A numerical tolerance factor comparing the rates of killing in the planktonic and biofilm states is defined to provide a quantitative basis for the analysis. Tolerance factors for biocides and antibiotics range over three orders of magnitude. This variation is not explained by taking into account the molecular weight of the agent, the chemistry of the agent, the substratum material, or the speciation of the microorganisms. Tolerance factors do depend on the areal cell density of the biofilm at the time of treatment and on the age of the biofilm as grown in a particular experimental system. This suggests that there is something that happens during biofilm maturation, either physical or physiological, that is essential for full biofilm tolerance. Experimental measurements of antimicrobial penetration times in biofilms range over orders of magnitude, with slower penetration (>12 min) observed for reactive oxidants and cationic molecules. These agents are retarded through the interaction of reaction, sorption, and diffusion. The specific physiological status of microbial cells in a biofilm contributes to antimicrobial tolerance. A conceptual framework for categorizing physiological cell states is discussed in the context of antimicrobial susceptibility. It is likely that biofilms harbor cells in multiple states simultaneously (e.g., growing, stress-adapted, dormant, inactive) and that this physiological heterogeneity is an important factor in the tolerance of the biofilm state. PMID:26185072

  13. Tolerability and patient compliance.

    PubMed

    Roose, S P

    1999-01-01

    Currently available antidepressants interact with several types of receptors, which may explain both wanted and unwanted effects of these drugs. These effects are different and distinctive, and knowledge about them may help clinicians understand differences between compounds in terms of their tolerability profiles. Given roughly comparable efficacy, tolerability profile is the critical determinant in selecting an antidepressant medication for a particular patient. In addition, tolerability is inseparably linked to patient compliance, both in acute and long-term treatment, and ultimately to overall success of treatment. Refinement in pharmacologic profiles of all newly introduced antidepressants resulted in overall advantages in tolerability in comparison with older tricyclic compounds. However, differences in receptor interactions between antidepressants are directly reflected in tolerability (adverse event) profiles. Among new antidepressants, mirtazapine and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors share favorable overall tolerability and safety, especially with respect to low premature termination rates because of adverse events, cardiac safety, and safety in overdose. However, the different pharmacologic profile of mirtazapine is reflected in its different tolerability profile. Because of interactions with the histamine (H1) receptor, mirtazapine may be related to transient initial somnolence and weight gain in some patients. Its serotonin-2 (5-HT2)-blocking properties may account for lack of sexual dysfunction, insomnia, nervousness, and agitation. Mirtazapine's 5-HT3-blocking properties are unique among all currently available antidepressants and may account for lack of gastrointestinal adverse events. PMID:10446736

  14. Antimicrobial Tolerance in Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    The tolerance of microorganisms in biofilms to antimicrobial agents is examined through a meta-analysis of literature data. A numerical tolerance factor comparing the rates of killing in the planktonic and biofilm states is defined to provide a quantitative basis for the analysis. Tolerance factors for biocides and antibiotics range over three orders of magnitude. This variation is not explained by taking into account the molecular weight of the agent, the chemistry of the agent, the substratum material, or the speciation of the microorganisms. Tolerance factors do depend on the areal cell density of the biofilm at the time of treatment and on the age of the biofilm as grown in a particular experimental system. This suggests that there is something that happens during biofilm maturation, either physical or physiological, that is essential for full biofilm tolerance. Experimental measurements of antimicrobial penetration times in biofilms range over orders of magnitude, with slower penetration (>12 min) observed for reactive oxidants and cationic molecules. These agents are retarded through the interaction of reaction, sorption, and diffusion. The specific physiological status of microbial cells in a biofilm contributes to antimicrobial tolerance. A conceptual framework for categorizing physiological cell states is discussed in the context of antimicrobial susceptibility. It is likely that biofilms harbor cells in multiple states simultaneously (e.g., growing, stress-adapted, dormant, inactive) and that this physiological heterogeneity is an important factor in the tolerance of the biofilm state. PMID:26185072

  15. Co-existence of salt and drought tolerance in Triticeae.

    PubMed

    Farooq, S; Azam, F

    2001-01-01

    Cell membrane stability (CMS) technique was used to screen for drought tolerance, salt tolerant accessions of three Aegilops species, Ae. tauschii, Ae. cylindrica, Ae. geniculata and two hexaploid wheat (Tricitum aestivum L.) cultivars comprising salt tolerant LU-26 and drought tolerant Chakwal-86. The objectives were to see how valid it is for a salt tolerant plant to be drought tolerant as well and to identify the character(s) that may contribute to drought tolerance. Three moisture levels equal to 100, 50 and 25% saturation capacity of the soil were used for plant cultivation. Injury percentage (IP) based on in-vitro desiccation induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) in leaf tissue was measured through the conductivity of the electrolyte leakage. Injury percentage decreased in all the test material with decrease in soil moisture contents. Ae. cylindrica exhibited minimum injury at 100% soil moisture level followed by Ae. tauschii and Ae. geniculata while drought tolerant wheat cultivars exhibited the maximum. The wheat cultivar Chakwal-86 has been developed for dry areas, with low soil moisture levels, and high water potential enhances the injury percentage. Aegilops cylindrica is a salt tolerant species and can thus tolerate water deficit conditions created due to low osmotic potential. Potassium appeared to play an important role in drought tolerance which was evident from high K+ contents and low K+ leakage from Aegilops cylindrica and drought tolerant wheat cultivar Chakwal-86. It was inferred from the study that salt tolerant species might prove drought tolerant in the areas where water deficit prevails due to the ability to create low intracellular osmotic potentials. PMID:12152336

  16. 49 CFR 41.120 - Acceptable model codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acceptable model codes. 41.120 Section 41.120 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SEISMIC SAFETY § 41.120 Acceptable model codes. (a) This... of this part. (b)(1) The following are model codes which have been found to provide a level...

  17. 49 CFR 41.120 - Acceptable model codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptable model codes. 41.120 Section 41.120 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SEISMIC SAFETY § 41.120 Acceptable model codes. (a) This... of this part. (b)(1) The following are model codes which have been found to provide a level...

  18. Peer Acceptance of Highly Gifted Children in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The variables associated with peer acceptance and rejection have been the subject of considerable investigation over the past few years, therefore, the present study was designed to answer three questions: (1) How socially accepted are highly gifted children in the elementary-school classroom? (2) What is the intellectual level of the children…

  19. Predicting Acceptance of Diversity in Pre-Kindergarten Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Kay; Downer, Jason

    2012-01-01

    This study examined classroom-level contributors to an acceptance of diversity in publicly supported pre-kindergarten classrooms across 11 states. Classroom composition, process quality, and teacher characteristics were examined as predictors of diversity-promoting practices as measured by the ECERS-R, acceptance of diversity construct. Findings…

  20. Cadmium-tolerant bacteria induce metal stress tolerance in cereals.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Akhtar, Muhammad Javed; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Naveed, Muhammad; Mitter, Birgit; Sessitsch, Angela

    2014-09-01

    Cadmium usually hampers plant growth, but bacterial inoculation may improve stress tolerance in plants to Cd by involving various mechanisms. The objective was to characterize and identify bacteria that improve plant growth under Cd stress and reduce Cd uptake. Cadmium-tolerant bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere soil, which was irrigated with tannery effluent, and six strains were selected as highly tolerant to Cd, showing minimum inhibitory concentration as 500 mg L(-1) or 4.45 mmol L(-1). These strains were identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis and functional analysis in regard to plant growth promotion characteristics. To determine their effect on cereal growth under Cd stress, seeds were inoculated with these strains individually and grown in soil contaminated with three Cd levels (0, 40 and 80 mg kg(-1)). Biomass production, relative water content (RWC), electrolyte leakage (ELL) and tissue Cd concentration were measured. Biomass of both cereals was inhibited strongly when exposed to Cd; however, bacterial inoculation significantly reduced the suppressive effect of Cd on cereal growth and physiology. The bacterial isolates belonged to the genera Klebsiella, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus and Serratia. Maize was more sensitive than wheat to Cd. Klebsiella sp. strain CIK-502 had the most pronounced effects in promoting maize and wheat growth and lowering Cd uptake under Cd stress. PMID:24849374

  1. College Students' Intercultural Competence and Interethnic Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnyshev, A. D.; Karnysheva, O. A.; Ivanova, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Data from studies of interethnic tolerance among college students in Russia show that positive or negative attitudes toward other ethnic groups is a factor of both personal characteristics and experience of and access to other groups. Levels of tolerance in turn are associated with different levels of interest in other groups and in building…

  2. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-09-03

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  3. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  4. Staff Acceptance of Tele-ICU Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Paul S.; Cram, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Remote coverage of ICUs is increasing, but staff acceptance of this new technology is incompletely characterized. We conducted a systematic review to summarize existing research on acceptance of tele-ICU coverage among ICU staff. Methods: We searched for published articles pertaining to critical care telemedicine systems (aka, tele-ICU) between January 1950 and March 2010 using PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Global Health, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library and abstracts and presentations delivered at national conferences. Studies were included if they provided original qualitative or quantitative data on staff perceptions of tele-ICU coverage. Studies were imported into content analysis software and coded by tele-ICU configuration, methodology, participants, and findings (eg, positive and negative staff evaluations). Results: Review of 3,086 citations yielded 23 eligible studies. Findings were grouped into four categories of staff evaluation: overall acceptance level of tele-ICU coverage (measured in 70% of studies), impact on patient care (measured in 96%), impact on staff (measured in 100%), and organizational impact (measured in 48%). Overall acceptance was high, despite initial ambivalence. Favorable impact on patient care was perceived by > 82% of participants. Staff impact referenced enhanced collaboration, autonomy, and training, although scrutiny, malfunctions, and contradictory advice were cited as potential barriers. Staff perceived the organizational impact to vary. An important limitation of available studies was a lack of rigorous methodology and validated survey instruments in many studies. Conclusions: Initial reports suggest high levels of staff acceptance of tele-ICU coverage, but more rigorous methodologic study is required. PMID:21051386

  5. Shared Genetic Pathways Contribute to the Tolerance of Endogenous and Low-Dose Exogenous DNA Damage in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, Kevin; Jinks-Robertson, Sue

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage that escapes repair and blocks replicative DNA polymerases is tolerated by bypass mechanisms that fall into two general categories: error-free template switching and error-prone translesion synthesis. Prior studies of DNA damage responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have demonstrated that repair mechanisms are critical for survival when a single, high dose of DNA damage is delivered, while bypass/tolerance mechanisms are more important for survival when the damage level is low and continuous (acute and chronic damage, respectively). In the current study, epistatic interactions between DNA-damage tolerance genes were examined and compared when haploid yeast cells were exposed to either chronic ultraviolet light or chronic methyl methanesulfonate. Results demonstrate that genes assigned to error-free and error-prone bypass pathways similarly promote survival in the presence of each type of chronic damage. In addition to using defined sources of chronic damage, rates of spontaneous mutations generated by the Pol ζ translesion synthesis DNA polymerase (complex insertions in a frameshift-reversion assay) were used to infer epistatic interactions between the same genes. Similar epistatic interactions were observed in analyses of spontaneous mutation rates, suggesting that chronic DNA-damage responses accurately reflect those used to tolerate spontaneous lesions. These results have important implications when considering what constitutes a safe and acceptable level of exogenous DNA damage. PMID:25060101

  6. Damage Tolerance of Large Shell Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, L.; Chamis, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    Progressive damage and fracture of large shell structures is investigated. A computer model is used for the assessment of structural response, progressive fracture resistance, and defect/damage tolerance characteristics. Critical locations of a stiffened conical shell segment are identified. Defective and defect-free computer models are simulated to evaluate structural damage/defect tolerance. Safe pressurization levels are assessed for the retention of structural integrity at the presence of damage/ defects. Damage initiation, growth, accumulation, and propagation to fracture are included in the simulations. Damage propagation and burst pressures for defective and defect-free shells are compared to evaluate damage tolerance. Design implications with regard to defect and damage tolerance of a large steel pressure vessel are examined.

  7. Directionality between Tolerance of Deviance and Deviant Behavior Is Age-Moderated in Chronically Stressed Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, Ty A.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Gold, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Problem behavior theory posits that tolerance of deviance is an antecedent to antisocial behavior and substance use. In contrast, cognitive dissonance theory implies that acceptability of a behavior may increase after experiencing the behavior. Using structural equation modeling, this investigation tested whether changes in tolerance of deviance…

  8. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  9. L-286 Acceptance Test Record

    SciTech Connect

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-14

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  10. Composites Damage Tolerance Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    The Composite Damage Tolerance Workshop included participants from NASA, academia, and private industry. The objectives of the workshop were to begin dialogue in order to establish a working group within the Agency, create awareness of damage tolerance requirements for Constellation, and discuss potential composite hardware for the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) Upper Stage (US) and Crew Module. It was proposed that a composites damage tolerance working group be created that acts within the framework of the existing NASA Fracture Control Methodology Panel. The working group charter would be to identify damage tolerance gaps and obstacles for implementation of composite structures into manned space flight systems and to develop strategies and recommendations to overcome these obstacles.

  11. Radiation Tolerant Antifuse FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jih-Jong; Cronquist, Brian; McCollum, John; Parker, Wanida; Katz, Rich; Kleyner, Igor; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The total dose performance of the antifuse FPGA for space applications is summarized. Optimization of the radiation tolerance in the fabless model is the main theme. Mechanisms to explain the variation in different products are discussed.

  12. [INABILITY TO TOLERATE COSMETICS].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    2016-05-01

    Inability to tolerate cosmetics can result from distinct mechanisms which appear as the so-called sensitive skin corresponding to one aspect of invisible dermatosis, or which corresponds to manifestations of a contact allergic or irritation dermatitis. PMID:27337844

  13. DNA damage tolerance.

    PubMed

    Branzei, Dana; Psakhye, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    Accurate chromosomal DNA replication is fundamental for optimal cellular function and genome integrity. Replication perturbations activate DNA damage tolerance pathways, which are crucial to complete genome duplication as well as to prevent formation of deleterious double strand breaks. Cells use two general strategies to tolerate lesions: recombination to a homologous template, and trans-lesion synthesis with specialized polymerases. While key players of these processes have been outlined, much less is known on their choreography and regulation. Recent advances have uncovered principles by which DNA damage tolerance is regulated locally and temporally - in relation to replication timing and cell cycle stage -, and are beginning to elucidate the DNA dynamics that mediate lesion tolerance and influence chromosome structure during replication. PMID:27060551

  14. Autonomous Congestion Control in Delay-Tolerant Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott; Jennings, Esther; Schoolcraft, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    This presentation highlights communication congestion control in delay-tolerant networks (DTNs). Large-scale future space exploration will offer complex communication challenges that may be best addressed by establishing a network infrastructure. However, current internet techniques for congestion control are not well suited for operation of a network over interplanetary distances. An alternative, delay-tolerant technique for congestion control in a delay-tolerant network is presented. A simple DTN was constructed and an experimental congestion control mechanism was applied. The mechanism appeared to be effective and each router was able to make its bundle acceptance decisions autonomously. Future research will examine more complex topologies and alternative bundle acceptance rules that might enhance performance.

  15. Freeze-Tolerant Condensers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Christopher J.; Elkouhk, Nabil

    2004-01-01

    Two condensers designed for use in dissipating heat carried by working fluids feature two-phase, self-adjusting configurations such that their working lengths automatically vary to suit their input power levels and/or heat-sink temperatures. A key advantage of these condensers is that they can function even if the temperatures of their heat sinks fall below the freezing temperatures of their working fluids and the fluids freeze. The condensers can even be restarted from the frozen condition. The top part of the figure depicts the layout of the first condenser. A two-phase (liquid and vapor) condenser/vapor tube is thermally connected to a heat sink typically, a radiatively or convectively cooled metal panel. A single-phase (liquid) condensate-return tube (return artery) is also thermally connected to the heat sink. At intervals along their lengths, the condenser/vapor tube and the return artery are interconnected through porous plugs. This condenser configuration affords tolerance of freezing, variable effective thermal conductance (such that the return temperature remains nearly constant, independently of the ultimate sink temperature), and overall pressure drop smaller than it would be without the porous interconnections. An additional benefit of this configuration is that the condenser can be made to recover from the completely frozen condition either without using heaters, or else with the help of heaters much smaller than would otherwise be needed. The second condenser affords the same advantages and is based on a similar principle, but it has a different configuration that affords improved flow of working fluid, simplified construction, reduced weight, and faster recovery from a frozen condition.

  16. Fabrication of fault-tolerant systolic array processors

    SciTech Connect

    Golovko, V.A.

    1995-05-01

    Methods for designing fault-tolerant systolic array processors are discussed. Several ways of bypassing faulty elements in configurations, which depend on an input-data flow organization, are suggested. An analysis of the additional hardware costs of providing fault tolerance by various techniques and for various levels of redundancy is presented. Hadamard fault-tolerant processor design was used to illustrate the efficiency of the techniques suggested.

  17. FTAPE: A fault injection tool to measure fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1995-01-01

    The paper introduces FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The tool combines system-wide fault injection with a controllable workload. A workload generator is used to create high stress conditions for the machine. Faults are injected based on this workload activity in order to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio and performance degradation are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  18. FTAPE: A fault injection tool to measure fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1994-01-01

    The paper introduces FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The tool combines system-wide fault injection with a controllable workload. A workload generator is used to create high stress conditions for the machine. Faults are injected based on this workload activity in order to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio and performance degradation are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  19. FTAPE: A fault injection tool to measure fault tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1994-07-01

    The paper introduces FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The tool combines system-wide fault injection with a controllable workload. A workload generator is used to create high stress conditions for the machine. Faults are injected based on this workload activity in order to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio and performance degradation are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  20. Pro-Activeness of Parents in Accepting Behavior Management Techniques: A Cross-Sectional Evaluative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jolly; Kaur, Manpreet; Trivedi, Krishna; Shah, Shalin; Virda, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The contemporary parents are more active and participate in the decision making during dental treatment. Aim To assess the parents’ acceptance towards behavior management techniques commonly used in the pediatric dentistry in different dental situation. Materials and Methods Fifty-one parents participated in the study. Children’s dental fear was assessed by the parents before attending power point presentation using Dental Subscale of the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS). Parents viewed power point presentation of eight behavior management techniques being used during pediatric dental treatment. The techniques were: 1) Voice control; 2) Tell-Show-Do; 3) Positive reinforcement; 4) Parental presence or absence; 5) HOME; 6) Physical restraint; 7) N2O-O2 sedation; 8) General anesthesia. Parents were asked to arrange various behavior management techniques from most accepted technique to least accepted technique in various dental situations according to their view. Results All the parents completed the questionnaire. Most children show increased anxiety related to dental component of CFSS-DS scale particularly during the administration of local anesthetic. In present study most preferred behavior management technique was Tell-Show-Do followed by positive reinforcement and least preferred behavior management technique was general anesthesia followed by physical restraint. Conclusion Children’s anxiety level increases during the condition related to dentistry which can be overcome by developing positive approach in children and parents towards dentistry and by utilizing various behaviour management strategies. A generalized low parental tolerance level for firm management techniques was seen in the present study population.

  1. Nevada test site waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the NTS. Review each section of this document. This document is not intended to include all of the requirements; rather, it is meant as a guide toward meeting the regulations. All references in this document should be observed to avoid omission of requirements on which acceptance or rejection of waste will be based. The Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document.

  2. Perceptual Tolerance Intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasilewski, Piotr; Peters, James F.; Ramanna, Sheela

    This paper elaborates on the introduction of perceptual tolerance intersection of sets as an example of a near set operation. Such operations are motivated by the need to consider similarities between digital images viewed as disjoint sets of points. The proposed approach is in keeping with work by E.C. Zeeman on tolerance spaces and visual perception and work by J.H. Poincaré on sets of similar sensations used to define representative spaces (aka tolerance spaces) such as visual, tactile and motile spaces. Perceptual tolerance intersection of sets is a direct consequence of recent work on near sets. The theory of perceptual set intersection has many practical applications such as a solution to the problem of how one goes about measuring the closeness of digital images. The main contribution of this article is a description-based approach to formulating perceptual set intersections between disjoint sets that resemble each other. A practical application of the proposed approach is the discovery of resemblances between sets of points in digital image regions that represent tolerance rough sets.

  3. Defining acceptable conditions in wilderness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggenbuck, J. W.; Williams, D. R.; Watson, A. E.

    1993-03-01

    The limits of acceptable change (LAC) planning framework recognizes that forest managers must decide what indicators of wilderness conditions best represent resource naturalness and high-quality visitor experiences and how much change from the pristine is acceptable for each indicator. Visitor opinions on the aspects of the wilderness that have great impact on their experience can provide valuable input to selection of indicators. Cohutta, Georgia; Caney Creek, Arkansas; Upland Island, Texas; and Rattlesnake, Montana, wilderness visitors have high shared agreement that littering and damage to trees in campsites, noise, and seeing wildlife are very important influences on wilderness experiences. Camping within sight or sound of other people influences experience quality more than do encounters on the trails. Visitors’ standards of acceptable conditions within wilderness vary considerably, suggesting a potential need to manage different zones within wilderness for different clientele groups and experiences. Standards across wildernesses, however, are remarkably similar.

  4. From requirements to acceptance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Lionel; Pasquier, Helene

    1993-01-01

    From user requirements definition to accepted software system, the software project management wants to be sure that the system will meet the requirements. For the development of a telecommunication satellites Control Centre, C.N.E.S. has used new rules to make the use of tracing matrix easier. From Requirements to Acceptance Tests, each item of a document must have an identifier. A unique matrix traces the system and allows the tracking of the consequences of a change in the requirements. A tool has been developed, to import documents into a relational data base. Each record of the data base corresponds to an item of a document, the access key is the item identifier. Tracing matrix is also processed, providing automatically links between the different documents. It enables the reading on the same screen of traced items. For example one can read simultaneously the User Requirements items, the corresponding Software Requirements items and the Acceptance Tests.

  5. The MAGNEX large acceptance spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Carbone, D.; Foti, A.

    2010-03-01

    The main features of the MAGNEX large acceptance magnetic spectrometer are described. It has a quadrupole + dipole layout and a hybrid detector located at the focal plane. The aberrations due to the large angular (50 msr) and momentum (+- 13%) acceptance are reduced by an accurate hardware design and then compensated by an innovative software ray-reconstruction technique. The obtained resolution in energy, angle and mass are presented in the paper. MAGNEX has been used up to now for different experiments in nuclear physics and astrophysics confirming to be a multipurpose device.

  6. An uncertain revolution: why the rise of a genetic model of mental illness has not increased tolerance.

    PubMed

    Schnittker, Jason

    2008-11-01

    This study uses the 2006 replication of the 1996 General Social Survey Mental Health Module to explore trends in public beliefs about mental illness in the USA. Drawing on three models related to the framing of genetic arguments in popular media, the study attempts to address why tolerance of the mentally ill has not increased, despite the growing popularity of a biomedical view. The key to resolving this paradox lies in understanding how genetic arguments interact with other beliefs about mental illness, as well as the complex ideational implications of genetic frameworks. Genetic arguments have contingent relationships with tolerance. When applied to schizophrenia, genetic arguments are positively associated with fears regarding violence. Indeed, in this regard, attributing schizophrenia to genes is no different from attributing schizophrenia to bad character. However, when applied to depression, genetic arguments are positively associated with social acceptance. In addition to these contingencies, genetic explanations have discontinuous relationships with beliefs regarding treatment. Although genetic arguments are positively associated with recommending medical treatment, they are not associated with the perceived likelihood of improvement. The net result of these assorted relationships is little change in overall levels of tolerance over time. Because of the blunt nature of the forces propelling a biomedical view--including the growing popularity of psychiatric medications--altering beliefs about the etiology of mental illness is unlikely, on its own, to increase tolerance. PMID:18703264

  7. Sliding mode fault detection and fault-tolerant control of smart dampers in semi-active control of building structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeganeh Fallah, Arash; Taghikhany, Touraj

    2015-12-01

    Recent decades have witnessed much interest in the application of active and semi-active control strategies for seismic protection of civil infrastructures. However, the reliability of these systems is still in doubt as there remains the possibility of malfunctioning of their critical components (i.e. actuators and sensors) during an earthquake. This paper focuses on the application of the sliding mode method due to the inherent robustness of its fault detection observer and fault-tolerant control. The robust sliding mode observer estimates the state of the system and reconstructs the actuators’ faults which are used for calculating a fault distribution matrix. Then the fault-tolerant sliding mode controller reconfigures itself by the fault distribution matrix and accommodates the fault effect on the system. Numerical simulation of a three-story structure with magneto-rheological dampers demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed fault-tolerant control system. It was shown that the fault-tolerant control system maintains the performance of the structure at an acceptable level in the post-fault case.

  8. Damage Tolerance of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Fracture control requirements have been developed to address damage tolerance of composites for manned space flight hardware. The requirements provide the framework for critical and noncritical hardware assessment and testing. The need for damage threat assessments, impact damage protection plans, and nondestructive evaluation are also addressed. Hardware intended to be damage tolerant have extensive coupon, sub-element, and full-scale testing requirements in-line with the Building Block Approach concept from the MIL-HDBK-17, Department of Defense Composite Materials Handbook.

  9. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    DOEpatents

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  10. Phytochelatins are involved in differential arsenate tolerance in Holcus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Hartley-Whitaker, J; Ainsworth, G; Vooijs, R; Ten Bookum, W; Schat, H; Meharg, A A

    2001-05-01

    Arsenate tolerance is conferred by suppression of the high-affinity phosphate/arsenate uptake system, which greatly reduces arsenate influx in a number of higher plant species. Despite this suppressed uptake, arsenate-tolerant plants can still accumulate high levels of As over their lifetime, suggesting that constitutive detoxification mechanisms may be required. Phytochelatins are thiol-rich peptides, whose production is induced by a range of metals and metalloids including arsenate. This study provides evidence for the role of phytochelatins in the detoxification of arsenate in arsenate-tolerant Holcus lanatus. Elevated levels of phytochelatin were measured in plants with a range of tolerance to arsenate at equivalent levels of arsenate stress, measured as inhibition of root growth. The results suggest that arsenate tolerance in H. lanatus requires both adaptive suppression of the high-affinity phosphate uptake system and constitutive phytochelatin production. PMID:11351093

  11. Nitrogen trailer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-02-12

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0249. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-108 Rev.0. The equipment being tested is a portable contained nitrogen supply. The test was conducted at Norco`s facility.

  12. Helping Our Children Accept Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Mae

    1984-01-01

    Parents of a child with muscular dystrophy recount their reactions to learning of the diagnosis, their gradual acceptance, and their son's resistance, which was gradually lessened when he was provided with more information and treated more normally as a member of the family. (CL)

  13. Acceptability of Treatments for Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra Maria

    2007-01-01

    This study focused on various treatments for addressing incidents of plagiarism by college students. College students rated the acceptability of different responses by college faculty to a case description of a college student who engaged in plagiarism. The findings revealed that students found some methods of addressing this problem behavior by…

  14. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  15. Evaluation of Multiple Immunoassay Technology Platforms to Select the Anti-Drug Antibody Assay Exhibiting the Most Appropriate Drug and Target Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Collet-Brose, Justine; Couble, Pierre-Jean; Deehan, Maureen R; Nelson, Robert J; Ferlin, Walter G; Lory, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was, at the assay development stage and thus with an appropriate degree of rigor, to select the most appropriate technology platform and sample pretreatment procedure for a clinical ADA assay. Thus, ELISA, MSD, Gyrolab, and AlphaLISA immunoassay platforms were evaluated in association with target depletion and acid dissociation sample pretreatment steps. An acid dissociation step successfully improved the drug tolerance for all 4 technology platforms and the required drug tolerance was achieved with the Gyrolab and MSD platforms. The target tolerance was shown to be better for the ELISA format, where an acid dissociation treatment step alone was sufficient to achieve the desired target tolerance. However, inclusion of a target depletion step in conjunction with the acid treatment raised the target tolerance to the desired level for all of the technologies. A higher sensitivity was observed for the MSD and Gyrolab assays and the ELISA, MSD, and Gyrolab all displayed acceptable interdonor variability. This study highlights the usefulness of evaluating the performance of different assay platforms at an early stage in the assay development process to aid in the selection of the best fit-for-purpose technology platform and sample pretreatment steps. PMID:27243038

  16. Evaluation of Multiple Immunoassay Technology Platforms to Select the Anti-Drug Antibody Assay Exhibiting the Most Appropriate Drug and Target Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Collet-Brose, Justine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was, at the assay development stage and thus with an appropriate degree of rigor, to select the most appropriate technology platform and sample pretreatment procedure for a clinical ADA assay. Thus, ELISA, MSD, Gyrolab, and AlphaLISA immunoassay platforms were evaluated in association with target depletion and acid dissociation sample pretreatment steps. An acid dissociation step successfully improved the drug tolerance for all 4 technology platforms and the required drug tolerance was achieved with the Gyrolab and MSD platforms. The target tolerance was shown to be better for the ELISA format, where an acid dissociation treatment step alone was sufficient to achieve the desired target tolerance. However, inclusion of a target depletion step in conjunction with the acid treatment raised the target tolerance to the desired level for all of the technologies. A higher sensitivity was observed for the MSD and Gyrolab assays and the ELISA, MSD, and Gyrolab all displayed acceptable interdonor variability. This study highlights the usefulness of evaluating the performance of different assay platforms at an early stage in the assay development process to aid in the selection of the best fit-for-purpose technology platform and sample pretreatment steps. PMID:27243038

  17. 40 CFR 180.40 - Tolerances for crop groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the group, EPA will initially retain the pre-existing as well as the revised crop group in the CFR...-existing crop group will be removed from the CFR. (k) Establishment of a tolerance does not substitute for..., except corn). In this case an individual tolerance at the appropriate level for the unique...

  18. 40 CFR 180.40 - Tolerances for crop groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the group, EPA will initially retain the pre-existing as well as the revised crop group in the CFR...-existing crop group will be removed from the CFR. (k) Establishment of a tolerance does not substitute for..., except corn). In this case an individual tolerance at the appropriate level for the unique...

  19. 40 CFR 180.40 - Tolerances for crop groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the group, EPA will initially retain the pre-existing as well as the revised crop group in the CFR...-existing crop group will be removed from the CFR. (k) Establishment of a tolerance does not substitute for..., except corn). In this case an individual tolerance at the appropriate level for the unique...

  20. 40 CFR 180.40 - Tolerances for crop groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the group, EPA will initially retain the pre-existing as well as the revised crop group in the CFR...-existing crop group will be removed from the CFR. (k) Establishment of a tolerance does not substitute for..., except corn). In this case an individual tolerance at the appropriate level for the unique...

  1. 76 FR 55272 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... March 23, 2011 (75 FR 16301) (FRL-8863- 8), EPA issued a final rule establishing new tolerances and... of March 23, 2011 (76 FR 16301) (FRL-8863-8). V. Congressional Review Act The Congressional Review... cattle, goat, hog, horse, and sheep. The tolerance levels were inadvertently transcribed incorrectly in...

  2. Process-based tolerance assessment of connecting rod machining process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, G. V. S. S.; Rao, P. Srinivasa; Surendra Babu, B.

    2016-01-01

    Process tolerancing based on the process capability studies is the optimistic and pragmatic approach of determining the manufacturing process tolerances. On adopting the define-measure-analyze-improve-control approach, the process potential capability index ( C p) and the process performance capability index ( C pk) values of identified process characteristics of connecting rod machining process are achieved to be greater than the industry benchmark of 1.33, i.e., four sigma level. The tolerance chain diagram methodology is applied to the connecting rod in order to verify the manufacturing process tolerances at various operations of the connecting rod manufacturing process. This paper bridges the gap between the existing dimensional tolerances obtained via tolerance charting and process capability studies of the connecting rod component. Finally, the process tolerancing comparison has been done by adopting a tolerance capability expert software.

  3. Acceptability of male condom: An Indian scenario

    PubMed Central

    Donta, Balaiah; Begum, Shahina; Naik, D.D.

    2014-01-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom. PMID:25673537

  4. Acceptability of male condom: an Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Donta, Balaiah; Begum, Shahina; Naik, D D

    2014-11-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late 1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom. PMID:25673537

  5. 75 FR 80346 - Flutolanil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Tolerance In the Federal Register of January 6, 2010 (75 FR 864) (FRL-8801- 5), EPA issued a notice pursuant... elevation in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol levels together with dose-related increases in absolute... rule published in the Federal Register of June 11, 2008 (73 FR 33013) (FRL- 8365-6). C....

  6. 77 FR 12731 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ...) 305-5805. II. Summary of Petitioned-For Tolerance In the Federal Register of August 26, 2011 (76 FR..., triglyceride levels, FQPA SF = 1 and alkaline phosphatase activity and inflammatory cell infiltration in the... the Federal Register of January 5, 2005 (70 FR 708) (FRL-7689-7), EPA had previously determined...

  7. Mechanisms of Ethanol Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet is also sensitive to higher ethanol concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Ethanol tolerance is associated with interplay of complex networks at the genome level. Although significant eff...

  8. 76 FR 61587 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ...) 305-5805. II. Summary of Petitioned-For Tolerance In the Federal Register of March 29, 2011 (76 FR... Register of May 28, 2010 (75 FR 29910) (FRL-8828-6). B. Toxicological Points of Departure/Levels of Concern... Federal Register of May 28, 2010 (75 FR 29910) (FRL- 8828-6). ] C. Exposure Assessment 1. Dietary...

  9. 78 FR 28507 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    .... Summary of Petitioned-For Tolerance In the Federal Register of April 4, 2012 (77 FR 20334) (FRL-9340- 4.../Levels of Concern of the final rule published in the Federal Register issue of May 18, 2011 (76 FR 28675... ``Regulatory Planning and Review'' (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this final rule has been...

  10. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    ... have pre-diabetes or diabetes: A 2 hour value between 140 and 200 mg/dL is called impaired glucose tolerance. Your doctor may call this "pre-diabetes." It means you are at increased risk of developing diabetes over time. A glucose level ...

  11. Zero Tolerance Expulsions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1999-01-01

    Most courts have flexibly interpreted the constitutional requirement of procedural and substantive due process in favor of zero-tolerance expulsion decisions. While being sensitive to community intolerance for threats to school safety (student possession of guns or drugs), school leaders should modulate development and enforcement of expulsion…

  12. Teaching Tolerance Magazine, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, Jim, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This magazine provides teachers with classroom learning materials to help children learn to be tolerant with others. Articles in the magazine are: "A Standard to Sustain" (Mary M. Harrison); "Let's Just Play" (Janet Schmidt); "Who's Helen Keller?" (Ruth Shagoury Hubbard); "Margins of Error" (Joe Parsons); "Out of the Shadows" (Elizabeth Hunt);…

  13. Pesticide tolerance in amphibians: induced tolerance in susceptible populations, constitutive tolerance in tolerant populations

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Jessica; Morehouse, Nathan I; Relyea, Rick

    2013-01-01

    The role of plasticity in shaping adaptations is important to understanding the expression of traits within individuals and the evolution of populations. With increasing human impacts on the environment, one challenge is to consider how plasticity shapes responses to anthropogenic stressors such as contaminants. To our knowledge, only one study (using mosquitoes) has considered the possibility of induced insecticide tolerance. Using populations of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) located close to and far from agricultural fields, we discovered that exposing some populations of embryos and hatchlings to sublethal concentrations of the insecticide carbaryl induced higher tolerance to a subsequent lethal concentration later in life. Interestingly, the inducible populations were located >800 m from agricultural areas and were the most susceptible to the insecticide. In contrast, the noninducible populations were located close to agricultural areas and were the least susceptible. We also found that sublethal concentrations of carbaryl induced higher tadpole AChE concentrations in several cases. This is the first study to demonstrate inducible tolerance in a vertebrate species and the pattern of inducible and constitutive tolerance among populations suggests the process of genetic assimilation. PMID:24187585

  14. Cuphea tolerates clopyralid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea is a new crop of temperate regions that produces seed oil with medium-chain length fatty acids, which can substitute for imported coconut and palm kernels oils. Only four herbicides are known to be tolerated by cuphea to date. More herbicides, especially POST products, are needed for continue...

  15. Tolerance through Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Carolyn

    In this project, eighth grade students are exposed to black history, literature, music, and art to enhance the understanding of diversity and to establish an atmosphere of tolerance for diversity. Students are asked to choose a personality or significant historical event to research and present to the class. They focus on issues such as prejudice,…

  16. Zero Tolerance versus Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    In a case involving questionable canine search-and-seizure practices, a circuit court upheld a school board's decision to terminate a teacher's contract. While touting zero tolerance, the board fired an honored teacher 3 years from retirement who may not have known about the marijuana cigarette in her car. (MLH)

  17. Split Immunological Tolerance to Trophoblast

    PubMed Central

    de Mestre, Amanda; Noronha, Leela; Wagner, Bettina; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    Split immunological tolerance refers to states in which an individual is capable of mounting certain types of immune responses to a particular antigenic challenge, but is tolerant of the same antigen in other compartments of the immune system. This concept is applicable to the immunological relationship between mother and fetus, and particularly relevant in equine pregnancy. In pregnant mares, antibody responses to paternal foreign Major Histocompatibility Complex class I antigens are robust, while anti-paternal cytotoxic T cell responses are diminished compared to those mounted by non-pregnant mares. Here we compared the distribution of the major lymphocyte subsets, the percentage of lymphocytes expressing Interferon Gamma (IFNG) and Interleukin 4 (IL4) and the level of expression of the immunoregulatory transcription factor FOXP3 between pregnant and non-pregnant mares, and between peripheral blood and the endometrium during pregnancy. In a cohort of mares in which peripheral blood lymphocytes were tested during early pregnancy and in the non-pregnant state, there were only slight changes observed during pregnancy. In contrast, comparison of peripheral blood lymphocytes with lymphocytes isolated from the endometrial cups of pregnant mares revealed striking differences in lymphocyte sub-populations. The endometrial cups contained higher numbers of IFNG+ lymphocytes, and lower numbers of lymphocytes expressing IL4. The endometrial cup lymphocytes also had higher numbers of FOXP3+ cells compared to peripheral blood lymphocytes. Taken together, these results strengthen the evidence for a state of split tolerance to trophoblast, and furthermore define sharp differences in immune reactivity during equine pregnancy between peripheral blood lymphocytes and lymphocytes at the maternal-fetal interface. PMID:19876828

  18. Relationship between acceptance of background noise and hearing aid use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabelek, Anna K.; Burchfield, Samuel B.; Webster, Joanna D.

    2003-04-01

    Background noise produces complaints among hearing-aid users, however speech-perception-in-noise does not predict hearing-aid use. It is possible that hearing-aid users are complaining about the presence of background noise and not about speech perception. To test this possibility, acceptance of background noise is being investigated as a predictor of hearing-aid use. Acceptance of background noise is determined by having subjects select their most comfortable listening level (MCL) for a story. Next, speech-babble is added and the subjects select the maximum background noise level (BNL) which is acceptable while listening to and following the story. The difference between the MCL and the BNL is the acceptable noise level (ANL), all in dB. ANLs are being compared with hearing-aid use, subjective impressions of benefit (APHAB), speech perception in background noise (SPIN) scores, and audiometric data. Individuals who accept higher levels of background noise are more successful users than individuals who accept less background noise. Mean ANLs are 7.3 dB for full-time users (N=21), 12.6 dB for part-time users (N=44), and 13.8 dB for rejecters (N=17). ANLs are not related to APHAB, SPIN, or audiometric data. Results for about 120 subjects will be reported. [Work supported by NIDCD (NIH) RO1 DC 05018.

  19. Acceptance test procedure for High Pressure Water Jet System

    SciTech Connect

    Crystal, J.B.

    1995-05-30

    The overall objective of the acceptance test is to demonstrate a combined system. This includes associated tools and equipment necessary to perform cleaning in the 105 K East Basin (KE) for achieving optimum reduction in the level of contamination/dose rate on canisters prior to removal from the KE Basin and subsequent packaging for disposal. Acceptance tests shall include necessary hardware to achieve acceptance of the cleaning phase of canisters. This acceptance test procedure will define the acceptance testing criteria of the high pressure water jet cleaning fixture. The focus of this procedure will be to provide guidelines and instructions to control, evaluate and document the acceptance testing for cleaning effectiveness and method(s) of removing the contaminated surface layer from the canister presently identified in KE Basin. Additionally, the desired result of the acceptance test will be to deliver to K Basins a thoroughly tested and proven system for underwater decontamination and dose reduction. This report discusses the acceptance test procedure for the High Pressure Water Jet.

  20. Validated Fault Tolerant Architectures for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on validated fault tolerant architectures for space station are presented. Topics covered include: fault tolerance approach; advanced information processing system (AIPS); and fault tolerant parallel processor (FTPP).

  1. Testing the feasibility and acceptability of using the Nintendo Wii in the home to increase activity levels, vitality and well-being in people with multiple sclerosis (Mii-vitaliSe): protocol for a pilot randomised controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sarah; Fazakarley, Louise; Thomas, Peter W; Brenton, Sarah; Collyer, Sarah; Perring, Steve; Scott, Rebecca; Galvin, Kathleen; Hillier, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The benefits of physical activity for people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) have been recognised. However, exercise regimens can be difficult to maintain over the longer term and pwMS may face unique barriers to physical activity engagement. Pilot research suggests the Nintendo Wii can be used safely at home by pwMS with minimal mobility/balance issues and may confer benefits. We have developed a home-based physiotherapist supported Wii intervention (‘Mii-vitaliSe’) for pwMS that uses commercial software. This is a pilot study to explore the feasibility of conducting a full scale clinical and cost-effectiveness trial of Mii-vitaliSe. Methods and analysis 30 ambulatory, relatively inactive pwMS will be randomised to receive Mii-vitaliSe immediately, or after 6 months. Outcomes, measured at baseline and 6 and 12 months later, will include balance, gait, mobility, hand dexterity and self-reported physical activity levels, fatigue, self-efficacy, mood and quality of life. Interviews conducted on a purposive sample of participants will explore experiences of participation in the study and barriers and facilitators to using the Wii. Mean recruitment, adherence rate and standard deviations (SDs) of potential primary outcomes for the full trial will be estimated and precision summarised using 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Interview transcripts will be thematically analysed using a generic qualitative approach. Ethics and dissemination National Health Service (NHS; ref 12/SC/0420) and university ethical approvals have been obtained as has NHS Research and Development permission from the relevant trust. A home risk assessment will be undertaken for all potential participants. All adverse events will be closely monitored, documented and reported to the study Safety Monitoring Committee. At least one publication in a peer reviewed journal will be produced and research findings presented at a national and international conference. With service users, we

  2. Analysis of fault-tolerant neurocontrol architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troudet, T.; Merrill, W.

    1992-01-01

    The fault-tolerance of analog parallel distributed implementations of a multivariable aircraft neurocontroller is analyzed by simulating weight and neuron failures in a simplified scheme of analog processing based on the functional architecture of the ETANN chip (Electrically Trainable Artificial Neural Network). The neural information processing is found to be only partially distributed throughout the set of weights of the neurocontroller synthesized with the backpropagation algorithm. Although the degree of distribution of the neural processing, and consequently the fault-tolerance of the neurocontroller, could be enhanced using Locally Distributed Weight and Neuron Approaches, a satisfactory level of fault-tolerance could only be obtained by retraining the degrated VLSI neurocontroller. The possibility of maintaining neurocontrol performance and stability in the presence of single weight of neuron failures was demonstrated through an automated retraining procedure of the neurocontroller based on a pre-programmed choice and sequence of the training parameters.

  3. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  4. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  5. Reactor tank UT acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1990-01-30

    The SRS reactor tanks are constructed of type 304 stainless steel, with 0.5 inch thick walls. An ultrasonic (UT) in-service inspection program has been developed for examination of these tanks, in accordance with the ISI Plan for the Savannah River Production Reactors Process Water System (DPSTM-88-100-1). Prior to initiation of these inspections, criteria for the disposition of any indications that might be found are required. A working group has been formed to review available information on the SRS reactor tanks and develop acceptance criteria. This working group includes nationally recognized experts in the nuclear industry. The working group has met three times and produced three documents describing the proposed acceptance criteria, the technical basis for the criteria and a proposed initial sampling plan. This report transmits these three documents, which were prepared in accordance with the technical task plan and quality assurance plan for this task, task 88-001-A- 1. In addition, this report summarizes the acceptance criteria and proposed sampling plan, and provides further interpretation of the intent of these three documents where necessary.

  6. 12 CFR 7.1007 - Acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptances. 7.1007 Section 7.1007 Banks and... § 7.1007 Acceptances. A national bank is not limited in the character of acceptances it may make in financing credit transactions. Bankers' acceptances may be used for such purpose, since the making...

  7. 12 CFR 7.1007 - Acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptances. 7.1007 Section 7.1007 Banks and... § 7.1007 Acceptances. A national bank is not limited in the character of acceptances it may make in financing credit transactions. Bankers' acceptances may be used for such purpose, since the making...

  8. 21 CFR 820.86 - Acceptance status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance status. 820.86 Section 820.86 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Acceptance Activities § 820.86 Acceptance status. Each manufacturer shall identify by suitable means the acceptance status of product, to indicate the conformance or...

  9. 12 CFR 615.5550 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 615.5550 Section 615.5550... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Bankers' Acceptances § 615.5550 Bankers' acceptances. Banks for cooperatives may rediscount with other purchasers the acceptances they have created. The bank...

  10. 48 CFR 245.606-3 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 245.606-3... Contractor Inventory 245.606-3 Acceptance. (a) If the schedules are acceptable, the plant clearance officer shall, within 15 days, complete and send the contractor a DD Form 1637, Notice of Acceptance...

  11. 48 CFR 12.402 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acceptance. 12.402 Section... Acceptance. (a) The acceptance paragraph in 52.212-4 is based upon the assumption that the Government will rely on the contractor's assurances that the commercial item tendered for acceptance conforms to...

  12. 21 CFR 820.86 - Acceptance status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acceptance status. 820.86 Section 820.86 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Acceptance Activities § 820.86 Acceptance status. Each manufacturer shall identify by suitable means the acceptance status of product, to indicate the conformance or...

  13. 12 CFR 615.5550 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 615.5550 Section 615.5550... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Bankers' Acceptances § 615.5550 Bankers' acceptances. Banks for cooperatives may rediscount with other purchasers the acceptances they have created. The bank...

  14. 48 CFR 12.402 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 12.402 Section... Acceptance. (a) The acceptance paragraph in 52.212-4 is based upon the assumption that the Government will rely on the contractor's assurances that the commercial item tendered for acceptance conforms to...

  15. Implementing fault-tolerant sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith

    1989-01-01

    One aspect of fault tolerance in process control programs is the ability to tolerate sensor failure. A methodology is presented for transforming a process control program that cannot tolerate sensor failures to one that can. Additionally, a hierarchy of failure models is identified.

  16. Zero Tolerance Policies. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Much of this brief comes from the ERIC Digest on Zero Tolerance Policies (ERIC #: ED451579). State legislatures and school boards are adopting a growing number of zero-tolerance polices toward weapons, guns, and violence. Zero-tolerance polices are rules intended to address specific school-safety issues. Despite the controversies that it has…

  17. Acceptability of the modified mucus method: study of the psychosocial factors affecting acceptance.

    PubMed

    Dorairaj, K

    1988-01-01

    A three-phase study designed to study the acceptability and use-effectiveness of the modified mucus method covered a sample of 2,601 poor rural migrant women living in eight low-income areas--villages and resettlement slum colonies. In phase I, the women were exposed to NFP awareness, i.e., the modified mucus method, and 61.6% of the women accepted the method, and agreed to learn and use it. The learning phase is three cycles. Of these acceptors, 83.7% were fertile. A large percentage of the acceptors are Hindus. The low acceptance by the Sikhs was who were non pregnant, menstruating cohabiting. 15.3% were nonmenstruating owing to pregnancy or breast feeding; 0.9% were menstruating, but not cohabitating; 35.4% of the women were not interested in learning or using the method. A comparative study of the acceptance and nonacceptance for the selected sociodemographic and family planning variables is analysed. The acceptors of NFP differed significantly from the acceptors of sterilization and IUD in their occupation, educational levels, duration of marriage, number of living children, number of living sons, knowledge of family planning, and previous use of family planning. PMID:2902034

  18. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Loquasto, Joseph R.; Roberts, Robert F.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  19. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Meriel L; Loquasto, Joseph R; Roberts, Robert F; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  20. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  1. 40 CFR 204.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) A failing compressor is one whose measured sound level is in excess... compressors is less than or equal to the acceptance number or greater than or equal to the rejection...

  2. 40 CFR 204.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Acceptance and rejection of batches... Acceptance and rejection of batches. (a) A failing compressor is one whose measured sound level is in excess... compressors is less than or equal to the acceptance number or greater than or equal to the rejection...

  3. Drought Tolerance in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Prodhan, Zakaria Hossain; Faruq, Golam

    2013-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress. PMID:24319376

  4. Drought tolerance in wheat.

    PubMed

    Nezhadahmadi, Arash; Prodhan, Zakaria Hossain; Faruq, Golam

    2013-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress. PMID:24319376

  5. Damage tolerance for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The damage tolerance experience in the United States Air Force with military aircraft and in the commercial world with large transport category aircraft indicates that a similar success could be achieved in commuter aircraft. The damage tolerance process is described for the purpose of defining the approach that could be used for these aircraft to ensure structural integrity. Results of some of the damage tolerance assessments for this class of aircraft are examined to illustrate the benefits derived from this approach. Recommendations are given for future damage tolerance assessment of existing commuter aircraft and on the incorporation of damage tolerance capability in new designs.

  6. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    W. Mahlon Heileson

    2006-10-01

    The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

  7. Okara ameliorates glucose tolerance in GK rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosokawa, Masaya; Katsukawa, Michiko; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Hitomi; Okuno, Sonomi; Tsuda, Kinsuke; Iritani, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    Okara, a food by-product from the production of tofu and soy milk, is rich in three beneficial components: insoluble dietary fiber, β-conglycinin, and isoflavones. Although isoflavones and β-conglycinin have recently been shown to improve glucose tolerance, the effects of okara have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we herein investigated the effects of okara on glucose tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a representative animal model of Japanese type 2 diabetes. Male GK rats were fed a 10% lard diet with or without 5% dry okara powder for 2 weeks and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Rats were then fed each diet for another week and sacrificed. The expression of genes that are the master regulators of glucose metabolism in adipose tissue was subsequently examined. No significant differences were observed in body weight gain or food intake between the two groups of GK rats. In the oral glucose tolerance test, increases in plasma glucose levels were suppressed by the okara diet. The mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, adiponectin, and GLUT4, which up-regulate the effects of insulin, were increased in epididymal adipose tissue by the okara diet. These results suggest that okara provides a useful means for treating type 2 diabetes. PMID:27257347

  8. Okara ameliorates glucose tolerance in GK rats.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Masaya; Katsukawa, Michiko; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Hitomi; Okuno, Sonomi; Tsuda, Kinsuke; Iritani, Nobuko

    2016-05-01

    Okara, a food by-product from the production of tofu and soy milk, is rich in three beneficial components: insoluble dietary fiber, β-conglycinin, and isoflavones. Although isoflavones and β-conglycinin have recently been shown to improve glucose tolerance, the effects of okara have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we herein investigated the effects of okara on glucose tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a representative animal model of Japanese type 2 diabetes. Male GK rats were fed a 10% lard diet with or without 5% dry okara powder for 2 weeks and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Rats were then fed each diet for another week and sacrificed. The expression of genes that are the master regulators of glucose metabolism in adipose tissue was subsequently examined. No significant differences were observed in body weight gain or food intake between the two groups of GK rats. In the oral glucose tolerance test, increases in plasma glucose levels were suppressed by the okara diet. The mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, adiponectin, and GLUT4, which up-regulate the effects of insulin, were increased in epididymal adipose tissue by the okara diet. These results suggest that okara provides a useful means for treating type 2 diabetes. PMID:27257347

  9. 21 CFR 801.415 - Maximum acceptable level of ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... physiological effects on the central nervous system, heart, and vision have been reported, the predominant... Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. (e) The method and apparatus specified in 40 CFR part 50... permanent or part of any system, which generates ozone by design or as an inadvertent or incidental...

  10. 21 CFR 801.415 - Maximum acceptable level of ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... physiological effects on the central nervous system, heart, and vision have been reported, the predominant... Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. (e) The method and apparatus specified in 40 CFR part 50... permanent or part of any system, which generates ozone by design or as an inadvertent or incidental...

  11. 21 CFR 801.415 - Maximum acceptable level of ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... physiological effects on the central nervous system, heart, and vision have been reported, the predominant... Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. (e) The method and apparatus specified in 40 CFR part 50... permanent or part of any system, which generates ozone by design or as an inadvertent or incidental...

  12. 21 CFR 801.415 - Maximum acceptable level of ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... physiological effects on the central nervous system, heart, and vision have been reported, the predominant... Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. (e) The method and apparatus specified in 40 CFR part 50... permanent or part of any system, which generates ozone by design or as an inadvertent or incidental...

  13. 21 CFR 801.415 - Maximum acceptable level of ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. (e) The method and apparatus specified in 40 CFR part 50... sufficient irritation to the lungs to result in pulmonary edema. The onset of pulmonary edema is...

  14. American Sign Language: Acceptance at the University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Katrina R.

    2008-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) is a visual-gestural language identified as the first or natural language of many persons who are deaf in the United States. For over 200 years, it has been the focal point of a heated controversy regarding optimal teaching methodologies for deaf children in the American elementary and secondary educational systems.…

  15. Reconfigurable Fault Tolerance for FPGAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The invention allows a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) or similar device to be efficiently reconfigured in whole or in part to provide higher capacity, non-redundant operation. The redundant device consists of functional units such as adders or multipliers, configuration memory for the functional units, a programmable routing method, configuration memory for the routing method, and various other features such as block RAM, I/O (random access memory, input/output) capability, dedicated carry logic, etc. The redundant device has three identical sets of functional units and routing resources and majority voters that correct errors. The configuration memory may or may not be redundant, depending on need. For example, SRAM-based FPGAs will need some type of radiation-tolerant configuration memory, or they will need triple-redundant configuration memory. Flash or anti-fuse devices will generally not need redundant configuration memory. Some means of loading and verifying the configuration memory is also required. These are all components of the pre-existing redundant FPGA. This innovation modifies the voter to accept a MODE input, which specifies whether ordinary voting is to occur, or if redundancy is to be split. Generally, additional routing resources will also be required to pass data between sections of the device created by splitting the redundancy. In redundancy mode, the voters produce an output corresponding to the two inputs that agree, in the usual fashion. In the split mode, the voters select just one input and convey this to the output, ignoring the other inputs. In a dual-redundant system (as opposed to triple-redundant), instead of a voter, there is some means to latch or gate a state update only when both inputs agree. In this case, the invention would require modification of the latch or gate so that it would operate normally in redundant mode, and would separately latch or gate the inputs in non-redundant mode.

  16. Acceptability of telepsychiatry in American Indians.

    PubMed

    Shore, Jay H; Brooks, Elizabeth; Savin, Daniel; Orton, Heather; Grigsby, Jim; Manson, Spero M

    2008-06-01

    Telepsychiatry differs from in-person treatment in terms of its delivery mechanism, and this dissimilarity may increase cultural differences between the provider and the patient. Because cultural competence and identification can impact patient satisfaction ratings, we wanted to explore whether cultural differences in our study population influenced telepsychiatric and in-person interviews. Here, we compared the acceptability of conducting psychiatric assessments with rural American Indian veterans by real-time videoconferencing versus inperson administration. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IIIR (SCID) was given to participants both in person and by telehealth. A process measure was created to assess participants' responses to the interview type concerning the usability of the technology, the perceptions of the interviewee/interviewer interaction, the cultural competence of the interview, and satisfaction with the interview and the interview process. The process measure was administered to 53 American Indian Vietnam veterans both in-person and by real-time interactive videoconferencing. Mean responses were compared for each participant. Interviewers were also asked several of the same questions as the participants; answers were compared to the corresponding participant responses. Overall, telepsychiatry was well received and comparable in level of patient comfort, satisfaction, and cultural acceptance to in-person interviews. We also found evidence to suggest that interviewers sometimes interpreted participant satisfaction as significantly less favorable than the participants actually responded. Despite the potential of videoconferencing to increase cultural differences, we found that it is an acceptable means for psychiatric assessment of American Indian veterans and presents an opportunity to provide mental health services to a population that might otherwise not have access. PMID:18578681

  17. A fault-tolerant intelligent robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Tso, Kam Sing

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the concept, design, and features of a fault-tolerant intelligent robotic control system being developed for space and commercial applications that require high dependability. The comprehensive strategy integrates system level hardware/software fault tolerance with task level handling of uncertainties and unexpected events for robotic control. The underlying architecture for system level fault tolerance is the distributed recovery block which protects against application software, system software, hardware, and network failures. Task level fault tolerance provisions are implemented in a knowledge-based system which utilizes advanced automation techniques such as rule-based and model-based reasoning to monitor, diagnose, and recover from unexpected events. The two level design provides tolerance of two or more faults occurring serially at any level of command, control, sensing, or actuation. The potential benefits of such a fault tolerant robotic control system include: (1) a minimized potential for damage to humans, the work site, and the robot itself; (2) continuous operation with a minimum of uncommanded motion in the presence of failures; and (3) more reliable autonomous operation providing increased efficiency in the execution of robotic tasks and decreased demand on human operators for controlling and monitoring the robotic servicing routines.

  18. Acceptance threshold theory can explain occurrence of homosexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Engel, Katharina C; Männer, Lisa; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Same-sex sexual behaviour (SSB) has been documented in a wide range of animals, but its evolutionary causes are not well understood. Here, we investigated SSB in the light of Reeve's acceptance threshold theory. When recognition is not error-proof, the acceptance threshold used by males to recognize potential mating partners should be flexibly adjusted to maximize the fitness pay-off between the costs of erroneously accepting males and the benefits of accepting females. By manipulating male burying beetles' search time for females and their reproductive potential, we influenced their perceived costs of making an acceptance or rejection error. As predicted, when the costs of rejecting females increased, males exhibited more permissive discrimination decisions and showed high levels of SSB; when the costs of accepting males increased, males were more restrictive and showed low levels of SSB. Our results support the idea that in animal species, in which the recognition cues of females and males overlap to a certain degree, SSB is a consequence of an adaptive discrimination strategy to avoid the costs of making rejection errors. PMID:25631226

  19. Software reliability through fault-avoidance and fault-tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vouk, Mladen A.; Mcallister, David F.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty independently developed but functionally equivalent software versions were used to investigate and compare empirically some properties of N-version programming, Recovery Block, and Consensus Recovery Block, using the majority and consensus voting algorithms. This was also compared with another hybrid fault-tolerant scheme called Acceptance Voting, using dynamic versions of consensus and majority voting. Consensus voting provides adaptation of the voting strategy to varying component reliability, failure correlation, and output space characteristics. Since failure correlation among versions effectively reduces the cardinality of the space in which the voter make decisions, consensus voting is usually preferable to simple majority voting in any fault-tolerant system. When versions have considerably different reliabilities, the version with the best reliability will perform better than any of the fault-tolerant techniques.

  20. Laeve-[1-3H]Methadone disposition in tolerant dogs.

    PubMed

    Misra, A L; Bloch, R; Vadlamani, N L; Mulé, S J

    1975-04-01

    1. Following a subcutaneous dose (4mg/kg) of [3H]methadone, peak levels of drug occurred in plasma, tissues and selected areas of the central nervous system (CNS) 2h after injection in both non-tolerant and tolerant dogs. Highest concentrations of methadone were attained in bile and lung compared to other tissues. 2. Levels of methadone in plasma, tissue and CNS of tolerant and non-tolerant animals were not markedly different up to 8h after injection, but a much faster rate of egression of free drug (lower t1/2) was observed subsequently in tolerant dogs. 3. Peak levels of methadone in various areas of the CNS ranged between 2-7 (spinal cord) to 3-6 (thalamus) mug/g in non-tolerant and 3-0 -rebellum) to 4-1 (thalamus) mug/g in tolerant dogs 2h after injection. No marked accumulation of methadone occurred in selected areas of the CNS in spite of the persistence of drug in these areas. 4. The plasma protein electrophoretic profiles did not differ between control, non-tolerant and tolerant dogs. 5. Similar qualitative patterns of metabolites were observed in non-tolerant and tolerant dogs and the development of tolerance did not appear to modify the metabolic pathways of methadone. PMID:1154803

  1. THE ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES ACCEPTANCE (ETA) PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Christina B. Behr-Andres

    2001-10-01

    The objective of the Environmental Technologies Acceptance (ETA) Program at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is to advance the development, commercial acceptance, and timely deployment of selected private sector technologies for the cleanup of sites in the nuclear defense complex as well as the greater market. As a result of contract changes approved by National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) representatives to incorporate activities previously conducted under another NETL agreement, there are now an additional task and an expansion of activities within the stated scope of work of the ETA program. As shown in Table 1, this cooperative agreement, funded by NETL (No. DE-FC26-00NT40840), consists of four tasks: Technology Selection, Technology Development, Technology Verification, and System Engineering. As currently conceived, ETA will address the needs of as many technologies as appropriate under its current 3-year term. There are currently four technical subtasks: Long-Term Stewardship Initiative at the Mound Plant Site; Photocatalysis of Mercury-Contaminated Water; Subcritical Water Treatment of PCB and Metal-Contaminated Paint Waste; and Vegetative Covers for Low-Level Waste Repositories. This report covers activities during the second six months of the three-year ETA program.

  2. End User Acceptance - Requirements or Specifications, Certification, Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2013-01-01

    NASA follows top level safety requirement of two-failure tolerance (t hree levels of controls or design for minimum risk) to all catastroph ic hazards in the design of safe li-ion batteries for space use. ? R igorous development testing at appropriate levels to credible offnominal conditions and review of test data. ? Implement robust design con trols based on test results and test again to confirm safety at the a ppropriate levels. ? Stringent testing of all (100%) flight batteries (from button cells to large batteries).

  3. Causal Attributions and Parents' Acceptance of Their Homosexual Sons.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Yael; Diamond, Gary M

    2015-01-01

    This Internet-based study examined the association between Israeli parents' attributions regarding the cause of their son's homosexuality and their level of acceptance of their homosexual son. The sample (N = 57) was recruited via Internet Web sites (gay forums and support groups). Findings suggest that more essentialist (versus constructivist) causal attributions were associated with higher levels of parental acceptance. Length of time parents knew of their son's homosexual orientation predicted the degree to which their attributions were essentialist. Implications are discussed. PMID:26177158

  4. Arachidonic acid metabolism in endotoxin tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wise, W C; Cook, J A; Halushka, P V

    1983-01-01

    The arachidonic acid metabolites thromboxane A2, a potent platelet aggregator, and prostacyclin, a potent vasodilator, are released early in endotoxin shock and may contribute to its pathologic sequelae. Plasma levels of thromboxane (Tx) A2 and prostacyclin were measured via radioimmunoassay of their stable metabolites immunoreactive (i) TxB2 and i6-keto-PGF1 alpha in tolerant and nontolerant rats after endotoxin. Long-Evans rats were made tolerant to endotoxin by four daily IV injections of S enteritidis (endotoxin) (0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 mg/kg). In normal rats (N = 15) given LPS (IV, 15 mg/kg), only 11% survived at 24 h; in contrast, tolerant rats (N = 13) all survived even at a dose of 50 mg/kg. At 1 h, after endotoxin (15 mg/kg) IV, plasma i6-keto-PGF1 alpha in nontolerant rats was 1,005 +/- 149 pg/ml (N = 14) and continued to rise to 4,209 +/- 757 pg/ml (N = 5) (P less than 0.001) after 4 h. In tolerant rats, given endotoxin (15 mg/kg), plasma i6-keto-PGF1 alpha at 1 h was 800 +/- 203 pg/ml (N = 5) and was not significantly different (734 +/- 254 pg/ml) at 4 h. Plasma iTxB2 at both 1 and 4 h was significantly (P less than 0.01) lower in tolerant than nontolerant rats. Both iTxB2 and i6-keto-PGF1 alpha were significantly (P less than 0.01) lower in tolerant rats given 50 mg/kg IV endotoxin than nontolerant rats. Endotoxin-induced elevation in fibrin degradation products was significantly decreased (P less than 0.05) during endotoxin tolerance although there was no difference in the severity of thrombocytopenia. These composite observations demonstrate that endotoxin tolerance in the rat is associated with altered arachidonic acid metabolism. PMID:6410699

  5. Aluminum tolerance association mapping in triticale

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Crop production practices and industrialization processes result in increasing acidification of arable soils. At lower pH levels (below 5.0), aluminum (Al) remains in a cationic form that is toxic to plants, reducing growth and yield. The effect of aluminum on agronomic performance is particularly important in cereals like wheat, which has promoted the development of programs directed towards selection of tolerant forms. Even in intermediately tolerant cereals (i.e., triticale), the decrease in yield may be significant. In triticale, Al tolerance seems to be influenced by both wheat and rye genomes. However, little is known about the precise chromosomal location of tolerance-related genes, and whether wheat or rye genomes are crucial for the expression of that trait in the hybrid. Results A mapping population consisting of 232 advanced breeding triticale forms was developed and phenotyped for Al tolerance using physiological tests. AFLP, SSR and DArT marker platforms were applied to obtain a sufficiently large set of molecular markers (over 3000). Associations between the markers and the trait were tested using General (GLM) and Multiple (MLM) Linear Models, as well as the Statistical Machine Learning (SML) approach. The chromosomal locations of candidate markers were verified based on known assignments of SSRs and DArTs or by using genetic maps of rye and triticale. Two candidate markers on chromosome 3R and 9, 15 and 11 on chromosomes 4R, 6R and 7R, respectively, were identified. The r2 values were between 0.066 and 0.220 in most cases, indicating a good fit of the data, with better results obtained with the GML than the MLM approach. Several QTLs on rye chromosomes appeared to be involved in the phenotypic expression of the trait, suggesting that rye genome factors are predominantly responsible for Al tolerance in triticale. Conclusions The Diversity Arrays Technology was applied successfully to association mapping studies performed on triticale

  6. 48 CFR 811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 811.103 Section 811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND... acceptance....

  7. 48 CFR 811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 811.103 Section 811.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND... acceptance....

  8. Computer acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer. PMID:22317258

  9. Intelligent failure-tolerant control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of failure-tolerant control is presented, beginning with robust control, progressing through parallel and analytical redundancy, and ending with rule-based systems and artificial neural networks. By design or implementation, failure-tolerant control systems are 'intelligent' systems. All failure-tolerant systems require some degrees of robustness to protect against catastrophic failure; failure tolerance often can be improved by adaptivity in decision-making and control, as well as by redundancy in measurement and actuation. Reliability, maintainability, and survivability can be enhanced by failure tolerance, although each objective poses different goals for control system design. Artificial intelligence concepts are helpful for integrating and codifying failure-tolerant control systems, not as alternatives but as adjuncts to conventional design methods.

  10. Salinity and High Temperature Tolerance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] from a Physiological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    HanumanthaRao, Bindumadhava; Nair, Ramakrishnan M.; Nayyar, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic constraints seriously affect the productivity of agriculture worldwide. The broadly recognized benefits of legumes in cropping systems—biological nitrogen fixation, improving soil fertility and broadening cereal-based agro-ecologies, are desirable now more than ever. Legume production is affected by hostile environments, especially soil salinity and high temperatures (HTs). Among legumes, mungbean has acceptable intrinsic tolerance mechanisms, but many agro-physiological characteristics of the Vigna species remain to be explored. Mungbean has a distinct advantage of being short-duration and can grow in wide range of soils and environments (as mono or relay legume). This review focuses on salinity and HT stresses on mungbean grown as a fallow crop (mungbean-rice-wheat to replace fallow-rice-wheat) and/or a relay crop in cereal cropping systems. Salinity tolerance comprises multifaceted responses at the molecular, physiological and plant canopy levels. In HTs, adaptation of physiological and biochemical processes gradually may lead to improvement of heat tolerance in plants. At the field level, managing or manipulating cultural practices can mitigate adverse effects of salinity and HT. Greater understanding of physiological and biochemical mechanisms regulating these two stresses will contribute to an evolving profile of the genes, proteins, and metabolites responsible for mungbean survival. We focus on abiotic stresses in legumes in general and mungbean in particular, and highlight gaps that need to be bridged through future mungbean research. Recent findings largely from physiological and biochemical fronts are examined, along with a few agronomic and farm-based management strategies to mitigate stress under field conditions. PMID:27446183

  11. Salinity and High Temperature Tolerance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] from a Physiological Perspective.

    PubMed

    HanumanthaRao, Bindumadhava; Nair, Ramakrishnan M; Nayyar, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic constraints seriously affect the productivity of agriculture worldwide. The broadly recognized benefits of legumes in cropping systems-biological nitrogen fixation, improving soil fertility and broadening cereal-based agro-ecologies, are desirable now more than ever. Legume production is affected by hostile environments, especially soil salinity and high temperatures (HTs). Among legumes, mungbean has acceptable intrinsic tolerance mechanisms, but many agro-physiological characteristics of the Vigna species remain to be explored. Mungbean has a distinct advantage of being short-duration and can grow in wide range of soils and environments (as mono or relay legume). This review focuses on salinity and HT stresses on mungbean grown as a fallow crop (mungbean-rice-wheat to replace fallow-rice-wheat) and/or a relay crop in cereal cropping systems. Salinity tolerance comprises multifaceted responses at the molecular, physiological and plant canopy levels. In HTs, adaptation of physiological and biochemical processes gradually may lead to improvement of heat tolerance in plants. At the field level, managing or manipulating cultural practices can mitigate adverse effects of salinity and HT. Greater understanding of physiological and biochemical mechanisms regulating these two stresses will contribute to an evolving profile of the genes, proteins, and metabolites responsible for mungbean survival. We focus on abiotic stresses in legumes in general and mungbean in particular, and highlight gaps that need to be bridged through future mungbean research. Recent findings largely from physiological and biochemical fronts are examined, along with a few agronomic and farm-based management strategies to mitigate stress under field conditions. PMID:27446183

  12. Metabolic Adaption of Ethanol-Tolerant Clostridium thermocellum

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xinshu; Cui, Jiatao; Feng, Yingang; Fa, Yun; Zhang, Jingtao; Cui, Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a major candidate for bioethanol production via consolidated bioprocessing. However, the low ethanol tolerance of the organism dramatically impedes its usage in industry. To explore the mechanism of ethanol tolerance in this microorganism, systematic metabolomics was adopted to analyse the metabolic phenotypes of a C. thermocellum wild-type (WT) strain and an ethanol-tolerant strain cultivated without (ET0) or with (ET3) 3% (v/v) exogenous ethanol. Metabolomics analysis elucidated that the levels of numerous metabolites in different pathways were changed for the metabolic adaption of ethanol-tolerant C. thermocellum. The most interesting phenomenon was that cellodextrin was significantly more accumulated in the ethanol-tolerant strain compared with the WT strain, although cellobiose was completely consumed in both the ethanol-tolerant and wild-type strains. These results suggest that the cellodextrin synthesis was active, which might be a potential mechanism for stress resistance. Moreover, the overflow of many intermediate metabolites, which indicates the metabolic imbalance, in the ET0 cultivation was more significant than in the WT and ET3 cultivations. This indicates that the metabolic balance of the ethanol-tolerant strain was adapted better to the condition of ethanol stress. This study provides additional insight into the mechanism of ethanol tolerance and is valuable for further metabolic engineering aimed at higher bioethanol production. PMID:23936233

  13. Metabolic adaption of ethanol-tolerant Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinshu; Cui, Jiatao; Feng, Yingang; Fa, Yun; Zhang, Jingtao; Cui, Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a major candidate for bioethanol production via consolidated bioprocessing. However, the low ethanol tolerance of the organism dramatically impedes its usage in industry. To explore the mechanism of ethanol tolerance in this microorganism, systematic metabolomics was adopted to analyse the metabolic phenotypes of a C. thermocellum wild-type (WT) strain and an ethanol-tolerant strain cultivated without (ET0) or with (ET3) 3% (v/v) exogenous ethanol. Metabolomics analysis elucidated that the levels of numerous metabolites in different pathways were changed for the metabolic adaption of ethanol-tolerant C. thermocellum. The most interesting phenomenon was that cellodextrin was significantly more accumulated in the ethanol-tolerant strain compared with the WT strain, although cellobiose was completely consumed in both the ethanol-tolerant and wild-type strains. These results suggest that the cellodextrin synthesis was active, which might be a potential mechanism for stress resistance. Moreover, the overflow of many intermediate metabolites, which indicates the metabolic imbalance, in the ET0 cultivation was more significant than in the WT and ET3 cultivations. This indicates that the metabolic balance of the ethanol-tolerant strain was adapted better to the condition of ethanol stress. This study provides additional insight into the mechanism of ethanol tolerance and is valuable for further metabolic engineering aimed at higher bioethanol production. PMID:23936233

  14. Tolerability of hypertonic injectables.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei

    2015-07-25

    Injectable drug products are ideally developed as isotonic solutions. Often, hypertonic injectables may have to be marketed for a variety of reasons such as product solubilization and stabilization. A key concern during product formulation development is the local and systemic tolerability of hypertonic products upon injection. This report reviews and discusses the tolerability in terms of local discomfort, irritation, sensation of heat and pain, along with other observed side effects of hypertonicity in both in-vitro systems and in-vivo animal and human models. These side effects clearly depend on the degree of hypertonicity. The sensation of pain among different injection routes seems to follow this order: intramuscular>subcutaneous>intravenous or intravascular. It is recommended that the upper osmolality limit should be generally controlled under 600 mOsm/kg for drug products intended for intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. For drug products intended for intravenous or intravascular injection, the recommended upper limit should be generally controlled under 1,000 mOsm/kg for small-volume injections (≤ 100 mL) and 500 mOsm/kg for large-volume injections (>100mL). Several options are available for minimization of hypertonicity-induced pain upon product administration. PMID:26027488

  15. Tolerability of ziprasidone: an expanding perspective.

    PubMed

    Daniel, David G

    2003-01-01

    Although atypical antipsychotic agents have improved the management of patients with schizophrenia, their utility has been hindered by some limitations, including significant weight gain, glucose metabolism disturbances, and increases in total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In addition to its low liability for movement disorders and its favorable tolerability record in short- and long-term clinical trials, ziprasidone is associated with a favorable metabolic safety profile (in terms of its effect on plasma lipid and glucose levels) and a negligible effect on weight. The limited effect of ziprasidone on the corrected QT interval (QTc) has also been well characterized, and experience to date has not demonstrated any increased risk of clinical events attributable to QTc prolongation. This review of pharmacokinetic and clinical trials of ziprasidone versus placebo and active comparators focuses on the safety and tolerability of both the intramuscular and oral formulations. PMID:14728089

  16. 7 CFR 966.29 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 966.29 Section 966.29 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Committee § 966.29 Acceptance. Any person selected as a committee member or alternate shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the Secretary within ten days after being notified...

  17. 7 CFR 924.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 924.25 Section 924.25 Agriculture....25 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a member or as an alternate member of the committee shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the Secretary promptly after being notified...

  18. 7 CFR 924.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 924.25 Section 924.25 Agriculture....25 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as a member or as an alternate member of the committee shall qualify by filing a written acceptance with the Secretary promptly after being notified...

  19. 7 CFR 923.25 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 923.25 Section 923.25 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 923.25 Acceptance. Any person prior... written acceptance of willingness to serve on the committee....

  20. 7 CFR 993.31 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance. 993.31 Section 993.31 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Prune Marketing Committee § 993.31 Acceptance. Each person selected as a... with the Secretary a written acceptance within 15 days after receiving notice of his selection....