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Sample records for acceptable treatment method

  1. Comparing the Costs and Acceptability of Three Fidelity Assessment Methods for Assertive Community Treatment.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Angela L; Kukla, Marina; Salyers, Michelle P; McGrew, John H; Flanagan, Mindy E; Leslie, Doug L; Hunt, Marcia G; McGuire, Alan B

    2017-01-04

    Successful implementation of evidence-based practices requires valid, yet practical fidelity monitoring. This study compared the costs and acceptability of three fidelity assessment methods: on-site, phone, and expert-scored self-report. Thirty-two randomly selected VA mental health intensive case management teams completed all fidelity assessments using a standardized scale and provided feedback on each. Personnel and travel costs across the three methods were compared for statistical differences. Both phone and expert-scored self-report methods demonstrated significantly lower costs than on-site assessments, even when excluding travel costs. However, participants preferred on-site assessments. Remote fidelity assessments hold promise in monitoring large scale program fidelity with limited resources.

  2. Further Conceptualization of Treatment Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.

    2008-01-01

    A review and extension of previous conceptualizations of treatment acceptability is provided in light of progress within the area of behavior treatment development and implementation. Factors including legislation, advances in research, and service delivery models are examined as to their relationship with a comprehensive conceptualization of…

  3. Children acceptance of laser dental treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazea, Andreea; Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the dental anxiety level and the degree of acceptance of laser assisted pedodontic treatments from the children part. Also, we want to underline the advantages of laser use in pediatric dentistry, to make this technology widely used in treating dental problems of our children patients. Methods: Thirty pediatric dental patients presented in the Department of Pedodontics, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babeş", Timişoara were evaluated using the Wong-Baker pain rating scale, wich was administered postoperatory to all patients, to assess their level of laser therapy acceptance. Results: Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (WBFPS) has good validity and high specificity; generally it's easy for children to use, easy to compare and has good feasibility. Laser treatment has been accepted and tolerated by pediatric patients for its ability to reduce or eliminate pain. Around 70% of the total sample showed an excellent acceptance of laser dental treatment. Conclusions: Laser technology is useful and effective in many clinical situations encountered in pediatric dentistry and a good level of pacient acceptance is reported during all laser procedures on hard and soft tissues.

  4. TextTB: A Mixed Method Pilot Study Evaluating Acceptance, Feasibility, and Exploring Initial Efficacy of a Text Messaging Intervention to Support TB Treatment Adherence.

    PubMed

    Iribarren, Sarah; Beck, Susan; Pearce, Patricia F; Chirico, Cristina; Etchevarria, Mirta; Cardinale, Daniel; Rubinstein, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess a text messaging intervention to promote tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence. Methods. A mixed-methods pilot study was conducted within a public pulmonary-specialized hospital in Argentina. Patients newly diagnosed with TB who were 18 or older, and had mobile phone access were recruited and randomized to usual care plus either medication calendar (n = 19) or text messaging intervention (n = 18) for the first two months of treatment. Primary outcomes were feasibility and acceptability; secondary outcomes explored initial efficacy. Results. Feasibility was evidenced by high access to mobile phones, familiarity with texting, most phones limited to basic features, a low rate of participant refusal, and many describing suboptimal TB understanding. Acceptability was evidenced by participants indicating feeling cared for, supported, responsible for their treatment, and many self-reporting adherence without a reminder. Participants in the texting group self-reported adherence on average 77% of the days whereas only 53% in calendar group returned diaries. Exploring initial efficacy, microscopy testing was low and treatment outcomes were similar in both groups. Conclusion. The texting intervention was well accepted and feasible with greater reporting of adherence using text messaging than the diary. Further evaluation of the texting intervention is warranted.

  5. TextTB: A Mixed Method Pilot Study Evaluating Acceptance, Feasibility, and Exploring Initial Efficacy of a Text Messaging Intervention to Support TB Treatment Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Patricia F.; Chirico, Cristina; Etchevarria, Mirta; Cardinale, Daniel; Rubinstein, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess a text messaging intervention to promote tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence. Methods. A mixed-methods pilot study was conducted within a public pulmonary-specialized hospital in Argentina. Patients newly diagnosed with TB who were 18 or older, and had mobile phone access were recruited and randomized to usual care plus either medication calendar (n = 19) or text messaging intervention (n = 18) for the first two months of treatment. Primary outcomes were feasibility and acceptability; secondary outcomes explored initial efficacy. Results. Feasibility was evidenced by high access to mobile phones, familiarity with texting, most phones limited to basic features, a low rate of participant refusal, and many describing suboptimal TB understanding. Acceptability was evidenced by participants indicating feeling cared for, supported, responsible for their treatment, and many self-reporting adherence without a reminder. Participants in the texting group self-reported adherence on average 77% of the days whereas only 53% in calendar group returned diaries. Exploring initial efficacy, microscopy testing was low and treatment outcomes were similar in both groups. Conclusion. The texting intervention was well accepted and feasible with greater reporting of adherence using text messaging than the diary. Further evaluation of the texting intervention is warranted. PMID:24455238

  6. Review of Recent Treatment Acceptability Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.

    2007-01-01

    With recent increases in the use of positive approaches to treatment for individuals with developmental disabilities, it seems appropriate to review the variables that have been found to influence the acceptability of various treatments. Programmatic treatments for problematic behaviors that incorporate primarily positive (reinforcement)…

  7. Treatment Acceptability among Mexican American Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.; Ibanez, Elizabeth S.; Spendlove, Stuart J.; Pemberton, Joy R.

    2007-01-01

    There is a void in the literature with regard to Hispanic parents' views about common interventions for children with behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment acceptability of child management techniques in a Mexican American sample. Parents' acculturation was also examined to determine if it would account for…

  8. Acceptance criteria for method equivalency assessments.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Marion J; Borman, Phil J

    2009-12-15

    Quality by design (ICH-Topic Q8) requires that process control strategy requirements are met and maintained. The challenging task of setting appropriate acceptance criteria for assessment of method equivalence is a critical component of satisfying these requirements. The use of these criteria will support changes made to methods across the product lifecycle. A method equivalence assessment is required when a change is made to a method which may pose a risk to its ability to monitor the quality of the process. Establishing appropriate acceptance criteria are a vital, but not clearly understood, prerequisite to deciding the appropriate design/sample size of the equivalency study. A number of approaches are proposed in the literature for setting acceptance criteria for equivalence which address different purposes. This perspective discusses those purposes and then provides more details on setting acceptance criteria based on patient and producer risk, e.g., tolerance interval approach and the consideration of method or process capability. Applying these to a drug substance assay method for batch release illustrates that, for the equivalence assessment to be meaningful, a clear understanding and appraisal of the control requirements of the method is needed. Rather than a single exact algorithm, the analyst's judgment on a number of aspects is required in deciding the appropriate acceptance criteria.

  9. Developing an Acceptability Assessment of Preventive Dental Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Susan; Gansky, Stuart A.; Gonzalez-Vargas, Maria J.; Husting, Sheila R.; Cheng, Nancy F.; Millstein, Susan G.; Adams, Sally H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Early childhood caries (ECC) is very prevalent among young Hispanic children. ECC is amenable to a variety of preventive procedures, yet many Hispanic families underutilize dental services. Acceptability research may assist in health care planning and resource allocation by identifying patient preferences among efficacious treatments with the goal of improving their utilization. The purposes of this study were (a) to develop a culturally competent acceptability assessment instrument, directed toward the caregivers of young Hispanic children, for five preventive dental treatments for ECC and (b) to test the instrument's reliability and validity. Methods An instrument of five standard treatments known to prevent ECC was developed, translated, reviewed by focus groups, and pilot tested, then tested for reliability. The instrument included illustrated cards, brief video clips, and samples of the treatments and was culturally appropriate for low-income Hispanic caregivers. In addition to determining the acceptability of the five treatments individually, the treatments were also presented as paired comparisons. Results Focus groups and debriefing interviews following the pilot tests established that the instrument has good face validity. The illustrated cards, product samples, and video demonstrations of the five treatments resulted in an instrument possessing good content validity. The instrument has good to excellent test–retest reliability, with identical time 1–time 2 responses for each of the five treatments 92 percent of the time (range 87 to 97 percent), and the same treatment of the paired comparisons preferred 75 percent of the time (range 61 to 90 percent). Conclusions The acceptability instrument described is reliable and valid and may be useful in program planning efforts to identify and increase the utilization of preferred ECC preventive treatments for target populations. PMID:18662256

  10. Risk Acceptance in Multiple Sclerosis Patients on Natalizumab Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tur, Carmen; Tintoré, Mar; Vidal-Jordana, Ángela; Bichuetti, Denis; Nieto González, Pablo; Arévalo, María Jesús; Arrambide, Georgina; Anglada, Elisenda; Galán, Ingrid; Castilló, Joaquín; Nos, Carlos; Río, Jordi; Martín, María Isabel; Comabella, Manuel; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Montalban, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the ability of natalizumab (NTZ)-treated patients to assume treatment-associated risks and the factors involved in such risk acceptance. Methods From a total of 185 patients, 114 patients on NTZ as of July 2011 carried out a comprehensive survey. We obtained disease severity perception scores, personality traits’ scores, and risk-acceptance scores (RAS) so that higher RAS indicated higher risk acceptance. We recorded JC virus status (JCV+/-), prior immunosuppression, NTZ treatment duration, and clinical characteristics. NTZ patients were split into subgroups (A-E), depending on their individual PML risk. Some 22 MS patients on first-line drugs (DMD) acted as controls. Results No differences between treatment groups were observed in disease severity perception and personality traits. RAS were higher in NTZ than in DMD patients (p<0.01). Perception of the own disease as a more severe condition tended to predict higher RAS (p=0.07). Higher neuroticism scores predicted higher RAS in the NTZ group as a whole (p=0.04), and in high PML-risk subgroups (A-B) (p=0.02). In low PML-risk subgroups (C-E), higher RAS were associated with a JCV+ status (p=0.01). Neither disability scores nor pre-treatment relapse rate predicted RAS in either group. Conclusions Risk acceptance is a multifactorial phenomenon, which might be partly explained by an adaptive process, in light of the higher risk acceptance amongst NTZ-treated patients and, especially, amongst those who are JCV seropositive but still have low PML risk, but which seems also intimately related to personality traits. PMID:24340060

  11. Acceptability of Treatment for a Student Sleeping in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra Maria

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on various treatments for addressing the classroom misbehavior of sleeping during class. The findings revealed that students found some methods of addressing this problem behavior by the instructor more acceptable than other methods of treating the behavior. College students rated the most acceptable instructor treatment for…

  12. Treatment Acceptability of Healthcare Services for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Norm; Tervo, Raymond; Symons, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although treatment acceptability scales in intellectual and developmental disabilities research have been used in large- and small-scale applications, large-scale application has been limited to analogue (i.e. contrived) investigations. This study extended the application of treatment acceptability by assessing a large sample of care…

  13. Light on Body Image Treatment: Acceptance Through Mindfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Tiffany M.

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of body image has to be multifaceted and should be directed toward the treatment of the whole individual - body, mind, and spirit - with an ultimate culmination of acceptance and compassion for the self. This article presents information on a mindful approach to the treatment of body image as it pertains to concerns with body size…

  14. Acceptability of Alternative Treatments for Deviant Child Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazdin, Alan E.

    1980-01-01

    Cases of deviant child behavior were described to 88 undergraduate students along with four different treatments (reinforcement of incompatible behavior, time out from reinforcement, drug therapy, and electric shock). Reinforcement of incompatible behavior was more acceptable than other treatments which followed, in order, time out from…

  15. Treatment Acceptability of Interventions Published in Six School Psychology Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Victor; Ponce, Christopher; Gutierrez, Heveli

    2015-01-01

    Treatment acceptability (TA) is critical when selecting and implementing an intervention, as TA is associated with treatment outcomes. The significance of TA is reflected in school psychology models for services that state that school psychologists should address TA during development, implementation, and evaluation of interventions. However, the…

  16. Drug treatment program ownership, Medicaid acceptance, and service provision.

    PubMed

    McBride, Duane C; Chriqui, Jamie F; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; Mulatu, Mesfin S

    2012-03-01

    The Institute of Medicine noted that effective substance abuse treatment (SAT) programs integrate individual therapeutic approaches with transitional/ancillary services. In addition, research suggests that type of ownership impacts SAT services offered and that Medicaid plays a key role in SAT access. Data from the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services for the years 2000 and 2002-2006 were used to examine relationships among SAT program Medicaid acceptance, program ownership, and transitional/ancillary service accessibility. Multivariate logistic regression models controlling for state- and program-level contextual factors were used to analyze the data. Nonprofit SAT programs were significantly more likely to offer transitional/ancillary services than for-profit programs. However, programs that accepted Medicaid, regardless of ownership, were significantly more likely to offer most transitional/ancillary services. The data suggest that Medicaid may play a significant role in offering key transitional/ancillary services related to successful treatment outcome, regardless of program ownership type.

  17. [Validation and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods for toxicity evaluation].

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yasuo

    2004-01-01

    For regulatory acceptance of alternative methods (AMs) to animal toxicity tests, their reproducibility and relevance should be determined by intra- and inter-laboratory validation. Appropriate procedures of the validation and regulatory acceptance of AMs were recommended by OECD in 1996. According to those principles, several in vitro methods like skin corrosivity tests and phototoxicity tests were evaluated and accepted by ECVAM (European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods), ICCVAM (The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods), and OECD. Because of the difficulties in conducting inter-laboratory validation and relatively short period remained until EU's ban of animal experiments for safety evaluation of cosmetics, ECVAM and ICCVAM have recently started cooperation in validation and evaluation of AMs. It is also necessary to establish JaCVAM (Japanese Center for the Validation of AM) to contribute the issue and for the evaluation of new toxicity tests originated in Japan.

  18. Insomnia treatment acceptability and preferences of male Iraq and Afghanistan combat veterans and their healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Dana R; Babcock-Parziale, Judith L; Haynes, Patricia L; Herb, Christine A

    2012-01-01

    Sleep difficulty is a prevalent problem among returning Veterans. Although there is strong evidence for the efficacy and durability of cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) in the general population, the interventions require motivation, attention, and adherence from patients to achieve successful outcomes. Given the unique characteristics of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) Veterans who have experienced blast-related injuries and other trauma, CBT-I for these patients may require modification, including alternative delivery methods, to ensure effective implementation and positive outcomes. We interviewed 18 OIF/OEF Veterans who screened positive for mild traumatic brain injury and 19 healthcare providers to determine the acceptability of insomnia treatments and preferences for the interventions and treatment delivery. Veterans and providers had distinct preferences for insomnia treatment and its delivery. The treatments the Veterans found most acceptable were also the ones they preferred: relaxation treatment and pharmacotherapy. The providers identified relaxation therapy as the most acceptable treatment. Veterans preferred the individual treatment format as well as electronic methods of treatment delivery. Despite some differences between patients and providers, a compromise through modification of empirically supported behavioral treatments is feasible, and implications for preference-based insomnia intervention development and testing are discussed.

  19. Children with Developmental Disabilities and Sleep Problems: Parental Beliefs and Treatment Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Ruth A.; Wild, Matt R.; McArthur, Irene; Espie, Colin A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This exploratory study investigated the relationships between illness beliefs and treatment acceptability among parents of children with a developmental disability living at home who had sleep onset or maintenance problems. Materials and Methods: A within-subject correlational design was employed. The parents of 58 children each…

  20. College Students' Perceptions of Treatment Acceptability of How College Professors Deal with Disruptive Talking in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra Maria

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on various treatments for addressing the classroom misbehavior of disruptive talking during class lecture. The findings revealed that students found some methods of addressing this problem behavior by the instructor more acceptable than other methods of treating the behavior. College students rated the most acceptable instructor…

  1. Experiential acceptance, motivation for recovery, and treatment outcome in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Espel, Hallie M.; Goldstein, Stephanie P.; Manasse, Stephanie M.; Juarascio, Adrienne S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study sought to test whether the relationship between experiential acceptance (EA) and treatment outcome among eating disorder (ED) patients was mediated by motivation. Methods Upon admission to a residential ED treatment facility, female patients completed measures of EA, motivation, and baseline ED symptom severity (covariate); symptom severity was reassessed at discharge. Results Higher levels of baseline EA predicted significantly greater symptom reduction during treatment. Moreover, results from bootstrapped mediation analyses indicated that the relationship between EA and treatment outcome was partially mediated by motivation: increased EA was associated with greater motivation to give up ED behaviors at the beginning of treatment, and this led to greater symptom reduction from admission to discharge. Conclusions Motivation appears to be one mechanism by which EA facilitates improved treatment outcomes in EDs. Further development of interventions that promote EA as a means for improving motivation and subsequent ED treatment response may be warranted. PMID:26511501

  2. The Acceptability of Treatments for Depression to a Community Sample of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caporino, Nicole E.; Karver, Marc S.

    2012-01-01

    An efficacious treatment is diminished in value if consumers do not seek it out and adhere to it, making treatment acceptability an important predictor of the effectiveness of treatment. This study examined the acceptability of treatments for depression to 67 female high school students. All participants read a vignette describing a depressed…

  3. Feasibility and acceptability of alternate methods of postnatal data collection.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lacey A; Friedrich, Christa; Fahrenwald, Nancy; Specker, Bonny

    2014-05-01

    This study was done in preparation for the launch of the National Children's Study (NCS) main study. The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility (completion rates and completeness of data), acceptability, staff time and cost-effectiveness of three methods of data collection for the postnatal 3- and 9-month questionnaires completed as part of NCS protocol. Eligible NCS participants who were scheduled to complete a postnatal questionnaire at three and nine months were randomly assigned to receive either: (a) telephone data collection (b) web-based data collection, or (c) self-administered (mailed) questionnaires. Event completion rates and satisfaction across the three data collection methods were compared and the influence of socio-demographic factors on completion rates and satisfaction rates was examined. Cost data were compared to data for completion and satisfaction for each of the delivery methods. Completion rates and satisfaction did not differ significantly by method, but completeness of data did, with odds of data completeness higher among web than phone (p < 0.001) or mail (p < 0.001). Costs were highest for the phone, followed by mail and web methods (p < 0.001). No significant differences in participant time (i.e. burden) across the three data collection methods were seen. Mail and phone data collection were the least complete of the three methods and were the most expensive. Mailed data collection was neither complete nor exceptionally economical. Web-based data collection was the least costly and provided the most complete data. Participants without web access could complete the questionnaire over the phone.

  4. Acceptability of alternative treatments for school refusal: evaluations by students, caregivers, and professionals.

    PubMed

    Gullone, E; King, N J

    1991-11-01

    School refusal is a debilitating condition that may be treated in various ways. This study examined the acceptability and perceived effectiveness of alternative treatments for school refusal. A total of 376 people comprising students, parents, and professionals, were required to evaluate several treatment options in relation to a vignette. Despite its potential aversiveness, behavioural management was the most acceptable treatment approach followed, in order, by home tuition with psychotherapy, hospitalisation, and medication. A strong positive relationship was found between acceptability and perceived effectiveness.

  5. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: Three Case Studies Exemplifying a Unified Treatment Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eifert, Georg H.; Forsyth, John P.; Arch, Joanna; Espejo, Emmanuel; Keller, Melody; Langer, David

    2009-01-01

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is an innovative acceptance-based behavior therapy that has been applied broadly and successfully to treat a variety of clinical problems, including the anxiety disorders. Throughout treatment ACT balances acceptance and mindfulness processes with commitment and behavior change processes. As applied to…

  6. Acceptance of Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections for Stable Sexual Partners by Female Sex Workers in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mayanja, Yunia; Mukose, Aggrey David; Nakubulwa, Susan; Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa remains high. Providing treatment to the affected FSWs is a challenge, and more so to their stable sexual partners. There is scanty research information on acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners by FSWs. We conducted a study to assess acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners by FSWs, and to identify factors associated with acceptance. Methods We enrolled 241 FSWs in a cross sectional study; they were aged ≥ 18 years, had a stable sexual partner and a diagnosis of STI. Factors associated with acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners were analysed in STATA (12) using Poisson regression. Mantel-Haenszel tests for interaction were performed. Results Acceptance of partner treatment was 50.6%. Majority (83.8%) of partners at the last sexual act were stable partners, and 32.4% of participants had asymptomatic STIs. Factors independently associated with acceptance were: earning ≤ $4 USD per sexual act (aPR 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49–0.94) and a clinical STI diagnosis (aPR 1.95; 95% CI: 1.30–2.92). The effect of low income on acceptance of partner treatment was seen in those with less education. Conclusion Acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners was lower than that seen in other studies. Interventions to improve economic empowerment among FSWs may increase acceptance of partner treatment. PMID:27171270

  7. Survey of methods for improving operator acceptance of computerized aids

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, P. R.; Kisner, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    The success of current attempts to improve the operational performance and safety of nuclear power plants by installing computerized operational aids in the control rooms is dependent, in part, on the operator's attitude toward the aid. Utility experience with process computer systems indicates that problems may already exist with operator acceptance of computerized aids. The growth of the role that computers have in nuclear power plants makes user acceptance of computer technology an important issue for the nuclear industry. The purpose of this report is to draw from the literature factors related to user acceptance of computerized equipment that may also be applicable to the acceptance of computerized aids used in the nuclear power plant control room.

  8. An Improved Colonoscopy Preparation Method and its Acceptability by Patients

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The author presents an improved method of preparation for colonoscopy that involved no dietary limitation on the patient until the day of the examination and that was shown by a randomized questionnaire evaluation to earn good patient tolerance and acceptance. Patients were given 10 mg of cisapride and 75 mg of sodium picosulfate before sleep on the day preceding the examination, and 50 g of magnesium citrate powder (MP) in 1,200 mL lukewarm water before the examination. It was divided into 600-mL portions and ingested slowly during two 30-minute periods. Ninety-five percent of patients classified the taste of a magnesium citrate powder laxative as palatable in the questionnaire given immediately after the procedure. Concerning the quantity, 79.4% replied that it was tolerable, 17.3% considered it somewhat excessive, and 3.3% replied that it was barely tolerable. No patient classified it as intolerable. Symptoms after taking laxatives and lukewarm water such as abdominal pain, nausea and abdominal fullness were observed in 3.8%, 4.4% and 5.6%, respectively, whereas there were no symptoms in 79% of patients. Body weight and serum K level showed a tendency to decrease, whereas the serum Mg level showed an increase before and after colonoscopy. The quality of colonic cleansing evaluated by colonoscopy was excellent, good, or fair in a total of 93.3%. No adverse effects were observed. It was concluded that this method is a clinically beneficial and well-tolerated preparation for colonic examinations. PMID:18493356

  9. The feasibility and acceptability of virtual environments in the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Nina; Beidel, Deborah C.; Spitalnick, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Objective Two significant challenges for the dissemination of social skills training programs are the need to assure generalizability and provide sufficient practice opportunities. In the case of social anxiety disorder, virtual environments may provide one strategy to address these issues. This study evaluated the utility of an interactive virtual school environment for the treatment of social anxiety disorder in preadolescent children. Method Eleven children with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder between 8 to 12 years old participated in this initial feasibility trial. All children were treated with Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children, an empirically supported treatment for children with social anxiety disorder. However, the in vivo peer generalization sessions and standard parent-assisted homework assignments were substituted by practice in a virtual environment. Results Overall, the virtual environment programs were acceptable, feasible, and credible treatment components. Both children and clinicians were satisfied with using the virtual environment technology, and children believed it was a high quality program overall. Additionally, parents were satisfied with the virtual environment augmented treatment and indicated that they would recommend the program to family and friends. Conclusion Virtual environments are viewed as acceptable and credible by potential recipients. Furthermore, they are easy to implement by even novice users and appear to be useful adjunctive elements for the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder. PMID:24144182

  10. Concurrent Treatment for Adolescent and Parent Depressed Mood and Suicidality: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Jennifer C.; Seaboyer, Lourah M.; Hunt, Jeffrey; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Nugent, Nicole; Zlotnick, Caron; Miller, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a treatment development study to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of treating depressed, suicidal adolescents and their depressed parent concurrently in a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol (Parent-Adolescent-CBT [PA-CBT]). Methods: A randomized, controlled, repeated measures design was used to test the hypothesis that PA-CBT would lead to greater reductions in suicidality and depression compared with Adolescent Only CBT (AO-CBT). Participants included 24 adolescent and parent dyads in which the adolescent met American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria for current major depressive episode (MDE) and the parent met DSM-IV criteria for current or past MDE. Results: The concurrent protocol was found to be feasible to implement with most depressed adolescents and parents. Adolescent ratings of program satisfaction were somewhat lower in PA-CBT, suggesting that some teens view treatment negatively when they are required to participate with a parent. The concurrent treatment protocol was more effective in reducing depressed mood in the parent–adolescent dyad at the end of maintenance treatment (24 weeks) than treating an adolescent alone for depression; the largest effect was on parental depressed mood. This difference between dyads was no longer significant, however, at the 48 week follow-up. Adolescent and parent suicidal ideation improved equally in both groups during active and maintenance treatment, and remained low at follow-up in both groups. Conclusions: The PA-CBT protocol is feasible to conduct and acceptable to most but not all adolescents. The strongest effect was on parental depressed mood. A larger study that has sufficient power to test efficacy and moderators of treatment outcome is necessary to better understand which adolescents would benefit most from concurrent treatment with a

  11. Effects of Professional Group Membership, Intervention Type, and Diagnostic Label on Treatment Acceptability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbanks, Larry D.; Stinnett, Terry A.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates professionals' ratings of treatment acceptability for two interventions. Teachers, school psychologists, and school social workers (N=97) viewed a vignette of a student exhibiting disruptive behavior and then rated the intervention's acceptability. Results show that professional group membership produced a significant interaction…

  12. 28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 549.65 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT... inadequate intake or abnormal output, a physician determines that the inmate's life or health will be.... Staff shall document their treatment efforts in the medical record of the inmate. (c) When,...

  13. 28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 549.65 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT... inadequate intake or abnormal output, a physician determines that the inmate's life or health will be.... Staff shall document their treatment efforts in the medical record of the inmate. (c) When,...

  14. 28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 549.65 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT... inadequate intake or abnormal output, a physician determines that the inmate's life or health will be.... Staff shall document their treatment efforts in the medical record of the inmate. (c) When,...

  15. 28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 549.65 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT... inadequate intake or abnormal output, a physician determines that the inmate's life or health will be.... Staff shall document their treatment efforts in the medical record of the inmate. (c) When,...

  16. 28 CFR 549.65 - Refusal to accept treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 549.65 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT... inadequate intake or abnormal output, a physician determines that the inmate's life or health will be.... Staff shall document their treatment efforts in the medical record of the inmate. (c) When,...

  17. An open trial of Acceptance-based Separated Family Treatment (ASFT) for adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Timko, C Alix; Zucker, Nancy L; Herbert, James D; Rodriguez, Daniel; Merwin, Rhonda M

    2015-06-01

    Family based-treatments have the most empirical support in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa; yet, a significant percentage of adolescents and their families do not respond to manualized family based treatment (FBT). The aim of this open trial was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of an innovative family-based approach to the treatment of anorexia: Acceptance-based Separated Family Treatment (ASFT). Treatment was grounded in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), delivered in a separated format, and included an ACT-informed skills program. Adolescents (ages 12-18) with anorexia or sub-threshold anorexia and their families received 20 treatment sessions over 24 weeks. Outcome indices included eating disorder symptomatology reported by the parent and adolescent, percentage of expected body weight achieved, and changes in psychological acceptance/avoidance. Half of the adolescents (48.0%) met criteria for full remission at the end of treatment, 29.8% met criteria for partial remission, and 21.3% did not improve. Overall, adolescents had a significant reduction in eating disorder symptoms and reached expected body weight. Treatment resulted in changes in psychological acceptance in the expected direction for both parents and adolescents. This open trial provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of ASFT for adolescents with anorexia. Directions for future research are discussed.

  18. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as Treatments for Academic Procrastination: A Randomized Controlled Group Session

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Ya; Yu, Shi; Ran, Li-Wen; Liu, Xiang-Ping; Chen, Yu-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), compared with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), in alleviating academic procrastination. Method: A total of 60 (53.3% male) undergraduates suffering from academic procrastination were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (ACT and CBT) and a control group.…

  19. Qualitative methods to ensure acceptability of behavioral and social interventions to the target population

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Elder, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces qualitative methods for assessing the acceptability of an intervention. Acceptability refers to determining how well an intervention will be received by the target population and the extent to which the new intervention or its components might meet the needs of the target population and organizational setting. In this paper, we focus on two common qualitative methods for conducting acceptability research and their advantages and disadvantages: focus groups and interviews. We provide examples from our own research and other studies to demonstrate the use of these methods for conducting acceptability research and how one might adapt this approach for oral health research. Finally, we present emerging methods for conducting acceptability research, including the use of community-based participatory research, as well as the utility of conducting acceptability research for assessing the appropriateness of measures in intervention research. PMID:21656958

  20. SU-E-T-178: Experimental Study of Acceptable Movement Conditions for SBRT Lung Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasco de Fez, P; Ruiz-Martinez, A; Jornet, N; Eudaldo, T; Latorre-Musoll, A; Ribas, Morales M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To experimentally study the acceptable movement conditions for SBRT lung treatments we quantified with film dosimetry the change in dose distributions due to periodic movements of 5 different amplitudes and 4 respiratory gating duty cycles on a SBRT treatment plan. Methods: We planned a SBRT treatment plan for the QUASAR™ (Modus Medical) phantom equipped with the respiratory motion device. We placed a 3 mm water-equivalent sphere simulating a tumour inside the lung-equivalent insert. This sphere is divided in two hemispheres that allow placing films in between. We used radiochromic EBT2™ (Ashland) films. We oriented the lung insert in such a way that sagittal dose distributions could be measured. We applied a sinusoidal movement with 3 s period for 5 different amplitudes of 0(static), 5, 7, 10, 15 and 20 mm without gating. For the 20 mm amplitude we studied the gating technique with 4 duty cycles of 20, 40, 60 and 80% of the respiratory cycle. Each situation was irradiated in a Clinac 2100 linac (Varian) equipped with the RPM™ system. FilmQA Pro™ (Ashland) software together with an Expression 10000XL scanner (EPSON) were used to analyze and compare the measured dose distributions with those planned by the Eclipse™ TPS v. 8.9 (Varian) by means of gamma analysis with 6 criteria: 5%/3mm, 5%/2mm, 5%/1mm, 3%/3mm, 3%/2mm and 2%/2mm (threshold of 10%). Results: Movements with amplitude of less than 7mm do not significantly modified the dosimetry. Gating duty cycles of less than 40% yielded also acceptable results for a 2 cm amplitude movement. Conclusion: To safely perform daily accurate SBRT treatments, movements have to be restricted to 7 mm amplitude (±3.5 mm). Otherwise, a gating strategy should be considered.

  1. Acceptable Care? Illness Constructions, Healthworlds, and Accessible Chronic Treatment in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Bronwyn; Eyles, John; Moshabela, Mosa

    2015-01-01

    Achieving equitable access to health care is an important policy goal, with access influenced by affordability, availability, and acceptability of specific services. We explore patient narratives from a 5-year program of research on health care access to examine relationships between social constructions of illness and the acceptability of health services in the context of tuberculosis treatment and antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. Acceptability of services seems particularly important to the meanings patients attach to illness and care, whereas—conversely—these constructions appear to influence what constitutes acceptability and hence affect access to care. We highlight the underestimated role of individually, socially, and politically constructed healthworlds; traditional and biomedical beliefs; and social support networks. Suggested policy implications for improving acceptability and hence overall health care access include abandoning patronizing approaches to care and refocusing from treating “disease” to responding to “illness” by acknowledging and incorporating patients’ healthworlds in patient–provider interactions. PMID:25829509

  2. 17 CFR 162.8 - Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices. 162.8 Section 162.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Marketing Rules § 162.8 Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices. (a) In general. The opt-out...

  3. 17 CFR 162.8 - Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices. 162.8 Section 162.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Marketing Rules § 162.8 Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices. (a) In general. The opt-out...

  4. 17 CFR 162.8 - Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices. 162.8 Section 162.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Affiliate Marketing Rules § 162.8 Acceptable delivery methods of opt-out notices. (a) In general. The...

  5. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Modules: Differential Impact on Treatment Processes and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Villatte, Jennifer L.; Vilardaga, Roger; Villatte, Matthieu; Plumb Vilardaga, Jennifer C.; Atkins, David C.; Hayes, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    A modular, transdiagnostic approach to treatment design and implementation may increase the public health impact of evidence-based psychosocial interventions. Such an approach relies on algorithms for selecting and implementing treatment components intended to have a specific therapeutic effect, yet there is little evidence for how components function independent of their treatment packages when employed in clinical service settings. This study aimed to demonstrate the specificity of treatment effects for two components of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), a promising candidate for modularization. A randomized, nonconcurrent, multiple-baseline across participants design was used to examine component effects on treatment processes and outcomes in 15 adults seeking mental health treatment. The ACT OPEN module targeted acceptance and cognitive defusion; the ACT ENGAGED module targeted values-based activation and persistence. According to Tau- U analyses, both modules produced significant improvements in psychiatric symptoms, quality of life, and targeted therapeutic processes. ACT ENGAGED demonstrated greater improvements in quality of life and values-based activation. ACT OPEN showed greater improvements in symptom severity, acceptance, and defusion. Both modules improved awareness and non-reactivity, which were mutually targeted, though using distinct intervention procedures. Both interventions demonstrated high treatment acceptability, completion, and patient satisfaction. Treatment effects were maintained at 3-month follow up. ACT components should be considered for inclusion in a modular approach to implementing evidence-based psychosocial interventions for adults. PMID:26716932

  6. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy modules: Differential impact on treatment processes and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Villatte, Jennifer L; Vilardaga, Roger; Villatte, Matthieu; Plumb Vilardaga, Jennifer C; Atkins, David C; Hayes, Steven C

    2016-02-01

    A modular, transdiagnostic approach to treatment design and implementation may increase the public health impact of evidence-based psychosocial interventions. Such an approach relies on algorithms for selecting and implementing treatment components intended to have a specific therapeutic effect, yet there is little evidence for how components function independent of their treatment packages when employed in clinical service settings. This study aimed to demonstrate the specificity of treatment effects for two components of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), a promising candidate for modularization. A randomized, nonconcurrent, multiple-baseline across participants design was used to examine component effects on treatment processes and outcomes in 15 adults seeking mental health treatment. The ACT OPEN module targeted acceptance and cognitive defusion; the ACT ENGAGED module targeted values-based activation and persistence. According to Tau-U analyses, both modules produced significant improvements in psychiatric symptoms, quality of life, and targeted therapeutic processes. ACT ENGAGED demonstrated greater improvements in quality of life and values-based activation. ACT OPEN showed greater improvements in symptom severity, acceptance, and defusion. Both modules improved awareness and non-reactivity, which were mutually targeted, though using distinct intervention procedures. Both interventions demonstrated high treatment acceptability, completion, and patient satisfaction. Treatment effects were maintained at 3-month follow up. ACT components should be considered for inclusion in a modular approach to implementing evidence-based psychosocial interventions for adults.

  7. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Empirical Testing. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K. Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. In this paper, the results of empirical tests intended to assess the accuracy of acceptance sampling plan calculators implemented for six variable distributions are presented.

  8. Reluctance to Accept Alcohol Treatment by Alcoholic Liver Disease Transplant Patients: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Heyes, Cathy M.; Schofield, Toni; Gribble, Robert; Day, Carolyn A.; Haber, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Liver transplantation (LT) is the optimum treatment for patients with end-stage alcoholic liver disease (ALD). However, despite a recognized risk of relapse to harmful drinking, ALD transplant patients are reluctant to use speciality alcohol treatment to support their abstinence, even when offered within the LT context. This study aimed to understand and identify factors contributing to alcohol treatment reluctance by ALD patients undergoing transplantation. Methods We conducted an in-depth qualitative study of ALD transplant patients. Minimally structured face-to-face interviews explored participants' alcohol-related experiences and their reasons for not using alcohol treatment during the course of their transplantation. Thematic analysis was used to analyze and interpret interview data to understand treatment reluctance based on participants' experiences. Results Five major themes were identified among 3 subgroups of patients (pretransplant and posttransplant abstainers and posttransplant relapsers): (i) the “contract” of mandatory abstinence, (ii) the “gap in the program” involving the lack of candour between patient and staff about alcohol-related matters and the lack of addiction services, (iii) a preference by participants to self-manage their alcohol use disorder, (iv) social support as a facilitator of abstinence and the risk of relapse when social support is diminished, and (v) the fear of stigmatization. Each of these factors were dynamically interrelated and differed slightly for each subgroup. Conclusions The LT services may benefit from the inclusion of integrated specialist addiction services in their model of care. Such an approach may enhance the acceptability of alcohol treatment and reduce the risk of relapse among ALD transplant participants, especially for those whose social supports have diminished. PMID:27795986

  9. Methods of Predicting User Acceptance of Voice Communication Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-15

    speech test signal in terms of a set of ordered categories. Typical category labels are "Unsatisfactory," "Poor," "Fair," "Good," and "Excellent...extreme categories in order to "anchor" his subjective scale; still others present the subject with either all, or a representative sample, of the test...signals in order to orient him to the relevant range of qualities 9 The absolute preference methods are often charac- terized by low reliability

  10. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for a Heterogeneous Group of Treatment-Resistant Clients: A Treatment Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Sue; Kingston, Jessica; Wilson, Kelly G.; Bolderston, Helen; Remington, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has been shown to have broad applicability to different diagnostic groups, and there are theoretical reasons to consider its use with clients with chronic mental health problems. We report an innovative treatment development evaluation of ACT for a heterogeneous group of "treatment-resistant clients" (N =…

  11. A study on the acceptability of male fertility regulating methods in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn K-c; Kim O-k

    1978-11-01

    In order to assess the acceptability of existing and potential male fertility regulating methods in Korea, a total of 353 male respondents were interviewed from 3 sampling areas: 99 cases from urban middle socioeconomic status, 104 cases from urban low socioeconomic status, and 150 cases from the rural area. Respondents from each area differed in terms of educational attainment and socioeconomic status. Respondents from each area have about the same level of knowledge of contraceptive methods, but their behaviors differ considerably. The rate of currently practicing contraception was highest among rural samples and lowest among urban low socioeconomic groups. The relative acceptability of 2 existing (condom and vasectomy) and 2 potential (daily pill and monthly injection) male fertility regulating methods was assessed using several measures of acceptability. Whatever measure used, the most consistent finding among sampling groups was that vasectomy is the least acceptable method. Vasectomy is least preferred among potential users, and this finding suggests that the current target system on vasectomy in the national family planning program should be reconsidered. For all measures of acceptability potential methods were more preferred than either condom or vasectomy for the rural and urban low socioeconomic status samples. With regard to the potential male methods, methods with longer duration of action are preferred to methods with a shorter duration. Urban-rural residence was found to be significantly related to the acceptability of condom and vasectomy; urban residents liked condom and vasectomy more than rural residents. Age of respondents was not significantly related to the attitudes toward using each male method but significantly related to the behavioral intention to use each male method. The education level is not significantly related to the acceptability of condom but related to the acceptability of other male fertility regulating methods. More than 1/2 of

  12. Feasibility and acceptability of CD-ROM-based cognitive-behavioural treatment for binge-eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Jennifer R; Reba-Harrelson, Lauren; Dymek-Valentine, Maureen; Woolson, Sandra L; Hamer, Robert M; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2007-05-01

    We compared preliminary feasibility and acceptability of CD-ROM-delivered CBT for overweight individuals with binge-eating disorder (BED) to 10 weekly group CBT sessions (Group) and to a waiting list control (WL). Attrition was numerically greater in the Group than the CD-ROM condition; although only Group differed significantly from WL in dropout rates. Those in the CD-ROM condition reported continued use of their CD-ROM after treatment. Also, the majority of WL participants elected to receive CD-ROM over Group treatment at the end of the waiting period. Preliminarily, no significant differences emerged across the active treatment groups on most outcome measures. However, there was a significantly greater decline in binge days in the two active groups relative to WL. CD-ROM appears to be an acceptable and at least initially preferred method of CBT delivery for overweight individuals with BED.

  13. The Heart of Change: Acceptance and Intimacy Mediate Treatment Response in a Brief Couples Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hawrilenko, Matt; Gray, Tatiana D.; Cordova, James V.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mediators of a brief couples intervention. Intimate safety, acceptance, and activation were examined in two roles: their contribution to marital satisfaction gains in the first two weeks after treatment (contemporaneous effects), and how early changes in the mediators influenced longer-term changes in marital satisfaction over two years of follow-up (lagged effects). Married couples (N = 215) were randomized to intervention or wait-list control and followed for two years. Latent change score models were used to examine contemporaneous and time-lagged mediation. A booster intervention in the second year was used for a replication study. Changes in intimate safety and acceptance were uniquely associated with contemporaneous treatment effects on relationship satisfaction in year one, but only acceptance was uniquely associated with contemporaneous effects in year two. With respect to lagged effects, early changes in acceptance partially mediated later changes in marital satisfaction in year one, whereas the same effect for intimate safety was marginally significant. These lagged paths were moderate in size and indirect effects were small. No lagged effects were significant in year two. Changes in activation were not significant as either a contemporaneous or lagged predictor of changes in relationship satisfaction. This study found moderate support for acceptance and more limited support for intimate safety as mediators of short and long-term treatment response, suggesting that these processes play an important role in sustaining marital health. PMID:26524618

  14. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Impact of a Web-based Gratitude Exercise among Individuals in Outpatient Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Mannella, Kristin A.; Hassett, Afton L.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Cranford, James A.; Brower, Kirk J.; Higgins, Margaret M.; Meyer, Piper S.

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of a web-based gratitude exercise (the ‘Three Good Things’ exercise (TGT)) among 23 adults in outpatient treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Participants were randomized to TGT or a placebo condition. The intervention was feasible with high rates of completion. Participants found TGT acceptable and welcomed the structure of daily emails; however, they found it difficult at times and discontinued TGT when the study ended. Participants associated TGT with gratitude, although there were no observed changes in grateful disposition over time. TGT had a significant effect on decreasing negative affect and increasing unactivated (e.g., feeling calm, at ease) positive affect, although there were no differences between groups at the 8 week follow up. Qualitative results converged on quantitative findings that TGT was convenient, feasible, and acceptable, and additionally suggested that TGT was beneficial for engendering positive cognitions and reinforcing recovery. PMID:27076837

  15. Assessing Treatment Integrity in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Strategies and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Jennifer C.; Vilardaga, Roger

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly review the current literature on treatment integrity and discuss the relevance of this procedure for detecting, measuring and ensuring that the proposed mechanisms of change in cognitive behavior therapy, in this case of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT; S.C. Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999), take place. We discuss…

  16. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsillo, Susan M.; Batten, Sonja V.

    2005-01-01

    The current article describes the application of a behavioral psychotherapy, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), to the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is argued that PTSD can be conceptualized as a disorder that is developed and maintained in traumatized individuals as a result of excessive, ineffective attempts to…

  17. Personal Paradigm Shifts among ABA and PBS Experts: Comparisons in Treatment Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Fredda; Michaels, Craig A.; Oliva, Christopher M.; Woolf, Sara B.

    2008-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) experts were surveyed to examine their perceptions of treatment acceptability of commonly used decelerative consequence-based behavioral procedures and the factors that have influenced shifts in these perceptions over time. These results were then compared with the perceptions of positive behavior supports (PBS)…

  18. A Preliminary Investigation of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Marijuana Dependence in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.; Shoenberger, Deacon; Hayes, Steven C.

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, 3 adults who met criteria for marijuana dependence were treated using an abbreviated version of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The treatment was delivered in eight weekly 90-min individual sessions. The effects of the intervention were assessed using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design.…

  19. Acceptance and Values-Based Action in Chronic Pain: A Study of Treatment Effectiveness and Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vowles, Kevin E.; McCracken, Lance M.

    2008-01-01

    Developing approaches within cognitive behavioral therapy are increasingly process-oriented and based on a functional and contextual framework that differs from the focus of earlier work. The present study investigated the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (S. C. Hayes, K. Strosahl, & K. G. Wilson, 1999) in the treatment of…

  20. Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy during Methadone Dose Reduction: Rationale, Treatment Description, and a Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, Angela L.; Masuda, Akihiko; Wilson, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Many clients who undergo methadone maintenance (MM) treatment for heroin and other opiate dependence prefer abstinence from methadone. Attempts at methadone detoxification are often unsuccessful, however, due to distressing physical as well as psychological symptoms. Outcomes from an MM client who voluntarily participated in an Acceptance and…

  1. Early Intervention and Treatment Acceptability: Multiple Perspectives for Improving Service Delivery in Home Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paget, Kathleen D.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines issues related to treatment acceptability in early intervention programs, by applying concepts pertaining to collaboration, cultural difference, compliance and freedom of choice, family life cycles, and systems theory. A paradigm for designing home-based intervention plans with families of preschoolers with behavior disorders…

  2. Public acceptance of management methods under different human-wildlife conflict scenarios.

    PubMed

    Liordos, Vasilios; Kontsiotis, Vasileios J; Georgari, Marina; Baltzi, Kerasia; Baltzi, Ioanna

    2017-02-01

    Wildlife management seeks to minimise public controversy for successful application of wildlife control methods. Human dimensions research in wildlife seeks a better understanding of public preferences for effective human-wildlife conflict resolution. In face to face interviews, 630 adults in Greece were asked to rate on a 5-point Likert-like scale their acceptance of 3 management methods, i.e., do nothing, non-lethal control, and lethal control, in the context of 5 human-wildlife conflict scenarios: 1) corvids damage crops; 2) starlings damage crops; 3) starlings foul urban structures; 4) coypus damage crops; and 5) coypus transfer disease. Univariate GLMs determined occupation, hunting membership and their interaction as the stronger predictors of public acceptance, generating 4 stakeholder groups: the general public, farmers, hunters, and farmers-hunters. Differences in acceptance and consensus among stakeholder groups were assessed using the Potential for Conflict Index2 (PCI2). All 4 stakeholder groups agreed that doing nothing was unacceptable and non-lethal control acceptable in all 5 scenarios, with generally high consensus within and between groups. The lethal control method was more controversial and became increasingly more acceptable as the severity of scenarios was increased and between non-native and native species. Lethal control was unacceptable for the general public in all scenarios. Farmers accepted lethal methods in the corvids and starlings scenarios, were neutral in the coypus damage crops scenario, whereas they accepted lethal control when coypus transfer disease. Hunters' opinion was neutral in the corvids, starlings and coypus damage crops and starlings foul urban structures scenarios, but they accepted lethal methods in the coypus transfer disease scenario. Farmers-hunters considered lethal control acceptable in all 5 scenarios. Implications from this study could be used for designing a socio-ecological approach which incorporates wildlife

  3. Feasibility and Acceptability of the PROMIS Measures in Children and Adolescents in Active Cancer Treatment and Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Menard, Johanna C.; Hinds, Pamela S.; Jacobs, Shana S.; Cranston, Katie; Wang, Jichuan; DeWalt, Darren A.; Gross, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) related to symptoms, function, and quality of life during and following cancer treatment can guide care for pediatric cancer patients. To advance the science of PROs, the National Institutes of Health funded the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Objective To assess feasibility and acceptability of the PROMIS pediatric measures, as defined by enrollment and attrition rates as well as missingness by measure, item, participant, and assessment time point. Methods 8-to-18 year olds participated in two studies: PROMIS I, a cross-sectional study of children in active cancer treatment or survivorship, and PROMIS II, a longitudinal study with 3 assessment time points for children receiving curative treatment. Results PROMIS I (n=200) and PROMIS II (n=94) had enrollment rates of 92.5% and 89.7%, respectively. For PROMIS I, measure missingness was acceptable (8% missed any measures) and was not related to other study variables. For PROMIS II, measure missingness was minimal (0.8%), and item-level missingness was relatively low. In general, items that were skipped asked about experiences that participants had not encountered in the past 7 days. Conclusions In both studies, the PROMIS instruments demonstrated good feasibility and acceptability among pediatric cancer patients. Overall, we had high enrollment, low attrition, and acceptable rates of measure and item missingness. Implications for Practice Our results demonstrate that PROMIS measures are acceptable to 8-to-18 year-olds in different points of cancer care and feasible for use in pediatric cancer inpatient and outpatient settings. PMID:24036439

  4. Relationship status acceptance, alcohol use, and the perpetration of verbal aggression among males mandated to treatment for intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Crane, Cory A; Hawes, Samuel W; Oberleitner, Lindsay M S; Mandel, Dolores; Easton, Caroline J

    2013-09-01

    Forty substance using, male offenders of intimate partner violence completed measures of alcohol use and relationship status acceptance during a pretreatment screening session. They also completed a measure of verbal aggression after each month of a 12-week intervention program. Treatment length, heavy episodic drinking, and relationship status acceptance were used to assess the frequency of verbal aggression at each of the four assessment periods in a repeated measures ANCOVA. Main effects were detected for both alcohol and acceptance variables such that greater verbal aggression was observed among participants with a recent history of heavy episodic drinking and failure to accept the status of the relationship with their female victim. The interaction between time in treatment and relationship status acceptance was significant and showed that participants who accepted their relationship status reported low verbal aggression across measurement occasions while those who did not accept their relationship status reported high initial verbal aggression that decreased over treatment.

  5. Team acceptance of specific recommendations for the treatment of VPI as provided by speech pathologists.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Wood, V L; Williams, W N; Seagle, M B

    1991-07-01

    This retrospective study describes the frequency of one team's acceptance of speech pathologists' recommendations for specific secondary treatment procedures for the correction of VPI for 100 consecutive patients. In addition, assessment was made of the level of success in eliminating VPI relative to treatments utilized that were recommended by speech pathologists versus level of success when treatment other than that recommended by speech pathologists were used. For the 78 patients who received the treatment procedure recommended by speech pathologists, only 10 percent continued to demonstrate any clinically significant residual speech problem associated with VPI. However, for the 22 patients who received treatment other than that which had been recommended, 32 percent continued to demonstrate clinically significant speech problems associated with VPI. Data is presented on the success rate for correcting VPI relative to specific treatment recommendations including pharyngeal flap, palatal pushback, pharyngeal wall implant, tonsillectomy, prosthetic palatal lifts, and speech therapy.

  6. Tenth European Consensus Conference on Hyperbaric Medicine: recommendations for accepted and non-accepted clinical indications and practice of hyperbaric oxygen treatment.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Daniel; Marroni, Alessandro; Kot, Jacek

    2017-03-01

    The tenth European Consensus Conference on Hyperbaric Medicine took place in April 2016, attended by a large delegation of experts from Europe and elsewhere. The focus of the meeting was the revision of the European Committee on Hyperbaric Medicine (ECHM) list of accepted indications for hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT), based on a thorough review of the best available research and evidence-based medicine (EBM). For this scope, the modified GRADE system for evidence analysis, together with the DELPHI system for consensus evaluation, were adopted. The indications for HBOT, including those promulgated by the ECHM previously, were analysed by selected experts, based on an extensive review of the literature and of the available EBM studies. The indications were divided as follows: Type 1, where HBOT is strongly indicated as a primary treatment method, as it is supported by sufficiently strong evidence; Type 2, where HBOT is suggested as it is supported by acceptable levels of evidence; Type 3, where HBOT can be considered as a possible/optional measure, but it is not yet supported by sufficiently strong evidence. For each type, three levels of evidence were considered: A, when the number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is considered sufficient; B, when there are some RCTs in favour of the indication and there is ample expert consensus; C, when the conditions do not allow for proper RCTs but there is ample and international expert consensus. For the first time, the conference also issued 'negative' recommendations for those conditions where there is Type 1 evidence that HBOT is not indicated. The conference also gave consensus-agreed recommendations for the standard of practice of HBOT.

  7. Efficacy, acceptability and cost effectiveness of four therapeutic agents for treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Raheem, Talal A; Méabed, Eman M H; Nasef, Ghada A; Abdel Wahed, Wafaa Y; Rohaim, Rania M A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate four drug regimens for treatment of scabies as regard their efficacy, acceptability and cost effectiveness. Two hundred cases with ordinary scabies were randomized into four groups. First group received ivermectin 200 μg/kg body weight single oral dose, repeated after one week. The second received benzyl benzoate 20% cream. The third received permethrin 2.5%-5% lotion, whereas the fourth group received 5-10% sulfur ointment. Topical treatments were applied for five consecutive nights. Patients were followed up for two weeks for cure rate and adverse effects. At the end of the study, permethrin provided a significant efficacy of 88% and acceptability in 100% of cases, but had higher cost to treat one case (20.25 LE). Ivermectin provided efficacy and acceptability rates of 84% and 96%, respectively, and had a cheaper cost (9.5 LE). Benzyl benzoate provided 80% for both rates and was the cheapest drug. Sulfur ointment provided the least rates, and it was the most expensive. Treatment choice will depend on the age, the general condition of cases, patient compliance to topical treatment and his ability to stick to its roles, and the economic condition of the patient.

  8. Using Financial Information in Continuing Education. Accepted Methods and New Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkin, Gary W.

    This book, which is intended as a resource/reference guide for experienced financial managers and course planners, examines accepted methods and new approaches for using financial information in continuing education. The introduction reviews theory and practice, traditional and new methods, planning and organizational management, and technology.…

  9. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Frank S.; Silver, Gary L.

    1991-04-30

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  10. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1991-04-30

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  11. Treatment Acceptability of Behavioral Interventions for Children: An Assessment by Mothers of Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Melanie L.; Eyberg, Sheila M.; Adams, Christina D.; Boggs, Stephen R.

    1998-01-01

    Study assesses the acceptability of six child-management interventions as rated by mothers (N=20) of children referred for treatment for a disruptive-behavior disorder. Positive reinforcement was rated as a more acceptable treatment than response time, time-out, differential attention, overcorrection, and spanking. Results validate findings of…

  12. The feasibility and acceptability of virtual environments in the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Sarver, Nina Wong; Beidel, Deborah C; Spitalnick, Josh S

    2014-01-01

    Two significant challenges for the dissemination of social skills training programs are the need to assure generalizability and provide sufficient practice opportunities. In the case of social anxiety disorder, virtual environments may provide one strategy to address these issues. This study evaluated the utility of an interactive virtual school environment for the treatment of social anxiety disorder in preadolescent children. Eleven children with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder between 8 to 12 years old participated in this initial feasibility trial. All children were treated with Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children, an empirically supported treatment for children with social anxiety disorder. However, the in vivo peer generalization sessions and standard parent-assisted homework assignments were substituted by practice in a virtual environment. Overall, the virtual environment programs were acceptable, feasible, and credible treatment components. Both children and clinicians were satisfied with using the virtual environment technology, and children believed it was a high-quality program overall. In addition, parents were satisfied with the virtual environment augmented treatment and indicated that they would recommend the program to family and friends. Findings indicate that the virtual environments are viewed as acceptable and credible by potential recipients. Furthermore, they are easy to implement by even novice users and appear to be useful adjunctive elements for the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder.

  13. Contaminant treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Andrew Philip; Thornton, Roy Fred; Salvo, Joseph James

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for treating contaminated media. The method comprises introducing remediating ions consisting essentially of ferrous ions, and being peroxide-free, in the contaminated media; applying a potential difference across the contaminated media to cause the remediating ions to migrate into contact with contaminants in the contaminated media; chemically degrading contaminants in the contaminated media by contact with the remediating ions; monitoring the contaminated media for degradation products of the contaminants; and controlling the step of applying the potential difference across the contaminated media in response to the step of monitoring.

  14. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Behavioral Activation for the Treatment of Depression: Description and Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Baruch, David E; Gaynor, Scott T

    2006-01-01

    The field of clinical behavior analysis is growing rapidly and has the potential to affect and transform mainstream cognitive behavior therapy. To have such an impact, the field must provide a formulation of and intervention strategies for clinical depression, the “common cold” of outpatient populations. Two treatments for depression have emerged: acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and behavioral activation (BA). At times ACT and BA may suggest largely redundant intervention strategies. However, at other times the two treatments differ dramatically and may present opposing conceptualizations. This paper will compare and contrast these two important treatment approaches. Then, the relevant data will be presented and discussed. We will end with some thoughts on how and when ACT or BA should be employed clinically in the treatment of depression. PMID:22478462

  15. Biomass treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  16. Post-traumatic stress disorder: cognitive hypnotherapy, mindfulness, and acceptance-based treatment approaches.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Malakataris, Anne; Condon, Liam; Maxwell, Reed; Cleere, Colleen

    2012-04-01

    In this article, we describe how cognitive hypnotherapy can be used in conjunction with evidence-based practices for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We review cognitive-behavioral interventions for PTSD, including mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches, and contend that (a) empirical support for the use of hypnosis in treating a variety of conditions is considerable; (b) hypnosis is fundamentally a cognitive-behavioral intervention; (c) psychological interventions with a firm footing in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are well-suited to treat the symptoms of PTSD; and (d) hypnosis can be a useful adjunct to evidence-based cognitive-behavioral approaches, including mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions, for treating PTSD.

  17. 7 CFR 1783.8 - What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications? 1783.8 Section 1783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REVOLVING FUNDS FOR FINANCING WATER AND...

  18. 7 CFR 1783.8 - What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications? 1783.8 Section 1783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REVOLVING FUNDS FOR FINANCING WATER AND...

  19. 7 CFR 1783.8 - What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications? 1783.8 Section 1783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REVOLVING FUNDS FOR FINANCING WATER AND...

  20. 7 CFR 1783.8 - What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications? 1783.8 Section 1783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REVOLVING FUNDS FOR FINANCING WATER AND...

  1. 7 CFR 1783.8 - What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications? 1783.8 Section 1783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REVOLVING FUNDS FOR FINANCING WATER AND...

  2. Social Skills and Peer Acceptance: Effects of a Social Learning Method for Training Verbal Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Gary W.

    The purpose of this study was to see if a social learning method for training verbal social skills might influence the social effectiveness of third grade children with low peer acceptance. Children were trained in three verbal skills: asking questions of peers; leading peers (e.g., offering useful suggestions or directions); and, offering…

  3. Safety, Efficacy, and Patient Acceptability of Everolimus in the Treatment of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lousberg, Laurence; Jerusalem, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Everolimus combined with exemestane is an important treatment option for patients suffering from estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, advanced breast cancer (ABC) who have been previously treated with a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI). After presentation of phase III registration trial BOLERO-2, several phase IIIb trials have been started to evaluate this regimen in a more real-world setting. Here, we review the efficacy and safety data published or presented at selected international meetings. These studies confirmed the outcome observed in the BOLERO-2 trial. Patient acceptance rate is also discussed by focusing on the permanent everolimus discontinuation rate in these trials. Factors influencing the safety profile are also reported, including the impact of age. The optimal sequence of combined therapy approaches associating targeted and endocrine therapy (ET) has yet to be determined as new treatment options such as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors become available. However, everolimus–exemestane remains an important treatment option with a major impact on progression-free survival (PFS) and an acceptable safety profile. PMID:28096680

  4. Safety, Efficacy, and Patient Acceptability of Everolimus in the Treatment of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lousberg, Laurence; Jerusalem, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Everolimus combined with exemestane is an important treatment option for patients suffering from estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, advanced breast cancer (ABC) who have been previously treated with a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI). After presentation of phase III registration trial BOLERO-2, several phase IIIb trials have been started to evaluate this regimen in a more real-world setting. Here, we review the efficacy and safety data published or presented at selected international meetings. These studies confirmed the outcome observed in the BOLERO-2 trial. Patient acceptance rate is also discussed by focusing on the permanent everolimus discontinuation rate in these trials. Factors influencing the safety profile are also reported, including the impact of age. The optimal sequence of combined therapy approaches associating targeted and endocrine therapy (ET) has yet to be determined as new treatment options such as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors become available. However, everolimus-exemestane remains an important treatment option with a major impact on progression-free survival (PFS) and an acceptable safety profile.

  5. Technology Acceptance and Course Completion Rates in Online Education: A Non-experimental, Mixed Method Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Colelia

    As the need for quality online courses increase in demand, the acceptance of technology and completion rates become the focus of higher education. The purpose of this non-experimental, mixed method study was to examine the relationship between the university students' perceptions and acceptance of technology and learner completion rates with respect to the development of online courses. This study involved 61 participants from two universities regarding their perceived usefulness (PU) of technology, intent to use technology, and intent to complete a course. Two research questions were examined regarding student perceptions regarding technology employed in an online course and the relationship, if any, between technology acceptance and completion of an online university course. The technology acceptance model (TAM) was used to collect data on the usefulness of course activities and student intent to complete the course. An open-ended questionnaire was administered to collect information concerning student perceptions of course activities. Quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS and Qualtrics, which indicated there was not a significant relationship between technology acceptance and course completion (p = .154). Qualitative data were examined by pattern matching to create a concept map of the theoretical patterns between constructs. Pattern matching revealed many students favored the use of the Internet over Canvas. Furthermore, data showed students enrolled in online courses because of the flexibility and found the multimedia used in the courses as helpful in course completion. Insight was investigated to offer reasons and decisions concerning choice that were made by the students. Future recommendations are to expand mixed methods studies of technology acceptance in various disciplines to gain a better understanding of student perceptions of technology uses, intent to use, and course completion.

  6. LANL Waste acceptance criteria, Chapter 3, radioactive liquid waste treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    McClenahan, Robert L.

    2006-08-01

    The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) receives and treats aqueous radioactive wastewater generated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to meet he discharge criteria specified in a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. The majority of this wastewater is received at the RLWTF through a network of buried pipelines, known as the Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System (RLWCS). Other wastewater is transported to the RLWTF by truck. The Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) outlined in this Chapter are applicable to all radioactive wastewaters which are conveyed to the Technical Area 50(T A-50), RL WTF by the RLWCS or by truck.

  7. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Mobile Intervention to Improve Treatment Adherence in Bipolar Disorder: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wenze, Susan J.; Armey, Michael F.; Miller, Ivan W.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a two week-long ecological momentary intervention (EMI), delivered via personal digital assistants (PDAs), to improve treatment adherence in bipolar disorder. EMIs use mobile technology to deliver treatment as clients engage in their typical daily routines, in their usual settings. Overall, participants (N = 14) stated that EMI sessions were helpful, user-friendly, and engaging, and reported satisfaction with the timing and burden of sessions, as well as the method of delivery. All participants completed the study and all PDAs were returned undamaged. On average, participants completed 92% of EMI sessions. Although this study was not designed to assess efficacy, depression scores decreased significantly over the study period and data suggest relatively high rates of treatment adherence; missed medication was reported 3% of the time and 3 participants reported missing a total of 6 mental health appointments. Negative feedback largely involved technical and logistical issues, many of which are easily addressable. These preliminary findings add to the growing body of literature indicating that mobile technology-assisted interventions are feasible to implement and acceptable to patients with serious mental illnesses. PMID:24402464

  8. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Mobile Intervention to Improve Treatment Adherence in Bipolar Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wenze, Susan J; Armey, Michael F; Miller, Ivan W

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a 2-week-long ecological momentary intervention (EMI), delivered via personal digital assistants (PDAs), to improve treatment adherence in bipolar disorder. EMIs use mobile technology to deliver treatment as clients engage in their typical daily routines, in their usual settings. Overall, participants (N = 14) stated that EMI sessions were helpful, user-friendly, and engaging, and reported satisfaction with the timing and burden of sessions, as well as the method of delivery. All participants completed the study, and all PDAs were returned undamaged. On average, participants completed 92% of EMI sessions. Although this study was not designed to assess efficacy, depression scores decreased significantly over the study period and data suggest relatively high rates of treatment adherence; missed medication was reported 3% of the time and three participants reported missing a total of six mental health appointments. Negative feedback largely involved technical and logistical issues, many of which are easily addressable. These preliminary findings add to the growing body of literature indicating that mobile-technology-assisted interventions are feasible to implement and acceptable to patients with serious mental illnesses.

  9. Resourcefulness Training for Women Dementia Caregivers: Acceptability and Feasibility of Two Methods.

    PubMed

    Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Lekhak, Nirmala; Napoleon, Betty; Morris, Diana L

    2016-01-01

    Almost 10 million women in the United States are caregivers for elders with dementia and many experience extreme stress that compromises their health. Acceptable and feasible interventions to teach them resourcefulness skills for managing stress may improve their health and facilitate continued caregiving. This study examined two commonly used methods for practicing skills taught during resourcefulness training (RT) to women caregivers of elders with dementia (n=63): journaling and digital voice recording. It also explored whether providing caregivers a choice between the two methods made it more acceptable or feasible. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected before, during, and after RT. Caregivers who recorded used more words (M=5446) but recorded fewer days (M=17) than those who journaled (M=2792 words and M=27 days). Similar concerns in relation to time management and practice method were expressed by women caregivers irrespective of practice method (journal versus recorder) or random versus choice condition. While journaling was more frequent than recording, more words were expressed during recordings. Perceived stress and depressive symptoms were unrelated to the number of practice days or word counts, suggesting RT acceptability and feasibility even for highly stressed or depressed caregivers. Because intervention feasibility is important for RT effectiveness testing, alternatives to the journaling and recording methods for practicing RT skills should be considered.

  10. Acceptance and commitment therapy as a treatment for problematic internet pornography viewing.

    PubMed

    Twohig, Michael P; Crosby, Jesse M

    2010-09-01

    Despite the prevalence of problematic Internet pornography viewing and the breadth of intervention approaches to potentially address it, no studies to address this problem have been reported to date. An emerging treatment approach, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), holds promise as a treatment for Internet pornography viewing because of its focus on processes hypothesized to underlie this maladaptive behavior. In the first experiment on the treatment of problematic Internet pornography viewing, 6 adult males who reported that their Internet pornography viewing was affecting their quality of life were treated in eight 1.5-hour sessions of ACT for problematic pornography viewing. The effects of the intervention were assessed in a multiple-baseline-across-participants design with time viewing pornography as the dependent variable. Treatment resulted in an 85% reduction in viewing at posttreatment with results being maintained at 3-month follow-up (83% reduction). Increases were seen on measures of quality of life, and reductions were seen on measures of OCD and scrupulosity. Weekly measures of ACT-consistent processes showed reductions that corresponded with reductions in viewing. Large reductions were seen on a measure of psychological flexibility, and minor reductions were seen on measures of thought-action fusion and thought control. Overall, results suggest the promise of ACT as a treatment for problematic Internet pornography viewing and the value of future randomized trials of this approach.

  11. Acceptability of a web-based community reinforcement approach for substance use disorders with treatment-seeking American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Aimee N C; Turrigiano, Eva; Moore, Michelle; Miele, Gloria M; Rieckmann, Traci; Hu, Mei-Chen; Kropp, Frankie; Ringor-Carty, Roz; Nunes, Edward V

    2015-05-01

    Longstanding disparities in substance use disorders and treatment access exist among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN). Computerized, web-delivered interventions have potential to increase access to quality treatment and improve patient outcomes. Prior research supports the efficacy of a web-based version [therapeutic education system (TES)] of the community reinforcement approach to improve outcomes among outpatients in substance abuse treatment; however, TES has not been tested among AI/AN. The results from this mixed method acceptability study among a diverse sample of urban AI/AN (N = 40) show that TES was acceptable across seven indices (range 7.8-9.4 on 0-10 scales with 10 indicating highest acceptability). Qualitative interviews suggest adaptation specific to AI/AN culture could improve adoption. Additional efforts to adapt TES and conduct a larger effectiveness study are warranted.

  12. Acceptability of a Web-based Community Reinforcement Approach for Substance Use Disorders with Treatment-seeking American Indians/Alaska Natives

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Turrigiano, Eva; Moore, Michelle; Miele, Gloria M.; Rieckmann, Traci; Hu, Mei-Chen; Kropp, Frankie; Ringor-Carty, Roz; Nunes, Edward V.

    2014-01-01

    Longstanding disparities in substance use disorders and treatment access exist among American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/AN). Computerized, web-delivered interventions have potential to increase access to quality treatment and improve patient outcomes. Prior research supports the efficacy of a web-based version (Therapeutic Education System [TES]) of the Community Reinforcement Approach to improve outcomes among outpatients in substance abuse treatment; however, TES has not been tested among AI/AN. The results from this mixed method acceptability study among a diverse sample of urban AI/AN (N=40) show that TES was acceptable across seven indices (range=7.8 to 9.4 on 0 to 10 scales with 10 indicating highest acceptability). Qualitative interviews suggest adaptation specific to AI/AN culture could improve adoption. Additional efforts to adapt TES and conduct a larger effectiveness study are warranted. PMID:25022913

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Tinnitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesser, Hugo; Gustafsson, Tore; Lunden, Charlotte; Henrikson, Oskar; Fattahi, Kidjan; Johnsson, Erik; Westin, Vendela Zetterqvist; Carlbring, Per; Maki-Torkko, Elina; Kaldo, Viktor; Andersson, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Our aim in this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effects on global tinnitus severity of 2 Internet-delivered psychological treatments, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), in guided self-help format. Method: Ninety-nine participants (mean age = 48.5 years; 43% female) who were…

  14. A Mixed-methods Evaluation of the Feasibility, Acceptability and Preliminary Efficacy of a Mobile Intervention for Methadone Maintenance Clients

    PubMed Central

    Guarino, Honoria; Acosta, Michelle; Marsch, Lisa A.; Xie, Haiyi; Aponte-Melendez, Yesenia

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent explosion of behavioral health interventions delivered on mobile devices, little is known about factors that make such applications practical, engaging and useful to their target audience. This study reports on the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a prototype of a novel, interactive mobile psychosocial intervention to reduce problematic drug use among clients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). A mixed-methods pilot study with new MMT clients (n=25) indicated that the mobile intervention approach was feasible, and that participants found the intervention highly acceptable and useful. On 100-point visual analog scale (VAS) items, participants reported high levels of liking the program (M=75.6), and endorsed it as useful (M=77.5), easy to use (M=80.7), and containing a significant amount of new information (M=74.8). When compared with 25 study participants who received standard MMT alone, pilot participants rated their treatment significantly higher in interestingness and usefulness, and were significantly more satisfied with their treatment. In qualitative interviews, participants reported using the mobile intervention in a range of settings, including during times of heightened risk for substance use, and finding it helpful in managing drug cravings. Additionally, pilot participants showed evidence of increased treatment retention and abstinence from illicit opioids (in terms of effect size) over a 3-month period relative to those in standard MMT, suggesting the application’s potential to enhance treatment outcomes. These promising findings suggest that an evidence-based mobile therapeutic tool addressing substance use may appeal to drug treatment clients and have clinical utility as an adjunct to formal treatment. PMID:26618796

  15. Effects of disciplinary cultures of researchers and research trainees on the acceptability of nanocarriers for drug delivery in different contexts of use: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Chenel, Vanessa; Boissy, Patrick; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre; Patenaude, Johane

    The acceptability of nanomedical applications, which have the potential to generate ethical and societal impacts, is a significant factor in the deployment of nanomedicine. A lack of fit between nanomedical applications and society's values may result from a partial consideration of such impacts. New approaches for technological evaluation focused on impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability are needed to go beyond traditional technology assessment approaches used with nanotechnology, which focus mainly on toxicological and safety criteria. Using a new evaluative approach based on perceived impacts of nanotechnology, the objective of this study was to assess perceptions among researchers and research trainees familiar with emergent technologies and from different disciplinary background the scope of acceptability judgments made towards the use of nanocarriers. This mixed-methods study was based on scenarios presenting two types of drug-delivery nanocarriers (carbon, synthetic DNA) in two contexts of use (lung cancer treatment, seasonal flu treatment). Researchers and research trainees in the natural sciences and engineering, and the social sciences and the humanities were invited by email to take part in this project. An online questionnaire followed by semi-directed interviews allowed characterization of disciplinary divergences regarding to impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability of the scenarios. The results suggest that impact perception is influenced by disciplinary culture. Also, trends can be seen between respondents' profiles and variables of acceptance and acceptability, and certain components of the acceptability judgement are specific to each disciplinary culture. The acknowledgment and consideration of these disciplinary divergences could allow, among others, for opening up interdisciplinary dialogue on matters related to the acceptability of nanomedical applications and their developments.

  16. Effects of disciplinary cultures of researchers and research trainees on the acceptability of nanocarriers for drug delivery in different contexts of use: a mixed-methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenel, Vanessa; Boissy, Patrick; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre; Patenaude, Johane

    2015-04-01

    The acceptability of nanomedical applications, which have the potential to generate ethical and societal impacts, is a significant factor in the deployment of nanomedicine. A lack of fit between nanomedical applications and society's values may result from a partial consideration of such impacts. New approaches for technological evaluation focused on impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability are needed to go beyond traditional technology assessment approaches used with nanotechnology, which focus mainly on toxicological and safety criteria. Using a new evaluative approach based on perceived impacts of nanotechnology, the objective of this study was to assess perceptions among researchers and research trainees familiar with emergent technologies and from different disciplinary background the scope of acceptability judgments made towards the use of nanocarriers. This mixed-methods study was based on scenarios presenting two types of drug-delivery nanocarriers (carbon, synthetic DNA) in two contexts of use (lung cancer treatment, seasonal flu treatment). Researchers and research trainees in the natural sciences and engineering, and the social sciences and the humanities were invited by email to take part in this project. An online questionnaire followed by semi-directed interviews allowed characterization of disciplinary divergences regarding to impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability of the scenarios. The results suggest that impact perception is influenced by disciplinary culture. Also, trends can be seen between respondents' profiles and variables of acceptance and acceptability, and certain components of the acceptability judgement are specific to each disciplinary culture. The acknowledgment and consideration of these disciplinary divergences could allow, among others, for opening up interdisciplinary dialogue on matters related to the acceptability of nanomedical applications and their developments.

  17. Regulatory Acceptance of Alternative Methods in the Development and Approval of Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Beken, Sonja; Kasper, Peter; van der Laan, Jan-Willem

    Animal studies may be carried out to support first administration of a new medicinal product to either humans or the target animal species, or before performing clinical trials in even larger populations, or before marketing authorisation, or to control quality during production. Ethical and animal welfare considerations require that animal use is limited as much as possible. Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes unambiguously fosters the application of the principle of the 3Rs when considering the choice of methods to be used.As such, today, the 3Rs are embedded in the relevant regulatory guidance both at the European (European Medicines Agency (EMA)) and (Veterinary) International Conference on Harmonization ((V)ICH) levels. With respect to non-clinical testing requirements for human medicinal products, reduction and replacement of animal testing has been achieved by the regulatory acceptance of new in vitro methods, either as pivotal, supportive or exploratory mechanistic studies. Whilst replacement of animal studies remains the ultimate goal, approaches aimed at reducing or refining animal studies have also been routinely implemented in regulatory guidelines, where applicable. The chapter provides an overview of the implementation of 3Rs in the drafting of non-clinical testing guidelines for human medicinal products at the level of the ICH. In addition, the revision of the ICH S2 guideline on genotoxicity testing and data interpretation for pharmaceuticals intended for human use is discussed as a case study.In October 2010, the EMA established a Joint ad hoc Expert Group (JEG 3Rs) with the mandate to improve and foster the application of 3Rs principles to the regulatory testing of medicinal products throughout their lifecycle. As such, a Guideline on regulatory acceptance of 3R testing approaches was drafted that defines regulatory acceptance and provides guidance on the scientific and technical criteria for regulatory

  18. Acceptability and Feasibility of Physical Activity Assessment Methods for an Appalachian Population.

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, Yelena N; Howell, Britteny M; Studts, Christina R; Strath, Scott J; Schoenberg, Nancy E

    2015-08-01

    Nowhere is improving understanding and accurate assessment of physical activity more important for disease prevention and health promotion than among health disparities populations such as those residing in rural and Appalachian regions. To enhance accurate assessment of physical activity and potentially improve intervention capacity, we conducted a mixed-methods study examining the acceptability and feasibility of self-report physical activity questionnaires, pedometers, and accelerometers among rural Appalachian children, adolescents, and adults. Most participants reported positive experiences with all three physical activity assessment tools. Several acceptability ratings differed by age group and by sex within each age group. With very few exceptions, no significant differences in acceptability were found by race, education, employment status, health status, BMI categories, income levels, or insurance status within age groups or overall. Several factors may impact the choice of the physical activity assessment method, including target population age, equipment cost, researcher burden, and potential influence on physical activity levels. Children and adolescents appear to have more constraints on when they can wear pedometers and accelerometers. While pedometers are inexpensive and convenient, they may influence physical activity levels, rather than simply measure them. Accelerometers, while less influential on behavior, consume extensive resources, including high purchase costs and researcher burden.

  19. Acceptance and commitment therapy in the treatment of anxiety: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Swain, Jessica; Hancock, Karen; Hainsworth, Cassandra; Bowman, Jenny

    2013-12-01

    With a lifetime prevalence of approximately 17% among community-dwelling adults, anxiety disorders are among the most pervasive of contemporary psychiatric afflictions. Traditional Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is currently the first line evidence-based psychosocial intervention for the treatment of anxiety. Previous research, however, has found that a significant proportion of patients do not respond to traditional CBT or exhibit residual symptomatology at treatment cessation. Additionally, there is a paucity of evidence among child populations and for the comparative effectiveness of alternative interventions. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has a growing empirical base demonstrating its efficacy for an array of problems. A systematic review was conducted to examine the evidence for ACT in the treatment of anxiety. PsycInfo, PsycArticles, PsycExtra, Medline and Proquest databases were searched, reference lists examined and citation searches conducted. Two independent reviewers analysed results, determined study eligibility and assessed methodological quality. Thirty-eight studies met inclusion criteria (total n=323). The spectrum of DSM-IV anxiety disorders as well as test and public speaking anxiety were examined. Studies were predominantly between-group design and case studies, with few employing control comparisons. Several methodological issues limit conclusions; however results provide preliminary support for ACT. Larger scale, methodologically rigorous trials are needed to consolidate these findings.

  20. Efficacy, quality of life, and acceptability outcomes of atypical antipsychotic augmentation treatment for treatment-resistant depression: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating and costly mental disorder. Although commercially available antidepressants have proliferated over the last 20 years, a substantial number of patients either do not respond adequately to these drugs or are unable to tolerate their adverse effects. One common approach has been to augment conventional antidepressants with an adjunctive agent, but the optimal selection of atypical antipsychotic agents for adjunctive treatment of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) remains controversial. Methods/Design An electronic literature search of PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, LiLACS, CINAHL, and PsycINFO for studies will be conducted with no restrictions on language, publication year, or publication type. Several clinical trial registry agencies, pharmaceutical company websites, and FDA reports will also be reviewed. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with atypical antipsychotic augmentation treatment for treatment-resistant depression will be considered. Data will be independently extracted by two reviewers. Traditional pairwise meta-analyses will be performed for RCTs that directly compare different treatment arms. Then, Bayesian network meta-analyses will be performed to compare the relative efficacy and acceptability of different atypical antipsychotic agents (and doses). A sensitivity analysis will be performed by excluding studies classified as a small sample size, having a high placebo effect. Discussion This systematic review and network meta-analysis will comparatively analyze the efficacy, quality of life, and acceptability profiles of atypical antipsychotic medications used for the adjunctive treatment of TRD. The findings should provide clinically relevant implications for comprehensively understanding the risk–benefit profiles of these adjunctive treatments. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD 42014009666. PMID:25373601

  1. Acceptability of impregnated school uniforms for dengue control in Thailand: a mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Natasha; Jansarikij, Suphachai; Olanratmanee, Phanthip; Maskhao, Pongsri; Souares, Aurélia; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Louis, Valérie R.

    2014-01-01

    Background As current dengue control strategies have been shown to be largely ineffective in reducing dengue in school-aged children, novel approaches towards dengue control need to be studied. Insecticide-impregnated school uniforms represent an innovative approach with the theoretical potential to reduce dengue infections in school children. Objectives This study took place in the context of a randomised control trial (RCT) to test the effectiveness of permethrin-impregnated school uniforms (ISUs) for dengue prevention in Chachoengsao Province, Thailand. The objective was to assess the acceptability of ISUs among parents, teachers, and principals of school children involved in the trial. Methodology Quantitative and qualitative tools were used in a mixed methods approach. Class-clustered randomised samples of school children enrolled in the RCT were selected and their parents completed 321 self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to analyse the quantitative data. Focus group discussions and individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents, teachers, and principals. Qualitative data analysis involved content analysis with coding and thematic development. Results The knowledge and experience of dengue was substantial. The acceptability of ISUs was high. Parents (87.3%; 95% CI 82.9–90.8) would allow their child to wear an ISU and 59.9% (95% CI 53.7–65.9) of parents would incur additional costs for an ISU over a normal uniform. This was significantly associated with the total monthly income of a household and the educational level of the respondent. Parents (62.5%; 95% CI 56.6–68.1) indicated they would be willing to recommend ISUs to other parents. Conclusions Acceptability of the novel tool of ISUs was high as defined by the lack of concern along with the willingness to pay and recommend. Considering issues of effectiveness and scalability, assessing acceptability of ISUs over time is

  2. Assessing Acceptability of a Diagnostic and Malaria Treatment Package Delivered by Community Health Workers in Malaria-Endemic Settings of Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Jegede, Ayodele S.; Oshiname, Frederick O.; Sanou, Armande K.; Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Jesca; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O.; Siribié, Mohamadou; Afonne, Chinenye; Sermé, Luc; Falade, Catherine O.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and rectal artesunate for severe malaria in children is proven. However, acceptability of a package of interventions that included use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), ACTs, and rectal artesunate when provided by community health workers (CHWs) is uncertain. This study assessed acceptability of use of CHWs for case management of malaria using RDTs, ACTs, and rectal artesunate. Methods. The study was carried out in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda in 2015 toward the end of an intervention using CHWs to provide diagnosis and treatment. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted with parents of sick children, community leaders, and health workers to understand whether they accepted the package for case management of malaria using CHWs. Transcripts from FGDs and KII recordings were analyzed using content analysis. The findings were described, interpreted, and reported in the form of narratives. Results. Treatment of malaria using the CHWs was acceptable to caregivers and communities. The CHWs were perceived to be accessible, diligent, and effective. There were no physical, social, or cultural barriers to accessing the CHWs’ services. Respondents were extremely positive about the intervention and were concerned that CHWs had limited financial and nonfinancial incentives that would reduce their motivation and willingness to continue. Conclusions. Treatment of malaria using CHWs was fully accepted. CHWs should be compensated, trained, and well supervised. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN13858170. PMID:27941109

  3. Development of a short form of the Treatment Evaluation Inventory for acceptability of psychological interventions.

    PubMed

    Newton, J T; Sturmey, P

    2004-04-01

    The Treatment Evaluation Inventory of Kazdin, French, and Sherick is a 19-item measure of the perceived acceptability of behavioural treatments. Development of two brief forms was based on data from two sources. For Study 1, data from 218 completed questionnaires were used to develop internally consistent brief scales. In Study 2 internal consistency and the validity of the brief forms were estimated for a set of 131 questionnaires. Item reduction was achieved by analysis of item-total minus item correlations. Brief forms with 3, 6, 9, and 12 items were proposed. Their internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) and construct validity were based on correlations of scores on each short form with the full scale scores and on comparing means of different forms. Discriminant validity was based on the difference between two groups (estimated effect size 0.7). Scores for all forms showed high internal consistency and correlated highly with total scale scores. Only the 12-item brief scale yielded mean scores similar to the full scale. The 3-item form could be used as a quick screen, and the 12-item form for more intensive purposes as it is most similar to the full-scale.

  4. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Woidneck, Michelle R; Morrison, Kate L; Twohig, Michael P

    2014-07-01

    The number of individuals who meet diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a small percentage of those exposed to trauma; many youth who do not meet criteria for PTSD continue to experience problematic posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptomology. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has shown preliminary effectiveness in the treatment of adult PTSD, but its effectiveness in treating PTS in youth is unknown. Using a multiple-baseline design, this study investigated the effectiveness of 10 weeks of ACT to treat PTS in youth. Four adolescents from a community sample and three adolescents from a residential sample participated. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA), Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS), and Comprehensive Quality of Life Scale were completed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. Individuals reported baseline data for 7 to 66 days. Symptom and process measures were completed at each session. Results revealed a decrease in PTS symptomology across both samples with mean reductions in self-reported PTS symptomology at posttreatment of 69% and 81% for the community and residential samples, respectively, and an overall 68% and 84% respective reduction at follow-up. Reductions in clinician rated measures of PTSD were observed for all participants with mean reductions of 57% and 61% in the community and residential samples at posttreatment, and 71% and 60% at follow-up, respectively. Results provide preliminary support for ACT as a treatment for adolescent PTS. Empirical and clinical implications as well as limitations and future directions are discussed.

  5. Using Integrated Mixed Methods to Develop Behavioral Measures of Factors Associated With Microbicide Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Kathleen M.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Salomon, Liz; Woodsong, Cynthia; Severy, Lawrence; Fava, Joseph L.; Vargas, Sara; Barroso, Candelaria

    2015-01-01

    Our current understanding of factors associated with microbicide acceptability and consistent use typically has been derived from separate and distinct qualitative or quantitative studies. Specifically, rarely have investigators used mixed methods to both develop and validate behavioral measures. We utilized an integrated mixed methods design, including qualitative metasyntheses, cognitive interviews and expert reviews, psychometric evaluation, and confirmatory qualitative analyses of the correspondence between quantitative items and original qualitative data to develop and validate measures of factors associated with microbicide acceptability and use. We describe this methodology and use the development of the Relationship Context Scale to illustrate it. As a result of independent confirmatory analyses of qualitative passages corresponding to survey items, we demonstrated that items from the same subscales are frequently double coded within a particular textual passage, and thematically related, suggesting associations that resulted in a unique factor structure within the subscale. This integrated mixed method design was critical to the development of this psychometrically validated behavioral measure, and could serve as a model for future measure development. PMID:21447804

  6. Validation of analytical methods involved in dissolution assays: acceptance limits and decision methodologies.

    PubMed

    Rozet, E; Ziemons, E; Marini, R D; Boulanger, B; Hubert, Ph

    2012-11-02

    Dissolution tests are key elements to ensure continuing product quality and performance. The ultimate goal of these tests is to assure consistent product quality within a defined set of specification criteria. Validation of an analytical method aimed at assessing the dissolution profile of products or at verifying pharmacopoeias compliance should demonstrate that this analytical method is able to correctly declare two dissolution profiles as similar or drug products as compliant with respect to their specifications. It is essential to ensure that these analytical methods are fit for their purpose. Method validation is aimed at providing this guarantee. However, even in the ICHQ2 guideline there is no information explaining how to decide whether the method under validation is valid for its final purpose or not. Are the entire validation criterion needed to ensure that a Quality Control (QC) analytical method for dissolution test is valid? What acceptance limits should be set on these criteria? How to decide about method's validity? These are the questions that this work aims at answering. Focus is made to comply with the current implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) principles in the pharmaceutical industry in order to allow to correctly defining the Analytical Target Profile (ATP) of analytical methods involved in dissolution tests. Analytical method validation is then the natural demonstration that the developed methods are fit for their intended purpose and is not any more the inconsiderate checklist validation approach still generally performed to complete the filing required to obtain product marketing authorization.

  7. Well treatment compositions and method

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, T.R.; Dill, W.R.; Ford, W.G.F.; King, K.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes a concentrate which forms an acid and/or water external microemulsion when added to a treatment fluid. The concentrate comprises an alkyl alcohol having in the range of from 4 to 18 carbon atoms, an emulsifying agent, a mutual solvent selected from the group consisting of glycol ethers and alkyoxylates of glycol ethers, and a co-solvent selected from the group consisting of polyethylene glycol, primary alcohols and alkyoxylates of alkyl alcohols. Also disclosed are an acid and/or water external microemulsion well treatment composition and a method of treating a subterranean formation to increase the production of hydrocarbons therefrom.

  8. Acceptance of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence: a mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence and detrimental health effects of intimate partner violence have resulted in international discussions and recommendations that health care professionals should screen women for intimate partner violence during general and antenatal health care visits. Due to the lack of discussion on routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence during antenatal care in Germany, this study seeks to explore its acceptability among pregnant German women. Methods A mixed methods approach was used, utilizing a self-administered survey on the acceptability of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence in a university hospital’s maternity ward in Munich and in-depth interviews with seven women who experienced violence during pregnancy. Results Of the 401 women who participated in the survey, 92 percent were in favor of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence during antenatal care. Acceptance of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence during antenatal care was significantly associated with women’s experiences of child sexual abuse, being young, less educated, single or divorced and smoking during pregnancy. Open-ended survey questions and in-depth interviews stressed adequate training for screening, sufficient time and provision of referral information as important conditions for routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence. Conclusions Women in this study showed an overwhelming support for routine or case-based screening for intimate partner violence in antenatal care in Germany. Until adequate training is in place to allow providers to inquire for intimate partner violence in a professional manner, this study recommends that health care providers are made aware of the prevalence and health consequences of violence during pregnancy. PMID:23531127

  9. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  10. Methods for verifying compliance with low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the methods that are currently employed and those that can be used to verify compliance with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This report presents the applicable regulations representing the Federal, State, and site-specific criteria for accepting LLW. Typical LLW generators are summarized, along with descriptions of their waste streams and final waste forms. General procedures and methods used by the LLW generators to verify compliance with the disposal facility WAC are presented. The report was written to provide an understanding of how a regulator could verify compliance with a LLW disposal facility`s WAC. A comprehensive study of the methodology used to verify waste generator compliance with the disposal facility WAC is presented in this report. The study involved compiling the relevant regulations to define the WAC, reviewing regulatory agency inspection programs, and summarizing waste verification technology and equipment. The results of the study indicate that waste generators conduct verification programs that include packaging, classification, characterization, and stabilization elements. The current LLW disposal facilities perform waste verification steps on incoming shipments. A model inspection and verification program, which includes an emphasis on the generator`s waste application documentation of their waste verification program, is recommended. The disposal facility verification procedures primarily involve the use of portable radiological survey instrumentation. The actual verification of generator compliance to the LLW disposal facility WAC is performed through a combination of incoming shipment checks and generator site audits.

  11. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  12. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  13. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  14. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  15. 10 CFR 26.91 - Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptable devices for conducting initial and confirmatory tests for alcohol and methods of use. 26.91 Section 26.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.91 Acceptable devices for conducting...

  16. Trends in task shifting in HIV treatment in Africa: Effectiveness, challenges and acceptability to the health professions

    PubMed Central

    Mayers, Pat

    2015-01-01

    Background Task shifting has been suggested to meet the demand for initiating and managing more patients on antiretroviral therapy. Although the idea of task shifting is not new, it acquires new relevance in the context of current healthcare delivery. Aim To appraise current trends in task shifting related to HIV treatment programmes in order to evaluate evidence related to the effectiveness of this strategy in addressing human resource constraints and improving patient outcomes, challenges identified in practice and the acceptability of this strategy to the health professions. Method Electronic databases were searched for studies published in English between January 2009 and December 2014. Keywords such as ‘task shifting’, ‘HIV treatment’, ‘human resources’ and ‘health professions’ were used. Results Evidence suggests that task shifting is an effective strategy for addressing human resource constraints in healthcare systems in many countries and provides a cost-effective approach without compromising patient outcomes. Challenges include inadequate supervision support and mentoring, absent regulatory frameworks, a lack of general health system strengthening and the need for monitoring and evaluation. The strategy generally seems to be accepted by the health professions although several arguments against task shifting as a long-term approach have been raised. Conclusion Task shifting occurs in many settings other than HIV treatment programmes and is viewed as a key strategy for governing human resources for healthcare. It may be an opportune time to review current task shifting recommendations to include a wider range of programmes and incorporate initiatives to address current challenges. PMID:26245622

  17. Treatment of Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Utilizing Parent-Facilitated Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Jennifer Y.; Field, Clint E.; Morrison, Kate L.; Twohig, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a modern form of cognitive behavior therapy that uses acceptance and mindfulness-based procedures to address clinical issues. A brief protocol of ACT was used with 3 children ages 10 and 11 years who were diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed notable and clinically significant…

  18. Virtual reality exposure-based therapy for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a review of its efficacy, the adequacy of the treatment protocol, and its acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Botella, Cristina; Serrano, Berenice; Baños, Rosa M; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The essential feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the development of characteristic symptoms following exposure to one or more traumatic events. According to evidence-based intervention guidelines and empirical evidence, one of the most extensively researched and validated treatments for PTSD is prolonged exposure to traumatic events; however, exposure therapy can present some limitations. Virtual reality (VR) can help to improve prolonged exposure because it creates fictitious, safe, and controllable situations that can enhance emotional engagement and acceptance. Objective In addition to carrying out a review to evaluate the efficacy of VR exposure-based therapy (VR-EBT) for the treatment of PTSD, the aim of this study was to contribute to analyzing the use of VR-EBT by: first, evaluating the adequacy of psychological treatment protocols that use VR-EBT to treat PTSD; and second, analyzing the acceptability of VR-EBT. Method We performed a replica search with descriptors and databases used in two previous reviews and updated to April 2015. Next, we carried out an evaluation of the efficacy, adequacy, and acceptability of VR-EBT protocols. Results Results showed that VR-EBT was effective in the treatment of PTSD. The findings related to adequacy showed that not all studies using VR-EBT reported having followed the clinical guidelines for evidence-based interventions in the treatment of PTSD. Regarding acceptability, few studies evaluated this subject. However, the findings are very promising, and patients reported high acceptability and satisfaction with the inclusion of VR in the treatment of PTSD. Conclusion The main weaknesses identified in this review focus on the need for more controlled studies, the need to standardize treatment protocols using VR-EBT, and the need to include assessments of acceptability and related variables. Finally, this paper highlights some directions and future perspectives for using VR-EBT in PTSD

  19. Understanding the acceptability and adherence to paediatric antiretroviral treatment in the new formulation of pellets (LPV/r): the protocol of a realist evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Lee, Janice; Salami, Olawale; Lallemant, Marc; Ouma, Onyango; Nyamongo, Isaac; Marchal, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Background Improving access to paediatric HIV treatment requires both large-scale treatment programmes and medication that is adapted to infants and children's needs. The WHO recommends lopinavir/ritonavir as first-line antiretroviral therapy for all HIV-infected children younger than 3 years. There is currently little evidence on the acceptability of, and adherence to, a formulation of this combination treatment if given in the form of pellets. This protocol presents how we will carry a realist evaluation to assess the factors that contribute to the acceptability and adherence to the new pellets formulation in 3 hospitals in Kenya. Methods We structured the protocol along the realist evaluation cycle following 4 steps: (1) the initial programme theory, (2) the study design, (3) the data collection methods and (4) the data analysis plan. Theories of behavioural sciences were reviewed for frames that could provide insights into how using such new formulations may contribute to better acceptability and adherence. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Institute of Tropical Medicine, the Ethical Committee of the University Hospital Antwerp and the Kenyatta National Hospital/University of Nairobi Ethics and Research Committee. We aim to disseminate the findings through international conferences and peer-reviewed journals and to share them with Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative's (DNDi) programme managers and with the Kenyan healthcare providers. Discussion In developing this study, we encountered some challenges. First, methods to measure the acceptability of any formulation and adherence to it are not standardised. The second challenge is common in realist evaluation and relates to how to choose from different potentially interesting theoretical frameworks. We identified relevant and empirically tested theories from behavioural science that may be helpful in our study. We will test them in 3 settings by

  20. Effectiveness and Patient Acceptability of Stellate Ganglion Block (SGB) for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms Among Active Duty Military Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Page 1 of 63 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-2-0015 TITLE: Effectiveness and Patient Acceptability of Stellate Ganglion Block (SGB) for Treatment of...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-2-0015 Effectiveness and Patient Acceptability of Stellate Ganglion Block (SGB) for Treatment...study seeks to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of stellate ganglion block (SGB) for treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD

  1. Acceptability of Strategies to Reduce Student Sitting: A Mixed-Methods Study With College Teachers.

    PubMed

    Laine, Hanna; Araújo-Soares, Vera; Haukkala, Ari; Hankonen, Nelli

    2016-11-18

    Background As school days among adolescents include long periods of prolonged sitting, teachers are key agents to deliver interventions to reduce youth sedentary behavior. To develop an intervention, acceptability and feasibility of alternative strategies should be tested. We aimed to examine teachers' current use and willingness to use various strategies to decrease student sitting and potential barriers and facilitators of use. Method Mixed-methods design with college teachers using an online cross-sectional survey (n = 192) and focus group interviews (n = 13). Findings Although a vast majority (87%) of the teachers found reducing prolonged sitting an important goal, only 47% were actually including practices to reduce sitting in their classroom. 89% of the teachers reported willingness to use at least one of the five alternative strategies presented. Focus groups revealed a discussion emphasis on environmental opportunity and motivation as key to implementation. Teachers also generated additional ideas for intervention content. Discussion Despite low levels of current sitting reduction, teachers were willing to try at least one strategy to reduce sitting. Results informed intervention development regarding parameters of use for each strategy. When possible, interventions should provide teachers with a variety of alternative strategies that are easy to use to reduce prolonged sitting.

  2. Orally disintegrating vardenafil tablets for the treatment of erectile dysfunction: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Green, Roger; Hicks, Rodney W

    2011-01-01

    Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a well-documented medical condition that is expected to increase significantly over the next several decades, especially as men live longer and the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases increase. Pharmacology agents are often the first line treatment approach. Newer solid dosage forms, known as orally disintegrating tablets (ODT), are now available as one treatment option. Objectives: To review the drug delivery mechanisms of ODTs in general and to review safety and efficacy of vardenafil ODT (a PDE-5 inhibitor) as a treatment option for management of ED. Method: Literature reviews were performed of pharmaceutical dosage forms and the POTENT I (n = 358 subjects) and POTENT II (n = 337 subjects) studies that investigated vardenafil ODT. Results: Vardenafil ODT has been successfully used in multiple age groups and in multiple settings with men from various ethnic backgrounds. Efficacy of vardenafil ODT, as measured using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) and from the Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) was significantly greater than placebo (P < 0.0001) at 12 weeks. Safety profiles were similar to film-coated dosage forms with no patient deaths reported. Conclusion: Vardenafil ODT offers a convenient, ready-to-use approach for combating ED. Safety concerns are similar to other PDE-5 inhibitors and practitioners should counsel patients accordingly. PMID:21573049

  3. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Derivations and Verification of Plans. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K, Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques. This recommended procedure would be used as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. This document contains the outcome of the assessment.

  4. Perceptions and Acceptability of Short Message Services Technology to Improve Treatment Adherence amongst Tuberculosis Patients in Peru: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Albino, Sandra; Tabb, Karen M.; Requena, David; Egoavil, Miguel; Pineros-Leano, Maria F.; Zunt, Joseph R.; García, Patricia J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is global health concern and a leading infectious cause of mortality. Reversing TB incidence and disease-related mortality is a major global health priority. Infectious disease mortality is directly linked to failure to adhere to treatments. Using technology to send reminders by short message services have been shown to improve treatment adherence. However, few studies have examined tuberculosis patient perceptions and attitudes towards using SMS technology to increase treatment adherence. In this study, we sought to investigate perceptions related to feasibility and acceptability of using text messaging to improve treatment adherence among adults who were receiving treatment for TB in Callao, Peru. Methods We conducted focus group qualitative interviews with current TB positive and non-contagious participants to understand the attitudes, perceptions, and feasibility of using short message service (SMS) reminders to improve TB treatment adherence. Subjects receiving care through the National TB Program were recruited through public health centers in Ventanilla, Callao, Peru. In four focus groups, we interviewed 16 patients. All interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic network analysis and codebook techniques were used to analyze data. Results Three major themes emerged from the data: limits on health literacy and information posed challenges to successful TB treatment adherence, treatment motivation at times facilitated adherence to TB treatment, and acceptability of SMS including positive perceptions of SMS to improve TB treatment adherence. The majority of patients shared considerations about how to effectively and confidentially administer an SMS intervention with TB positive participants. Conclusion The overall perceptions of the use of SMS were positive and indicated that SMS technology may be an efficient way to transmit motivational texts on treatment, health education information, and simple reminders to

  5. Acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions for the treatment of chronic pain: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Veehof, M M; Trompetter, H R; Bohlmeijer, E T; Schreurs, K M G

    2016-01-01

    The number of acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions for chronic pain, such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), increased in recent years. Therefore an update is warranted of our former systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that reported effects on the mental and physical health of chronic pain patients. Pubmed, EMBASE, PsycInfo and Cochrane were searched for eligible studies. Current meta-analysis only included randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Studies were rated for quality. Mean quality did not improve in recent years. Pooled standardized mean differences using the random-effect model were calculated to represent the average intervention effect and, to perform subgroup analyses. Outcome measures were pain intensity, depression, anxiety, pain interference, disability and quality of life. Included were twenty-five RCTs totaling 1285 patients with chronic pain, in which we compared acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions to the waitlist, (medical) treatment-as-usual, and education or support control groups. Effect sizes ranged from small (on all outcome measures except anxiety and pain interference) to moderate (on anxiety and pain interference) at post-treatment and from small (on pain intensity and disability) to large (on pain interference) at follow-up. ACT showed significantly higher effects on depression and anxiety than MBSR and MBCT. Studies' quality, attrition rate, type of pain and control group, did not moderate the effects of acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions. Current acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions, while not superior to traditional cognitive behavioral treatments, can be good alternatives.

  6. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Treatment-Resistant Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    An adult woman with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder who was nonresponsive to 20 sessions of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is presented in this case study. Two months after her CBT trial, she was treated with 21 sessions of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for PTSD. Measurements of PTSD severity,…

  7. Supervising Trainees in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walser, Robyn D.; Westrup, Darrah

    2006-01-01

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT, Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999) is a behaviorally based intervention designed to target and reduce experiential avoidance and cognitive fusion (holding the thoughts in one's mind to be literally true) while at the same time helping clients to make powerful life enhancing behavioral changes that are in line…

  8. Effect of salt treatments on survival and consumer acceptance of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post harvest acclimation of live freshwater prawns to a mixture of water and marine salt increases the consumer acceptability of the finished product. However, the high cost of marine salts prohibits their use in commercial practice. Therefore, the identification of successful, cost effective salt a...

  9. Using Descriptive Assessment in the Treatment of Bite Acceptance and Food Refusal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Sean D.; Perrin, Christopher J.; Lesser, Aaron D.; Perrin, Stefanie H.; Casey, Cheryl L.; Reed, Gregory K.

    2009-01-01

    The feeding behaviors of two children who maintained failure to thrive diagnoses and displayed food refusal are assessed in their homes. Descriptive assessments are used to identify schedules of consequence provided by each child's care providers for bite acceptance and food refusal behaviors. Assessments reveal rich schedules of praise and access…

  10. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Scrupulosity in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dehlin, John P.; Morrison, Kate L.; Twohig, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for scrupulosity-based obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Five adults were treated with eight sessions of ACT, without in-session exposure, in a multiple baseline across participants design. Daily monitoring of compulsions and avoided valued activities were tracked throughout the…

  11. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and nicotine patch for smokers with bipolar disorder: preliminary evaluation of in-person and telephone-delivered treatment

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, Jaimee L; McClure, Jennifer B; Mull, Kristin E; Anthenelli, Robert M; Bricker, Jonathan B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives People with bipolar disorder are two to three times more likely to smoke and 50% less likely to quit than the general population. New treatments are needed to improve smoking cessation outcomes in this group. The study aim was to develop and pilot test a novel cessation intervention for smokers with bipolar disorder using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) combined with nicotine patch. Methods The 10-session ACT intervention was initially evaluated as in-person, individual counseling (n = 10), then as telephone-delivered counseling (n = 6). Participants were adult smokers with no more than mild current symptoms of bipolar disorder. Results For the in-person protocol, end-of-treatment outcomes were: 80% retention, 40% of participants with carbon monoxide (CO)-verified seven-day point prevalence abstinence (PPA), 90% satisfied with treatment, 8.3 of 10 sessions attended, and 54% increase in acceptance of cravings to smoke (i.e., ACT’s theory-based change process) from baseline. The seven-day PPA at one-month follow-up was 30%. For the telephone protocol, end-of-treatment outcomes were: 67% retention, 33% reporting seven-day PPA, 100% satisfied with treatment, 6.7 of 10 treatment calls completed, and 55% increase in acceptance from baseline. At one-month follow up, seven-day PPA was 17%. The proportion of treatment completers who used at least 80% of the nicotine patches was 62.5% for the in-person protocol and 0% for the telephone protocol. Conclusions Both in-person and telephone-delivered ACT were feasible. Despite low adherence to nicotine patch, the intervention showed preliminary evidence of facilitating quitting and impacting ACT’s change mechanism. A randomized, controlled trial of this targeted ACT intervention is now needed. PMID:25912192

  12. User and Provider Acceptability of Intermittent Screening and Treatment and Intermittent Preventive Treatment with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine to Prevent Malaria in Pregnancy in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jenny; Hoyt, Jenna; Achieng, Florence; Ouma, Peter; L’lanziva, Anne; Kariuki, Simon; Desai, Meghna; Webster, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) alongside long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) and case management for reducing the risks associated with malaria in pregnancy in areas of moderate-to-high transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to increasing Plasmodium falciparum resistance to SP, the search for alternative drugs or strategies to control malaria in pregnancy is a priority. We assessed the acceptability among pregnant women and health providers of intermittent screening and treatment (ISTp) and IPTp with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) as alternative strategies in the context of an un-blinded clinical trial. Methods Qualitative data were collected through ten focus group discussions with women participating in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate ISTp or IPTp with DP (multi-day regimen) versus IPTp with SP (single dose) in western Kenya. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 26 health providers working in the trial facilities and trial staff. Results Women appreciated the advantages of being tested with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) at every ANC visit (although a few women disliked finger pricks) and accepted that they would not receive any antimalarial when tested RDT-negative. There were differences in women’s experiences of the efficacy of antimalarials between the trial arms, with more women in the IPTp-SP arm reporting they had experienced malaria episodes. Side effects were experienced among women taking DP and SP. Although women and trial staff reported adherence to the full DP regimen within the trial, health providers were not confident that women would adhere to multi-day regimens in non-trial settings. Health providers recognized the advantages of ISTp in reducing unnecessary exposure to drugs, but lacked confidence in the reliability of RDTs compared to microscopy. Conclusions Our findings indicate that, within a

  13. Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Acceptability and Recovery of Cortisol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Susan K.; Lopata, Christopher; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Neilans, Erik G.; Werth, Jilynn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared cortisol concentrations yielded using three saliva collection methods (passive drool, salivette, and sorbette) in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, as well as method acceptability for a sample of children (n = 39) with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. No cortisol concentration differences were observed between…

  14. From traditional cognitive-behavioural therapy to acceptance and commitment therapy for chronic pain: a mixed-methods study of staff experiences of change.

    PubMed

    Barker, Estelle; McCracken, Lance M

    2014-08-01

    Health care organizations, both large and small, frequently undergo processes of change. In fact, if health care organizations are to improve over time, they must change; this includes pain services. The purpose of the present study was to examine a process of change in treatment model within a specialty interdisciplinary pain service in the UK. This change entailed a switch from traditional cognitive-behavioural therapy to a form of cognitive-behavioural therapy called acceptance and commitment therapy. An anonymous online survey, including qualitative and quantitative components, was carried out approximately 15 months after the initial introduction of the new treatment model and methods. Fourteen out of 16 current clinical staff responded to the survey. Three themes emerged in qualitative analyses: positive engagement in change; uncertainty and discomfort; and group cohesion versus discord. Quantitative results from closed questions showed a pattern of uncertainty about the superiority of one model over the other, combined with more positive views on progress reflected, and the experience of personal benefits, from adopting the new model. The psychological flexibility model, the model behind acceptance and commitment therapy, may clarify both processes in patient behaviour and processes of staff experience and skilful treatment delivery. This integration of processes on both sides of treatment delivery may be a strength of acceptance and commitment therapy.

  15. Scholarship for Nuclear Communications and Methods for Evaluation of Nuclear Project Acceptability

    SciTech Connect

    Golay, Michael

    2016-10-30

    This project aims to go beyond effective communication in understanding how to design nuclear enterprise projects that will gain stakeholder acceptability. Much of what we are studying is generally applicable to controversial projects, and we expect our results to be of broad value beyond the nuclear arena. Acceptability is more than effective communication; it also requires varying degrees of engagement with a disparate number of stakeholder groups. In the nuclear enterprise, previous attempts have been well designed physically (i.e., technologically sound), but have floundered by being insensitive concerning acceptance. Though effective communication is a necessary, but insufficient, condition for such success, there is a lack of scholarship regarding how to gain stakeholder acceptance for new controversial projects, including nuclear ones. Our work is building a model for use in assessing the performance of a project in the area of acceptability. In the nuclear-social nexus, gaining acceptance requires a clear understanding of factors regarded as being important by the many stakeholders that are common to new nuclear project (many of whom hold an effective veto power). Projects tend to become socially controversial when public beliefs, expert opinion and decision-maker understanding are misaligned. As such, stakeholder acceptance is hypothesized as both an ongoing process and an initial project design parameter comprised of complex, social, cognitive and technical components. Controversial projects may be defined as aspects of modern technologies that some people question, or are cautious about. They could range from genetic modifications, biological hazards, effects of chemical agents, nuclear radiation or hydraulic fracturing operations. We intend that our work will result in a model likely to be valuable for refining project design and implementation to increase the knowledge needed for successful management of stakeholder relationships.

  16. Integrating screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) into an abortion clinic: an exploratory study of acceptability.

    PubMed

    Appel, Lindsay; Ramanadhan, Shaalini; Hladky, Katherine; Welsh, Chris; Terplan, Mishka

    2015-04-01

    Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is an effective means of identifying problematic substance use. We evaluated the acceptability of SBIRT in an abortion clinic via an anonymous survey of 100 participants. Clients were comfortable being asked about their substance use, receiving counseling, and treatment referral (mean Likert 1.1, 1.5, and 1.6, respectively) and were only minimally embarrassed when asked about substance use (mean Likert 3.6). These findings suggest that integrating SBIRT into an abortion clinic may be feasible. However, future studies are needed to assess the efficacy of abortion clinic SBIRT in reducing risky substance use.

  17. Development, validation and acceptance of alternative methods in the quality control of vaccines: A case report.

    PubMed

    Hendriksen, C F

    1995-12-01

    Information about levels of protection against tetanus is needed both for the assessment of immune status and for the estimation of the potency of batches of tetanus toxoid. Originally, levels of protective antibodies in human serum samples were titrated in an in vivo toxin neutralization (TN) test. Potency testing was based either on an indirect protection test or a direct challenge test. In the former test, rabbits or guinea pigs are immunized and bled, followed by titration of serum samples in a TN test. In the latter test, used in the quality control of tetanus toxoid for human use, protective immunity is induced by vaccination in guinea pigs or mice and subsequently challenging them directly with tetanus toxin. In the mid-1980s, an in vitro model was developed at the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) for estimating levels of tetanus antitoxin in serum samples. This model, the toxin-binding inhibition (ToBI) test, was validated recently for both diagnostic testing and potency testing. Although accurate estimation of antitoxin levels is more important for diagnostic testing than for potency testing, the ToBI test has been adopted for determining the immune status but not for potency testing. One major reason is that there are no official guidelines for titration of human serum samples. By contrast, potency testing is performed in accordance with the monographs of national and international pharmacopoeias, which complicates acceptance for technical and bureaucratic reasons. This paper focuses on the validation studies performed at the RIVM. In particular, attention is paid to the various problems encountered. Suggestions for the role of the European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM)( *) in the quality control of vaccines are also presented.

  18. Breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding: a mixed methods study of acceptability.

    PubMed

    Crossland, Nicola; Thomson, Gill; Morgan, Heather; MacLennan, Graeme; Campbell, Marion; Dykes, Fiona; Hoddinott, Pat

    2016-10-01

    Increasing breastfeeding rates would improve maternal and child health, but multiple barriers to breastfeeding persist. Breast pump provision has been used as an incentive for breastfeeding, although effectiveness is unclear. Women's use of breast pumps is increasing and a high proportion of mothers express breastmilk. No research has yet reported women's and health professionals' perspectives on breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding. In the Benefits of Incentives for Breastfeeding and Smoking cessation in pregnancy (BIBS) study, mixed methods research explored women's and professionals' views of breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding. A survey of health professionals across Scotland and North West England measured agreement with 'a breast pump costing around £40 provided for free on the NHS' as an incentive strategy. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted in two UK regions with a total of 68 participants (pregnant women, new mothers, and their significant others and health professionals) and thematic analysis undertaken. The survey of 497 health professionals found net agreement of 67.8% (337/497) with the breast pump incentive strategy, with no predictors of agreement shown by a multiple ordered logistic regression model. Qualitative research found interrelated themes of the 'appeal and value of breast pumps', 'sharing the load', 'perceived benefits', 'perceived risks' and issues related to 'timing'. Qualitative participants expressed mixed views on the acceptability of breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding. Understanding the mechanisms of action for pump type, timing and additional support required for effectiveness is required to underpin trials of breast pump provision as an incentive for improving breastfeeding outcomes. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Acceptance and commitment therapy as a novel treatment for eating disorders: an initial test of efficacy and mediation.

    PubMed

    Juarascio, Adrienne; Shaw, Jena; Forman, Evan; Timko, C Alix; Herbert, James; Butryn, Meghan; Bunnell, Douglas; Matteucci, Alyssa; Lowe, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Eating disorders are among the most challenging disorders to treat, with even state-of-the-art cognitive-behavioral treatments achieving only modest success. One possible reason for the high rate of treatment failure for eating disorders is that existing treatments do not attend sufficiently to critical aspects of the disorder such as high experiential avoidance, poor experiential awareness, and lack of motivation. These variables are explicit targets of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). The current study examined the efficacy of an ACT-based group treatment for eating disorders by examining whether the addition of ACT groups to treatment-as-usual (TAU) at a residential treatment facility for eating disorders would improve treatment outcomes. TAU patients received an intensive residential treatment, while ACT patients received these services but additionally attended, depending on diagnosis, either ACT for anorexia nervosa groups or ACT for bulimia nervosa groups. Although individuals in both treatment conditions demonstrated large decreases in eating pathology, there were trends toward larger decreases among those receiving ACT. ACT patients also showed lower rates of rehospitalization during the 6 months after discharge. Overall, results suggest that ACT is a viable treatment option for individuals with eating pathology and further outcome research is warranted.

  20. Counselor Attitudes Toward Contingency Management for Substance Use Disorder: Effectiveness, Acceptability, and Endorsement of Incentives for Treatment Attendance and Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Aletraris, Lydia; Shelton, Jeff S; Roman, Paul M

    2015-10-01

    Despite research demonstrating its effectiveness, use of contingency management (CM) in substance use disorder treatment has been limited. Given the vital role that counselors play as arbiters in the use of therapies, examination of their attitudes can provide insight into how further use of CM might be effectively promoted. In this paper, we examine 731 counselors' attitudes toward the effectiveness and acceptability of CM in treatment, as well as their specific attitudes toward both unspecified and tangible incentives for treatment attendance and abstinence. Compared to cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing, and community reinforcement approach, counselors rated CM as the least effective and least acceptable psychosocial intervention. Exposure through the use of CM in a counselor's employing organization was positively associated with perceptions of acceptability, agreement that incentives have a positive effect on the client-counselor relationship, and endorsement of tangible incentives for abstinence. Endorsement of tangible incentives for treatment attendance was significantly greater among counselors with more years in the treatment field, and counselors who held at least a master's degree. Counselors' adaptability or openness to innovations was also positively associated with attitudes toward CM. Further, female counselors and counselors with a greater 12-step philosophy were less likely to endorse the use of incentives. A highlight of our study is that it offers the first specific assessment of the impact of "Promoting Awareness of Motivational Incentives" (PAMI), a Web-based tool based on findings of CM protocols tested within the Clinical Trials Network (CTN), on counselors employed outside the CTN. We found that 10% of counselors had accessed PAMI, and those who had accessed PAMI were more likely to report a higher degree of perceived effectiveness of CM than those who had not. This study lays the groundwork for vital research on the

  1. Acceptability of Positive and Punitive Discipline Methods: Comparisons among Abusive, Potentially Abusive, and Nonabusive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Mary Lou; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Abusive, potentially abusive, and control group parents (N=62) were presented with vignettes describing a child with either mild or severe behavior problems and asked to rate the acceptability of four discipline procedures (positive reinforcement, timeout, timeout with spanking, and spanking). Overall, parents rated positive reinforcement as more…

  2. Acceptability of solar disinfection of drinking water treatment in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Rainey, Rochelle C; Harding, Anna K

    2005-10-01

    This research examines the acceptability of solar disinfection of drinking water (SODIS) in a village in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, using constructs from the Health Belief Model as a framework to identify local understandings of water, sanitation and health issues. There has been no published research on the acceptability of SODIS in household testing in Nepal. Understanding the context of water and water purity in Nepalese villages is essential to identify culturally appropriate interventions to improve the quality of drinking water and health. Forty households from the village census list were randomly selected and the senior woman in each household was asked to participate. Baseline data on water sources and behaviors were collected in March 2002, followed by training in SODIS. Follow-up data were collected in June and July 2002. Only 9% of households routinely adopted SODIS. Participants mentioned the benefit of treating water to reduce stomach ailments, but this did not outweigh the perceived barriers of heavy domestic and agricultural workloads, other cultural barriers, uncertainty about the necessity of treating the water, and lack of knowledge that untreated drinking water causes diarrhea. Strategies for developing safe water systems must include public health education about waterborne diseases, source water protection, and a motivational component to achieve implementation and sustained use. In addition, other options for disinfecting water should be provided, given the women's work constraints and low level of formal education.

  3. Acceptance and commitment therapy versus tinnitus retraining therapy in the treatment of tinnitus: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Westin, Vendela Zetterqvist; Schulin, Mikael; Hesser, Hugo; Karlsson, Marianne; Noe, Reza Zare; Olofsson, Ulrike; Stalby, Magnus; Wisung, Gisela; Andersson, Gerhard

    2011-11-01

    The study compared the effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) with Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) on tinnitus impact in a randomised controlled trial. Sixty-four normal hearing subjects with tinnitus were randomised to one of the active treatments or a wait-list control (WLC). The ACT treatment consisted of 10 weekly 60 min sessions. The TRT treatment consisted of one 150 min session, one 30 min follow-up and continued daily use of wearable sound generators for a recommended period of at least 8h/day for 18 months. Assessments were made at baseline, 10 weeks, 6 months and 18 months. At 10 weeks, results showed a superior effect of ACT in comparison with the WLC regarding tinnitus impact (Cohen's d=1.04), problems with sleep and anxiety. The results were mediated by tinnitus acceptance. A comparison between the active treatments, including all assessment points, revealed significant differences in favour of ACT regarding tinnitus impact (Cohen's d=0.75) and problems with sleep. At 6 months, reliable improvement on the main outcome measure was found for 54.5% in the ACT condition and 20% in the TRT condition. The results suggest that ACT can reduce tinnitus distress and impact in a group of normal hearing tinnitus patients.

  4. Primary Care Patients with Depression Are Less Accepting of Treatment Than Those Seen by Mental Health Specialists

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhees, Benjamin W; Cooper, Lisa A; Rost, Kathryn M; Nutting, Paul; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Meredith, Lisa; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Ford, Daniel E

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined whether depressed patients treated exclusively in primary care report less need for care and less acceptability of treatment options than those depressed patients treated in the specialty mental health setting after up to 6 months of treatment. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Forty-five community primary care practices. PARTICIPANTS A total of 881 persons with major depression who had received mental health services in the previous 6 months and who enrolled in 3 of the 4 Quality Improvement for Depression Collaboration Studies. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS Patients were categorized into 1 of 2 groups: 1) having received mental health services exclusively from a primary care provider (45%), or 2) having received any services from a mental health specialist (55%) in the previous 6 months. Compared with patients who received care from mental health specialists, patients who received mental health services exclusively from primary care providers had 2.7-fold the odds (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 4.4) of reporting that no treatment was definitely acceptable and had 2.4-fold the odds (95% CI, 1.5 to 3.9) of reporting that evidence-based treatment options (antidepressant medication) were definitely not acceptable. These results were adjusted for demographic, social/behavioral, depression severity, and economic factors using multiple logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS Patients with depression treated exclusively by primary care providers have attitudes and beliefs more averse to care than those seen by mental health specialists. These differences in attitudes and beliefs may contribute to lower quality depression care observed in comparisons of primary care and specialty mental health providers. PMID:14687257

  5. Treatment Effectiveness, Stimulus Generalization, and Acceptability to Parents of Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wacker, David P.; Berg, Wendy K.; Harding, Jay W.; Barretto, Anjali; Rankin, Barbara; Ganzer, Jed

    2005-01-01

    We trained parents to conduct functional analyses (n = 25) and functional communication training (n = 23) in home settings over a four-year period with 25 young children who had developmental and behavioural disorders. For 12 of the children, pre-treatment (baseline) probes and post-treatment stimulus condition probes were conducted to assess…

  6. The Acceptability of an Internet-Based Self-Help Treatment for Fear of Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botella, C.; Gallego, M. J.; Garcia-Palacios, A.; Banos, R. M.; Quero, S.; Alcaniz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Several randomised controlled studies have shown the efficacy of Internet-based self-help treatments. These studies have centred their attention on axis I (efficacy) of the Guidelines for Empirically Validated Treatments, although there are a few studies that also take into account axis II (effectiveness). The aim of the present work was to test…

  7. Clinical holistic medicine: holistic sexology and treatment of vulvodynia through existential therapy and acceptance through touch.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Morad, Mohammed; Hyam, Eytan; Merrick, Joav

    2004-08-04

    Sexual problems are found in four major forms: lack of libido, lack of arousal and potency, pain and discomfort during intercourse, and lack of orgasm. It is possible to work with a holistic approach to sexology in the clinic in order to find and repair the negative beliefs, repressions of love, and lack of purpose of life, which are the core to problems like arousal, potency, and pain with repression of gender and sexuality. It is important not to focus only on the gender and genitals in understanding the patient"s sexual problems. It is of equal importance not to neglect the body, its parts, and the feelings and emotions connected to them. Shame, guilt, helplessness, fear, disgust, anger, hatred, and other strong feelings are almost always an important part of a sexual problem and these feelings are often "held" by the tissue of the pelvis and sexual organs. The patient with sexual problems can be helped both by healing existence in general and by discharging old painful emotions from the tissues. The later process of local healing is often facilitated by a simple technique: accepting contact via touch. This is a very simple technique, where the self-acceptance of the patient is to be promoted, for example, asking the female patient to put her hand on her stomach (uterus) or vulva, after which the holistic physician puts his hand supportively around hers. When done with care and after obtaining the necessary trust of the patient, this aspect of holding often releases the old negative emotions of shame bound to the touched areas. Afterwards, the emotional problems become a subject for conversational therapy and further holistic processing. Primary vulvodynia seems to be one of the diseases that can be cured after only a few successful sessions of working with acceptance through touch. The technique can be used as an isolated procedure or as a part of a pelvic examination. When touching the genitals with the intention of sexual healing, a written therapeutic

  8. A method to investigate drivers' acceptance of Blind Spot Detection System®.

    PubMed

    Piccinini, Giuliofrancesco; Simões, Anabela; Rodrigues, Carlos Manuel; Leitão, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Lately, with the goal of improving road safety, car makers developed and commercialised some Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) which, through the detection of blind spot areas on the vehicle's sides, could help the drivers during the overtaking and the change lane task. Despite the possible benefits to reduce lateral crashes, the overall impact on road safety of such systems have not been deeply studied yet; notably, despite some researches have been carried out, there is a lack of studies regarding the long-term usage and drivers' acceptance of those systems. In order to fill the research gap, a methodology, based on the combination of focus groups interviews, questionnaires and a small-scale field operational test (FOT), has been designed in this study; such a methodology aims at evaluating drivers' acceptance of Blind Spot Information System® and at proposing some ideas to improve the usability and user-friendliness of this (or similar) device in their future development.

  9. The seven Cs of the high acceptability of home-based VCT: results from a mixed methods approach in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, Marte; Sandøy, Ingvild F; Michelo, Charles; Fylkesnes, Knut; Mwangala, Sheila; Blystad, Astrid

    2013-11-01

    HIV testing and counselling is a critical gateway to prevention and treatment. Yet, coverage remains insufficient, few couples are tested together and gender differences in access exist. We used an embedded mixed methods approach to investigate possible explanations for the high acceptance of home-based voluntary HIV counselling and testing (HB-VCT) in a pair-matched cluster-randomized trial in Zambia. A baseline survey included 1694 individuals in 36 clusters. Adults in 18 intervention clusters were offered HB-VCT by lay counsellors. Standard testing services were available in both trial arms. After the completion of the intervention, a follow-up survey was conducted in all trial clusters. In addition, 21 in-depth interviews and one focus group discussion were conducted with home-based VCT clients in the intervention arm. Informants favoured the convenience, confidentiality and credibility of HB-VCT. Counsellors were perceived as trustworthy owing to their closeness and conduct, and the consent process was experienced as convincing. Couple testing was selected by 70% of cohabiting couples and was experienced as beneficial by both genders. Levels of first-time testing (68% vs. 29%, p < 0.0001) and re-testing (94% vs. 74%, p < 0.0001) were higher in the intervention than in the control arm. Acceptance of HIV testing and counselling is dependent on stigma, trust and gender. The confidentiality of home-based VCT was essential for overcoming stigma-related barriers, and the selection of local counsellors was important to ensure trust in the services. The high level of couple counselling within HB-VCT may contribute to closing the gender gap in HIV testing, and has benefits for both genders and potentially for prevention of HIV transmission. The study demonstrates the feasibility of achieving high test coverage with an opt-in consent approach. The embedded qualitative component confirmed the high satisfaction with HB-VCT reported in the quantitative survey and was

  10. Psychosocial determinants of physicians' acceptance of recommendations by antibiotic computerised decision support systems: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Chow, Angela; Lye, David C B; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2015-03-01

    Antibiotic computerised decision support systems (CDSSs) were developed to facilitate optimal prescribing, but acceptance of their recommendations has remained low. We aimed to evaluate physicians' perceptions and attitudes toward antibiotic CDSSs and determine psychosocial factors associated with acceptance of CDSS recommendations for empirical therapy. A mixed methods study was conducted in an adult tertiary-care hospital in Singapore, with its in-house antibiotic CDSS that integrates antimicrobial stewardship with electronic prescribing. Focus group discussions were conducted among purposively sampled physicians and data were analysed using the framework approach. Emerging themes were included in the questionnaire with newly developed scales for the subsequent cross-sectional survey involving all physicians. Principal components analysis was performed to derive the latent factor structure that was later applied in multivariate analyses. Physicians expressed confidence in the credibility of CDSS recommendations. Junior physicians accepted CDSS recommendations most of the time, whilst senior physicians acknowledged overriding recommendations in complex patients with multiple infections or allergies. Willingness to consult the CDSS for common and complex infections (OR=1.68, 95% CI 1.16-2.44) and preference for personal or team decision (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.43-0.85) were associated with acceptance of CDSS recommendations. Cronbach's α for scales measuring physicians' attitudes and perceptions towards acceptance of CDSS recommendations ranged from 0.64 to 0.88. Physicians' willingness to consult an antibiotic CDSS determined acceptance of its recommendations. Physicians would choose to exercise their own or clinical team's decision over CDSS recommendations in complex patient situations when the antibiotic prescribing needs were not met.

  11. The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders among Repeat DUI Offenders Accepting a Treatment-Sentencing Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N = 729) to a 2-week…

  12. The epidemiology of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders accepting a treatment-sentencing option.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Howard J; Nelson, Sarah E; LaPlante, Debi A; LaBrie, Richard A; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-10-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N = 729) to a 2-week inpatient treatment facility for court-sentenced repeat DUI offenders (i.e., offenders electing treatment in place of prison time) from April 17, 2005, to April 23, 2006. Participants completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, which assessed the following disorders using criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994): alcohol use and drug use, bipolar, generalized anxiety, posttraumatic stress, intermittent explosive, conduct, attention deficit, nicotine dependence, pathological gambling, and major depressive. Repeat DUI offenders evidenced higher lifetime and 12-month prevalence of alcohol use and drug use disorders, conduct disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and bipolar disorder compared with the general population. Almost half qualified for lifetime diagnoses of both addiction (i.e., alcohol, drug, nicotine, and/or gambling) and a psychiatric disorder. Lifetime and past-year comorbidity rates were higher among participants than in the general population. These results suggest that clinicians should consider multimorbidity within DUI treatment protocols.

  13. The Acceptability of Therapist-Assisted, Internet-Delivered Treatment for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, M. Fallon; Benton, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    University and college counseling centers struggle with rising service demands without a corresponding increase in resources. Consequently, counseling centers must seek creative ways to not only maintain the status quo, but expand capacity while preserving effectiveness. In other countries, therapist-assisted, Internet-delivered treatment has been…

  14. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Cognitive Therapy for the Treatment of Comorbid Eating Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juarascio, Adrienne S.; Forman, Evan M.; Herbert, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that although eating pathology is prevalent in college populations, both CBT and non-CBT-based therapies achieve only limited effectiveness. The current study examined several questions related to the treatment of eating pathology within the context of a larger randomized controlled trial that compared standard CBT…

  15. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Habit Reversal Training for the Treatment of Trichotillomania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Jesse M.; Dehlin, John P.; Mitchell, P. R.; Twohig, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Trichotillomania is a behavioral problem, and is often referred to as a habit disorder, but it is important to consider the cognitive and emotional components of the behavior. Current treatment recommendations include a traditional behavioral approach (Habit Reversal Training; HRT) combined with an approach that addresses the cognitive and…

  16. Assessing Treatment Acceptability with Consumers of Outpatient Child Behavior Management Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Parents' and grandparents' ratings of alternative treatments for children with behavior disorders were assessed. Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), time-out, response cost, spanking, and medication were applied to noncompliance, aggression, tantrums, and hyperactivity. DRO, response cost, and time-out were found significantly more…

  17. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Behavioral Activation for the Treatment of Depression: Description and Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Baruch, David E.; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2006-01-01

    The field of clinical behavior analysis is growing rapidly and has the potential to affect and transform mainstream cognitive behavior therapy. To have such an impact, the field must provide a formulation of and intervention strategies for clinical depression, the "common cold" of outpatient populations. Two treatments for depression have emerged:…

  18. The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders among Repeat DUI Offenders Accepting a Treatment-Sentencing Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N=729) to a 2-week…

  19. Treatment of Infantile Hemangioma in Regional Hospitals With eHealth Support: Evaluation of Feasibility and Acceptance by Parents and Doctors

    PubMed Central

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; van Renselaar, Wilco; Breugem, Corstiaan C; Pasmans, Suzanne GMA

    2014-01-01

    Background Since beta blockers became the preferred treatment for infantile hemangiomas (IH), the number of patients eligible for treatment is increasing. Currently treatment of IH with beta blockers is mainly reserved for expert centers, where wait times are lengthening. This demonstrated the need for development of a more efficient and accessible way of providing care for children needing treatment for IH. An eHealth intervention, Hemangioma Treatment Plan (HTP), was developed to treat IH in regional hospitals with online support from an academic doctor. Objective Our goal was to evaluate the feasibility of the eHealth intervention by determining its use, acceptance, and usability. By evaluating the feasibility, usage can be predicted and points for improvement can be defined, thereby facilitating implementation of the intervention. Methods Parents of children with an IH, presenting between October 2012 and November 2013 at the tertiary expert Center for Congenital Vascular Anomalies Utrecht, requiring treatment with a beta blocker, were asked to participate in the digital HTP. Both parents and regional doctors were sent a study questionnaire. Acceptance and usability of the HTP were evaluated by using the modified Technology Acceptance Model. Results A total of 31 parents and 22 regional doctors participated in the eHealth intervention and received the questionnaire, and 25 parents and 15 doctors responded (response rates respectively 81% and 68%). A majority of the parents (96%, 24/25) and the regional doctors (87%, 13/15) considered the eHealth intervention useful in the care for IH. Most parents (76%, 19/25) and over half of the regional doctors (53%, 8/15) found the HTP easy to use. Technical problems using the HTP were reported by 28% (7/25) of the parents and 73% (11/15) of the doctors. The majority of parents (92%, 23/25) felt positive about usage of the HTP during treatment of their child. All regional doctors (100%, 15/15) felt positive about transition

  20. Esthetic Concerns and Acceptability of Treatment Modalities in Primary Teeth: A Comparison between Children and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Saffan, Abdulrahman Al; AlHobail, Sultan; Bin Salem, Fares; AlFuraih, AlBara; AlTamimi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. Esthetic concerns in primary teeth have been studied mainly from the point of view of parents. The aim of this study was to study compare the opinions of children aged 5–8 years to have an opinion regarding the changes in appearance of their teeth due to dental caries and the materials used to restore those teeth. Methodology. A total of 107 children and both of their parents (n = 321), who were seeking dental treatment, were included in this study. A tool comprising a questionnaire and pictures of carious lesions and their treatment arranged in the form of a presentation was validated and tested on 20 children and their parents. The validated tool was then tested on all participants. Results. Children had acceptable validity statistics for the tool suggesting that they were able to make informed decisions regarding esthetic restorations. There was no difference between the responses of the children and their parents on most points. Zirconia crowns appeared to be the most acceptable full coverage restoration for primary anterior teeth among both children and their parents. Conclusion. Within the limitations of the study it can be concluded that children in their sixth year of life are capable of appreciating the esthetics of the restorations for their anterior teeth. PMID:27446212

  1. Local tolerance testing under REACH: Accepted non-animal methods are not on equal footing with animal tests.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G; Hill, Erin H; Curren, Rodger D; Raabe, Hans A; Kolle, Susanne N; Teubner, Wera; Mehling, Annette; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-07-01

    In general, no single non-animal method can cover the complexity of any given animal test. Therefore, fixed sets of in vitro (and in chemico) methods have been combined into testing strategies for skin and eye irritation and skin sensitisation testing, with pre-defined prediction models for substance classification. Many of these methods have been adopted as OECD test guidelines. Various testing strategies have been successfully validated in extensive in-house and inter-laboratory studies, but they have not yet received formal acceptance for substance classification. Therefore, under the European REACH Regulation, data from testing strategies can, in general, only be used in so-called weight-of-evidence approaches. While animal testing data generated under the specific REACH information requirements are per se sufficient, the sufficiency of weight-of-evidence approaches can be questioned under the REACH system, and further animal testing can be required. This constitutes an imbalance between the regulatory acceptance of data from approved non-animal methods and animal tests that is not justified on scientific grounds. To ensure that testing strategies for local tolerance testing truly serve to replace animal testing for the REACH registration 2018 deadline (when the majority of existing chemicals have to be registered), clarity on their regulatory acceptance as complete replacements is urgently required.

  2. Data Acceptance Criteria for Standardized Human-Associated Fecal Source Identification Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kelty, Catherine A.; Oshiro, Robin; Haugland, Richard A.; Madi, Tania; Brooks, Lauren; Field, Katharine G.; Sivaganesan, Mano

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for water quality management. The transition from a research tool to a standardized protocol requires a high degree of confidence in data quality across laboratories. Data quality is typically determined through a series of specifications that ensure good experimental practice and the absence of bias in the results due to DNA isolation and amplification interferences. However, there is currently a lack of consensus on how best to evaluate and interpret human fecal source identification qPCR experiments. This is, in part, due to the lack of standardized protocols and information on interlaboratory variability under conditions for data acceptance. The aim of this study is to provide users and reviewers with a complete series of conditions for data acceptance derived from a multiple laboratory data set using standardized procedures. To establish these benchmarks, data from HF183/BacR287 and HumM2 human-associated qPCR methods were generated across 14 laboratories. Each laboratory followed a standardized protocol utilizing the same lot of reference DNA materials, DNA isolation kits, amplification reagents, and test samples to generate comparable data. After removal of outliers, a nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to establish proficiency metrics that include lab-to-lab, replicate testing within a lab, and random error for amplification inhibition and sample processing controls. Other data acceptance measurements included extraneous DNA contamination assessments (no-template and extraction blank controls) and calibration model performance (correlation coefficient, amplification efficiency, and lower limit of quantification). To demonstrate the implementation of the proposed standardized protocols and data acceptance criteria, comparable data from two additional laboratories were reviewed. The data acceptance criteria

  3. Data Acceptance Criteria for Standardized Human-Associated Fecal Source Identification Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Orin C; Kelty, Catherine A; Oshiro, Robin; Haugland, Richard A; Madi, Tania; Brooks, Lauren; Field, Katharine G; Sivaganesan, Mano

    2016-05-01

    There is growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for water quality management. The transition from a research tool to a standardized protocol requires a high degree of confidence in data quality across laboratories. Data quality is typically determined through a series of specifications that ensure good experimental practice and the absence of bias in the results due to DNA isolation and amplification interferences. However, there is currently a lack of consensus on how best to evaluate and interpret human fecal source identification qPCR experiments. This is, in part, due to the lack of standardized protocols and information on interlaboratory variability under conditions for data acceptance. The aim of this study is to provide users and reviewers with a complete series of conditions for data acceptance derived from a multiple laboratory data set using standardized procedures. To establish these benchmarks, data from HF183/BacR287 and HumM2 human-associated qPCR methods were generated across 14 laboratories. Each laboratory followed a standardized protocol utilizing the same lot of reference DNA materials, DNA isolation kits, amplification reagents, and test samples to generate comparable data. After removal of outliers, a nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to establish proficiency metrics that include lab-to-lab, replicate testing within a lab, and random error for amplification inhibition and sample processing controls. Other data acceptance measurements included extraneous DNA contamination assessments (no-template and extraction blank controls) and calibration model performance (correlation coefficient, amplification efficiency, and lower limit of quantification). To demonstrate the implementation of the proposed standardized protocols and data acceptance criteria, comparable data from two additional laboratories were reviewed. The data acceptance criteria

  4. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP): Treatment Model, Feasibility, and Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David A.; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary F.; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the elements of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method: The CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction and relapse prevention approach and…

  5. Impact of Dialectical Behavior Therapy versus Community Treatment by Experts on Emotional Experience, Expression, and Acceptance in Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Neacsiu, Andrada D.; Lungu, Anita; Harned, Melanie S.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that heightened negative affectivity is a prominent feature of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) that often leads to maladaptive behaviors. Nevertheless, there is little research examining treatment effects on the experience and expression of specific negative emotions. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an effective treatment for BPD, hypothesized to reduce negative affectivity (Linehan, 1993a). The present study analyzes secondary data from a randomized controlled trial with the aim to assess the unique effectiveness of DBT when compared to Community Treatment by Experts (CTBE) in changing the experience, expression, and acceptance of negative emotions. Suicidal and/or self-injuring women with BPD (n = 101) were randomly assigned to DBT or CTBE for one year of treatment and one year of follow-up. Several indices of emotional experience and expression were assessed. Results indicate that DBT decreased experiential avoidance and expressed anger significantly more than CTBE. No differences between DBT and CTBE were found in improving guilt, shame, anxiety, or anger suppression, trait, and control. These results suggest that DBT has unique effects on improving the expression of anger and experiential avoidance, whereas changes in the experience of specific negative emotions may be accounted for by general factors associated with expert therapy. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24418652

  6. Preferred delivery method and acceptability of Wheat-Soy Blend (WSB++) as a daily complementary food supplement in northwest Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Hanif, Abu A M; Merrill, Rebecca D; Campbell, Rebecca K; Kumkum, Mehnaz Alam; Shaikh, Saijuddin; de Pee, Saskia; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Parveen, Monira; Mehra, Sucheta; Klemm, Rolf D W; Labrique, Alain B; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Fortified blended foods (FBFs) are widely used to prevent undernutrition in early childhood in food-insecure settings. We field tested enhanced Wheat Soy Blend (WSB++)-a FBF fortified with micronutrients, milk powder, sugar, and oil-in preparation for a complementary food supplement (CFS) trial in rural northwestern Bangladesh. Formative work was conducted to determine the optimal delivery method (cooked vs. not) for this CFS, to examine mothers' child feeding practices with and acceptance of the WSB++, and to identify potential barriers to adherence. Our results suggest WSB++ is an acceptable CFS in rural Bangladesh and the requirement for mothers to cook WSB++ at home is unlikely to be a barrier to its daily use as a CFS in this population.

  7. 19 CFR 134.44 - Location and other acceptable methods of marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported... Customs, any method of marking at any location insuring that country of origin will conspicuously...

  8. 19 CFR 134.44 - Location and other acceptable methods of marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported... Customs, any method of marking at any location insuring that country of origin will conspicuously...

  9. Alternative methods of ophthalmic treatment in Russia.

    PubMed

    Vader, L

    1994-04-01

    Russian ophthalmic nurses and physicians are using alternative methods of treatment to supplement traditional eye care. As acupuncture and iridology become more popular in the United States, ophthalmic nurses need to be more knowledgeable about these treatments and the implications for patients.

  10. Goat milk acceptance and promotion methods in Japan: The questionnaire survey to middle class households.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Takeyuki; Mukuda, Kumiko; Fujita, Masaru; Nishitani, Jiro

    2009-04-01

    A consumer questionnaire conducted with the purpose of ascertaining the acceptability of goat milk and related products in Japan was carried out on 345 guarantees of Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University in December 2006. 275 effective responses (79%) representing middle class urban households were returned. The results revealed that (1) 30% of respondents have experienced drinking goat milk and only 10% are aware of the current retail situation of goat milk and related products; (2) over 70% of goat milk drinkers raised goats by hand at some point in their past and their first experience drinking goat milk was in infancy; (3) those with experience in drinking goat milk expressed a vague evaluation and minimal understanding of drinking goat milk; (4) respondents who were inexperienced goat milk drinkers expressed a strong desire to taste and a weak desire to purchase goat milk; (5) respondents expressed low recognition regarding retailed goat milk products, but those who had already purchased goat milk products expressed a high evaluation and strong desire to purchase these products again; and (6) recognition of goat milk characteristics is low, but those with high recognition also rate goat milk highly. Goats are perceived as being 'mild and familiar.' It is necessary for those who manage goat husbandry to present goat milk and related product tasting opportunities to consumers. The key point is to make the functional differences between cow and goat milk clear and present the advantages of goat milk at the fore of this promotion. Goat milk should not be promoted merely as a drink that is similar to cow milk, but must be positioned as a functional drink or health food in order to expand the Japanese goat milk market.

  11. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP): Treatment Model, Feasibility and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the elements of a manualized cognitive behavior psychotherapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction, relapse prevention approach and theoretically grounded in principles of cognitive behavior therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy and targeted therapies for suicidal, depressed youth. CBT-SP consists of acute and continuation phases, each lasting about 12 sessions, and includes a chain analysis of the suicidal event, safety plan development, skill building, psychoeducation, family intervention, and relapse prevention. Results CBT-SP was administered to 110 depressed, recent suicide attempters aged 13–19 years (mean 15.8±1.6) across five academic sites. Twelve or more sessions were completed by 72.4% of the sample. Conclusions A specific intervention for adolescents at high risk for repeated suicide attempts has been developed and manualized, and further testing of its efficacy appears feasible. PMID:19730273

  12. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Affective Disorder: A Pilot Matched Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Thekiso, Thekiso B; Murphy, Philip; Milnes, Jennie; Lambe, Kathryn; Curtin, Aisling; Farren, Conor K

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) enhances treatment as usual (TAU) in improving treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid affective disorder. Fifty-two participants were included in the study, of whom 26 were patients with AUD and either depression or bipolar disorder treated with ACT group therapy in parallel with TAU (inpatient integrated treatment) and 26 were matched controls who had received TAU alone. Drinking and craving outcomes were total alcohol abstinence, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) scores at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Affective and anxiety outcomes were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores at these follow-ups. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Retention rates were high: 100% of the ACT group were followed up at 3 and 6 months; 92.3% and 84.6% of the TAU alone group were followed up at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Patients in the ACT group reported significantly higher CAD at 3 and 6 months, significantly lower BDI and BAI scores at 3 and 6 months, and significantly lower OCDS scores at 3 months, than those who received only TAU. No other significant differences in treatment outcomes were found between the groups. ACT provides added benefit to TAU in improving drinking, craving, depression and anxiety outcomes in patients with AUD and comorbid affective disorder. Most treatment improvements were sustained over a 6-month follow-up period.

  13. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of first-generation and second-generation antidepressants in the acute treatment of major depression: protocol for a network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Salanti, Georgia; Atkinson, Lauren Z; Leucht, Stefan; Ruhe, Henricus G; Turner, Erick H; Chaimani, Anna; Ogawa, Yusuke; Takeshima, Nozomi; Hayasaka, Yu; Imai, Hissei; Shinohara, Kiyomi; Suganuma, Aya; Watanabe, Norio; Stockton, Sarah; Geddes, John R

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many antidepressants are indicated for the treatment of major depression. Two network meta-analyses have provided the most comprehensive assessments to date, accounting for both direct and indirect comparisons; however, these reported conflicting interpretation of results. Here, we present a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis aimed at updating the evidence base and comparing all second-generation as well as selected first-generation antidepressants in terms of efficacy and acceptability in the acute treatment of major depression. Methods and analysis We will include all randomised controlled trials reported as double-blind and comparing one active drug with another or with placebo in the acute phase treatment of major depression in adults. We are interested in comparing the following active agents: agomelatine, amitriptyline, bupropion, citalopram, clomipramine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, levomilnacipran, milnacipran, mirtazapine, nefazodone, paroxetine, reboxetine, sertraline, trazodone, venlafaxine, vilazodone and vortioxetine. The main outcomes will be the proportion of patients who responded to or dropped out of the allocated treatment. Published and unpublished studies will be sought through relevant database searches, trial registries and websites; all reference selection and data extraction will be conducted by at least two independent reviewers. We will conduct a random effects network meta-analysis to synthesise all evidence for each outcome and obtain a comprehensive ranking of all treatments. To rank the various treatments for each outcome, we will use the surface under the cumulative ranking curve and the mean ranks. We will employ local as well as global methods to evaluate consistency. We will fit our model in a Bayesian framework using OpenBUGS, and produce results and various checks in Stata and R. We will also assess the quality of evidence contributing to network

  14. Perceptions of the feasibility and acceptability of a smartphone application for the treatment of binge eating disorders: Qualitative feedback from a user population and clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Stephanie P.; Manasse, Stephanie M.; Forman, Evan M.; Butryn, Meghan L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Binge eating, a major public health problem, is characterized by recurrent episodes of out-of-control eating in which an individual consumes an unusually large amount of food in a discrete time period. Limitations of existing treatments for binge eating (both in-person psychotherapy and guided self-help) indicate that smartphone applications (apps) may be an ideal alternative or enhancement. An app for binge eating could aid treatment dissemination, engagement, and/or compliance. However, no research to date has examined user perceptions of a therapeutic app for binge eating, which is critical for development. Objectives The purposes of the current study were to conceptualize a potential app for binge eating and obtain feedback regarding feasibility and acceptability from target users (i.e., individuals with binge eating) and clinicians specializing in the treatment of binge eating. Methods Our team conceptualized a smartphone app that contained self-help material, functions to monitor behavior, and provisions of in-the-moment interventions. We presented this app (e.g., feature explanations, mock screen shots) through phone interviews with clinicians who specialize in the treatment of binge eating (n=10), and focus groups with individuals experiencing binge eating (n=11). Participants were asked to discuss customization, user burden, terminology, attrition, data visualization, comprehensiveness, reminders, feasibility, acceptability, and perceived effectiveness of the proposed app. Thematic analyses were conducted from qualitative data (e.g., audio recordings and interview notes) obtained via the focus groups and interviews. Results Results indicated that our proposed app would be highly feasible and acceptable to users and clinicians, though concerns about the degree of personalization and customizability were noted. Conclusions The current study details highly specific feedback and ideas regarding essential app features from target users and clinicians

  15. Analytical method transfer using equivalence tests with reasonable acceptance criteria and appropriate effort: extension of the ISPE concept.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, L; Schepers, U; Wätzig, H

    2010-12-15

    A method development process is commonly finalized by a method transfer from the developing to the routine laboratory. Statistical tests are performed in order to survey if a transfer succeeded or failed. However, using the classic two-sample t-test can lead to misjudgments and unsatisfying transfer results due to its test characteristics. Therefore the International Society of Pharmaceutical Engineering (ISPE) employed a fixed method transfer design using equivalence tests in their Guide for Technology Transfer. Although it was well received by analytical laboratories worldwide this fixed design can easily bring about high beta-errors (rejection of successful transfers) or high workload (many analysts employed during transfer) if sigma(AN) (error due to different analysts) exceeds 0.6%. Hence this work introduces an extended concept which will help to circumvent this disadvantage by providing guidance to select a personalized and more appropriate experimental design. First of all it demonstrates that former t-test related acceptance criteria can be scaled by a factor of 1.15, which allows for a broader tolerance without a loss of decision certainty. Furthermore a decision guidance to choose the proper number of analysts or series at given percentage acceptance limits (%AL) is presented.

  16. Do counselor techniques predict quitting during smoking cessation treatment? A component analysis of telephone-delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.

    PubMed

    Vilardaga, Roger; Heffner, Jaimee L; Mercer, Laina D; Bricker, Jonathan B

    2014-10-01

    No studies to date have examined the effect of counselor techniques on smoking cessation over the course of treatment. To address this gap, we examined the degree to which the use of specific Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) counseling techniques in a given session predicted smoking cessation reported at the next session. The data came from the ACT arm of a randomized controlled trial of a telephone-delivered smoking cessation intervention. Trained raters coded 139 counseling sessions across 44 participants. The openness, awareness and activation components of the ACT model were rated for each telephone counseling session. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate the predictive relationship between each component during any given telephone session and smoking cessation at the following telephone session. For every 1-unit increase in counselors' use of openness and awareness techniques there were 42% and 52% decreases in the odds of smoking at the next counseling session, respectively. However, there was no significant predictive relationship between counselors' use of activation techniques and smoking cessation. Overall, results highlight the theoretical and clinical value of examining therapists' techniques as predictors of outcome during the course of treatment.

  17. Key factors in the acceptability of treatment as prevention (TasP) in Scotland: a qualitative study with communities affected by HIV

    PubMed Central

    Young, I; Flowers, P; McDaid, L M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There is a clear need to understand the factors that might prevent and/or facilitate the effective use of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) at an individual level. This paper reports on findings from the first qualitative study in the UK exploring the acceptability of TasP among gay, bisexual and/or men who have sex with men (MSM) and migrant African communities in Scotland. Methods We conducted seven exploratory focus group discussions (FGDs) with convenience samples of MSM (five FGDs, n=22) and mixed-gender African (two FGDs, n=11) participants. Of these, three FGDs were conducted with HIV-positive MSM (n=14) and one FGD with HIV-positive Africans (n=8). We then conducted 34 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with a purposive sample of MSM (n=20) and Africans (n=14, women=10). Half were HIV-positive (MSM, n=10; African, n=7). FGD and IDI data were analysed thematically drawing on predetermined and emergent themes. Results We found that inequalities in HIV literacy could be a barrier to TasP, as could social constraints, such as criminalisation of transmission, increased risk of sexually transmitted infection and increased burden of treatment. We also identified psychological barriers such as perceptions of risk. However, relationships and shared decision making were identified as potential facilitators for TasP. Conclusions Our results suggest that potential use and management of TasP may not be straightforward. It could be contingent on reducing inequalities in HIV literacy, minimising the perceived burden of treatment and other potential risks, and addressing the dynamics of existing and socially acceptable risk management strategies, especially in relation to long-term serodiscordant relationships. PMID:25482649

  18. Social Acceptance and Rejection of Preschool Children with Disabilities: A Mixed-Method Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Samuel L.; Zercher, Craig; Li, Shouming; Marquart, Jules M.; Sandall, Susan; Brown, William H.

    2006-01-01

    Eighty children with disabilities enrolled in a nationally distributed set of inclusive preschool programs participated in this study. The average age of the participants was 3.9 years, and 60% were male. The children exhibited a range of disabilities and developmental levels. Using a mixed-method approach, the authors established quantitative…

  19. The Brief Intervention for School Clinicians (BRISC): A mixed-methods evaluation of feasibility, acceptability, and contextual appropriateness

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Aaron R.; Bruns, Eric J.; Ludwig, Kristy; Stoep, Ann Vander; Pullmann, Michael D.; Dorsey, Shannon; Eaton, John; Hendrix, Ethan; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    To maximize impact across the broad spectrum of mental health needs exhibited by youth in school settings, interventions must be designed to be effective, efficient, and demonstrate good fit with the educational context. The current paper reports on the second phase of an iterative development process for a short-term, “Tier 2” intervention for use by school-based mental health providers – the Brief Intervention for School Clinicians (BRISC) – using mixed qualitative and quantitative analyses to evaluate feasibility, acceptability, and appropriateness while emphasizing student experiences. This phase was intended to yield information to drive further protocol refinement and testing across subsequent phases. We describe the rationale for, development of, and formative testing of the BRISC intervention. Results suggest that BRISC may be feasible to deliver, acceptable to students, and appropriate to the school context. In particular, the BRISC process appears to be effective in enhancing student engagement in the intervention and identifying and addressing individualized student needs. These findings and directions for further enhancing BRISC’s potential for positive impact highlight how treatment development may benefit from initial, small-scale evaluations focused both on client and implementation outcomes. PMID:26688700

  20. Comparative study on the acceptance and use of contraceptive methods in a rural population in Kelantan.

    PubMed

    Kamalanathan, J P

    1990-12-01

    Contraceptive prevalence was determined in the Kelantan region of Malaysia, an area with relatively poor health indices. 350 women attending health clinics on rubber and palm-oil estates and living in surrounding suburbs were surveyed by clinic workers or during home visits. The sample included 273 Malays, 64 Indians and 13 Chinese. This area of Peninsular Malaysia is noted for the highest infant mortality rate (17.7), second highest crude birth rate (35.2) and highest dependency ratio (88%) in the country. 44.9% practiced contraception, highest in Chinese and lowest in Indians. Methods used were pills by (55%), traditional methods (19%), tubal ligation (18%), safe period (14%), injections (5.5%), IUD (4.7%), and condom (2.3%). The Malaysian traditional methods are herbal preparations from tree bark or roots, herb pills, and exercises after coitus. 34% of the non contraceptors had used contraception before but stopped because of side effects, religious or spousal objections, or desire to conceive. 74% had married in their teens. 46% of the non-contraceptors were spacing their children by prolonged breastfeeding.

  1. A Review of Treatment Adherence Measurement Methods

    PubMed Central

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Garland, Ann F.

    2013-01-01

    Fidelity measurement is critical for testing the effectiveness and implementation in practice of psychosocial interventions. Adherence is a critical component of fidelity. The purposes of this review were to catalogue adherence measurement methods and assess existing evidence for the valid and reliable use of scores they generate and feasibility of use in routine care settings. Method A systematic literature search identified articles published between 1980–2008 reporting studies of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for child or adult mental health problems, and including mention of adherence or fidelity assessment. Coders abstracted data on the measurement methods and clinical contexts of their use. Results 341 articles were reviewed in which 249 unique adherence measurement methods were identified. These methods assessed many treatment models, although more than half (59%) assessed Cognitive Behavioral Treatments. The measurement methods were used in studies with diverse clientele and clinicians. The majority (71.5%) of methods were observational. Information about psychometric properties was reported for 35% of the measurement methods, but adherence-outcomes relationships were reported for only ten percent. Approximately one third of the measures were used in community- based settings. Conclusions Many adherence measurement methods have been used in treatment research; however, little reliability and validity evidence exists for the use of these methods. That some methods were used in routine care settings suggests the feasibility of their use in practice; however, information about the operational details of measurement, scoring, and reporting is sorely needed to inform and evaluate strategies to embed fidelity measurement in implementation support and monitoring systems. PMID:22888981

  2. Uniform-acceptance force-bias Monte Carlo method with time scale to study solid-state diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mees, Maarten J.; Pourtois, Geoffrey; Neyts, Erik C.; Thijsse, Barend J.; Stesmans, André

    2012-04-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) methods have a long-standing history as partners of molecular dynamics (MD) to simulate the evolution of materials at the atomic scale. Among these techniques, the uniform-acceptance force-bias Monte Carlo (UFMC) method [G. Dereli, Mol. Simul.10.1080/08927029208022490 8, 351 (1992)] has recently attracted attention [M. Timonova , Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.81.144107 81, 144107 (2010)] thanks to its apparent capacity of being able to simulate physical processes in a reduced number of iterations compared to classical MD methods. The origin of this efficiency remains, however, unclear. In this work we derive a UFMC method starting from basic thermodynamic principles, which leads to an intuitive and unambiguous formalism. The approach includes a statistically relevant time step per Monte Carlo iteration, showing a significant speed-up compared to MD simulations. This time-stamped force-bias Monte Carlo (tfMC) formalism is tested on both simple one-dimensional and three-dimensional systems. Both test-cases give excellent results in agreement with analytical solutions and literature reports. The inclusion of a time scale, the simplicity of the method, and the enhancement of the time step compared to classical MD methods make this method very appealing for studying the dynamics of many-particle systems.

  3. Acoustic Treatment Design Scaling Methods. Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, L. (Technical Monitor); Parrott, T. (Technical Monitor); Jones, M. (Technical Monitor); Kraft, R. E.; Yu, J.; Kwan, H. W.; Beer, B.; Seybert, A. F.; Tathavadekar, P.

    2003-01-01

    The ability to design, build and test miniaturized acoustic treatment panels on scale model fan rigs representative of full scale engines provides not only cost-savings, but also an opportunity to optimize the treatment by allowing multiple tests. To use scale model treatment as a design tool, the impedance of the sub-scale liner must be known with confidence. This study was aimed at developing impedance measurement methods for high frequencies. A normal incidence impedance tube method that extends the upper frequency range to 25,000 Hz. without grazing flow effects was evaluated. The free field method was investigated as a potential high frequency technique. The potential of the two-microphone in-situ impedance measurement method was evaluated in the presence of grazing flow. Difficulties in achieving the high frequency goals were encountered in all methods. Results of developing a time-domain finite difference resonator impedance model indicated that a re-interpretation of the empirical fluid mechanical models used in the frequency domain model for nonlinear resistance and mass reactance may be required. A scale model treatment design that could be tested on the Universal Propulsion Simulator vehicle was proposed.

  4. Bridging the gap between regulatory acceptance and industry use of non-animal methods.

    PubMed

    Clippinger, Amy J; Hill, Erin; Curren, Rodger; Bishop, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Collaboration between industry and regulators resulted in the development of a decision tree approach using in vitro or ex vivo assays to replace animal tests when determining the eye irritation potential of antimicrobial cleaning products (AMCPs) under the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs' hazard classification and labeling system. A policy document issued by the EPA in 2013 and updated in 2015 describes the alternate testing framework that industry could apply to new registrations of AMCPs and, on a case-by-case basis, to conventional pesticide products. Despite the collaborative effort, the availability of relevant non-animal methods, and the EPA's change in policy, only a limited number of AMCPs have been registered using the framework. Companies continue to conduct animal tests when registering AMCPs due to various challenges surrounding adoption of the new testing framework; however, recent discussions between industry, regulators, and other interested parties have identified ways these challenges may be overcome. In this article we explore how use of the alternate framework could be expanded through efforts such as increasing international harmonization, more proactively publicizing the framework, and enhancing the training of regulatory reviewers. Not only can these strategies help to increase use of the EPA alternate eye irritation framework, they can also be applied to facilitate the uptake of other alternative approaches to animal testing in the future.

  5. The effect of child characteristics on teachers' acceptability of classroom-based behavioral strategies and psychostimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Pisecco, S; Huzinec, C; Curtis, D

    2001-09-01

    Studied the effect of student characteristics on teachers' ratings of treatment acceptability for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants (N = 159) included experienced elementary school teachers who read 1 of 6 vignettes describing a child with symptoms representative of ADHD. Vignettes varied by sex and symptom-subtype classification. However, the number and specific type of symptoms described in the vignettes were consistent across all conditions. Next, teachers read a description of a daily report card (DRC), response cost technique, classroom lottery, and medication and rated their levels of agreement to the items of the Behavioral Intervention Rating Scale (BIRS). Teachers preferred the DRC to all other forms of treatment. However, there was a significant interaction between the type of treatment and sex of the student on the 3 factors (Treatment Acceptability, Treatment Effectiveness, and Timeliness) of the BIRS.

  6. The acceptability of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) delivered through the expanded programme of immunization in southern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Pool, Robert; Mushi, Adiel; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Alonso, Pedro; Montgomery, Catherine; Tanner, Marcel; Mshinda, Hassan; Schellenberg, David

    2008-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) reduces the incidence of clinical malaria. However, before making decisions about implementation, it is essential to ensure that IPTi is acceptable, that it does not adversely affect attitudes to immunization or existing health seeking behaviour. This paper reports on the reception of IPTi during the first implementation study of IPTi in southern Tanzania. Methods Data were collected through in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation carried out by a central team of social scientists and a network of key informants/interviewers who resided permanently in the study sites. Results IPTi was generally acceptable. This was related to routinization of immunization and resonance with traditional practices. Promoting "health" was considered more important than preventing specific diseases. Many women thought that immunization was obligatory and that health staff might be unwilling to assist in the future if they were non-adherent. Weighing and socialising were important reasons for clinic attendance. Non-adherence was due largely to practical, social and structural factors, many of which could be overcome. Reasons for non-adherence were sometimes interlinked. Health staff and "road to child health" cards were the main source of information on the intervention, rather than the specially designed posters. Women did not generally discuss child health matters outside the clinic, and information about the intervention percolated slowly through the community. Although there were some rumours about sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP), it was generally acceptable as a drug for IPTi, although mothers did not like the way tablets were administered. There is no evidence that IPTi had a negative effect on attitudes or adherence to the expanded programme on immunisation (EPI) or treatment seeking or existing malaria prevention. Conclusion In order to improve adherence to both EPI and

  7. Use, perceptions, and acceptability of a ready-to-use supplementary food among adult HIV patients initiating antiretroviral treatment: a qualitative study in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Mette Frahm; Tesfaye, Markos; Kaestel, Pernille; Friis, Henrik; Holm, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Ready-to-use supplementary foods (RUSF) are used increasingly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) programs, but little is known about how it is used and viewed by patients. We used qualitative methods to explore the use, perceptions, and acceptability of RUSF among adult HIV patients in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods The study obtained data from direct observations and 24 in-depth interviews with HIV patients receiving RUSF. Results Participants were generally very motivated to take RUSF and viewed it as beneficial. RUSF was described as a means to fill a nutritional gap, to “rebuild the body,” and protect it from harmful effects of antiretroviral treatment (ART). Many experienced nausea and vomiting when starting the supplement. This caused some to stop supplementation, but the majority adapted to RUSF. The supplement was eaten separately from meal situations and only had a little influence on household food practices. RUSF was described as food with “medicinal qualities,” which meant that many social and religious conventions related to food did not apply to it. The main concerns about RUSF related to the risk of HIV disclosure and its social consequences. Conclusion HIV patients view RUSF in a context of competing livelihood needs. RUSF intake was motivated by a strong wish to get well, while the risk of HIV disclosure caused concerns. Despite the motivation for improving health, the preservation of social networks was prioritized, and nondisclosure was often a necessary strategy. Food sharing and religious fasting practices were not barriers to the acceptability of RUSF. This study highlights the importance of ensuring that supplementation strategies, like other HIV services, are compatible with the sociocultural context of patients. PMID:23766634

  8. [Revascularization: a new treatment method in endodontics].

    PubMed

    Wigler, R; Kaufman, A Y; Steinbock, N; Lin, S

    2012-07-01

    Recently a number of published articles concerning a new treatment method in traumatized young permanent teeth with a wide open apex that have lost vitality, with or without periapical lesions have shown success. This new treatment is entitled "Revascularization" and its aim is to promote root maturation in infected immature teeth with open apices. This procedure stimulates the formation of hard tissue as well as elongation and thickening of the dentinal walls and closure of the root apex. Sometimes the vitality of the teeth is regained. The aim of the present publication is to describe the revascularization technique and to clarify the indications of its use.

  9. Treatment of impotence. 1. Nonsurgical methods.

    PubMed

    Baum, N

    1987-05-15

    Male sexual dysfunction is a problem that is quite prevalent in our society. Until recently, the only treatments for impotence were testosterone injection, sex therapy, and implantation of a penile prosthesis. These methods remain in use when appropriate. However, now that the pathophysiology of erection is better understood, the dopamine agonist, intracorporal injection, and the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor blocker have been added to the treatment list. Gadgets that artificially increase the blood supply to the penis are sometimes used. The withdrawal of drugs that affect sexual function may be sufficient.

  10. Public acceptability of the use of gamma rays from spent nuclear fuel as a hazardous waste treatment process

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, B.J.; Wells, R.P.; Reilly, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods were used to estimate public reaction to the use of gamma irradiation of hazardous wastes as a hazardous waste treatment process. The gamma source of interest is spent nuclear fuel. The first method is Benefit-Risk Decision Making, where the benefits of the proposed technology are compared to its risks. The second analysis compares the proposed technology to the other, currently used nuclear technologies and estimates public reaction based on that comparison. The third analysis is called Analysis of Public Consent, and is based on the professional methods of the Institute for Participatory Management and Planning. The conclusion of all three methods is that the proposed technology should not result in negative public reaction sufficient to prevent implementation.

  11. Performance evaluation of fault detection methods for wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Corominas, Lluís; Villez, Kris; Aguado, Daniel; Rieger, Leiv; Rosén, Christian; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2011-02-01

    Several methods to detect faults have been developed in various fields, mainly in chemical and process engineering. However, minimal practical guidelines exist for their selection and application. This work presents an index that allows for evaluating monitoring and diagnosis performance of fault detection methods, which takes into account several characteristics, such as false alarms, false acceptance, and undesirable switching from correct detection to non-detection during a fault event. The usefulness of the index to process engineering is demonstrated first by application to a simple example. Then, it is used to compare five univariate fault detection methods (Shewhart, EWMA, and residuals of EWMA) applied to the simulated results of the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 1 long-term (BSM1_LT). The BSM1_LT, provided by the IWA Task Group on Benchmarking of Control Strategies, is a simulation platform that allows for creating sensor and actuator faults and process disturbances in a wastewater treatment plant. The results from the method comparison using BSM1_LT show better performance to detect a sensor measurement shift for adaptive methods (residuals of EWMA) and when monitoring the actuator signals in a control loop (e.g., airflow). Overall, the proposed index is able to screen fault detection methods.

  12. A Community-based Survey of the Awareness and Acceptability of Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) as a Treatment for Acute Diarrhoea in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekanem, E. E.; Benebo, N. S.

    1988-01-01

    A total of 267 Nigerian mothers with children under the age of five years were investigated regarding the degree of their awareness and acceptance of oral rehydration therapy in the treatment of childhood diarrhea. Results indicate that only 39 percent of the mothers had heard of ORT in treating diarrhea. (RJC)

  13. Enhanced Sampling in Free Energy Calculations: Combining SGLD with the Bennett's Acceptance Ratio and Enveloping Distribution Sampling Methods.

    PubMed

    König, Gerhard; Miller, Benjamin T; Boresch, Stefan; Wu, Xiongwu; Brooks, Bernard R

    2012-10-09

    One of the key requirements for the accurate calculation of free energy differences is proper sampling of conformational space. Especially in biological applications, molecular dynamics simulations are often confronted with rugged energy surfaces and high energy barriers, leading to insufficient sampling and, in turn, poor convergence of the free energy results. In this work, we address this problem by employing enhanced sampling methods. We explore the possibility of using self-guided Langevin dynamics (SGLD) to speed up the exploration process in free energy simulations. To obtain improved free energy differences from such simulations, it is necessary to account for the effects of the bias due to the guiding forces. We demonstrate how this can be accomplished for the Bennett's acceptance ratio (BAR) and the enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) methods. While BAR is considered among the most efficient methods available for free energy calculations, the EDS method developed by Christ and van Gunsteren is a promising development that reduces the computational costs of free energy calculations by simulating a single reference state. To evaluate the accuracy of both approaches in connection with enhanced sampling, EDS was implemented in CHARMM. For testing, we employ benchmark systems with analytical reference results and the mutation of alanine to serine. We find that SGLD with reweighting can provide accurate results for BAR and EDS where conventional molecular dynamics simulations fail. In addition, we compare the performance of EDS with other free energy methods. We briefly discuss the implications of our results and provide practical guidelines for conducting free energy simulations with SGLD.

  14. Modified Primary Closure Method for the Treatment of Pilonidal Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Sukru; Karadeniz, Erdem; Ozturk, Gurkan; Aydinli, Bulent; Bayraktutan, Muhammed Cagri; Atamanalp, Sabri Selcuk

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pilonidal sinus (PS) is considered to be the acquired disease of especially in the sacrococcygeal region. Various primary or secondary or flap methods, accompanied by one of local curettage, phenol application, electro-cauterization and total sinus excision methods, are used for the treatment of pilonidal sinus. However, currently there is not a single widely accepted treatment method. Materials and Methods: Ninety-eight patients who had operation for PS in Atatürk University, Department of General Surgery between January 2012 and August 2014 were included in this study. The patients were categorized into two groups: first, the patients undergone total sinus excision with primary closure (Group 1), and second, patients undergone total sinus excision with modified primary closure (MPC) (Group 2). Among all 98 patients participated in this study, age, sex, type of operation, duration of operation, amount of excised skin, duration of postoperative stay at hospital and complications were evaluated. Results: Forty-four patients (44.9%) underwent primary closure method, while 54 patients (55.1%) underwent MPC method. Mean duration of operation was 39.1 (30–60) minutes, mean diameter of excised material was 9.3 (8–11) cm2 and mean duration of stay at hospital was 1.4 (1–3) days for the patients in the first group. Meanwhile, duration of operation was 52.2 (35–70) minutes, mean diameter of excised material was 2.6 (2–4) cm2 and mean duration of stay at hospital was 1.6 (1–3) days for the patients in the second group. There was statistically significant difference between the two groups by means of duration of operation, dehiscence of surgical wound, recurrence and development of general complications (p<0.001, p<0.05, p<0.05 and p<0.005, respectively). According to the multivariate analysis, during surgical treatment of pilonidal sinus, primary closure method increases the rate of complication 6.65 times and MPC method increases the duration of

  15. Heterogeneous treatment in the variational nodal method

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, T.H.; Palmiotti, G.

    1995-06-01

    The variational nodal transport method is reduced to its diffusion form and generalized for the treatment of heterogeneous nodes while maintaining nodal balances. Adapting variational methods to heterogeneous nodes requires the ability to integrate over a node with discontinuous cross sections. In this work, integrals are evaluated using composite gaussian quadrature rules, which permit accurate integration while minimizing computing time. Allowing structure within a nodal solution scheme avoids some of the necessity of cross section homogenization, and more accurately defines the intra-nodal flux shape. Ideally, any desired heterogeneity can be constructed within the node; but in reality, the finite set of basis functions limits the practical resolution to which fine detail can be defined within the node. Preliminary comparison tests show that the heterogeneous variational nodal method provides satisfactory results even if some improvements are needed for very difficult, configurations.

  16. Outpatient treatment of low-risk venous thromboembolism with monotherapy oral anticoagulation: patient quality of life outcomes and clinician acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Jeffrey A; Kahler, Zachary P; Beam, Daren M

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral monotherapy anticoagulation has facilitated home treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in outpatients. Objectives The aim of this study was to measure efficacy, safety, as well as patient and physician perceptions produced by a protocol that selected VTE patients as low-risk patients by the Hestia criteria, and initiated home anticoagulation with an oral factor Xa antagonist. Methods Patients were administered the Venous Insufficiency Epidemiological and Economic Study Quality of life/Symptoms questionnaire [VEINEs QoL/Sym] and the physical component summary [PCS] from the Rand 36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF36]). The primary outcomes were VTE recurrence and hemorrhage at 30 days. Secondary outcomes compared psychometric test scores between patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) to those with pulmonary embolism (PE). Patient perceptions were abstracted from written comments and physician perceptions specific to PE outpatient treatment obtained from structured survey. Results From April 2013 to September 2015, 253 patients were treated, including 67 with PE. Within 30 days, 2/253 patients had recurrent DVT and 2/253 had major hemorrhage; all four had DVT at enrollment. The initial PCS scores did not differ between DVT and PE patients (37.2±13.9 and 38.0±12.1, respectively) and both DVT and PE patients had similar improvement over the treatment period (42.2±12.9 and 43.4±12.7, respectively), consistent with prior literature. The most common adverse event was menorrhagia, present in 15% of women. Themes from patient-written responses reflected satisfaction with increased autonomy. Physicians’ (N=116) before-to-after protocol comfort level with home treatment of PE increased 48% on visual analog scale. Conclusion Hestia-negative VTE patients treated with oral monotherapy at home had low rates of VTE recurrence and bleeding, as well as quality of life measurements similar to prior reports. PMID:27143861

  17. Use of Respiratory-Correlated Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography to Determine Acceptable Treatment Margins for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Seth D.; Ford, Eric C.; Duhon, Mario; McNutt, Todd; Wong, John; Herman, Joseph M.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: Respiratory-induced excursions of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma could affect dose delivery. This study quantified tumor motion and evaluated standard treatment margins. Methods and Materials: Respiratory-correlated four-dimensional computed tomography images were obtained on 30 patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma; 15 of whom underwent repeat scanning before cone-down treatment. Treatment planning software was used to contour the gross tumor volume (GTV), bilateral kidneys, and biliary stent. Excursions were calculated according to the centroid of the contoured volumes. Results: The mean +- standard deviation GTV excursion in the superoinferior (SI) direction was 0.55 +- 0.23 cm; an expansion of 1.0 cm adequately accounted for the GTV motion in 97% of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients. Motion GTVs were generated and resulted in a 25% average volume increase compared with the static GTV. Of the 30 patients, 17 had biliary stents. The mean SI stent excursion was 0.84 +- 0.32 cm, significantly greater than the GTV motion. The xiphoid process moved an average of 0.35 +- 0.12 cm, significantly less than the GTV. The mean SI motion of the left and right kidneys was 0.65 +- 0.27 cm and 0.77 +- 0.30 cm, respectively. At repeat scanning, no significant changes were seen in the mean GTV size (p = .8) or excursion (p = .3). Conclusion: These data suggest that an asymmetric expansion of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.6 cm along the respective SI, anteroposterior, and medial-lateral directions is recommended if a respiratory-correlated four-dimensional computed tomography scan is not available to evaluate the tumor motion during treatment planning. Surrogates of tumor motion, such as biliary stents or external markers, should be used with caution.

  18. The pedicle screw-rod system is an acceptable method of reconstructive surgery after resection of sacroiliac joint tumours

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi-Jun; Yunus, Akbar; Tian, Zheng; Chen, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Chong; Xu, Lei-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Hemipelvic resections for primary bone tumours require reconstruction to restore weight bearing along anatomic axes. However, reconstruction of the pelvic arch remains a major surgical challenge because of the high rate of associated complications. We used the pedicle screw-rod system to reconstruct the pelvis, and the purpose of this investigation was to assess the oncology, functional outcome and complication rate following this procedure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the operative indications and technique of the pedicle screw-rod system in reconstruction of the stability of the sacroiliac joint after resection of sacroiliac joint tumours. The average MSTS (Musculoskeletal Tumour Society) score was 26.5 at either three months after surgery or at the latest follow-up. Seven patients had surgery-related complications, including wound dehiscence in one, infection in two, local necrosis in four (including infection in two), sciatic nerve palsy in one and pubic symphysis subluxation in one. There was no screw loosening or deep vein thrombosis occurring in this series. Using a pedicle screw-rod after resection of a sacroiliac joint tumour is an acceptable method of pelvic reconstruction because of its reduced risk of complications and satisfactory functional outcome, as well as its feasibility of reconstruction for type IV pelvis tumour resection without elaborate preoperative customisation. Level of evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. PMID:27095944

  19. Evaluating transdiagnostic treatment for distress and impairment in veterans: a multi-site randomized controlled trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lang, Ariel J; Schnurr, Paula P; Jain, Sonia; Raman, Rema; Walser, Robyn; Bolton, Elisa; Chabot, Aimee; Benedek, David

    2012-01-01

    Military personnel who engaged in the conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq frequently present for mental health care because of the stresses of service and readjustment. Although excellent treatments are available to treat the typical presenting problems, there is a need for additional empirically supported treatment approaches for this population. Because these veterans have high levels of comorbidity, transdiagnostic treatment - treatment that applies to more than one diagnosis - may be an efficient approach for this group. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is one such approach that is well-known and has high face validity for veterans, but it has not been rigorously evaluated as a treatment for trauma-related mental health problems. Described herein is an ongoing multi-site randomized clinical trial of ACT as compared to a psychotherapy control. Challenges in designing an RCT to evaluate transdiagnostic treatment and in executing a multi-site psychotherapy trial are discussed.

  20. Improving Health Worker Adherence to Malaria Treatment Guidelines in Papua New Guinea: Feasibility and Acceptability of a Text Message Reminder Service

    PubMed Central

    Kurumop, Serah F.; Bullen, Chris; Whittaker, Robyn; Betuela, Inoni; Hetzel, Manuel W.; Pulford, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess whether a text message reminder service designed to support health worker adherence to a revised malaria treatment protocol is feasible and acceptable in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The study took place in six purposively selected health facilities located in the Eastern Highlands Province (EHP) of PNG. Ten text messages designed to remind participants of key elements of the new NMTP were transmitted to 42 health workers twice over a two week period (two text messages per day, Monday to Friday) via the country’s largest mobile network provider. The feasibility and acceptability of the text message reminder service was assessed by transmission reports, participant diaries and group discussions. Findings indicate that the vast majority of text messages were successfully transmitted, participants’ had regular mobile phone access and that most text messages were read most of the time and were considered both acceptable and clinically useful. Nevertheless, the study found that PNG health workers may tire of the service if the same messages are repeated too many times and that health workers may be reluctant to utilize more comprehensive, yet complementary, resources. In conclusion, a text message reminder service to support health worker adherence to the new malaria treatment protocol is feasible and acceptable in PNG. A rigorous pragmatic, effectiveness trial would be justified on the basis of these findings. PMID:24116122

  1. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Group Treatment for Symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Public Sector Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Jane; Snowdon, Sharon; Gopold, Michelle; Guymer, Elise

    2012-01-01

    A pilot study of a brief group-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention (12 two-hour sessions) was conducted with clients of public mental health services meeting four or more criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Participants were randomly assigned to receive the ACT group intervention in addition to their current…

  2. Comparison of Younger and Older Adults' Acceptability of Treatment for Generalized Anxiety Disorder Co-Occurring with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Ament, Patrick A.; Holt, Peter S.; Hunt, Lauren S.

    2013-01-01

    Acceptability ratings of medication or Behavioral Relaxation Training (BRT), for general anxiety disorder (GAD) co-occurring with Parkinson's Disease (PD) were obtained from younger ("n" = 79) and older ("n" = 54) adults. Participants read a case description of an older adult with PD and comorbid GAD followed by a description…

  3. Effect of organic acid treatments on microbial safety and overall acceptability of fresh-cut melon cubes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is much interest in developing effective minimal processing methodologies for fruits and vegetables that would enhance the microbial safety and not change overall acceptability. In this study, several organic acids (EDTA, nisin, sorbic acid and sodium lactate) generally regarded as safe (GRAS)...

  4. Microwave Medical Treatment Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor); George, W. Rflfoul (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Methods, simulations, and apparatus are provided that may be utilized for medical treatments which are especially suitable for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In a preferred embodiment, a plurality of separate microwave antennas are utilized to heat prostatic tissue to promote necrosing of the prostatic tissue that relieves the pressure of the prostatic tissue against the urethra as the body reabsorbs the necrosed or dead tissue. By utilizing constructive and destructive interference of the microwave transmission, the energy can be deposited on the tissues to be necrosed while protecting other tissues such as the urethra. Saline injections to alter the conductivity of the tissues may also be used to further focus the energy deposits. A computer simulation is Provided that can be used to Predict the resulting temperature profile produced in the prostatic tissue. By changing the various control features of one or more catheters and the methods of applying microwave energy, a temperature profile can be predicted and produced that is similar to the temperature profile desired for the particular patient.

  5. Integrating evidence-based treatments for common mental disorders in routine primary care: feasibility and acceptability of the MANAS intervention in Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sudipto; Chowdhary, Neerja; Pednekar, Sulochana; Cohen, Alex; Andrew, Gracy; Andrew, Gracy; Araya, Ricardo; Simon, Gregory; King, Michael; Telles, Shirley; Verdeli, Helena; Clougherty, Kathleen; Kirkwood, Betty; Patel, Vikram

    2008-02-01

    Common mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, pose a major public health burden in developing countries. Although these disorders are thought to be best managed in primary care settings, there is a dearth of evidence about how this can be achieved in low resource settings. The MANAS project is an attempt to integrate an evidence based package of treatments into routine public and private primary care settings in Goa, India. Before initiating the trial, we carried out extensive preparatory work, over a period of 15 months, to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the planned intervention. This paper describes the systematic development and evaluation of the intervention through this preparatory phase. The preparatory stage, which was implemented in three phases, utilized quantitative and qualitative methods to inform our understanding of the potential problems and possible solutions in implementing the trial and led to critical modifications of the original intervention plan. Investing in systematic formative work prior to conducting expensive trials of the effectiveness of complex interventions is a useful exercise which potentially improves the likelihood of a positive result of such trials.

  6. Feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility of the Cultural Formulation Interview: mixed-methods results from the DSM-5 international field trial.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Lam, Peter C; Galfalvy, Hanga; Weiss, Mitchell G; Kirmayer, Laurence J; Paralikar, Vasudeo; Deshpande, Smita N; Díaz, Esperanza; Nicasio, Andel V; Boiler, Marit; Alarcón, Renato D; Rohlof, Hans; Groen, Simon; van Dijk, Rob C J; Jadhav, Sushrut; Sarmukaddam, Sanjeev; Ndetei, David; Scalco, Monica Z; Bassiri, Kavoos; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Ton, Hendry; Westermeyer, Joseph; Vega-Dienstmaier, Johann M

    2017-04-01

    BackgroundThere is a need for clinical tools to identify cultural issues in diagnostic assessment.AimsTo assess the feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility of the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) in routine clinical practice.MethodMixed-methods evaluation of field trial data from six countries. The CFI was administered to diagnostically diverse psychiatric out-patients during a diagnostic interview. In post-evaluation sessions, patients and clinicians completed debriefing qualitative interviews and Likert-scale questionnaires. The duration of CFI administration and the full diagnostic session were monitored.ResultsMixed-methods data from 318 patients and 75 clinicians found the CFI feasible, acceptable and useful. Clinician feasibility ratings were significantly lower than patient ratings and other clinician-assessed outcomes. After administering one CFI, however, clinician feasibility ratings improved significantly and subsequent interviews required less time.ConclusionsThe CFI was included in DSM-5 as a feasible, acceptable and useful cultural assessment tool.

  7. Use of mixed-treatment-comparison methods in estimating efficacy of treatments for heavy menstrual bleeding

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A variety of pharmacological and surgical treatments have been developed for heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB), which can have negative physical, social, psychological, and economic consequences. We conducted a systematic literature review and mixed-treatment-comparison (MTC) meta-analysis of available data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to derive estimates of efficacy for 8 classes of treatments for HMB, to inform health-economic analysis and future studies. Methods A systematic review identified RCTs that reported data on menstrual blood loss (MBL) at baseline and one or more follow-up times. Eight treatment classes were considered: COCs, danazol, endometrial ablation, LNG-IUS, placebo, progestogens given for less than 2 weeks out of 4 during the menstrual cycle, progestogens given for close to 3 weeks out of 4, and TXA. The primary measure of efficacy was the proportion of women who achieved MBL < 80 mL per cycle (month), as measured by the alkaline hematin method. A score less than 100 on an established pictorial blood-loss assessment chart (PBAC) was considered an acceptable substitute for MBL < 80 mL. Estimates of efficacy by treatment class and time were obtained from a Bayesian MTC model. The model also included effects for treatment class, study, and the combination of treatment class and study and an adjustment for baseline mean MBL. Several methodological challenges complicated the analysis. Some trials reported various summary statistics for MBL or PBAC, requiring estimation (with less precision) of % MBL < 80 mL or % PBAC < 100. Also, reported follow-up times varied substantially. Results The evidence network involved 34 RCTs, with follow-up times from 1 to 36 months. Efficacy at 3 months of follow-up (estimated as the posterior median) ranged from 87.5% for the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) to 14.2% for progestogens administered for less than 2 weeks out of 4 in the menstrual cycle. The 95% credible intervals

  8. Acceptance of an assistive robot in older adults: a mixed-method study of human–robot interaction over a 1-month period in the Living Lab setting

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ya-Huei; Wrobel, Jérémy; Cornuet, Mélanie; Kerhervé, Hélène; Damnée, Souad; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in investigating acceptance of robots, which are increasingly being proposed as one form of assistive technology to support older adults, maintain their independence, and enhance their well-being. In the present study, we aimed to observe robot-acceptance in older adults, particularly subsequent to a 1-month direct experience with a robot. Subjects and methods Six older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and five cognitively intact healthy (CIH) older adults were recruited. Participants interacted with an assistive robot in the Living Lab once a week for 4 weeks. After being shown how to use the robot, participants performed tasks to simulate robot use in everyday life. Mixed methods, comprising a robot-acceptance questionnaire, semistructured interviews, usability-performance measures, and a focus group, were used. Results Both CIH and MCI subjects were able to learn how to use the robot. However, MCI subjects needed more time to perform tasks after a 1-week period of not using the robot. Both groups rated similarly on the robot-acceptance questionnaire. They showed low intention to use the robot, as well as negative attitudes toward and negative images of this device. They did not perceive it as useful in their daily life. However, they found it easy to use, amusing, and not threatening. In addition, social influence was perceived as powerful on robot adoption. Direct experience with the robot did not change the way the participants rated robots in their acceptance questionnaire. We identified several barriers to robot-acceptance, including older adults’ uneasiness with technology, feeling of stigmatization, and ethical/societal issues associated with robot use. Conclusion It is important to destigmatize images of assistive robots to facilitate their acceptance. Universal design aiming to increase the market for and production of products that are usable by everyone (to the greatest extent possible) might help to

  9. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Novel Treatment for Eating Disorders: An Initial Test of Efficacy and Mediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juarascio, Adrienne; Shaw, Jena; Forman, Evan; Timko, C. Alix; Herbert, James; Butryn, Meghan; Bunnell, Douglas; Matteucci, Alyssa; Lowe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are among the most challenging disorders to treat, with even state-of-the-art cognitive-behavioral treatments achieving only modest success. One possible reason for the high rate of treatment failure for eating disorders is that existing treatments do not attend sufficiently to critical aspects of the disorder such as high…

  10. SU-F-BRD-08: A Novel Technique to Derive a Clinically-Acceptable Beam Model for Proton Pencil-Beam Scanning in a Commercial Treatment Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    Scholey, J. E.; Lin, L.; Ainsley, C. G.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy and limitations of a commercially-available treatment planning system’s (TPS’s) dose calculation algorithm for proton pencil-beam scanning (PBS) and present a novel technique to efficiently derive a clinically-acceptable beam model. Methods: In-air fluence profiles of PBS spots were modeled in the TPS alternately as single-(SG) and double-Gaussian (DG) functions, based on fits to commissioning data. Uniform-fluence, single-energy-layer square fields of various sizes and energies were calculated with both beam models and delivered to water. Dose was measured at several depths. Motivated by observed discrepancies in measured-versus-calculated dose comparisons, a third model was constructed based on double-Gaussian parameters contrived through a novel technique developed to minimize these differences (DGC). Eleven cuboid-dose-distribution-shaped fields with varying range/modulation and field size were subsequently generated in the TPS, using each of the three beam models described, and delivered to water. Dose was measured at the middle of each spread-out Bragg peak. Results: For energies <160 MeV, the DG model fit square-field measurements to <2% at all depths, while the SG model could disagree by >6%. For energies >160 MeV, both SG and DG models fit square-field measurements to <1% at <4 cm depth, but could exceed 6% deeper. By comparison, disagreement with the DGC model was always <3%. For the cuboid plans, calculation-versus-measured percent dose differences exceeded 7% for the SG model, being larger for smaller fields. The DG model showed <3% disagreement for all field sizes in shorter-range beams, although >5% differences for smaller fields persisted in longer-range beams. In contrast, the DGC model predicted measurements to <2% for all beams. Conclusion: Neither the TPS’s SG nor DG models, employed as intended, are ideally suited for routine clinical use. However, via a novel technique to be presented, its DG model can be

  11. Acceptability and efficacy of interactive short message service intervention in improving HIV medication adherence in Chinese antiretroviral treatment-naïve individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Ye; Xiao, Xueling; Chen, Jia; Li, Xianhong; Williams, Ann Bartley; Wang, Honghong

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to examine the acceptability and efficacy of interactive short message service (SMS) in improving medication adherence in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve individuals living with HIV/AIDS in Hengyang, Hunan, China. Background SMS via mobile phone has emerged as a potential tool for improving ART adherence. However, most studies used SMS only as a medication reminder, with few studies exploring the effect of comprehensive, interactive SMS. Patients and methods In a randomized controlled trial, 100 HIV-positive patients on ART for <3 months were randomized into control or intervention arm. Participants in the control group received routine standard instruction for ART medication in the HIV clinics, while the intervention group received 6 months of an SMS intervention in addition to the standard care. A total of 124 text messages within 6 modules were edited, preinstalled, and sent to participants according to personalized schedules. Knowledge (of HIV and HIV medications), self-reported antiretroviral adherence (Visual Analog Scale [VAS] and Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS [CPCRA] Antiretroviral Medication Self-Report), and CD4 count were assessed at baseline and immediate post-intervention. Intervention participants were interviewed after completion of the study about their satisfaction with and acceptability of the SMS intervention. Results Baseline assessments were comparable between arms. Repeated-measures analysis showed that both HIV-related and ART medication knowledge of the intervention group showed better improvement over time than those of the control group after the intervention (P<0.0001). For the adherence measures, compared with the control group, participants in the intervention group had significantly higher VAS mean score (Z=2.735, P=0.006) and lower suboptimal adherence rate (Z=2.208, P=0.027) at the end of the study. The intervention had no effect on CD4 cell count. Almost all (96%) intervention

  12. Safety, efficacy, actions, and patient acceptability of drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol contraceptive pills in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder

    PubMed Central

    Breech, Lesley L; Braverman, Paula K

    2010-01-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is estimated to affect 3%–8% of reproductive age women. Multiple therapeutic modalities have been evaluated with varying efficacy for the associated somatic and mood symptoms. The majority of older studies had shown that oral contraceptive pills (OCs) were most effective for the physical symptoms. However, newer OCs containing a novel progestin, drospirenone, have shown promise in alleviating both the somatic and affective/behavioral symptoms. This progestin, which is a derivative of spironolactone, has both antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity. A 24/4 formulation containing 20 μg of ethinyl estradiol has been found effective in randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials utilizing established scales documenting symptoms associated with PMDD. Multiple studies have shown that drospirenone-containing OCs are safe without evidence of clinically adverse effects on carbohydrate metabolism, lipids, blood pressure, weight, serum potassium or increased thrombotic events compared to other low dose OCs. In addition, significant improvements have been demonstrated in acne, hirsutism, and fluid retention symptoms. Several open label studies demonstrated good patient compliance and reported satisfaction with the method. Because of the significant placebo effect demonstrated in the blinded placebo-controlled trials, additional large randomized placebo-controlled trials are needed to confirm the efficacy of the drospirenone OCs in the treatment of PMDD. However, this OC formulation appears to be a promising therapeutic modality. PMID:21072278

  13. Feasibility and Acceptability of Bibliotherapy and Telephone Sessions for the Treatment of Late-life Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Brenes, Gretchen A; McCall, W Vaughn; Williamson, Jeff D; Stanley, Melinda A

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development of Biblio and Telephone Therapy or BTT, a cognitive-behavioral treatment program for late-life anxiety disorders. Although studies have examined bibliotherapy for the treatment of late-life depression, none have studied it as a format for treating late-life anxiety. The application of this treatment to 4 older adults with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and/or Panic Disorder (PD) is described and benefits, advantages and limitations are discussed.

  14. Feasibility and Acceptability of Bibliotherapy and Telephone Sessions for the Treatment of Late-life Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brenes, Gretchen A.; McCall, W. Vaughn; Williamson, Jeff D.; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development of Biblio and Telephone Therapy or BTT, a cognitive-behavioral treatment program for late-life anxiety disorders. Although studies have examined bibliotherapy for the treatment of late-life depression, none have studied it as a format for treating late-life anxiety. The application of this treatment to 4 older adults with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and/or Panic Disorder (PD) is described and benefits, advantages and limitations are discussed. PMID:20661315

  15. Dry stripping as a surface treatment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieminen, Ilkka

    1992-03-01

    High environmental and safety standards as well as use of new paint and substrate materials have created the need for developing stripping methods to substitute chemical and mechanical methods and on the other hand for expanding the applicability of blasting as a surface treatment. Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) (alternatively Dry Stripping System (DSS)) is an emerging technology first used in aircraft maintenance for paint stripping. Traditionally this task is performed by brushing and grinding or by using chemical solvents. With plastic media it is possible to remove thick paints with high adhesion without damaging the substrate and even layer by layer. If suitable type of plastic media, blasting pressure low enough, media concentration high enough and on the other right blasting time, blasting distance and blasting angle are chosen, the effectiveness of PMB can be varied to a large extent. In regard to the hardness of media plastic particles are situated between some organic materials and shots used in sand blasting. Therefore composite materials can be treated without damaging the substrate or thin metal plates without causing any deformations. The principle of plastic media blasting equipment is similar to traditional blasting equipment. Nevertheless the properties of plastic media are different to harder particles used in shot peening resulting in higher demands for filtration, ventilation and recycling systems. In addition the facilities have to contain proper recovery equipment, because plastic media can be reused, even 20 times. In recycling systems plastic media is cleaned, too large and too small particles are removed, hard and magnetic particles are removed from reusable media and dust is separated from media. In addition to paint stripping PMB can successfully be used for cleaning of surfaces from contamination and to some extent for polishing, grinding and roughening. Paint stripping has been the main application so far, but there may be many other

  16. Acceptability and Feasibility of HIV Self-Testing Among Transgender Women in San Francisco: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Lissa; Sevelius, Jae; Castillo, Leslie S.; Ventura, Angel; Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Buchbinder, Susan

    2015-01-01

    An estimated one in four transgender women (trans women) in the U.S. are infected with HIV. Rates of HIV testing are not commensurate with their risk, necessitating alternative strategies for early detection and care. We explored the feasibility and acceptability of HIV self-testing (HIVST) with 50 HIV-negative adult trans women in San Francisco. Participants received three self-test kits to perform once a month. Acceptability and behavioral surveys were collected as were 11 in-depth interviews (IDIs). Among 50 participants, 44 reported utilizing HIVST at least once; 94 % reported the test easy to use; 93 % said results were easy to read; and 91 % would recommend it to others. Most participants (68 %) preferred HIVST to clinic-based testing, although price was a key barrier to uptake. IDIs revealed a tension between desires for privacy versus support found at testing sites. HIVST for trans women was acceptable and feasible and requires careful consideration of linkage to support services. PMID:26511864

  17. Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Hemodialysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the procedure to create the access. Ideally, a working access is in place before your first hemodialysis treatment. You should work ... the procedure to create the access. Ideally, a working durable access is in place before your first hemodialysis treatment. You should work ...

  18. Communication Technology Use and mHealth Acceptance among HIV-infected Men who have Sex with Men in Peru: Implications for HIV Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Archana; Ferro, Enrico G.; Weikum, Damian; Vagenas, Panagiotis; Lama, Javier R.; Sanchez, Jorge; Altice, Frederick L.

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic in Peru is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM). Given that MSM have been documented as early adopters of emerging technology, we examined communication technology access and utilization, and mobile health (mHealth) acceptance among Peruvian MSM and transgender women (TGW) in order to gauge opportunities for mHealth-enabled HIV interventions. A convenience sample of 359 HIV-infected MSM and TGW recruited from three sites in Lima, Peru completed standardized assessments of alcohol use disorders (AUDs), risky sexual behavior, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence along with self-constructed measures of communication technology access and utilization, and mHealth acceptance. Most (86%) participants had daily access to any cell phone, including smartphones (30%). The most frequent communication activities were receiving and making calls, and receiving and sending text messages using cell phones. On a 5-point Likert scale, participants expressed interest in using mHealth for medication reminders (M=3.21, SD=1.32) and engaging in anonymous online interactions with health professionals to discuss HIV-related issues (M=3.56, SD=1.33). Importantly, no significant differences were found in communication technology use and mHealth acceptance among participants with AUDs, depression and suboptimal ART adherence, all of which are associated with poor HIV treatment outcomes. Findings show support for implementing mHealth-based intervention strategies using cell phones to assess and reduce HIV-risk behaviors among HIV-infected MSM and TGW. PMID:25285464

  19. Communication technology use and mHealth acceptance among HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Peru: implications for HIV prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Archana; Ferro, Enrico G; Weikum, Damian; Vagenas, Panagiotis; Lama, Javier R; Sanchez, Jorge; Altice, Frederick L

    2015-01-01

    The HIV epidemic in Peru is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM). Given that MSM have been documented as early adopters of emerging technology, we examined communication technology access and utilization, and mobile health (mHealth) acceptance among Peruvian MSM and transgender women (TGW) in order to gauge opportunities for mHealth-enabled HIV interventions. A convenience sample of 359 HIV-infected MSM and TGW recruited from three sites in Lima, Peru completed standardized assessments of alcohol use disorders (AUDs), risky sexual behavior, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence along with self-constructed measures of communication technology access and utilization, and mHealth acceptance. Most participants (86%) had daily access to any cell phone, including smartphones (30%). The most frequent communication activities were receiving and making calls, and receiving and sending text messages using cell phones. On a 5-point Likert scale, participants expressed interest in using mHealth for medication reminders (M = 3.21, SD = 1.32) and engaging in anonymous online interactions with health professionals to discuss HIV-related issues (M = 3.56, SD = 1.33). Importantly, no significant differences were found in communication technology use and mHealth acceptance among participants with AUDs, depression, and suboptimal ART adherence, all of which are associated with poor HIV treatment outcomes. Findings show support for implementing mHealth-based intervention strategies using cell phones to assess and reduce HIV-risk behaviors among HIV-infected MSM and TGW.

  20. Endometriosis: alternative methods of medical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Hernando, Leticia; Muñoz-Gonzalez, Jose L; Marqueta-Marques, Laura; Alvarez-Conejo, Carmen; Tejerizo-García, Álvaro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gregorio; Villegas-Muñoz, Emilia; Martin-Jimenez, Angel; Jiménez-López, Jesús S

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is an inflammatory estrogen-dependent disease defined by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma at extrauterine sites. The main purpose of endometriosis management is alleviating pain associated to the disease. This can be achieved surgically or medically, although in most women a combination of both treatments is required. Long-term medical treatment is usually needed in most women. Unfortunately, in most cases, pain symptoms recur between 6 months and 12 months once treatment is stopped. The authors conducted a literature search for English original articles, related to new medical treatments of endometriosis in humans, including articles published in PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane Library. Keywords included “endometriosis” matched with “medical treatment”, “new treatment”, “GnRH antagonists”, “Aromatase inhibitors”, “selective progesterone receptor modulators”, “anti-TNF α”, and “anti-angiogenic factors”. Hormonal treatments currently available are effective in the relief of pain associated to endometriosis. Among new hormonal drugs, association to aromatase inhibitors could be effective in the treatment of women who do not respond to conventional therapies. GnRH antagonists are expected to be as effective as GnRH agonists, but with easier administration (oral). There is a need to find effective treatments that do not block the ovarian function. For this purpose, antiangiogenic factors could be important components of endometriosis therapy in the future. Upcoming researches and controlled clinical trials should focus on these drugs. PMID:26089705

  1. Evaluation of aromatic pathway induction for creosote contaminated soils in slurried soil media designed to achieve environmentally acceptable treatment endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, J.; McCauley, P.; Potter, C.; Herrmann, R.; Dosani, M.

    1995-12-31

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbon contaminants (PAHs) are commonly associated with the use of creosote for wood preservation and the process residues left by municipal gas production. The biological treatment of this set of organic compounds has been found to be difficult since they have low water solubility and reactivity in soil systems. Liquid culture studies have shown that inducer chemicals may assist the biotreatment of PAH contaminated soils. A set of designed experimental treatments were conducted to evaluate the incorporation of potential inducer compounds. The inducers chosen for evaluation were 2-hydroxybenzoic acid and phthalic acid with treatment controls of 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and terephthalic acid at three concentrations in slurried creosote-contaminated soil. An abiotic treatment control of formaldehyde was used for contrast. The designed treatment evaluation used 250mL Erlenmeyer flask slurry reaction vessels. The flask study used an orbital shaker to maintain slurry suspension. At selected time points throughout the study individual flask reactors were sacrificed and the contents were analyzed for PAH concentration, nutrients, and biomass (FAME Analysis). Depletion of individual PAHs, total PAHs, 2 and 3-ring, and 4 and 6-ring PAHs was correlation with the biomass. The effect of selected surfactant addition was also evaluated. Rates of PAH depletion and applications to larger scale investigations will be discussed.

  2. Brief treatment with a highly selective immunoproteasome inhibitor promotes long-term cardiac allograft acceptance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sula Karreci, Esilida; Fan, Hao; Uehara, Mayuko; Mihali, Albana B.; Singh, Pradeep K.; Kurdi, Ahmed T.; Solhjou, Zhabiz; Riella, Leonardo V.; Ghobrial, Irene; Laragione, Teresina; Routray, Sujit; Assaker, Jean Pierre; Wang, Rong; Sukenick, George; Shi, Lei; Barrat, Franck J.; Nathan, Carl F.; Lin, Gang; Azzi, Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive proteasomes (c-20S) are ubiquitously expressed cellular proteases that degrade polyubiquitinated proteins and regulate cell functions. An isoform of proteasome, the immunoproteasome (i-20S), is highly expressed in human T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and B cells, suggesting that it could be a potential target for inflammatory diseases, including those involving autoimmunity and alloimmunity. Here, we describe DPLG3, a rationally designed, noncovalent inhibitor of the immunoproteasome chymotryptic subunit β5i that has thousands-fold selectivity over constitutive β5c. DPLG3 suppressed cytokine release from blood mononuclear cells and the activation of DCs and T cells, diminished accumulation of effector T cells, promoted expression of exhaustion and coinhibitory markers on T cells, and synergized with CTLA4-Ig to promote long-term acceptance of cardiac allografts across a major histocompatibility barrier. These findings demonstrate the potential value of using brief posttransplant immunoproteasome inhibition to entrain a long-term response favorable to allograft survival as part of an immunomodulatory regimen that is neither broadly immunosuppressive nor toxic. PMID:27956634

  3. Efficacy of modified antimicrobial treatments on microbial safety and overall acceptability of fresh-cut cantaloupe melons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cantaloupe melon has been associated with outbreaks of foodborne illness linked with consumption of fresh-cut cantaloupes contaminated with Salmonella and E. coli 0157:H7 including the most recent outbreak of listeriosis suggesting the need to develop an effective antimicrobial wash treatment for th...

  4. An Open Trial of a New Acceptance-Based Behavioral Treatment for Major Depression with Psychotic Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Nowlan, Kathryn; Brown, Lily A.; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Miller, Ivan W.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that cognitive and behavioral therapies produce significant benefits over medications alone in the treatment of severe, nonpsychotic major depression or primary psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. However, previous research has not demonstrated the efficacy of psychotherapy for major depression with psychotic features. In…

  5. Web-based virtual microscopy at the RWTH Aachen University: didactic concept, methods and analysis of acceptance by the students.

    PubMed

    Merk, Magdalene; Knuechel, Ruth; Perez-Bouza, Alberto

    2010-12-20

    Fundamental knowledge of microscopic anatomy and pathology has always been an essential part in medical education. The traditional didactic concept comprises theoretical and practical lessons using a light microscope and glass slides. High-speed Internet connections and technical improvement in whole-slide digital microscopy (commonly termed "virtual microscopy") provide a new and attractive approach for both teachers and students. High picture quality and unlimited temporal and spatial availability of histology samples from different fields are key advantages of web-based digital microscopy. In this report we discuss the technical requirements, system efficiency, optical resolution and didactic concept. Furthermore, we present a review of the experience gained in the course of one year based on an analysis of student acceptance. Three groups with a total of 192 students between the 3rd and 5th year of medical studies attending the practical courses of general and advanced histopathology had access to both glass-mounted and digitalized slides. Prior to exams, students were asked to answer an anonymous questionnaire. The results of the study reflect the high acceptance and intensive use of the web-based digital histology by students, thus encouraging the development of further Web-based learning strategies for the teaching of histology and pathology.

  6. Cognitive and psychological flexibility after a traumatic brain injury and the implications for treatment in acceptance-based therapies: A conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Diane L; Deane, Frank P; Simpson, Grahame K; McLeod, Hamish J; Ciarrochi, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    This paper provides a selective review of cognitive and psychological flexibility in the context of treatment for psychological distress after traumatic brain injury, with a focus on acceptance-based therapies. Cognitive flexibility is a component of executive function that is referred to mostly in the context of neuropsychological research and practice. Psychological flexibility, from a clinical psychology perspective, is linked to health and well-being and is an identified treatment outcome for therapies such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). There are a number of overlaps between the constructs. They both manifest in the ability to change behaviour (either a thought or an action) in response to environmental change, with similarities in neural substrate and mental processes. Impairments in both show a strong association with psychopathology. People with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) often suffer impairments in their cognitive flexibility as a result of damage to areas controlling executive processes but have a positive response to therapies that promote psychological flexibility. Overall, psychological flexibility appears a more overarching construct and cognitive flexibility may be a subcomponent of it but not necessarily a pre-requisite. Further research into therapies which claim to improve psychological flexibility, such as ACT, needs to be undertaken in TBI populations in order to clarify its utility in this group.

  7. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, C K

    1994-01-01

    I am proud and honored to accept this award on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh, and the millions of Bangladeshi children saved by oral rehydration solution. The Government of Bangladesh is grateful for this recognition of its commitment to international health and population research and cost-effective health care for all. The Government of Bangladesh has already made remarkable strides forward in the health and population sector, and this was recognized in UNICEF's 1993 "State of the World's Children". The national contraceptive prevalence rate, at 40%, is higher than that of many developed countries. It is appropriate that Bangladesh, where ORS was discovered, has the largest ORS production capacity in the world. It was remarkable that after the devastating cyclone in 1991, the country was able to produce enough ORS to meet the needs and remain self-sufficient. Similarly, Bangladesh has one of the most effective, flexible and efficient control of diarrheal disease and epidemic response program in the world. Through the country, doctors have been trained in diarrheal disease management, and stores of ORS are maintained ready for any outbreak. Despite grim predictions after the 1991 cyclone and the 1993 floods, relatively few people died from diarrheal disease. This is indicative of the strength of the national program. I want to take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of ICDDR, B and the important role it plays in supporting the Government's efforts in the health and population sector. The partnership between the Government of Bangladesh and ICDDR, B has already borne great fruit, and I hope and believe that it will continue to do so for many years in the future. Thank you.

  8. A Clinical Pilot Study of Individual and Group Treatment for Adolescents with Chronic Pain and Their Parents: Effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Kanstrup, Marie; Wicksell, Rikard K.; Kemani, Mike; Wiwe Lipsker, Camilla; Lekander, Mats; Holmström, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric chronic pain is common and can result in substantial long-term disability. Previous studies on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) have shown promising results in improving functioning in affected children, but more research is still urgently needed. In the current clinical pilot study, we evaluated an ACT-based interdisciplinary outpatient intervention (14 sessions), including a parent support program (four sessions). Adolescents were referred to the clinic if they experienced disabling chronic pain. They were then randomized, along with their parents, to receive group (n = 12) or individual (n = 18) treatment. Adolescent pain interference, pain reactivity, depression, functional disability, pain intensity and psychological flexibility, along with parent anxiety, depression, pain reactivity and psychological flexibility were assessed using self-reported questionnaires. There were no significant differences in outcomes between individual and group treatment. Analyses illustrated significant (p < 0.01) improvements (medium to large effects) in pain interference, depression, pain reactivity and psychological flexibility post-treatment. Additionally, analyses showed significant (p < 0.01) improvements (large effects) in parent pain reactivity and psychological flexibility post-treatment. On all significant outcomes, clinically-significant changes were observed for 21%–63% of the adolescents across the different outcome measures and in 54%–76% of the parents. These results support previous findings and thus warrant the need for larger, randomized clinical trials evaluating the relative utility of individual and group treatment and the effects of parental interventions. PMID:27854323

  9. A Clinical Pilot Study of Individual and Group Treatment for Adolescents with Chronic Pain and Their Parents: Effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Functioning.

    PubMed

    Kanstrup, Marie; Wicksell, Rikard K; Kemani, Mike; Wiwe Lipsker, Camilla; Lekander, Mats; Holmström, Linda

    2016-11-16

    Pediatric chronic pain is common and can result in substantial long-term disability. Previous studies on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) have shown promising results in improving functioning in affected children, but more research is still urgently needed. In the current clinical pilot study, we evaluated an ACT-based interdisciplinary outpatient intervention (14 sessions), including a parent support program (four sessions). Adolescents were referred to the clinic if they experienced disabling chronic pain. They were then randomized, along with their parents, to receive group (n = 12) or individual (n = 18) treatment. Adolescent pain interference, pain reactivity, depression, functional disability, pain intensity and psychological flexibility, along with parent anxiety, depression, pain reactivity and psychological flexibility were assessed using self-reported questionnaires. There were no significant differences in outcomes between individual and group treatment. Analyses illustrated significant (p < 0.01) improvements (medium to large effects) in pain interference, depression, pain reactivity and psychological flexibility post-treatment. Additionally, analyses showed significant (p < 0.01) improvements (large effects) in parent pain reactivity and psychological flexibility post-treatment. On all significant outcomes, clinically-significant changes were observed for 21%-63% of the adolescents across the different outcome measures and in 54%-76% of the parents. These results support previous findings and thus warrant the need for larger, randomized clinical trials evaluating the relative utility of individual and group treatment and the effects of parental interventions.

  10. Effect of variety and processing method on functional properties of traditional sweet potato flour (“elubo”) and sensory acceptability of cooked paste (“amala”)

    PubMed Central

    Fetuga, Ganiyat; Tomlins, Keith; Henshaw, Folake; Idowu, Michael

    2014-01-01

    “Amala” is a generic term in Nigeria, used to describe a thick paste prepared by stirring flour (“elubo”) from yam, cassava or unripe plantain, in hot water, to form a smooth consistency. In order to overcome its high perishability and increase the utilization of sweet potato roots, three varieties of sweet potato roots were processed into flour using two methods. The interactive effect of variety and the processing method had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on all the functional properties of the flour except yellowness, setback viscosity, and peak time. Acceptable sweet potato “amala” with average sensory acceptability score of 7.5 were obtained from yellow-fleshed varieties irrespective of the processing method. Flour that produced acceptable “amala” were characterized by lower values of protein (2.20–3.94%), fiber (1.30–1.65%), total sugar (12.41–38.83 μg/mg), water absorption capacity (168–215 g/100 g), water solubility (8.29–14.65%), swelling power (0.52–0.82 g/g), and higher peak time (6.9–8.7 min). PMID:25493186

  11. Endwall Treatment and Method for Gas Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, Michael D. (Inventor); Strazisar, Anthony J. (Inventor); Suder, Kenneth L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An endwall treatment for a gas turbine engine having at least one rotor blade extending from a rotatable hub and a casing circumferentially surrounding the rotor and the hub, the endwall treatment including, an inlet formed in an endwall of the gas turbine engine adapted to ingest fluid from a region of a higher-pressure fluid, an outlet formed in the endwall and located in a region of lower pressure than the inlet, wherein the inlet and the outlet are in a fluid communication with each other, the outlet being adapted to inject the fluid from the inlet in the region of lower pressure, and wherein the outlet is at least partially circumferentially offset relative to the inlet.

  12. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-Based Behavioral Treatment Versus Traditional Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Public Speaking Anxiety: An Exploratory Trial Examining Differential Effects on Performance and Neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Lisa H; Forman, Evan M; Herbert, James D; Bradley, Lauren E; Foster, Elizabeth E; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Ruocco, Anthony C

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with public speaking anxiety (PSA) experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for PSA emphasize anxiety reduction rather than enhancing behavioral performance. We compared the efficacy of two brief cognitive-behavioral interventions, a traditional cognitive-behavior treatment (tCBT) and an acceptance-based behavior treatment (ABBT), on public speaking performance and anxiety in a clinical sample of persons with PSA. The effects of treatment on prefrontal brain activation were also examined. Participants (n = 21) were randomized to 90 min of an ABBT or a tCBT intervention. Assessments took place at pre- and post-treatment and included self-rated anxiety and observer-rated performance measures, a behavioral assessment, and prefrontal cortical activity measurements using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Exploratory results indicated that participants in the ABBT condition experienced greater improvements in observer-rated performance relative to those in the tCBT condition, while those in the tCBT condition experienced greater reductions in subjective anxiety levels. Individuals in the ABBT condition also exhibited a trend toward greater treatment-related reductions in blood volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to those who received tCBT. Overall, these findings preliminarily suggest that acceptance-based treatments may free more cognitive resources in comparison with tCBT, possibly resulting in greater improvements in objectively rated behavioral performances for ABBT interventions.

  13. Acceptability of vaginal microbicides among female sex workers and their intimate male partners in two Mexico-U.S. border cities: a mixed methods analysis

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Angela M.; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) may benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) including microbicides for HIV prevention. Since adherence is a key factor in PrEP efficacy, we explored microbicide acceptability and potential barriers to use within FSWs’ intimate relationships in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, where HIV prevalence is increasing. Methods FSWs and their verified intimate (non-commercial) male partners completed quantitative and qualitative interviews from 2010–2012. Our complementary mixed methods design followed an iterative process to assess microbicide acceptability, explore related relationship dynamics, and identify factors associated with concern about male partners’ anger regarding microbicide use. Results Among 185 couples (n=370 individuals), interest in microbicides was high. In qualitative interviews with 28 couples, most participants were enthusiastic about microbicides for sex work contexts but some explained that microbicides could imply mistrust/infidelity within their intimate relationships. In the overall sample, nearly 1 in 6 participants (16%) worried that male partners would become angry about microbicides, which was associated with higher self-esteem among FSWs and lower self-esteem and past year conflict causing injury within relationships among men. Conclusions HIV prevention interventions should consider intimate relationship dynamics posing potential barriers to PrEP acceptability and adherence, involve male partners, and promote risk communication skills. PMID:23398385

  14. Efficacy and Acceptability of Different Auxiliary Drugs in Pediatric Sevoflurane Anesthesia: A Network Meta-analysis of Mixed Treatment Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wuchao; Huang, Panchuan; Gao, Weiwei; Cao, Fangli; Yi, Mingling; Chen, Liyong; Guo, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Emergence agitation preventive medicine should be combined with pediatric anesthesia because of the high frequency of emergence agitation. However, it is challenging to determine the most appropriate medication that can be introduced into pediatric anesthesia for the sake of emergence agitation prevention. We reviewed and retrieved the data from PubMed and Embase. Various medications were assessed based on several endpoints including Emergence agitation outcomes (EA), postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), the number of patients who required analgesic (RA), pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium (PAED), the extubation time, the emergency time and the duration of post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) stay. Both traditional and network meta-analysis were carried in this study. A total of 45 articles were complied with the selection criteria and the corresponding articles were reviewed. Fentanyl demonstrated the highest cumulative ranking probability which was followed by those of ketamine and dexmedetomidine with respect to EA and PAED. When PONV and RA were concerned together, clonidine exhibited the highest cumulative ranking probability compared to other medications. Our study suggested that dexmedetomidine perhaps is the most appropriate prophylactic treatment which can be introduced into anesthesia for preventing emergence agitation. PMID:27830713

  15. Treatment of Irradiated Graphite to meet Acceptance Criteria for Waste Disposal: A New IAEA Collaborative Research Program - 12443

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, A.J.; Drace, Z.

    2012-07-01

    World-wide, more than 250,000 tonnes of irradiated graphite have arisen through commercial nuclear-power operations and from military production reactors. Whilst most nations responsible for the generation of this material have in mind repository disposal alongside other radwaste, the lack of progress in this regard has led in some cases to difficulties where, for example, the site of an existing graphite-moderated reactor is required for re-utilisation. In any case, graphite as a radwaste stream has unique chemical and physical properties which may lend itself to more radical and innovative treatment and disposal options, including the recovery of useful isotopes and also recycling within the nuclear industry. Such aspects are important in making the case for future graphite-moderated reactor options (for example, High-Temperature Reactors planned for simultaneous power production and high-grade heat sources for such applications as hydrogen production for road fuel). A number of initiatives have taken place since the mid 1990s aimed at exploring such alternative strategies and, more recently, improving technology offers new options at all stages of the dismantling and disposal process. A new IAEA Collaborative Research Program aims to build upon the work already done and the knowledge achieved, in order to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with alternative options for graphite disposal, along with cost comparisons, thus enabling individual Member States to have the best-available information at their disposal to configure their own programs. (authors)

  16. A Review of Treatment Adherence Measurement Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Garland, Ann F.

    2013-01-01

    Fidelity measurement is critical for testing the effectiveness and implementation in practice of psychosocial interventions. Adherence is a critical component of fidelity. The purposes of this review were to catalogue adherence measurement methods and assess existing evidence for the valid and reliable use of the scores that they generate and the…

  17. Motion Sickness Treatment Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F. (Inventor); Somers, Jeffrey T. (Inventor); Ford, George A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for treating motion sickness. In a preferred embodiment a method of the invention comprises operating eyewear having shutter lenses to open said shutter lenses at a selected operating frequency ranging from within about 3 Hz to about 50 Hz. The shutter lenses are opened for a short duration at the selected operating frequency wherein the duration is selected to prevent retinal slip. The shutter lenses may be operated at a relatively slow frequency of about 4 Hz when the user is in passive activity such as riding in a boat or car or in limited motion situations in a spacecraft. The shutter lenses may be operated at faster frequencies related to motion of the user's head when the user is active.

  18. Virtual reality for the induction of positive emotions in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a pilot study over acceptability, satisfaction, and the effect of virtual reality on mood.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Rocio; García-Palacios, Azucena; Castilla, Diana; Molinari, Guadalupe; Botella, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    One of the most important aspects of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is its impact on quality of life, increasing negative emotions and dysfunctional coping strategies. One of these strategies is to avoid activities, especially meaningful activities, which reduces positive reinforcement. Commencing significant daily activities could enable chronic patients to experience a more fulfilling life. However, the main difficulty found in FMS patients is their willingness to start those activities. Promoting positive emotions could enhance activity management. The aim of this paper is to present a description of a system along with data regarding the acceptability, satisfaction, and preliminary efficacy of a virtual reality (VR) environment for the promotion of positive emotions. The VR environment was especially designed for chronic pain patients. Results showed significant increases in general mood state, positive emotions, motivation, and self-efficacy. These preliminary findings show the potential of VR as an adjunct to the psychological treatment of such an important health problem as chronic pain.

  19. Treatment method for metal bearing oily waste

    SciTech Connect

    Most, I.G.; Hubble, W.S.

    1984-04-10

    A continuous process and system for treatment of oily waste products and heavy sludge resulting from the washing of scrap metal fragments bathed in oil. The sludge and oily waste both include a mixture of water, ferrous containing particulates and a hydrocarbon liquid. The process of this invention includes feeding the heavy sludge and oily waste into an incinerator, incinerating the hydrocarbon liquid contained therein at conditions such that the metal contained therein is recovered as particulate ash, and venting the resulting combustion gases to the atmosphere. The system of this invention includes an incinerator, an auger for transporting heavy sludge from the scrap washer to the incinerator, a pump and storage tank for feeding oily waste from the scrap wash water to the incinerator, and a baghouse for filtering the combustion gases and exhausting them to the atmosphere. A second auger may be provided for transporting sludge from a sludge storage tank, and a water heater may be provided for passing the combustion gases in heat exchange relationship with wash water. The incinerator utilizes a starved air principle and includes a primary chamber and a secondary chamber where temperatures and oxygen levels are carefully controlled. The ferromagnetic ash from the incinerator and the particulates recovered in the baghouse can be sold for scrap.

  20. A qualitative study of patients' knowledge and views of about oral health and acceptability of related intervention in an Australian inpatient alcohol and drug treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Alison Li Sun; Pandey, Ram; Daglish, Mark; Ford, Pauline J; Patterson, Sue

    2017-01-20

    Social factors, health behaviours and the direct effects of substances contribute to the poor oral health and restricted access to dental services experienced by people who are dependent on drugs and/or alcohol. Admission for inpatient withdrawal management provides an opportunity for intervention to promote oral health but to be effective it must be acceptable to patients. To support intervention design, we examined patients' views about oral health, practices and treatment access, and appropriateness of health-promoting intervention in this context. Given paucity of knowledge in the area we employed a qualitative approach, data were collected in semi-structured interviews with inpatients of a public specialist alcohol and drug unit in Australia in September 2014. Analysis employed the framework approach. All 14 participants wanted 'good teeth' but few diligently attended to oral healthcare; most sought assistance only in emergencies. Participants' knowledge of services was limited and practical and affective barriers hindered access. With none recalling attention to oral health during admission, support was strong for incorporation of oral health in inpatient assessments. Participants wanted information about the impact of substances on oral health and oral hygiene practices provided in various formats, and facilitated referral to non-judgemental, affordable treatment. Patients regarded promotion of oral health in the inpatient context as important, relevant and acceptable. Support should respect the different knowledge, practices and motivations for oral health and recovery, of patients. Addressing practical and affective barriers to dental services will require collaboration between drug and alcohol and dental services, and this should be the focus of further research.

  1. Incremental Validity and Informant Effect from a Multi-Method Perspective: Assessing Relations between Parental Acceptance and Children’s Behavioral Problems

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo-Sotorrío, Eva; Holgado-Tello, Francisco P.; Carrasco, Miguel Á.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between perceived parental acceptance and children’s behavioral problems (externalizing and internalizing) from a multi-informant perspective. Using mothers, fathers, and children as sources of information, we explore the informant effect and incremental validity. The sample was composed of 681 participants (227 children, 227 fathers, and 227 mothers). Children’s (40% boys) ages ranged from 9 to 17 years (M = 12.52, SD = 1.81). Parents and children completed both the Parental Acceptance Rejection/Control Questionnaire (PARQ/Control) and the check list of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Statistical analyses were based on the correlated uniqueness multitrait-multimethod matrix (model MTMM) by structural equations and different hierarchical regression analyses. Results showed a significant informant effect and a different incremental validity related to which combination of sources was considered. A multi-informant perspective rather than a single one increased the predictive value. Our results suggest that mother–father or child–father combinations seem to be the best way to optimize the multi-informant method in order to predict children’s behavioral problems based on perceived parental acceptance. PMID:27242582

  2. Device and method for treatment of gases

    DOEpatents

    Vegge, Olaf Trygve; Brinch, Jon Christian

    2007-01-30

    The device and method of the present invention employs a column having a gas inlet in its lower part and a gas outlet in its upper part. Carbon particles are introduced into the column through a supply pipe. The supply pipe is movable so that by manipulating the height of the supply pipe in conjunction with discharging particulate matter through the column, the height of the bed of particulate matter in the column can be adjusted so that the retention time of the off gas in the particulate bed is constant. By maintaining a constant retention time of the off gas in the bed, complete conversion of the off gas is achieved.

  3. Method and apparatus for treatment of wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, A.

    1982-01-19

    A method is disclosed for removing ammonia from a wastewater containing free and fixed ammonia. The process comprises the steps of: distilling the wastewater to remove the free ammonia; treating the distilled wastewater with soda ash to decompose the fixed ammonia; and distilling the treated wastewater to remove the decomposed ammonia. An apparatus is disclosed for removing ammonia from a wastewater containing free and fixed ammonia comprising: an ammonia still for removing free and fixed ammonia; a source of soda ash solution; and means for feeding the soda ash solution from said soda ash source to the ammonia still to decompose the fixed ammonia.

  4. Analysis of Source Selection Methods and Performance Outcomes: Lowest Price Technically Acceptable vs. Tradeoff in Air Force Acquisitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT ANALYSIS OF SOURCE SELECTION METHODS AND PERFORMANCE...2. REPORT DATE December 2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ANALYSIS OF SOURCE SELECTION METHODS AND...distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) As part of procurement planning, government acquisition teams must select

  5. Treatment acceptance and adherence in HIV disease: patient identity and the perceived impact of physician–patient communication

    PubMed Central

    Laws, M Barton; Rose, Gary S; Bezreh, Tanya; Beach, Mary Catherine; Taubin, Tatiana; Kogelman, Laura; Gethers, Marcia; Wilson, Ira B

    2012-01-01

    Studies have found that physician–patient relationships and communication quality are related to medication adherence and outcomes in HIV care. Few qualitative studies exist of how people living with HIV experience clinical communication about their self-care behavior. Eight focus groups with people living with HIV in two US cities were conducted. Participants responded to a detailed discussion guide and to reenactments of actual physician–patient dialogue about antiretroviral adherence. The 82 participants were diverse in age, sex, and ethnicity. Most had been living with HIV for many years and had stable relationships with providers. They appreciated providers who knew and cared about their personal lives, who were clear and direct about instructions, and who were accessible. Most had struggled to overcome addiction, emotional turmoil, and/or denial before gaining control over their lives and becoming adherent to medications. They made little or no causal attribution for their transformation to any outside agency, including their providers. They generally saw medication adherence as a function of autonomous motivation. Successful coping with HIV with its prevalent behavioral comorbidities, stigma, and other challenges requires a transformation of identity and internalization of motivation to maintain health. Effective methods for clinicians to support such development are needed. PMID:23271898

  6. A study to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility and impact of packaged interventions (“Diarrhea Pack”) for prevention and treatment of childhood diarrhea in rural Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diarrhea remains one of the leading public health issues in developing countries and is a major contributor in morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. Interventions such as ORS, Zinc, water purification and improved hygiene and sanitation can significantly reduce the diarrhea burden but their coverage remains low and has not been tested as packaged intervention before. This study attempts to evaluate the package of evidence based interventions in a “Diarrhea Pack” through first level health care providers at domiciliary level in community based settings. This study sought to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility and impact of diarrhea Pack on diarrhea burden. Methods A cluster randomized design was used to evaluate the objectives of the project a union council was considered as a cluster for analysis, a total of eight clusters, four in intervention and four in control were included in the study. We conducted a baseline survey in all clusters followed by the delivery of diarrhea Pack in intervention clusters through community health workers at domiciliary level and through sales promoters to health care providers and pharmacies. Four quarterly surveillance rounds were conducted to evaluate the impact of diarrhea pack in all clusters by an independent team of Field workers. Results Both the intervention and control clusters were similar at the baseline but as the study progress we found a significant increase in uptake of ORS and Zinc along with the reduction in antibiotic use, diarrhea burden and hospitalization in intervention clusters when compared with the control clusters. We found that the Diarrhea Pack was well accepted with all of its components in the community. Conclusion The intervention was well accepted and had a productive impact on the uptake of ORS and zinc and reduction in the use of antibiotics. It is feasible to deliver interventions such as diarrhea pack through community health workers in community settings

  7. UGV acceptance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Robin R.

    2006-05-01

    With over 100 models of unmanned vehicles now available for military and civilian safety, security or rescue applications, it is important to for agencies to establish acceptance testing. However, there appears to be no general guidelines for what constitutes a reasonable acceptance test. This paper describes i) a preliminary method for acceptance testing by a customer of the mechanical and electrical components of an unmanned ground vehicle system, ii) how it has been applied to a man-packable micro-robot, and iii) discusses the value of testing both to ensure that the customer has a workable system and to improve design. The test method automated the operation of the robot to repeatedly exercise all aspects and combinations of components on the robot for 6 hours. The acceptance testing process uncovered many failures consistent with those shown to occur in the field, showing that testing by the user does predict failures. The process also demonstrated that the testing by the manufacturer can provide important design data that can be used to identify, diagnose, and prevent long-term problems. Also, the structured testing environment showed that sensor systems can be used to predict errors and changes in performance, as well as uncovering unmodeled behavior in subsystems.

  8. Acceptance of tinnitus: validation of the tinnitus acceptance questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Weise, Cornelia; Kleinstäuber, Maria; Hesser, Hugo; Westin, Vendela Zetterqvist; Andersson, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The concept of acceptance has recently received growing attention within tinnitus research due to the fact that tinnitus acceptance is one of the major targets of psychotherapeutic treatments. Accordingly, acceptance-based treatments will most likely be increasingly offered to tinnitus patients and assessments of acceptance-related behaviours will thus be needed. The current study investigated the factorial structure of the Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire (TAQ) and the role of tinnitus acceptance as mediating link between sound perception (i.e. subjective loudness of tinnitus) and tinnitus distress. In total, 424 patients with chronic tinnitus completed the TAQ and validated measures of tinnitus distress, anxiety, and depression online. Confirmatory factor analysis provided support to a good fit of the data to the hypothesised bifactor model (root-mean-square-error of approximation = .065; Comparative Fit Index = .974; Tucker-Lewis Index = .958; standardised root mean square residual = .032). In addition, mediation analysis, using a non-parametric joint coefficient approach, revealed that tinnitus-specific acceptance partially mediated the relation between subjective tinnitus loudness and tinnitus distress (path ab = 5.96; 95% CI: 4.49, 7.69). In a multiple mediator model, tinnitus acceptance had a significantly stronger indirect effect than anxiety. The results confirm the factorial structure of the TAQ and suggest the importance of a general acceptance factor that contributes important unique variance beyond that of the first-order factors activity engagement and tinnitus suppression. Tinnitus acceptance as measured with the TAQ is proposed to be a key construct in tinnitus research and should be further implemented into treatment concepts to reduce tinnitus distress.

  9. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  10. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Collaborative Care Intervention To Improve Symptoms and Quality of Life in Chronic Heart Failure: Mixed Methods Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Stephanie; Nowels, Carolyn T.; Main, Deborah S.; Meek, Paula; McBryde, Connor; Hattler, Brack; Lorenz, Karl A.; Heidenreich, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: People with chronic heart failure (HF) suffer from numerous symptoms that worsen quality of life. The CASA (Collaborative Care to Alleviate Symptoms and Adjust to Illness) intervention was designed to improve symptoms and quality of life by integrating palliative and psychosocial care into chronic care. Objective: Our aim was to determine the feasibility and acceptability of CASA and identify necessary improvements. Methods: We conducted a prospective mixed-methods pilot trial. The CASA intervention included (1) nurse phone visits involving structured symptom assessments and guidelines to alleviate breathlessness, fatigue, pain, or depression; (2) structured phone counseling targeting adjustment to illness and depression if present; and (3) weekly team meetings with a palliative care specialist, cardiologist, and primary care physician focused on medical recommendations to primary care providers (PCPs, physician or nurse practioners) to improve symptoms. Study subjects were outpatients with chronic HF from a Veteran's Affairs hospital (n=15) and a university hospital (n=2). Measurements included feasibility (cohort retention rate, medical recommendation implementation rate, missing data, quality of care) and acceptability (an end-of-study semi-structured participant interview). Results: Participants were male with a median age of 63 years. One withdrew early and there were <5% missing data. Overall, 85% of 87 collaborative care team medical recommendations were implemented. All participants who screened positive for depression were either treated for depression or thought to not have a depressive disorder. In the qualitative interviews, patients reported a positive experience and provided several constructive critiques. Conclusions: The CASA intervention was feasible based on participant enrollment, cohort retention, implementation of medical recommendations, minimal missing data, and acceptability. Several intervention changes were made based

  11. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  12. Protocol for a multicentre study to assess feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness and direct costs of TRIumPH (Treatment and Recovery In PsycHosis): integrated care pathway for psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Shanaya; Garner, Christie; Griffiths, Alison; Dimitrov, Borislav D; Newman-Taylor, Katherine; Woodfine, Chris; Hansen, Lars; Tabraham, Paul; Ward, Karen; Asher, Carolyn; Phiri, Peter; Naeem, Farooq; North, Pippa; Munshi, Tariq; Kingdon, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Duration of untreated psychosis (time between the onset of symptoms and start of treatment) is considered the strongest predictor of symptom severity and outcome. Integrated care pathways that prescribe timeframes around access and interventions can potentially improve quality of care. Methods and analysis A multicentre mixed methods study to assess feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness and analysis of direct costs of an integrated care pathway for psychosis. A pragmatic, non-randomised, controlled trial design is used to compare the impact of Treatment and Recovery In PsycHosis (TRIumPH; Intervention) by comparison between NHS organisations that adopt TRIumPH and those that continue with care as usual (Control). Quantitative and qualitative methods will be used. We will use routinely collected quantitative data and study-specific questionnaires and focus groups to compare service user outcomes, satisfaction and adherence to intervention between sites that adopt TRIumPH versus sites that continue with usual care pathways. Setting 4 UK Mental health organisations. Two will implement TRIumPH whereas two will continue care as usual. Participants Staff, carers, individuals accepted to early intervention in psychosis teams in participating organisations for the study period. Intervention TRIumPH—Integrated Care Pathway for psychosis that has a holistic approach and prescribes time frames against interventions; developed using intelligence from data; co-produced with patients, carers, clinicians and other stakeholders. Outcomes Feasibility will be assessed through adherence to the process measures. Satisfaction and acceptability will be assessed using questionnaires and focus groups. Effectiveness will be assessed through data collection and evaluation of patient outcomes, including clinical, functional and recovery outcomes, physical health, acute care use. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, 12 and 24 months to measure whether there is

  13. Tuberculosis 2: exploring methods of diagnosis, treatment regimens and concordance.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Miles

    The second in this two part unit on tuberculosis examines diagnosis and treatment options. Part I outlined background on epidemiology and control of this disease. This part draws on the guidance set out by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Diagnostic methods are discussed and the standard treatment regimen is outlined.

  14. REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA currently does not regulate uranium in drinking water but will be revising the radionuclide regulations during 1989 and will propose a maximum contaminant level for uranium. The paper presents treatment technology information on the effectiveness of conventional method...

  15. An innovative method for the preparation of mum (Thai fermented sausages) with acceptable technological quality and extended shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Wanangkarn, Amornrat; Liu, Deng-Cheng; Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2012-11-15

    Freshly-manufactured mum sausages were assigned to two processing methods (process I: stored at ∼30 °C for 14 days; process II: stored at ∼30 °C for three days, vacuum-packaged, and stored at 4 °C until day 28). Physicochemical, microbial, textural, and sensory properties of samples were analysed. The results showed that dehydration was more intense in process I samples, and resulted in lower moisture content and water activity. Significant decreases in pH values, and increases in lactic acid were observed in both samples by day 3. The total microflora and lactic acid bacteria counts increased rapidly during the fermentation and then decreased while the Enterobacteriaceae counts decreased steadily. Too much dehydration resulted in tough textures and unacceptable sensory qualities for process I samples. In conclusion, after three days of fermentation, with vacuum-packaging, ripening and storage at 4 °C up to 28 days, it is possible to produce mum sausages with better qualities and an extended shelf life.

  16. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-10-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility.

  17. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  18. The PACT study protocol: a time series study investigating the impact, acceptability and cost of an integrated model for psychosocial screening, care and treatment of patients with urological and head and neck cancers

    PubMed Central

    Girgis, Afaf; Kelly, Brian; Boyes, Allison; Haas, Marion; Viney, Rosalie; Descallar, Joseph; Candler, Hayley; Bellamy, Douglas; Proietto, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Introduction While there is good evidence of the effectiveness of a variety of interventions and services to prevent and/or relieve distress experienced by people affected by cancer, much of this psychosocial morbidity is undetected and untreated, with consequent exacerbated suffering, decreased satisfaction with care, impaired adherence to treatment regimens and poorer morbidity and mortality outcomes. The objective of this study is to develop, implement and assess the impact, acceptability and cost of an integrated, patient-centred Psychosocial Assessment, Care and Treatment (PACT) model of care for patients with urological and head and neck cancers. Methods and analysis A time series research design will be used to test the PACT model of care, newly introduced in an Australian tertiary hospital. The primary outcome is system-level impact, assessed through audit of patients’ medical records and Medicare claims for follow-up care. The secondary outcomes are impact of the model on patients' experience and healthcare professionals’ (HCPs) knowledge and confidence, assessed via patient and HCP surveys at baseline and at follow-up. Acceptability of the intervention will be assessed through HCP interviews at follow-up, and cost will be assessed from Medicare and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme claims information and information logged pertaining to intervention activities (eg, time spent by the newly appointed psycho-oncology staff in direct patient contact, providing training sessions, engaging in case review) and their associated costs (eg, salaries, training materials and videoconferencing). Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was obtained from the Human Research Ethics Committees of Hunter New England Local Health District and the University of NSW. Results The results will be widely disseminated to the funding body and through peer-reviewed publications, HCP and consumer publications, oncology conferences and meetings. Trial registration The study is

  19. A Comparison of Treatment Integrity Assessment Methods for Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Seong A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the similarity of outcomes from three different treatment integrity (TI) methods, and to identify the method which best corresponded to the assessment of a child's behavior. Six raters were recruited through individual contact via snowball sampling. A modified intervention component list and 19 video clips…

  20. Compositions and Methods for the Treatment of Pierce's Disease

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Goutam

    2008-10-07

    Chimeric anti-microbial proteins, compositions, and methods for the therapeutic and prophylactic treatment of plant diseases caused by the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa are provided. The anti-microbial proteins of the invention generally comprise a surface recognition domain polypeptide, capable of binding to a bacterial membrane component, fused to a bacterial lysis domain polypeptide, capable of affecting lysis or rupture of the bacterial membrane, typically via a fused polypeptide linker. In particular, methods and compositions for the treatment or prevention of Pierce's disease of grapevines are provided. Methods for the generation of transgenic Vitus vinefera plants expressing xylem-secreted anti-microbial chimeras are also provided.

  1. [Complementary treatment methods for depression in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Dolle, Kathrin; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Depressive disorders are among the more common mental illnesses around the world, about 1- 3% of prepubertal children and 6% of postpubertal children and adolescents are affected. They markedly impair psychosocial development and are associated with higher rate of morbidity and mortality throughout life. Many physicians are unsure about which treatment approaches are effective and how the treatment should be planned. A systematic literature search was carried out in electronic databases and study registries and as a manual search. More than 450 studies (mostly randomized controlled trials = RCTs) were identified and summarized in evidence tables. The ensuing recommendations were agreed upon in a consensus conference. The review summarizes the evidence of complementary treatment methods. The evidence for complementary treatment methods (art and music therapy, sleep deprivation, exercise, electroconvulsive therapy, massage, transcranial magnetic stimulation, relaxation, bibliotherapy, computer based therapy, light therapy, omega-3 treatment) is low or there is no evidence due to missing studies or studies of poor quality. For some methods, i. e. light therapy, relaxation and stress reduction and sleep deprivation there is limited indication for effectiveness without sufficient evidence for a practical guidance. There is an urgent need for adequately informative comparative studies on treatment of depression in children and adolescents considering also complementary methods.

  2. [Combinative methods of treatment of patients with complicated urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Kochetov, A G; Sitnikov, N V; Gvasaliia, B R; Sidorov, O V; Ponomarev, V K; Borshevetskiĭ, A A; Pavlov, D V

    2013-05-01

    The authors showed that urolithiasis is the second disease after inflammatory nonspecific kidney and urinary tract diseases and has a tendency to increase. 3-5% of patients suffer this disease, and 30-40% of all patients of urology in-patients department suffer nephrolithiasis. Introduction into clinical practice of modern minimally invasive treatment methods changed the paradigm of treatment of urolithiasis, especially coral type nephrolithiasis - cause of 15-50% of all renal calculi. The authors presented results of combinative treatment of 183 patients with different complicated forms of urolithiasis. The technique of percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (in supine position) was modified. It helped to reduce complications, time of surgery and radiation exposure. The effectiveness of simultaneous contact ureterolithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotripsy in patients with renal or ureters calculi, and simultaneous litholysis and distance lithotripsy in patients with metabolic disorders is shown. Combinative methods of treatment of complicated forms of urolithiasis are based on modern minimally invasive technologies and are very effective.

  3. A review of Helicobacter pylori diagnosis, treatment, and methods to detect eradication

    PubMed Central

    Garza-González, Elvira; Perez-Perez, Guillermo Ignacio; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor Jesús; Bosques-Padilla, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) affects nearly half of the world’s population and, thus, is one of the most frequent and persistent bacterial infections worldwide. H. pylori is associated with peptic ulcer disease, gastric ulcers, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric cancer. Various diagnostic methods exist to detect infection, and the choice of one method or another depends on several factors, such as accessibility, advantages and disadvantages of each method, cost, and the age of patients. Once H. pylori infection is diagnosed, the clinician decides whether treatment is necessity, according to the patient’s clinical condition. Typically, eradication of H. pylori is recommended for treatment and prevention of the infection. Cure rates with the standard triple therapy are acceptable, and effective quadruple therapies, sequential therapies, and concomitant therapies have been introduced as key alternatives to treat H. pylori infection. In this work, we review the main diagnostic methods used to identify H. pylori infection and to confirm eradication of infection. In addition, key factors related to treatment are reviewed. PMID:24587620

  4. Method for surface treatment of a cadmium zinc telluride crystal

    DOEpatents

    James, Ralph; Burger, Arnold; Chen, Kuo-Tong; Chang, Henry

    1999-01-01

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that reduces surface roughness (increases surface planarity) and provides an oxide coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve resolution. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of lactic acid and bromine in ethylene glycol, following the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, oxidizing the CZT crystal surface.

  5. Method for surface treatment of a cadmium zinc telluride crystal

    DOEpatents

    James, R.; Burger, A.; Chen, K.T.; Chang, H.

    1999-08-03

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal is disclosed that reduces surface roughness (increases surface planarity) and provides an oxide coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve resolution. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of lactic acid and bromine in ethylene glycol, following the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, oxidizing the CZT crystal surface. 3 figs.

  6. [EMDR: method of psychotherapy for the treatment of trauma].

    PubMed

    Havelka, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a method of psychotherapy that has been extensively researched for the treatment of trauma. The current treatment guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association and the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies designate EMDR as an effective treatment for PTSD.In this article the author writes about the history of this "breakthrough therapy" and describes EMDR as a standardized protocol. In the second part describes trauma recovery where she uses EMDR in treating post-traumatic stress disorder in a case study about a 25 year old woman, who has been a rubbery survivor.

  7. Acceptance of Commercially Available Wearable Activity Trackers Among Adults Aged Over 50 and With Chronic Illness: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Kathryn; Giangregorio, Lora; Schneider, Eric; Chilana, Parmit; Li, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior increase the risk of chronic illness and death. The newest generation of “wearable” activity trackers offers potential as a multifaceted intervention to help people become more active. Objective To examine the usability and usefulness of wearable activity trackers for older adults living with chronic illness. Methods We recruited a purposive sample of 32 participants over the age of 50, who had been previously diagnosed with a chronic illness, including vascular disease, diabetes, arthritis, and osteoporosis. Participants were between 52 and 84 years of age (mean 64); among the study participants, 23 (72%) were women and the mean body mass index was 31 kg/m2. Participants tested 5 trackers, including a simple pedometer (Sportline or Mio) followed by 4 wearable activity trackers (Fitbit Zip, Misfit Shine, Jawbone Up 24, and Withings Pulse) in random order. Selected devices represented the range of wearable products and features available on the Canadian market in 2014. Participants wore each device for at least 3 days and evaluated it using a questionnaire developed from the Technology Acceptance Model. We used focus groups to explore participant experiences and a thematic analysis approach to data collection and analysis. Results Our study resulted in 4 themes: (1) adoption within a comfort zone; (2) self-awareness and goal setting; (3) purposes of data tracking; and (4) future of wearable activity trackers as health care devices. Prior to enrolling, few participants were aware of wearable activity trackers. Most also had been asked by a physician to exercise more and cited this as a motivation for testing the devices. None of the participants planned to purchase the simple pedometer after the study, citing poor accuracy and data loss, whereas 73% (N=32) planned to purchase a wearable activity tracker. Preferences varied but 50% felt they would buy a Fitbit and 42% felt they would buy a Misfit, Jawbone, or

  8. Emollient efficacy and acceptability in the treatment of eczematous dry skin: A double-blind, randomised comparison of two UK-marketed products

    PubMed Central

    Djokic-Gallagher, Jasmina; Rosher, Philip; Walker, Jennine; Sykes, Krystyna; Hart, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the moisturising efficacy and acceptability of physical characteristics of two commonly prescribed emollients licenced in the UK, Doublebase Dayleve gel (DELP) and Diprobase cream (DIPC). Methods: The study was a double-blind, concurrent bi-lateral comparison in female eczema subjects with dry skin. Results: In Part 1, comparing the area under the curve (AUC) change from baseline corneometer readings over 24 h following single applications of the emollients to the volar forearms of 34 subjects, the AUC for DELP was more than three times that seen for DIPC (p < 0.0001). In Part 2, comparing the same outcome measured over 5 days of twice daily applications to the lower legs in 36 subjects, the AUC for DELP was approximately five times that for DIPC (p < 0.0001). 69% of subjects “Like Slightly” or “Like Strongly” DELP compared to 33% for DIPC (p = 0.025). 72% indicated they would use DELP again compared to 33% for DIPC (p = 0.033). 75% of subjects preferred DELP, 17% preferred DIPC and 8% expressed no preference (p = 0.0004). PMID:26864095

  9. A novel 2D and 3D method for automated insulin granule measurement and its application in assessing accepted preparation methods for electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantell, J.; Nam, D.; Bull, D.; Achim, A.; Verkade, P.

    2014-06-01

    Transmission electron microscopy images of insulin-producing beta cells in the islets of Langerhans contain many complex structures, making it difficult to accurately segment insulin granules. Furthermore the appearance of the granules and surrounding halo and limiting membrane can vary enormously depending on the methods used for sample preparation. An automated method has been developed using active contours to segment the insulin core initially and then expand to segment the halos [1]. The method has been validated against manual measurements and also yields higher accuracy than other automated methods [2]. It has then been extended to three dimensions to analyse a tomographic reconstruction from a thick section of the same material. The final step has been to produce a GUI and use the automated process to compare a number of different electron microscopy preparation protocols including chemical fixation (where many of halos are often distended) and to explore the many subtleties of high pressure freezing (where the halos are often minimal, [3]).

  10. Review of various treatment methods for the abatement of phenolic compounds from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Girish, C R; Murty, V Ramachandra

    2012-04-01

    Phenol and its derivatives are considered among the most hazardous organic pollutants from industrial wastewater and they are toxic even at low concentrations. Besides the existence of phenol in natural water source it can lead to the formation of other toxic substituted compounds. So this has led to growing concern on setting up of rigid limits on the acceptable level of phenol in the environment. The various methods for the treatment of phenol from wastewater streams are briefly reviewed. The various technologies like distillation, liquid-liquid extraction with different solvents, adsorption over activated carbons and polymeric and inorganic adsorbents, membrane pervaporation and membrane-solvent extraction, have been elucidated. The advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are illustrated and their performances are compared.

  11. Selecting the Acceptance Criteria of Medicines in the Reimbursement List of Public Health Insurance of Iran, Using the “Borda” Method: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Viyanchi, Amir; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; SafiKhani, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making for medicines to be accepted in Iran’s public health insurance reimbursement list is a complex process and involves factors, which should be considered in applying a coverage for medicine costs. These processes and factors are not wholly assessed, while assessment of these factors is an essential need for getting a transparent and evidence-based approach toward medicine reimbursement in Iran. This paper aims to show an evidence-based approach toward medicine selection criteria to inform the medical reimbursement decision makers in Iranian health insurance organizations. To explore an adaptable decision-making framework while incorporating a method called “Borda” in medicine reimbursement assessment, we used the help of an expert group including decision makers and clinical researchers who are also policy makers to appraise the five chief criteria that have three sub criteria (Precision, Interpretability, and Cost). Also software “Math-lab”7, “SPSS” 17 and Excel 2007 were used in this study. “Borda” estimates the amount of perceived values from different criteria and creates a range from one to five while providing a comprehensive measurement of a large spectrum of criteria. Participants reported that the framework provided an efficient approach to systematic consideration in a pragmatic format consisting of many parts to guide decision-makings, including criteria and value (a model with the core of Borda) and evidences (medicine reimbursement based on criteria). The most important criterion for medicine acceptance in health insurance companies, in Iran, is the "life-threatening" factor and "evidence quality" is accounted as the fifth important factor. This pilot study showed the usefulness of incorporating Borda in medicine reimbursement decisions to support a transparent and systematic appraisal of health insurance companies' deeds. Further research is needed to advance Borda-based approaches that are effective on health insurance

  12. Simplified Method for Groundwater Treatment Using Dilution and Ceramic Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, S.; Ariff, N. A.; Kadir, M. N. Abdul; Denan, F.

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is one of the natural resources that is not susceptible to pollutants. However, increasing activities of municipal, industrial, agricultural or extreme land use activities have resulted in groundwater contamination as occured at the Research Centre for Soft Soil Malaysia (RECESS), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM). Thus, aims of this study is to treat groundwater by using rainwater and simple ceramic filter as a treatment agent. The treatment uses rain water dilution, ceramic filters and combined method of dilute and filtering as an alternate treatment which are simple and more practical compared to modern or chemical methods. The water went through dilution treatment processes able to get rid of 57% reduction compared to initial condition. Meanwhile, the water that passes through the filtering process successfully get rid of as much as 86% groundwater parameters where only chloride does not pass the standard. Favorable results for the combination methods of dilution and filtration methods that can succesfully eliminate 100% parameters that donot pass the standards of the Ministry of Health and the Interim National Drinking Water Quality Standard such as those found in groundwater in RECESS, UTHM especially sulfate and chloride. As a result, it allows the raw water that will use clean drinking water and safe. It also proves that the method used in this study is very effective in improving the quality of groundwater.

  13. Treatment of laundry wastewater by biological and electrocoagulation methods.

    PubMed

    Ramcharan, Terelle; Bissessur, Ajay

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes an improvement in the current electrocoagulation treatment process and focuses on a comparative study for the clean-up of laundry wastewater (LWW) after each wash and rinse cycle by biological and electrocoagulation treatment methods. For biological treatment, the wastewater was treated with a Bacillus strain of aerobic bacteria especially suited for the degradation of fats, lipids, protein, detergents and hydrocarbons. Treatment of the LWW by electrocoagulation involved the oxidation of aluminium metal upon the application of a controlled voltage which produces various aluminium hydroxy species capable of adsorbing pollutants from the wastewater. The efficiency of the clean-up of LWW using each method was assessed by determination of surfactant concentration, chemical oxygen demand and total dissolved solids. A rapid decrease in surfactant concentration was noted within 0.5 hour of electrocoagulation, whereas a notable decrease in the surfactant concentration was observed only after 12 hour of biological treatment. The rapid generation of aluminium hydroxy species in the electrocoagulation cell allowed adsorption of pollutants at a faster rate when compared to the aerobic degradation of the surfactant; hence a reduced period of time is required for treatment of LWW by electrocoagulation.

  14. Carbide and carbonitride surface treatment method for refractory metals

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, G.A.; Schildbach, M.A.

    1996-12-03

    A carbide and carbonitride surface treatment method for refractory metals is provided, in steps including, heating a part formed of boron, chromium, hafnium, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, titanium, tungsten or zirconium, or alloys thereof, in an evacuated chamber and then introducing reaction gases including nitrogen and hydrogen, either in elemental or water vapor form, which react with a source of elemental carbon to form carbon-containing gaseous reactants which then react with the metal part to form the desired surface layer. Apparatus for practicing the method is also provided, in the form of a carbide and carbonitride surface treatment system including a reaction chamber, a source of elemental carbon, a heating subassembly and a source of reaction gases. Alternative methods of providing the elemental carbon and the reaction gases are provided, as well as methods of supporting the metal part, evacuating the chamber with a vacuum subassembly and heating all of the components to the desired temperature. 5 figs.

  15. The acceptability and feasibility of the Positive Reinforcement Opportunity Project, a community-based contingency management methamphetamine treatment program for gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Strona, Frank V; McCright, Jacque; Hjord, Hanna; Ahrens, Katherine; Tierney, Steven; Shoptaw, Steven; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2006-11-01

    The Positive Reinforcement Opportunity Project (PROP) was a pilot program developed to build on the efficacy of contingency management (CM) using positive reinforcement to address the treatment needs of gay and bisexual men currently using crystal methamphetamines (meth). It was hypothesized that a version of CM could be implemented in San Francisco that was less costly than traditional treatment methods and reached gay and other MSM using meth who also engaged in high-risk sexual activity. Of the 178 men who participated in PROPfrom December 2003 to December 2005, many self-reported behaviors for acquiring and spreading sexually transmitted diseases including HIV infection. During the initial intake, 73% reported high-risk sexual behavior in the prior three months, with 60% reporting anal receptive and/or insertive sex without condoms. This report describes the implementation of PROP and suggest both its limitations and potential strengths. Initial findings suggest that PROP was a useful and low cost substance use treatment option that resulted in a 35% 90-day completion rate, which is similar to graduation rates from traditional, more costly treatment options. Further evaluation of the limited data from three- and six-month follow-up of those who completed PROP is currently ongoing.

  16. The Brustkrebs-Studien.de website for breast cancer patients: User acceptance of a German internet portal offering information on the disease and treatment options, and a clinical trials matching service

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The internet portal http://www.brustkrebs-studien.de (BKS) was launched in 2000 by the German Society of Senology (DGS) and the Baden-Württemberg Institute for Women's Health (IFG) to provide expert-written information on breast cancer online and to encourage and facilitate the participation of breast cancer patients in clinical trials. We describe the development of BKS and its applications, and report on website statistics and user acceptance. Methods Existing registries, including ClinicalTrials.gov, were analysed before we designed BKS, which combines a trial registry, a knowledge portal, and an online second opinion service. An advisory board guided the process. Log files and patient enquiries for trial participation and second opinions were analysed. A two-week user satisfaction survey was conducted online. Results During 10/2005-06/2010, the portal attracted 702,655 visitors, generating 15,507,454 page views. By 06/2010, the website's active scientific community consisted of 189 investigators and physicians, and the registry covered 163 clinical trial protocols. In 2009, 143 patients requested trial enrolment and 119 sought second opinions or individual treatment advice from the expert panel. During the two-week survey in 2008, 5,702 BKS visitors submitted 507 evaluable questionnaires. Portal acceptance was high. Respondents trusted information correctness (80%), welcomed self-matching to clinical trials (79%) and planned to use the portal in the future (76%) and recommend it to others (81%). Conclusions BKS is an established and trusted breast cancer information platform offering up-to-date resources and protocols to the growing physician and patient community to encourage participation in clinical trials. Further studies are needed to assess potential increases in trial enrolment by eligibility matching services. PMID:21126358

  17. On the boundary treatment in spectral methods for hyperbolic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, C.; Quarteroni, A.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral methods were successfully applied to the simulation of slow transients in gas transportation networks. Implicit time advancing techniques are naturally suggested by the nature of the problem. The correct treatment of the boundary conditions are clarified in order to avoid any stability restriction originated by the boundaries. The Beam and Warming and the Lerat schemes are unconditionally linearly stable when used with a Chebyshev pseudospectral method. Engineering accuracy for a gas transportation problem is achieved at Courant numbers up to 100.

  18. On the boundary treatment in spectral methods for hyperbolic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, Claudio; Quarteroni, Alfio

    1987-01-01

    Spectral methods were successfully applied to the simulation of slow transients in gas transportation networks. Implicit time advancing techniques are naturally suggested by the nature of the problem. The correct treatment of the boundary conditions is clarified in order to avoid any stability restriction originated by the boundaries. The Beam and Warming and the Lerat schemes are unconditionally linearly stable when used with a Chebyshev pseudospectral method. Engineering accuracy for a gas transportation problem is achieved at Courant numbers up to 100.

  19. A mixed-method evaluation of the feasibility and acceptability of a telehealth-based parent-mediated intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Pickard, Katherine E; Wainer, Allison L; Bailey, Kathryn M; Ingersoll, Brooke R

    2016-10-01

    Research within the autism spectrum disorder field has called for the use of service delivery models that are able to more efficiently disseminate evidence-based practices into community settings. This study employed telehealth methods in order to deliver an Internet-based, parent training intervention for autism spectrum disorder, ImPACT Online. This study used mixed-methods analysis to create a more thorough understanding of parent experiences likely to influence the adoption and implementation of the program in community settings. Specific research questions included (1) What are parents' perceptions of the online program? (2) How does ImPACT Online compare to other services that parents are accessing for their children? And (3) Do parents' experience in, and perceptions of, the program differ based on whether they received a therapist-assisted version of the program? Results from 28 parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder indicate that parents saw improvements in their child's social communication skills and their own competence during the course of the program, regardless of whether they received therapist assistance. However, qualitative interviews indicate that parents who received therapist assistance were more likely endorse the acceptability and observability of the program. These findings support the potential for Internet-based service delivery to more efficiently disseminate evidence-based parent training interventions for autism spectrum disorder.

  20. Pharmacological and Nonpharmacological Methods of Treatment for Fragile

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Fragile X (FX) syndrome causes behavioral disturbances such as labile mood, anxiety, hyperactivity, and aberrant... behavioral responses to stress. Affected males may suffer from learning disabilities, attention deficit disorders, mental retardation, or autism...spectrum disorders. We seek to address the most effective methods of treatment (pharmacological and behavioral ) for the symptoms and behavioral problems

  1. Method for treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants

    DOEpatents

    Wickramanayake, Godage B.

    1993-01-01

    A method for treating soil contaminated by organic compounds wherein an ozone containing gas is treated with acid to increase the stability of the ozone in the soil environment and the treated ozone applied to the contaminated soil to decompose the organic compounds. The soil may be treated in situ or may be removed for treatment and refilled.

  2. Statistical Methods for Establishing Personalized Treatment Rules in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junsheng; Hobbs, Brian P.; Stingo, Francesco C.

    2015-01-01

    The process for using statistical inference to establish personalized treatment strategies requires specific techniques for data-analysis that optimize the combination of competing therapies with candidate genetic features and characteristics of the patient and disease. A wide variety of methods have been developed. However, heretofore the usefulness of these recent advances has not been fully recognized by the oncology community, and the scope of their applications has not been summarized. In this paper, we provide an overview of statistical methods for establishing optimal treatment rules for personalized medicine and discuss specific examples in various medical contexts with oncology as an emphasis. We also point the reader to statistical software for implementation of the methods when available. PMID:26446492

  3. Statistical Methods for Establishing Personalized Treatment Rules in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junsheng; Hobbs, Brian P; Stingo, Francesco C

    2015-01-01

    The process for using statistical inference to establish personalized treatment strategies requires specific techniques for data-analysis that optimize the combination of competing therapies with candidate genetic features and characteristics of the patient and disease. A wide variety of methods have been developed. However, heretofore the usefulness of these recent advances has not been fully recognized by the oncology community, and the scope of their applications has not been summarized. In this paper, we provide an overview of statistical methods for establishing optimal treatment rules for personalized medicine and discuss specific examples in various medical contexts with oncology as an emphasis. We also point the reader to statistical software for implementation of the methods when available.

  4. A new separation and treatment method for soil and groundwater restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchens, G.D.

    1997-10-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination by organic compounds is a widespread environmental pollution problem. In many cases, contaminated soil is excavated and transported to a landfill or is incinerated to remove contaminants. These remediation practices are expensive, environmentally disruptive, require extensive permitting, and only move contamination from one location to another. Onsite and in situ treatment techniques offer a safer, more cost-effective, and permanent solution. Many soil and groundwater contaminants are highly volatile, enabling the use of methods such as in situ vacuum extraction and air injection for their removal. However, these methods are often difficult to use because of slow volatilization rates and the lack of effective methods to treat the extracted hazardous material. This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program focuses on developing an in situ soil and groundwater remediation technique that is effective against volatile as well as nonvolatile compounds and that will shorten treatment times. The technique forms the basis of a new catalytic process to degrade extracted contaminants onsite. Key hardware elements on which the new technique is based have been proven in preliminary research. The method has a high potential for public and regulatory acceptance because of its low environment impact.

  5. Perceptions and acceptability of mHealth interventions for improving patient care at a community-based HIV/AIDS clinic in Uganda: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Larry W; Njie-Carr, Veronica; Kalenge, Sheila; Kelly, Jack F; Bollinger, Robert C; Alamo-Talisuna, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Mobile technologies for health (mHealth) represents a growing array of tools being applied in diverse health care settings. mHealth interventions for improving HIV/AIDS care is a promising strategy, but its evidence base is limited. We conducted a formative research evaluation to inform the development of novel mHealth HIV/AIDS care interventions to be used by community health workers (CHWs) in Kampala, Uganda. A mixed methods formative research approach was utilized. Qualitative methods included 20 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and six focus groups with CHWs, clinic staff, and patients. Thematic analysis was performed and selected quotations used to illustrate themes. Quantitative methods consisted of a survey administered to CHWs and clinic staff, using categorical and Likert scale questions regarding current mobile phone and internet access and perceptions on the potential use of smartphones by CHWs. Qualitative results included themes on significant current care challenges, multiple perceived mHealth benefits, and general intervention acceptability. Key mHealth features desired included tools to verify CHWs' task completions, clinical decision support tools, and simple access to voice calling. Inhibiting factors identified included concerns about CHWs' job security and unrealistic expectations of mHealth capabilities. Quantitative results from 27 staff participants found that 26 (96%) did not have internet access at home, yet only 2 (7.4%) did not own a mobile phone. Likert scale survey responses (1-5, 1 = Strongly Disagree, 5 = Strongly Agree) indicated general agreement that smartphones would improve efficiency (Mean = 4.35) and patient care (4.31) but might be harmful to patient confidentiality (3.88) and training was needed (4.63). Qualitative and quantitative results were generally consistent, and, overall, there was enthusiasm for mHealth technology. However, a number of potential inhibiting factors were also discovered. Findings from this study may help

  6. [Others physical methods in psychiatric treatment based on electromagnetic stimulation].

    PubMed

    Zyss, Tomasz; Rachel, Wojciech; Datka, Wojciech; Hese, Robert T; Gorczyca, Piotr; Zięba, Andrzej; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades a few new physical methods based on the electromagnetic head stimulation were subjected to the clinical research. To them belong:--vagus nerve stimulation (VNS),--magnetic seizure therapy/magnetoconvulsive therapy (MST/MCT),--deep stimulation of the brain (DBS) and--transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). The paper presents a description of mentioned techniques (nature, advantages, defects, restrictions), which were compared to the applied electroconvulsive treatment ECT, earlier described transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS and the pharmacotherapy (the basis of the psychiatric treatment).

  7. Surface Treatment And Protection Method For Cadium Zinc Telluride Crystals

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Gomez W.; James, Ralph B.; Burger, Arnold; Chinn, Douglas A.

    2006-02-21

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that provides a native dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH4F and 10 w/o H2O2 in water.

  8. Surface treatment and protection method for cadmium zinc telluride crystals

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Gomez W.; James, Ralph B.; Burger, Arnold; Chinn, Douglas A.

    2003-01-01

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that provides a native dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH.sub.4 F and 10 w/o H.sub.2 O.sub.2 in water.

  9. Feasibility, acceptability, and effects of gentle Hatha yoga for women with major depression: findings from a randomized controlled mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Whaley, Diane; Hauenstein, Emily; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2013-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, debilitating chronic condition in the United States and worldwide. Particularly in women, depressive symptoms are often accompanied by high levels of stress and ruminations, or repetitive self-critical negative thinking. There is a research and clinical imperative to evaluate complementary therapies that are acceptable and feasible for women with depression and that target specific aspects of depression in women, such as ruminations. To begin to address this need, we conducted a randomized, controlled, mixed-methods community-based study comparing an 8-week yoga intervention with an attention-control activity in 27 women with MDD. After controlling for baseline stress, there was a decrease in depression over time in both the yoga group and the attention-control group, with the yoga group having a unique trend in decreased ruminations. Participants in the yoga group reported experiencing increased connectedness and gaining a coping strategy through yoga. The findings provide support for future large scale research to explore the effects of yoga for depressed women and the unique role of yoga in decreasing rumination.

  10. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  11. On Bayesian methods of exploring qualitative interactions for targeted treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Ghosh, Debashis; Raghunathan, Trivellore E; Norkin, Maxim; Sargent, Daniel J; Bepler, Gerold

    2012-12-10

    Providing personalized treatments designed to maximize benefits and minimizing harms is of tremendous current medical interest. One problem in this area is the evaluation of the interaction between the treatment and other predictor variables. Treatment effects in subgroups having the same direction but different magnitudes are called quantitative interactions, whereas those having opposite directions in subgroups are called qualitative interactions (QIs). Identifying QIs is challenging because they are rare and usually unknown among many potential biomarkers. Meanwhile, subgroup analysis reduces the power of hypothesis testing and multiple subgroup analyses inflate the type I error rate. We propose a new Bayesian approach to search for QI in a multiple regression setting with adaptive decision rules. We consider various regression models for the outcome. We illustrate this method in two examples of phase III clinical trials. The algorithm is straightforward and easy to implement using existing software packages. We provide a sample code in Appendix A.

  12. On Bayesian Methods of Exploring Qualitative Interactions for Targeted Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Ghosh, Debashis; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.; Norkin, Maxim; Sargent, Daniel J.; Bepler, Gerold

    2012-01-01

    Providing personalized treatments designed to maximize benefits and minimizing harms is of tremendous current medical interest. One problem in this area is the evaluation of the interaction between the treatment and other predictor variables. Treatment effects in subgroups having the same direction but different magnitudes are called quantitative interactions, while those having opposite directions in subgroups are called qualitative interactions (QIs). Identifying QIs is challenging since they are rare and usually unknown among many potential biomarkers. Meanwhile, subgroup analysis reduces the power of hypothesis testing and multiple subgroup analyses inflate the type I error rate. We propose a new Bayesian approach to search for QI in a multiple regression setting with adaptive decision rules. We consider various regression models for the outcome. This method is illustrated in two examples of Phase III clinical trials. The algorithm is straightforward and easy to implement using existing software packages. A sample code was provided in the appendix. PMID:22733620

  13. [On proportionate medical actions and extraordinary methods of treatment].

    PubMed

    2003-06-01

    As a general rule, any medical action should be proportionated. That is, the expected benefit of the treatment provided must be commensurate to the diagnosis and prognosis, the therapeutic efforts the suffering caused to the patient, and the eventual risks. Inversely a disproportionate or excessive medical action that will result in no benefit to the patient is technically incorrect and ethically reprebensible. As opposed to ordinary methods of treatment (basic nursing, feeding, hydration, drugs and regular clinical procedures), we reserve the name of "extraordinary methods of treatment" to those medical actions using complex and invasive highcost procedures and equipment that should be urgently indicated in any critically ill patient with a potentially reversible disease. These do not have any indication in terminally ill patients, except in the case of concomitant potentially reversible acute complications. When a DNR (do not resuscitate) order is adopted it should be reassessed periodically. The use, withholding and withdrawal of these extraordinary measures of treatment are subject to a series of medical and ethical requirements, which receive full discussion in this paper.

  14. New Statistical Learning Methods for Estimating Optimal Dynamic Treatment Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying-Qi; Zeng, Donglin; Laber, Eric B.; Kosorok, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic treatment regimes (DTRs) are sequential decision rules for individual patients that can adapt over time to an evolving illness. The goal is to accommodate heterogeneity among patients and find the DTR which will produce the best long term outcome if implemented. We introduce two new statistical learning methods for estimating the optimal DTR, termed backward outcome weighted learning (BOWL), and simultaneous outcome weighted learning (SOWL). These approaches convert individualized treatment selection into an either sequential or simultaneous classification problem, and can thus be applied by modifying existing machine learning techniques. The proposed methods are based on directly maximizing over all DTRs a nonparametric estimator of the expected long-term outcome; this is fundamentally different than regression-based methods, for example Q-learning, which indirectly attempt such maximization and rely heavily on the correctness of postulated regression models. We prove that the resulting rules are consistent, and provide finite sample bounds for the errors using the estimated rules. Simulation results suggest the proposed methods produce superior DTRs compared with Q-learning especially in small samples. We illustrate the methods using data from a clinical trial for smoking cessation. PMID:26236062

  15. Carbide and carbonitride surface treatment method for refractory metals

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Glenn A.; Schildbach, Marcus A.

    1996-01-01

    A carbide and carbonitride surface treatment method for refractory metals is provided, in steps including, heating a part formed of boron, chromium, hafnium, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, titanium, tungsten or zirconium, or alloys thereof, in an evacuated chamber and then introducing reaction gases including nitrogen and hydrogen, either in elemental or water vapor form, which react with a source of elemental carbon to form carbon-containing gaseous reactants which then react with the metal part to form the desired surface layer. Apparatus for practicing the method is also provided, in the form of a carbide and carbonitride surface treatment system (10) including a reaction chamber (14), a source of elemental carbon (17), a heating subassembly (20) and a source of reaction gases (23). Alternative methods of providing the elemental carbon (17) and the reaction gases (23) are provided, as well as methods of supporting the metal part (12), evacuating the chamber (14) with a vacuum subassembly (18) and heating all of the components to the desired temperature.

  16. Noncoplanar beam angle optimization in IMRT treatment planning using pattern search methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Humberto; Dias, Joana M.; Ferreira, Brígida C.; Lopes, Maria C.

    2015-05-01

    Radiation therapy is used to treat localized cancers, aiming to deliver a dose of radiation to the tumor volume to sterilize all cancer cells while minimizing the collateral effects on the surrounding healthy organs and tissues. The planning of radiation therapy treatments requires decisions regarding the angles used for radiation incidence, the fluence intensities and, if multileaf collimators are used, the definition of the leaf sequencing. The beam angle optimization problem consists in finding the optimal number and incidence directions of the irradiation beams. The selection of appropriate radiation incidence directions is important for the quality of the treatment. However, the possibility of improving the quality of treatment plans by an optimized selection of the beam incidences is seldom done in the clinical practice. Adding the possibility for noncoplanar incidences is even more rarely used. Nevertheless, the advantage of noncoplanar beams is well known. The optimization of noncoplanar beam incidences may further allow the reduction of the number of beams needed to reach a clinically acceptable plan. In this paper we present the benefits of using pattern search methods for the optimization of the highly non-convex noncoplanar beam angle optimization problem.

  17. [Contemporary methods of treatment in local advanced prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Brzozowska, Anna; Mazurkiewicz, Maria; Starosławska, Elzbieta; Stasiewicz, Dominika; Mocarska, Agnieszka; Burdan, Franciszek

    2012-10-01

    The prostate cancer is one of the most often cancers amongst males. Its frequency is increasing with age. Thanks to widespread of screening denomination of specific prostate specific antigen (PSA), ultrasonography including the one in transrectal (TRUS), computed tomography, magnetic resonance and especially the awareness of society, the number of patients with low local advance of illness is increasing. The basic method of treatment in such cases is still the surgical removal of prostate with seminal bladder or radiotherapy. To this purpose tele-(IMRT, VMAT) or brachytherapy (J125, Ir192, Pa103) is used. In patients with higher risk of progression the radiotherapy may be associated with hormonotherapy (total androgen blockage-LH-RH analog and androgen). Despite numerous clinical researches conducted there is still no selection of optimal sequence of particular methods. Moreover, no explicit effectiveness was determined. The general rule of treatment in patients suffering from prostate cancer still remains individual selection of therapeutic treatment depending on the age of a patient, general condition and especially patient's general preferences. In case of elderly patients and patients with low risk of progression, recommendation of direct observation including systematical PSA denomination, clinical transrectal examination, TRUS, MR of smaller pelvis or scintigraphy of the whole skeleton may be considered.

  18. Bulky waste quantities and treatment methods in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anna W; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-02-01

    Bulky waste is a significant and increasing waste stream in Denmark. However, only little research has been done on its composition and treatment. In the present study, data about collection methods, waste quantities and treatment methods for bulky waste were obtained from two municipalities. In addition a sorting analysis was conducted on combustible waste, which is a major fraction of bulky waste in Denmark. The generation of bulky waste was found to be 150-250 kg capita(-1) year(-1), and 90% of the waste was collected at recycling centres; the rest through kerbside collection. Twelve main fractions were identified of which ten were recyclable and constituted 50-60% of the total quantity. The others were combustible waste for incineration (30-40%) and non-combustible waste for landfilling (10%). The largest fractions by mass were combustible waste, bricks and tile, concrete, non-combustible waste, wood, and metal scrap, which together made up more than 90% of the total waste amounts. The amount of combustible waste could be significantly reduced through better sorting. Many of the waste fractions consisted of composite products that underwent thorough separation before being recycled. The recyclable materials were in many cases exported to other countries which made it difficult to track their destination and further treatment.

  19. Comparison of treatment plans: a retrospective study by the method of radiobiological evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puzhakkal, Niyas; Kallikuzhiyil Kochunny, Abdullah; Manthala Padannayil, Noufal; Singh, Navin; Elavan Chalil, Jumanath; Kulangarakath Umer, Jamshad

    2016-09-01

    There are many situations in radiotherapy where multiple treatment plans need to be compared for selection of an optimal plan. In this study we performed the radiobiological method of plan evaluation to verify the treatment plan comparison procedure of our clinical practice. We estimated and correlated various radiobiological dose indices with physical dose metrics for a total of 30 patients representing typical cases of head and neck, prostate and brain tumors. Three sets of plans along with a clinically approved plan (final plan) treated by either Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) or Rapid Arc (RA) techniques were considered. The study yielded improved target coverage for final plans, however, no appreciable differences in doses and the complication probabilities of organs at risk were noticed. Even though all four plans showed adequate dose distributions, from dosimetric point of view, the final plan had more acceptable dose distribution. The estimated biological outcome and dose volume histogram data showed least differences between plans for IMRT when compared to RA. Our retrospective study based on 120 plans, validated the radiobiological method of plan evaluation. The tumor cure or normal tissue complication probabilities were found to be correlated with the corresponding physical dose indices.

  20. Apparatus and method for ultrasonic treatment of a liquid

    DOEpatents

    Chandler, Darrell P [Richland, WA; Posakony, Gerald J [Richland, WA; Bond, Leonard J [Richland, WA; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J [Richland, WA

    2003-01-14

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for ultrasonically treating a liquid to generate a product. The apparatus is capable of treating a continuously-flowing, or intermittently-flowing, liquid along a line segment coincident with the flow path of the liquid. The apparatus has one or more ultrasonic transducers positioned asymmetrically about the line segment. The ultrasonic field encompasses the line segment and the ultrasonic energy may be concentrated along the line segment. Lysing treatments have been successfully achieved with efficiencies of greater than 99% using ultrasound at MHz frequencies without erosion or heating problems and without the need for chemical or mechanical pretreatment, or contrast agents. The present invention overcomes drawbacks of current ultrasonic treatments beyond lysing and opens up new sonochemical and sonophysical processing opportunities.

  1. Physiotherapy in the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders: a comparative study of four treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Gray, R J; Quayle, A A; Hall, C A; Schofield, M A

    1994-04-09

    Temporomandibular joint pain dysfunction syndrome (TMJPDS) comprises of a constellation of signs and symptoms including joint tenderness and pain on function, restricted jaw movement, clicking, jaw locking and tenderness in the muscles of mastication. Headache may also be a feature. Physiotherapy is commonly employed in the treatment of this condition but there is little published material reporting the relative efficacy of the different types of treatment currently available. Further, no attempt seems to have been made to compare the costs of physiotherapy with other forms of treatment of this disorder such as occlusal splint therapy. This paper reports a comparative evaluation of four different physiotherapy treatments and placebo in the management of TMJPDS and comments on their cost benefit aspects compared with that of splint therapy. The four methods of physiotherapy tested were short-wave diathermy, megapulse, ultrasound and soft laser. There was no statistically significant difference in success rate between any of the four tested (range 70.4-77.7%) although each individually was significantly better than placebo treatment. The time of improvement appeared to vary between the four methods.

  2. LIMS user acceptance testing.

    PubMed

    Klein, Corbett S

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) play a key role in the pharmaceutical industry. Thorough and accurate validation of such systems is critical and is a regulatory requirement. LIMS user acceptance testing is one aspect of this testing and enables the user to make a decision to accept or reject implementation of the system. This paper discusses key elements in facilitating the development and execution of a LIMS User Acceptance Test Plan (UATP).

  3. On Maximum FODO Acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Yuri Konstantinovich

    2014-12-24

    This note illustrates maximum acceptance of FODO quadrupole focusing channel. Acceptance is the largest Floquet ellipse of a matched beam: A = $\\frac{a^2}{β}$$_{max}$ where a is the aperture of the channel and βmax is the largest value of beta-function in the channel. If aperture of the channel is restricted by a circle of radius a, the s-s acceptance is available for particles oscillating at median plane, y=0. Particles outside median plane will occupy smaller phase space area. In x-y plane, cross section of the accepted beam has a shape of ellipse with truncated boundaries.

  4. A Pilot Study of an mHealth Application for Healthcare Workers: Poor Uptake Despite High Reported Acceptability at a Rural South African Community-Based MDR-TB Treatment Program

    PubMed Central

    Chaiyachati, Krisda H.; Loveday, Marian; Lorenz, Stephen; Lesh, Neal; Larkan, Lee-Megan; Cinti, Sandro; Friedland, Gerald H.; Haberer, Jessica E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction As the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal addresses a growing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) epidemic by shifting care and treatment from trained specialty centers to community hospitals, delivering and monitoring MDR-TB therapy has presented new challenges. In particular, tracking and reporting adverse clinical events have been difficult for mobile healthcare workers (HCWs), trained health professionals who travel daily to patient homes to administer and monitor therapy. We designed and piloted a mobile phone application (Mobilize) for mobile HCWs that electronically standardized the recording and tracking of MDR-TB patients on low-cost, functional phones. Objective We assess the acceptability and feasibility of using Mobilize to record and submit adverse events forms weekly during the intensive phase of MDR-TB therapy and evaluate mobile HCW perceptions throughout the pilot period. Methods All five mobile HCWs at one site were trained and provided with phones. Utilizing a mixed-methods evaluation, mobile HCWs’ usage patterns were tracked electronically for seven months and analyzed. Qualitative focus groups and questionnaires were designed to understand the impact of mobile phone technology on the work environment. Results Mobile HCWs submitted nine of 33 (27%) expected adverse events forms, conflicting with qualitative results in which mobile HCWs stated that Mobilize improved adverse events communication, helped their daily workflow, and could be successfully expanded to other health interventions. When presented with the conflict between their expressed views and actual practice, mobile HCWs cited forgetfulness and believed patients should take more responsibility for their own care. Discussion This pilot experience demonstrated poor uptake by HCWs despite positive responses to using mHealth. Though our results should be interpreted cautiously because of the small number of mobile HCWs and MDR-TB patients in this study, we

  5. Non-dietary methods in the treatment of celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This is a selective review of the literature concerning the methods of celiac disease treatment, which can be an alternative to a gluten-free diet. The most advanced studies are devoted to the larazotide acetate (AT-1001, human zonulin inhibitor) and prolyl-endopeptidases degrading toxic gluten peptides (ALV003, AN-PEP). It is estimated that they will be registered within a few years. They will not become an alternative to the gluten-free diet but rather a supplement to it, which will enable patients to ease the nutritional restrictions. PMID:25960809

  6. An Alternative Surgical Method for Treatment of Osteoid Osteoma.

    PubMed

    Gökalp, Mehmet Ata; Gözen, Abdurrahim; Ünsal, Seyyid Şerif; Önder, Haci; Güner, Savaş

    2016-02-22

    BACKGROUND An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that tends to be <1 cm in size. The tumor is characterized by night-time pain that may be relieved by aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Osteoid osteoma can be treated with various conservative and surgical methods, but these have some risks and difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to present an alternative treatment method for osteoid osteoma and the results we obtained. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the period from 2010 to 2014, 10 patients with osteoid osteoma underwent nidus excision by using a safe alternative method in an operating room (OR) with no computed tomography (CT). The localization of the tumor was determined by use of a CT-guided Kirschner wire in the radiology unit, then, in the OR the surgical intervention was performed without removing the Kirschner wire. RESULTS Following the alternative intervention, all the patients were completely relieved of pain. In the follow-up, no recurrence or complication occurred. CONCLUSIONS The presented alternative method for treating osteoid osteoma is an efficient and practical procedure for surgeons working in clinics that lack specialized equipment.

  7. An Alternative Surgical Method for Treatment of Osteoid Osteoma

    PubMed Central

    Gökalp, Mehmet Ata; Gözen, Abdurrahim; Ünsal, Seyyid Şerif; Önder, Haci; Güner, Savaş

    2016-01-01

    Background An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that tends to be <1 cm in size. The tumor is characterized by night-time pain that may be relieved by aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Osteoid osteoma can be treated with various conservative and surgical methods, but these have some risks and difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to present an alternative treatment method for osteoid osteoma and the results we obtained. Material/Methods In the period from 2010 to 2014, 10 patients with osteoid osteoma underwent nidus excision by using a safe alternative method in an operating room (OR) with no computed tomography (CT). The localization of the tumor was determined by use of a CT-guided Kirschner wire in the radiology unit, then, in the OR the surgical intervention was performed without removing the Kirschner wire. Results Following the alternative intervention, all the patients were completely relieved of pain. In the follow-up, no recurrence or complication occurred. Conclusions The presented alternative method for treating osteoid osteoma is an efficient and practical procedure for surgeons working in clinics that lack specialized equipment. PMID:26898923

  8. [A method of synthesizing cicada sound for treatment of tinnitus].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yangjing; He, Peiyu; Pan, Fan; Cui, Tao; Wang, Haiyan

    2013-06-01

    Masking therapy can make patients accustom to tinnitus. This therapy is safe and easy to implement, so that it has become a widely used treatment of curing tinnitus. According to surveys of tinnitus sounds, cicada sound is one of the most usual tinnituses. Meanwhile, we have not hitherto found published papers concerning how to synthesize cicada sound and to use it to ameliorate tinnitus. Inspired by the human acoustics theory, we proposed a method to synthesize medical masking sound and to realize the diversity by illustrating the process of synthesizing various cicada sounds. In addition, energy attenuation problem in spectrum shifting process has been successfully solved. Simulation results indicated that the proposed method achieved decent results and would have practical value for the future applications.

  9. Apparatus and method for high dose rate brachytherapy radiation treatment

    DOEpatents

    Macey, Daniel J.; Majewski, Stanislaw; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Smith, Mark Frederick; Kross, Brian James

    2005-01-25

    A method and apparatus for the in vivo location and tracking of a radioactive seed source during and after brachytherapy treatment. The method comprises obtaining multiple views of the seed source in a living organism using: 1) a single PSPMT detector that is exposed through a multiplicity of pinholes thereby obtaining a plurality of images from a single angle; 2) a single PSPMT detector that may obtain an image through a single pinhole or a plurality of pinholes from a plurality of angles through movement of the detector; or 3) a plurality of PSPMT detectors that obtain a plurality of views from different angles simultaneously or virtually simultaneously. The plurality of images obtained from these various techniques, through angular displacement of the various acquired images, provide the information required to generate the three dimensional images needed to define the location of the radioactive seed source within the body of the living organism.

  10. [Analysis of phonosurgical methods of treatment in spasmodic dysphonia].

    PubMed

    Kosztyła-Hojna, Bożena; Berger, Greta; Zdrojkowski, Maciej

    2017-02-20

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is rather a rare voice disorder. It is most often seen in woman aged 40-50. The disease is caused by deep emotional and neurological disorders of extrapyramidal system. Two main clinical forms of SD are distinguished: about 90% of cases - adductor spasmodic dysphonia and abductor spasmodic dysphonia roughly 10%. Conservative therapy does not always yield sufficient effects. Botulinum toxin - type A injections into the thyroarytenoid muscle are also used in therapy. Though results are temporary and reversible. Among phonosurgical methods thyroplasty type II according to Isshiki and tyroarytenoid muscle myectomy (TAM) should be also mentioned among phonosurgical methods. The aim of the work is to evaluate results of conservative and phonosurgical treatment of SD. Spasmodic dysphonia markedly restricts communication process of patients and public relations both social and occupational.

  11. Acupuncture as a Complementary Method of Traditional Psoriasis Treatment: Myth or Reality?

    PubMed

    Mahović, Darija; Mrsić, Fanika

    2016-08-01

    Dear Editor, the practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine described psoriasis some 2000 years ago (1). Psoriasis vulgaris is a common, chronic inflammatory skin disease whose worldwide prevalence ranges from 0.1-3% (2,3). Understanding the role of the immune system in psoriasis and the interplay between the innate and adaptive immune system has helped to manage this complex disease, which affects patients far beyond the skin changes themselves (2). In addition to the usual and widely accepted methods of treatment of psoriasis, including topical therapies, phototherapy, and conventional and biological systemic therapies, data can be found in the literature that suggest a favorable effect of acupuncture on the course of psoriasis (4,5). Despite that, this complementary method of traditional treatment of various diseases is not yet widely accepted worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), acupuncture has been an officially recognized method of treatment for more than 50 diseases from 1979 (5). At the Department of Neurology at the University Hospital Center Zagreb, acupuncture has been used since 2011 for the treatment of various types of headaches, trigeminal neuralgia, and spinal pain syndromes. We report the case of a patient with a known history of psoriasis who was treated for chronic migraines with acupuncture. The 49-year-old female patient was examined for headache of a pulsating character that she had had for 16 years. The headache was mainly located on the left side of head and accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and both photophobia and phonophobia, and there was a worsening of symptoms upon exertion. The headaches were occurring once a week with an average duration of 2-3 continuous days. The patient also had frequent mild headaches. Additionally, the patient was diagnosed with psoriasis at the age of 29 and was occasionally treated with phototherapy. Systemic therapy for psoriasis had not been given to the patient thus far. After the

  12. The treatment of radioactive wastewater by ultrasonic standing wave method.

    PubMed

    Su-Xia, Hou; Ji-Jun, Luo; Bin, He; Ru-Song, Li; Tao, Shen

    2014-06-15

    The radiation hazards of radionuclide arising from the storage of nuclear weapons cannot be ignored to the operators. Ultrasonic standing wave methods can be considered as the green cleaning separation techniques with high efficiency. The application of ultrasonic standing wave methods for liquid radioactive wastes treatment requires solving many problems connected with the proper selection of the frequency and power of ultrasonic transducers, and the processing time, etc. Based on the model of one single suspended radioactive particle subjected to in the field of ultrasonic standing wave, the principle of the treatment of low-level radioactive wastewater by ultrasound was analyzed. The theoretical and simulation results show that under the action of ultrasonic standing wave, the particle will move toward the wave node plane, and the time of particle reaching the plane become shorter when the radius of particle and the frequency and power of ultrasound was enlarged. The experimental results show that the radioactive concentration of wastewater could be reduced from 400 Bq L(-1) to 9.3 Bq L(-1) and the decontamination efficiency was 97.68%. The decontamination efficiency could not be obviously improved by further increasing the treating time.

  13. Simplified methods for the prolonged treatment of fish diseases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.

    1939-01-01

    The prevention or control of epidemics of fish diseases by applying a disinfecting solution in a uniform concentration directly to the water supply of a fish pond or trough for a definite period of time has been exceedingly slow in development. In so far as can be determined, the original idea should be credited to. Marsh and Robinson (1910). In their work on the control of algae in fish ponds by the continuous application of dilute copper sulphate solution, administered to the inflowing water supply by means of a floating syphon, they suggested this method as a possibility in the treatment of fish diseases. Following their work, this commendable idea seems to have remained quite dormant and apparently forgotten until Hess (1930) revived it twenty or more years later. This worker found that a prolonged immersion in a dilute disinfecting bath was more efficacious in remowng fluke parasites from goldfish than was the customary short "hand dip" method. Kingsbury and Embody (1932) later adapted the idea of a prolonged treatment to running water by the use of a float valve for maintaining a constant level in a reservoir, resulting in a constant flow to the pond or trough to be treated. Shortly thereafter, Fish (1933) modified the floating syphon of Marsh and Robinson, as it was a simpler apparatus than that of Kingsbury and Embody.

  14. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  15. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Field methods to measure aquatic plant treatment method efficacy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Killgore, K.J.; Payne, B.S.

    1984-04-01

    The Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP) of the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is developing field techniques to measure treatment efficacy and to determine site characteristics that influence the treatment efficacy. Treatment efficacy is considered a quantitative determination of the extent and duration of changes in problem aquatic plant populations attributable to the use of a treatment method (i.e., chemical, mechanical, biological, environmental). Depending on the plant species, efficacy can be determined or indicated by changes in biomass, areal distribution, or height of an aquatic plant in response to treatment. Aquatic plant biomass is sampled with a WES aquatic biomass sampler; areal distribution of aquatic plants is determined by aerial photography or with an electronic positioning system; and submersed aquatic plant height is measured with a fathometer (depth recorder) used with an electronic positioning and repositioning system (AGNAV). The APCRP has also developed field techniques to determine site characteristics that influence efficacy using commercially available instrumentation. This instrumentation can be used to measure treatment efficacy and to determine site characteristics simultaneously.

  16. Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) versus Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for Mixed Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arch, Joanna J.; Eifert, Georg H.; Davies, Carolyn; Vilardaga, Jennifer C. Plumb; Rose, Raphael D.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Randomized comparisons of acceptance-based treatments with traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders are lacking. To address this gap, we compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) to CBT for heterogeneous anxiety disorders. Method: One hundred twenty-eight individuals (52% female, mean age = 38, 33%…

  17. Motivating Low Socioeconomic Status Smokers to Accept Evidence-Based Smoking Cessation Treatment: A Brief Intervention for the Community Agency Setting

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Kevin M.; TerBeek, Erin G.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES), smoke at very high rates but make fewer and less successful quit attempts than do other smokers. Low-SES smokers have specific beliefs about smoking and quitting that may serve as barriers to making quit attempts. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of a brief intervention addressing these beliefs on making calls to a telephone quit line. Methods: Of 522 smokers entering the study at 5 Wisconsin Salvation Army (SA) sites, 102 expressed motivation to quit and served as a comparison group. The remaining 420 smokers were not motivated to quit and were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: an intervention group who received brief counseling focused on cessation goals and beliefs, an attention-control group, and a low contact control group. The primary outcome was the rate at which smokers made a call to the Wisconsin tobacco quit line (WTQL) during their SA visit. Secondary outcome measures included motivational variables, stage of change, changes in beliefs about smoking and quitting, and self-reported abstinence. Results: Unmotivated participants in the intervention condition called the WTQL at a significantly higher rate (12.2%) than did those in the 2 control conditions (2.2% and 1.4%) (p < .01) and approached the rate of calling by participants who were initially motivated to quit (15.7%). Intervention condition participants also showed improved motivation to quit and stage of change. Conclusions: A brief, targeted motivational intervention focusing on cessation goals and beliefs increased the initiation of an evidence-based tobacco cessation treatment by low-SES smokers. PMID:26180226

  18. Moderators and Non-Specific Predictors of Treatment Outcome for Anxiety Disorders : A Comparison of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Arch, Joanna J.; Rosenfield, David; Craske, Michelle G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Understanding for whom, and under what conditions, treatments exert their greatest effects is essential for developing personalized medicine. Research investigating moderators of outcome among evidence-based treatments for anxiety disorders is lacking. The current study examined several theory-driven and atheoretical putative moderators…

  19. Willingness to Know the Cause of Death and Hypothetical Acceptability of the Minimally Invasive Autopsy in Six Diverse African and Asian Settings: A Mixed Methods Socio-Behavioural Study

    PubMed Central

    Maixenchs, Maria; Anselmo, Rui; Zielinski-Gutiérrez, Emily; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Akello, Clarah; Zaidi, S. Shujaat H.; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Diarra, Kounandji; Djitèye, Mahamane; Dembélé, Roukiatou; Sow, Samba; Minsoko, Pamela Cathérine Angoissa; Agnandji, Selidji Todagbe; Ismail, Mamudo R.; Carrilho, Carla; Ordi, Jaume; Menéndez, Clara; Bassat, Quique

    2016-01-01

    Background The minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) is being investigated as an alternative to complete diagnostic autopsies for cause of death (CoD) investigation. Before potential implementation of the MIA in settings where post-mortem procedures are unusual, a thorough assessment of its feasibility and acceptability is essential. Methods and Findings We conducted a socio-behavioural study at the community level to understand local attitudes and perceptions related to death and the hypothetical feasibility and acceptability of conducting MIAs in six distinct settings in Gabon, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, and Pakistan. A total of 504 interviews (135 key informants, 175 health providers [including formal health professionals and traditional or informal health providers], and 194 relatives of deceased people) were conducted. The constructs “willingness to know the CoD” and “hypothetical acceptability of MIAs” were quantified and analysed using the framework analysis approach to compare the occurrence of themes related to acceptability across participants. Overall, 75% (379/504) of the participants would be willing to know the CoD of a relative. The overall hypothetical acceptability of MIA on a relative was 73% (366/504). The idea of the MIA was acceptable because of its perceived simplicity and rapidity and particularly for not “mutilating” the body. Further, MIAs were believed to help prevent infectious diseases, address hereditary diseases, clarify the CoD, and avoid witchcraft accusations and conflicts within families. The main concerns regarding the procedure included the potential breach of confidentiality on the CoD, the misperception of organ removal, and the incompatibility with some religious beliefs. Formal health professionals were concerned about possible contradictions between the MIA findings and the clinical pre-mortem diagnoses. Acceptability of the MIA was equally high among Christian and Islamic communities. However, in the two predominantly

  20. Treatment of domain integrals in boundary element methods

    SciTech Connect

    Nintcheu Fata, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    A systematic and rigorous technique to calculate domain integrals without a volume-fitted mesh has been developed and validated in the context of a boundary element approximation. In the proposed approach, a domain integral involving a continuous or weakly-singular integrand is first converted into a surface integral by means of straight-path integrals that intersect the underlying domain. Then, the resulting surface integral is carried out either via analytic integration over boundary elements or by use of standard quadrature rules. This domain-to-boundary integral transformation is derived from an extension of the fundamental theorem of calculus to higher dimension, and the divergence theorem. In establishing the method, it is shown that the higher-dimensional version of the first fundamental theorem of calculus corresponds to the well-known Poincare lemma. The proposed technique can be employed to evaluate integrals defined over simply- or multiply-connected domains with Lipschitz boundaries which are embedded in an Euclidean space of arbitrary but finite dimension. Combined with the singular treatment of surface integrals that is widely available in the literature, this approach can also be utilized to effectively deal with boundary-value problems involving non-homogeneous source terms by way of a collocation or a Galerkin boundary integral equation method using only the prescribed surface discretization. Sample problems associated with the three-dimensional Poisson equation and featuring the Newton potential are successfully solved by a constant element collocation method to validate this study.

  1. Therapeutic efficacy, secondary effects, and patient acceptability of 10% sulfur in either pork fat or cold cream for the treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Avila-Romay, A; Alvarez-Franco, M; Ruiz-Maldonado, R

    1991-03-01

    Twenty-six children with scabies and 32 contacts were treated with 10% sulfur in cold cream. A 100% clinical cure rate was observed, although 56.8% of patients experienced some kind of mild, transient cutaneous reaction. An additional 25 children with scabies and 28 contacts were treated with 10% sulfur and 1% salicylic acid in pork fat. Of these, 88% were clinically cured and 73.5% had some cutaneous adverse effects. In both groups, most adverse effects were related to skin dryness or postscabetic reaction. The cold cream base was more acceptable to patients than the pork fat base. However, the pork fat base was significantly cheaper and easier to obtain than the cold cream base, and 238 times less expensive than the cheapest commercial scabicidal medication available in the United States.

  2. Treatment methods for breaking certain oil and water emulsions

    DOEpatents

    Sealock, Jr., L. John; Baker, Eddie G.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed are treatment methods for breaking emulsions of petroleum oil and salt water, fatty oil and water, and those resulting from liquefication of organic material. The emulsions are broken by heating to a predetermined temperature at or above about 200.degree. C. and pressurizing to a predetermined pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the predetermined temperature to produce a heated and pressurized fluid. The heated and pressurized fluid is contained in a single vessel at the predetermined temperature and pressure for a predetermined period of time to effectively separate the emulsion into substantially distinct first and second phases, the first phase comprising primarily the petroleum oil, the second phase comprising primarily the water. The first and second phases are separately withdrawn from the vessel at a withdraw temperature between about 200.degree. C. and 374.degree. C. and a withdraw pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the withdraw temperature. Where solids are present in the certain emulsions, the above described treatment may also effectively separate the certain emulsion into a substantially distinct third phase comprising primarily the solids.

  3. Primary enuresis: relative success of three methods of treatment.

    PubMed Central

    McKendry, J. B.; Stewart, D. A.; Khanna, F.; Netley, C.

    1975-01-01

    A total of 169 children with primary enuresis were treated by one of three methods--use of a special diet, imipramine, or a waking device (the Mozes detector). Of 64 who received the diet 1 (1.6%) was cured; of 62 who were treated with imipramine 13 (20.9%) were cured; and of 43 who used the detector 23 (53.5%) were cured. Results at follow-up remained substantially unchanged for cure. Improvement rate without cure during treatment was higher for the children treated with imipramine than for those treated with the detector, but at follow-up the reverse was true. Parents of children who received the special diet, because they were unimpressed by the rate of improvement, would not permit their children to continue this form of therapy for longer than 1 or 2 months. PMID:1192312

  4. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Presents the Newbery Medal acceptance speech of Russell Freedman, writer of children's nonfiction. Discusses the place of nonfiction in the world of children's literature, the evolution of children's biographies, and the author's work on "Lincoln." (ARH)

  5. Comprehensive review of platelet storage methods for use in the treatment of active hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Milford, Elissa M; Reade, Michael C

    2016-04-01

    This review considers the various methods currently in use, or under investigation, for the storage of platelets intended for use in the treatment of active hemorrhage. The current standard practice of storing platelets at room temperature (RT) (20°C-24°C) optimizes circulating time, but at the expense of hemostatic function and logistical considerations. A number of alternatives are under investigation. Novel storage media additives appear to attenuate the deleterious changes that affect RT stored platelets. Cold storage was originally abandoned due to the poor circulating time of platelets stored at 4°C, but such platelets may actually be more hemostatically effective, with a number of other advantages, compared to RT stored platelets. Periodically re-warming cold stored platelets (temperature cycling, TC) may combine the hemostatic efficacy of cold stored platelets with the longer circulating times of RT storage. Alternatives to liquid storage include cryopreservation (freezing) or lyophilization (freeze-drying). The former has had some limited clinical use and larger clinical trials are underway, while the latter is still in the preclinical stage with promising in vitro and in vivo results. The importance of platelet transfusion in the management of active hemorrhage is now well accepted, so it is timely that platelet storage methods are reviewed with consideration of not only their circulating time, but also their hemostatic efficacy.

  6. A Requirements-Driven Optimization Method for Acoustic Treatment Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic treatment designers have long been able to target specific noise sources inside turbofan engines. Facesheet porosity and cavity depth are key design variables of perforate-over-honeycomb liners that determine levels of noise suppression as well as the frequencies at which suppression occurs. Layers of these structures can be combined to create a robust attenuation spectrum that covers a wide range of frequencies. Looking to the future, rapidly-emerging additive manufacturing technologies are enabling new liners with multiple degrees of freedom, and new adaptive liners with variable impedance are showing promise. More than ever, there is greater flexibility and freedom in liner design. Subject to practical considerations, liner design variables may be manipulated to achieve a target attenuation spectrum. But characteristics of the ideal attenuation spectrum can be difficult to know. Many multidisciplinary system effects govern how engine noise sources contribute to community noise. Given a hardwall fan noise source to be suppressed, and using an analytical certification noise model to compute a community noise measure of merit, the optimal attenuation spectrum can be derived using multidisciplinary systems analysis methods. The subject of this paper is an analytical method that derives the ideal target attenuation spectrum that minimizes noise perceived by observers on the ground.

  7. Promoviendo una Alimentación Saludable (PAS) design and methods: engaging Latino families in eating disorder treatment.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M; Hamer, Robert M; Baucom, Donald H

    2013-05-01

    The use of culturally sensitive intervention could improve mental health care for the eating disorder (ED) treatment in the Latino population. The aim of this report is to describe the rationale, design, and methods of the ongoing study entitled "Engaging Latino families in eating disorders treatment." The primary aim of the study is to compare (a) the combined effect of individual cognitive behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (CBT-BN) that has been previously adapted for the Latino population plus Family Enhanced (FE) modules, with (b) the standard adapted individual CBT-BN in a proof-of-principle study with 40 Latina adults with eating disorders and one relative or significant other per patient. We hypothesize that 1) the feasibility, acceptability, and adherence of participants in CBT-BN+FE will be superior to individual CBT-BN only; 2) relatives in CBT-BN+FE will report greater treatment satisfaction, greater reduction in family conflict, and greater decreases in caregiver burden than relatives in the individual CBT-BN only condition; and 3) patients who participate in CBT-BN+FE will show trends towards greater decreases in ED symptoms compared with patients in CBT-BN only; although power will be limited to detect this difference. However, we predict that they will show greater retention in treatment, greater treatment satisfaction, and greater decreases in family conflict than patients in CBT-BN only. The completion of this investigation will yield important information regarding the acceptability and feasibility of a culturally sensitive evidence-based treatment model for Latinos with eating disorders.

  8. Rectourethral Fistula: Systemic Review of and Experiences With Various Surgical Treatment Methods

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji Hye; Jeon, Byeong Geon; Choi, Sang-Gi; Han, Eon Chul; Ha, Heon-Kyun; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Choe, Eun Kyung; Moon, Sang Hui; Ryoo, Seung-Bum

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A rectourethral fistula (RUF) is an uncommon complication resulting from surgery, radiation or trauma. Although various surgical procedures for the treatment of an RUF have been described, none has gained acceptance as the procedure of choice. The aim of this study was to review our experience with surgical management of RUF. Methods The outcomes of 6 male patients (mean age, 51 years) with an RUF who were operated on by a single surgeon between May 2005 and July 2012 were assessed. Results The causes of the RUF were iatrogenic in four cases (two after radiation therapy for rectal cancer, one after brachytherapy for prostate cancer, and one after surgery for a bladder stone) and traumatic in two cases. Fecal diversion was the initial treatment in five patients. In one patient, fecal diversion was performed simultaneously with definitive repair. Four patients underwent staged repair after a mean of 12 months. Rectal advancement flaps were done for simple, small fistula (n = 2), and flap interpositions (gracilis muscle flap, n = 2; omental flap, n = 1) were done for complex or recurrent fistulae. Urinary strictures and incontinence were observed in patients after gracilis muscle flap interposition, but they were resolved with simple treatments. The mean follow-up period was 28 months, and closure of the fistula was achieved in all five patients (100%) who underwent definitive repairs. The fistula persisted in one patient who refused further definitive surgery after receiving only a fecal diversion. Conclusion Depending on the severity and the recurrence status of RUF, a relatively simple rectal advancement flap repair or a more complex gracilis muscle or omental flap interposition can be used to achieve closure of the fistula. PMID:24639969

  9. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: INNOVATIVE METHODS FOR BIOSLURRY TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The tests reported herein were conducted by IT Corporation (IT), Knoxville, TN, to investigate the feasibility of combined biological and chemical treatments to treat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Bioslurry treatment of PAH-contaminated soils was demonstrated under the...

  10. Flow Cytometry Method Analysis of Apoptosis: No Significant Difference Between EDTA and EDTA-free Trypsin Treatment Procedure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-yan; Nie, Xiao-cui; Ma, Hai-ying; Song, Guo-qing; Zhang, Xiao-tong; Jin, Yu-nan; Yu, Yan-qiu

    2015-04-01

    Flow cytometry method (FCM) is a generally accepted tool to analyze apoptosis. Although apoptosis assay kit was applied by many companies, the manufacturers were not consistent with whether using Trypsin with EDTA to collect the adherent cells. In another words, the influence of EDTA on apoptotic ratio is not clear. In this work, we compared the proportion of apoptotic cells with EDTA or EDTA-free Trypsin treatment by FCM. We concluded that Trypsin with or without EDTA has little influence on the proportion of apoptotic cells. In addition, we found that the ratio of necrosis and apoptosis was different in cells collected by scraping. WAVE2 protein was analyzed as a typical example for movement related protein. WAVE2 expression is elevated in the EDTA Trypsin treated group, compared with EDTA-free Trypsin treatment and scrapping group.

  11. Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.; Lincoln, L.P.

    1992-02-11

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. 3 figs.

  12. Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Peterson, David T.; Wheelock, John T.; Jones, Lawrence L.; Lincoln, Lanny P.

    1992-02-11

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets.

  13. Accepting space radiation risks.

    PubMed

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2010-08-01

    The human exploration of space inevitably involves exposure to radiation. Associated with this exposure are multiple risks, i.e., probabilities that certain aspects of an astronaut's health or performance will be degraded. The management of these risks requires that such probabilities be accurately predicted, that the actual exposures be verified, and that comprehensive records be maintained. Implicit in these actions is the fact that, at some point, a decision has been made to accept a certain level of risk. This paper examines ethical and practical considerations involved in arriving at a determination that risks are acceptable, roles that the parties involved may play, and obligations arising out of reliance on the informed consent paradigm seen as the basis for ethical radiation risk acceptance in space.

  14. An assessment of boiling as a method of household water treatment in South India.

    PubMed

    Juran, Luke; MacDonald, Morgan C

    2014-12-01

    This article scrutinizes the boiling of water in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, India. Boiling, as it is commonly practiced, improves water quality, but its full potential is not being realized. Thus, the objective is to refine the method in practice, promote acceptability, and foster the scalability of boiling and household water treatment (HWT) writ large. The study is based on bacteriological samples from 300 households and 80 public standposts, 14 focus group discussions (FGDs), and 74 household interviews. Collectively, the data fashion both an empirical and ethnographic understanding of boiling. The rate and efficacy of boiling, barriers to and caveats of its adoption, and recommendations for augmenting its practice are detailed. While boiling is scientifically proven to eliminate bacteria, data demonstrate that pragmatics inhibit their total destruction. Furthermore, data and the literature indicate that a range of cultural, economic, and ancillary health factors challenge the uptake of boiling. Fieldwork and resultant knowledge arrive at strategies for overcoming these impediments. The article concludes with recommendations for selecting, introducing, and scaling up HWT mechanisms. A place-based approach that can be sustained over the long-term is espoused, and prolonged exposure by the interveners coupled with meaningful participation of the target population is essential.

  15. Feasibility and Acceptability of Global Positioning System (GPS) Methods to Study the Spatial Contexts of Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City: A P18 Cohort Sub-Study

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Dustin T.; Kapadia, Farzana; Regan, Seann D.; Goedel, William C.; Levy, Michael D.; Barton, Staci C.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Halkitis, Perry N.

    2016-01-01

    Background No global positioning system (GPS) technology study has been conducted among a sample of young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM). As such, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of using GPS methods to understand the spatial context of substance use and sexual risk behaviors among a sample of YMSM in New York City, a high-risk population. Methods Data came from a subsample of the ongoing P18 Cohort Study (n = 75). GPS feasibility and acceptability among participants was measured with: 1) a pre- and post-survey and 2) adherence to the GPS protocol which included returning the GPS device, self-report of charging and carrying the GPS device as well as objective data analyzed from the GPS devices. Analyses of the feasibility surveys were treated as repeated measures as each participant had a pre- and post-feasibility survey. When comparing the similar GPS survey items asked at baseline and at follow-up, we present percentages and associated p-values based on chi-square statistics. Results Participants reported high ratings of pre-GPS acceptability, ease of use, and low levels of wear-related concerns in addition to few concerns related to safety, loss, or appearance, which were maintained after baseline GPS feasibility data collection. The GPS return rate was 100%. Most participants charged and carried the GPS device on most days. Of the total of 75 participants with GPS data, 75 (100%) have at least one hour of GPS data for one day and 63 (84%) had at least one hour on all 7 days. Conclusions Results from this pilot study demonstrate that utilizing GPS methods among YMSM is feasible and acceptable. GPS devices may be used in spatial epidemiology research in YMSM populations to understand place-based determinants of health such as substance use and sexual risk behaviors. PMID:26918766

  16. Behavioral Treatment of Menopausal Hot Flashes: Evaluation by Objective Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germaine, Leonard M.; Freedman, Robert R.

    1984-01-01

    Used latency to hot flash onset under heat stress to evaluate the effects of relaxation treatment or a control procedure in 14 menopausal women. Following treatment, the latency to hot flash onset during heat stress was increased in relaxation subjects. Reported symptom frequency was significantly reduced in relaxation subjects. (BH)

  17. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  18. Acceptance and Mindfulness in Behavior Therapy: A Comparison of Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Alexander L.

    2006-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) are both innovative behavioral treatments that incorporate mindfulness practices and acceptance-based interventions into their treatment packages. Although there are many similarities between these treatments, including the fact that they are part of a newer "wave" in…

  19. SITE EMERGING TECHNOLOGY REPORT: INNOVATIVE METHODS FOR BIOSLURRY TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    IT Corporation (IT), Knoxville, Tennessee, in collaboration with U.S. Environmental protection Agency (EPA), investigated the feasibility of combined biological and chemical oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Bioslurry treatment of PAH-contaminated soils was dem...

  20. Performance acceptance test of a portable instrument to detect uranium in water at the DOE Advanced Waste Water Treatment Plant, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.S.; Weeks, S.J.

    1997-03-28

    The Eppendorf-Biotronik Model IC 2001-2, a portable field ruggedized ion chromatography instrument, was rigorously tested at the DOE Advanced Waste Water Treatment Plant, Fernald, Ohio. This instrument rapidly detected the uranium concentration in water, and has a detection limit in the low ppb range without using the sample concentrating feature. The test set of samples analyzed included: ``Real World`` water samples from the AWWT containing uranium concentrations in the 9--110 ppb range, a sample blank, and a performance evaluation sample. The AWWT samples contained sets of both raw water and acid-preserved water samples. Selected samples were analyzed in quadruplicate to asses the instrument`s precision, and these results were compared with the results from an off-site confirmatory laboratory to assess the instrument`s accuracy. Additional comparisons with on-site laboratory instruments, Chemcheck KPA-11 and Scintrex UA-3 are reported. Overall, the Eppendorf-Biotronik IC 2001-2 performed exceptionally well providing a detection limit in the low ppb region (< 10 ppb) and giving rapid (< 5 minutes) accurate and reproducible analytical results for the AWWT, ``real world``, water samples with uranium concentrations in the region of interest (10--40 ppb). The per sample operating cost for this instrument is equivalent to the per sample cost for the currently used KPA. The time required to analyze a sample and provide a result is approximately the same for the CI 2001-2, KPA, and Scintrex instruments.

  1. Selenium contaminated waters: An overview of analytical methods, treatment options and recent advances in sorption methods.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sílvia; Ungureanu, Gabriela; Boaventura, Rui; Botelho, Cidália

    2015-07-15

    Selenium is an essential trace element for many organisms, including humans, but it is bioaccumulative and toxic at higher than homeostatic levels. Both selenium deficiency and toxicity are problems around the world. Mines, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries and agriculture are important examples of anthropogenic sources, generating contaminated waters and wastewaters. For reasons of human health and ecotoxicity, selenium concentration has to be controlled in drinking-water and in wastewater, as it is a potential pollutant of water bodies. This review article provides firstly a general overview about selenium distribution, sources, chemistry, toxicity and environmental impact. Analytical techniques used for Se determination and speciation and water and wastewater treatment options are reviewed. In particular, published works on adsorption as a treatment method for Se removal from aqueous solutions are critically analyzed. Recent published literature has given particular attention to the development and search for effective adsorbents, including low-cost alternative materials. Published works mostly consist in exploratory findings and laboratory-scale experiments. Binary metal oxides and LDHs (layered double hydroxides) have presented excellent adsorption capacities for selenium species. Unconventional sorbents (algae, agricultural wastes and other biomaterials), in raw or modified forms, have also led to very interesting results with the advantage of their availability and low-cost. Some directions to be considered in future works are also suggested.

  2. Research on bodies of the executed in German anatomy: an accepted method that changed during the Third Reich. Study of anatomical journals from 1924 to 1951.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2013-04-01

    While it is known that bodies of the executed were used for anatomical research in Germany during the Third Reich, it is unclear whether this type of work was unique to the time period or more common in Germany than elsewhere. The dissected persons and the anatomists involved have not been fully investigated. This study of anatomical journals from 1924 to 1951 shows that 166 out of 7,438 [2.2%] German language articles mentioned the use of "material" from the bodies of executed persons. In comparison, only 2 out of 4,702 English language articles explicitly mentioned bodies of the executed. From 1924 to1932, 33 of a total of 3,734 [1%] German articles listed the use of the executed. From 1933 to 1938 the number rose to 46 out of 2,265 [2%], and increased again from 1939 to 1945 to 73 out of 984 [7%]. After the war 15 out of 455 [3%] still dealt with "material" from the executed. German anatomists' familiarity with the use of the executed as a standard for healthy tissues even before 1933 may have contributed to the ease with which they accepted the "opportunities" (large-scale studies and research on women) presented to them by unlimited access to bodies of the executed provided by the abusive National Socialist (NS) legislation and continued using them for some years after the war. German postwar anatomy was built in part on the bodies of NS victims. Information given in some publications will help with further identification of these victims.

  3. Scarless deletion of up to seven methyl-accepting chemotaxis genes with an optimized method highlights key function of CheM in Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Stefanie; Schmidt, Christiane; Walter, Steffi; Bender, Jennifer K; Gerlach, Roman G

    2017-01-01

    Site-directed scarless mutagenesis is an essential tool of modern pathogenesis research. We describe an optimized two-step protocol for genome editing in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to enable multiple sequential mutagenesis steps in a single strain. The system is based on the λ Red recombinase-catalyzed integration of a selectable antibiotics resistance marker followed by replacement of this cassette. Markerless mutants are selected by expressing the meganuclease I-SceI which induces double-strand breaks in bacteria still harboring the resistance locus. Our new dual-functional plasmid pWRG730 allows for heat-inducible expression of the λ Red recombinase and tet-inducible production of I-SceI. Methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP) are transmembrane chemoreceptors for a vast set of environmental signals including amino acids, sugars, ions and oxygen. Based on the sensory input of MCPs, chemotaxis is a key component for Salmonella virulence. To determine the contribution of individual MCPs we sequentially deleted seven MCP genes. The individual mutations were validated by PCR and genetic integrity of the final seven MCP mutant WRG279 was confirmed by whole genome sequencing. The successive MCP mutants were functionally tested in a HeLa cell infection model which revealed increased invasion rates for non-chemotactic mutants and strains lacking the MCP CheM (Tar). The phenotype of WRG279 was reversed with plasmid-based expression of CheM. The complemented WRG279 mutant showed also partially restored chemotaxis in swarming assays on semi-solid agar. Our optimized scarless deletion protocol enables efficient and precise manipulation of the Salmonella genome. As demonstrated with whole genome sequencing, multiple subsequent mutagenesis steps can be realized without the introduction of unwanted mutations. The sequential deletion of seven MCP genes revealed a significant role of CheM for the interaction of S. Typhimurium with host cells which might give

  4. Scarless deletion of up to seven methyl-accepting chemotaxis genes with an optimized method highlights key function of CheM in Salmonella Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Stefanie; Schmidt, Christiane; Walter, Steffi; Bender, Jennifer K.

    2017-01-01

    Site-directed scarless mutagenesis is an essential tool of modern pathogenesis research. We describe an optimized two-step protocol for genome editing in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to enable multiple sequential mutagenesis steps in a single strain. The system is based on the λ Red recombinase-catalyzed integration of a selectable antibiotics resistance marker followed by replacement of this cassette. Markerless mutants are selected by expressing the meganuclease I-SceI which induces double-strand breaks in bacteria still harboring the resistance locus. Our new dual-functional plasmid pWRG730 allows for heat-inducible expression of the λ Red recombinase and tet-inducible production of I-SceI. Methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP) are transmembrane chemoreceptors for a vast set of environmental signals including amino acids, sugars, ions and oxygen. Based on the sensory input of MCPs, chemotaxis is a key component for Salmonella virulence. To determine the contribution of individual MCPs we sequentially deleted seven MCP genes. The individual mutations were validated by PCR and genetic integrity of the final seven MCP mutant WRG279 was confirmed by whole genome sequencing. The successive MCP mutants were functionally tested in a HeLa cell infection model which revealed increased invasion rates for non-chemotactic mutants and strains lacking the MCP CheM (Tar). The phenotype of WRG279 was reversed with plasmid-based expression of CheM. The complemented WRG279 mutant showed also partially restored chemotaxis in swarming assays on semi-solid agar. Our optimized scarless deletion protocol enables efficient and precise manipulation of the Salmonella genome. As demonstrated with whole genome sequencing, multiple subsequent mutagenesis steps can be realized without the introduction of unwanted mutations. The sequential deletion of seven MCP genes revealed a significant role of CheM for the interaction of S. Typhimurium with host cells which might give

  5. Acceptance Test Plan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    7 RD-Ai507 154 CCEPTANCE TEST PLN(U) WESTINGHOUSE DEFENSE ND i/i ELECTRO ICS CENTER BALTIMORE MD DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONS DIY D C KRRiJS 28 JUN...Ln ACCEPTANCE TEST PLAN FOR SPECIAL RELIABILITY TESTS FOR BROADBAND MICROWAVE AMPLIFIER PANEL David C. Kraus, Reliability Engineer WESTINGHOUSE ...ORGANIZATION b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7g& NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION tIf appdeg ble) WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CORP. - NAVAL RESEARCH LABORATORY e. AOORES$ (Ci7t

  6. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  7. Acceptability of a Community-Based Outreach HIV-Testing Intervention Using Oral Fluid Collection Devices and Web-Based HIV Test Result Collection Among Sub-Saharan African Migrants: A Mixed-Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Manirankunda, Lazare; Platteau, Tom; Albers, Laura; Fransen, Katrien; Vermoesen, Tine; Namanya, Fiona; Nöstlinger, Christiana

    2016-01-01

    Background Late human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis is common among sub-Saharan African migrants. To address their barriers to HIV testing uptake and improve timely HIV diagnoses and linkage to care, the outreach HIV testing intervention, “swab2know,” was developed. It combined a community-based approach with innovative testing methods: oral fluid self-sampling and the choice between Web-based HIV test result collections using a secured website or post-test counseling at a sexual health clinic. The sessions included an informational speech delivered by a physician of sub-Saharan African origin and testimonies by community members living with HIV. Objectives The objectives of this study were to evaluate the intervention’s acceptability among sub-Saharan African migrants and its potential to reach subgroups at higher risk for HIV infection and to identify facilitators and barriers for HIV testing uptake. Methods This mixed-method study combined qualitative (participant observations and informal interviews with testers and nontesters) and quantitative data (paper–pencil survey, laboratory data, and result collection files). Data were analyzed using a content analytical approach for qualitative and univariate analysis for quantitative data. Results A total of 10 testing sessions were organized in sub-Saharan African migrant community venues in the city of Antwerp, Belgium, between December 2012 and June 2013. Overall, 18.2% of all people present (N=780) underwent HIV testing; 29.8% of them tested for HIV for the first time, 22.3% did not have a general practitioner, and 21.5% reported 2 or more sexual partners (last 3 months). Overall, 56.3% of participants chose to collect their HIV test results via the protected website. In total, 78.9% collected their results. The qualitative analysis of 137 participant observation field notes showed that personal needs and Internet literacy determined the choice of result collection method. Generally, the oral

  8. A code for hadrontherapy treatment planning with the voxelscan method.

    PubMed

    Berga, S; Bourhaleb, F; Cirio, R; Derkaoui, J; Gallice, B; Hamal, M; Marchetto, F; Rolando, V; Viscomi, S

    2000-11-01

    A code for the implementation of treatment plannings in hadrontherapy with an active scan beam is presented. The package can determine the fluence and energy of the beams for several thousand voxels in a few minutes. The performances of the program have been tested with a full simulation.

  9. [The new pathogenetic treatment of cervical dystonia: rationale, methods, outcomes].

    PubMed

    Naryshkin, A G; Preobrazhenskaia, I G; Timofeev, I S; Filimonov, V N; Sheliakin, A M

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents data obtained from studies of the impact of the otolithic apparatus of the inner ear on the degree of symptoms of cervical dystonia. The findings make it possible to substantiate a pathogenetic treatment of this disease, which involves intratimpanal unilateral injection of the vestibulotoxic antibiotic streptomycin. The results achieved and the mechanisms of the therapeutical effect observed are discussed.

  10. Use of microdoses for induction of buprenorphine treatment with overlapping full opioid agonist use: the Bernese method

    PubMed Central

    Hämmig, Robert; Kemter, Antje; Strasser, Johannes; von Bardeleben, Ulrich; Gugger, Barbara; Walter, Marc; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Vogel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Background Buprenorphine is a partial µ-opioid receptor agonist used for maintenance treatment of opioid dependence. Because of the partial agonism and high receptor affinity, it may precipitate withdrawal symptoms during induction in persons on full µ-opioid receptor agonists. Therefore, current guidelines and drug labels recommend leaving a sufficient time period since the last full agonist use, waiting for clear and objective withdrawal symptoms, and reducing pre-existing full agonist therapies before administering buprenorphine. However, even with these precautions, for many patients the induction of buprenorphine is a difficult experience, due to withdrawal symptoms. Furthermore, tapering of the full agonist bears the risk of relapse to illicit opioid use. Cases We present two cases of successful initiation of buprenorphine treatment with the Bernese method, ie, gradual induction overlapping with full agonist use. The first patient began buprenorphine with overlapping street heroin use after repeatedly experiencing relapse, withdrawal, and trauma reactivation symptoms during conventional induction. The second patient was maintained on high doses of diacetylmorphine (ie, pharmaceutical heroin) and methadone during induction. Both patients tolerated the induction procedure well and reported only mild withdrawal symptoms. Discussion Overlapping induction of buprenorphine maintenance treatment with full µ-opioid receptor agonist use is feasible and may be associated with better tolerability and acceptability in some patients compared to the conventional method of induction. PMID:27499655

  11. Methods for Incorporating Patient Preferences for Treatments of Depression in Community Mental Health Settings.

    PubMed

    Crits-Christoph, Paul; Gallop, Robert; Diehl, Caroline K; Yin, Seohyun; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly

    2016-06-22

    We developed three methods (rating, ranking, and discrete choice) for identifying patients' preferred depression treatments based on their prioritization of specific treatment attributes (e.g., medication side effects, psychotherapy characteristics) at treatment intake. Community mental health patients with depressive symptoms participated in separate studies of predictive validity (N = 193) and short-term (1-week) stability (N = 40). Patients who received non-preferred initial treatments (based on the choice method) switched treatments significantly more often than those who received preferred initial treatments. Receiving a non-preferred treatment at any point (based on rating and choice methods) was a significant predictor of longer treatment duration. All three methods demonstrated good short-term stability.

  12. Testimony therapy: treatment method for traumatized victims of organized violence.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Janie A; Schoutrop, Mirjam J A; Spinhoven, Philip

    2003-01-01

    Former political prisoners in Chile gave testimony of their traumatic experiences, which resulted in diminishing their posttraumatic symptoms. Based on this experience, testimony therapy has been developed and used in treatment of traumatized victims of war or other organized violence. This short-term therapy, as it applied in the treatment of traumatized asylum seekers and refugees in Centrum '45/De Vonk in the Netherlands, is described in this article. The therapy consists of 12 sessions in which patients tell their life stories, including the traumatic experiences. The narrative is reflected in a written document that, for example, can be read to family and friends, or be sent to a historical archive. This article discusses the preliminary research data on the effects of testimony therapy. Finally, hypotheses on the working mechanisms of testimony therapy are offered.

  13. Apparatus and method for ultrasonic treatment of a liquid

    DOEpatents

    Chandler, Darrell P.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

    2006-04-04

    The present invention is an apparatus for ultrasonically treating a liquid to generate a product. The apparatus is capable of treating a continuously-flowing, or intermittently-flowing, liquid along a line segment coincident with the flow path of the liquid. The apparatus has one or more ultrasonic transducers positioned asymmetrically about the line segment. The ultrasonic field encompasses the line segment and the ultrasonic energy may be concentrated along the line segment. Lysing treatments have been successfully achieved with efficiencies of greater than 99% using ultrasound at MHz frequencies without erosion or heating problems and without the need for chemical or mechanical pretreatment, or contrast agents. The present invention overcomes drawbacks of current ultrasonic treatments beyond lysing and opens up new sonochemical and sonophysical processing opportunities.

  14. Methods and compositions for the treatment of niddm

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Bary W.; Campbell, James A.; Sasser, Lyle B.; Hortal, Patricio

    1996-01-01

    A variety of hypoglycemic agents and compositions for use in the maintenance of maturity onset non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are disclosed. The present invention also discloses methods for reducing the blood glucose level in a patient, as well as methods for reducing symptomatic conditions associated with diabetes in a patient.

  15. Method of using a diverting material for well treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.

    1984-04-24

    The present invention relates to a diverting material or fluid-loss additive for use in subterranean formations penetrated by a well bore comprising graded phthalimide particles. The phthalimide particles are introduced into the formation in a carrier fluid. The carrier fluid can include gelling agents or any of the various salts known to be useful in fluids employed in subterranean formation treatment. The phthalimide particles can be used in elevated temperature oil and gas producing formations.

  16. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  17. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  18. A Mixed-Method Evaluation of the Feasibility and Acceptability of a Telehealth-Based Parent-Mediated Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickard, Katherine E.; Wainer, Allison L.; Bailey, Kathryn M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2016-01-01

    Research within the autism spectrum disorder field has called for the use of service delivery models that are able to more efficiently disseminate evidence-based practices into community settings. This study employed telehealth methods in order to deliver an Internet-based, parent training intervention for autism spectrum disorder, ImPACT Online.…

  19. Attributes Affecting the Acceptance and Integration of Best Practices in Secondary Professional-Technical Education (PTE): A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Harold Anderson

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined which attributes Professional-Technical Education (PTE) teachers desire to see in the best practices presented to them. The study used data from two separate pilot studies to create a survey administered during the June, 2009 PTE summer conference; which was returned by 229 responders; and in addition used to…

  20. Self-acceptance, acceptance of others, and SYMLOG: equivalent measures of the two central interpersonal dimensions?

    PubMed

    Hurley, J R

    1991-07-01

    After 50 hours of small group participation during 9 weeks, 91 young adults rated each same-group member's conduct on SYMLOG's dimensions of dominance, friendliness, and task-orientedness. Earlier, they made similar ratings twice, several weeks apart, on separate measures of self-acceptance and acceptance of others. Individuals' mean SYMLOG dominance ratings by group peers correlated much more highly with aggregated ratings for self-acceptance (.83) than for other-acceptance (.02), while SYMLOG friendliness correlated more positively with acceptance of others (.85) than with self-acceptance (.05). Self-ratings yielded parallel, but weaker associations. After attenuation corrections, these divergent approaches to assessing the interpersonal domain's central dimensions yielded empirically equivalent results. Both methods provide measures relevant to small group processes.

  1. Mindfulness- and Acceptance-based Interventions for Psychosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lauche, Romy; Haller, Heidemarie; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions are increasingly studied as a potential treatment for a variety of mental conditions. Objective: To assess the effects of mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions on psychotic symptoms and hospitalization in patients with psychosis Methods: MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO were screened from inception through April 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were analyzed when they assessed psychotic symptoms or hospitalization in patients with psychosis; affect, acceptance, mindfulness, and safety were defined as secondary outcomes. Results: Eight RCTs with a total of 434 patients comparing mindfulness-based (4 RCTs) or acceptance-based interventions (4 RCTs) to treatment as usual or attention control were included. Six RCTs had low risk of bias. Moderate evidence was found for short-term effects on total psychotic symptoms, positive symptoms, hospitalization rates, duration of hospitalization, and mindfulness and for long-term effects on total psychotic symptoms and duration of hospitalization. No evidence was found for effects on negative symptoms, affect, or acceptance. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions can be recommended as an additional treatment for patients with psychosis. PMID:26937312

  2. Comparative study of operative treatment [corrected] of varicose veins according to the Klapp and Smetana method versus Myers method.

    PubMed

    Solaković, Emir; Totić, Dragan; Solaković, Sid

    2008-08-01

    Venous abnormalities in lower extremities are among the most frequent disorders that affects general population with significant morbidity and mortality. Usually, the problem consists of a mild form of varicose veins and teleangiectasis. Treatment in this stage of disease is highly recommended since progression can lead to chronic venous insufficiency and chronic disability with very few effective treatment options. The most effective and popular treatment of varicose veins is operative treatment; specifically two different operative procedures: method according to Myers and method according to Klapp and Smetana. We designed this study in order to determine which method is superior based on clinical parameters and patients satisfaction. Our evidence strongly support clinical superiority, as well as patient satisfaction, of Klapp and Smetana method.

  3. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Progressive Relaxation Training for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.; Hayes, Steven C.; Plumb, Jennifer C.; Pruitt, Larry D.; Collins, Angela B.; Hazlett-Stevens, Holly; Woidneck, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Effective treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exist, but additional treatment options are needed. The effectiveness of 8 sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for adult OCD was compared with progressive relaxation training (PRT). Method: Seventy-nine adults (61% female) diagnosed with OCD (mean age = 37…

  4. Is it possible to standardize the treatment of primary spontaneous pneumothorax? Part 2: surgical methods of treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rokicki, Marek; Wojtacha, Jacek; Filipowski, Marek; Dżejlili, Agata; Czyżewski, Damian

    2016-01-01

    The present report provides a detailed description of the surgical methods for primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) treatment, from open surgery (thoracotomy) to minimally invasive procedures (video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery – VATS). It describes the methods of preventing pneumothorax recurrence, including partial or complete resection of the parietal pleura and chemical pleurodesis with VATS. The pros and cons of each method are presented. The paper also discusses new techniques for diagnosing pneumothorax, such as fluorescein-enhanced autofluorescence thoracoscopy (FEAT) and infrared thoracoscopy. Finally, the authors propose their own algorithm for the treatment of PSP. PMID:28096830

  5. The Acceptability Among Health Researchers and Clinicians of Social Media to Translate Research Evidence to Clinical Practice: Mixed-Methods Survey and Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    Tunnecliff, Jacqueline; Ilic, Dragan; Morgan, Prue; Keating, Jennifer; Gaida, James E; Clearihan, Lynette; Sadasivan, Sivalal; Davies, David; Ganesh, Shankar; Mohanty, Patitapaban; Weiner, John; Reynolds, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Establishing and promoting connections between health researchers and health professional clinicians may help translate research evidence to clinical practice. Social media may have the capacity to enhance these connections. Objective The aim of this study was to explore health researchers’ and clinicians’ current use of social media and their beliefs and attitudes towards the use of social media for communicating research evidence. Methods This study used a mixed-methods approach to obtain qualitative and quantitative data. Participation was open to health researchers and clinicians. Data regarding demographic details, current use of social media, and beliefs and attitudes towards the use of social media for professional purposes were obtained through an anonymous Web-based survey. The survey was distributed via email to research centers, educational and clinical institutions, and health professional associations in Australia, India, and Malaysia. Consenting participants were stratified by country and role and selected at random for semistructured telephone interviews to explore themes arising from the survey. Results A total of 856 participants completed the questionnaire with 125 participants declining to participate, resulting in a response rate of 87.3%. 69 interviews were conducted with participants from Australia, India, and Malaysia. Social media was used for recreation by 89.2% (749/840) of participants and for professional purposes by 80.0% (682/852) of participants. Significant associations were found between frequency of professional social media use and age, gender, country of residence, and graduate status. Over a quarter (26.9%, 229/852) of participants used social media for obtaining research evidence, and 15.0% (128/852) of participants used social media for disseminating research evidence. Most participants (95.9%, 810/845) felt there was a role for social media in disseminating or obtaining research evidence. Over half of the

  6. Extruder system and method for treatment of a gaseous medium

    DOEpatents

    Silvi, Norberto; Perry, Robert James; Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Balch, Gary Stephen; Westendorf, Tiffany Elizabeth Pinard

    2016-04-05

    A system for treatment of a gaseous medium, comprises an extruder having a barrel. The extruder further comprises a first inlet port, a second inlet port, and a plurality of outlet ports coupled to the barrel. The first inlet port is configured for feeding a lean sorbent, the second inlet port is configured for feeding a gaseous medium, and the plurality of outlet ports are configured for releasing a plurality of components removed from the gaseous medium. Further, the extruder comprises a plurality of helical elements coupled to a plurality of kneading elements, mounted on a shaft, and disposed within the barrel. The barrel and the plurality of helical and kneading elements together form an absorption unit and a desorption unit. The first and second inlet ports are formed in the absorption unit and the plurality of outlet ports are formed in the absorption and desorption units.

  7. Compositions and methods for cancer treatment using targeted carbon nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Harrison, Jr., Roger G.; Resasco, Daniel E.; Neves, Luis Filipe Ferreira

    2016-11-29

    Compositions for detecting and/or destroying cancer tumors and/or cancer cells via photodynamic therapy are disclosed, as well as methods of use thereof. The compositions comprise a linking protein or peptide attached to or otherwise physically associated with a carbon nanotube to form a targeted protein-carbon nanotube complex.

  8. Method for lime stabilization of wastewater treatment plant sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, W.O.

    1981-12-22

    A method for the lime stabilization of wastewater sludge, includes the steps of dewatering sludge so as to produce a sludge cake containing from about 10 to 60% by weight of dry solids and rapidly and intimately mixing and reacting the sludge cake with calcium oxide so as to produce stabilized sludge pellets. An apparatus for performing the process is also provided.

  9. 7 CFR 301.50-10 - Treatments and management method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... chapter to neutralize the pine shoot beetle. (b) Management method for pine bark products. The following procedures are authorized for use with pine bark products derived from white pine (Pinus strobus), Scotch... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pine Shoot Beetle §...

  10. 7 CFR 301.50-10 - Treatments and management method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... chapter to neutralize the pine shoot beetle. (b) Management method for pine bark products. The following procedures are authorized for use with pine bark products derived from white pine (Pinus strobus), Scotch... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pine Shoot Beetle §...

  11. 7 CFR 301.50-10 - Treatments and management method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... chapter to neutralize the pine shoot beetle. (b) Management method for pine bark products. The following procedures are authorized for use with pine bark products derived from white pine (Pinus strobus), Scotch... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pine Shoot Beetle §...

  12. [Plantar fasciitis and extracorporeal shock wave therapy--essence, diagnosis and treatment methods].

    PubMed

    Peled, Eli; Portal-Banker, Tali; Norman, Doron; Melamed, Eyal

    2011-02-01

    Heel pain is a very common foot complaint, usually caused by inflammation at the origin of the plantar fascia in the heel, termed plantar fasciitis (PF). The diagnosis is based on patient history and physical examination. Treatment of PF is mainly conservative. In recent years, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for a variety of orthopedic pathologies has become more acceptable and is increasing in popularity. Treating PF with ESWT is effective and should be considered before steroid injections and definitely prior to surgical intervention.

  13. Self-Reported Acceptance of Social Anxiety Symptoms: Development and Validation of the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Meagan B.; Kocovski, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions have been used in social anxiety treatments with initial success. Further research requires the psychometrically sound measurement of mechanisms of change associated with these treatments. This research was conducted to develop and evaluate such a measure, the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action…

  14. Diagnostic methods and treatment modalities of dry eye conditions.

    PubMed

    Holly, F J

    1993-06-01

    One may view dry eye conditions as a group of diseases in which the ocular surface is adversely affected. Tear film instability invariably leads to some degree of cellular surface damage over the cornea and conjunctiva. In turn, ocular epitheliopathy may adversely affect tear film stability. The clinical presentation of the disease may not yield a clue as to its etiology. In recent years considerable progress was made both in the diagnosis and the treatment of the disease and promising studies are planned or are underway. The diagnostic techniques can be divided into four groups. The first is concerned with the clinical presentation. The second is concerned with the bulk properties of the aqueous tears including dynamic characteristics, composition, and colligative properties. The third is tear-film related and includes the film break-up time, evaporation rate, and lipid abnormality. The fourth is concerned with the ocular surface and includes vital staining, impression cytology, and surface microscopy. The most promising attempts are being made in the second group by attempting to elucidate the role of enzyme and enzyme activator activity and inhibitor contents as well as the tear protein profiles and correlating them with the specific disease states. The treatment modalities belong to three major groups aside from surgical intervention; the supplementation, preservation, and the stimulation of tears. The modern version of tear supplementation is expected to include the topical use of efficacious aqueous formulations that typically contain film stabilizing polymers, nutrients, and/or--in the future--biochemically active ingredients such as enzyme activators and inhibitors.

  15. The citicoline brain injury treatment (COBRIT) trial: design and methods.

    PubMed

    Zafonte, Ross; Friedewald, William T; Lee, Shing M; Levin, Bruce; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Ansel, Beth; Eisenberg, Howard; Timmons, Shelly D; Temkin, Nancy; Novack, Thomas; Ricker, Joseph; Merchant, Randall; Jallo, Jack

    2009-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability. In the United States alone approximately 1.4 million sustain a TBI each year, of which 50,000 people die, and over 200,000 are hospitalized. Despite numerous prior clinical trials no standard pharmacotherapy for the treatment of TBI has been established. Citicoline, a naturally occurring endogenous compound, offers the potential of neuroprotection, neurorecovery, and neurofacilitation to enhance recovery after TBI. Citicoline has a favorable side-effect profile in humans and several meta-analyses suggest a benefit of citicoline treatment in stroke and dementia. COBRIT is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center trial of the effects of 90 days of citicoline on functional outcome in patients with complicated mild, moderate, and severe TBI. In all, 1292 patients will be recruited over an estimated 32 months from eight clinical sites with random assignment to citicoline (1000 mg twice a day) or placebo (twice a day), administered enterally or orally. Functional outcomes are assessed at 30, 90, and 180 days after the day of randomization. The primary outcome consists of a set of measures that will be analyzed as a composite measure using a global test procedure at 90 days. The measures comprise the following core battery: the California Verbal Learning Test II; the Controlled Oral Word Association Test; Digit Span; Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale; the Processing Speed Index; Stroop Test part 1 and Stroop Test part 2; and Trail Making Test parts A and B. Secondary outcomes include survival, toxicity, and rate of recovery.

  16. Consumption of drugs for sea lice infestations in Norwegian fish farms: methods for assessment of treatment patterns and treatment rate.

    PubMed

    Grave, K; Horsberg, T E; Lunestad, B T; Litleskare, I

    2004-08-09

    Sea lice are a major problem in Norwegian fish farms; however, data on drug treatment patterns or treatment rates of sea lice infestations are not available. Such data are important for analysing resistance patterns against drugs used for such infestations. The main objective of the present study was to develop a method to estimate the treatment patterns and treatment rates for drugs used in the treatment against sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus) in farm salmonids by means of national sales statistics. Annual sales figures, as weight of active substances, were obtained from the drug wholesalers and the feed mills. The weight of active drug substances is not useful as a unit of measurement of drug use in an epidemiological context because it does not correct for dosage differences and number of repeat treatments. To correct for these factors, we introduced approved daily dose (ADD(farm fish)) and treatment course-doses(farm fish) kg(-1) live-weight fish. To express the drug treatment patterns, the biomass (in weight) of farm salmonids treated with 1 course of a drug were estimated. When measured as kg active substance, the quantities of drugs for the treatment of sea lice infestations declined by 98% during the study period (1989 to 2002) but this figure increased 5-fold when it was corrected for differences in dosage. To correct for amounts of farm salmonids liable to require treatment we estimated the annual treatment rate, defined as the number of treatments for sea lice infestations per biomass slaughtered Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The annual treatment rate increased gradually during the study period; however, it varied considerably (range 0.45 to 1.34, mean 0.90). Before 1995, organophosphates were the most frequently used drugs against sea lice; since then pyrethroids have become the dominating drug group.

  17. Measuring Acceptance of Sleep Difficulties: The Development of the Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Bothelius, Kristoffer; Jernelöv, Susanna; Fredrikson, Mats; McCracken, Lance M.; Kaldo, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Acceptance may be an important therapeutic process in sleep medicine, but valid psychometric instruments measuring acceptance related to sleep difficulties are lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of acceptance in insomnia, and to examine its factor structure as well as construct validity. Design: In a cross-sectional design, a principal component analysis for item reduction was conducted on a first sample (A) and a confirmatory factor analysis on a second sample (B). Construct validity was tested on a combined sample (C). Setting: Questionnaire items were derived from a measure of acceptance in chronic pain, and data were gathered through screening or available from pretreatment assessments in four insomnia treatment trials, administered online, via bibliotherapy and in primary care. Participants: Adults with insomnia: 372 in sample A and 215 in sample B. Sample C (n = 820) included sample A and B with another 233 participants added. Measures: Construct validity was assessed through relations with established acceptance and sleep scales. Results: The principal component analysis presented a two-factor solution with eight items, explaining 65.9% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the solution. Acceptance of sleep problems was more closely related to subjective symptoms and consequences of insomnia than to diary description of sleep, or to acceptance of general private events. Conclusions: The Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire (SPAQ), containing the subscales “Activity Engagement” and “Willingness”, is a valid tool to assess acceptance of insomnia. Citation: Bothelius K, Jernelöv S, Fredrikson M, McCracken LM, Kaldo V. Measuring acceptance of sleep difficulties: the development of the sleep problem acceptance questionnaire. SLEEP 2015;38(11):1815–1822. PMID:26085302

  18. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Promote Health and Well-being Among Middle School Educators. 20. A Systematic Review of Yoga-based Interventions for Objective and Subjective Balance Measures. 21. Disparities in Yoga Use: A Multivariate Analysis of 2007 National Health Interview Survey Data. 22. Implementing Yoga Therapy Adapted for Older Veterans Who Are Cancer Survivors. 23. Randomized, Controlled Trial of Yoga for Women With Major Depressive Disorder: Decreased Ruminations as Potential Mechanism for Effects on Depression? 24. Yoga Beyond the Metropolis: A Yoga Telehealth Program for Veterans. 25. Yoga Practice Frequency, Relationship Maintenance Behaviors, and the Potential Mediating Role of Relationally Interdependent Cognition. 26. Effects of Medical Yoga in Quality of Life, Blood Pressure, and Heart Rate in Patients With Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation. 27. Yoga During School May Promote Emotion Regulation Capacity in Adolescents: A Group Randomized, Controlled Study. 28. Integrated Yoga Therapy in a Single Session as a Stress Management Technique in Comparison With Other Techniques. 29. Effects of a Classroom-based Yoga Intervention on Stress and Attention in Second and Third Grade Students. 30. Improving Memory, Attention, and Executive Function in Older Adults with Yoga Therapy. 31. Reasons for Starting and Continuing Yoga. 32. Yoga and Stress Management May Buffer Against Sexual Risk-Taking Behavior Increases in College Freshmen. 33. Whole-systems Ayurveda and Yoga Therapy for Obesity: Outcomes of a Pilot Study. 34. Women�s Phenomenological Experiences of Exercise, Breathing, and the Body During Yoga for Smoking Cessation Treatment. 35. Mindfulness as a Tool for Trauma Recovery: Examination of a Gender-responsive Trauma-informed Integrative Mindfulness Program for Female Inmates. 36. Yoga After Stroke Leads to Multiple Physical Improvements. 37. Tele-Yoga in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Heart Failure: A Mixed-methods Study of Feasibility, Acceptability, and Safety

  19. Compositions and methods for cancer treatment using targeted carbon nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Harrison, Jr., Roger G; Resasco, Daniel E; Neves, Luis Filipe Ferreira

    2013-08-27

    The present invention is a method for detecting and destroying cancer tumors. The method is based on the concept of associating a linking protein or linking peptide such as, but not limited to, annexin V or other annexins to carbon nanotubes such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to form a protein-CNT complex. Said linking protein or peptide can selectively bind to cancerous cells, especially tumor vasculature endothelial cells, rather than to healthy ones by binding to cancer-specific external receptors such as anionic phospholipids including phosphatidylserine expressed on the outer surfaces of cancer cells only. Irradiation of bound CNTs with one or more specific electromagnetic wavelengths is then used to detect and destroy those cells to which the CNTs are bound via the linking protein or peptide thereby destroying the tumor or cancer cells and preferably an immunostimulant is provided to the patient to enhance the immune response against antigens released from the tumor or cancer cells.

  20. Method of performing sugar dehydration and catalyst treatment

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-06-01

    The invention includes a method of treating a solid acid catalyst. After exposing the catalyst to a mixture containing a sugar alcohol, the catalyst is washed with an organic solvent and is then exposed to a second reaction mixture. The invention includes a process for production of anhydrosugar alcohol. A solid acid catalyst is provided to convert sugar alcohol in a first sample to an anhydrosugar alcohol. The catalyst is then washed with an organic solvent and is subsequently utilized to expose a second sample. The invention includes a method for selective production of an anhydrosugar. A solid acid catalyst is provided within a reactor and anhydrosugar alcohol is formed by flowing a starting sugar alcohol into the reactor. The acid catalyst is then exposed to an organic solvent which allows a greater amount of additional anhydrosugar to be produced than would occur without exposing the acid catalyst to the organic solvent.

  1. Using consumer perspectives to inform the cultural adaptation of psychological treatments for depression: A mixed methods study from South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Balaji, Madhumitha; Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Rahman, Atif; Verdeli, Helena; Araya, Ricardo; Jordans, M.J.D.; Chowdhary, Neerja; Patel, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrating consumer perspectives in developing and adapting psychological treatments (PTs) can enhance their acceptability in diverse cultural contexts. Objective To describe the explanatory models (EMs) of depression in South Asia with the goal of informing the content of culturally appropriate PTs for this region. Methods Two methods were used: a systematic review of published literature on the EMs of depression in South Asia; and in-depth interviews with persons with depression and family caregivers in two sites in India. Findings from both were analysed independently and then triangulated. Results There were 19 studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Interviews were conducted with 27 patients and 10 caregivers. Findings were grouped under four broad categories: illness descriptions, perceived impact, causal beliefs and self-help forms of coping. Depression was characterised predominantly by somatic complaints, stress, low mood, and negative and ruminative thoughts. Patients experienced disturbances in interpersonal relationships occupational functioning, and stigma. Negative life events, particularly relationship difficulties, were perceived as the main cause. Patients mostly engaged in distracting activities, religious practices, and received support from family and friends to cope with the illness. Limitations The primary data are entirely from India but the studies from the literature review covering South Asia are consistent with these findings. This study also does not include literature in local languages or explore how consumer perspectives change over time. Conclusions EMs can inform cultural adaptations to PTs for depression in South Asia by defining target outcomes, content for psycho-education, and culturally appropriate treatment strategies. PMID:24836093

  2. Treatment of Clubfoot With Ponseti Method Using Semirigid Synthetic Softcast

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Bahattin Kerem; Sofu, Hakan; Senaran, Hakan; Erkocak, Omer Faruk; Acar, Mehmet Ali; Kirac, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Randomized controlled clinical trial. The main purpose of the present study was to comparatively analyze the effectiveness, advantages, and the complications of using semirigid synthetic softcast with respect to plaster of Paris (POP) during the treatment of clubfoot deformity. The study group consisted of 196 babies (249 feet). A total of 133 feet treated by an orthopedic referral center using semirigid synthetic softcast were included in group A whereas the other 116 feet treated by another orthopedic clinic using POP cast were included in group B. The Pirani scores, number of cast applications, time period until Achilles tenotomy, any skin problems due to the cast itself, and/or cast removal were recorded. A final parent satisfaction score was also obtained. The mean Pirani sores were significantly improved from the first administration to the time before Achilles tenotomy in both groups. There was no significant difference according to the number of casts applied until tenotomy. The slippage of the cast and skin lesions was significantly more common in group B. Higher parent satisfaction levels were detected in group A. Semirigid softcast has been found as superior to POP in the aspects of parent satisfaction and cast-related complication rates. PMID:26632713

  3. Acceptance of dying: a discourse analysis of palliative care literature.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Camilla

    2012-07-01

    The subject of death denial in the West has been examined extensively in the sociological literature. However, there has not been a similar examination of its "opposite", the acceptance of death. In this study, I use the qualitative method of discourse analysis to examine the use of the term "acceptance" of dying in the palliative care literature from 1970 to 2001. A Medline search was performed by combining the text words "accept or acceptance" with the subject headings "terminal care or palliative care or hospice care", and restricting the search to English language articles in clinical journals discussing acceptance of death in adults. The 40 articles were coded and analysed using a critical discourse analysis method. This paper focuses on the theme of acceptance as integral to palliative care, which had subthemes of acceptance as a goal of care, personal acceptance of healthcare workers, and acceptance as a facilitator of care. For patients and families, death acceptance is a goal that they can be helped to attain; for palliative care staff, acceptance of dying is a personal quality that is a precondition for effective practice. Acceptance not only facilitates the dying process for the patient and family, but also renders care easier. The analysis investigates the intertextuality of these themes with each other and with previous texts. From a Foucauldian perspective, I suggest that the discourse on acceptance of dying represents a productive power, which disciplines patients through apparent psychological and spiritual gratification, and encourages participation in a certain way to die.

  4. Method for detecting pollutants. [through chemical reactions and heat treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, R. S.; Richards, R. R.; Conway, E. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for detecting and measuring trace amounts of pollutants of the group consisting of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide in a gaseous environment. A sample organic solid material that will undergo a chemical reaction with the test pollutant is exposed to the test environment and thereafter, when heated in the temperature range of 100-200 C., undergoes chemiluminescence that is measured and recorded as a function of concentration of the test pollutant. The chemiluminescence of the solid organic material is specific to the pollutant being tested.

  5. Applying the approximation method PAINT and the interactive method NIMBUS to the multiobjective optimization of operating a wastewater treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartikainen, Markus E.; Ojalehto, Vesa; Sahlstedt, Kristian

    2015-03-01

    Using an interactive multiobjective optimization method called NIMBUS and an approximation method called PAINT, preferable solutions to a five-objective problem of operating a wastewater treatment plant are found. The decision maker giving preference information is an expert in wastewater treatment plant design at the engineering company Pöyry Finland Ltd. The wastewater treatment problem is computationally expensive and requires running a simulator to evaluate the values of the objective functions. This often leads to problems with interactive methods as the decision maker may get frustrated while waiting for new solutions to be computed. Thus, a newly developed PAINT method is used to speed up the iterations of the NIMBUS method. The PAINT method interpolates between a given set of Pareto optimal outcomes and constructs a computationally inexpensive mixed integer linear surrogate problem for the original wastewater treatment problem. With the mixed integer surrogate problem, the time required from the decision maker is comparatively short. In addition, a new IND-NIMBUS® PAINT module is developed to allow the smooth interoperability of the NIMBUS method and the PAINT method.

  6. Treatment of paraquat poisoning in man: methods to prevent absorption.

    PubMed

    Meredith, T J; Vale, J A

    1987-01-01

    Theoretically, absorption of an ingested dose of paraquat may be reduced by gastric lavage, induced emesis, whole-gut lavage or by the oral administration of absorbent substances. Animal experiments suggest that paraquat is absorbed poorly from the stomach and absorbed incompletely (less than 5%) from the small intestine over a 1-6 h period. Although gastric lavage would therefore seem a logical way to ameliorate the toxicity of an ingested dose of paraquat, peak plasma concentrations are attained rapidly and evidence for the efficacy of gastric lavage in man is poor. In 1977, a potent emetic (PP796) was added to liquid and solid formulations of paraquat because experiments in primates had demonstrated a fivefold reduction in toxicity. In man, ingestion of formulations containing an emetic is more likely to cause spontaneous vomiting within 30 min than non-emetic preparations. However, definite evidence of benefit, as judged by improved patient prognosis, has yet to be established. Gut lavage has been shown to remove only a small proportion of an ingested dose of paraquat. At the flow rates employed in man (75 ml/min), approximately 0.5-1.0 litres of lavage fluid/h may be absorbed across the intestinal wall. Since there is a theoretical risk of increasing paraquat absorption, the use of whole-gut lavage cannot be recommended. Bipyridilium herbicides are absorbed by soil and clay minerals, and montmorillonite in particular has been shown to be a strong binding agent in vitro. Accordingly, the use of Fuller's Earth (calcium montmorillonite) and Bentonite (sodium montmorillonite) for the treatment of poisoning has been investigated in animal models.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Energy and carbon footprints of sewage treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pratima; Kansal, Arun; Carliell-Marquet, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents energy and carbon footprints of sewage treatment plants (STPs) operating at different scales and using different technology options based on primary data from 50 STPs operating in India and the UK. The study used a combination of fundamental mass-balance approach for energy consumption and the methodology defined by IPCC for the carbon emissions. Small-scale institutional STPs consume twelve times the energy consumed by large-scale municipal STPs, the corresponding energy intensities being 4.87 kWh/m(3) and 0.40 kWh/m(3) respectively. Embodied energy from construction material and chemicals accounted for 46% and 33% of the total energy intensity of the municipal and institutional STPs respectively. The average carbon footprint of large-scale STPs is 0.78 kgCO2eq/m(3) and for small-scale STPs it is 3.04 kgCO2eq/m(3). However, fugitive emissions from large-scale STPs constituted 74% of the total carbon emissions whereas the figure was only 0.05% for small-scale STPs. Average electrical energy intensity in STPs in India is much lower (0.14 kWh/m(3)) than that in the UK (0.46 kWh/m(3)). This is due to the reason that STPs in India do not have resource recovery processes and use solar heat for sludge drying. The paper offers information and insights for designing low carbon strategies for urban waste infrastructure.

  8. Treatment Options for Liquid Radioactive Waste. Factors Important for Selecting of Treatment Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.J.

    1998-09-28

    The cleanup of liquid streams contaminated with radionuclides is obtained by the selection or a combination of a number of physical and chemical separations, processes or unit operations. Among those are: Chemical treatment; Evaporation; Ion exchange and sorption; Physical separation; Electrodialysis; Osmosis; Electrocoagulation/electroflotation; Biotechnological processes; and Solvent extraction.

  9. Constructing evidence-based treatment strategies using methods from computer science.

    PubMed

    Pineau, Joelle; Bellemare, Marc G; Rush, A John; Ghizaru, Adrian; Murphy, Susan A

    2007-05-01

    This paper details a new methodology, instance-based reinforcement learning, for constructing adaptive treatment strategies from randomized trials. Adaptive treatment strategies are operationalized clinical guidelines which recommend the next best treatment for an individual based on his/her personal characteristics and response to earlier treatments. The instance-based reinforcement learning methodology comes from the computer science literature, where it was developed to optimize sequences of actions in an evolving, time varying system. When applied in the context of treatment design, this method provides the means to evaluate both the therapeutic and diagnostic effects of treatments in constructing an adaptive treatment strategy. The methodology is illustrated with data from the STAR*D trial, a multi-step randomized study of treatment alternatives for individuals with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder.

  10. Acid pre-treatment method for in situ ore leaching

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.; Braun, R.L.

    1975-10-28

    An acid leaching method is described for the recovery of a desired element from a subterranean rubblized body of primary ore containing the element and also having associated therewith a carbonate mineral wherein the rubblized ore body is flooded with an aqueous acidic solution in order to release carbon dioxide from the associated carbonate mineral. After a substantial portion of the available carbon dioxide is released and removed from the ore body, as by venting to the atmosphere, an oxidizing gas is introduced into the flooded, rubblized ore to oxidize the ore and form an acid leach solution effective in the presence of the dissolved oxidizing gas to dissolve the ore and cause the desired element to go into solution. The leach solution is then circulated to the surface where the metal values are recovered therefrom.

  11. Apparatus and method for carbon fiber surface treatment

    DOEpatents

    Paulauskas, Felix L [Knoxville, TN; Sherman, Daniel M [Knoxville, TN

    2012-07-24

    An apparatus and method for enhancing the surface energy and/or surface chemistry of carbon fibers involves exposing the fibers to direct or indirect contact with atmospheric pressure plasma generated using a background gas containing at least some oxygen or other reactive species. The fiber may be exposed directly to the plasma, provided that the plasma is nonfilamentary, or the fiber may be exposed indirectly through contact with gases exhausting from a plasma discharge maintained in a separate volume. In either case, the process is carried out at or near atmospheric pressure, thereby eliminating the need for vacuum equipment. The process may be further modified by moistening the fibers with selected oxygen-containing liquids before exposure to the plasma.

  12. Apparatus and method for carbon fiber surface treatment

    DOEpatents

    Paulauskas, Felix L; Sherman, Daniel M

    2014-06-03

    An apparatus and method for enhancing the surface energy and/or surface chemistry of carbon fibers involves exposing the fibers to direct or indirect contact with atmospheric pressure plasma generated using a background gas containing at least some oxygen or other reactive species. The fiber may be exposed directly to the plasma, provided that the plasma is nonfilamentary, or the fiber may be exposed indirectly through contact with gases exhausting from a plasma discharge maintained in a separate volume. In either case, the process is carried out at or near atmospheric pressure, thereby eliminating the need for vacuum equipment. The process may be further modified by moistening the fibers with selected oxygen-containing liquids before exposure to the plasma.

  13. Methods to model and predict the ViewRay treatment deliveries to aid patient scheduling and treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi; Wu, Yu; Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Archer, Brent; Li, Harold; Yang, Deshan

    2016-03-01

    A software tool is developed, given a new treatment plan, to predict treatment delivery time for radiation therapy (RT) treatments of patients on ViewRay magnetic resonance image-guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) delivery system. This tool is necessary for managing patient treatment scheduling in our clinic. The predicted treatment delivery time and the assessment of plan complexities could also be useful to aid treatment planning. A patient's total treatment delivery time, not including time required for localization, is modeled as the sum of four components: 1) the treatment initialization time; 2) the total beam-on time; 3) the gantry rotation time; and 4) the multileaf collimator (MLC) motion time. Each of the four components is predicted separately. The total beam-on time can be calculated using both the planned beam-on time and the decay-corrected dose rate. To predict the remain-ing components, we retrospectively analyzed the patient treatment delivery record files. The initialization time is demonstrated to be random since it depends on the final gantry angle of the previous treatment. Based on modeling the relationships between the gantry rotation angles and the corresponding rotation time, linear regression is applied to predict the gantry rotation time. The MLC motion time is calculated using the leaves delay modeling method and the leaf motion speed. A quantitative analysis was performed to understand the correlation between the total treatment time and the plan complexity. The proposed algorithm is able to predict the ViewRay treatment delivery time with the average prediction error 0.22 min or 1.82%, and the maximal prediction error 0.89 min or 7.88%. The analysis has shown the correlation between the plan modulation (PM) factor and the total treatment delivery time, as well as the treatment delivery duty cycle. A possibility has been identified to significantly reduce MLC motion time by optimizing the positions of closed MLC pairs. The accuracy of

  14. Methods to model and predict the ViewRay treatment deliveries to aid patient scheduling and treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi; Wu, Yu; Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Archer, Brent; Li, Harold; Yang, Deshan

    2016-03-08

    A software tool is developed, given a new treatment plan, to predict treatment delivery time for radiation therapy (RT) treatments of patients on ViewRay magnetic resonance image-guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) delivery system. This tool is necessary for managing patient treatment scheduling in our clinic. The predicted treatment delivery time and the assessment of plan complexities could also be useful to aid treatment planning. A patient's total treatment delivery time, not including time required for localization, is modeled as the sum of four components: 1) the treatment initialization time; 2) the total beam-on time; 3) the gantry rotation time; and 4) the multileaf collimator (MLC) motion time. Each of the four components is predicted separately. The total beam-on time can be calculated using both the planned beam-on time and the decay-corrected dose rate. To predict the remain-ing components, we retrospectively analyzed the patient treatment delivery record files. The initialization time is demonstrated to be random since it depends on the final gantry angle of the previous treatment. Based on modeling the relationships between the gantry rotation angles and the corresponding rotation time, linear regression is applied to predict the gantry rotation time. The MLC motion time is calculated using the leaves delay modeling method and the leaf motion speed. A quantitative analysis was performed to understand the correlation between the total treatment time and the plan complexity. The proposed algorithm is able to predict the ViewRay treatment delivery time with the average prediction error 0.22min or 1.82%, and the maximal prediction error 0.89 min or 7.88%. The analysis has shown the correlation between the plan modulation (PM) factor and the total treatment delivery time, as well as the treatment delivery duty cycle. A possibility has been identified to significantly reduce MLC motion time by optimizing the positions of closed MLC pairs. The accuracy of

  15. An open-label, in-use study assessing the warming sensation accompanying IFF Flavour 316282 and the acceptability and local tolerability of a syrup containing paracetamol and pseudoephedrine for the short-term treatment of symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Monnet, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective was to assess the warming sensation caused by IFF Flavour 316282 in a syrup used for short-term treatment by patients suffering from nasal congestion and mild to moderate body pain, headache, fever or sore throat associated with an upper respiratory tract infection. Methods: A single cohort, single treatment arm, open-label study. Subjects received one 30 mL dose of syrup containing IFF Flavour 316282, paracetamol and pseudoephedrine and recorded onset and disappearance of any warming sensation in the mouth/throat. Subjects’ assessments of strength and appeal of the sensation, taste, texture and acceptability of the product was investigated using questionnaires. Results: A total of 56 subjects were included; 53 (94.6%) experienced a warming sensation. The median duration of the warming sensation was 114 s (95% confidence interval: 87–120 s). All subjects rated the syrup as excellent, good or fair for treating their symptoms; 100% and 94.6% of subjects respectively described texture and taste as excellent, good or fair. There were no safety concerns, and the syrup was well tolerated. Most subjects liked the warming sensation. Conclusions: IFF Flavour 316282 in a syrup for treatment of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms is associated with a warming sensation. The syrup is well tolerated, safe and palatable. PMID:26770771

  16. High response rate and acceptable toxicity of a combination of rituximab, vinorelbine, ifosfamide, mitoxantrone and prednisone for the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in first relapse: results of the R-NIMP GOELAMS study.

    PubMed

    Gyan, Emmanuel; Damotte, Diane; Courby, Stéphane; Sénécal, Delphine; Quittet, Philippe; Schmidt-Tanguy, Aline; Banos, Anne; Le Gouill, Steven; Lamy, Thierry; Fontan, Jean; Maisonneuve, Hervé; Alexis, Magda; Dreyfus, Francois; Tournilhac, Olivier; Laribi, Kamel; Solal-Céligny, Philippe; Arakelyan, Nina; Cartron, Guillaume; Gressin, Remy

    2013-07-01

    The optimal management of relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is not standardized. The Groupe Ouest Est des Leucémies et aAutres Maladies du Sang developed a combination of vinorelbine, ifosfamide, mitoxantrone and prednisone (NIMP) for the treatment of relapsed DLBCL, and assessed its efficacy and safety in association with rituximab (R). This multicentric phase II study included 50 patients with DLBCL in first relapse, aged 18-75 years. Patients received rituximab 375 mg/m² day 1, ifosfamide 1000 mg/m² days 1-5, vinorelbine 25 mg/m² days 1 and 15, mitoxantrone 10 mg/m² day 1, and prednisone 1 mg/kg days 1-5, every 28 days for three cycles. Responding patients underwent autologous transplantation or received three additional R-NIMP cycles. All patients were evaluable for toxicity and 49 for response. Centralized pathology review confirmed DLBCL in all cases. Toxicities were mainly haematological with infectious events needing hospitalization in nine cases. Two toxic deaths were observed. After three cycles, 22 patients (44%) achieved complete response/unconfirmed complete response, 11 achieved partial response (24%), 2 had stable disease and 13 progressed. The non-germinal centre B immunophenotype was associated with shorter progression-free survival. in conclusion, the R-NIMP regimen displayed significant activity in relapsed DLBCL, with acceptable toxicity and should be considered a candidate for combination with new agents.

  17. Optically Based Rapid Screening Method for Proven Optimal Treatment Strategies Before Treatment Begins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    development, by reducing the number of animals , cost, and time required to screen new drugs and drug combinations. The feasibility of OMI measurements...24). 1a. Regulatory review and approval for animal studies (months 1-2). Completed. 1b. Measure mouse organoid response to drug treatments...can therefore be used to streamline pre-clinical drug development, by reducing the number of animals , cost, and time required to screen new drugs and

  18. Assessing methods for dealing with treatment switching in randomised controlled trials: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigate methods used to analyse the results of clinical trials with survival outcomes in which some patients switch from their allocated treatment to another trial treatment. These included simple methods which are commonly used in medical literature and may be subject to selection bias if patients switching are not typical of the population as a whole. Methods which attempt to adjust the estimated treatment effect, either through adjustment to the hazard ratio or via accelerated failure time models, were also considered. A simulation study was conducted to assess the performance of each method in a number of different scenarios. Results 16 different scenarios were identified which differed by the proportion of patients switching, underlying prognosis of switchers and the size of true treatment effect. 1000 datasets were simulated for each of these and all methods applied. Selection bias was observed in simple methods when the difference in survival between switchers and non-switchers were large. A number of methods, particularly the AFT method of Branson and Whitehead were found to give less biased estimates of the true treatment effect in these situations. Conclusions Simple methods are often not appropriate to deal with treatment switching. Alternative approaches such as the Branson & Whitehead method to adjust for switching should be considered. PMID:21223539

  19. Mix and match. A simulation study on the impact of mixed-treatment comparison methods on health-economic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Vemer, Pepijn; Al, Maiwenn J.; Oppe, Mark; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P. M. H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Decision-analytic cost-effectiveness (CE) models combine many parameters, often obtained after meta-analysis. Aim We compared different methods of mixed-treatment comparison (MTC) to combine transition and event probabilities derived from several trials, especially with respect to health-economic (HE) outcomes like (quality adjusted) life years and costs. Methods Trials were drawn from a simulated reference population, comparing two of four fictitious interventions. The goal was to estimate the CE between two of these. The amount of heterogeneity between trials was varied in scenarios. Parameter estimates were combined using direct comparison, MTC methods proposed by Song and Puhan, and Bayesian generalized linear fixed effects (GLMFE) and random effects models (GLMRE). Parameters were entered into a Markov model. Parameters and HE outcomes were compared with the reference population using coverage, statistical power, bias and mean absolute deviation (MAD) as performance indicators. Each analytical step was repeated 1,000 times. Results The direct comparison was outperformed by the MTC methods on all indicators, Song’s method yielded low bias and MAD, but uncertainty was overestimated. Puhan’s method had low bias and MAD and did not overestimate uncertainty. GLMFE generally had the lowest bias and MAD, regardless of the amount of heterogeneity, but uncertainty was overestimated. GLMRE showed large bias and MAD and overestimated uncertainty. Song’s and Puhan’s methods lead to the least amount of uncertainty, reflected in the shape of the CE acceptability curve. GLMFE showed slightly more uncertainty. Conclusions Combining direct and indirect evidence is superior to using only direct evidence. Puhan’s method and GLMFE are preferred. PMID:28152099

  20. Examination of the operator and compensator tank role in urban wastewater treatment using activated sludge method.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari Azar, Akbar; Ghadirpour Jelogir, Ali; Nabi Bidhendi, Gholam Reza; Zaredar, Narges

    2011-04-01

    No doubt, operator is one of the main fundaments in wastewater treatment plants. By identifying the inadequacies, the operator could be considered as an important key in treatment plant. Several methods are used for wastewater treatment that requires spending a lot of cost. However, all investments of treatment facilities are usable when the expected efficiency of the treatment plant was obtained. Using experienced operator, this goal is more easily accessible. In this research, the wastewater of an urban community contaminated with moderated, diluted and highly concentrated pollution has been treated using surface and deep aeration treatment method. Sampling of these pilots was performed during winter 2008 to summer 2009. The results indicate that all analyzed parameters were eliminated using activated sludge and surface aeration methods. However, in activated sludge and deep aeration methods in combination with suitable function of operator, more pollutants could be eliminated. Hence, existence of operator in wastewater treatment plants is the basic principle to achieve considered efficiency. Wastewater treatment system is not intelligent itself and that is the operator who can organize even an inefficient system by its continuous presence. The converse of this fact is also real. Despite the various units and appropriate design of wastewater treatment plant, without an operator, the studied process cannot be expected highly efficient. In places frequently affected by the shock of organic and hydraulic loads, the compensator tank is important to offset the wastewater treatment process. Finally, in regard to microbial parameters, existence of disinfection unit is very useful.

  1. A systematic method for estimating individual responses to treatment with antipsychotics in CATIE

    PubMed Central

    Adkins, Daniel E.; McClay, Joseph; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Sullivan, Patrick F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective In addition to comparing drug treatment groups, the wealth of genetic and clinical data collected in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study offers tremendous opportunities to study individual differences in response to treatment with antipsychotics. A major challenge, however, is how to estimate the individual responses to treatments. For this purpose, we propose a systematic method that condenses all information collected during the trials in an optimal, empirical fashion. Method Our method comprises three steps. First, we test how to best model treatment effects over time. Next, we screen many covariates to select those that will further improve the precision of the individual treatment effect estimates which, for example, improves power to detect predictors of individual treatment response. Third, Best Linear Unbiased Predictors (BLUPs) of the random effects are used to estimate for each individual a treatment effect based on the model empirically indicated to best fit the data. We illustrate our method for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results A model assuming it takes on average about 30 days for a treatment to exert an effect that will then remain about the same for the rest of the trial showed the best fit to the data. Of all screened covariates, only two improved the precision of the individual treatment effect estimates. A comparison with more traditional post- minus pre-treatment symptom scores showed that our model based treatment effect estimates were a) more precise because they use all data collected during the trial rather than just two data points, and b) less sensitive to biases created by using the same baseline to calculate multiple treatment effects in CATIE. Conclusions We demonstrate that treatment effects can be estimated in a way that condenses all information collected in an optimal, empirical fashion. We expect the proposed method to be valuable for other clinical outcomes in

  2. Who Will Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Why?: Understanding PrEP Awareness and Acceptability amongst Men Who Have Sex with Men in the UK – A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Frankis, Jamie; Young, Ingrid; Flowers, Paul; McDaid, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent clinical trials suggest that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may reduce HIV transmission by up to 86% for men who have sex with men (MSM), whilst relatively high levels of PrEP acceptability have been reported to date. This study examines PrEP awareness amongst sub-groups of MSM communities and acceptability amongst MSM in a low prevalence region (Scotland, UK), using a mixed methods design. Methods Quantitative surveys of n = 690 MSM recruited online via social and sociosexual media were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. In addition, n = 10 in-depth qualitative interviews with MSM were analysed thematically. Results Under one third (29.7%) of MSM had heard of PrEP, with awareness related to living in large cities, degree level education, commercial gay scene use and reporting an HIV test in the last year. Just under half of participants (47.8%) were likely to use PrEP if it were available but there was no relationship between PrEP acceptability and previous PrEP awareness. Younger men (18–25 years) and those who report higher risk UAI were significantly more likely to say they would use PrEP. Qualitative data described specific PrEP scenarios, illustrating how risk, patterns of sexual practice and social relationships could affect motivation for and nature of PrEP use. Conclusion These findings suggest substantial interest PrEP amongst MSM reporting HIV risk behaviours in Scotland. Given the Proud results, there is a strong case to investigate PrEP implementation within the UK. However, it appears that disparities in awareness have already emerged along traditional indicators of inequality. Our research identifies the need for comprehensive support when PrEP is introduced, including a key online component, to ensure equity of awareness across diverse MSM communities (e.g. by geography, education, gay scene use and HIV proximity), as well as to responding to the diverse informational and sexual health

  3. Test Methods for Acceptance Testing of Telescopes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    instrument. Although various interferometer configurations are used, they all basically operate on the same principle. The beam from a stable continuous...a Goerz with a nominal focal length of 92 inches. This lens has been recoated and carefully aligned to produce excellent image quality. The focus...test. Such requirements are necessary when the procuring agency has no facilities for performing adequate tests. It is also an excellent policy even

  4. Assessment of NASA Dual Microstructure Heat Treatment Method for Multiple Forging Batch Heat Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John (Technical Monitor); Lemsky, Joe

    2004-01-01

    NASA dual microstructure heat treatment technology previously demonstrated on single forging heat treat batches of a generic disk shape was successfully demonstrated on a multiple disk batch of a production shape component. A group of four Rolls-Royce Corporation 3rd Stage AE2100 forgings produced from alloy ME209 were successfully dual microstructure heat treated as a single heat treat batch. The forgings responded uniformly as evidenced by part-to-part consistent thermocouple recordings and resultant macrostructures, and from ultrasonic examination. Multiple disk DMHT processing offers a low cost alternative to other published dual microstructure processing techniques.

  5. Physical therapy methods in the treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherova, T. Ya.; Velikaya, V. V.; Gribova, O. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Choinzonov, E. L.; Tuzikov, S. A.; Vusik, M. V.; Doroshenko, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The results of the effective use of magnetic laser therapy in the treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients were presented. The effect of magnetic-laser therapy in the treatment of radiation-induced reactions in the patients with head and neck cancer and in the patients with breast cancer was analyzed. High efficiency of lymphedema and lymphorrhea treatment in the postoperative period in the patients with breast cancer was proved. The results of rehabilitation of the patients with gastric cancer after surgical treatment were presented. These data indicate a high effectiveness of different physical methods of treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients.

  6. Acoustic Treatment Design Scaling Methods. Volume 2; Advanced Treatment Impedance Models for High Frequency Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, R. E.; Yu, J.; Kwan, H. W.

    1999-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to develop improved models for the acoustic impedance of treatment panels at high frequencies, for application to subscale treatment designs. Effects that cause significant deviation of the impedance from simple geometric scaling are examined in detail, an improved high-frequency impedance model is developed, and the improved model is correlated with high-frequency impedance measurements. Only single-degree-of-freedom honeycomb sandwich resonator panels with either perforated sheet or "linear" wiremesh faceplates are considered. The objective is to understand those effects that cause the simple single-degree-of- freedom resonator panels to deviate at the higher-scaled frequency from the impedance that would be obtained at the corresponding full-scale frequency. This will allow the subscale panel to be designed to achieve a specified impedance spectrum over at least a limited range of frequencies. An advanced impedance prediction model has been developed that accounts for some of the known effects at high frequency that have previously been ignored as a small source of error for full-scale frequency ranges.

  7. Prevention and treatment of demineralisation during fixed appliance therapy: a review of current methods and future applications.

    PubMed

    Chambers, C; Stewart, S; Su, B; Sandy, J; Ireland, A

    2013-11-01

    Orthodontic treatment, like all aspects of dentistry, exposes the clinician to the risk of malpractice and litigation. Demineralisation of tooth enamel is still one of the main complications of orthodontic treatment and it is essential patients are made aware of this risk during the consent process. There are a variety of fluoride delivery systems (mouthrinse, varnish, bonding system, and elastics), which can be used to prevent white spot lesion (WSL) formation. Glass-ionomer bonding cements (GIC) have also been shown to reduce WSL formation and have the benefit of not relying on patient compliance. However, these materials have not found widespread acceptance, possibly due to handling characteristics. A number of new technologies, principally fillers and coatings, have recently become available with potential antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties. Coatings can be applied to brackets and wires, which prevent bacterial adhesion. However, the longevity of these coatings is questionable. There are a number of methods available aimed at reducing the incidence of WSL, but they all have limitations. Capitalising on technological advances will enable the production of tailor made orthodontic brackets and adhesive systems, which provide long-term protection against WSL without relying on patient compliance.

  8. An investigation into positron emission tomography contouring methods across two treatment planning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Tony; Som, Seu; Sathiakumar, Chithradevi; Holloway, Lois

    2013-04-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to provide additional information regarding patient tumor location, size, and staging for radiotherapy treatment planning purposes. This additional information reduces interobserver variability and produces more consistent contouring. It is well recognized that different contouring methodology for PET data results in different contoured volumes. The goal of this study was to compare the difference in PET contouring methods for 2 different treatment planning systems using a phantom dataset and a series of patient datasets. Contouring methodology was compared on the ADAC Pinnacle Treatment Planning System and the CMS XiO Treatment Planning System. Contours were completed on the phantom and patient datasets using a number of PET contouring methods—the standardized uptake value 2.5 method, 30%, 40%, and 50% of the maximum uptake method and the signal to background ratio method. Differences of >15% were observed for PET-contoured volumes between the different treatment planning systems for the same data and the same PET contouring methodology. Contoured volume differences between treatment planning systems were caused by differences in data formatting and display and the different contouring tools available. Differences in treatment planning system as well as contouring methodology should be considered carefully in dose-volume contouring and reporting, especially between centers that may use different treatment planning systems or those that have several different treatment planning systems.

  9. The Acceptability of Acupuncture for Low Back Pain: A Qualitative Study of Patient’s Experiences Nested within a Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hopton, Ann; Thomas, Kate; MacPherson, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines recommend acupuncture as a clinically effective treatment for chronic back pain. However, there is insufficient knowledge of what factors contribute to patients’ positive and negative experiences of acupuncture, and how those factors interact in terms of the acceptability of treatment. This study used patient interviews following acupuncture treatment for back pain to identify, understand and describe the elements that contribute or detract from acceptability of treatment. Methods The study used semi-structured interviews. Twelve patients were interviewed using an interview schedule as a sub-study nested within a randomised controlled trial of acupuncture for chronic back pain. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Results and Discussion Three over-arching themes emerged from the analysis. The first entitled facilitators of acceptability contained five subthemes; experience of pain relief, improvements in physical activity, relaxation, psychological benefit, reduced reliance on medication. The second over-arching theme identified barriers to acceptability, which included needle-related discomfort and temporary worsening of symptoms, pressure to continue treatment and financial cost. The third over-arching theme comprised mediators of acceptability, which included pre-treatment mediators such as expectation and previous experience, and treatment-related mediators of time, therapeutic alliance, lifestyle advice and the patient’s active involvement in recovery. These themes inform our understanding of the acceptability of acupuncture to patients with low back pain. Conclusion The acceptability of acupuncture treatment for low back pain is complex and multifaceted. The therapeutic relationship between the practitioner and patient emerged as a strong driver for acceptability, and as a useful vehicle to develop the patients’ self-efficacy in pain management in the

  10. New Method for Data Treatment Developed at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-08-01

    scientific return from the VLT and other telescopes such as the HST best be optimised? It is exactly for this reason that astronomers and engineers at ESO are now busy developing new methods of telescope operation and data analysis alongside with the VLT instrumental hardware itself. The new solution by means of models The appropriate strategy to make progress in the inherent conflict between calibration demand and time available for scientific observations is to obtain a physically correct understanding of the effects exerted on the data by different instruments . In this way, it is possible to decide which calibration data are actually required and on which timescale they have to be updated. One can then use computer models of these instruments to predict calibration solutions which are now valid for the full range of target properties and which handle environmental conditions properly. Such computer models can also be used to simulate observations. This brings a lot of benefits for the entire observational process. First, the astronomer can prepare observations and select instrumental modes and exposure times suited for optimal information return. Secondly, it provides confidence in the validity of the calibration process, and therefore in the cleanliness of the corrected data. Finally, once a theory about the target and its properties has been developed, one may simulate observations of a set of theoretical targets for which the properties are slightly modified in order to study their influence on the raw data. For the observatory there are also advantages. Optimization from the point of view of data analysis can now take place already during instrument design, calibration and data analysis procedures for any observational mode can be tested before real observations are obtained, and the maintenance staff can make sure that the instrument performs as expected and designed. How far have we come along this road? The present project consists of a close collaboration between

  11. Comparison of cervical dysplasia treatment with leep-loop method and CO2 laser vaporization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Jakub; Rzymski, Pawel; Opala, Tomasz; Wilczak, Maciej; Sajdak, Stefan

    2003-10-01

    There are several methods of treating cervical dysplasia, including surgical and electric conisation, laservaporisation. The aim of our study was to evaluate leep-loop method and laservaporisation wtih CO2 laser. Material consisted of 49 women, 28 underwent leep-loop conisation and 21 lavervaporisation. The effectiveness of laser treatment was 90,4% and with leep-loop 96,4%, but the difference was not statistically significant. Mean time of wound healing and frequency of pain was shorter after laser treatment, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Effect treatment with both methods is comparable.

  12. [Comparative characteristic of methods for operative treatment of patients suffering varicocele].

    PubMed

    Boĭko, M I; Pasiechnikov, S P; Boĭko, O M

    2014-04-01

    Efficacy and security of treatment of varicocele constitute a complex issues in urology, necessitating the additional investigations conduction. The results of surgical treatment of 280 patients, suffering left-sided varicocele and operated using three different methods--retroperitoneal varicocelectomy, laparoscopic varicocelectomy and subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy (SMV)--were analyzed. The advantages and faults of these methods were estimated, basing on the recurrence rate, complications by hidrocele occurrence and changes in the patients quality of life. SMV was determined as most effective and secure method of varicocele correction. The data obtained may be useful for choice of tactics for the disease treatment.

  13. Methods for attaching polymerizable ceragenins to water treatment membranes using silane linkages

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Michael; Altman, Susan J.; Jones, Howland D. T.; Savage, Paul B.

    2013-09-10

    This invention relates to methods for chemically grafting and attaching ceragenin molecules to polymer substrates; methods for synthesizing ceragenin-containing copolymers; methods for making ceragenin-modified water treatment membranes and spacers; and methods of treating contaminated water using ceragenin-modified treatment membranes and spacers. Ceragenins are synthetically produced antimicrobial peptide mimics that display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. Alkene-functionalized ceragenins (e.g., acrylamide-functionalized ceragenins) can be attached to polyamide reverse osmosis membranes using amine-linking, amide-linking, UV-grafting, or silane-coating methods. In addition, silane-functionalized ceragenins can be directly attached to polymer surfaces that have free hydroxyls.

  14. Methods for attaching polymerizable ceragenins to water treatment membranes using amine and amide linkages

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Michael; Altman, Susan J.; Jones, Howland D.T.; Savage, Paul B.

    2013-10-15

    This invention relates to methods for chemically grafting and attaching ceragenin molecules to polymer substrates; methods for synthesizing ceragenin-containing copolymers; methods for making ceragenin-modified water treatment membranes and spacers; and methods of treating contaminated water using ceragenin-modified treatment membranes and spacers. Ceragenins are synthetically produced antimicrobial peptide mimics that display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. Alkene-functionalized ceragenins (e.g., acrylamide-functionalized ceragenins) can be attached to polyamide reverse osmosis membranes using amine-linking, amide-linking, UV-grafting, or silane-coating methods. In addition, silane-functionalized ceragenins can be directly attached to polymer surfaces that have free hydroxyls.

  15. Effect of pre-treatments and drying methods on quality attributes of sweet bell-pepper (Capsicum annum) powder.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh; Joshi, V K; Kaushal, M

    2015-06-01

    Pre-treatments and methods of drying for producing good quality dried bell pepper powder for use in the ready-to-eat (RTE) food products were optimized. Out of various pre-treatments used (blanching in boiling water, KMS, CA and combination of KMS + CA at different concentrations), soaking of bell pepper shreds in KMS@ 0.20 % + CA@ 0.50 % after blanching fasten the drying process (19.75 h) compared to control (22.60 h), when dried in mechanical dehydrator at 58 ± 2 °C. Blanching prior to drying improved the rate of drying and produced product with lower acidity (1.25 %). The samples (T7) treated with KMS@ 0.20 % + CA@ 0.50 % significantly (p < 0.05) retained the ascorbic acid content (47.75 mg/100 g) and also attained highest score for colour (8.0), texture (7.5) and overall acceptability (7.5) compared to rest of the treatments. Among different methods of drying, pre-treated bell peppers dried in solar poly tunnel drier produced bright red coloured powder with relatively higher amounts of sugars and ascorbic acid content, hence was optimized. Visual lump formation was observed at 19.75 % and 18.50 % critical moisture contents, which equilibrated at 42 % and 45 % RH for bell pepper powders dried in a mechanical dehydrator and solar poly tunnel drier, respectively.

  16. Development of blood transfusion product pathogen reduction treatments: a review of methods, current applications and demands.

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, Vishal; van der Meer, Pieter F; de Korte, Dirk; Seghatchian, Jerard; Gutiérrez, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI) have been greatly reduced in numbers due to the strict donor selection and screening procedures, i.e. the availability of technologies to test donors for endemic infections, and routine vigilance of regulatory authorities in every step of the blood supply chain (collection, processing and storage). However, safety improvement is still a matter of concern because infection zero-risk in transfusion medicine is non-existent. Alternatives are required to assure the safety of the transfusion product and to provide a substitution to systematic blood screening tests, especially in less-developed countries or at the war-field. Furthermore, the increasing mobility of the population due to traveling poses a new challenge in the endemic screening tests routinely used, because non-endemic pathogens might emerge in a specific population. Pathogen reduction treatments sum a plethora of active approaches to eliminate or reduce potential threatening pathogen load from blood transfusion products. Despite the success of pathogen reduction treatments applied to plasma products, there is still a long way to develop and deploy pathogen reduction treatments to cellular transfusion products (such as platelets, RBCs or even to whole blood) and there is divergence on its acceptance worldwide. While the use of pathogen reduction treatments in platelets is performed routinely in a fair number of European blood banks, most of these treatments are not (or just) licensed in the USA or elsewhere in the world. The development of pathogen reduction treatments for RBC and whole blood is still in its infancy and under clinical trials. In this review, we discuss the available and emerging pathogen reduction treatments and their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of characterizing standard transfusion products with current and emerging approaches (OMICS) and clinical outcome, and integrating this information on a database

  17. A method to compute treatment suggestions from local order entry data.

    PubMed

    Klann, Jeffrey; Schadow, Gunther; Downs, Stephen M

    2010-11-13

    Although clinical decision support systems can reduce costs and improve care, the challenges associated with manually maintaining content has led to low utilization. Here we pilot an alternative, more automatic approach to decision support content generation. We use local order entry data and Bayesian networks to automatically find multivariate associations and suggest treatments. We evaluated this on 5044 hospitalizations of pregnant women, choosing 70 frequent order and treatment variables comprising 20 treatable conditions. The method produced treatment suggestion lists for 15 of these conditions. The lists captured accurate and non-trivial clinical knowledge, and all contained the key treatment for the condition, often as the first suggestion (71% overall, 90% non-labor-related). Additionally, when run on a test set of patient data, it very accurately predicted treatments (average AUC .873) and predicted pregnancy-specific treatments with even higher accuracy (AUC above .9). This method is a starting point for harnessing the wisdom-of-the-crowd for decision support.

  18. [Diagnostics and new treatment methods of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)].

    PubMed

    Trolle, Christian; Rittig, Søren; Frøkjær, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    2012-04-09

    New treatment methods of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) has emerged with the oral vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist (VV2RA) tolvaptan, but its therapeutic window remains to be defined. We present the scientific data and describe treatment possibilities of SIADH while raising the questions: "Does the present evidence enable us to identify who to treat with VV2RAs?" and "is VV2RAs justified as first-line treatment?".

  19. Using the Experience Sampling Method in the Context of Contingency Management for Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husky, Mathilde M.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Barry, Danielle; Petry, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments have been shown to be effective in reducing substance use. This manuscript illustrates how the experience sampling method (ESM) can depict behavior and behavior change and can be used to explore CM treatment mechanisms. ESM characterizes idiosyncratic patterns of behavior and offers the potential to determine…

  20. Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS): Rationale, Design, and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Jon; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L.; Frazier, Jean A.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hlastala, Stefanie A.; Williams, Emily; Ambler, Denisse; Hunt-Harrison, Tyehimba; Maloney, Ann E.; Ritz, Louise; Anderson, Robert; Hamer, Robert M.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study is a publicly funded clinical trial designed to compare the therapeutic benefits, safety, and tolerability of risperidone, olanzapine, and molindone in youths with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The rationale, design, and methods of the Treatment of Early…

  1. Approval of Alternative Test Method for Puerto Nuevo Wastewater Treatment Plant, San Juan, Puerto Rico Memorandum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This December 2008 memorandum is from Conniesue Oldham of the Measurement Technology Group to Marcus E. Kantz in EPA Region 2. This memorandum is regarding a request to use an alternative test method at the Puerto Neuvo wastewater treatment plant

  2. Overcoming Denial through the Group: A Test of Acceptance Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugel, Robert P.; Barry, Denise

    1990-01-01

    Found participants (N=28) in alcohol treatment groups showed decreases in denial of drinking problems and decreases in psychopathology following 12 weeks of group counseling. Determined greater self-acceptance was associated with experiencing acceptance by group and with greater decreases in denial; decreases in denial and psychopathology were…

  3. A software tool for determination of breast cancer treatment methods using data mining approach.

    PubMed

    Cakır, Abdülkadir; Demirel, Burçin

    2011-12-01

    In this work, breast cancer treatment methods are determined using data mining. For this purpose, software is developed to help to oncology doctor for the suggestion of application of the treatment methods about breast cancer patients. 462 breast cancer patient data, obtained from Ankara Oncology Hospital, are used to determine treatment methods for new patients. This dataset is processed with Weka data mining tool. Classification algorithms are applied one by one for this dataset and results are compared to find proper treatment method. Developed software program called as "Treatment Assistant" uses different algorithms (IB1, Multilayer Perception and Decision Table) to find out which one is giving better result for each attribute to predict and by using Java Net beans interface. Treatment methods are determined for the post surgical operation of breast cancer patients using this developed software tool. At modeling step of data mining process, different Weka algorithms are used for output attributes. For hormonotherapy output IB1, for tamoxifen and radiotherapy outputs Multilayer Perceptron and for the chemotherapy output decision table algorithm shows best accuracy performance compare to each other. In conclusion, this work shows that data mining approach can be a useful tool for medical applications particularly at the treatment decision step. Data mining helps to the doctor to decide in a short time.

  4. IN-HOSPITAL WEIGHT LOSS, PRESCRIBED DIET AND FOOD ACCEPTANCE

    PubMed Central

    LEANDRO-MERHI, Vania Aparecida; SREBERNICH, Silvana Mariana; GONÇALVES, Gisele Mara Silva; de AQUINO, José Luiz Braga

    2015-01-01

    Background Weight loss and malnutrition may be caused by many factors, including type of disease and treatment. Aim The present study investigated the occurrence of in-hospital weight loss and related factors. Method This cross-sectional study investigated the following variables of 456 hospitalized patients: gender, age, disease, weight variation during hospital stay, and type and acceptance of the prescribed diet. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparing patients' weight in the first three days in hospital stay and determining which factors affect weight. The generalized estimating equation was used for comparing the food acceptance rates. The significance level was set at 5%. Results The most prescribed diet was the regular (28.8%) and 45.5% of the patients lost weight during their stay. Acceptance of hospital food increased from the first to the third days of stay (p=0.0022) but weight loss was still significant (p<0.0001). Age and type of prescribed diet did not affect weight loss during the study period but type of disease and gender did. Patients with neoplasms (p=0.0052) and males (p=0.0002) lost more weight. Conclusion Weight loss during hospital stay was associated only with gender and type of disease. PMID:25861060

  5. Application of simple digital methods in the treatment of hemorrhoid disease.

    PubMed

    Hajdarevic, Braco; Slaku, Jasmina; Pandza, Haris; Salihefendic, Nizama; Hadziahmetovic, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of patient with relapse of bleeding after application of minimally invasive treatment of hemorrhoidal disease such as elastic band ligation, cryosurgical treatment Hemorrhoidal Arterial Ligation (HAL) can be presented as serious clinical problem in patients with concomitant diseases that can be contraindication for radical surgical treatment. We compared the Simple Digital Method and standard above mentioned minimally invasive ambulatory treatment. We used special proctoscope with Doppler Flowmeter in order to identify all branches of hemorrhoidal artery in the anal canal creating graphical presentation using specially adapted software. HAL method is then used to perform ligation of hemorrhoidal artery branches. The elastic ligatures (called gummiligatures) are then applied to the piles in which most prominent flow was registered using Doppler Flowmeter. Antibiotic prophylaxis and sedation was administered preoperatively. Special computer program registered all steps. Hemorrhoidal ointments and paracetamol were used after surgical procedure. Average number of identified hemorrhoid arteries branches was six, and total duration of the procedure was in average 28 min. We compared patient treatment with our method and standard methods. In tested group we noticed significantly fewer complications (after eight days the number of complications 11% vs. 74%, p<0.001, after 15 days 3% vs. 11%: p=0.101). One year after procedure, the treatment was successful in 91.4%, or 32 out of 35 patients according to proctoscopy and Doppler Flowmeter exam. There were three patients with relapse of symptoms. In 77% of patients hat were treated with rubber bands ligation relapse occurred. Our method is significantly more successful in comparison to classical methods of ambulatory treatment and can be alternative to radical surgical treatment.

  6. Adding positive reinforcement in justice settings: Acceptability and feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Rudes, Danielle S.; Taxman, Faye S.; Portillo, Shannon; Murphy, Amy; Rhodes, Anne; Stitzer, Maxine; Luongo, Peter F.; Friedmann, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Although contingency management (CM) approaches are among the most promising methods for initiating drug abstinence (S. T. Higgins, S. M. Alessi, & R. L. Dantona, 2002; S. T. Higgins, S. H. Heil, & J. P. Lussier, 2004), adoption and implementation of CM protocols into treatment programs are both challenging and infrequent. In criminal justice agencies, where roughly 70% of clients report substance abuse issues (F. S. Taxman, K. L. Cropsey, D. W. Young, & H. Wexler, 2007), CM interventions are virtually nonexistent. The Justice Steps (JSTEPS) study uses a longitudinal, mixed-method design to examine the implementation of a CM-based protocol in five justice settings. This article presents qualitative data collected during Phase 1 of the JSTEPS project regarding the acceptability and feasibility of CM in these justice settings. The study finds a level of acceptability (find CM tolerable) and feasibility (find CM suitable) within justice agencies, but with some challenges. These challenges are reflected in the following: (a) incorporating too many desired target behaviors into CM models; (b) facing intraorganizational challenges when designing CM systems; and (c) emphasizing sanctions over rewards despite the evidence-base for positive reinforcers. These findings have implications for advancing the dissemination, adoption, and implementation of evidence-based treatments (and CM in particular) in criminal justice settings. PMID:21940135

  7. Adding positive reinforcement in justice settings: acceptability and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Rudes, Danielle S; Taxman, Faye S; Portillo, Shannon; Murphy, Amy; Rhodes, Anne; Stitzer, Maxine; Luongo, Peter F; Friedmann, Peter D

    2012-04-01

    Although contingency management (CM) approaches are among the most promising methods for initiating drug abstinence (S. T. Higgins, S. M. Alessi, & R. L. Dantona, 2002; S. T. Higgins, S. H. Heil, & J. P. Lussier, 2004), adoption and implementation of CM protocols into treatment programs are both challenging and infrequent. In criminal justice agencies, where roughly 70% of clients report substance abuse issues (F. S. Taxman, K. L. Cropsey, D. W. Young, & H. Wexler, 2007), CM interventions are virtually nonexistent. The Justice Steps (JSTEPS) study uses a longitudinal, mixed-method design to examine the implementation of a CM-based protocol in five justice settings. This article presents qualitative data collected during Phase 1 of the JSTEPS project regarding the acceptability and feasibility of CM in these justice settings. The study finds a level of acceptability (find CM tolerable) and feasibility (find CM suitable) within justice agencies, but with some challenges. These challenges are reflected in the following: (a) incorporating too many desired target behaviors into CM models; (b) facing intraorganizational challenges when designing CM systems; and (c) emphasizing sanctions over rewards despite the evidence-base for positive reinforcers. These findings have implications for advancing the dissemination, adoption, and implementation of evidence-based treatments (and CM in particular) in criminal justice settings.

  8. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  9. Contemporary methods of radiosurgery treatment with the Novalis linear accelerator system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joseph C T; Rahimian, Javad; Girvigian, Michael R; Miller, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Radiosurgery has emerged as an indispensable component of the multidisciplinary approach to neoplastic, functional, and vascular diseases of the central nervous system. In recent years, a number of newly developed integrated systems have been introduced for radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy treatments. These modern systems extend the flexibility of radiosurgical treatment in allowing the use of frameless image-guided radiation delivery as well as high-precision fractionated treatments. The Novalis linear accelerator system demonstrates adequate precision and reliability for cranial and extracranial radiosurgery, including functional treatments utilizing either frame-based or frameless image-guided methods.

  10. Consumer Acceptance of a Polyphenolic Coffee Beverage.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy; Kuchera, Meredith; Smoot, Katie; Diako, Charles; Vixie, Beata; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-10-05

    The objective of this study was to determine if Chardonnay grape seed pomace (GSP), a waste stream of wine production, could be used as a functional ingredient in brewed coffee. Two consumer panels were conducted to assess the acceptance of coffee at coffee replacement (w/w) values of 0% (control), 6.25%, 12.50%, 18.75%, or 25% GSP. The 1st consumer panel (n = 80) assessed the coffee samples served "black." The 2nd panel (n = 67) assessed the coffee samples with adjustment (that is, sweeteners, milk, and cream) options available. Consumer sensory evaluation involved evaluating the 5 treatments individually for acceptance of appearance, aroma, taste/flavor, and overall acceptance using a 9-point hedonic scale. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire surveyed the sensory attributes describing aroma, appearance, and taste/flavor of the samples. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity was used to measure the effects of antioxidant levels in GSP coffee samples. Results showed that GSP could be added at 6.25% replacement without significantly affecting the overall consumer acceptance of coffee compared to the control (0% GSP). Above 6.25% GSP supplementation, the coffee beverage was described as more tan, milky, watery/dilute, and mild, and was generally less accepted by the consumers. GSP also increased the antioxidant capacity of the coffee compared to the control (0% GSP), with no significant differences among replacement values. Therefore, 6.25% GSP replacement is recommended for creating coffee beverages acceptable to consumers. Further in vivo investigation may substantiate the free-radical scavenging capacity of GSP coffee and its potential health benefits.

  11. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities.

  12. Method and equipment for treatment of fuel for fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Beranek, J.; Cermak, J.; Dobrozemsky, J.; Fibinger, V.

    1982-04-20

    The invention relates to the method and equipment for treatment of fuel for fluidized bed combustion, which includes drying, classification and crushing of the fuel. The method for treatment of fuel comprises mixing the fuel with hot ash removed from the fluidized bed combustor and drying said mixture in a fluidized bed dryer in which the velocity of the fluidization fluid equals or is lower than the minimum fluidization velocity of particles in the fluidized bed combustor. The equipment for treatment of fuel comprises a bunker, crusher and dryer, comprising a fluidized bed dryer provided with appropriate piping for interconnection of the fluidized bed dryer, fluidized bed combuster, fuel bunker and crusher.

  13. Method and equipment for treatment of fuel for fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Beranek, J.; Dobrozemsky, J.; Fibinger, V.; Germak, J.

    1983-11-15

    The invention relates to the method and equipment for treatment of fuel for fluidized bed combustion, which includes drying, classification and crushing of the fuel. The method for treatment of fuel comprises mixing the fuel with hot ash removed from the fluidized bed combustor and drying said mixture in a fluidized bed dryer in which the velocity of the fluidization fluid equals or is lower than the minimum fluidization velocity of particles in the fluidized bed combustor. The equipment for treatment of fuel comprises a bunker, crusher and dryer, comprising a fluidized bed dryer provided with appropriate piping for interconnection of the fluidized bed dryer, fluidized bed combustor, fuel bunker and crusher.

  14. Performance evaluation of vinasse treatment plant integrated with physico-chemical methods.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Sanjay Kumar; Mishra, Snehasish; Kumar, Satish; Mohanty, Shakti Shankar; Sarkar, Biplab; Singh, Monika; Chaudhury, Gautam Roy

    2015-11-01

    With an objective to assess environmental management criteria of a vinasse treatment plant (VTP) and to evaluate the critical environmental parameters, a study was undertaken in a multi-product (packaged apple juice, distillery, brewery, packaged drinking water) brewery-cum-distillery unit. The facility with a volumetric loading rate of 11-15 kg COD m(-3).day, 3.6-4.5 h hydraulic retention time and 20 g l(-1) VSS had a scientifically managed technically sound effluent treatment system. While the water quality parameters were found within the acceptable limits, there was 99.07% reduction in BOD, from 43140.0 to 398.0 mg l(-1) and 98.61% reduction in COD from 98003.0 to 1357.0 mg l(-1). There was appreciable improvement in mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), mixed liquorvolatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and sludge volume index (SVI). A striking feature was the integrated aerobic-anaerobic highly efficient Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) treatment for biodegradation and energy production that reduced energy and space needs, producing utilisable end-products and net savings on the operational cost. The end-point waste management included terminal products such as fertile sludge, cattle feed supplement, recyclable water and biogas. Vast lagoons with combined aerobic-anaerobic approaches, biogasification unit, sludge recovery, remediated irrigable water were the notable attributes.

  15. [Psychotherapeutic treatment of traumatic stress with the EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) method].

    PubMed

    Liebermann, P; Hofmann, A; Flatten, G

    2003-12-04

    EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) is a method, developed at the end of the nineteen-eighties, for the treatment of the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The patient is asked to concentrate on certain aspect of the traumatic memory while keeping his eyes fixed on the movements of the therapist's finger. Apparently, this triggers information processing that results in appreciable relief for the patient. The method has proven to be equally as effective as behavioral-therapeutic techniques, and, has in the meantime, been included in national and international guidelines for the treatment of PTSD. The indications for EMDR treatment include not only PTSD, but, increasingly, also other, sometimes more severely chronic, it trauma sequelae. Within the framework of basic care, EMDR must be embedded within a treatment plan and should, where applicable, be combined with other methods.

  16. TU-C-17A-07: FusionARC Treatment with Adaptive Beam Selection Method

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H; Li, R; Xing, L; Lee, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recently, a new treatment scheme, FusionARC, has been introduced to compensate for the pitfalls in single-arc VMAT planning. It basically allows for the static field treatment in selected locations, while the remaining is treated by single-rotational arc delivery. The important issue is how to choose the directions for static field treatment. This study presents an adaptive beam selection method to formulate fusionARC treatment scheme. Methods: The optimal plan for single-rotational arc treatment is obtained from two-step approach based on the reweighted total-variation (TV) minimization. To choose the directions for static field treatment with extra segments, a value of our proposed cost function at each field is computed on the new fluence-map, which adds an extra segment to the designated field location only. The cost function is defined as a summation of equivalent uniform dose (EUD) of all structures with the fluence-map, while assuming that the lower cost function value implies the enhancement of plan quality. Finally, the extra segments for static field treatment would be added to the selected directions with low cost function values. A prostate patient data was applied and evaluated with three different plans: conventional VMAT, fusionARC, and static IMRT. Results: The 7 field locations, corresponding to the lowest cost function values, are chosen to insert extra segment for step-and-shoot dose delivery. Our proposed fusionARC plan with the selected angles improves the dose sparing to the critical organs, relative to static IMRT and conventional VMAT plans. The dose conformity to the target is significantly enhanced at the small expense of treatment time, compared with VMAT plan. Its estimated treatment time, however, is still much faster than IMRT. Conclusion: The fusionARC treatment with adaptive beam selection method could improve the plan quality with insignificant damage in the treatment time, relative to the conventional VMAT.

  17. Method for Cleaning Laser-Drilled Holes on Printed Wiring Boards by Plasma Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirogaki, Toshiki; Aoyama, Eiichi; Minagi, Ryu; Ogawa, Keiji; Katayama, Tsutao; Matsuoka, Takashi; Inoue, Hisahiro

    We propose a new method for cleaning blind via holes after laser drilling of PWBs using oxygen plasma treatment. This report dealt with three kinds of PWB materials: epoxy resin and two kinds of aramid fiber reinforced plastics (AFRP: Technora or Kevlar fiber reinforcement). We observed the drilled holes after plasma treatment using both an optical and a scanning electric microscope (SEM). It was confirmed that adequate etching took place in the drilled holes by plasma treatment. We also compared the hole wall and hole bottom after plasma treatment with ones after chemical etching. It was clear that there was no damage to the aramid fiber tip on the hole wall, and that a smooth roughness of the hole wall was obtained by means of plasma treatment. As a result, we demonstrated that the plasma treatment is effective in cleaning the laser drilled holes of PWBs.

  18. A Manual of Simplified Laboratory Methods for Operators of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerhold, Arnold F., Ed.; Bennett, Ernest C., Ed.

    This manual is designed to provide the small wastewater treatment plant operator, as well as the new or inexperienced operator, with simplified methods for laboratory analysis of water and wastewater. It is emphasized that this manual is not a replacement for standard methods but a guide for plants with insufficient equipment to perform analyses…

  19. [Professor Tian Cong-huo's principles, methods, prescription, acupoints and technic for the treatment of arthralgia].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Chen; Zhao, Hong

    2012-11-01

    Professor Tian Cong-huo's clinical experience for the treatment of arthralgia is summarized on the basis of principles, methods, prescription, acupoints and technic. After 60 years of clinical practice, professor Tian is specialized in treating arthralgia with the method of "dispel stasis and promote regeneration, supplement and boost the spleen and kidney". During the treatment, acupuncture, moxibustion and herbs are given on the basis of syndrome differentiation, which showes remarkable efficacy in local symptom relieving, body function improving and life quality enhancing. Professor Tian's clinical thoughts and methods are analyzed in depth and typical cases are illustrated in the article as well.

  20. Comparative estimation of the effectiveness of laser and other methods of stomatological disease treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Erina, Stanislava V.; Pankova, Svetlana N.; Buerger, Friedhelm R.; Baumert, R.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Malinovskaya, L. A.; Sokolova, Irina A.; Podolskaya, Elana E.; Kazmina, Svetlana G.; Dergunova, Elvira I.; Mozhaev, N. N.

    1996-11-01

    A perspective trend in the perfection of laser methods of stomatological diseases treatment is the application of low intensity laser radiation having a wide range of the therapeutic effect. Thus, laser radiation has various, pathogenetic effect. Patients with carries, pulpits, periodontitis, diseases of parodontium and oral mucous membranes were treated. Traditional examination methods were used, i.e. biochemical, visual pulp examination, immunological and macrohistological ones. The obtained results prove high effectiveness of laser therapy in the treatment of a number of stomatological disease in comparison with traditional methods and can be recommended to be used in practice.

  1. [On the use of photoplasmodynamic method in treatment of suppurative wounds].

    PubMed

    Pedder, V V; Kosenok, V K; Belik, D V; Rot, G Z; Surgutskova, I V; Shkuro, Iu V; Pedder, A V; Naboka, M V; Mironenko, V N; Shudina, A V

    2008-01-01

    A new photoplasmodynamic method and Elektroton-Pulsar hardware system for its implementation are described. The method provides treatment of suppurative wounds by exposure of the infection focus to a gas mixture containing highly active components: O*, O2*, 1O2, O(, O3 traces + UV, etc. The exposure is performed using high-voltage electric discharges interacting with the initial ozone-containing gas mixture. The photoplasmodynamic method and the Elektroton-Pulsar hardware system are used in clinical practice for treatment of suppurative wounds and cavities of various etiology.

  2. Method for appraising model validity of randomised controlled trials of homeopathic treatment: multi-rater concordance study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A method for assessing the model validity of randomised controlled trials of homeopathy is needed. To date, only conventional standards for assessing intrinsic bias (internal validity) of trials have been invoked, with little recognition of the special characteristics of homeopathy. We aimed to identify relevant judgmental domains to use in assessing the model validity of homeopathic treatment (MVHT). We define MVHT as the extent to which a homeopathic intervention and the main measure of its outcome, as implemented in a randomised controlled trial (RCT), reflect 'state-of-the-art' homeopathic practice. Methods Using an iterative process, an international group of experts developed a set of six judgmental domains, with associated descriptive criteria. The domains address: (I) the rationale for the choice of the particular homeopathic intervention; (II) the homeopathic principles reflected in the intervention; (III) the extent of homeopathic practitioner input; (IV) the nature of the main outcome measure; (V) the capability of the main outcome measure to detect change; (VI) the length of follow-up to the endpoint of the study. Six papers reporting RCTs of homeopathy of varying design were randomly selected from the literature. A standard form was used to record each assessor's independent response per domain, using the optional verdicts 'Yes', 'Unclear', 'No'. Concordance among the eight verdicts per domain, across all six papers, was evaluated using the kappa (κ) statistic. Results The six judgmental domains enabled MVHT to be assessed with 'fair' to 'almost perfect' concordance in each case. For the six RCTs examined, the method allowed MVHT to be classified overall as 'acceptable' in three, 'unclear' in two, and 'inadequate' in one. Conclusion Future systematic reviews of RCTs in homeopathy should adopt the MVHT method as part of a complete appraisal of trial validity. PMID:22510227

  3. A Higher-Order Boundary Treatment for Cartesian-Grid Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrer, Hans; Jeltsch, Rolf

    1998-03-01

    The Euler equations describe the flow phenomena of compressible inviscid gas dynamics. We simulate such flows using a higher-order Cartesian-grid method, together with a special treatment for the cells cut by the boundary of an object. A new method for the treatment of the boundary is described where these cut boundary cells are maintained as whole cells rather than as cut cells, thus avoiding stability problems. The method is second-order accurate in one dimension and higher-order accurate in two dimensions but not strictly conservative; however, we show that this error in the conservation does not lead to spurious phenomena on some representative test calculations. The advantages of the new boundary treatment are that it is higher-order accurate, that it is independent of the applied method, and that it is simple.

  4. Extending the Technology Acceptance Model: Policy Acceptance Model (PAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Tamra

    There has been extensive research on how new ideas and technologies are accepted in society. This has resulted in the creation of many models that are used to discover and assess the contributing factors. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is one that is a widely accepted model. This model examines people's acceptance of new technologies based on variables that directly correlate to how the end user views the product. This paper introduces the Policy Acceptance Model (PAM), an expansion of TAM, which is designed for the analysis and evaluation of acceptance of new policy implementation. PAM includes the traditional constructs of TAM and adds the variables of age, ethnicity, and family. The model is demonstrated using a survey of people's attitude toward the upcoming healthcare reform in the United States (US) from 72 survey respondents. The aim is that the theory behind this model can be used as a framework that will be applicable to studies looking at the introduction of any new or modified policies.

  5. Acceptance-Enhanced Behavior Therapy for Trichotillomania in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Kathi M.; Walther, Michael R.; Joseph, Jessica M.; Robinson, Jordan; Ricketts, Emily J.; Bowe, William E.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the efficacy of Acceptance Enhanced Behavior Therapy (AEBT) for the treatment of trichotillomania (TTM) in adults, data are limited with respect to the treatment of adolescents. Our case series illustrates the use of AEBT for TTM in the treatment of two adolescents. The AEBT protocol (Woods & Twohig, 2008) is…

  6. Matching methods for obtaining survival functions to estimate the effect of a time-dependent treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Schaubel, Douglas E.; He, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    In observational studies of survival time featuring a binary time-dependent treatment, the hazard ratio (an instantaneous measure) is often used to represent the treatment effect. However, investigators are often more interested in the difference in survival functions. We propose semiparametric methods to estimate the causal effect of treatment among the treated with respect to survival probability. The objective is to compare post-treatment survival with the survival function that would have been observed in the absence of treatment. For each patient, we compute a prognostic score (based on the pre-treatment death hazard) and a propensity score (based on the treatment hazard). Each treated patient is then matched with an alive, uncensored and not-yet-treated patient with similar prognostic and/or propensity scores. The experience of each treated and matched patient is weighted using a variant of Inverse Probability of Censoring Weighting to account for the impact of censoring. We propose estimators of the treatment-specific survival functions (and their difference), computed through weighted Nelson-Aalen estimators. Closed-form variance estimators are proposed which take into consideration the potential replication of subjects across matched sets. The proposed methods are evaluated through simulation, then applied to estimate the effect of kidney transplantation on survival among end-stage renal disease patients using data from a national organ failure registry. PMID:25309633

  7. A few facts from the history of selected biological treatment methods in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Jarema, Marek

    2008-11-01

    Biological treatment of mental disorders has obviously strong links to psychopharmacology. It is no wonder that the greatest expectations for progress in the treatment of mental conditions are focused on new drugs or molecules that share interesting properties of pharmacological mechanisms of action. However, nowadays the development of non-pharmacological options, including transcranial magnetic stimulation or vagus nerve stimulation, indicates the need for more efficacious and better tolerated treatment modalities. Before the age of modern psychopharmacology, which began in the 1950s, treatment of mental disorders was rather limited to only a few methods that had proved to be of some efficacy. In the absence of other, more efficacious treatment methods, these therapies-such as insulin coma or atropine coma-brought at least some relief to those who suffered from serious mental disorders. Obviously, at present we are aware that these therapies should be considered far less efficient than modern psychotropic drugs; however, at the time when these methods were used, no other efficient treatment methods were available.

  8. Acceptability of contraception for men: a review.

    PubMed

    Glasier, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Methods of contraception for use by men include condoms, withdrawal and vasectomy. Prevalence of use of a method and continuation rates are indirect measures of acceptability. Worldwide, none of these "male methods" accounts for more than 7% of contraceptive use although uptake varies considerably between countries. Acceptability can be assessed directly by asking about intended (hypothetical) use and assessing satisfaction during/after use. Since they have been around for a very long time, there are very few data of this nature on condoms (as contraceptives rather than for prevention of infection), withdrawal or vasectomy. There are direct data on the acceptability of hormonal methods for men but from relatively small clinical trials which undoubtedly do not represent the real world. Surveys undertaken among the male general public demonstrate that, whatever the setting, at least 25% of men - and in most countries substantially more - would consider using hormonal contraception. Although probably an overestimate of the number of potential users when such a method becomes available, it would appear that hormonal contraceptives for men may have an important place on the contraceptive menu. Despite commonly expressed views to the contrary, most women would trust their male partner to use a hormonal method.

  9. Gender-based Outcomes and Acceptability of a Computer-assisted Psychosocial Intervention for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Nunes, Edward V.; Pavlicova, Martina; Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Hu, Mei-Chen; Bailey, Genie L.; Sugarman, Dawn E.; Miele, Gloria M.; Rieckmann, Traci; Shores-Wilson, Kathy; Turrigiano, Eva; Greenfield, Shelly F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Digital technologies show promise for increasing treatment accessibility and improving quality of care, but little is known about gender differences. This secondary analysis uses data from a multi-site effectiveness trial of a computer-assisted behavioral intervention, conducted within NIDA's National Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network, to explore gender differences in intervention acceptability and treatment outcomes. Methods Men (n=314) and women (n=192) were randomly assigned to 12-weeks of treatment-as-usual (TAU) or modified TAU + Therapeutic Education System (TES), whereby TES substituted for 2 hours of TAU per week. TES is comprised of 62 web-delivered, multimedia modules, covering skills for achieving and maintaining abstinence plus prize-based incentives contingent on abstinence and treatment adherence. Outcomes were: (1) abstinence from drugs and heavy drinking in the last 4 weeks of treatment, (2) retention, (3) social functioning, and (4) drug and alcohol craving. Acceptability was the mean score across five indicators (i.e., interesting, useful, novel, easy to understand, and satisfaction). Results Gender did not moderate the effect of treatment on any outcome. Women reported higher acceptability scores at week 4 (p=.02), but no gender differences were detected at weeks 8 or 12. Acceptability was positively associated with abstinence, but only among women (p=.01). Conclusions Findings suggest that men and women derive similar benefits from participating in a computer-assisted intervention, a promising outcome as technology-based treatments expand. Acceptability was associated with abstinence outcomes among women. Future research should explore characteristics of women who report less satisfaction with this modality of treatment and ways to improve overall acceptability. PMID:25613105

  10. A randomised controlled trial of computerised cognitive behaviour therapy for the treatment of depression in primary care: the Randomised Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Acceptability of Computerised Therapy (REEACT) trial.

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, Elizabeth; Duarte, Ana; Hewitt, Catherine; Knowles, Sarah; Palmer, Stephen; Walker, Simon; Andersen, Phil; Araya, Ricardo; Barkham, Michael; Bower, Peter; Brabyn, Sally; Brierley, Gwen; Cooper, Cindy; Gask, Linda; Kessler, David; Lester, Helen; Lovell, Karina; Muhammad, Usman; Parry, Glenys; Richards, David A; Richardson, Rachel; Tallon, Debbie; Tharmanathan, Puvan; White, David; Gilbody, Simon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) has been developed as an efficient form of therapy delivery with the potential to enhance access to psychological care. Independent research is needed which examines both the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cCBT over the short and longer term. OBJECTIVES To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cCBT as an adjunct to usual general practitioner (GP) care against usual GP care alone, for a free-to-use cCBT program (MoodGYM; National Institute for Mental Health Research, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia) and a commercial pay-to-use cCBT program (Beating the Blues(®); Ultrasis, London, UK) for adults with depression, and to determine the acceptability of cCBT and the experiences of users. DESIGN A pragmatic, multicentre, three-armed, parallel, randomised controlled trial (RCT) with concurrent economic and qualitative evaluations. Simple randomisation was used. Participants and researchers were not blind to treatment allocation. SETTING Primary care in England. PARTICIPANTS Adults with depression who scored ≥ 10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). INTERVENTIONS Participants who were randomised to either of the two intervention groups received cCBT (Beating the Blues or MoodGYM) in addition to usual GP care. Participants who were randomised to the control group were offered usual GP care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was depression at 4 months (PHQ-9). Secondary outcomes were depression at 12 and 24 months; measures of mental health and health-related quality of life at 4, 12 and 24 months; treatment preference; and the acceptability of cCBT and experiences of users. RESULTS Clinical effectiveness: 210 patients were randomised to Beating the Blues, 242 patients were randomised to MoodGYM and 239 patients were randomised to usual GP care (total 691). There was no difference in the primary outcome (depression measured at 4 months

  11. A critical review of accounting and economic methods for estimating the costs of addiction treatment.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, William S

    2008-04-01

    Researchers have been at the forefront of applying new costing methods to drug abuse treatment programs and innovations. The motivation for such work has been to improve costing accuracy. Recent work has seen applications initiated in establishing charts of account and cost accounting for service delivery. As a result, researchers now have available five methods to apply to the costing of drug abuse treatment programs. In all areas of costing, there is room for more research on costing concepts and measurement applications. Additional work would be useful in establishing studies with activity-based costing for both research and managerial purposes. Studies of economies of scope are particularly relevant because of the integration of social services and criminal justice in drug abuse treatment. In the long run, managerial initiatives to improve the administration and quality of drug abuse treatment will benefit directly from research with new information on costing techniques.

  12. Market Acceptance of Smart Growth

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report finds that smart growth developments enjoy market acceptance because of stability in prices over time. Housing resales in smart growth developments often have greater appreciation than their conventional suburban counterparts.

  13. L-286 Acceptance Test Record

    SciTech Connect

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-14

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  14. Optimizing municipal wastewater treatment plants using an improved multi-objective optimization method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Xie, Wen-Ming; Yu, Han-Qing; Li, Wen-Wei

    2014-04-01

    An improved multi-objective optimization (MOO) model was established and used for simultaneously optimizing the treatment cost and multiple effluent quality indexes (including effluent COD, NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N) of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Compared with previous models that were mainly based on the use of fixed decision factors and did not taken into account the treatment cost, this model introduces a relationship model based on back propagation algorithm to determine the set of decision factors according to the expected optimization targets. Thus, a more flexible and precise optimization of the treatment process was allowed. Moreover, a MOO of conflicting objectives (i.e., treatment cost and effluent quality) was achieved. Applying this method, an optimal balance between operating cost and effluent quality of a WWTP can be found. This model may offer a useful tool for optimized design and control of practical WWTPs.

  15. Microporous structure with layered interstitial surface treatment, and method and apparatus for preparation thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A microporous structure with layered interstitial surface treatments, and method and apparatus for preparation thereof is presented. The structure is prepared by sequentially subjecting a uniformly surface-treated structure to atomic oxygen treatment to remove an outer layer of surface treatment to a generally uniform depth, and then surface treating the so exposed layer with another surface treating agent. The atomic oxygen/surface treatment steps may optionally be repeated, each successive time to a lesser depth, to produce a microporous structure having multilayered surface treatments. The apparatus employs at least one side arm from a main atomic oxygen-containing chamber. The side arm has characteristic relaxation times such that a uniform atomic oxygen dose rate is delivered to a specimen positioned transversely in the side arm spaced from the main gas chamber.

  16. Microporous structure with layered interstitial surface treatment, and method and apparatus for preparation thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A microporous structure with layered interstitial surface treatments, and the method and apparatus for its preparation are disclosed. The structure is prepared by sequentially subjecting a uniformly surface treated structure to atomic oxygen treatment to remove an outer layer of surface treatment to a generally uniform depth, and then surface treating the so exposed layer with another surface treating agent. The atomic oxygen/surface treatment steps may optionally be repeated, each successive time to a lesser depth, to produce a microporous structure having multilayered surface treatments. The apparatus employs at least one side arm from a main oxygen-containing chamber. The side arm has characteristic relaxation times such that a uniform atomic oxygen dose rate is delivered to a specimen positioned transversely in the side arm spaced from the main gas chamber.

  17. Methods for Cf-252 cervix cancer therapy and treatment planning for GYN malignancies in Lexington

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, C.W.; Yoneda, J.; Beach, J.L.; Maruyama, Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the clinical physics methods and treatment planning techniques used in both the external beam and brachytherapy treatment of GYN malignancies in the Radiotherapy Department of the University of Kentucky Medical Center. Specific description of the departmental implant suite and brachytherapy procedures are included. The optimization of brachytherapy applicator placement, source arrangement, and normal and tumor total dose and dose distributions are presented. Quality assurance protocols for teletherapy and brachytherapy and patient and staff safety procedures with Cf-252 are discussed.

  18. The Feasibility and Acceptability of “Arise”: An Online Substance Abuse Relapse Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Bartel, Chelsea M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a novel online adolescent substance abuse relapse prevention tool, “Arise” (3C Institute, Cary, NC). The program uses an innovative platform including interactive instructional segments and skill-building games to help adolescents learn and practice coping skills training strategies. Materials and Methods: We conducted a pilot test with nine adolescents in substance abuse treatment (44 percent female) and a feasibility test with treatment providers (n=8; 50 percent female). Adolescents interacted with the program via a secure Web site for approximately 30 minutes for each of two instructional units. Treatment providers reviewed the same material at their own pace. All participants completed a questionnaire with items assessing usability, acceptability, understanding, and subjective experience of the program. Results: Regarding feasibility, recruitment of this population within the study constraints proved challenging, but participant retention in the trial was high (no attrition). Adolescents and treatment providers completed the program with no reported problems, and overall we were able to collect data as planned. Regarding acceptability, the program received strong ratings from both adolescents and providers, who found the prototype informative, engaging, and appealing. Both groups strongly recommended continuing development. Conclusions: We were able to deliver the intervention as intended, and acceptability ratings were high, demonstrating the feasibility and acceptability of online delivery of engaging interactive interventions. This study contributes to our understanding of how interactive technologies, including games, can be used to modify behavior in substance abuse treatment and other health areas. PMID:26181807

  19. Laser diode fiber optic apparatus for acupuncture treatment by the Oriental method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Van Hoi; Phung, Huu A.; Bui, Huy; Hoang, Cao D.; Vu, Duc T.; Tran, Minh T.; Nguyen, Minh H.

    1998-08-01

    The laser acupuncture equipment using laser diodes of 850, 1300 nm and optical fibers as light needles is presented. The double-frequency modulation of laser beam gives the high efficiency treatment of the low-power laser therapy by the oriental acupuncture method. The laser spot from optical fiber of 50 microns is suitable for the irradiation into special points on body or auricular by the acupuncture treatment schema. The laser intensity in pulse regime of 5 - 40 W/cm2 and irradiation time of 5 - 15 minutes are optimum for treatment of neurosis symptoms and pain-relieving.

  20. [New method for treatment of chronic blepharitis associated with dry eye syndrome].

    PubMed

    Safonova, T N; Zabegaĭlo, A O; Fedorov, A A; Lukisheva, O V

    2014-01-01

    A new combined method for treatment of chronic blepharitis associated with dry eye syndrome is developed. A total of 25 patients were enrolled. The treatment implied the use of artificial tears, Restasis, and Blephasteam spectacle frame. The course included 20 procedures on daily basis. The monitoring period was 1 year. A pronounced anti-inflammatory, reparative, and moistening effect as well as stabilization of the precorneal film was achieved in short time. Owing to the combined approach, negative side effects (such as burning, conjunctival irritation, and fluctuating vision) were minimized. Repeated treatment courses maintained the positive therapeutic effect and prolongated the remission.

  1. Experimental use of a laser as one of the methods of physiotherapeutical treatment in lumbosacral rachialgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagielski, Jerzy

    1995-03-01

    The author presents the initial comparative investigations on treatment with laser beam, diadynamic current, and combined operation of diadynamic currents and classic massage. The investigations were performed in three groups on 78 patients. The obtained results indicate great therapeutic effectiveness of laser biostimulation, better than in other treatments and a larger scope of indications for treatment with that method. According to the modified Laitinen's scale the obtained improvement was from the range of two points, corresponding to strong pain, to 0.3 points, almost complete regression of the pain.

  2. Dispersion of Co/CNTs via strong electrostatic adsorption method: Thermal treatment effect

    SciTech Connect

    Akbarzadeh, Omid Abdullah, Bawadi Subbarao, Duvvuri; Zabidi, Noor Asmawati Mohd

    2015-07-22

    The effect of different thermal treatment temperature on the structure of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Co particle dispersion on CNTs support is studied using Strong electrostatic adsorption (SEA) method. The samples tested by N{sub 2}-adsorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). N{sub 2}-adsorption results showed BET surface area increased using thermal treatment and TEM images showed that increasing the thermal treatment temperature lead to flaky CNTs and defects introduced on the outer surface and Co particle dispersion increased.

  3. A hybrid method in combining treatment effects from matched and unmatched studies.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jinyoung; Lai, Dejian; Luo, Sheng; Risser, Jan; Tung, Betty; Hardy, Robert J

    2013-12-10

    The most common data structures in the biomedical studies have been matched or unmatched designs. Data structures resulting from a hybrid of the two may create challenges for statistical inferences. The question may arise whether to use parametric or nonparametric methods on the hybrid data structure. The Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity study was a multicenter clinical trial sponsored by the National Eye Institute. The design produced data requiring a statistical method of a hybrid nature. An infant in this multicenter randomized clinical trial had high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity that was eligible for treatment in one or both eyes at entry into the trial. During follow-up, recognition visual acuity was accessed for both eyes. Data from both eyes (matched) and from only one eye (unmatched) were eligible to be used in the trial. The new hybrid nonparametric method is a meta-analysis based on combining the Hodges-Lehmann estimates of treatment effects from the Wilcoxon signed rank and rank sum tests. To compare the new method, we used the classic meta-analysis with the t-test method to combine estimates of treatment effects from the paired and two sample t-tests. We used simulations to calculate the empirical size and power of the test statistics, as well as the bias, mean square and confidence interval width of the corresponding estimators. The proposed method provides an effective tool to evaluate data from clinical trials and similar comparative studies.

  4. New Combinational Method for Noninvasive Treatments of Superficial Tissues for Body Aesthetics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybyanets, A. N.; Naumenko, A. A.

    The paper introduces an innovative combinational treatment method based on ultrasonic standing waves (USW) technology for noninvasive surgical, therapeutic, lypolitic or cosmetic treatment of tissues including subcutaneous adipose tissue, cellulite or skin on arbitrary body part of patient. The method is based on simultaneous or successive applying of constructively interfering physically and biologically sensed influences: USW, ultrasonic shear waves, radio-frequency (RF) heating, and vacuum massage. The paper provides basic physical principles of USW as well as critical comparison of USW and HIFU methods. The results of finite-elements and finite- difference modeling of USW transducer design and nodal pattern structure in tissue are presented. Biological effects of USW-tissue interaction and synergetic aspects of USW and RF combination are explored. Combinational treatment transducer designs and original in-vitro experiments on tissues are described.

  5. Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of the mandibular angle fracture treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Razukevicius, Dainius; Sabalys, Gintautas; Kubilius, Ricardas

    2005-01-01

    425 patients with mandibular angle fractures were treated at the Hospital of Kaunas University of Medicine (HKUM) Clinic of Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Treatment included the application of closed fracture fragments fixation methods (wire splint fixation, and Kirschner wire osteosynthesis), and methods of open fixation--osteosynthesis using the supra-periosteal miniplate, and osteosynthesis using supra-osseous Zes Pol plate (the latter method was modified by the authors). Relative computerized densitometry showed that closed fixation methods result in a faster healing of fractures. The findings of the pain threshold testing showed that open fixation methods more severely damage the function of the lower alveolar nerve. Using closed fixation methods, osteomyelitis occurred in 5.3% of cases, while using open fixation methods--in 15.3% of cases. Thus, the authors of the article maintain that when mandibular angle fractures, in the presence of suitable conditions, closed fracture fragments fixation methods should be given a priority.

  6. [New methods of treatment applied in the hospital of Sochi during the Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    Artiukhov, S A

    2013-05-01

    During the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945 Sochi was turned into the largest hospital base in the south of the USSR. All told, 335 thousand wonded and seriously ill soldiers were treated in the hospitals of Sochi. During the war physicians applied many new, including, early unknown medical methods of treatment. Poor provision with medical equipment, instruments, bandages and medicines was made up for using of local resources. Adoption of new treatment methods based on the use of local medicines allowed the Sochi's physicians to save many lives during the war.

  7. Rhythmical intention as a method of treatment for the cerebral palsied patient.

    PubMed

    Clarke, J; Evans, E

    1973-06-01

    Conductive Education as described by Cotton (1967, 1970) and Hari (1968) is the method of treatment introduced by Professor Andreas Peto at the State Institute for the Motor Disabled in Budapest. It is a system of treatment which does not separate the learning of intellectual, linguistic and functional skills into the usual areas of school, speech therapy, occupational therapy and physiotherapy. Instead the child approaches a total learning situation where the conductor is teacher/therapist and Rhythmical Intention is used as the method of learning all tasks.

  8. Simple compressive method for treatment of auricular haematoma using dental silicone material.

    PubMed

    Choung, Y H; Park, K; Choung, P H; Oh, J H

    2005-01-01

    Most of the previous treatment methods for auricular haematoma are inconvenient for both patients and doctors because they are time-consuming and complex and must be performed under sterile conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a simple compressive method using a dental (silicone) impression material and comparing it with other methods for treatment of auricular haematomas. The authors aspirated a haematoma and then placed a mixed base and catalyst of silicone putty material on the anterior and posterior surfaces of the auricle in the shape of an inverted U for seven days. From the 24 cases managed with this method, 23 cases (95.8 per cent) were successfully healed. Eight patients were treated with a collodion-cotton wool cast and 16 of 19 patients were successfully treated with dental cotton-wool rolls. The average number of those visiting the hospital was 2.7 for the collodion-cotton wool cast, 6.9 for the dental cotton-wool roll, and 3.1 for dental silicone. The mean treatment durations were 8.1 days for the collodion-cotton wool cast, 13.8 days for the dental cotton-wool roll, and 8.6 days for dental silicone. The authors believe that this compressive method using dental silicone material is simple and appropriate for the treatment of auricular haematoma.

  9. Comparison of Methods to Identify Pathogens and Associated Virulence Functional Genes in Biosolids from Two Different Wastewater Treatment Facilities in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Luke; Elias, Miria; Xiang, Shurong; Madey, Ewa; Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian; Beaudette, Lee A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of treated municipal wastewater residues (biosolids) as fertilizers is an attractive, inexpensive option for growers and farmers. Various regulatory bodies typically employ indicator organisms (fecal coliforms, E. coli and Salmonella) to assess the adequacy and efficiency of the wastewater treatment process in reducing pathogen loads in the final product. Molecular detection approaches can offer some advantages over culture-based methods as they can simultaneously detect a wider microbial species range, including non-cultivable microorganisms. However, they cannot directly assess the viability of the pathogens. Here, we used bacterial enumeration methods together with molecular methods including qPCR, 16S rRNA and cpn60 gene amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to compare pre- and post-treatment biosolids from two Canadian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Our results show that an anaerobic digestion WWTP was unsuccessful at reducing the live indicator organism load (coliforms, generic E. coli and Salmonella) below acceptable regulatory criteria, while biosolids from a dewatering/pelletization WWTP met these criteria. DNA from other pathogens was detected by the molecular methods, but these species were considered less abundant. Clostridium DNA increased significantly following anaerobic digestion treatments. In addition to pathogen DNA, genes related to virulence and antibiotic resistance were identified in treated biosolids. Shotgun metagenomics revealed the widest range of pathogen DNA and, among the approaches used here, was the only approach that could access functional gene information in treated biosolids. Overall, our results highlight the potential usefulness of amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenomics as complementary screening methods that could be used in parallel with culture-based methods, although more detailed comparisons across a wider range of sites would be needed. PMID:27089040

  10. A simple method of independent treatment time verification in gamma knife radiosurgery using integral dose

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Jianyue; Drzymala, Robert; Li Zuofeng

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a simple independent dose calculation method to verify treatment plans for Leksell Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Our approach uses the total integral dose within the skull as an end point for comparison. The total integral dose is computed using a spreadsheet and is compared to that obtained from Leksell GammaPlan registered . It is calculated as the sum of the integral doses of 201 beams, each passing through a cylindrical volume. The average length of the cylinders is estimated from the Skull-Scaler measurement data taken before treatment. Correction factors are applied to the length of the cylinder depending on the location of a shot in the skull. The radius of the cylinder corresponds to the collimator aperture of the helmet, with a correction factor for the beam penumbra and scattering. We have tested our simple spreadsheet program using treatment plans of 40 patients treated with Gamma Knife registered in our center. These patients differ in geometry, size, lesion locations, collimator helmet, and treatment complexities. Results show that differences between our calculations and treatment planning results are typically within {+-}3%, with a maximum difference of {+-}3.8%. We demonstrate that our spreadsheet program is a convenient and effective independent method to verify treatment planning irradiation times prior to implementation of Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

  11. Treatment of winery wastewater by electrochemical methods and advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert; Nad, Karlo; Mikelic, Ivanka Lovrencic; Gustek, Stefica Findri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was development of new system for the treatment of highly polluted wastewater (COD = 10240 mg/L; SS = 2860 mg/L) originating from vine-making industry. The system consisted of the main treatment that included electrochemical methods (electro oxidation, electrocoagulation using stainless steel, iron and aluminum electrode sets) with simultaneous sonication and recirculation in strong electromagnetic field. Ozonation combined with UV irradiation in the presence of added hydrogen peroxide was applied for the post-treatment of the effluent. Following the combined treatment, the final removal efficiencies of the parameters color, turbidity, suspended solids and phosphates were over 99%, Fe, Cu and ammonia approximately 98%, while the removal of COD and sulfates was 77% and 62%, respectively. A new approach combining electrochemical methods with ultrasound in the strong electromagnetic field resulted in significantly better removal efficiencies for majority of the measured parameters compared to the biological methods, advanced oxidation processes or electrocoagulation. Reduction of the treatment time represents another advantage of this new approach.

  12. College Student Invulnerability Beliefs and HIV Vaccine Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravert, Russell D.; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine behavioral history, beliefs, and vaccine characteristics as predictors of HIV vaccine acceptability. Methods: Two hundred forty-five US under graduates were surveyed regarding their sexual history, risk beliefs, and likelihood of accepting hypothetical HIV vaccines. Results: Multivariate regression analysis indicated that…

  13. Structural acceptance criteria Remote Handling Building Tritium Extraction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, G.

    1999-12-16

    This structural acceptance criteria contains the requirements for the structural analysis and design of the Remote Handling Building (RHB) in the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF). The purpose of this acceptance criteria is to identify the specific criteria and methods that will ensure a structurally robust building that will safely perform its intended function and comply with the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) structural requirements.

  14. A method of dose reconstruction for moving targets compatible with dynamic treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Rugaard Poulsen, Per; Lykkegaard Schmidt, Mai; Keall, Paul; Schjodt Worm, Esben; Fledelius, Walther; Hoffmann, Lone

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To develop a method that allows a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) to perform accurate dose reconstruction for rigidly moving targets and to validate the method in phantom measurements for a range of treatments including intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric arc therapy (VMAT), and dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking. Methods: An in-house computer program was developed to manipulate Dicom treatment plans exported from a TPS (Eclipse, Varian Medical Systems) such that target motion during treatment delivery was incorporated into the plans. For each treatment, a motion including plan was generated by dividing the intratreatment target motion into 1 mm position bins and construct sub-beams that represented the parts of the treatment that were delivered, while the target was located within each position bin. For each sub-beam, the target shift was modeled by a corresponding isocenter shift. The motion incorporating Dicom plans were reimported into the TPS, where dose calculation resulted in motion including target dose distributions. For experimental validation of the dose reconstruction a thorax phantom with a moveable lung equivalent rod with a tumor insert of solid water was first CT scanned. The tumor insert was delineated as a gross tumor volume (GTV), and a planning target volume (PTV) was formed by adding margins. A conformal plan, two IMRT plans (step-and-shoot and sliding windows), and a VMAT plan were generated giving minimum target doses of 95% (GTV) and 67% (PTV) of the prescription dose (3 Gy). Two conformal fields with MLC leaves perpendicular and parallel to the tumor motion, respectively, were generated for DMLC tracking. All treatment plans were delivered to the thorax phantom without tumor motion and with a sinusoidal tumor motion. The two conformal fields were delivered with and without portal image guided DMLC tracking based on an embedded gold marker. The target dose distribution was measured with a

  15. [Embolization with cyanoacrylate glue as a treatment method in giant direct carotid cavernous fistula].

    PubMed

    Sprezak, Kamila; Brzegowy, Paweł; Szajner, Maciej; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    A case of 21-year-old woman with postraumatic giant direct carotid-cavernous fistula, successfully treated by endovascular embilisation with cyanoacrylate glue, is presented. Stent-assisted coils placement is the method of choice for the treatment of patients with carotid-cavernous fistulas, but closure of direct fistula with cyanoacrylate glue can be alternative, safety and efficient technique especially in cases in which standard interventions offer increased risk or in which other methods have failed.

  16. Correcting treatment effect for treatment switching in randomized oncology trials with a modified iterative parametric estimation method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Chen, Cong

    2016-09-20

    In randomized oncology trials, patients in the control arm are sometimes permitted to switch to receive experimental drug after disease progression. This is mainly due to ethical reasons or to reduce the patient dropout rate. While progression-free survival is not usually impacted by crossover, the treatment effect on overall survival can be highly confounded. The rank-preserving structural failure time (RPSFT) model and iterative parametric estimation (IPE) are the main randomization-based methods used to adjust for confounding in the analysis of overall survival. While the RPSFT has been extensively studied, the properties of the IPE have not been thoroughly examined and its application is not common. In this manuscript, we clarify the re-censoring algorithm needed for IPE estimation and incorporate it into a method we propose as modified IPE (MIPE). We compared the MIPE and RPSFT via extensive simulations and then walked through the analysis using the modified IPE in a real clinical trial. We provided practical guidance on bootstrap by examining the performance in estimating the variance and confidence interval for the MIPE. Our results indicate that the MIPE method with the proposed re-censoring rule is an attractive alternative to the RPSFT method. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Acceptance test report 2721-Z upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, R.D.

    1998-02-03

    This test procedure provides instructions for acceptance testing of modifications to the 2721-Z diesel-generator system made by Project C-189. The modifications include (1) replacing the generator NUMA-LOGIC controller with connection to the PFP distributed control system (DCS), (2) replacing ATSI with a breaker switching scheme for 2736-ZB backup power and (3) providing a method for generator load and system testing.

  18. Heat Treatment Devices and Method of Operation Thereof to Produce Dual Microstructure Superalloys Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John (Inventor); Gabb, Timothy P. (Inventor); Kantzos, Peter T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A heat treatment assembly and heat treatment methods are disclosed for producing different microstructures in the bore and rim portions of nickel-based superalloy disks, particu- larly suited for gas turbine applications. The heat treatment assembly is capable of being removed from the furnace and disassembled to allow rapid fan or oil quenching of the disk. For solutioning heat treatments of the disk, temperatures higher than that of this solvus temperature of the disk are used to produce coarse grains in the rim of each disk so as to give maximum creep and dwell crack resistance at the rim service temperature. At the same time, solution temperature lower than the solvus temperature of the disk are provided to produce fine grain in the bore of the disk so as to give maximum strength and low cycle fatigue resistance.

  19. Potential method to improve the treatment efficiency of persistent contaminants in industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Silva, Michele R; Coelho, Maria A Z; Cammarota, Magali C

    2008-01-31

    The objective of this work was to evaluate a potential method for improving the treatment efficiency of persistent contaminants in industrial wastewater. Adsorption with powdered activated carbon (PAC) was applied as pre-treatment and operational conditions as pH, temperature, carbon concentration and time were investigated in laboratory scale for different streams generated in a fine chemical industry. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 63 and 50% were attained for two important industrial streams, Product C after acid treatment and precipitation and Influent, at pH 7, room temperature and with 5 and 15 g l(-1) of PAC, respectively. Biodegradation assays showed that PAC adsorption enhanced COD removal efficiency. PAC pre-treatment increased the COD removal of Product C after production stream from 15 to 80% and improved the biodegradability of the Influent stream by 50%.

  20. Rapid and Checkable Electrical Post-Treatment Method for Organic Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangheon; Seo, Yu-Seong; Shin, Won Suk; Moon, Sang-Jin; Hwang, Jungseek

    2016-03-01

    Post-treatment processes improve the performance of organic photovoltaic devices by changing the microscopic morphology and configuration of the vertical phase separation in the active layer. Thermal annealing and solvent vapor (or chemical) treatment processes have been extensively used to improve the performance of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. In this work we introduce a new post-treatment process which we apply only electrical voltage to the BHJ-OPV devices. We used the commercially available P3HT [Poly(3-hexylthiophene)] and PC61BM (Phenyl-C61-Butyric acid Methyl ester) photovoltaic materials as donor and acceptor, respectively. We monitored the voltage and current applied to the device to check for when the post-treatment process had been completed. This electrical treatment process is simpler and faster than other post-treatment methods, and the performance of the electrically treated solar cell is comparable to that of a reference (thermally annealed) device. Our results indicate that the proposed treatment process can be used efficiently to fabricate high-performance BHJ-OPV devices.

  1. Rapid and Checkable Electrical Post-Treatment Method for Organic Photovoltaic Devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangheon; Seo, Yu-Seong; Shin, Won Suk; Moon, Sang-Jin; Hwang, Jungseek

    2016-03-02

    Post-treatment processes improve the performance of organic photovoltaic devices by changing the microscopic morphology and configuration of the vertical phase separation in the active layer. Thermal annealing and solvent vapor (or chemical) treatment processes have been extensively used to improve the performance of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. In this work we introduce a new post-treatment process which we apply only electrical voltage to the BHJ-OPV devices. We used the commercially available P3HT [Poly(3-hexylthiophene)] and PC61BM (Phenyl-C61-Butyric acid Methyl ester) photovoltaic materials as donor and acceptor, respectively. We monitored the voltage and current applied to the device to check for when the post-treatment process had been completed. This electrical treatment process is simpler and faster than other post-treatment methods, and the performance of the electrically treated solar cell is comparable to that of a reference (thermally annealed) device. Our results indicate that the proposed treatment process can be used efficiently to fabricate high-performance BHJ-OPV devices.

  2. TREATMENT OF PROXIMAL FEMORAL EPIPHYSIOLYSIS WITH SUBTROCHANTERIC OSTEOTOMY BY THE ILIZAROV METHOD

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Faccioni, Samuel; Kim, Jung Ho; Calieron, Luis Gustavo; Mendieta Rojas, Juan Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the treatment of severe proximal femoral epiphysiolysis through subtrochanteric osteotomy using the Ilizarov method and to propose a new method for calculating the necessary correction. Methods: A case study was carried out among patients affected by severe proximal femoral epiphysiolysis who underwent subtrochanteric osteotomy with external multiplanar fixation and were evaluated postoperatively using the modified Southwick classification. A method was developed for calculating the angular correction needed for the surgical procedure. Results: Thirteen hips were analyzed: four left hips (30.8%) and nine right hips (69.2%). The majority of the patients (61.5%) were male, with a mean age of 14 years. In relation to pain and function, the results were excellent for 30.8%, good for 46.2% and regular for 23.0%, and none of the patients presented poor results. Regarding mobility, the results were excellent for 46.2%, good for 30.8% and regular for 23.0%. Radiographically, the results were excellent for 7.7%, good for 69.2%, regular for 15.4% and poor for 7.7%. Conclusions: Percutaneous treatment of severe proximal epiphysiolysis using the Ilizarov method is a good treatment option with good indices for improvement of pain and function. The proposed calculation method can help in planning surgical procedures, with variations between calculated and measured angles of the order of 3°. PMID:27019350

  3. Error Treatment in the EFL Writing Class: Red Pen Method Versus Remedial Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2007-01-01

    In a study conducted to see which method of error treatment was more effective in EFL writing classes, 288 Iranian EFL learners took the TOEFL test to be grouped in two homogeneous classes. Each student in each group wrote a paragraph on a general topic which was proofread for mistakes/errors by three experienced EFL writing teachers (i.e.,…

  4. Error Treatment in the EFL Writing Class: Red Pen Method versus Remedial Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2007-01-01

    In a study conducted to see which method of error treatment was more effective in EFL writing classes, 288 Iranian EFL learners took the TOEFL test to be grouped in two homogeneous classes. Each student in each group wrote a paragraph on a general topic which was proofread for mistakes/errors by three experienced EFL writing teachers (i.e.,…

  5. Rationale, Design, and Methods of the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Scott; Greenhill, Laurence; Swanson, James; Wigal, Sharon; Abikoff, Howard; McCracken, James; Riddle, Mark; McGough, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Tim; Skrobala, Anne; Posner, Kelly; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Davies, Mark; Cunningham, Charles; Bauzo, Audrey

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the rationale and design of the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Method: PATS was a National Institutes of Mental Health-funded, multicenter, randomized, efficacy trial designed to evaluate the short-term (5 weeks) efficacy and long-term (40 weeks) safety of methylphenidate (MPH) in preschoolers with…

  6. Examining the Foundations of Methods That Assess Treatment Effect Heterogeneity across Intermediate Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Avi; Miratrix, Luke

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand how methods for estimating treatment effects of latent groups operate. In particular, the authors identify where violations of assumptions can lead to biased estimates, and explore how covariates can be critical in the estimation process. For each set of approaches, the authors first review the…

  7. Counselor Confounds in Evaluations of Vocational Rehabilitation Methods in Substance Dependency Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staines, Graham L.; Cleland, Charles M.; Blankertz, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation research on vocational counseling in substance dependency treatment should distinguish between the effects of counselors and counseling methods on clients' employment outcomes. Three experimental designs permit investigation of possible confounds between these types of effects: (a) nested designs (each counselor delivers one counseling…

  8. Evaluation of domperidone dosages and delivery methods for the treatment of fescue toxicosis in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to develop a practical method of domperidone delivery to ameliorate the symptoms of fescue toxicosis in beef heifers. Experiment 1 used 42 crossbred heifers assigned to 1 of 7 treatment groups (n = 6/trt); positive control (0.44 mg domperidone/kg BW daily s.c.), nega...

  9. A Review of Treatment Methods for the Rehabilitation of Juvenile Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Nagel, Clement J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This research project reviews various treatment methods used for the rehabilitation of juvenile delinquents between the years 1970-1986 in the United States. It points out eight elements that were frequently used: family involvement, remediation of basic skills, vocational preparation, socialization, creative therapy, crisis intervention, health…

  10. Acoustic Treatment Design Scaling Methods. Volume 1; Overview, Results, and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, R. E.; Yu, J.

    1999-01-01

    Scale model fan rigs that simulate new generation ultra-high-bypass engines at about 1/5-scale are achieving increased importance as development vehicles for the design of low-noise aircraft engines. Testing at small scale allows the tests to be performed in existing anechoic wind tunnels, which provides an accurate simulation of the important effects of aircraft forward motion on the noise generation. The ability to design, build, and test miniaturized acoustic treatment panels on scale model fan rigs representative of the fullscale engine provides not only a cost-savings, but an opportunity to optimize the treatment by allowing tests of different designs. The primary objective of this study was to develop methods that will allow scale model fan rigs to be successfully used as acoustic treatment design tools. The study focuses on finding methods to extend the upper limit of the frequency range of impedance prediction models and acoustic impedance measurement methods for subscale treatment liner designs, and confirm the predictions by correlation with measured data. This phase of the program had as a goal doubling the upper limit of impedance measurement from 6 kHz to 12 kHz. The program utilizes combined analytical and experimental methods to achieve the objectives.

  11. [Results of surgical treatment for acromioclavicular dislocation using a modified Mitchell method].

    PubMed

    Król, M; Jarco, K; Sleczkowski, M; Delimat, J; Szot, J

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the results of surgical treatment in acromioclavicular dislocation (grade III according to Tossy) in 53 patients. Joint reconstruction was performed using Mitchell's modified method--acromioclavicular reconstruction was achieved by applying a with Dallos poliester fiber prosthesis. Clinically in 90.5% of the cases a good or excellent result was achieved.

  12. From requirements to acceptance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Lionel; Pasquier, Helene

    1993-01-01

    From user requirements definition to accepted software system, the software project management wants to be sure that the system will meet the requirements. For the development of a telecommunication satellites Control Centre, C.N.E.S. has used new rules to make the use of tracing matrix easier. From Requirements to Acceptance Tests, each item of a document must have an identifier. A unique matrix traces the system and allows the tracking of the consequences of a change in the requirements. A tool has been developed, to import documents into a relational data base. Each record of the data base corresponds to an item of a document, the access key is the item identifier. Tracing matrix is also processed, providing automatically links between the different documents. It enables the reading on the same screen of traced items. For example one can read simultaneously the User Requirements items, the corresponding Software Requirements items and the Acceptance Tests.

  13. Defining acceptable conditions in wilderness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggenbuck, J. W.; Williams, D. R.; Watson, A. E.

    1993-03-01

    The limits of acceptable change (LAC) planning framework recognizes that forest managers must decide what indicators of wilderness conditions best represent resource naturalness and high-quality visitor experiences and how much change from the pristine is acceptable for each indicator. Visitor opinions on the aspects of the wilderness that have great impact on their experience can provide valuable input to selection of indicators. Cohutta, Georgia; Caney Creek, Arkansas; Upland Island, Texas; and Rattlesnake, Montana, wilderness visitors have high shared agreement that littering and damage to trees in campsites, noise, and seeing wildlife are very important influences on wilderness experiences. Camping within sight or sound of other people influences experience quality more than do encounters on the trails. Visitors’ standards of acceptable conditions within wilderness vary considerably, suggesting a potential need to manage different zones within wilderness for different clientele groups and experiences. Standards across wildernesses, however, are remarkably similar.

  14. Staff Acceptance of Tele-ICU Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Paul S.; Cram, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Remote coverage of ICUs is increasing, but staff acceptance of this new technology is incompletely characterized. We conducted a systematic review to summarize existing research on acceptance of tele-ICU coverage among ICU staff. Methods: We searched for published articles pertaining to critical care telemedicine systems (aka, tele-ICU) between January 1950 and March 2010 using PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Global Health, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library and abstracts and presentations delivered at national conferences. Studies were included if they provided original qualitative or quantitative data on staff perceptions of tele-ICU coverage. Studies were imported into content analysis software and coded by tele-ICU configuration, methodology, participants, and findings (eg, positive and negative staff evaluations). Results: Review of 3,086 citations yielded 23 eligible studies. Findings were grouped into four categories of staff evaluation: overall acceptance level of tele-ICU coverage (measured in 70% of studies), impact on patient care (measured in 96%), impact on staff (measured in 100%), and organizational impact (measured in 48%). Overall acceptance was high, despite initial ambivalence. Favorable impact on patient care was perceived by > 82% of participants. Staff impact referenced enhanced collaboration, autonomy, and training, although scrutiny, malfunctions, and contradictory advice were cited as potential barriers. Staff perceived the organizational impact to vary. An important limitation of available studies was a lack of rigorous methodology and validated survey instruments in many studies. Conclusions: Initial reports suggest high levels of staff acceptance of tele-ICU coverage, but more rigorous methodologic study is required. PMID:21051386

  15. Methods of cost-effectiveness analysis in the evaluation of new antipsychotics: implications for schizophrenia treatment.

    PubMed

    Neumann, P J

    1999-01-01

    Because health care payers are increasingly interested in learning whether new treatments offer value for money, there has been an abundance of research into the cost-effectiveness of pharmacologic therapies in the United States. In the past few years, a number of studies comparing the cost-effectiveness of the conventional neuroleptics with that of the atypical antipsychotics have been published. Cost-effectiveness analyses show the relationship between the resources used (costs) and the health benefits achieved (effects) for a health or medical intervention compared with an alternative strategy. Ideally, the analyses can help decision makers improve the health of the population by better allocating society's limited health care resources. However, the extent to which cost-effectiveness data are actually used in decision making is unclear. The analyses are sometimes viewed with skepticism, in part because studies differ in their methodological approaches. Recently, the U.S. Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine offered recommendations for standard methodological practices, which may help improve the quality of studies and the acceptability of the approach in the future. The issue is particularly important in light of new legislation governing how the Food and Drug Administration will regulate promotional claims made by drug companies regarding health economic information.

  16. A Mixed-Methods Study on the Acceptability of Using eHealth for HIV Prevention and Sexual Health Care Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in China

    PubMed Central

    Bien, Cedric H; Wei, Chongyi; Lo, Elaine J; Yang, Min; Tucker, Joseph D; Yang, Ligang; Meng, Gang; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B

    2015-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM). Over half of all HIV-positive MSM in China may not know their HIV status. Mobile phones and Web interventions (eHealth) are underutilized resources that show promise for supporting HIV education, testing, and linkage to care. Objective This mixed-methods study among MSM in China assessed technology utilization and eHealth acceptability for sexual health care. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews and an online survey. Qualitative analyses informed the development of the Internet survey, which was administered through two popular MSM websites. Bivariate and multivariate analysis assessed characteristics of MSM interested in eHealth for sexual health care. Results The qualitative sample included MSM across a range of ages, education, marital status, sexuality, and HIV testing experience. Qualitative findings included the importance of the Internet as the primary source of information about sexual health, HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), use of the Internet to enable HIV testing opportunities by facilitating connections with both the gay community and health care providers, and mixed perceptions regarding the confidentiality of eHealth tools for sexual health. Among the Internet sample (N=1342), the average age was 30.6 years old, 82.81% (1098/1342) were single, and 53.42% (711/1331) had completed college. In the past 3 months, 38.66% (382/988) had condomless sex and 60.53% (805/1330) self-reported having ever tested for HIV. The majority of men owned computers (94.14%, 1220/1296) and mobile phones (92.32%, 1239/1342), which many had used to search for HIV/STD information and testing sites. In multivariate analysis, interest in using computers or mobile phones to support their sexual health care was associated with being a student, prior use of computers or mobile phones to search for general health information, prior use of

  17. Radiographic evaluation of orthodontic treatment by means of four different cephalometric superimposition methods

    PubMed Central

    Lenza, Marcos Augusto; de Carvalho, Adilson Alves; Lenza, Eduardo Beaton; Lenza, Mauricio Guilherme; de Torres, Hianne Miranda; de Souza, João Batista

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite discussion on the merit of various cephalometric superimposition methods, there remains a need to assess which one can be used in daily practice with reasonably accuracy and less working time. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate four methods of cephalometric superimposition by means of assessing the longitudinal changes in craniofacial morphology caused by growth and response of adolescents with Class I malocclusion to orthodontic treatment involving first premolar extraction. METHODS: Pretreatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) standardized lateral cephalometric radiographs of 31 adolescents (20 females and 11 males), with Angle Class I malocclusion and indication of premolar extraction, participated in this study. Radiographs were digitized, traced and had structures identified by means of a cephalometric software. Four superimposition methods were used: Björk structural method, Steiner/Tweed SN line, Ricketts N-Ba line at N-point and Ricketts N-Ba line at CC-point. Positional changes were quantified by horizontal and vertical linear changes in the following cephalometric landmarks: anterior/posterior nasal spine (ANS and PNS), gnathion (Gn), Gonion (Go), Pogonion (Pog), A-point and B-point. Differences between T1 and T2 in horizontal and vertical positional changes for all superimposition methods were assessed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni correction (p < 0.05). RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences among the cephalometric superimposition methods or when patients' sex was considered. CONCLUSION: Björk structural method, Steiner/Tweed SN line, Ricketts N-Ba line at N-point and Ricketts N-Ba line at CC-point methods were reliable and presented similar precision when the overall facial changes due to active growth and/or orthodontic treatment were examined. PMID:26154453

  18. Risk perception and public acceptance toward a highly protested Waste-to-Energy facility.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiangyu; Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Tao, Yun

    2016-02-01

    The application of Waste-to-Energy treatment in Municipal Solid Waste faces strong protest by local communities, especially in cities with high population densities. This study introduces insight into the public awareness, acceptance and risk perception toward Waste-to-Energy through a structured questionnaire survey around a Waste-to-Energy facility in Shanghai, China. The Dichotomous-Choice contingent valuation method was applied to study the willingness to accept of residents as an indicator of risk perception and tolerance. The factors influencing risk perception and the protest response choice were analyzed. The geographical distributions of the acceptance of Waste-to-Energy facility and protest response were explored using geographical information systems. The findings of the research indicated an encouraging vision of promoting Waste-to-Energy, considering its benefits of renewable energy and the conservation of land. A high percentage of protest willingness to accept (50.94%) was highlighted with the effect of income, opinion about Waste-to-Energy, gender and perceived impact. The fuzzy classification among people with different opinions on compensation (valid 0, positive or protest willingness to accept) revealed the existing yet rejected demand of compensation among protesters. Geographical distribution in the public attitude can also be observed. Finally significant statistical relation between knowledge and risk perception indicates the need of risk communication, as well as involving public into whole management process.

  19. Factors Influencing the Acceptance of Web-Based Training in Malaysia: Applying the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Junaidah

    2008-01-01

    Companies in Malaysia are beginning to use web-based training to reduce the cost of training and to provide employees with greater access to instruction. However, some people are uncomfortable with technology and prefer person-to-person methods of training. This study examines the acceptance of web-based training among a convenience sample of 261…

  20. Acceptance- versus Change-Based Pain Management: The Role of Psychological Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacker, Kara J.; Herbert, James D.; Forman, Evan M.; Kounios, John

    2012-01-01

    This study compared two theoretically opposed strategies for acute pain management: an acceptance-based and a change-based approach. These two strategies were compared in a within-subjects design using the cold pressor test as an acute pain induction method. Participants completed a baseline pain tolerance assessment followed by one of the two…