Science.gov

Sample records for acceptable water quality

  1. Consumer acceptance and carcass quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In commodity production systems, beef quality is designated based on the USDA grading criteria which take into account carcass marbling, maturity and yield. Producers are rewarded economically for beef quality grade (QG) of Choice versus Select although the price difference (spread) varies seasonal...

  2. Handbook for aquaculture water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient aquaculture production depends upon maintaining acceptable water quality conditions in culture units. This handbook discusses background information from chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering necessary for understanding the principles of water quality management in aquaculture. It a...

  3. WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual was develped to provide an overview of microfiltration and ultrafiltration technology for operators, administrators, engineers, scientists, educators, and anyone seeking an introduction to these processes. Chapters on theory, water quality, applications, design, equip...

  4. Water quality.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, T.D.; Stefan, H.G.

    1979-01-01

    Significant contributions in the broad area of water quality over the quadrennium 1975-78 are highlighted. This summare is concerned primarily with physical and chemical aspects of water quality. The diversity of subject areas within the topic heading and the large volume of published research results necessitated the selection of representative contributions. Over 400 references are cited which are believed to be indicative of general trends in research and of the more important developments during this period.- from Authors

  5. STOL ride quality criteria - Passenger acceptance.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    The ability to mathematically model human reaction to variables involved in transportation systems offers a very desirable tool both for the prediction of passenger acceptance of proposed systems, and for establishing acceptance criteria for the system designer. As a first step in the development of a general model for STOL systems, a mathematical formulation is presented which accepts as inputs nine variables felt to be important in flight under STOL-type conditions and presents an index of human response as the output. The variables used are three linear motions, three angular motions, pressure, temperature and noise level. The results are used to establish specifications for stability augmentation systems to improve the ride quality of existing STOL aircraft.

  6. Principles of Water Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    CONTENTS: Introduction to Water Quality Concepts. Natural Environmental Processes. Toxic Metals as Factors in Water Quality. Refractory Organic Compounds. Nutrients, Productivity, and Eutrophication. Microbes and Water Quality. Thermal Effects and Water Quality. Air Quality. Water Quality Interactions. Introduction to Water Quality Modeling. Water Quality Standards, and Management Approaches.

  7. [Acceptance check and quality control of SPECT].

    PubMed

    Sun, L M; Liu, C B

    2001-05-01

    This paper explains the testing of SPECT, especially the new SPECT with double digital detector and spiral scanning frames that has been introduced to China recently, in the acceptance check, proceeding from the physical functions of the system to its mechanical functions, to the NEMA standard functions, and then to the computer hardware specified in the contract. A brief introduction is also given of the quality control of SPECT in terms of its spatial resolution, energy resolution, spatial linearity, sensitivity, and center of rotation. PMID:12583289

  8. Acceptance of water alternatives in Australia - 2009.

    PubMed

    Hurlimann, Anna; Dolnicar, Sara

    2010-01-01

    In a nationally representative study with a sample size of 1495, Australian residents were asked about their attitudes to recycled and desalinated water. Specifically, they were asked to state how likely they would be to use these sources of water for 14 purposes. Recycled water was found to have a higher stated likelihood of being used for watering gardens (compared to desalinated water). No significant differences in likelihood of use were found for toilet flushing, car washing and cleaning. For all other uses (including drinking), desalinated water had higher likelihood of use ratings. Respondents were also asked about their intention to relocate under four different water scenarios. This is a topic not studied before in the Australian context. Results indicate that respondents' stated likelihood to relocate was highest when there was insufficient water to meet their needs, followed by when recycled water was introduced into their supply, then the introduction of desalinated water. The scenario where residents had to rely on self-purified rain water from a tank had the lowest level of relocation intention. The results indicate that the increased provision of rainwater tanks may be the most publically acceptable water alternative for Australians at this point in time.

  9. Water Quality: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, LaVere B.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the various aspects of water quality, including a rationale for multidisciplinary cooperation in water quality management, a list of beneficial water uses, a discussion of the major types of water pollutants, and an explanation of the use of aquatic biota in testing for water quality. (CS)

  10. Communicating water quality risk

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, C.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Technology for detecting and understanding water quality problems and the impacts of activities on long-range groundwater quality has advanced considerably. In the past a technical solution was considered adequate but today one must consider a wide range of both technical and social factors in evaluating technical alternatives that are also acceptable social solutions. Policies developed and implemented with limited local participation generally are resisted and become ineffective if public cooperation is necessary for effective implementation. The public, the experts and the policymakers all must understand and appreciate the different perspectives present in risk policymaking. The typical model used to involve the public in policy decisions is a strategy described as the decide-announce-defend-approach. Much more acceptable to the public, but also more difficult to implement, is a strategy that calls for free flow of information within the community about the problem, policies and potential solutions. Communication about complex issues will be more successful if the communication is substantial; if it takes advantage of existing interpersonal networks and mass media; if it pays particular attention to existing audience knowledge, interest and behaviors; and if it clearly targets messages to various segments of the audience.

  11. Hemodialysis and water quality.

    PubMed

    Coulliette, Angela D; Arduino, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed.

  12. Hemodialysis and Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Coulliette, Angela D.; Arduino, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed. PMID:23859187

  13. Water Quality Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain

    2004-01-01

    Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…

  14. Classroom Quality and Social Acceptance of Preschoolers with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiar, Cecilia; Moiteiro, Ana Rita; Pimentel, Julia Serpa

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the association of quality of Portuguese inclusive preschool classrooms with the social acceptance of children with disabilities. Sixty-four inclusive preschool classrooms from 28 randomly selected school groups from the district of Lisbon participated in this study. Classroom quality was not associated with…

  15. Source Water Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will provide background information on continuous source water monitoring using online toxicity monitors and cover various tools available. Conceptual and practical aspects of source water quality monitoring will be discussed.

  16. 78 FR 59919 - Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Accepted... County Water Conservation District. e. Name of Project: Humboldt River Hydropower Project. f. Location... water quality certification; (2) a copy of the request for certification, including proof of the date...

  17. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  18. Uncertainty in urban stormwater quality modelling: the effect of acceptability threshold in the GLUE methodology.

    PubMed

    Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

    2008-04-01

    Uncertainty analysis in integrated urban drainage modelling is of growing importance in the field of water quality. However, only few studies deal with uncertainty quantification in urban drainage modelling; furthermore, the few existing studies mainly focus on quantitative sewer flow modelling rather than uncertainty in water quality aspects. In this context, the generalised likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) methodology was applied for the evaluation of the uncertainty of an integrated urban drainage model and some of its subjective hypotheses have been explored. More specifically, the influence of the subjective choice of the acceptability threshold has been detected in order to gain insights regarding its effect on the model results. The model has been applied to the Savena case study (Bologna, Italy) where water quality and quantity data were available. The model results show a strong influence of the acceptability threshold selection and confirm the importance of modeller's experience in the application of GLUE uncertainty analysis.

  19. Water Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo above, the cylindrical container being lowered into the water is a water quality probe developed by NASA's Langley Research Center for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in an applications engineering project. It is part of a system- which also includes recording equipment in the helicopter-for on-the-spot analysis of water samples. It gives EPA immediate and more accurate information than the earlier method, in which samples are transported to a lab for analysis. Designed primarily for rapid assessment of hazardous spills in coastal and inland waters, the system provides a wide range of biological and chemical information relative to water pollution.

  20. Purified water quality study

    SciTech Connect

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

    2000-04-03

    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals.

  1. The psychology of drinking water quality: An exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syme, Geoffrey J.; Williams, Katrina D.

    1993-12-01

    Perceptions of drinking water quality were measured for residents at four locations in Western Australia. The total dissolved solid levels for the locations varied. Four scales of drinking water satisfaction were measured: acceptability of water quality; water quality risk judgment; perception of neighborhood water quality; and attitudes toward fluoride as an additive. Responses to each of these scales did not appear to be highly related to total dissolved solids. The relationship between attitudes toward water quality and a variety of psychological, attitudinal, experiential, and demographic variables was investigated. It was found that responses to the acceptability of water quality and water quality risk judgment scales related to perceived credibility of societal institutions and feelings of control over water quality and environmental problems. For the remaining two scales few significant correlations were found. The results support those who advocate localized information and involvement campaigns on drinking water quality issues.

  2. Water Quality Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With the backing of NASA, researchers at Michigan State University, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Wisconsin have begun using satellite data to measure lake water quality and clarity of the lakes in the Upper Midwest. This false color IKONOS image displays the water clarity of the lakes in Eagan, Minnesota. Scientists measure the lake quality in satellite data by observing the ratio of blue to red light in the satellite data. When the amount of blue light reflecting off of the lake is high and the red light is low, a lake generally had high water quality. Lakes loaded with algae and sediments, on the other hand, reflect less blue light and more red light. In this image, scientists used false coloring to depict the level of clarity of the water. Clear lakes are blue, moderately clear lakes are green and yellow, and murky lakes are orange and red. Using images such as these along with data from the Landsat satellites and NASA's Terra satellite, the scientists plan to create a comprehensive water quality map for the entire Great Lakes region in the next few years. For more information, read: Testing the Waters (Image courtesy Upper Great Lakes Regional Earth Science Applications Center, based on data copyright Space Imaging)

  3. Acceptance test procedure for High Pressure Water Jet System

    SciTech Connect

    Crystal, J.B.

    1995-05-30

    The overall objective of the acceptance test is to demonstrate a combined system. This includes associated tools and equipment necessary to perform cleaning in the 105 K East Basin (KE) for achieving optimum reduction in the level of contamination/dose rate on canisters prior to removal from the KE Basin and subsequent packaging for disposal. Acceptance tests shall include necessary hardware to achieve acceptance of the cleaning phase of canisters. This acceptance test procedure will define the acceptance testing criteria of the high pressure water jet cleaning fixture. The focus of this procedure will be to provide guidelines and instructions to control, evaluate and document the acceptance testing for cleaning effectiveness and method(s) of removing the contaminated surface layer from the canister presently identified in KE Basin. Additionally, the desired result of the acceptance test will be to deliver to K Basins a thoroughly tested and proven system for underwater decontamination and dose reduction. This report discusses the acceptance test procedure for the High Pressure Water Jet.

  4. Water Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An automated water quality monitoring system was developed by Langley Research Center to meet a need of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Designed for unattended operation in water depths up to 100 feet, the system consists of a subsurface buoy anchored in the water, a surface control unit (SCU) and a hydrophone link for acoustic communication between buoy and SCU. Primary functional unit is the subsurface buoy. It incorporates 16 cells for water sampling, plus sensors for eight water quality measurements. Buoy contains all the electronic equipment needed for collecting and storing sensor data, including a microcomputer and a memory unit. Power for the electronics is supplied by a rechargeable nickel cadmium battery that is designed to operate for about two weeks. Through hydrophone link the subsurface buoy reports its data to the SCU, which relays it to land stations. Link allows two-way communications. If system encounters a problem, it automatically shuts down and sends alert signal. Sequence of commands sent via hydrophone link causes buoy to release from anchor and float to the surface for recovery.

  5. Determinants of taste preference and acceptability: quality versus hedonics.

    PubMed

    Loney, Gregory C; Blonde, Ginger D; Eckel, Lisa A; Spector, Alan C

    2012-07-18

    Several methods exist for reliably determining the motivational valence of a taste stimulus in animals, but few to determine its perceptual quality independent of its apparent affective properties. Individual differences in taste preference and acceptability could result from variance in the perceptual qualities of the stimulus leading to different hedonic evaluations. Alternatively, taste perception might be identical across subjects, but the processing of the sensory signals in reward circuits could differ. Using an operant-based taste cue discrimination/generalization task involving a gustometer, we trained male Long-Evans rats to report the degree to which a test stimulus resembled the taste quality of either sucrose or quinine regardless of its intensity. The rats, grouped by a characteristic bimodal phenotypic difference in their preference for sucralose, treated this artificial sweetener as qualitatively different-compared to sucralose-avoiding rats, the sucralose-preferring rats found the stimulus much more perceptually similar to sucrose. Although the possibility that stimulus palatability may have served as a discriminative cue cannot entirely be ruled out, the profile of results suggests otherwise. Subsequent brief-access licking tests revealed that affective licking responses of the same sucralose-avoiding and -preferring rats differed across concentration in a manner approximately similar to that found in the stimulus generalization task. Thus, the perceived taste quality of sucralose alone may be sufficient to drive the observed behavioral avoidance of the compound. By virtue of its potential ability to dissociate the sensory and motivational consequences of a given experimental manipulation on taste-related behavior, this approach could be interpretively valuable. PMID:22815522

  6. Data Quality Objectives for WTP Feed Acceptance Criteria - 12043

    SciTech Connect

    Arakali, Aruna V.; Benson, Peter A.; Duncan, Garth; Johnston, Jill C.; Lane, Thomas A.; Matis, George; Olson, John W.; Banning, Davey L.; Greer, Daniel A.; Seidel, Cary M.; Thien, Michael G.

    2012-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is under construction for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel National, Inc. and subcontractor URS Corporation (contract no. DE-AC27-01RV14136). The plant when completed will be the world's largest nuclear waste treatment facility. Bechtel and URS are tasked with designing, constructing, commissioning, and transitioning the plant to the long term operating contractor to process the legacy wastes that are stored in underground tanks (from nuclear weapons production between the 1940's and the 1980's). Approximately 56 million gallons of radioactive waste is currently stored in these tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. There are three major WTP facilities being constructed for processing the tank waste feed. The Pretreatment (PT) facility receives feed where it is separated into a low activity waste (LAW) fraction and a high level waste (HLW) fraction. These fractions are transferred to the appropriate (HLW or LAW) facility, combined with glass former material, and sent to high temperature melters for formation of the glass product. In addition to PT, HLW and LAW, other facilities in WTP include the Laboratory (LAB) for analytical services and the Balance of Facilities (BOF) for plant maintenance, support and utility services. The transfer of staged feed from the waste storage tanks and acceptance in WTP receipt vessels require data for waste acceptance criteria (WAC) parameters from analysis of feed samples. The Data Quality Objectives (DQO) development was a joint team effort between WTP and Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) representatives. The focus of this DQO effort was to review WAC parameters and develop data quality requirements, the results of which will determine whether or not the staged feed can be transferred from the TOC to WTP receipt vessels. The approach involved systematic planning for data collection consistent with EPA guidance for the seven-step DQO process

  7. Nowcasting recreational water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boehm, Alexandria B.; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith; Hou, Deyi; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    Advances in molecular techniques may soon provide new opportunities to provide more timely information on whether recreational beaches are free from fecal contamination. However, an alternative approach is the use of predictive models. This chapter presents a summary of these developing efforts. First, we describe documented physical, chemical, and biological factors that have been demonstrated by researchers to affect bacterial concentrations at beaches and thus represent logical parameters for inclusion in a model. Then, we illustrate how various types of models can be applied to predict water quality at freshwater and marine beaches.

  8. What affects public acceptance of recycled and desalinated water?

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies factors that are associated with higher levels of public acceptance for recycled and desalinated water. For the first time, a wide range of hypothesized factors, both of socio-demographic and psychographic nature, are included simultaneously. The key results, based on a survey study of about 3000 respondents are that: (1) drivers of the stated likelihood of using desalinated water differ somewhat from drivers of the stated likelihood of using recycled water; (2) positive perceptions of, and knowledge about, the respective water source are key drivers for the stated likelihood of usage; and (3) awareness of water scarcity, as well as prior experience with using water from alternative sources, increases the stated likelihood of use. Practical recommendations for public policy makers, such as key messages to be communicated to the public, are derived. PMID:20950834

  9. Organoleptic water quality: Health and economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.W.; Nelson, M.A.; Olivieri, A.W.; Cooper, R.C.; Danielson, R.E.; Bruvold, W.H.; Scofield, R.; Hsieh, D.P.H.; Schaub, S.A.

    1987-02-01

    Organoleptic properties of drinking water (i.e., characteristics perceptible to the senses) can affect the acceptance of water by the public. In this paper we present a risk-analysis methodology, along with supporting data, that can be used for assessing the relationship between the level of either (1) turbidity, color, and odor; or (2) total dissolved solids (TDS); or (3) metabolites of algae and associated bacteria in drinking water, and the fraction of an exposed population that could reject the water. We explain how this methodology can be used by public health authorities in developing nations as a rational approach for adopting pragmatic water-quality guidelines for these organoleptic constituents, and for accurately correlating concentrations of these organoleptic constituents with the need to commit manpower and resources to improve water quality in rural areas, small communities, and large cities.

  10. Acceptability of solar disinfection of drinking water treatment in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Rainey, Rochelle C; Harding, Anna K

    2005-10-01

    This research examines the acceptability of solar disinfection of drinking water (SODIS) in a village in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, using constructs from the Health Belief Model as a framework to identify local understandings of water, sanitation and health issues. There has been no published research on the acceptability of SODIS in household testing in Nepal. Understanding the context of water and water purity in Nepalese villages is essential to identify culturally appropriate interventions to improve the quality of drinking water and health. Forty households from the village census list were randomly selected and the senior woman in each household was asked to participate. Baseline data on water sources and behaviors were collected in March 2002, followed by training in SODIS. Follow-up data were collected in June and July 2002. Only 9% of households routinely adopted SODIS. Participants mentioned the benefit of treating water to reduce stomach ailments, but this did not outweigh the perceived barriers of heavy domestic and agricultural workloads, other cultural barriers, uncertainty about the necessity of treating the water, and lack of knowledge that untreated drinking water causes diarrhea. Strategies for developing safe water systems must include public health education about waterborne diseases, source water protection, and a motivational component to achieve implementation and sustained use. In addition, other options for disinfecting water should be provided, given the women's work constraints and low level of formal education.

  11. Drinking water microbiology--new directions toward water quality enhancement.

    PubMed

    Geldreich, E E

    1989-12-01

    Drinking water microbiology has emerged from decades of relative complacency to recognize there can be major concerns with potable water quality. Many of these issues are a result of an explosion of information on new waterborne agents, treatment problems with raw-source water qualities, biofilm development in some distribution systems and specialized requirements in water quality unique to hospitals and industries. Protozoan cyst survival after some disinfection practices involving surface water impoundments and virus occurrence in poorly protected groundwaters have provided reasons for expanding minimum treatment of surface waters and for requiring disinfection of all groundwaters unless there is a demonstrative data base to support exceptions in treatment requirements. Official monitoring of small water supplies must be increased on a monthly basis and a rapid alert established to inform water plant operators of unsatisfactory water qualities. As an option, application of operational tests to analyse water quality in terms of chlorine residual, turbidity, total coliforms and heterotrophic bacterial counts in small water plant operations should be encouraged. This would provide the operator at remote locations with the opportunity to utilize the information to make necessary treatment adjustments or corrections in water distribution deficiencies promptly and be a supplement to the official regional monitoring program. Application of drinking water alternative sources (bottled water and water from point-of-use treatment devices) should be viewed by the health authorities as only a temporary solution, not as a permanent fix for a public water supply known to present some established health risk to consumers. The public must also recognize that bottled water is not frequently monitored by health laboratories for acceptable quality and the use of home treatment devices places the responsibility of proper maintenance on the user. Microbial quality improvements in

  12. Microbiological quality of natural waters.

    PubMed

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  13. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  14. WaterQualityWatch and water-quality information bookmark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D.

    2014-01-01

    WaterQualityWatch is an online resource of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that provides access to continuous real-time measurements of water temperature, specific electrical conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and nitrate at selected data-collection stations throughout the Nation. Additional online resources of the USGS that pertain to various types of water-quality information are shown on the reverse side of this bookmark.

  15. Instrumental Surveillance of Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. A.; And Others

    The role analytical instrumentation performs in the surveillance and control of the quality of water resources is reviewed. Commonly performed analyses may range from simple tests for physical parameters to more highly sophisticated radiological or spectrophotometric methods. This publication explores many of these types of water quality analyses…

  16. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  17. Primer on Water Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... streams and ground water. After decades of use, pesticides are now widespread in streams and ground water, ... and guidelines established to protect human health. Some pesticides have not been used for 20 to 30 ...

  18. Space Station Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  19. Water Quality Monitoring by Satellite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The availability of abundant water resources in the Upper Midwest of the United States is nullified by their contamination through heavy commercial and industrial activities. Scientists have taken the responsibility of detecting the water quality of these resources through remote-sensing satellites to develop a wide-ranging water purification plan…

  20. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  1. GREENROOF RUNOFF WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs was compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation unplanted media roofs was also compared, and the influence of ...

  2. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  3. Water Quality Monitoring Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Fred J.; Houdart, Joseph F.

    This manual is designed for students involved in environmental education programs dealing with water pollution problems. By establishing a network of Environmental Monitoring Stations within the educational system, four steps toward the prevention, control, and abatement of water pollution are proposed. (1) Train students to recognize, monitor,…

  4. Water quality for cattle.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sandra E

    2011-07-01

    Water is often considered the most important livestock nutrient. It can carry both nutrients and toxic materials and can be a source of poisoning, although death losses are not common. More likely are questions of low-level contaminants or nutrient interactions that affect productivity. This article characterizes the major contaminants of water, their expected effects, and means to evaluate their presence.

  5. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta. PMID:25982048

  6. 78 FR 10615 - Westfield Water Resources Department; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Westfield Water Resources Department; Notice of Application Accepted for.... Date filed: January 22, 2013. d. Applicant: Westfield Water Resources Department. e. Name of Project... Darling, Water Systems Engineer, Westfield Water Resources Department, 28 Sackett Street, Westfield,...

  7. Effect of sorghum flour addition on in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability of durum wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2014-08-01

    Whole grain sorghum is a valuable source of resistant starch and polyphenolic antioxidants and its addition into staple food like pasta may reduce the starch digestibility. However, incorporating nondurum wheat materials into pasta provides a challenge in terms of maintaining cooking quality and consumer acceptability. Pasta was prepared from 100% durum wheat semolina (DWS) as control or by replacing DWS with either wholegrain red sorghum flour (RSF) or white sorghum flour (WSF) each at 20%, 30%, and 40% incorporation levels, following a laboratory-scale procedure. Pasta samples were evaluated for proximate composition, in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability. The addition of both RSF and WSF lowered the extent of in vitro starch digestion at all substitution levels compared to the control pasta. The rapidly digestible starch was lowered in all the sorghum-containing pastas compared to the control pasta. Neither RSF or WSF addition affected the pasta quality attributes (water absorption, swelling index, dry matter, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and springiness), except color and hardness which were negatively affected. Consumer sensory results indicated that pasta samples containing 20% and 30% RSF or WSF had acceptable palatability based on meeting one or both of the preset acceptability criteria. It is concluded that the addition of wholegrain sorghum flour to pasta at 30% incorporation level is possible to reduce starch digestibility, while maintaining adequate cooking quality and consumer acceptability.

  8. Effect of sorghum flour addition on in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability of durum wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2014-08-01

    Whole grain sorghum is a valuable source of resistant starch and polyphenolic antioxidants and its addition into staple food like pasta may reduce the starch digestibility. However, incorporating nondurum wheat materials into pasta provides a challenge in terms of maintaining cooking quality and consumer acceptability. Pasta was prepared from 100% durum wheat semolina (DWS) as control or by replacing DWS with either wholegrain red sorghum flour (RSF) or white sorghum flour (WSF) each at 20%, 30%, and 40% incorporation levels, following a laboratory-scale procedure. Pasta samples were evaluated for proximate composition, in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability. The addition of both RSF and WSF lowered the extent of in vitro starch digestion at all substitution levels compared to the control pasta. The rapidly digestible starch was lowered in all the sorghum-containing pastas compared to the control pasta. Neither RSF or WSF addition affected the pasta quality attributes (water absorption, swelling index, dry matter, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and springiness), except color and hardness which were negatively affected. Consumer sensory results indicated that pasta samples containing 20% and 30% RSF or WSF had acceptable palatability based on meeting one or both of the preset acceptability criteria. It is concluded that the addition of wholegrain sorghum flour to pasta at 30% incorporation level is possible to reduce starch digestibility, while maintaining adequate cooking quality and consumer acceptability. PMID:25047068

  9. Beyond User Acceptance: A Legitimacy Framework for Potable Water Reuse in California.

    PubMed

    Harris-Lovett, Sasha R; Binz, Christian; Sedlak, David L; Kiparsky, Michael; Truffer, Bernhard

    2015-07-01

    Water resource managers often tout the potential of potable water reuse to provide a reliable, local source of drinking water in water-scarce regions. Despite data documenting the ability of advanced treatment technologies to treat municipal wastewater effluent to meet existing drinking water quality standards, many utilities face skepticism from the public about potable water reuse. Prior research on this topic has mainly focused on marketing strategies for garnering public acceptance of the process. This study takes a broader perspective on the adoption of potable water reuse based on concepts of societal legitimacy, which is the generalized perception or assumption that a technology is desirable or appropriate within its social context. To assess why some potable reuse projects were successfully implemented while others faced fierce public opposition, we performed a series of 20 expert interviews and reviewed in-depth case studies from potable reuse projects in California. Results show that proponents of a legitimated potable water reuse project in Orange County, California engaged in a portfolio of strategies that addressed three main dimensions of legitimacy. In contrast, other proposed projects that faced extensive public opposition relied on a smaller set of legitimation strategies that focused near-exclusively on the development of robust water treatment technology. Widespread legitimation of potable water reuse projects, including direct potable water reuse, may require the establishment of a portfolio of standards, procedures, and possibly new institutions. PMID:26030335

  10. Beyond User Acceptance: A Legitimacy Framework for Potable Water Reuse in California.

    PubMed

    Harris-Lovett, Sasha R; Binz, Christian; Sedlak, David L; Kiparsky, Michael; Truffer, Bernhard

    2015-07-01

    Water resource managers often tout the potential of potable water reuse to provide a reliable, local source of drinking water in water-scarce regions. Despite data documenting the ability of advanced treatment technologies to treat municipal wastewater effluent to meet existing drinking water quality standards, many utilities face skepticism from the public about potable water reuse. Prior research on this topic has mainly focused on marketing strategies for garnering public acceptance of the process. This study takes a broader perspective on the adoption of potable water reuse based on concepts of societal legitimacy, which is the generalized perception or assumption that a technology is desirable or appropriate within its social context. To assess why some potable reuse projects were successfully implemented while others faced fierce public opposition, we performed a series of 20 expert interviews and reviewed in-depth case studies from potable reuse projects in California. Results show that proponents of a legitimated potable water reuse project in Orange County, California engaged in a portfolio of strategies that addressed three main dimensions of legitimacy. In contrast, other proposed projects that faced extensive public opposition relied on a smaller set of legitimation strategies that focused near-exclusively on the development of robust water treatment technology. Widespread legitimation of potable water reuse projects, including direct potable water reuse, may require the establishment of a portfolio of standards, procedures, and possibly new institutions.

  11. Water Quality Field Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Nonpoint source pollution is both a relatively recent concern and a complex phenomenon with many unknowns. Knowing the extent to which agricultural sources contribute to the total pollutant load, the extent to which various control practices decrease this load, and the effect of reducing the pollutants delivered to a water body are basic to the…

  12. Evaluating the coherence between environmental quality objectives and the acceptable or tolerable daily intake.

    PubMed

    Ragas, A M; Huijbregts, M A

    1998-06-01

    Environmental quality objectives (EQOs) for surface water, soil, air, drinking water, and food products are often derived independently. This may result in incoherent EQOs. A set of EQOs is called incoherent if simultaneous exposure to all media which are polluted up to their EQO results in the acceptable or tolerable daily intake (ADI or TDI) being exceeded. This paper outlines an integrated human exposure and uptake model (NORMTOX) which was developed to test the coherence of EQOs. NORMTOX predicts lifetime-averaged daily uptake levels of contaminants and compares these with acceptable or tolerable daily uptake levels. The model deals with variability and uncertainty in put data by using the Monte Carlo simulation technique. The model was applied to test the coherence of Dutch EQOs for benzene, lead, and lindane. The EQOs of these substances turned out to be coherent with probabilities of 100, 23, and 0%, respectively. The variance in the coherence indicators results from interpersonal variability in exposure, consumption, and uptake patterns and from uncertainty in input data due to a lack of knowledge. To prevent incoherent EQOs in the future, induction of a procedure for coherence testing and EQO adjustment is suggested. PMID:9693076

  13. Water Quality Analysis Tool (WQAT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Water Quality Analysis Tool (WQAT) software is to provide a means for analyzing and producing useful remotely sensed data products for an entire estuary, a particular point or area of interest (AOI or POI) in estuaries, or water bodies of interest where pre-pro...

  14. Water Quality Control, Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington City Board of Education, NC.

    Activities which study how water is used, contaminated, and treated or purified are presented in this curriculum guide, culminating in the investigation of a local water quality problem. Designed as a 12 week mini-course for students in grades eight and nine, the guide first presents a review of the content, objectives, major concepts, and sources…

  15. Minnesota ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albin, D.R.; Bruemmer, L.B.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains summary information on ground-water quality in one of the 50 States, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, or the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, Saipan, Guam, and American Samoa. The material is extracted from the manuscript of the 1986 National Water Summary, and with the exception of the illustrations, which will be reproduced in multi-color in the 1986 National Water Summary, the format and content of this report is identical to the State ground-water-quality descriptions to be published in the 1986 National Water Summary. Release of this information before formal publication in the 1986 National Water Summary permits the earliest access by the public.

  16. Texas ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strause, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains summary information on ground-water quality in one of the 50 States, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, or the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, Saipan, Guam, and American Samoa. The material is extracted from the manuscript of the 1986 National Water Summary, and with the exception of the illustrations, which will be reproduced in multi-color in the 1986 National Water Summary, the format and content of this report is identical to the State ground-water-quality descriptions to be published in the 1986 National Water Summary. Release of this information before formal publication in the 1986 National Water Summary permits the earliest access by the public.

  17. CHARACTERIZING PIPE WALL DEMAND: IMPLICATIONS FOR WATER QUALITY MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has become generally accepted that water quality can deteriorate in a distribution system through reactions in the bulk phase and/or at the pipe wall. These reactions may be physical, chemical or microbiological in nature. Perhaps one of the most serious aspects of water qua...

  18. Integrated water quality management for drinking water of good quality.

    PubMed

    Isaji, C

    2003-01-01

    The Nagoya Waterworks and Sewerage Bureau has developed original supporting tools for the systematic and cost-effective management of problem solving. An environmental information map and prediction of pollutant reaching are used for rapid and appropriate proper countermeasures against water quality accidents in the source area. In disinfection byproduct control a method for estimating trihalomethane (THM) contents was effective for the complement of their observations. Surrogate indicators such as turbidity and conductivity that could be measured continuously also could complement water quality items measured monthly. A processing tool of voluminous data was practical for rapid judgment of water quality. Systematic monitoring was established for stricter turbidity control for measures against Cryptosporidium and keeping residual chlorine stable in the service area.

  19. Quality Assurance and Quality Control Practices For Rehabilitation of Sewer and Water Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program, several areas of research are being pursued including a review of quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) practices and acceptance testing during the installation of rehab...

  20. Quality Assurance and Quality Control Practices for Rehabilitation of Sewer and Water Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program, several areas of research are being pursued, including a review of quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) practices and acceptance testing during the installation of reha...

  1. Agroecosystem Impacts on Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    Agroecosystems can have large scale impacts on soil water and groundwater quality by mobilizing salts into underlying aquifers through enhanced recharge and increasing chemical loading to systems through fertilizer applications and irrigation water. Crop evapotranspiration is similar to desalinization in that root-water uptake excludes most salts, and soil-water salinity levels may build up when water drainage or percolation through the root zone is insufficient to flush accumulated salts. The objective of this study was to evaluate impacts of agroecosystems on soil water and groundwater quality using data from the US High Plains and California Central Valley. Natural ecosystems accumulated large reservoirs of salts in unsaturated soils in the southern High Plains and southern part of the Central Valley. Increased recharge under rainfed and irrigated agriculture mobilized these salt reservoirs into the underlying aquifer in the southern High Plains, increasing groundwater salinity, particularly chloride and sulfate. Deficit irrigation in the southern High Plains has created large salt bulges in the unsaturated zone because of insufficient irrigation to flush these salts into the underlying aquifer. Irrigation in both the High Plains and Central Valley regions has markedly increased groundwater nitrate levels, particularly in irrigated areas because of higher fertilizer applications. Agroecosystem impacts on water quality reflect a delicate balance between water and salt cycles and crop production should be managed to minimize negative environmental impacts.

  2. Linking biological and physicochemical water quality.

    PubMed

    Bernatowicz, Waldemar; Weiss, Annett; Matschullat, Jörg

    2009-12-01

    To define water quality, the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) demands complex assessments through physicochemical, biological, and hydromorphological controls of water bodies. Since the biological assessment became the central focus with hydrochemistry playing a supporting role, an evaluation of the interrelationships within this approach deems necessary. This work identified and tested these relationships to help improve the quality and efficiency of related efforts. Data from the 384 km(2) Weisseritz catchment (eastern Erzgebirge, Saxony, Germany and northern Bohemia, Czech Republic) were used as a representative example for central European streams in mountainous areas. The data cover the time frame 1992 to 2003. To implement WFD demands, the analysis was based on accepted German methods and classifications, WFD quality standards, and novel German methods for the biological status assessment. Selected chemical parameters were compared with different versions of the German Saprobic Index, based on macroinvertebrate indicator taxa. Relevant dependencies applicable for integrated stream assessment were statistically tested. Correlation analysis showed significant relationships. The highest scores were found for nutrients (NO(2)(-), N(inorg), and total N), salinity (Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), conductivity), and microelements (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)). The Saprobic Index used in the Integrated Assessment System for the Ecological Quality of Streams and Rivers throughout Europe using Benthic Macro-invertebrates program seems to be the most sensitive indicator to correlate with chemical parameters.

  3. Iowa ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, R.C.; Squillace, P.J.; Drustrup, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Iowa Hygienic Laboratory, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, and several counties in Iowa, currently (1986) is monitoring about 1,500 public and private wells for inorganic and organic constituents. The principal objective of this program, begun in 1982, is to collect water-quality data that will describe the long-term chemical quality of the surficial and major bedrock aquifer systems in Iowa (Detroy, 1985).

  4. National Water Quality Laboratory Profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raese, Jon W.

    1994-01-01

    The National Water Quality Laboratory determines organic and inorganic constituents in samples of surface and ground water, river and lake sediment, aquatic plant and animal material, and precipitation collected throughout the United States and its territories by the U.S. Geological Survey. In water year 1994, the Laboratory produced more than 900,000 analytical results for about 65,000 samples. The Laboratory also coordinates an extensive network of contract laboratories for the determination of radiochemical and stable isotopes and work for the U.S. Department of Defense Environmental Contamination Hydrology Program. Heightened concerns about water quality and about the possible effects of toxic chemicals at trace and ultratrace levels have contributed to an increased demand for impartial, objective, and independent data.

  5. Water quality for freshwater fish

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, G. )

    1994-01-01

    This timely and up-to-date volume brings together recent critical reviews on water quality requirements for freshwater fish commissioned by the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission, an agency of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. It provides a unique and authoritative source of critically evaluated water quality data concerning the effects of chromium, nickel, aluminum and nitrite on freshwater fish and includes an assessment of the toxicity of mixtures. The reports presented in this volume cover all stages of the life cycle and relevant trophic levels, including aquatic invertebrates and plants and potential bioaccumulation through the food chain. An extensive bibliography is provided for each chapter as well as a glossary of terms and a list of fish species mentioned in the text. This compilation of papers is the definitive reference volume for chemists, biologists, ecologists and toxicologists as well as for water resource managers concerned with management and control of pollution in fresh waters.

  6. Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain I.

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation reduces occupant exposure to indoor contaminants by diluting or removing them. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, every zone will have different dilution rates and contaminant source strengths. The total ventilation rate is the most important factor in determining occupant exposure to given contaminant sources, but the zone-specific distribution of exhaust and supply air and the mixing of ventilation air can play significant roles. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of mixing depending on several factors such as air leakage, air distribution system, and contaminant source and occupant locations. Most U.S. and Canadian homes have central heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, which tend to mix the air; thus, the indoor air in different zones tends to be well mixed for significant fractions of the year. This article reports recent results of investigations to determine the impact of air mixing on exposures of residential occupants to prototypical contaminants of concern. We summarize existing literature and extend past analyses to determine the parameters than affect air mixing as well as the impacts of mixing on occupant exposure, and to draw conclusions that are relevant for standards development and for practitioners designing and installing home ventilation systems. The primary conclusion is that mixing will not substantially affect the mean indoor air quality across a broad population of occupants, homes, and ventilation systems, but it can reduce the number of occupants who are exposed to extreme pollutant levels. If the policy objective is to minimize the number of people exposed above a given pollutant threshold, some amount of mixing will be of net benefit even though it does not benefit average exposure. If the policy is to minimize exposure on average, then mixing air in homes is detrimental and should not be encouraged. We also conclude that most homes in the US have adequate mixing

  7. Water quality assessment in Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Chudy, J.P.; Arniella, E.; Gil, E.

    1993-02-01

    The El Tor cholera pandemic arrived in Ecuador in March 1991, and through the course of the year caused 46,320 cases, of which 692 resulted in death. Most of the cases were confined to cities along Ecuador's coast. The Water and Sanitation for Health Project (WASH), which was asked to participate in the review of this request, suggested that a more comprehensive approach should be taken to cholera control and prevention. The approach was accepted, and a multidisciplinary team consisting of a sanitary engineer, a hygiene education specialist, and an institutional specialist was scheduled to carry out the assessment in late 1992 following the national elections.

  8. Potable water quality in rural Georgetown County.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, S S; Nelson, P; Warren, W J

    1975-10-01

    Drinking water supplies of 161 rural communities, in Georgetown County, South Carolina, were randomly selected for sample collection. The analysis showed that most of the waters were slightly acidic. Low, but acceptable concentrations of chloride, copper, fluoride, sodium, cadmium, nitrate and phosphate were found. A few water samples showed higher then recommended levels of arsenic, mercury, zinc and lead. Although only 2% of the samples exceeded the mandatory limit of 0.05 ppm for arsenic, 72% exceeded the recommended level of 0.01 ppm. The mandatory limit for manganese was exceeded in 37% of the waters while 88% exceeded the limit for iron. The high iron content was generally responsible for the high turbidity found in 45% of the samples. The well depth and the consumer income had some bearing on water quality. Statistical evidence suggested that septic tank seepage was partially responsible for nitrate, phosphate, iron and arsenic contamination of shallow water supplies. Lead concentrations appear to vary according to the plumbing used and the pH of the waters. PMID:107

  9. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Pesticide Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred

    This publication describes in nontechnical language the problem of pesticide use and how it affects water quality. It provides information on laws affecting pesticide use and the reasons for them, as well as giving directions for the proper use of pesticides. The booklet is divided into five chapters, each of which concludes with a list of study…

  11. Data Quality Objectives and Criteria for Basic Information, Acceptable Uncertainty, and Quality-Assurance and Quality-Control Documentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.; Bank, Fred G.; Cazenas, Patricia A.

    1998-01-01

    The Federal Highway Administration and State transportation agencies have the responsibility of determining and minimizing the effects of highway runoff on water quality; therefore, they have been conducting an extensive program of water-quality monitoring and research during the last 25 years. The objectives and monitoring goals of highway runoff studies have been diverse, because the highway community must address many different questions about the characteristics and impacts of highway runoff. The Federal Highway Administration must establish that available data and procedures that are used to assess and predict pollutant loadings and impacts from highway stormwater runoff are valid, current, and technically supportable. This report examines criteria for evaluating water-quality data and resultant interpretations. The criteria used to determine if data are valid (useful for intended purposes), current, and technically supportable are derived from published materials from the Federal Highway Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality, the U.S. Geological Survey and from technical experts throughout the U.S. Geological Survey. Water-quality data that are documented to be meaningful, representative, complete, precise, accurate, comparable, and admissible as legal evidence will meet the scientific, engineering, and regulatory needs of highway agencies. Documentation of basic information, such as compatible monitoring objectives and program design features; metadata (when, where, and how data were collected as well as who collected and analyzed the data); ancillary information (explanatory variables and study-site characteristics); and legal requirements are needed to evaluate data. Documentation of sufficient quality-assurance and quality-control information to establish the quality and uncertainty in the data and interpretations also are needed to determine the comparability and utility of

  12. Water quality by photographic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klooster, S. A.; Scherz, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    Positive correlation exists between reflectance of water and the water quality parameter of turbidity. This relationship holds for all times for a particular waste. At particular times other parameters such as suspended solids correlate to turbidity and can also be mapped. To analyze aerial photos properly to obtain water reflectance, a standard reflectance panel is needed somewhere in the frame. For this study color and color-infrared film are used and analyzed with a color microdensitometer which, with certain modifications, is also used to analyze reflectance of water samples. Noise in the analysis includes bottom effects, reflection from the air-water interface, and path luminance, but these can all be dealt with by proper techniques.

  13. Quality criteria for water, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    Section 304(a) (1) of the Clean Water Act 33 U.S.C. 1314(a) (1) requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to publish and periodically update ambient water-quality criteria. These criteria are to accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge (a) on the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on health and welfare including, but not limited to, plankton, fish shellfish, wildlife, plant life, shorelines, beaches, aesthetics, and recreation that may be expected from the presence of pollutants in any body of water including ground water; (b) on the concentration and dispersal of pollutants, or their byproducts, through biological, physical, and chemical processes; and (c) on the effects of pollutants on biological community diversity, productivity, and stability, including information on the factors affecting rates of eutrophication and organic and inorganic sedimentation for varying types of receiving waters. In a continuing effort to provide those who use EPA's water-quality and human-health criteria with up-to-date criteria values and associated information, the document was assembled. The document includes summaries of all the contaminants for which EPA has developed criteria recommendations.

  14. Shallow Water Optical Water Quality Buoy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bostater, Charles

    1998-01-01

    This NASA grant was funded as a result of an unsolicited proposal submission to Kennedy Space Center. The proposal proposed the development and testing of a shallow water optical water quality buoy. The buoy is meant to work in shallow aquatic systems (ponds, rivers, lagoons, and semi-enclosed water areas where strong wind wave action is not a major environmental During the project period of three years, a demonstration of the buoy was conducted. The last demonstration during the project period was held in November, 1996 when the buoy was demonstrated as being totally operational with no tethered communications line. During the last year of the project the buoy was made to be solar operated by large gel cell batteries. Fund limitations did not permit the batteries in metal enclosures as hoped for higher wind conditions, however the system used to date has worked continuously for in- situ operation of over 18 months continuous deployment. The system needs to have maintenance and somewhat continuous operational attention since various components have limited lifetime ages. For example, within the last six months the onboard computer has had to be repaired as it did approximately 6 months after deployment. The spectrograph had to be repaired and costs for repairs was covered by KB Science since no ftmds were available for this purpose after the grant expired. Most recently the computer web page server failed and it is currently being repaired by KB Science. In addition, the cell phone operation is currently being ftmded by Dr. Bostater in order to maintain the system's operation. The above points need to be made to allow NASA to understand that like any sophisticated measuring system in a lab or in the field, necessary funding and maintenance is needed to insure the system's operational state and to obtain quality factor. The proposal stated that the project was based upon the integration of a proprietary and confidential sensor and probe design that was developed by

  15. SWQM: Source Water Quality Modeling Software

    2008-01-08

    The Source Water Quality Modeling software (SWQM) simulates the water quality conditions that reflect properties of water generated by water treatment facilities. SWQM consists of a set of Matlab scripts that model the statistical variation that is expected in a water treatment facility’s water, such as pH and chlorine levels.

  16. Optical water quality in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julian, J. P.; Doyle, M. W.; Powers, S. M.; Stanley, E. H.; Riggsbee, J. A.

    2008-10-01

    Optical water quality (OWQ) governs the quantity and quality of light in aquatic ecosystems, and thus spatiotemporal changes in OWQ affect many biotic and abiotic processes. Despite the fundamental role of light in rivers, studies on riverine OWQ have been limited and mostly descriptive. Here we provide a comprehensive, quantitative analysis of the controls and spatiotemporal dynamics of riverine OWQ, focusing on the inherent optical properties (IOPs), which are those that are only affected by water constituents and not by changes in the solar radiation field. First, we briefly review the constituents attenuating light in rivers. Second, we develop a new method for partitioning (light) beam attenuation into its constituent fractions. This method distinguishes between absorption and scattering by dissolved and particulate constituents, and further isolates particulates into mineral and organic components. Third, we compare base flow IOPs between four rivers with vastly different physical characteristics to illustrate intersite variability. Fourth, we analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of IOPs for the four rivers. Fifth, we quantify a longitudinal water clarity budget for one of the rivers. Finally, available data are synthesized to identify general spatial trends robust across broad geographic areas. Temporal trends in IOPs were largely dictated by storm frequency, while spatial trends were largely dictated by channel network configuration. Generally, water clarity decreased with increasing discharge primarily owing to greater scattering by particulates and secondarily to greater absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter. Water clarity also generally decreased longitudinally along the river owing to increased particulate inputs from tributaries; however, for pear-shaped, dendritic basins, water clarity reached a minimum at ˜70% of the channel length and then increased. By illustrating the controls and spatiotemporal variability of riverine OWQ

  17. Optical sensors for water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in commercially available in situ sensors, data platforms, and new techniques for data analysis provide an opportunity to monitor water quality in rivers, lakes, and estuaries on the time scales in which changes occur. For example, measurements that capture the variability in freshwater systems over time help to assess how shifts in seasonal runoff, changes in precipitation intensity, and increased frequencies of disturbances (such as fire and insect outbreaks) affect the storage, production, and transport of carbon and nitrogen in watersheds. Transmitting these data in real-time also provides information that can be used for early trend detection, help identify monitoring gaps, and provide sciencebased decision support across a range of issues related to water quality, freshwater ecosystems, and human health.

  18. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  19. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  20. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  1. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  2. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  3. Dam water quality study. Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    The objective of the report is to identify water quality effects attributable to the impoundment of water by dams as required by Section 524 of the Water Quality Act of 1987. The document presents a study of water quality effects associated with impoundments in the U.S.A.

  4. Water quality monitor. [spacecraft potable water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, S.; Crisos, J.; Baxter, W.

    1979-01-01

    The preprototype water quality monitor (WQM) subsystem was designed based on a breadboard monitor for pH, specific conductance, and total organic carbon (TOC). The breadboard equipment demonstrated the feasibility of continuous on-line analysis of potable water for a spacecraft. The WQM subsystem incorporated these breadboard features and, in addition, measures ammonia and includes a failure detection system. The sample, reagent, and standard solutions are delivered to the WQM sensing manifold where chemical operations and measurements are performed using flow through sensors for conductance, pH, TOC, and NH3. Fault monitoring flow detection is also accomplished in this manifold assembly. The WQM is designed to operate automatically using a hardwired electronic controller. In addition, automatic shutdown is incorporated which is keyed to four flow sensors strategically located within the fluid system.

  5. Water quality in Lake Lanier

    SciTech Connect

    Callaham, M.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Thirteen water quality tests measuring five categories of pollution were conducted twice monthly from May, 1987 to April, 1990 at eight locations on Lake Sidney Lanier to establish baseline data and detect trends. Additionally, sediment and water samples were analyzed for ten toxic metals. Sampling stations were located at or near the point of entry of streams into the Lake. Oxygen demanding pollutants were highest in urban streams and phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations were highest in streams having poultry processing operations within their watersheds. Indicators of siltation increased coincidentally with highway construction in one watershed. Fecal coliform bacteria counts decreased at Flat Creek and increased in the Chattahoochee River. Zinc and copper occurred in water samples at levels of detectability. Sediment samples from several locations contained metal concentrations which warrant further study.

  6. 46 CFR 10.409 - Coast Guard-accepted Quality Standard System (QSS) organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard-accepted Quality Standard System (QSS) organizations. 10.409 Section 10.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MERCHANT MARINER CREDENTIAL Training Courses and Programs § 10.409 Coast...

  7. WebCT--The Quasimoderating Effect of Perceived Affective Quality on an Extending Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Franco, Manuel J.

    2010-01-01

    Perceived affective quality is an attractive area of research in Information System. Specifically, understanding the intrinsic and extrinsic individual factors and interaction effects that influence Information and Communications Technology (ICT) acceptance and adoption--in higher education--continues to be a focal interest in learning research.…

  8. Factors Affecting the Quality of Life and the Illness Acceptance of Pregnant Women with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bień, Agnieszka; Rzońca, Ewa; Kańczugowska, Angelika; Iwanowicz-Palus, Grażyna

    2015-12-22

    The paper contains an analysis of the factors affecting the quality of life (QoL) and the illness acceptance of diabetic pregnant women. The study was performed between January and April, 2013. It included 114 pregnant women with diabetes, hospitalized in the High Risk Pregnancy Wards of several hospitals in Lublin, Poland. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instruments used were: The WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire and the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS). The women's general quality of life was slightly higher than their perceived general health. A higher quality of life was reported by women with a very good financial standing, very good perceived health, moderate self-reported knowledge of diabetes, and also by those only treated with diet and stating that the illness did not interfere with their lives (p < 0.05). Women with a very good financial standing (p < 0.009), high self-reported health (p < 0.002), and those treated with by means of a diet (p < 0.04) had a higher acceptance of illness. A higher acceptance of illness contributes to a higher general quality of life and a better perception of one's health.

  9. 78 FR 20252 - Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF33 Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality... certain human health and aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to waters of New Jersey, Puerto... establish numeric water quality criteria for 12 states and two Territories, including New Jersey,...

  10. Channel incision and water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, F. D.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed development often triggers channel incision that leads to radical changes in channel morphology. Although morphologic evolution due to channel incision has been documented and modeled by others, ecological effects, particularly water quality effects, are less well understood. Furthermore, environmental regulatory frameworks for streams frequently focus on stream water quality and underemphasize hydrologic and geomorphic issues. Discharge, basic physical parameters, solids, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), chlorophyll and bacteria were monitored for five years at two sites along a stream in a mixed cover watershed characterized by rapid incision of the entire channel network. Concurrent data were collected from two sites on a nearby stream draining a watershed of similar size and cultivation intensity, but without widespread incision. Data sets describing physical aquatic habitat and fish fauna of each stream were available from other studies. The second stream was impacted by watershed urbanization, but was not incised, so normal channel-floodplain interaction maintained a buffer zone of floodplain wetlands between the study reach and the urban development upstream. The incised stream had mean channel depth and width that were 1.8 and 3.5 times as large as for the nonincised stream, and was characterized by flashier hydrology. The median rise rate for the incised stream was 6.4 times as great as for the nonincised stream. Correlation analyses showed that hydrologic perturbations were associated with water quality degradation, and the incised stream had levels of turbidity and solids that were two to three times higher than the nonincised, urbanizing stream. Total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl N, and chlorophyll a concentrations were significantly higher in the incised stream, while nitrate was significantly greater in the nonincised, urbanizing stream (p < 0.02). Physical aquatic habitat and fish populations in the nonincised urbanizing stream were

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protectional Agency has developed guidelines for deriving numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. These guidelines provide the method for deriving water quality criteria, including minimum data base...

  12. Quantifying The Water Quality Services Of Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands are well recognized for their potential for providing a wide range of important ecological services including their ability to provide water quality protection. Watershed-scale water quality trading could create market driven incentives to restore and construct wetlands...

  13. Characterizing Water Quality in Students' Own Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, S. K.; Speelman, Nicole; Yeary, Amber; Slattery, William

    2007-01-01

    The surface water quality studies are developed to help first year college students who are preparing to become high school teachers. These water quality impact studies allow students to correlate geologic conditions and chemistry.

  14. Quality assessment and consumer acceptability of bread from wheat and fermented banana flour.

    PubMed

    Adebayo-Oyetoro, Abiodun Omowonuola; Ogundipe, Oladeinde Olatunde; Adeeko, Kehinde Nojeemdeen

    2016-05-01

    Bread was produced from wheat flour and fermented unripe banana using the straight dough method. Matured unripe banana was peeled, sliced, steam blanched, dried and milled, and sieved to obtain flour. The flour was mixed with water and made into slurry and allowed to stand for 24 h after which it was divided into several portions and blended with wheat flour in different ratios. Proximate and mineral compositions as well as functional, pasting, and sensory characteristics of the samples were determined. The results of proximate analysis showed that crude fiber ranged between 1.95% and 3.19%, carbohydrate was between 49.70% and 52.98% and protein was 6.92% and 10.25%, respectively, while iron was between 27.07 mg/100 g and 29.30 mg/100 g. Swelling capacity of the experimental samples showed a significant difference from that of control. Peak viscosity ranged between 97.00RVU and 153.63RVU for experimental samples compared with 392.35RVU obtained for the control. Most of the sensory properties for the experimental samples were significantly different from the control. This study showed that bread with better quality and acceptability can be produced from wheat-unripe banana blends. PMID:27247766

  15. WATER QUALITY AND ASSOCIATIONS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality is quantified using several measures, available from various data sources. These can be combined to create a single index of overall water quality which can be used for health research. We developed a water quality index for all United States counties and assessed a...

  16. Assessment of the Physicochemical Quality of Drinking Water Resources in the Central Part of Iran.

    PubMed

    Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Shahryari, Ali; Hajiannejad, Mehdi; Saffari, Hossein; Kachuei, Zahra Moosavian; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study described in this article was to assess the physicochemical quality of water resources in Isfahan province, located in the central part of Iran, from June to November 2012. Comparison of the results with the acceptable limits recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water showed that nitrate, chloride, iron, and fluoride concentrations exceeded the maximum acceptable level in 12.3%, 9.2%, 6.8%, and 1.5% of samples, respectively. Total dissolved solids (TDS) and turbidity values also exceeded the maximum acceptable level in 9.2% and 3.1% of samples, respectively. In general, the quality of drinking water resources in the central part of Iran at present is mostly acceptable and satisfactory. It may be deteriorated in the future, however, because water quantity and quality in arid and semiarid areas are highly variable over time. Therefore, continued monitoring of the water resources quality is extremely important to environmental safety.

  17. Water quality change detection: multivariate algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klise, Katherine A.; McKenna, Sean A.

    2006-05-01

    In light of growing concern over the safety and security of our nation's drinking water, increased attention has been focused on advanced monitoring of water distribution systems. The key to these advanced monitoring systems lies in the combination of real time data and robust statistical analysis. Currently available data streams from sensors provide near real time information on water quality. Combining these data streams with change detection algorithms, this project aims to develop automated monitoring techniques that will classify real time data and denote anomalous water types. Here, water quality data in 1 hour increments over 3000 hours at 4 locations are used to test multivariate algorithms to detect anomalous water quality events. The algorithms use all available water quality sensors to measure deviation from expected water quality. Simulated anomalous water quality events are added to the measured data to test three approaches to measure this deviation. These approaches include multivariate distance measures to 1) the previous observation, 2) the closest observation in multivariate space, and 3) the closest cluster of previous water quality observations. Clusters are established using kmeans classification. Each approach uses a moving window of previous water quality measurements to classify the current measurement as normal or anomalous. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves test the ability of each approach to discriminate between normal and anomalous water quality using a variety of thresholds and simulated anomalous events. These analyses result in a better understanding of the deviation from normal water quality that is necessary to sound an alarm.

  18. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  19. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  20. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  1. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  2. METHODS FOR DETERMINING RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the clean water act of 1972 was to restore and maintain physical, chemical & biological quality of waters in the U.S. Although great progress has been made in cleaning up lakes, rivers and coastal waters many still do not meet water quality standards. Most beaches ha...

  3. Determination of an acceptable assimilable organic carbon (AOC) level for biological stability in water distribution systems with minimized chlorine residual.

    PubMed

    Ohkouchi, Yumiko; Ly, Bich Thuy; Ishikawa, Suguru; Kawano, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2013-02-01

    There is considerable interest in minimizing the chlorine residual in Japan because of increasing complaints about a chlorinous odor in drinking water. However, minimizing the chlorine residual causes the microbiological water quality to deteriorate, and stricter control of biodegradable organics in finished water is thus needed to maintain biological stability during water distribution. In this investigation, an acceptable level of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) for biologically stable water with minimized chlorine residual was determined based on the relationship between AOC, the chlorine residual, and bacterial regrowth. In order to prepare water samples containing lower AOC, the fractions of AOC and biodegradable organic matter (BOM) in tap water samples were reduced by converting into biomass after thermal hydrolysis of BOM at alkaline conditions. The batch-mode incubations at different conditions of AOC and chlorine residual were carried out at 20 °C, and the presence or absence of bacterial regrowth was determined. The determined curve for biologically stable water indicated that the acceptable AOC was 10.9 μg C/L at a minimized chlorine residual (0.05 mg Cl(2)/L). This result indicated that AOC removal during current water treatment processes in Japan should be significantly enhanced prior to minimization of the chlorine residual in water distribution.

  4. Automated monitoring of recovered water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Hartung, W. H.; Witz, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system provides automatic system for online monitoring of chemical, physical, and bacteriological properties of recovered water and for signaling malfunction in water recovery system. Monitor incorporates whenever possible commercially available sensors suitably modified.

  5. 75 FR 13270 - Ute Water Conservancy District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... would be located on the Plateau Creek Pipeline at the Rapid Creek Water Treatment Plant, in Mesa County... Rapid Creek Water Treatment Plant; and (2) appurtenant facilities. The project would have an estimated... Energy Regulatory Commission Ute Water Conservancy District; Notice of Application Accepted for...

  6. 78 FR 35618 - Three Valleys Municipal Water District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Station Project would be located within the Miramar Water Treatment Plant in City of Claremont, Los... Energy Regulatory Commission Three Valleys Municipal Water District; Notice of Application Accepted for.... Date filed: March 20, 2013. d. Applicant: Three Valleys Municipal Water District. e. Name of...

  7. Quality and consumer acceptability of salt and phosphate enhanced goat loin from goats fed varying levels of pine bark.

    PubMed

    Leick, C M; Broadway, P R; Solaiman, S; Behrends, J M

    2012-03-01

    Goat loins (n=22) were evaluated to test effects of 0, 15, and 30% dietary pine bark (PB) and salt, water, and phosphate enhancement on shelf-life, shear force (WBSF) and consumer acceptability. No interactions existed between PB and enhancement. Dietary PB did not affect objective color, but enhancement increased a* and b* values (P<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased from d 1 to d 5 of storage (P<0.0001), but were not affected by PB or enhancement. The WBSF for 30% PB was less than that of 0% PB (P=0.0199), and enhancement decreased WBSF (P=0.0010). Texture, flavor, and overall acceptability were greater (P<0.05) for 15 and 30% PB compared to 0% PB. Enhanced loin samples had greater appearance, aroma, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability scores (P<0.05). Results indicated that enhancement improved tenderness and consumer acceptability of goat loin, and PB had minimal impact on goat loin quality.

  8. Ground water quality in the Kathmandu valley of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pant, Bhoj Raj

    2011-07-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the quality of groundwaters in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The groundwater samples were randomly collected from shallow well, tube well, and deep-tube wells located at different places of Kathmandu, Lalitpur, and Bhaktapur districts in the Kathmandu valley. Physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters of the samples were evaluated to estimate the groundwater quality for drinking water. It was found that the groundwater in the valley is vulnerable to drink due to presence of iron and coliform bacteria. Iron was estimated to be much higher then the acceptable limit of World Health Organization (WHO) drinking-water quality guidelines (1.9 mg/L). Total coliform bacteria enumerated in groundwaters significantly exceeded the drinking-water quality standard and observed maximum coliform (267 CFU/100 mL) in shallow wells. The electrical conductivity and turbidity were found to be 875 μS/cm and 55 NTU, respectively, which are above the WHO recommendations for drinking water guidelines. However, pH value was measured within the acceptable limit. Arsenic, chloride, fluoride, and hardness concentrations were found to be in agreement with the recommendations of WHO drinking-water quality guidelines.

  9. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities in the USGS Ohio Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Shaffer, Kimberly H.

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been written for use by the Ohio Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Ohio Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the Ohio Water Science Center quality-assurance plans for water-quality monitors, the microbiology laboratory, and surface-water and ground-water activities.

  10. Risk factors and monitoring for water quality to determine best management practices for splash parks.

    PubMed

    de Man, H; Leenen, E J T M; van Knapen, F; de Roda Husman, A M

    2014-09-01

    Splash parks have been associated with infectious disease outbreaks as a result of exposure to poor water quality. To be able to protect public health, risk factors were identified that determine poor water quality. Samples were taken at seven splash parks where operators were willing to participate in the study. Higher concentrations of Escherichia coli were measured in water of splash parks filled with rainwater or surface water as compared with sites filled with tap water, independent of routine inspection intervals and employed disinfection. Management practices to prevent fecal contamination and guarantee maintaining good water quality at splash parks should include selection of source water of acceptable quality.

  11. Risk factors and monitoring for water quality to determine best management practices for splash parks.

    PubMed

    de Man, H; Leenen, E J T M; van Knapen, F; de Roda Husman, A M

    2014-09-01

    Splash parks have been associated with infectious disease outbreaks as a result of exposure to poor water quality. To be able to protect public health, risk factors were identified that determine poor water quality. Samples were taken at seven splash parks where operators were willing to participate in the study. Higher concentrations of Escherichia coli were measured in water of splash parks filled with rainwater or surface water as compared with sites filled with tap water, independent of routine inspection intervals and employed disinfection. Management practices to prevent fecal contamination and guarantee maintaining good water quality at splash parks should include selection of source water of acceptable quality. PMID:25252342

  12. Effect of sourdough on quality and acceptability of wheat flour tortillas.

    PubMed

    Ontiveros-Martínez, M del Refugio; Ochoa-Martínez, L Araceli; González-Herrera, Silvia M; Delgado-Licon, Efren; Bello-Pérez, L Arturo; Morales-Castro, Juliana

    2011-01-01

    As an alternative on the search for functional food products, this study evaluated the use of sourdough in the preparation of wheat flour tortillas. The sourdough was elaborated with Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and the wheat flour tortillas were prepared with different concentrations of mother sponge (5%, 15%, and 25%) and fermentation times (1 and 3 h) at room temperature (25 ± 2 °C). Quality (diameter, height, color, pH, stretchability scores, and Kramer shear cell results) of wheat tortillas was evaluated after 24 h of preparation. The mother sponge concentration and fermentation time affected some quality parameters and acceptability properties (taste, aroma, color, opacity, and rollability). In addition, the sourdough tortillas had higher stretchability values than control tortillas. Since most of the prepared sourdough tortillas had acceptability values similar to those of tortilla controls, the introduction of sourdough is a viable means to incorporate additional nutritional and nutraceutical value into wheat tortillas.

  13. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  14. A farm-focused approach to improving watershed-level water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution and corresponding mitigation management practices are typically evaluated for water quality effectiveness based on hydrologic boundaries. Often, multiple combinations of practices will adequately control the pollution, but at varying costs and farmer-acceptance...

  15. Do waterbody classifications predict water quality?

    PubMed

    Barclay, Janet R; Tripp, Hannah; Bellucci, Christopher J; Warner, Glenn; Helton, Ashley M

    2016-12-01

    Many states classify waterbodies according to groups of designated uses, which suggests that classifications may be correlated with water quality. The primary assessments of water quality in the United States (the Biennial Integrated Water Quality Reports) do not consider classification, so the relationship between classification and water quality is untested. Additionally, water quality has been shown to be influenced by watershed land use; however, land use is not typically part of waterbody classification systems. To determine the relationships between waterbody classification, water quality, watershed land cover, and forest fragmentation, we analyzed existing water quality data for the State of Connecticut from the United States Geological Survey and the Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection and land cover data from the National Land Cover Dataset. Connecticut uses a unique classification system that includes separation of drinking water sources (Class AA) and waterbodies receiving waste water discharges (Class B). Using a comparison of multiple means, we found that Class B waters had higher levels of nitrogen, solids, chloride, sodium, dissolved copper, total iron, and dissolved manganese than Class AA waters. Watersheds upstream of Class B segments had less forest cover, more development and more impervious cover than watersheds upstream of Class AA segments. Class A sites had some similarities in water quality and land cover with Class AA sites and some with Class B sites. The subset of Class B waterbodies with "Class AA-like" water quality also had "Class AA-like" land cover. Based on this and a multiple linear regression analysis, we found that water quality is more closely related to watershed land cover and forest fragmentation than to waterbody classification. Our results suggest that watershed land cover likely is a better proxy for water quality than waterbody classification.

  16. Do waterbody classifications predict water quality?

    PubMed

    Barclay, Janet R; Tripp, Hannah; Bellucci, Christopher J; Warner, Glenn; Helton, Ashley M

    2016-12-01

    Many states classify waterbodies according to groups of designated uses, which suggests that classifications may be correlated with water quality. The primary assessments of water quality in the United States (the Biennial Integrated Water Quality Reports) do not consider classification, so the relationship between classification and water quality is untested. Additionally, water quality has been shown to be influenced by watershed land use; however, land use is not typically part of waterbody classification systems. To determine the relationships between waterbody classification, water quality, watershed land cover, and forest fragmentation, we analyzed existing water quality data for the State of Connecticut from the United States Geological Survey and the Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection and land cover data from the National Land Cover Dataset. Connecticut uses a unique classification system that includes separation of drinking water sources (Class AA) and waterbodies receiving waste water discharges (Class B). Using a comparison of multiple means, we found that Class B waters had higher levels of nitrogen, solids, chloride, sodium, dissolved copper, total iron, and dissolved manganese than Class AA waters. Watersheds upstream of Class B segments had less forest cover, more development and more impervious cover than watersheds upstream of Class AA segments. Class A sites had some similarities in water quality and land cover with Class AA sites and some with Class B sites. The subset of Class B waterbodies with "Class AA-like" water quality also had "Class AA-like" land cover. Based on this and a multiple linear regression analysis, we found that water quality is more closely related to watershed land cover and forest fragmentation than to waterbody classification. Our results suggest that watershed land cover likely is a better proxy for water quality than waterbody classification. PMID:27621038

  17. Water Quality of a Micronesian Atoll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabbett, Arthur N.

    1975-01-01

    In 1972, a water quality survey of the eastern end of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands was conducted to determine the water quality of selected lagoon and open ocean sites and provide guidance for the construction of a sewerage system. This study revealed that lagoon waters were moderately to severely contaminated. (BT)

  18. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  19. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  20. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  1. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  2. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  3. Texas Water Quality Board Teachers Workshop Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Water Quality Board, Austin.

    These materials are designed for teachers participating in an inservice workshop on water quality. Included in the materials are a workshop agenda, a water awareness pretest, and the various parameters and tests that are used to determine and measure water quality. The parameters are discussed from the standpoint of their potential impact to…

  4. Spatio-Temporal Trends and Identification of Correlated Variables with Water Quality for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Qing; Wang, Ke; Li, Jiadan; Ma, Ligang; Deng, Jinsong; Zheng, Kefeng; Zhang, Xiaobin; Sheng, Li

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that characterizing the spatio-temporal trends of water quality parameters and identifying correlated variables with water quality are indispensable for the management and protection of water resources. In this study, cluster analysis was used to classify 56 typical drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province into three groups representing different water quality levels, using data of four water quality parameters for the period 2006–2010. Then, the spatio-temporal trends in water quality were analyzed, assisted by geographic information systems (GIS) technology and statistical analysis. The results indicated that the water quality showed a trend of degradation from southwest to northeast, and the overall water quality level was exacerbated during the study period. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between water quality parameters and ten independent variables grouped into four categories (land use, socio-economic factors, geographical features, and reservoir attributes). According to the correlation coefficients, land use and socio-economic indicators were identified as the most significant factors related to reservoir water quality. The results offer insights into the spatio-temporal variations of water quality parameters and factors impacting the water quality of drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province, and they could assist managers in making effective strategies to better protect water resources. PMID:26492263

  5. Spatio-Temporal Trends and Identification of Correlated Variables with Water Quality for Drinking-Water Reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qing; Wang, Ke; Li, Jiadan; Ma, Ligang; Deng, Jinsong; Zheng, Kefeng; Zhang, Xiaobin; Sheng, Li

    2015-10-20

    It is widely accepted that characterizing the spatio-temporal trends of water quality parameters and identifying correlated variables with water quality are indispensable for the management and protection of water resources. In this study, cluster analysis was used to classify 56 typical drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province into three groups representing different water quality levels, using data of four water quality parameters for the period 2006-2010. Then, the spatio-temporal trends in water quality were analyzed, assisted by geographic information systems (GIS) technology and statistical analysis. The results indicated that the water quality showed a trend of degradation from southwest to northeast, and the overall water quality level was exacerbated during the study period. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between water quality parameters and ten independent variables grouped into four categories (land use, socio-economic factors, geographical features, and reservoir attributes). According to the correlation coefficients, land use and socio-economic indicators were identified as the most significant factors related to reservoir water quality. The results offer insights into the spatio-temporal variations of water quality parameters and factors impacting the water quality of drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province, and they could assist managers in making effective strategies to better protect water resources.

  6. 76 FR 25321 - Wild Flower Water LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Wild Flower Water LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for..., Wild Flower Water LLC filed an application, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power...

  7. 77 FR 35367 - Silt Water Conservancy District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Silt Water Conservancy District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... Date filed: January 5, 2012. d. Applicant: Silt Water Conservancy District. e. Name of Project:...

  8. 77 FR 35369 - Silt Water Conservancy District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Silt Water Conservancy District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... Date filed: January 5, 2012. d. Applicant: Silt Water Conservancy District. e. Name of Project:...

  9. Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 200-page activity guide for educators of students in grades six through university level raises the awareness and understanding of water quality issues and their relationship to personal, public and environmental health. "Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" will help educators address science standards through 25…

  10. Accepting managed aquifer recharge of urban storm water reuse: The role of policy-related factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankad, Aditi; Walton, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    A between-groups experimental design examined public acceptance for managed aquifer recharge of storm water for indirect potable and nonpotable reuse; acceptance was based on five policy-related variables (fairness, effectiveness, trust, importance of safety assurances, and importance of communication activities). Results showed that public acceptance (N = 408) for managed aquifer recharge of storm water was higher for nonpotable applications, as was the importance of safety assurances. Analyses of variance also showed that perceptions of fairness and effectiveness were higher for a nonpotable scheme, but not trust. A three-step hierarchical regression (Step 1: age, gender, education, and income; Step 2: type of use; Step 3: fairness, effectiveness, trust, safety assurance, and communication activities) demonstrated that type of storm water use and the policy-related factors accounted for 73% of the variance in acceptance of storm water (R2 = 0.74, adjusted R2 = 0.74, F (10, 397) = 113.919, p < 0.001). Age, type of use, and three of the five policy-related factors were also significant individual predictors of acceptance. The most important predictors were perceptions of trust in water authorities, perceptions of effectiveness, and perceptions of fairness. Interestingly, while safety assurance was important in attitudinal acceptance of managed aquifer recharge based on type of use, safety assurance was not found to be significant predictor of acceptance. This research suggests that policy-makers should look to address matters of greater public importance and drive such as fairness, trust, and effectiveness of storm water programs and advocate these at the forefront of their policies, rather than solely on education campaigns.

  11. 78 FR 63972 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report... methodology proposed to be used in the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report is...: Comments will be accepted via email to john.yagecic@drbc.state.nj.us , with ``Water Quality Assessment...

  12. Deriving Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining the water quality conditions necessary to protect the aquatic living resources of the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries has required a foundation of quantifiable water quality criteria. Quantitative criteria serve as a critical basis for assessing the attainment of designated uses and measuring progress toward meeting water quality goals of the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership. In 1987, the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership committed to defining the water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources. Under section 303(c) of the Clean Water Act, States and authorized tribes have the primary responsibility for adopting water quality standards into law or regulation. The Chesapeake Bay Program partnership worked with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop and publish a guidance framework of ambient water quality criteria with designated uses and assessment procedures for dissolved oxygen, water clarity, and chlorophyll a for Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries in 2003. This article reviews the derivation of the water quality criteria, criteria assessment protocols, designated use boundaries, and their refinements published in six addendum documents since 2003 and successfully adopted into each jurisdiction's water quality standards used in developing the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load.

  13. ORD Studies of Water Quality in Hospitals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation descibes results from two studies of water quality and pathogen occurrence in water and biofilm samples from two area hospitals. Includes data on the effectiveness of copper/silver ionization as a disinfectant.

  14. Recent Advances in Point-of-Access Water Quality Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Velusamy, V.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

    Clean water is one of our most valuable natural resources. In addition to providing safe drinking water it assures functional ecosystems that support fisheries and recreation. Human population growth and its associated increased demands on water pose risks to maintaining acceptable water quality. It is vital to assess source waters and the aquatic systems that receive inputs from industrial waste and sewage treatment plants, storm water systems, and runoff from urban and agricultural lands. Rapid and confident assessments of aquatic resources form the basis for sound environmental management. Current methods engaged in tracing the presence of various bacteria in water employ bulky laboratory equipment and are time consuming. Thus, real-time water quality monitoring is essential for National and International Health and Safety. Environmental water monitoring includes measurements of physical characteristics (e.g. pH, temperature, conductivity), chemical parameters (e.g. oxygen, alkalinity, nitrogen and phosphorus compounds), and abundance of certain biological taxa. Monitoring could also include assays of biological activity such as alkaline phosphatase, tests for toxins such as microcystins and direct measurements of pollutants such as heavy metals or hydrocarbons. Real time detection can significantly reduce the level of damage and also the cost to remedy the problem. This paper presents overview of state-of-the-art methods and devices used for point-of-access water quality monitoring and suggest further developments in this area.

  15. Drivers of an urban community's acceptance of a large desalination scheme for drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Fiona L.; Tapsuwan, Sorada; Walker, Iain; Randrema, Elodie

    2015-09-01

    Changing climates and growing populations have prompted policy makers to shift to more climate resilient, technology-driven water sources, such as seawater desalination. Desalination is a prominent water resource in the Middle East but countries in other parts of the world with similar scarcity issues and good access to sea water, such as Australia, have been comparatively slow to adopt it. This paper explores attitudes to desalination in Perth, Western Australia, and the factors that influence its acceptance. We compared individuals' acceptance of desalination over two time periods by using identical surveys administered in 2007 and 2012. We then examined the attitudinal factors - attitudes towards desalination and attitudes towards the environment - that influence acceptance. Acceptance of desalination was reasonably high and stable at both times (74% and 73% in 2007 and 2012 respectively). We found that respondents' attitudes to perceived outcomes and benefits, fairness, environmental obligation and risk were important predictors of their acceptance of desalination in both surveys. However the weight given to these aspects varied over time. The findings show that there is still mixed community sentiment towards desalination, which helps to explain why acceptance has not increased since desalination was introduced in 2006.

  16. A Review of Surface Water Quality Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shibei; Jia, Peng; Qi, Changjun; Ding, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Surface water quality models can be useful tools to simulate and predict the levels, distributions, and risks of chemical pollutants in a given water body. The modeling results from these models under different pollution scenarios are very important components of environmental impact assessment and can provide a basis and technique support for environmental management agencies to make right decisions. Whether the model results are right or not can impact the reasonability and scientificity of the authorized construct projects and the availability of pollution control measures. We reviewed the development of surface water quality models at three stages and analyzed the suitability, precisions, and methods among different models. Standardization of water quality models can help environmental management agencies guarantee the consistency in application of water quality models for regulatory purposes. We concluded the status of standardization of these models in developed countries and put forward available measures for the standardization of these surface water quality models, especially in developing countries. PMID:23853533

  17. Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

  18. Three dimensional water quality modeling of a shallow subtropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yongshan; Ji, Zhen-Gang; Shen, Jian; Hu, Guangdou; Sun, Detong

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of estuarine hydrodynamics and water quality comes mostly from studies of large estuarine systems. The processes affecting algae, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen (DO) in small and shallow subtropical estuaries are relatively less studied. This paper documents the development, calibration, and verification of a three dimensional (3D) water quality model for the St. Lucie Estuary (SLE), a small and shallow estuary located on the east coast of south Florida. The water quality model is calibrated and verified using two years of measured data. Statistical analyses indicate that the model is capable of reproducing key water quality characteristics of the estuary within an acceptable range of accuracy. The calibrated model is further applied to study hydrodynamic and eutrophication processes in the estuary. Modeling results reveal that high algae concentrations in the estuary are likely caused by excessive nutrient and algae supplies in freshwater inflows. While algal blooms may lead to reduced DO concentrations near the bottom of the waterbody, this study indicates that stratification and circulation induced by freshwater inflows may also contribute significantly to bottom water hypoxia in the estuary. It is also found that high freshwater inflows from one of the tributaries can change the circulation pattern and nutrient loading, thereby impacting water quality conditions of the entire estuary. Restoration plans for the SLE ecosystem need to consider both a reduction of nutrient loading and regulation of the freshwater discharge pattern.

  19. Quality of ground water in Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yee, Johnson J.; Souza, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The major aquifers in Idaho are categorized under two rock types, sedimentary and volcanic, and are grouped into six hydrologic basins. Areas with adequate, minimally adequate, or deficient data available for groundwater-quality evaluations are described. Wide variations in chemical concentrations in the water occur within individual aquifers, as well as among the aquifers. The existing data base is not sufficient to describe fully the ground-water quality throughout the State; however, it does indicate that the water is generally suitable for most uses. In some aquifers, concentrations of fluoride, cadmium, and iron in the water exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking-water standards. Dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate may cause problems in some local areas. Water-quality data are sparse in many areas, and only general statements can be made regarding the areal distribution of chemical constituents. Few data are available to describe temporal variations of water quality in the aquifers. Primary concerns related to special problem areas in Idaho include (1) protection of water quality in the Rathdrum Prairie aquifer, (2) potential degradation of water quality in the Boise-Nampa area, (3) effects of widespread use of drain wells overlying the eastern Snake River Plain basalt aquifer, and (4) disposal of low-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Shortcomings in the ground-water-quality data base are categorized as (1) multiaquifer sample inadequacy, (2) constituent coverage limitations, (3) baseline-data deficiencies, and (4) data-base nonuniformity.

  20. Ground-water quality in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    This report graphically summarizes ground-water quality from selected chemical-quality data for about 2,300 ground-water sites in Wyoming. Dissolved-solids, nitrate, fluoride, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, iron, and manganese concentrations are summarized on a statewide basis. The major chemical-quality problem that limits the use of Wyoming ground-water is excessive dissolved-solids concentrations. The aquifers with the best quality water, based on the lowest median dissolved-solids concentration of water in aquifers with 20 or more sampled sites, are Holocene lacustrine deposits, the upper Testiary Ogallala Formation and Arikaree Formation, and the Mississippian Madison Limestone. The counties with the best quality water, based on the lowest median dissolved-solids concentrations are Teton County and Laramie County. Hot Springs County and Natrona County have the highest median dissolved-solids concentrations. About 3 percent of the nitrate concentrations of ground-water samples exceeded the national primary drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter. Fluoride concentrations exceeded the national primary drinking-water standard in 14 percent of the ground-water samples. Except for selenium, toxic trace elements generally have not been found in concentrations in excess of the drinking-water standards. About 19 percent of the iron and about 30 percent of the manganese concentrations in ground-water samples exceeded the national secondary drinking-water standards. (USGS)

  1. Telehealth: Acceptability, clinical interventions and quality of life in peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Vishal; Jones, Audrey; Spalding, Elaine M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Telehealth technologies are being widely adopted across the globe for management of long-term conditions. There are limited data on its use, effectiveness and patient experience in end-stage renal disease. The aim of this pilot project was to explore patient acceptability of technology and evaluate its effect on clinical interventions and quality of life in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Methods: Peritoneal dialysis patients were provided with computer tablets (PODs). PODs contained a knowledge database with treatment- and symptom-based questionnaires that generated alerts for the clinical team. Alerts were reviewed daily and followed up by a telephone call or clinic visit. Interventions were at the discretion of clinicians. Data were recorded prospectively and quality of life and Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with assistive Technology questionnaires evaluated at the start and end of the programme. Results: In all, 22 patients have participated over 15 months. The mean age was 61.6 years and PODs were utilised for an average of 341.9 days with 59.1% choosing to continue beyond the study period. We received a total of 1195 alerts with an average of 2.6 alerts per day. A total of 36 admissions were avoided and patients supported to self-manage on 154 occasions. Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with assistive Technology scores remained high throughout the programme although no improvement in quality of life was seen. Discussion: Telehealth is useful to monitor patients with renal failure on peritoneal dialysis. It is acceptable across age groups and provides an additional resource for patients to self-manage. Satisfaction scores and retention rates suggest a high level of acceptability. PMID:27757228

  2. Parents' perceptions of water safety and quality.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Lori; Bicking, Cara; Sekhar, Deepa

    2012-02-01

    Every day parents make choices about the source of water their families consume. There are many contributing factors which could affect decisions about water consumption including taste, smell, color, safety, cost, and convenience. However, few studies have investigated what parents with young children think about water quality and safety in the US and how this affects the choices they are making. This study aimed to describe the perceptions of parents with regard to water quality and safety and to compare bottled water and tap water use, as well as to examine motivation for water choices. We conducted an online questionnaire to survey parents living in Pennsylvania about water quality and safety, and preference for bottled versus tap water. Parents were recruited through child care centers, and 143 surveys were returned. The survey results showed high overall scores for perception of tap water quality and safety, and a preference for tap water over bottled water. We found that parents were concerned for the environmental impact that buying bottled water may have but were also concerned about potential contamination of tap water by natural gas drilling processes and nuclear power plants. These findings regarding parental concerns are critical to inform pediatric health care providers, water sellers, and suppliers in order that they may provide parents with the necessary information to make educated choices for their families.

  3. Acceptance and Use of Eight Arsenic-Safe Drinking Water Options in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Inauen, Jennifer; Hossain, Mohammad Mojahidul; Johnston, Richard B.; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a serious public health threat. In Bangladesh, eight major safe water options provide an alternative to contaminated shallow tubewells: piped water supply, deep tubewells, pond sand filters, community arsenic-removal, household arsenic removal, dug wells, well-sharing, and rainwater harvesting. However, it is uncertain how well these options are accepted and used by the at-risk population. Based on the RANAS model (risk, attitudes, norms, ability, and self-regulation) this study aimed to identify the acceptance and use of available safe water options. Cross-sectional face-to-face interviews were used to survey 1,268 households in Bangladesh in November 2009 (n = 872), and December 2010 (n = 396). The questionnaire assessed water consumption, acceptance factors from the RANAS model, and socioeconomic factors. Although all respondents had access to at least one arsenic-safe drinking water option, only 62.1% of participants were currently using these alternatives. The most regularly used options were household arsenic removal filters (92.9%) and piped water supply (85.6%). However, the former result may be positively biased due to high refusal rates of household filter owners. The least used option was household rainwater harvesting (36.6%). Those who reported not using an arsenic-safe source differed in terms of numerous acceptance factors from those who reported using arsenic-safe sources: non-users were characterized by greater vulnerability; showed less preference for the taste and temperature of alternative sources; found collecting safe water quite time-consuming; had lower levels of social norms, self-efficacy, and coping planning; and demonstrated lower levels of commitment to collecting safe water. Acceptance was particularly high for piped water supplies and deep tubewells, whereas dug wells and well-sharing were the least accepted sources. Intervention strategies were derived from the results in order to

  4. An analytical framework for flood water conservation considering forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wei; Zhang, Chi; Peng, Yong; Zeng, Ruijie; Zhou, Huicheng; Cai, Ximing

    2015-06-01

    This paper addresses how much flood water can be conserved for use after the flood season through the operation of reservoir by taking into account the residual flood control capacity (the difference between flood conveyance capacity and the expected inflow in a lead time). A two-stage model for dynamic control of the flood-limited water level (the maximum allowed water level during the flood season, DC-FLWL) is established considering forecast uncertainty and acceptable flood risk. It is found that DC-FLWL is applicable when the reservoir inflow ranges from small to medium levels of the historical records, while both forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk in the downstream affect the feasible space of DC-FLWL. As forecast uncertainty increases (under a given risk level) or as acceptable risk level decreases (under a given forecast uncertainty level), the minimum required safety margin for flood control increases, and the chance for DC-FLWL decreases. The derived hedging rules from the modeling framework illustrate either the dominant role of water conservation or flood control or the trade-off between the two objectives under different levels of forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk. These rules may provide useful guidelines for conserving water from flood, especially in the area with heavy water stress. The analysis is illustrated via a case study with a real-world reservoir in northeastern China.

  5. Social trust, risk perceptions and public acceptance of recycled water: testing a social-psychological model.

    PubMed

    Ross, Victoria L; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-05-01

    Faced with a severe drought, the residents of the regional city of Toowoomba, in South East Queensland, Australia were asked to consider a potable wastewater reuse scheme to supplement drinking water supplies. As public risk perceptions and trust have been shown to be key factors in acceptance of potable reuse projects, this research developed and tested a social-psychological model of trust, risk perceptions and acceptance. Participants (N = 380) were surveyed a few weeks before a referendum was held in which residents voted against the controversial scheme. Analysis using structural equation modelling showed that the more community members perceived that the water authority used fair procedures (e.g., consulting with the community and providing accurate information), the greater their sense of shared identity with the water authority. Shared social identity in turn influenced trust via increased source credibility, that is, perceptions that the water authority is competent and has the community's interest at heart. The findings also support past research showing that higher levels of trust in the water authority were associated with lower perceptions of risk, which in turn were associated with higher levels of acceptance, and vice versa. The findings have a practical application for improving public acceptance of potable recycled water schemes. PMID:24603028

  6. Social trust, risk perceptions and public acceptance of recycled water: testing a social-psychological model.

    PubMed

    Ross, Victoria L; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-05-01

    Faced with a severe drought, the residents of the regional city of Toowoomba, in South East Queensland, Australia were asked to consider a potable wastewater reuse scheme to supplement drinking water supplies. As public risk perceptions and trust have been shown to be key factors in acceptance of potable reuse projects, this research developed and tested a social-psychological model of trust, risk perceptions and acceptance. Participants (N = 380) were surveyed a few weeks before a referendum was held in which residents voted against the controversial scheme. Analysis using structural equation modelling showed that the more community members perceived that the water authority used fair procedures (e.g., consulting with the community and providing accurate information), the greater their sense of shared identity with the water authority. Shared social identity in turn influenced trust via increased source credibility, that is, perceptions that the water authority is competent and has the community's interest at heart. The findings also support past research showing that higher levels of trust in the water authority were associated with lower perceptions of risk, which in turn were associated with higher levels of acceptance, and vice versa. The findings have a practical application for improving public acceptance of potable recycled water schemes.

  7. Drainage water management for water quality protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land drainage has been central to the development of North America since colonial times. Increasingly, agricultural drainage is being targeted as a conduit for pollution, particularly nutrient pollution. The export of agricultural drainage water and associated pollutants to surface water can be mana...

  8. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  9. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  10. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  11. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  12. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  13. Professional Development for Water Quality Control Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Clinton Lewis

    This study investigated the availability of professional development opportunities for water quality control personnel in the midwest. The major objective of the study was to establish a listing of educational opportunities for the professional development of water quality control personnel and to compare these with the opportunities technicians…

  14. Influence of lake morphology on water quality.

    PubMed

    Moses, Sheela A; Janaki, Letha; Joseph, Sabu; Justus, J; Vimala, Sheeja Ramakrishnan

    2011-11-01

    Lakes are seriously affected due to urban pollution. The study of the morphological features of a lake system helps to identify its environmental status. The objective of the present study is to analyse the influence of morphometry on water quality in a lake (Akkulam-Veli Lake, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala). The morphological features namely mean depth, surface area, volume, shoreline length, shoreline development and index of basin permanence have been evaluated. Correlation analysis has been conducted to determine the relationship between morphological features and water quality. Regression analysis has been conducted to find out the extent of influence of morphometric features on water quality. The study revealed that the lake is less affected by wind-induced wave action due to various reasons. The depth and volume have significant role in the water quality. The nitrogen fixation of blue green algae can be observed from the morphological features. The morphology has greater role in the water quality of a lake system. PMID:21387171

  15. Influence of lake morphology on water quality.

    PubMed

    Moses, Sheela A; Janaki, Letha; Joseph, Sabu; Justus, J; Vimala, Sheeja Ramakrishnan

    2011-11-01

    Lakes are seriously affected due to urban pollution. The study of the morphological features of a lake system helps to identify its environmental status. The objective of the present study is to analyse the influence of morphometry on water quality in a lake (Akkulam-Veli Lake, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala). The morphological features namely mean depth, surface area, volume, shoreline length, shoreline development and index of basin permanence have been evaluated. Correlation analysis has been conducted to determine the relationship between morphological features and water quality. Regression analysis has been conducted to find out the extent of influence of morphometric features on water quality. The study revealed that the lake is less affected by wind-induced wave action due to various reasons. The depth and volume have significant role in the water quality. The nitrogen fixation of blue green algae can be observed from the morphological features. The morphology has greater role in the water quality of a lake system.

  16. Process water usage and water quality in poultry processing equipment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The operation of poultry processing equipment was analyzed to determine the impact of water reduction strategies on process water quality. Mandates to reduce the consumption of process water in poultry processing facilities have created the need to critically examine water usage patterns and develop...

  17. An Analytical Framework for Flood Water Conservation Considering Forecast Uncertainty and Acceptable Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, W.; Zhang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir water levels are usually not allowed to exceed the flood limited water level (FLWL) during flood season, which neglects the meteorological and real-time forecast information and leads to the great waste of water resources. With the development of weather forecasting, hydrologic modeling, and hydro-climatic teleconnection, the streamflow forecast precision have improved a lot, which provides the technical support for the flood water utilization. This paper addresses how much flood water can be conserved for use after the flood season through the operation of reservoir based on uncertain forecast information by taking into account the residual flood control capacity (the difference between flood conveyance capacity and the expected inflow in a lead time). A two-stage model for dynamic control of the flood limited water level (the maximum allowed water level during the flood season, DC-FLWL) is established considering forecast uncertainty and acceptable flood risk. It is found that DC-FLWL is applicable when the reservoir inflow ranges from small to medium levels of the historical records, while both forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk in the downstream affect the feasible space of DC-FLWL. As forecast uncertainty increases (under a given risk level) or as acceptable risk level decreases (under a given forecast uncertainty level), the minimum required safety margin for flood control increases, and the chance for DC-FLWL decreases. The derived hedging rules from the modeling framework illustrate either the dominant role of water conservation or flood control or the tradeoff between the two objectives under different levels of forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk. These rules may provide useful guidelines for conserving water from flood, especially in the area with heavy water stress.

  18. Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D.

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

  19. Water quality of Lake Tuscaloosa and streamflow and water quality of selected tributaries to Lake Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 1982-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Lake Tuscaloosa, created in 1969 by the impoundment of North River, provides the primary water supply for Tuscaloosa, Alabama , and surrounding areas. This report describes the percent contribution of major tributaries to the mean inflow to the lake; water quality; and changes in water quality in the lake and selected tributaries. During base flow, about 60% of the total flow into Lake Tuscaloosa is contributed by Binion and Carroll Creeks, which drain only 22% of the Lake Tuscaloosa basin. Binion and Carroll Creek basins are underlain primarily by sand and gravel deposits of the Coker Formation. Mean inflow to the lake was 1,150 cu ft/sec during 1983, a wet year, and 450 cu ft/sec during 1985, a relatively dry year. More than 80% of the total inflow during both years was contributed by North River and Binion, Cripple, and Carroll Creeks. About 59% was contributed by North River during those years. Except for pH, sulfate, and dissolved and total recoverable iron and manganese, the water quality of the tributaries is generally within drinking water limits and acceptable for most uses. The water quality of Lake Tuscaloosa is generally within drinking water limits and acceptable for most uses. The maximum and median concentrations of sulfate increased every year at the dam from 1979 to 1985 (7.2 to 18 mg/L and 6.2 to 14 mg/L, respectively). The dissolved solids concentrations for water at the dam have varied (1979-86) from 27 to 43 mg/L; the sulfate, 5.2 to 18 mg/L; and the dissolved iron, 10 to 250 micrograms/L--all within the recommended drinking water limits. However, concentrations of dissolved manganese and total recoverable iron and manganese at the dam commonly exceeded the recommended drinking water limits. In November 1985, after the summer warmup and increase in biological activity, the water quality at five depth profiles sites on Lake Tuscaloosa was acceptable for most uses, generally. However, a dissolved oxygen concentration of 1 mg/L or less was

  20. Assess water scarcity integrating water quantity and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Zeng, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity has become widespread all over the world. Current methods for water scarcity assessment are mainly based on water quantity and seldom consider water quality. Here, we develop an approach for assessing water scarcity considering both water quantity and quality. In this approach, a new water scarcity index is used to describe the severity of water scarcity in the form of a water scarcity meter, which may help to communicate water scarcity to a wider audience. To illustrate the approach, we analyzed the historical trend of water scarcity for Beijing city in China during 1995-2009, as well as the assessment for different river basins in China. The results show that Beijing made a huge progress in mitigating water scarcity, and that from 1999 to 2009 the blue and grey water scarcity index decreased by 59% and 62%, respectively. Despite this progress, we demonstrate that Beijing is still characterized by serious water scarcity due to both water quantity and quality. The water scarcity index remained at a high value of 3.5 with a blue and grey water scarcity index of 1.2 and 2.3 in 2009 (exceeding the thresholds of 0.4 and 1, respectively). As a result of unsustainable water use and pollution, groundwater levels continue to decline, and water quality shows a continuously deteriorating trend. To curb this trend, future water policies should further decrease water withdrawal from local sources (in particular groundwater) within Beijing, and should limit the grey water footprint below the total amount of water resources.

  1. 40 CFR 86.610-98 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for Selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Selective Enforcement Auditing of New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.610-98 Compliance with acceptable quality...

  2. Water Quality Indicators Guide [and Teacher's Handbook]: Surface Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Charles R.; Perfetti, Patricia Bytnar

    This guide aids in finding water quality solutions to problems from sediment, animal wastes, nutrients, pesticides, and salts. The guide allows users to learn the fundamental concepts of water quality assessment by extracting basic tenets from geology, hydrology, biology, ecology, and wastewater treatment. An introduction and eight chapters are…

  3. Water spectral pattern as holistic marker for water quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Zoltan; Bázár, György; Oshima, Mitsue; Shigeoka, Shogo; Tanaka, Mariko; Furukawa, Akane; Nagai, Airi; Osawa, Manami; Itakura, Yukari; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2016-01-15

    Online water quality monitoring technologies have been improving continuously. At the moment, water quality is defined by the respective range of few chosen parameters. However, this strategy requires sampling and it cannot provide evaluation of the entire water molecular system including various solutes. As it is nearly impossible to monitor every single molecule dissolved in water, the objective of our research is to introduce a complimentary approach, a new concept for water screening by observing the water molecular system changes using aquaphotomics and Quality Control Chart method. This approach can continuously provide quick information about any qualitative change of water molecular arrangement without taking into account the reason of the alteration of quality. Different species and concentrations of solutes in aqueous systems structure the water solvent differently. Aquaphotomics investigates not the characteristic absorption bands of the solute in question, but the solution absorption at vibrational bands of water's covalent and hydrogen bonds that have been altered by the solute. The applicability of the proposed concept is evaluated by monitoring the water structural changes in different aqueous solutions such as acid, sugar, and salt solutions at millimolar concentration level and in ground water. The results show the potential of the proposed approach to use water spectral pattern monitoring as bio marker of water quality. Our successful results open a new venue in water quality monitoring by offering a quick and cost effective method for continuous screening of water molecular arrangement. Instead of the regular analysis of individual physical or chemical parameters, with our method - as a complementary tool - the structural changes of water molecular system used as a mirror reflecting even small disturbances in water can indicate the necessity of further detailed analysis by conventional methods.

  4. Water spectral pattern as holistic marker for water quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Zoltan; Bázár, György; Oshima, Mitsue; Shigeoka, Shogo; Tanaka, Mariko; Furukawa, Akane; Nagai, Airi; Osawa, Manami; Itakura, Yukari; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2016-01-15

    Online water quality monitoring technologies have been improving continuously. At the moment, water quality is defined by the respective range of few chosen parameters. However, this strategy requires sampling and it cannot provide evaluation of the entire water molecular system including various solutes. As it is nearly impossible to monitor every single molecule dissolved in water, the objective of our research is to introduce a complimentary approach, a new concept for water screening by observing the water molecular system changes using aquaphotomics and Quality Control Chart method. This approach can continuously provide quick information about any qualitative change of water molecular arrangement without taking into account the reason of the alteration of quality. Different species and concentrations of solutes in aqueous systems structure the water solvent differently. Aquaphotomics investigates not the characteristic absorption bands of the solute in question, but the solution absorption at vibrational bands of water's covalent and hydrogen bonds that have been altered by the solute. The applicability of the proposed concept is evaluated by monitoring the water structural changes in different aqueous solutions such as acid, sugar, and salt solutions at millimolar concentration level and in ground water. The results show the potential of the proposed approach to use water spectral pattern monitoring as bio marker of water quality. Our successful results open a new venue in water quality monitoring by offering a quick and cost effective method for continuous screening of water molecular arrangement. Instead of the regular analysis of individual physical or chemical parameters, with our method - as a complementary tool - the structural changes of water molecular system used as a mirror reflecting even small disturbances in water can indicate the necessity of further detailed analysis by conventional methods. PMID:26592651

  5. Agriculture and water quality. Agriculture Information Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, B.M.; Ribaudo, M.O.; Young, C.E.

    1988-08-01

    Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the Nation's water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural-chemical or land-use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface waterways in runoff; some leach through soil into ground water. Because surface-water systems and ground water systems are interrelated, farm-management practices need to focus on water quality in both systems. Modifying farm-management practices may raise production costs in some areas. Farmers can reduce runoff losses by reducing input use, implementing soil-conservation practices, and changing land use. Also at issue is who should pay for improving water quality.

  6. Iowa ground-water-quality monitoring program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detroy, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    More than 1,200 wells are available and acceptable for the network. From these and newly completed wells, 200 samples will be collected and analyzed annually. Analyses will be made for common anions and cations, trace metals, nutrients, and radionuclides. One out of ten samples will be analyzed for priority pollutants and pesticides. Data from this program will be published annually in Water Resources Data, Iowa, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Data Report.

  7. School on Alert over Water Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the issue on the quality of water in Seattle's school districts. Seattle's water woes became public when four little containers of rust-colored water from fountains in the city district's Wedgewood Elementary School, collected by concerned parents, were tested by a certified laboratory and found to exceed federal lead limits.…

  8. Microbes and Water Quality in Developed Countries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water has been a concern for mankind through out the world for centuries. In the developed world, governments consider access to safe and clean drinking water to be a basic human right. Government regulations generally address the quality of the source water, adequ...

  9. Correlation study among water quality parameters an approach to water quality management.

    PubMed

    Sinha, D K; Rastogi, G K; Kumar, R; Kumar, N

    2009-04-01

    To find out an approach to water quality management through correlation studies between various water quality parameters, the statistical regression analysis for six data points of underground drinking water of different hand pumps at J. P. Nagar was carried out. The comparison of estimated values with W.H.O drinking water standards revealed that water of the study area is polluted with reference to a number of physico-chemical parameters studied. Regression analysis suggests that conductivity of underground water is found to be significantly correlated with eight out of twelve water quality parameters studied. It may be suggested that the underground drinking water quality at J. P. Nagar can be checked very effectively by controlling the conductivity of water. The present study may be treated one step forward towards the water quality management.

  10. 76 FR 8722 - California Department of Water Resources; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission California Department of Water Resources; Notice of Application Accepted for... hydroelectric application has been filed ] with the Commission and is available for public inspection: a....

  11. 77 FR 21092 - San Jose Water Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission San Jose Water Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, Protests, Recommendations, and Terms and Conditions Take notice that the following...

  12. 77 FR 35377 - Dolores Water Conservancy District; Notice of Completing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Dolores Water Conservancy District; Notice of Completing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On May 10, 2012, Dolores... located on Plateau Creek, near the town of Dolores, Montezuma County, Colorado. The project...

  13. Surface water quality assessment by environmetric methods.

    PubMed

    Boyacioglu, Hülya; Boyacioglu, Hayal

    2007-08-01

    This environmetric study deals with the interpretation of river water monitoring data from the basin of the Buyuk Menderes River and its tributaries in Turkey. Eleven variables were measured to estimate water quality at 17 sampling sites. Factor analysis was applied to explain the correlations between the observations in terms of underlying factors. Results revealed that, water quality was strongly affected from agricultural uses. Cluster analysis was used to classify stations with similar properties and results distinguished three groups of stations. Water quality at downstream of the river was quite different from the other part. It is recommended to involve the environmetric data treatment as a substantial procedure in assessment of water quality data.

  14. Water quality in Lis river, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Judite; Fonseca, André; Vilar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R; Botelho, Cidália M S

    2012-12-01

    In the past 30 years, the Lis river basin has been subjected to constant ecological disasters mainly due to piggery untreated wastewater discharges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of existing domestic, agricultural, and industrial activities on the water quality, and to propose a watershed plan to protect and manage surface water resources within the Lis river basin. For this purpose, 16 monitoring stations have been strategically selected along the Lis river stretch and its main tributaries to evaluate the water quality in six different sampling periods (2003–2006). All samples were characterized in terms of organic material, nutrients, chlorophyll, and pathogenic bacteria. Generally, the Lis river presents poor water quality, according to environmental quality standards for surface water, principally in terms of dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and fecal coliform, which can be associated mainly with the contamination source from pig-breeding farms. PMID:22286837

  15. Universal optimization of water quality management strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unami, K.; Kawachi, T.

    Although many optimization models for water quality problems have been developed, methodology for judging the necessity of applying them is scarcely worked out. The universal optimization scheme presented here is to determine a management strategy for controlling water quality in a generic body of water. Dynamics of a water quality index is represented by an ordinary differential equation, and a linear system model is deduced. The H∞ control theory, which summarizes system stabilization and error minimization, is applied to a generalized water quality control problem including the linear system model. A class of H∞ controllers is identified, and a temporal discretization scheme for a controller is proposed. Three application examples demonstrate the conception of universal optimization and the validity of its implementation using an H∞ controller.

  16. Ground-water quality atlas of Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, Phil A.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes data on ground-water quality stored in the U.S. Geological Survey's computer system (WATSTORE). The summary includes water quality data for 2,443 single-aquifer wells, which tap one of the State's three major aquifers (sand and gravel, Silurian dolomite, and sandstone). Data for dissolved solids, hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, and nitrate are summarized by aquifer and by county, and locations of wells for which data are available 1 are shown for each aquifer. Calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate (the principal component of alkalinity) are the major dissolved constituents in Wisconsin's ground water. High iron concentrations and hardness cause ground-water quality problems in much of the State. Statewide ,summaries of trace constituent (selected trace metals; arsenic, boron, and organic carbon) concentrations show that these constituents impair water quality in only a few isolated wells.

  17. Quality assessment of plant transpiration water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macler, Bruce A.; Janik, Daniel S.; Benson, Brian L.

    1990-01-01

    It has been proposed to use plants as elements of biologically-based life support systems for long-term space missions. Three roles have been brought forth for plants in this application: recycling of water, regeneration of air and production of food. This report discusses recycling of water and presents data from investigations of plant transpiration water quality. Aqueous nutrient solution was applied to several plant species and transpired water collected. The findings indicated that this water typically contained 0.3-6 ppm of total organic carbon, which meets hygiene water standards for NASA's space applications. It suggests that this method could be developed to achieve potable water standards.

  18. Water Quality Assessment using Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Saad Ul

    2016-07-01

    The two main global issues related to water are its declining quality and quantity. Population growth, industrialization, increase in agriculture land and urbanization are the main causes upon which the inland water bodies are confronted with the increasing water demand. The quality of surface water has also been degraded in many countries over the past few decades due to the inputs of nutrients and sediments especially in the lakes and reservoirs. Since water is essential for not only meeting the human needs but also to maintain natural ecosystem health and integrity, there are efforts worldwide to assess and restore quality of surface waters. Remote sensing techniques provide a tool for continuous water quality information in order to identify and minimize sources of pollutants that are harmful for human and aquatic life. The proposed methodology is focused on assessing quality of water at selected lakes in Pakistan (Sindh); namely, HUBDAM, KEENJHAR LAKE, HALEEJI and HADEERO. These lakes are drinking water sources for several major cities of Pakistan including Karachi. Satellite imagery of Landsat 7 (ETM+) is used to identify the variation in water quality of these lakes in terms of their optical properties. All bands of Landsat 7 (ETM+) image are analyzed to select only those that may be correlated with some water quality parameters (e.g. suspended solids, chlorophyll a). The Optimum Index Factor (OIF) developed by Chavez et al. (1982) is used for selection of the optimum combination of bands. The OIF is calculated by dividing the sum of standard deviations of any three bands with the sum of their respective correlation coefficients (absolute values). It is assumed that the band with the higher standard deviation contains the higher amount of 'information' than other bands. Therefore, OIF values are ranked and three bands with the highest OIF are selected for the visual interpretation. A color composite image is created using these three bands. The water quality

  19. National Water Quality Laboratory - A Profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raese, Jon W.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) is a full-service laboratory that specializes in environmental analytical chemistry. The NWQL's primary mission is to support USGS programs requiring environmental analyses that provide consistent methodology for national assessment and trends analysis. The NWQL provides the following: high-quality chemical data; consistent, published, state-of-the-art methodology; extremely low-detection levels; high-volume capability; biological unit for identifying benthic invertebrates; quality assurance for determining long-term water-quality trends; and a professional staff.

  20. Principles of Water Quality Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebbutt, T. H. Y.

    This book is designed as a text for undergraduate civil engineering courses and as preliminary reading for postgraduate courses in public health engineering and water resources technology. It is also intended to be of value to workers already in the field and to students preparing for the examinations of the Institute of Water Pollution Control…

  1. Impact of RO-desalted water on distribution water qualities.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J; Dietz, J; Randall, A; Hong, S

    2005-01-01

    A large-scale pilot distribution study was conducted to investigate the impacts of blending different source waters on distribution water qualities, with an emphasis on metal release (i.e. corrosion). The principal source waters investigated were conventionally treated ground water (G1), surface water processed by enhanced treatment (S1), and desalted seawater by reverse osmosis membranes (RO). Due to the nature of raw water quality and associated treatment processes, G1 water had high alkalinity, while S1 and RO sources were characterized as high sulfate and high chloride waters, respectively. The blending ratio of different treated waters determined the quality of finished waters. Iron release from aged cast iron pipes increased significantly when exposed to RO and S1 waters: that is, the greater iron release was experienced with alkalinity reduced below the background of G1 water. Copper release to drinking water, however, increased with increasing alkalinity and decreasing pH. Lead release, on the other hand, increased with increasing chloride and decreasing sulfate. The effect of pH and alkalinity on lead release was not clearly observed from pilot blending study. The flat and compact corrosion scales observed for lead surface exposed to S1 water may be attributable to lead concentration less than that of RO water blends.

  2. A water quality monitoring system for HAWC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfias, F.; Bernal, A.; Tinoco, S.; Iriarte, A.

    2012-09-01

    HAWC (High Altitude Water Cherenkov), is a gamma ray (γ) large aperture observatory with high sensitivity that will be able to continuously monitor the sky for transient sources of photons with energies between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. HAWC is under construction in Sierra Negra, Puebla, Mexico, which is located at a high altitude of 4100m. HAWC will be an array of 300 Cherenkov detectors each one with 200,000 liters of highly pure water. The sensitivity of the instrument depends strongly on the water quality. We present the design and construction of the HAWC water quality monitoring system. We seek monitor the transparency in violet-blue range to achieve and maintain the required water transparency quality in each detector. The system is robust and user friendly. The measurements are reproducible. Also we present some results from the monitoring the water from the VAMOS detector tanks and of the filtering system.

  3. Water quality for the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, A.

    1991-09-01

    Under an umbrella labeled Water Quality 2000, 86 organizations - ranging from the Natural Resources Defense Council to the Chemical Manufacturers Association - have reached a consensus on the major water quality problems currently facing the US. Their broad-based conclusions have been released in a report entitled Challenges for the Future, which represents one step in an ongoing discussion among representatives of these diverse groups on improving water quality. Although the report presents a long-term view, William Matuszeski from EPA described the document as a superb background for the upcoming debate over reauthorization of the Clean Water Act. In general terms, the report cites the major sources of current water problems as agricultural and urban runoff, especially following storms; airborne pollutants; continued dumping of toxic wastes; accidental spills; overharvesting of fish and shellfish; habitat competition from exotic species; and land and water use practices. This article summarizes some of the findings.

  4. Water shortages and implied water quality: A contingent valuation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genius, Margarita; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.

    2006-12-01

    This paper analyses the extent to which households in an urban area are willing to pay to ensure a fully reliable water supply when the latter induces changes in drinking water quality. The water supply system in the city of Heraklion, Greece, is characterized by periodic water rationing, which is more pronounced in the summer months. The generalized use of cisterns and even water tanks helps residents cope with quantity shortages but has a negative effect on the quality of the water reaching their taps. The results of our contingent valuation show that respondents not affected by shortages and already drinking tap water have a smaller willingness to pay, while positive perceptions on quality have a positive effect.

  5. Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

  6. Comparative carcinogenicity of the PAHs as a basis for acceptable exposure levels (AELs) in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Rugen, P.J.; Stern, C.D.; Lamm, S.H. )

    1989-06-01

    The carcinogenicity of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has generally been demonstrated by their ability to act as complete carcinogens in the development of cancers in rodent skin tests. In order to develop proposed acceptable concentration levels for various PAHs in drinking water, we reviewed the studies that formed the basis for determining that these specific PAHs were carcinogenic in animals. We found that the relative potency of these PAHs varied over a range of many orders of magnitude. For example, the carcinogenic strength of benz(a)anthracene (BaA) is found to be about 1/2000th that of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). We have used the calculated carcinogenic potency of the various PAHs relative to that of BaP as a means for proposing specific acceptable concentration levels in drinking water for each of the specific PAHs. BaP is the only carcinogenic PAH for which EPA has published an acceptable concentration level based on carcinogenicity. Based on the level EPA set for BaP (0.028 micrograms/liter), this methodology has provided for the specific PAHs a determination of proposed acceptable concentration levels quantitatively based on the same data that were used to qualitatively determine them to be animal carcinogens. We have proposed acceptable concentration levels for the carcinogenic PAHs in drinking water that range from 0.03 micrograms/liter for BaP to 6.5 micrograms/liter for BaA. We recommend that acceptable concentration levels for the various PAHs be based on their relative carcinogenic potencies rather than the EPA method of using the potency of only one specific PAH, BaP, to serve as the exposure level determinant for all PAHs. We further suggest that this methodology may be applicable to other classes of carcinogenic compounds.

  7. Enhancing water quality in hydropower system operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Donald F.; Labadie, John W.; Sanders, Thomas G.; Brown, Jackson K.

    1998-03-01

    The quality of impounded waters often degrades over time because of thermal stratification, sediment oxygen demands, and accumulation of pollutants. Consequently, reservoir releases impact water quality in tailwaters, channels, and other downstream water bodies. Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the Cumberland River below Old Hickory dam result from stratification of upstream reservoirs and seasonally low release rates. Operational changes in upstream hydropower reservoirs may be one method to increase DO levels without substantially impacting existing project purposes. A water quality model of the upper Cumberland basin is integrated into an optimal control algorithm to evaluate water quality improvement opportunities through operational modifications. The integrated water quantity/quality model maximizes hydropower revenues, subject to various flow and headwater operational restrictions for satisfying multiple project purposes, as well as maintenance of water quality targets. Optimal daily reservoir release policies are determined for the summer drawdown period which increase DO concentrations under stratification conditions with minimal impact on hydropower production and other project purposes. Appendixes A-D available with entire article on microfiche. Order by mail from AGU, 2000 Florida Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by phone at 800-966-2481; $2.50. Document W97-003. Payment must accompany order.

  8. Intermittent Water Supply: Prevalence, Practice, and Microbial Water Quality.

    PubMed

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2016-01-19

    Intermittent water supplies (IWS), in which water is provided through pipes for only limited durations, serve at least 300 million people around the world. However, providing water intermittently can compromise water quality in the distribution system. In IWS systems, the pipes do not supply water for periods of time, supply periods are shortened, and pipes experience regular flow restarting and draining. These unique behaviors affect distribution system water quality in ways that are different than during normal operations in continuous water supplies (CWS). A better understanding of the influence of IWS on mechanisms causing contamination can help lead to incremental steps that protect water quality and minimize health risks. This review examines the status and nature of IWS practices throughout the world, the evidence of the effect of IWS on water quality, and how the typical contexts in which IWS systems often exist-low-income countries with under-resourced utilities and inadequate sanitation infrastructure-can exacerbate mechanisms causing contamination. We then highlight knowledge gaps for further research to improve our understanding of water quality in IWS.

  9. Quality of surface waters in Wilton, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulp, K.P.

    1982-01-01

    Water, bed material, and biological samples were collected and analyzed at 10 surface-water gaging sites on six streams in the town of Wilton, Connecticut over a 2-year period. The data indicate fair to excellent water quality. Fecal coliform bacteria, pH, alkalinity, iron, and manganese are the parameters that most often exceed recommended limits established by either the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency or the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. Data from sites on the Norwalk and East Branch Silvermine Rivers indicate little if any undesirable changes in water quality take place as they flow through the study area. (USGS)

  10. Modelling of Buckingham Canal water quality.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, S A; Khan, F I; Sentilvelan, K; Shabudeen, A

    2002-10-01

    The paper presents a case study of the modelling of the water quality of a canal situated in a petrochemical industrial complex, which receives wastewaters from Madras Refineries Limited (MRL), and Madras Fertilizers Limited (MFL). The canal well known Buckingham Canal which passes through Chennai (Madras), India has been modelled using the software QUAL2E-UNCAS. After testing and validation of the model, simulations have been carried out. The exercise enables forecasting the impacts of different seasons, base flows, and waste water inputs on the water quality of the Buckingham Canal. It also enables development of water management strategies.

  11. GKI water quality studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D L

    1980-01-01

    GKI water quality data collected in 1978 and early 1979 was evaluated with the objective of developing preliminary characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen, Uintah County, Utah. Restrictive analytical definitions were developed to describe native groundwater and GKI retort water in an effort to eliminate from the sample population both groundwater samples affected by retorting and retort water samples diluted by groundwater. Native groundwater and retort water sample analyses were subjected to statistical manipulation and testing to summarize the data to determine the statistical validity of characterizations based on the data available, and to identify probable differences between groundwater and retort water based on available data. An evaluation of GKI water quality data related to developing characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen was conducted. GKI retort water and the local native groundwater both appeared to be of very poor quality. Statistical testing indicated that the data available is generally insufficient for conclusive characterizations of native groundwater and retort water. Statistical testing indicated some probable significant differences between native groundwater and retort water that could be determined with available data. Certain parameters should be added to and others deleted from future laboratory analyses suites of water samples.

  12. Quality and Acceptability of Meat Nuggets with Fresh Aloe vera Gel.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, V; Verma, Arun K; Patra, G; Pradhan, S; Biswas, S; Chauhan, P; Das, Arun K

    2016-05-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG) is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AVG significantly (p<0.05) decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AVG in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AVG reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AVG over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AVG up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values.

  13. Quality and Acceptability of Meat Nuggets with Fresh Aloe vera Gel

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, V.; Verma, Arun K.; Patra, G.; Pradhan, S.; Biswas, S.; Chauhan, P.; Das, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG) is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AVG significantly (p<0.05) decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AVG in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AVG reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AVG over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AVG up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values. PMID:26954177

  14. Quality and Acceptability of Meat Nuggets with Fresh Aloe vera Gel.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, V; Verma, Arun K; Patra, G; Pradhan, S; Biswas, S; Chauhan, P; Das, Arun K

    2016-05-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG) is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AVG significantly (p<0.05) decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AVG in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AVG reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AVG over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AVG up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values. PMID:26954177

  15. Physicochemical characterization of pure persimmon juice: nutritional quality and food acceptability.

    PubMed

    González, Eva; Vegara, Salud; Martí, Nuria; Valero, Manuel; Saura, Domingo

    2015-03-01

    Technological process for production of non-astringent persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. "Rojo Brillante") juice was described. The degree of fruit ripening expressed as color index (CI) varied between 12.37 and 16.33. Persimmon juice was characterized by determining physicochemical quality parameters as yield, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), organic acids, and main sugars. A thermal treatment of 90 ºC for 10 s was effective in controlling naturally occurring microorganisms for at least 105 d of storage without significantly affecting production of soluble brown pigments (BPs) and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), total phenolic compounds (TPC), antioxidant capacity and acceptability of juice by panelists. Storage time affected all and each of the above parameters, reducing BPs, TPC and antioxidant capacity but increasing 5-HMF content. Refrigerated storage enhanced the acceptability of the juices. This information may be used by the juice industry as a starting point for production of pure persimmon juices.

  16. Quality-assurance results for routine water analysis in US Geological Survey laboratories, water year 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maloney, T.J.; Ludtke, A.S.; Krizman, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    phosphorus. A negative or positive bias condition was indicated in three of five nutrient constituents. There was acceptable precision and no indication of bias for the 14 low ionic-strength analytical procedures tested in the National Water Quality Laboratory program and for the 32 inorganic and 5 nutrient analytical procedures tested in the Quality of Water Service Unit during water year 1991.

  17. National Water Quality Laboratory, 1995 services catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Timme, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Services Catalog contains information about field supplies and analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colo., and field supplies available from the Quality Water Service Unit in Ocala, Fla., to members of the U.S. Geological Survey. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, this catalog lists sample volume, required containers, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation requirements for samples.

  18. Water Availability--The Connection Between Water Use and Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, Robert M.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Miller, Timothy L.; Myers, Donna N.

    2008-01-01

    Water availability has become a high priority in the United States, in large part because competition for water is becoming more intense across the Nation. Population growth in many areas competes with demands for water to support irrigation and power production. Cities, farms, and power plants compete for water needed by aquatic ecosystems to support their minimum flow requirements. At the same time, naturally occurring and human-related contaminants from chemical use, land use, and wastewater and industrial discharge are introduced into our waters and diminish its quality. The fact that degraded quality limits the availability and suitability of water for critical uses is a well-known reality in many communities. What may be less understood, but equally true, is that our everyday use of water can significantly affect water quality, and thus its availability. Landscape features (such as geology, soils, and vegetation) along with water-use practices (such as ground-water withdrawals and irrigation) govern water availability because, together, they affect the movement of chemical compounds over the land and in the subsurface. Understanding the interactions of human activities with natural sources and the landscape is critical to effectively managing water and sustaining water availability in the future.

  19. Quality of water, Quillayute River basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fretwell, M.O.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwater in Quillayute River basin is generally of the calcium bicarbonate type, although water from some wells is affected by seawater intrusion and is predominantly of the sodium chloride type. The water is generally of excellent quality for most uses. River-water quality was generally excellent, as evaluated against Washington State water-use and water-quality criteria. Fecal coliform concentrations in all major tributaries met State water-quality criteria; water temperatures occasionally exceeded criteria maximum during periods of warm weather and low streamflow. Nutrient concentrations were generally low to very low. The four largest lakes in the basin were temperature-stratified in summer and one had an algal bloom. The Quillayute estuary had salt-wedge mixing characteristics; pollutants entering the salt wedge tended to spread to the toe of the wedge. Upwelling ocean water was the major cause of the low dissolved-oxygen concentrations observed in the estuary; ammonia concentrations in the estuary, however, were increased by the upwelling ocean waters. As in the rivers, total-coliform bacteria concentrations in the estuary were greater than fecal-coliform concentrations, indicating that many of the bacteria were of nonfecal origin and probably originated from soils. (USGS)

  20. Acceptability of the Conceptions of Higher Education Quality to First Year Students of the Study Field of Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Žibeniene, Gintaute; Savickiene, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    The article presents which conceptions of higher education quality are most acceptable to first-year students of the study field of pedagogy. It is significant to analyse students' opinions as more than 10 years ago the EU member states agreed that higher education institutions bear responsibility for the quality of higher education. Being members…

  1. Summary of surface-water quality, ground-water quality, and water withdrawals for the Spirit Lake Reservation, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.; Cates, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    Available surface-water quality, ground-water quality, and water-withdrawal data for the Spirit Lake Reservation were summarized. The data were collected intermittently from 1948 through 2004 and were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey databases, North Dakota State Water Commission databases, and Spirit Lake Nation tribal agencies. Although the quality of surface water on the reservation generally is satisfactory, no surface-water sources are used for consumable water supplies. Ground water on the reservation is of sufficient quality for most uses. The Tokio and Warwick aquifers have better overall water quality than the Spiritwood aquifer. Water from the Spiritwood aquifer is used mostly for irrigation. The Warwick aquifer provides most of the consumable water for the reservation and for the city of Devils Lake. Annual water withdrawals from the Warwick aquifer by the Spirit Lake Nation ranged from 71 million gallons to 122 million gallons during 2000-04.

  2. Standards for chemical quality of drinking water: a critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Zielhuis, R L

    1982-01-01

    The author critically reviews present standards for the chemical quality of drinking water, particularly the limits proposed by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in 1979. Particularly, the general principles of standard setting are discussed. It appears that there exists a surprisingly high similarity in drinking water limits, issued by various national and international authorities, although for other environmental compartments important discrepancies exist. Usually, drinking water limits lack adequate documentation, and appear often to be copied from other existing lists. There is an apparent lack of logical consistency in limits set for food, ambient or workroom air, and drinking water, probably due to lack of communication between health experts and decision-making authorities. Moreover, there is a lack of toxicologic studies, explicitly aimed at setting limits. Extrapolation from the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) for food or the Threshold Limit Value (TLV)-Maximum Acceptable Concentration (MAC) for workroom air could be undertaken to derive tentative drinking water limits, as long as explicitly designed studies for drinking water are not yet available. PMID:6749691

  3. Instruments for Water Quality Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations and Water, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The old system of licensing within the different sectors of the society in Norway is in the process of being incorporated into a system of total natural resource planning and regulation. This article outlines comprehensive physical and economic water pollution management plans for the municipality, the county, and the state. (Author/MA)

  4. Water availability, quality, and use in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balding, G.O.

    1976-01-01

    The Alaska Water Assessment, sponsored by the Water Resources Council, is a specific problem analysis for Alaska of the National Assessment of Water and Related Land Resources. The Alaska region has been divided into six hydrologic subregions and eighteen subareas. For each subarea, estimated mean annual runoff per square mile, suspended-sediment concentrations that can be expected during ' normal ' summer runoff, flood magnitudes and frequencies, and ground-water yields are illustrated on maps. Tables show water quality of both ground water and surface water from selected wells and streams. Water use according to the type of use is discussed, and estimates are given for the amounts used. Water-use categories include domestic, irrigation, livestock, seafood processing, oil and gas development, petrochemical processing, pulp mills, hydroelectric , coal processing, steam electric, mineral processing, sand and gravel mining, and fish-hatchery operations. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Baseline water quality of Iowa's coal region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, Larry J.

    1979-01-01

    To assist the Iowa Department of Environmental Quality in determining the effects that coal mining and attendant activities will have on the water quality of Iowa streams, the U.S. Geological Survey collected three sets of water-quality samples (representative of high, average, and low streamflow) in the White Breast, English,aand Cedar Creek basins in south-central Iowa. These samples were analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey Central Laboratory at Denver, Colorado, and by the Iowa State Hygienic Laboratory (Iowa City and Des Moines). The report presents the data collected from May to November 1978 at 15 stations in the study area. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Bacteriological and Physical Quality of Locally Packaged Drinking Water in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Halage, Abdullah Ali; Ssemugabo, Charles; Ssemwanga, David K.; Musoke, David; Mugambe, Richard K.; Guwatudde, David; Ssempebwa, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the bacteriological and physical quality of locally packaged drinking water sold for public consumption. Methods. This was cross-sectional study where a total of 60 samples of bottled water from 10 brands and 30 samples of sachet water from 15 brands purchased randomly were analyzed for bacteriological contamination (total coliform and faecal coliform per 100 mL) using membrane filtrate method and reported in terms of cfu/100 mL. Results. Both bottled water and sachet water were not contaminated with faecal coliform. Majority (70%, 21/30) of the sachet water analyzed exceeded acceptable limits of 0 total coliforms per 100 mL set by WHO and the national drinking water standards. The physical quality (turbidity and pH) of all the packaged water brands analyzed was within the acceptable limits. There was statistically significant difference between the median count of total coliform in both sachet water and bottled water brands (U(24) = 37.0, p = 0.027). Conclusion. Both bottled water and sachet water were not contaminated with faecal coliforms; majority of sachet water was contaminated with total coliform above acceptable limits. Government and other stakeholders should consider intensifying surveillance activities and enforcing strict hygienic measures in this rapidly expanding industry to improve packaged water quality. PMID:26508915

  7. British Columbia water quality guidelines, criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This publication contains tables summarizing approved water quality guidelines for various contaminants that may be present in British Columbia water supplies. It begins with a section in question and answer format that explains certain aspects of the guidelines. Contaminants covered by the guidelines include particulate matter, nutrients and algae, aluminium, lead, mercury, nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, copper, chlorine, fluoride, hydrocarbons, pH, and silver.

  8. WQM: A Water Quality Management Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharda, Ramesh; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Description of WQM, a simulation game designed to introduce students to the water quality management function, emphasizes the decision-making process involved in various facets of business. The simulation model is described, computer support is explained, and issues in water resource management are discussed. (13 references) (LRW)

  9. Water Quality Standards for Coral Reef Protection

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Clean Water Act provides a legal framework to protect coastal biological resources such as coral reefs, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows from the damaging effects of human activities. Even though many resources are protected under this authority, water quality stan...

  10. SAMPLING DESIGN FOR ASSESSING RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current U.S. EPA guidelines for monitoring recreatoinal water quality refer to the geometric mean density of indicator organisms, enterococci and E. coli in marine and fresh water, respectively, from at least five samples collected over a four-week period. In order to expand thi...

  11. Drinking water quality concerns and water vending machines

    SciTech Connect

    McSwane, D.Z. . School of Public and Environmental Affairs); Oleckno, W.A.; Eils, L.M.

    1994-06-01

    Drinking water quality is a vital public health concern to consumers and regulators alike. This article describes some of the current microbiological, chemical, and radiological concerns about drinking water and the evolution of water vending machines. Also addressed are the typical treatment processes used in water vending machines and their effectiveness, as well as a brief examination of a certification program sponsored by the National Automatic Merchandising Association (NAMA), which provides a uniform standard for the design and construction of food and beverage vending machines. For some consumers, the water dispensed from vending machines is an attractive alternative to residential tap water which may be objectionable for aesthetic or other reasons.

  12. Worldwide Status of Fresh Fruits Irradiation and Concerns about Quality, Safety, and Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Shahbaz, Hafiz Muhammad; Akram, Kashif; Ahn, Jae-Jun; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2016-08-17

    Development of knowledge-based food preservation techniques have been a major focus of researchers in providing safe and nutritious food. Food irradiation is one of the most thoroughly investigated food preservation techniques, which has been shown to be effective and safe through extensive research. This process involves exposing food to ionizing radiations in order to destroy microorganisms or insects that might be present on and/or in the food. In addition, the effects of irradiation on the enzymatic activity and improvement of functional properties in food have also been well established. In the present review, the potential of food irradiation technology to address major problems, such as short shelf life, high-initial microbial loads, insect pest management (quarantine treatment) in supply chain, and safe consumption of fresh fruits was described. With improved hygienic quality, other uses, such as delayed ripening and enhanced physical appearance by irradiation were also discussed. Available data showed that the irradiation of fruits at the optimum dose can be a safe and cost-effective method, resulting in enhanced shelf life and hygienic quality with the least amount of compromise on the various nutritional attributes, whereas the consumer acceptance of irradiated fruits is a matter of providing the proper scientific information. PMID:25830470

  13. Microbial quality of drinking water from microfiltered water dispensers.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, R; De Luca, G; Dormi, A; Guberti, E; Zanetti, F

    2014-03-01

    A comparison was made between the microbial quality of drinking water obtained from Microfiltered Water Dispensers (MWDs) and that of municipal tap water. A total of 233 water samples were analyzed. Escherichia coli (EC), enterococci (ENT), total coliforms (TC), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) at 22 °C and 37 °C were enumerated. In addition, information was collected about the principal structural and functional characteristics of each MWD in order to study the various factors that might influence the microbial quality of the water. EC and ENT were not detected in any of the samples. TC were never detected in the tap water but were found in 5 samples taken from 5 different MWDs. S. aureus was found in a single sample of microfiltered water. P. aeruginosa was found more frequently and at higher concentrations in the samples collected from MWDs. The mean HPCs at 22 °C and 37 °C were significantly higher in microfiltered water samples compared to those of the tap water. In conclusion, the use of MWDs may increase the number of bacteria originally present in tap water. It is therefore important to monitor the quality of the dispensed water over time, especially if it is destined for vulnerable users.

  14. Analysis of water and NaCl solution acceptance by schedule-induced polydipsia1

    PubMed Central

    Falk, John L.

    1966-01-01

    Animals were trained on a VI 1-min schedule for food pellets, and concurrent water intake was measured. The polydipsia induced was analyzed in terms of the frequency distribution of post-pellet licking burst sizes and the trend of polydipsia throughout the session. An ascending series of NaCl solutions was presented consecutively over daily sessions and a typical NaCl acceptance-rejection intake function was generated. Beginning in the 0.9-1.2% NaCl range, the animals drank less often during the session but took larger drinks when they did drink. Neither the frequency of drinks nor the mean licking burst size were simply related to the volumes of NaCl solution consumed. The NaCl acceptance-rejection function cannot be explained in terms of water repletion factors alone. PMID:5907821

  15. Microcumpter computation of water quality discharges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helsel, Dennis R.

    1983-01-01

    A fully prompted program (SEDQ) has been developed to calculate daily and instantaneous water quality (QW) discharges. It is written in a version of BASIC, and requires inputs of gage heights, discharge rating curve, shifts, and water quality concentration information. Concentration plots may be modified interactively using the display screen. Semi-logarithmic plots of concentration and water quality discharge are output to the display screen, and optionally to plotters. A summary table of data is also output. SEDQ could be a model program for micro and minicomputer systems likely to be in use within the Water Resources Division, USGS, in the near future. The daily discharge-weighted mean concentration is one output from SEDQ. It is defined in this report, differentiated from the currently used mean concentration, and designated the ' equivalent concentration. ' (USGS)

  16. Water quality analysis of surface water: a Web approach.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Poonam; Chaurasia, Meenal; Sohony, R A; Gupta, Indrani; Kumar, R

    2013-07-01

    The chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water with respect to its suitability describe its quality. Concentration of pesticides or fertilisers degrades the water quality and affects marine life. A comprehensive environmental data information system helps to perform and complete common tasks in less time with less effort for data verification, data calculations, graph generation, and proper monitoring, which helps in the further mitigation step. In this paper, focus is given to a web-based system developed to express the quality of water in the imprecise environment of monitoring data. Water samples were analyzed for eight different surface water parameters, in which four parameters such as pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and fecal coliform were used for the water quality index calculation following MPCB Water Quality Standards of class A-II for best designated use. The analysis showed that river points in a particular year were in very bad category with certainty level of 0-38% which is unsuitable for drinking purposes; samples in bad category had certainty level that ranged from 38 to 50%; samples in medium to good category had certainty levels from 50 to 100%, and the remaining samples were in good to excellent category, suitable for drinking purposes, with certainty levels from 63 to 100%.

  17. Rare Event Detection Algorithm Of Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungs, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    A novel method is presented describing the development and implementation of an on-line water quality event detection algorithm. An algorithm was developed to distinguish between normal variation in water quality parameters and changes in these parameters triggered by the presence of contaminant spikes. Emphasis is placed on simultaneously limiting the number of false alarms (which are called false positives) that occur and the number of misses (called false negatives). The problem of excessive false alarms is common to existing change detection algorithms. EPA's standard measure of evaluation for event detection algorithms is to have a false alarm rate of less than 0.5 percent and a false positive rate less than 2 percent (EPA 817-R-07-002). A detailed description of the algorithm's development is presented. The algorithm is tested using historical water quality data collected by a public water supply agency at multiple locations and using spiking contaminants developed by the USEPA, Water Security Division. The water quality parameters of specific conductivity, chlorine residual, total organic carbon, pH, and oxidation reduction potential are considered. Abnormal data sets are generated by superimposing water quality changes on the historical or baseline data. Eddies-ET has defined reaction expressions which specify how the peak or spike concentration of a particular contaminant affects each water quality parameter. Nine default contaminants (Eddies-ET) were previously derived from pipe-loop tests performed at EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Test and Evaluation (T&E) Facility. A contaminant strength value of approximately 1.5 is considered to be a significant threat. The proposed algorithm has been able to achieve a combined false alarm rate of less than 0.03 percent for both false positives and for false negatives using contaminant spikes of strength 2 or more.

  18. Time-averaging water quality assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, L.S.; Ormsbee, L.E.; Wood, D.J.

    1995-07-01

    While reauthorization of the Safe Drinking Water Act is pending, many water utilities are preparing to monitor and regulate levels of distribution system constituents that affect water quality. Most frequently, utilities are concerned about average concentrations rather than about tracing a particular constituent`s path. Mathematical and computer models, which provide a quick estimate of average concentrations, could play an important role in this effort. Most water quality models deal primarily with isolated events, such as tracing a particular constituent through a distribution system. This article proposes a simple, time-averaging model that obtains average, maximum, and minimum constituent concentrations and ages throughout the network. It also computes percentage flow contribution and percentage constituent concentration. The model is illustrated using two water distribution systems, and results are compared with those obtained using a dynamic water quality model. Both models predict average water quality parameters with no significant deviations; the time-averaging approach is a simple and efficient alternative to the dynamic model.

  19. Development of reclaimed potable water quality criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flory, D. A.; Weir, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    In order to minimize launch requirements necessary to meet the demands of long-term spaceflight, NASA will reuse water reclaimed from various on-board sources including urine, feces, wash water and humidity condensate. Development of reclamation systems requires the promulgation of water quality standards for potable reuse of the reclaimed water. Existing standards for domestic U.S. potable water consumption were developed, but do not consider the peculiar problems associated with the potable reuse of recycled water. An effort was made to: (1) define a protocol by which comprehensive reclaimed water potability/palatability criteria can be established and updated; and (2) continue the effort to characterize the organic content of reclaimed water in the Regenerative Life Support Evaluation.

  20. Water quality and the grazing animal.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, R K; Newton, G L; Hill, G M

    2004-01-01

    Grazing animals and pasture production can affect water quality both positively and negatively. Good management practices for forage production protect the soil surface from erosion compared with conventionally produced crops. Grazing animals and pasture production can negatively affect water quality through erosion and sediment transport into surface waters, through nutrients from urine and feces dropped by the animals and fertility practices associated with production of high-quality pasture, and through pathogens from the wastes. Erosion and sediment transport is primarily associated with high-density stocking and/or poor forage stands. The two nutrients of primary concern relating to animal production are N and P. Nitrogen is of concern because high concentrations in drinking water in the NO(3) form cause methemoglobinemia (blue baby disease), whereas other forms of N (primarily nitrite, NO(2)) are considered to be potentially carcinogenic. Phosphorus in the PO(4) form is of concern because it causes eutrophication of surface water bodies. The effect of grazing animals on soil and water quality must be evaluated at both the field and watershed scales. Such evaluation must account for both direct input of animal wastes from the grazing animal and also applications of inorganic fertilizers to produce quality pastures. Watershed-scale studies have primarily used the approach of nutrient loadings per land area and nutrient removals as livestock harvests. A number of studies have measured nutrient loads in surface runoff from grazed land and compared loads with other land uses, including row crop agriculture and forestry. Concentrations in discharge have been regressed against standard grazing animal units per land area. Watersheds with concentrated livestock populations have been shown to discharge as much as 5 to 10 times more nutrients than watersheds in cropland or forestry. The other major water quality concern with grazing animals is pathogens, which may move

  1. Water quality and the grazing animal.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, R K; Newton, G L; Hill, G M

    2004-01-01

    Grazing animals and pasture production can affect water quality both positively and negatively. Good management practices for forage production protect the soil surface from erosion compared with conventionally produced crops. Grazing animals and pasture production can negatively affect water quality through erosion and sediment transport into surface waters, through nutrients from urine and feces dropped by the animals and fertility practices associated with production of high-quality pasture, and through pathogens from the wastes. Erosion and sediment transport is primarily associated with high-density stocking and/or poor forage stands. The two nutrients of primary concern relating to animal production are N and P. Nitrogen is of concern because high concentrations in drinking water in the NO(3) form cause methemoglobinemia (blue baby disease), whereas other forms of N (primarily nitrite, NO(2)) are considered to be potentially carcinogenic. Phosphorus in the PO(4) form is of concern because it causes eutrophication of surface water bodies. The effect of grazing animals on soil and water quality must be evaluated at both the field and watershed scales. Such evaluation must account for both direct input of animal wastes from the grazing animal and also applications of inorganic fertilizers to produce quality pastures. Watershed-scale studies have primarily used the approach of nutrient loadings per land area and nutrient removals as livestock harvests. A number of studies have measured nutrient loads in surface runoff from grazed land and compared loads with other land uses, including row crop agriculture and forestry. Concentrations in discharge have been regressed against standard grazing animal units per land area. Watersheds with concentrated livestock populations have been shown to discharge as much as 5 to 10 times more nutrients than watersheds in cropland or forestry. The other major water quality concern with grazing animals is pathogens, which may move

  2. Virtual glaucoma clinics: patient acceptance and quality of patient education compared to standard clinics

    PubMed Central

    Court, Jennifer H; Austin, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Virtual glaucoma clinics allow rapid, reliable patient assessment but the service should be acceptable to patients and concordance with treatment needs to be maintained with adequate patient education. This study compares experiences and understanding of patients reviewed via the virtual clinic versus the standard clinic by way of an extended patient satisfaction questionnaire (PSQ). Patients and methods One hundred PSQs were given to consecutive patients attending glaucoma clinics in October 2013. All 135 patients reviewed via the virtual clinic from April 2013 until August 2013 were sent postal PSQs in September 2013. Data were obtained for demographics, understanding of glaucoma, their condition, satisfaction with their experience, and quality of information. Responses were analyzed in conjunction with the clinical records. Results Eighty-five percent of clinic patients and 63% of virtual clinic patients responded to the PSQ. The mean satisfaction score was over 4.3/5 in all areas surveyed. Virtual clinic patients’ understanding of their condition was very good, with 95% correctly identifying their diagnosis as glaucoma, 83% as ocular hypertension and 78% as suspects. There was no evidence to support inferior knowledge or self-perceived understanding compared to standard clinic patients. Follow-up patients knew more about glaucoma than new patients. Over 95% of patients found our information leaflet useful. Forty percent of patients sought additional information but less than 20% used the internet for this. Conclusion A substantial proportion of glaucoma pathway patients may be seen by non-medical staff supervised by glaucoma specialists via virtual clinics. Patients are accepting of this format, reporting high levels of satisfaction and non-inferior knowledge to those seen in standard clinics. PMID:25987832

  3. WATER QUALITY EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS FOR SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Source waters of the U.S. are vulnerable to natural and anthropogenic factors affecting quality for use as both a drinking water and ecological media. Important factors include physical parameters such as increased turbidity, ecological cycles such as algal blooms, and episodic ...

  4. Private drinking water quality in rural Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Gorski, Patrick; Christenson, Megan; Anderson, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, Wisconsin health departments tested nearly 4,000 rural drinking water supplies for coliform bacteria, nitrate, fluoride, and 13 metals as part of a state-funded program that provides assistance to low-income families. The authors' review of laboratory findings found that 47% of these wells had an exceedance of one or more health-based water quality standards. Test results for iron and coliform bacteria exceeded safe limits in 21% and 18% of these wells, respectively. In addition, 10% of the water samples from these wells were high in nitrate and 11% had an elevated result for aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, or strontium. The high percentage of unsafe test results emphasizes the importance of water quality monitoring to the health of nearly one million families including 300,000 Wisconsin children whose drinking water comes from a privately owned well.

  5. In Brief: Improving Mississippi River water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-10-01

    If water quality in the Mississippi River and the northern Gulf of Mexico is to improve, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) needs to take a stronger leadership role in implementing the federal Clean Water Act, according to a 16 October report from the U.S. National Research Council. The report notes that EPA has failed to use its authority to coordinate and oversee activities along the river. In addition, river states need to be more proactive and cooperative in efforts to monitor and improve water quality, and the river should be monitored and evaluated as a single system, the report indicates. Currently, the 10 states along the river conduct separate and widely varying water quality monitoring programs. ``The limited attention being given to monitoring and managing the Mississippi's water quality does not match the river's significant economic, ecological, and cultural importance,'' said committee chair David A. Dzombak, director of the Steinbrenner Institute for Environmental Education and Research at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa. The report notes that while measures taken under the Clean Water Act have successfully reduced much point source pollution, nutrient and sediment loads from nonpoint sources continue to be significant problems. For more information, visit the Web site: http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12051.

  6. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  7. Quality of tomato slices disinfected with ozonated water.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Encarna; Escalona, Víctor; Silveira, Ana Cecilia; Artés, Francisco

    2014-04-01

    Fresh-cut industry needs novel disinfectant to replace the use of chlorine. Ozone is one of the most powerful oxidizing agents and is applied in gaseous or aqueous form for sanitation purposes. However, the strong oxidative effect could affect the nutritional and sensorial quality, in particular, when time of washing is extended. For that reason, the overall impact of ozonated water (0.4 mg/L) dipping applied during 1, 3 and 5 min compared to control washed in water during 5 min was studied in tomato slices stored during 14 days at 5 . According to the results, ozonated water treatment of 3 min achieved the best firmness retention, microbial quality (mesophilic, psychrotrophic and yeas load) and reduced the consumption of fructose and glucose. The use of ozonated water did not affect the total acidity, pH, total solid soluble, organic acid as ascorbic, fumaric or succinic acid and the sensorial parameters, which were only affected by storage time. However, the poor appearance, aroma and overall quality obtained in all treatments prevented shelf life of 14 days and the quality at acceptable levels was established in 10 days at 5 . It is recommended to wash tomato slices with 0.4 mg/L ozonated water for 3 min only. Extending treatment duration did not improve the microbiological quality, possibly due to the extra time permitting the ozone to react with other components of the fruit tissue, undermining the antimicrobial benefits. PMID:23774605

  8. Development of river water quality indices-a review.

    PubMed

    Sutadian, Arief Dhany; Muttil, Nitin; Yilmaz, Abdullah Gokhan; Perera, B J C

    2016-01-01

    The use of water quality indices (WQIs) as a tool to evaluate the status of water quality in rivers has been introduced since the 1960s. The WQI transforms selected water quality parameters into a dimensionless number so that changes in river water quality at any particular location and time could be presented in a simple and easily understandable manner. Although many WQIs have been developed, there is no worldwide accepted method for implementing the steps used for developing a WQI. Thus, there is a continuing interest to develop accurate WQIs that suit a local or regional area. This paper aimed to provide significant contribution to the development of future river WQIs through a review of 30 existing WQIs based on the four steps needed to develop a WQI. These steps are the selection of parameters, the generation of sub-indices, the generation of parameter weights and the aggregation process to compute the final index value. From the 30 reviewed WQIs, 7 were identified as most important based on their wider use and they were discussed in detail. It was observed that a major factor that influences wider use of a WQI is the support provided by the government and authorities to implement a WQI as the main tool to evaluate the status of rivers. Since there is a lot of subjectivity and uncertainty involved in the steps for developing and applying a WQI, it is recommended that the opinion of local water quality experts is taken, especially in the first three steps (through techniques like Delphi method). It was also observed that uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was rarely undertaken to reduce uncertainty, and hence such an analysis is recommended for future studies. PMID:26707404

  9. Water quality monitoring strategies - A review and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Behmel, S; Damour, M; Ludwig, R; Rodriguez, M J

    2016-11-15

    The reliable assessment of water quality through water quality monitoring programs (WQMPs) is crucial in order for decision-makers to understand, interpret and use this information in support of their management activities aiming at protecting the resource. The challenge of water quality monitoring has been widely addressed in the literature since the 1940s. However, there is still no generally accepted, holistic and practical strategy to support all phases of WQMPs. The purpose of this paper is to report on the use cases a watershed manager has to address to plan or optimize a WQMP from the challenge of identifying monitoring objectives; selecting sampling sites and water quality parameters; identifying sampling frequencies; considering logistics and resources to the implementation of actions based on information acquired through the WQMP. An inventory and critique of the information, approaches and tools placed at the disposal of watershed managers was proposed to evaluate how the existing information could be integrated in a holistic, user-friendly and evolvable solution. Given the differences in regulatory requirements, water quality standards, geographical and geological differences, land-use variations, and other site specificities, a one-in-all solution is not possible. However, we advance that an intelligent decision support system (IDSS) based on expert knowledge that integrates existing approaches and past research can guide a watershed manager through the process according to his/her site-specific requirements. It is also necessary to tap into local knowledge and to identify the knowledge needs of all the stakeholders through participative approaches based on geographical information systems and adaptive survey-based questionnaires. We believe that future research should focus on developing such participative approaches and further investigate the benefits of IDSS's that can be updated quickly and make it possible for a watershed manager to obtain a

  10. Observations on a Montana water quality proposal.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.

    2006-01-12

    In May 2005, a group of petitioners led by the Northern Plains Resource Council (NPRC) submitted a petition to revise water quality requirements to the Montana Board of Environmental Review (BER). Under Montana law, the BER had to consider the petition and either reject it or propose it as a new regulation. In September 2005, the BER announced proposed changes to the Montana water quality regulations. The proposal, which included almost the exact language found in the petition, was directed toward discharges of water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production. The key elements of the proposal included: (1) No discharges of CBNG water are allowed to Montana surface waters unless operators can demonstrate that injection to aquifers with the potential for later recovery of the water is not feasible. (2) When operators can demonstrate the injection is not feasible, the CBNG water to be discharged must meet very strict technology-based limits for multiple parameters. (3) The Montana water quality standards for the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) would be evaluated using the 7Q10 flow (lowest 7-consecutive-day flow in a 10-year period) rather than a monthly flow that is currently used. (4) SAR and EC would be reclassified as ''harmful parameters'', thereby greatly restricting the ability for CBNG discharges to be allowed under Montana's nondegradation regulations. The proposed regulations, if adopted in their current form, are likely to substantially reduce the amount of CBNG production in Montana. The impact also extends to Wyoming CBNG production through much greater restrictions on water quality that must be met at the interstate border.

  11. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setegn, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  12. Monitoring water quality by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A limited study was conducted to determine the applicability of remote sensing for evaluating water quality conditions in the San Francisco Bay and delta. Considerable supporting data were available for the study area from other than overflight sources, but short-term temporal and spatial variability precluded their use. The study results were not sufficient to shed much light on the subject, but it did appear that, with the present state of the art in image analysis and the large amount of ground truth needed, remote sensing has only limited application in monitoring water quality.

  13. [Writing English abstracts of high quality in standard English acceptable for publication].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia-wei; Zhang, Zhi-yuan

    2004-04-01

    Writing an abstract presents a unique challenge to any author. It requires brevity of the written word, conciseness of thought and accuracy of presentation. A structured abstract is the most important starting point for a well written dental article. Shanghai Journal of Stomatology, a Chinese national journal of oral medicine, oral and maxillofacial surgery, prosthodontics, orthodontics, oral pathology, endodontics, oral radiology, etc, has been included and indexed in Chemical Abstracts, Index Medicus and MEDLINE. This peer reviewed refereed journal demands Chinese and English abstracts of high quality for all manuscripts. Each manuscript should provide qualified abstracts for citation and indexing, which are written in standard English using the correct terms, sentences and grammar. Structured abstracts about 500 characters are required for clinical articles, clinical reports, basic scientific articles; while indicative abstracts (summary) are mandatory to short communications and case reports as well as review articles. Generally, the abstracts should be written in the past tense and passive voice (in the third person), with exception of conclusion(s), which can be in the primary tense and active voice. The structured abstracts are consisted of PURPOSE (S), METHODS, CONCLUSION (S), and CONCLUSION (S), which should offer the important information on the number of the subjects, methods of grouping and statistics, database attained, P values, etc. The conclusion (s) must be detailed rather than conceptive. This editorial introduces the ins and outs of writing an English abstracts acceptable for publication.

  14. [Writing English abstracts of high quality in standard English acceptable for publication].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia-wei; Zhang, Zhi-yuan

    2004-04-01

    Writing an abstract presents a unique challenge to any author. It requires brevity of the written word, conciseness of thought and accuracy of presentation. A structured abstract is the most important starting point for a well written dental article. Shanghai Journal of Stomatology, a Chinese national journal of oral medicine, oral and maxillofacial surgery, prosthodontics, orthodontics, oral pathology, endodontics, oral radiology, etc, has been included and indexed in Chemical Abstracts, Index Medicus and MEDLINE. This peer reviewed refereed journal demands Chinese and English abstracts of high quality for all manuscripts. Each manuscript should provide qualified abstracts for citation and indexing, which are written in standard English using the correct terms, sentences and grammar. Structured abstracts about 500 characters are required for clinical articles, clinical reports, basic scientific articles; while indicative abstracts (summary) are mandatory to short communications and case reports as well as review articles. Generally, the abstracts should be written in the past tense and passive voice (in the third person), with exception of conclusion(s), which can be in the primary tense and active voice. The structured abstracts are consisted of PURPOSE (S), METHODS, CONCLUSION (S), and CONCLUSION (S), which should offer the important information on the number of the subjects, methods of grouping and statistics, database attained, P values, etc. The conclusion (s) must be detailed rather than conceptive. This editorial introduces the ins and outs of writing an English abstracts acceptable for publication. PMID:15133543

  15. 77 FR 68116 - Water Wheel Ranch; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Water Wheel Ranch; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and... filed: December 12, 2011, and supplemented on October 8, 2012. d. Applicant: Water Wheel Ranch. e. Name of Project: Water Wheel Ranch Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The Water Wheel Ranch...

  16. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column.

  17. Water-quality monitoring of Sweetwater Reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Sweetwater Authority is concerned with the quality of water it provides to its customers. Results from the water-quality monitoring study that the USGS is conducting in the Sweetwater watershed show that the contaminant concentrations in bed sediments, water, and air are reflected in increased urbanization. The bed sediments show the most dramatic evidence of this impact with a sharp increase of persistent organic chemical concentrations over the past 65 years. Water quality is also affected by urbanization in the form of chemicals in the runoff water and deposition of airborne chemicals. The concentrations of the detected organic chemicals in Sweetwater and Loveland Reservoirs are all well below the guidance limits set by State and Federal agencies to protect human health. Many of these compounds are detected only because of the sensitive analytical methods used. This monitoring program provides the Sweetwater Authority with information on what monitored chemicals are present in the reservoirs, and at what concentrations. With this information, the Authority can assess the associated risks, and consider future water treatment and remediation. These results also help focus and support future efforts by Sweetwater Authority to protect the watershed.

  18. Climate change influence on drinking water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Melinda Haydee; Ristoiu, Dumitru; Voica, Cezara; Moldovan, Zaharie

    2013-11-01

    Although it are quite well known the possible effects of climate changes on surface waters availability and their hydrological risks, their consequences on drinking water quality is not well defined yet. Disinfection agents (as Cl2, O3, etc.) or multiple combinations of them for water treatment and disinfection purposes are applied by water treatment plants at worldwide level. Unfortunately, besides the benefits of these processes were also highlighted some undesirable effects such as formation of several disinfection by-products (DBPs) after reaction of disinfection agent with natural organic matter (NOM) from water body. DBPs formation in drinking water, suspected to posses adverse health effects to humans are strongly regulated in our days. Thus, throughout this study kinetics experiments both the main physicochemical factors that influencing the quality of drinking waters were evaluated as well how they act through possible warming or the consequences of extreme events. Increasing water temperatures with 1 - 5 °C above its normal value has showed that NOMs are presented in higher amount which led to the need for greater amount of disinfectant agent (5 - 15 %). Increasing the amount of disinfecting agent resulted in the formation of DBPs in significantly higher concentrations (between 5 - 30 %).

  19. Extreme weather events: Should drinking water quality management systems adapt to changing risk profiles?

    PubMed

    Khan, Stuart J; Deere, Daniel; Leusch, Frederic D L; Humpage, Andrew; Jenkins, Madeleine; Cunliffe, David

    2015-11-15

    Among the most widely predicted and accepted consequences of global climate change are increases in both the frequency and severity of a variety of extreme weather events. Such weather events include heavy rainfall and floods, cyclones, droughts, heatwaves, extreme cold, and wildfires, each of which can potentially impact drinking water quality by affecting water catchments, storage reservoirs, the performance of water treatment processes or the integrity of distribution systems. Drinking water guidelines, such as the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines and the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, provide guidance for the safe management of drinking water. These documents present principles and strategies for managing risks that may be posed to drinking water quality. While these principles and strategies are applicable to all types of water quality risks, very little specific attention has been paid to the management of extreme weather events. We present a review of recent literature on water quality impacts of extreme weather events and consider practical opportunities for improved guidance for water managers. We conclude that there is a case for an enhanced focus on the management of water quality impacts from extreme weather events in future revisions of water quality guidance documents. PMID:26311274

  20. Extreme weather events: Should drinking water quality management systems adapt to changing risk profiles?

    PubMed

    Khan, Stuart J; Deere, Daniel; Leusch, Frederic D L; Humpage, Andrew; Jenkins, Madeleine; Cunliffe, David

    2015-11-15

    Among the most widely predicted and accepted consequences of global climate change are increases in both the frequency and severity of a variety of extreme weather events. Such weather events include heavy rainfall and floods, cyclones, droughts, heatwaves, extreme cold, and wildfires, each of which can potentially impact drinking water quality by affecting water catchments, storage reservoirs, the performance of water treatment processes or the integrity of distribution systems. Drinking water guidelines, such as the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines and the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, provide guidance for the safe management of drinking water. These documents present principles and strategies for managing risks that may be posed to drinking water quality. While these principles and strategies are applicable to all types of water quality risks, very little specific attention has been paid to the management of extreme weather events. We present a review of recent literature on water quality impacts of extreme weather events and consider practical opportunities for improved guidance for water managers. We conclude that there is a case for an enhanced focus on the management of water quality impacts from extreme weather events in future revisions of water quality guidance documents.

  1. Quality requirements for reclaimed/recycled water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, Daniel S.; Sauer, Richard L.; Pierson, Duane L.; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.

    1987-01-01

    Water used during current and previous space missions has been either carried or made aloft. Future human space endeavors will require some form of water reclamation and recycling. There is little experience in the U.S. space program with this technology. Water reclamation and recycling constitute engineering challenges of the broadest nature that will require an intensive research and development effort if this technology is to mature in time for practical use on the proposed U.S. Space Station. In order for this to happen, reclaimed/recycled water specifications will need to be devised to guide engineering development. Present NASA Potable Water Specifications are not applicable to reclaimed or recycled water. Adequate specifications for ensuring the quality of the reclaimed or recycled potable water system is reviewed, limitations of present water specifications are examined, world experience with potable water reclamation/recycling systems and systems analogs is reviewed, and an approach to developing pertinent biomedical water specifications for spacecraft is presented. Space Station water specifications should be designed to ensure the health of all likely spacecraft inhabitants including man, animals, and plants.

  2. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  3. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  4. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  5. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  6. Quality assurance and quality control for drinking water laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.A.; Budde, W.L. ); Novielli, F. )

    1993-09-01

    Soon after the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) was formed in 1972, agency administrators realized that in order to make appropriate decisions for environmental regulation, they must be assured that data being generated by the agency and the 50 states were valid and legally defensible. Thus in 1979, USEPA established a mandatory quality assurance (QA) program for all data generated by or for the agency. QA responsibilities were assigned to the Office of Research and Development. QA guidance in water chemistry and microbiology was assigned to the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory (EMSL) in Cincinnati, Ohio, and QA guidance in water radiochemistry became the responsibility of the EMSL in Las Vegas, Nevada.

  7. Improvement of flavour quality and consumer acceptance during postharvest ripening in greenhouse peaches by carbon dioxide enrichment.

    PubMed

    Xi, Wanpeng; Zhang, Qiuyun; Lu, Xiaoyan; Wei, Changqing; Yu, Songlin; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2014-12-01

    In this study we assessed the impact of carbon dioxide enrichment (CDE) on flavour quality development of peach fruit, using peach trees grown in a greenhouse with a carbon-dioxide-enriched atmosphere. Fruit sugar, organic acids, volatiles contents and consumer acceptability were investigated, focusing on the period of postharvest ripening. Higher levels of sucrose, lactones, norisoprenoids, and lower levels of malic acid were found in CDE-treated fruit than those in the control fruit grown under normal conditions. We also measured significantly elevated amounts of pyruvic acid, precursors of volatile compounds, linoleic acid and linolenic acid as a result of CDE. Additionally, CDE-treated fruit were relatively well accepted by consumers compared to the control fruit. These results suggested that CDE can markedly improve the flavour quality and consumer acceptance of greenhouse-grown peaches. The possible mechanism could be that CDE increased precursors available for the biosynthesis of flavour compounds through regulation of photosynthesis.

  8. Improvement of flavour quality and consumer acceptance during postharvest ripening in greenhouse peaches by carbon dioxide enrichment.

    PubMed

    Xi, Wanpeng; Zhang, Qiuyun; Lu, Xiaoyan; Wei, Changqing; Yu, Songlin; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2014-12-01

    In this study we assessed the impact of carbon dioxide enrichment (CDE) on flavour quality development of peach fruit, using peach trees grown in a greenhouse with a carbon-dioxide-enriched atmosphere. Fruit sugar, organic acids, volatiles contents and consumer acceptability were investigated, focusing on the period of postharvest ripening. Higher levels of sucrose, lactones, norisoprenoids, and lower levels of malic acid were found in CDE-treated fruit than those in the control fruit grown under normal conditions. We also measured significantly elevated amounts of pyruvic acid, precursors of volatile compounds, linoleic acid and linolenic acid as a result of CDE. Additionally, CDE-treated fruit were relatively well accepted by consumers compared to the control fruit. These results suggested that CDE can markedly improve the flavour quality and consumer acceptance of greenhouse-grown peaches. The possible mechanism could be that CDE increased precursors available for the biosynthesis of flavour compounds through regulation of photosynthesis. PMID:24996327

  9. Groundwater quality and water quality index at Bhandara District.

    PubMed

    Rajankar, Prashant N; Tambekar, Dilip H; Wate, Satish R

    2011-08-01

    The present investigation reports the results of a monitoring study focusing on groundwater quality of Bhandara District of central India. Since, remediation of groundwater is very difficult, knowledge of the existing nature, magnitude, and sources of the various pollution loads is a prerequisite to assessing groundwater quality. The water quality index (WQI) value as a function of various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters was determined for groundwater obtained from a total of 21 locations. The WQI during pre-monsoon season varied from 68 to 83, while for post-monsoon, it was between 56 and 76. Significantly (P < 0.01) lower WQI for the post-monsoon season was observed, indicating deterioration of the groundwater overall in corresponding season. The study revealed that groundwater from only 19% locations was fit for domestic use, thus indicating the need of proper treatment before use.

  10. The Role of Peer Influence and Perceived Quality of Teaching in Faculty Acceptance of Web-Based Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.; Welch, Anita G.; Ray, Chris M.; Peterson, Claudette

    2015-01-01

    This study's primary investigation is the impact of "peer influence" and "perceived quality of teaching" on faculty members' usage of web-based learning management systems within the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) framework. These factors are entered into an extended TAM as external variables impacting on the core constructs…

  11. Water quality issues and energy assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.

    1980-11-01

    This report identifies and evaluates the significant water quality issues related to regional and national energy development. In addition, it recommends improvements in the Office assessment capability. Handbook-style formating, which includes a system of cross-references and prioritization, is designed to help the reader use the material.

  12. Water Quality Considerations and Related Dishwashing Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Nina I.

    A number of the chemical and physical factors which cause dishwashing problems are presented in a series of charts. Water quality considerations are vital, but the importance of good housekeeping and proper operating practices cannot and must not be minimized. Topics discussed include--(1) dissolved minerals, (2) dissolved gases, (3) detergents,…

  13. ASSESSING WATER QUALITY: AN ENERGETICS PERPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated measures of food web dynamics could serve as important supplemental indicators of water quality that are well related with ecological integrity and environmental well-being. When the concern is a well-characterized pollutant (posing an established risk to human health...

  14. NONPOINT SOURCES AND WATER QUALITY TRADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of nonpoint sources (NPS) of nutrients may reduce discharge levels more cost effectively than can additional controls on point sources (PS); water quality trading (WQT), where a PS buys nutrient or sediment reductions from an NPS, may be an alternative means for the PS...

  15. Evaluating Water Quality in a Suburban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. M.; Garza, N.

    2008-12-01

    A water quality analysis and modeling study is currently being conducted on the Martinez Creek, a small catchment within Cibolo watershed, a sub-basin of the San Antonio River, Texas. Several other major creeks, such as Salatrillo, Escondido, and Woman Hollering merge with Martinez Creek. Land use and land cover analysis shows that the major portion of the watershed is dominated by residential development with average impervious cover percentage of approximately 40% along with a some of agricultural areas and brushlands. This catchment is characterized by the presence of three small wastewater treatment plants. Previous site visits and sampling of water quality indicate the presence of algae and fecal coliform bacteria at levels well above state standards at several locations in the catchment throughout the year. Due to the presence of livestock, residential development and wastewater treatment plants, a comprehensive understanding of water quality is important to evaluate the sources and find means to control pollution. As part of the study, a spatial and temporal water quality analyses of conventional parameters as well as emerging contaminants, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals and microbial pathogens is being conducted to identify critical locations and sources. Additionally, the Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) will be used to identify best management practices that can be incorporated given the projected growth and development and feasibility.

  16. Integration of air and water quality issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental sustainability of dairy farms is dependent upon a number of air and water quality issues. Atmospheric emissions include hazardous compounds such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide along with greenhouse gases and their implications with global climate change. Runoff of sediment, phosph...

  17. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY:

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-one participants from Europe, North America and China convened in Chongqing, China, October 12-14, 2005, for the Eighth International Symposium in Fish Physiology, Toxicology and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was "Hypoxia in vertebrates: Comparisons of terrestr...

  18. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists from ten countries presented papers at the Fifth International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality, which was held on the campus of the city University of Hong Kong on November 10-13, 1998. These Proceedings include 23 papers presented in sessi...

  19. Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information system methods in the coastal waters of Andaman Sea, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, Dilip Kumar; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Vidyalakshmi, Rajendran; Brindha, Balan; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-11-15

    Seawater samples at 54 stations in the year 2011-2012 from Chidiyatappu, Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial Bays of Andaman Sea, have been investigated in the present study. Datasets obtained have been converted into simple maps using coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographical Information System (GIS) based overlay mapping technique to demarcate healthy and polluted areas. Analysis of multiple parameters revealed poor water quality in Port Blair and Rangat Bays. The anthropogenic activities may be the likely cause for poor water quality. Whereas, good water quality was witnessed at Chidiyatappu Bay. Higher CWQI scores were perceived in the open sea. However, less exploitation of coastal resources owing to minimal anthropogenic activity indicated good water quality index at Chidiyatappu Bay. This study is an attempt to integrate CWQI and GIS based mapping technique to derive a reliable, simple and useful output for water quality monitoring in coastal environment.

  20. Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information system methods in the coastal waters of Andaman Sea, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, Dilip Kumar; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Vidyalakshmi, Rajendran; Brindha, Balan; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-11-15

    Seawater samples at 54 stations in the year 2011-2012 from Chidiyatappu, Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial Bays of Andaman Sea, have been investigated in the present study. Datasets obtained have been converted into simple maps using coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographical Information System (GIS) based overlay mapping technique to demarcate healthy and polluted areas. Analysis of multiple parameters revealed poor water quality in Port Blair and Rangat Bays. The anthropogenic activities may be the likely cause for poor water quality. Whereas, good water quality was witnessed at Chidiyatappu Bay. Higher CWQI scores were perceived in the open sea. However, less exploitation of coastal resources owing to minimal anthropogenic activity indicated good water quality index at Chidiyatappu Bay. This study is an attempt to integrate CWQI and GIS based mapping technique to derive a reliable, simple and useful output for water quality monitoring in coastal environment. PMID:26346804

  1. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.; Schneider, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams and springs throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2013 water year (October 1, 2012, through September 30, 2013), data were collected at 79 stations—73 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 4 alternate Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, and 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, Escherichia coli bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 76 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  2. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams and springs throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2012 water year (October 1, 2011, through September 30, 2012), data were collected at 81 stations—73 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 6 alternate Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, and 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 78 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  3. Quality of Surface Water in Missouri, Water Year 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otero-Benitez, William; Davis, Jerri V.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2007 water year (October 1, 2006 through September 30, 2007), data were collected at 67 stations including two U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations and one spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved nitrite plus nitrte, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and selected pesticide data summaries are presented for 64 of these stations, which primarily have been classified in groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, main land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State during water year 2007 is presented.

  4. The social ecology of water in a Mumbai slum: failures in water quality, quantity, and reliability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Urban slums in developing countries that are not recognized by the government often lack legal access to municipal water supplies. This results in the creation of insecure “informal” water distribution systems (i.e., community-run or private systems outside of the government’s purview) that may increase water-borne disease risk. We evaluate an informal water distribution system in a slum in Mumbai, India using commonly accepted health and social equity indicators. We also identify predictors of bacterial contamination of drinking water using logistic regression analysis. Methods Data were collected through two studies: the 2008 Baseline Needs Assessment survey of 959 households and the 2011 Seasonal Water Assessment, in which 229 samples were collected for water quality testing over three seasons. Water samples were collected in each season from the following points along the distribution system: motors that directly tap the municipal supply (i.e., “point-of-source” water), hoses going to slum lanes, and storage and drinking water containers from 21 households. Results Depending on season, households spend an average of 52 to 206 times more than the standard municipal charge of Indian rupees 2.25 (US dollars 0.04) per 1000 liters for water, and, in some seasons, 95% use less than the WHO-recommended minimum of 50 liters per capita per day. During the monsoon season, 50% of point-of-source water samples were contaminated. Despite a lack of point-of-source water contamination in other seasons, stored drinking water was contaminated in all seasons, with rates as high as 43% for E. coli and 76% for coliform bacteria. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, monsoon and summer seasons were associated with significantly increased odds of drinking water contamination. Conclusions Our findings reveal severe deficiencies in water-related health and social equity indicators. All bacterial contamination of drinking water occurred due to post

  5. Mechanisms affecting water quality in an intermittent piped water supply.

    PubMed

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water distribution systems throughout the world supply water intermittently, leaving pipes without pressure between supply cycles. Understanding the multiple mechanisms that affect contamination in these intermittent water supplies (IWS) can be used to develop strategies to improve water quality. To study these effects, we tested water quality in an IWS system with infrequent and short water delivery periods in Hubli-Dharwad, India. We continuously measured pressure and physicochemical parameters and periodically collected grab samples to test for total coliform and E. coli throughout supply cycles at 11 sites. When the supply was first turned on, water with elevated turbidity and high concentrations of indicator bacteria was flushed out of pipes. At low pressures (<10 psi), elevated indicator bacteria were frequently detected even when there was a chlorine residual, suggesting persistent contamination had occurred through intrusion or backflow. At pressures between 10 and 17 psi, evidence of periodic contamination suggested that transient intrusion, backflow, release of particulates, or sloughing of biofilms from pipe walls had occurred. Few total coliform and no E. coli were detected when water was delivered with a chlorine residual and at pressures >17 psi.

  6. Identification of water quality degradation hotspots in developing countries by applying large scale water quality modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsy, Marcus; Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina

    2014-05-01

    Decreasing water quality is one of the main global issues which poses risks to food security, economy, and public health and is consequently crucial for ensuring environmental sustainability. During the last decades access to clean drinking water increased, but 2.5 billion people still do not have access to basic sanitation, especially in Africa and parts of Asia. In this context not only connection to sewage system is of high importance, but also treatment, as an increasing connection rate will lead to higher loadings and therefore higher pressure on water resources. Furthermore, poor people in developing countries use local surface waters for daily activities, e.g. bathing and washing. It is thus clear that water utilization and water sewerage are indispensable connected. In this study, large scale water quality modelling is used to point out hotspots of water pollution to get an insight on potential environmental impacts, in particular, in regions with a low observation density and data gaps in measured water quality parameters. We applied the global water quality model WorldQual to calculate biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings from point and diffuse sources, as well as in-stream concentrations. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries i.e. Africa, Asia, and South America, as they are most affected by water pollution. Hereby, model runs were conducted for the year 2010 to draw a picture of recent status of surface waters quality and to figure out hotspots and main causes of pollution. First results show that hotspots mainly occur in highly agglomerated regions where population density is high. Large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention and control become increasingly important as point sources are subject to connection rates and treatment levels. Furthermore, river discharge plays a crucial role due to dilution potential, especially in terms of seasonal variability. Highly varying shares of BOD sources across

  7. Assessment of the Physicochemical Quality of Drinking Water Resources in the Central Part of Iran.

    PubMed

    Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Shahryari, Ali; Hajiannejad, Mehdi; Saffari, Hossein; Kachuei, Zahra Moosavian; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study described in this article was to assess the physicochemical quality of water resources in Isfahan province, located in the central part of Iran, from June to November 2012. Comparison of the results with the acceptable limits recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water showed that nitrate, chloride, iron, and fluoride concentrations exceeded the maximum acceptable level in 12.3%, 9.2%, 6.8%, and 1.5% of samples, respectively. Total dissolved solids (TDS) and turbidity values also exceeded the maximum acceptable level in 9.2% and 3.1% of samples, respectively. In general, the quality of drinking water resources in the central part of Iran at present is mostly acceptable and satisfactory. It may be deteriorated in the future, however, because water quantity and quality in arid and semiarid areas are highly variable over time. Therefore, continued monitoring of the water resources quality is extremely important to environmental safety. PMID:26867290

  8. Ground-water quality in the western Snake River basin, Swan Falls to Glenns Ferry, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parliman, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Water-quality data were collected from 92 wells in the western Snake River basin, Swan Falls to Glenns Ferry, Idaho. Current data were compiled with pre-1980 data from 116 wells to define water-quality conditions in major aquifers. Factors affecting water quality are composition of aquifer materials, water temperature, and source of recharge. Mixing of water by interaquifer flow, from confined, hot water aquifers (40 degrees Celsius or greater) with water from cold water aquifers (less than 20 degrees Celsius) occurs along regional complex fault systems, and through partially cased boreholes. Cold water generally contains calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate plus carbonate ions; hot water generally contains sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate plus carbonate ions. Warm water (between 20 degrees and 40 degrees Celsius) has an intermediate chemical composition resulting from mixing. Ground-water quality is acceptable for most uses, although it locally contains chemical constituents or physical properties that may restrict its use. Effects of thermal water used for irrigation on quality of shallow ground water are inconclusive. Long-term increase in concentrations of several constituents in parts of the study area may be due to effects of land- and water-use activities, such as infiltration of septic-tank effluent. (USGS)

  9. Analysis of physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of drinking water in Mafikeng, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mulamattathil, Suma George; Bezuidenhout, Carlos; Mbewe, Moses

    2015-12-01

    Mafikeng, the capital of the North West Province, receives water from two sources, namely the Molopo eye and the Modimola dam. Once treated, the potable water is mixed and supplied to the city via distribution systems. This study was designed to assess the quality of drinking water in Mafikeng and also to determine whether the water from the two sources has an impact on the mixed water quality. Physico-chemical parameters and bacteriological quality (faecal coliforms (FCs), total coliforms (TCs), heterotrophic bacteria and Peudomonas spp.) was monitored at three drinking water sites weekly for 4 months. The results revealed that the physico-chemical quality of the water was generally acceptable. The pH ranged from 5.7 ± 0.18 to 8.6 ± 0.14, the temperature ranged from 18.3 ± 0.69 to 25.1 ± 0.69 °C and the total dissolved solids (TDS) ranged from 159.9 ± 22.44 to 364.4 ± 12.44 mg/l. These values are within the target water quality range for drinking water as prescribed by WHO, Department of Water Affairs and SANS 241. What is of concern was the microbial quality of the water. FCs, TCs, heterotrophic bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. were present in some of the treated water samples. The most significant finding of this study is that all drinking water samples were positive for Pseudomonas spp. (>100/100 ml).

  10. Quality-control results for ground-water and surface-water data, Sacramento River Basin, California, National Water-Quality Assessment, 1996-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munday, Cathy; Domagalski, Joseph L.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluating the extent that bias and variability affect the interpretation of ground- and surface-water data is necessary to meet the objectives of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Quality-control samples used to evaluate the bias and variability include annual equipment blanks, field blanks, field matrix spikes, surrogates, and replicates. This report contains quality-control results for the constituents critical to the ground- and surface-water components of the Sacramento River Basin study unit of the NAWQA Program. A critical constituent is one that was detected frequently (more than 50 percent of the time in blank samples), was detected at amounts exceeding water-quality standards or goals, or was important for the interpretation of water-quality data. Quality-control samples were collected along with ground- and surface-water samples during the high intensity phase (cycle 1) of the Sacramento River Basin NAWQA beginning early in 1996 and ending in 1998. Ground-water field blanks indicated contamination of varying levels of significance when compared with concentrations detected in environmental ground-water samples for ammonia, dissolved organic carbon, aluminum, and copper. Concentrations of aluminum in surface-water field blanks were significant when compared with environmental samples. Field blank samples collected for pesticide and volatile organic compound analyses revealed no contamination in either ground- or surface-water samples that would effect the interpretation of environmental data, with the possible exception of the volatile organic compound trichloromethane (chloroform) in ground water. Replicate samples for ground water and surface water indicate that variability resulting from sample collection, processing, and analysis was generally low. Some of the larger maximum relative percentage differences calculated for replicate samples occurred between samples having lowest absolute concentration differences and(or) values near

  11. Field methods and quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities and water-level measurements, U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Maimer, Neil V.; Wehnke, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Water-quality activities and water-level measurements by the personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project Office coincide with the USGS mission of appraising the quantity and quality of the Nation’s water resources. The activities are carried out in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office. Results of the water-quality and hydraulic head investigations are presented in various USGS publications or in refereed scientific journals and the data are stored in the National Water Information System (NWIS) database. The results of the studies are used by researchers, regulatory and managerial agencies, and interested civic groups. In the broadest sense, quality assurance refers to doing the job right the first time. It includes the functions of planning for products, review and acceptance of the products, and an audit designed to evaluate the system that produces the products. Quality control and quality assurance differ in that quality control ensures that things are done correctly given the “state-of-the-art” technology, and quality assurance ensures that quality control is maintained within specified limits.

  12. Quantitative water quality with ERTS-1. [Kansas water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L.; Mccauley, J. R.; James, G. W.; Magnuson, L. M.; Marzolf, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of ERTS-1 MSS computer compatible tapes of reservoir scenes in Kansas along with ground truth show that MSS bands and band ratios can be used for reliable prediction of suspended loads up to at least 900 ppm. The major reservoirs in Kansas, as well as in other Great Plains states, are playing increasingly important roles in flood control, recreation, agriculture, and urban water supply. Satellite imagery is proving useful for acquiring timely low cost water quality data required for optimum management of these fresh water resources.

  13. Drainage water management effects on tile discharge and water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) fluxes from tile drained watersheds have been implicated in water quality studies of the Mississippi River Basin, but the contribution of tile drains to N export in headwater watersheds is not well understood. The objective of this study was to ascertain seasonal and annual contribution...

  14. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  15. 10 CFR 50.46 - Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... light-water nuclear power reactors. 50.46 Section 50.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Approvals § 50.46 Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors. (a)(1)(i) Each boiling or pressurized light-water nuclear power reactor fueled with uranium...

  16. 10 CFR 50.46 - Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... light-water nuclear power reactors. 50.46 Section 50.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Approvals § 50.46 Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors. (a)(1)(i) Each boiling or pressurized light-water nuclear power reactor fueled with uranium...

  17. 10 CFR 50.46 - Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... light-water nuclear power reactors. 50.46 Section 50.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Approvals § 50.46 Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors. (a)(1)(i) Each boiling or pressurized light-water nuclear power reactor fueled with uranium...

  18. 10 CFR 50.46 - Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... light-water nuclear power reactors. 50.46 Section 50.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Approvals § 50.46 Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors. (a)(1)(i) Each boiling or pressurized light-water nuclear power reactor fueled with uranium...

  19. 10 CFR 50.46 - Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... light-water nuclear power reactors. 50.46 Section 50.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Approvals § 50.46 Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors. (a)(1)(i) Each boiling or pressurized light-water nuclear power reactor fueled with uranium...

  20. Water Resources Data - New Jersey, Water Year 1999, Volume 3, Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, M.J.; Romanok, K.M.; Riskin, M.L.; Mattes, G.L.; Thomas, A.M.; Gray, B.J.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface and ground water hydrologic conditions for the 1999 water year, a listing of current water-resource projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 133 surface-water stations, 46 miscellaneous surface-water sites, 30 ground-water stations, 41 miscellaneous ground-water sites, and records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 17 continuous-monitoring stations. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 11 and 17-20. Locations of miscellaneous water-quality sites are shown in figures 29-32 and 34. These data represent the part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  1. Chapter 5: Surface water quality sampling in streams and canals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface water sampling and water quality assessments have greatly evolved in the United States since the 1970s establishment of the Clean Water Act. Traditionally, water quality referred to only the chemical characteristics of the water and its toxicological properties related to drinking water or ...

  2. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  3. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  4. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  5. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  6. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  7. Water quality of North Carolina streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, Douglas; Meyer, Dann

    1983-01-01

    Interpretation of water quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, for the Yadkin-Pee Dee River system, has identified water quality variations, characterized the current condition of the river in reference to water quality standards, estimated the degree of pollution caused by man, and evaluated long-term trends in concentrations of major dissolved constituents. Three stations, Yadkin River at Yadkin College (02116500), Rocky River near Norwood (02126000), and Pee Dee River near Rockingham (02129000) have been sampled over different periods of time beginning in 1906. Overall, the ambient water quality of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River system is satisfactory for most water uses. Iron and manganese concentrations are often above desirable levels, but they are not unusually high in comparison to other North Carolina streams. Lead concentrations also periodically rise above the recommended criterion for domestic water use. Mercury concentrations frequently exceed, and pH levels fall below, the recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life. Dissolved oxygen levels, while generally good, are lowest at the Pee Dee near Rockingham, due to the station 's location not far downstream from a lake. Suspended sediment is the most significant water quality problem of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River. The major cation in the river is sodium and the major anions are bicarbonate and carbonate. Eutrophication is currently a problem in the Yadkin-Pee Dee, particularly in High Rock Lake. An estimated nutrient and sediment balance of the system indicates that lakes along the Yadkin-Pee Dee River serve as a sink for sediment, ammonia, and phosphorus. Pollution makes up approximately 59% of the total dissolved solids load of the Yadkin River at Yadkin College, 43% for the Rocky River near Norwood, and 29% for the Pee Dee River near Rockingham. Statistically significant trends show a pattern of increasing

  8. Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the

  9. Water resources data, Virginia, water year 2004 volume 2. Ground-water-level and ground-water-quality records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Roger K.; Powell, Eugene D.; Guyer, Joel R.; Owens, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Virginia consist of records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report (Volume 2. Ground-Water-Level and Ground-Water-Quality Records) contains water levels at 346 observation wells and water quality at 40 wells. Locations of these wells are shown on figures 4 through 9. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Virginia.

  10. Water quality improvement plan for Greater Vancouver

    SciTech Connect

    Foellmi, S.N. . Environmental Div.); Neden, D.G. ); Dawson, R.N. )

    1993-10-01

    The Greater Vancouver Regional District commissioned an 18-month planning and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water quality improvement plan for its 2,500-ML/d (660-mgd) system. The study included three primary tasks: (1) predesign of disinfection and corrosion control facilities, (2) a 12-month pilot testing program using parallel pilot plants at the Seymour and Capilano water supply reservoirs, and (3) planning for future filtration plants. The results of the study identified chlorine, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, soda ash, and carbon dioxide in a two-stage treatment approach as the recommended disinfection and corrosion control scheme for the low-pH, low-alkalinity water supplies. The pilot-plant studies confirmed that direct filtration using deep-bed monomedium filters operating at a loading rate of 22.5 m/h provided excellent treatment performance and productivity over a wide range of raw-water quality. Ozonation was studied extensively and found not to be beneficial in the overall treatment performance. The phased improvement plan for the disinfection, corrosion control, and filtration facilities has an estimated capital cost of about Can$459 million.

  11. Headwater Influences on Downstream Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Oakes, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the influence of riparian and whole watershed land use as a function of stream size on surface water chemistry and assessed regional variation in these relationships. Sixty-eight watersheds in four level III U.S. EPA ecoregions in eastern Kansas were selected as study sites. Riparian land cover and watershed land use were quantified for the entire watershed, and by Strahler order. Multiple regression analyses using riparian land cover classifications as independent variables explained among-site variation in water chemistry parameters, particularly total nitrogen (41%), nitrate (61%), and total phosphorus (63%) concentrations. Whole watershed land use explained slightly less variance, but riparian and whole watershed land use were so tightly correlated that it was difficult to separate their effects. Water chemistry parameters sampled in downstream reaches were most closely correlated with riparian land cover adjacent to the smallest (first-order) streams of watersheds or land use in the entire watershed, with riparian zones immediately upstream of sampling sites offering less explanatory power as stream size increased. Interestingly, headwater effects were evident even at times when these small streams were unlikely to be flowing. Relationships were similar among ecoregions, indicating that land use characteristics were most responsible for water quality variation among watersheds. These findings suggest that nonpoint pollution control strategies should consider the influence of small upland streams and protection of downstream riparian zones alone is not sufficient to protect water quality. PMID:17999108

  12. [Microbial indicators and fresh water quality assessment].

    PubMed

    Briancesco, Rossella

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, the microbiological quality of waters has been measured by the analysis of indicator microorganisms. The article reviews the sanitary significance of traditional indicators of faecal contamination (total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci) and points out their limits. For some characteristics Escherichia coli may be considered a more useful indicator then faecal coliforms and recently it has been included in all recent laws regarding fresh, marine and drinking water. A clearer taxonomic definition of faecal streptococci evidenced the difficulty into defining a specific standard methodology of enumeration and suggested the more suitable role of enterococci as indicator microorganisms. Several current laws require the detection of enterococci. The resistance of Clostridium perfringens spores may mean that they would serve as a useful indicator of the sanitary quality of sea sediments.

  13. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section 130.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and...

  14. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section 130.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and...

  15. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or...

  16. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or...

  17. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4 Section 130.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section...

  18. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or...

  19. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4 Section 130.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section...

  20. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality...

  1. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4 Section 130.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section...

  2. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Water quality report. 130.8 Section 130.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and submit biennially...

  3. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality...

  4. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Water quality monitoring. 130.4 Section 130.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section...

  5. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section 130.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and...

  6. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or...

  7. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or...

  8. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality...

  9. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality...

  10. Water quality in Illinois, 1990-1991. Biennial report

    SciTech Connect

    Northrop, C.

    1993-01-01

    The report is a summary of the 305(b) Illinois Water Quality Report. It highlights the 1990 - 1991 water quality conditions of Illinois rivers, streams, inland lakes, Lake Michigan, and groundwater. The report also outlines current water quality issues and the IEPA's water pollution control programs.

  11. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section 130.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and...

  12. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality...

  13. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4 Section 130.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section...

  14. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2015-12-18

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams and springs throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2014 water year (October 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014), data were collected at 74 stations—72 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations and 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Assessment Network stations. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, Escherichia coli bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 71 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  15. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2011 water year (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011), data were collected at 75 stations—72 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations, and 1 spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 72 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  16. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designs and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2010 water year (October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2010), data were collected at 75 stations-72 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations, and 1 spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 72 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  17. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designs and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2009 water year (October 1, 2008, through September 30, 2009), data were collected at 75 stations-69 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations, 1 spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, and 3 stations sampled in cooperation with the Elk River Watershed Improvement Association. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 72 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and seven-day low flow is presented.

  18. Quality assessment of Romanian bottled mineral water and tap water.

    PubMed

    M Carstea, Elfrida; Levei, Erika A; Hoaghia, Maria-Alexandra; Savastru, Roxana

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the evaluation of bottled mineral water characteristics using fluorescence spectroscopy (synchronous fluorescence scans and emission spectra) and physico-chemical analyses. Samples from 14 still mineral water brands were compared to 11 tap waters collected from two Romanian cities. Correlation and factor analyses were undertaken to understand the relationships between the individual components. The concentration of major and minor ions showed great variation between the bottled mineral water samples highlighting the diversity of the water intakes, while in the case of tap water the chemical composition was relatively similar for samples collected in the same city. Fluorescence data showed that the mineral water contained low quantities of organic matter. The humic fraction was dominant in all samples, while the microbial fraction was low in most samples. Synchronous fluorescence scans provided more information, regarding the composition of organic matter, compared to emission spectra. The study evidenced the correlation between fluorescence parameters and major elements and highlighted the potential of using fluorescence for qualitative evaluation of the bottled mineral water quality, as a screening method before undertaking complex analyses. PMID:27526046

  19. Statewide water-quality network for Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, Leslie A.; Steeves, Peter A.; Zimmerman, Marc James

    2001-01-01

    A water-quality monitoring program is proposed that would provide data to meet multiple information needs of Massachusetts agencies and other users concerned with the condition of the State's water resources. The program was designed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Watershed Management, with input from many organizations involved in water-quality monitoring in the State, and focuses on inland surface waters (streams and lakes). The proposed monitoring program consists of several components, or tiers, which are defined in terms of specific monitoring objectives, and is intended to complement the Massachusetts Watershed Initiative (MWI) basin assessments. Several components were developed using the Neponset River Basin in eastern Massachusetts as a pilot area, or otherwise make use of data from and sampling approaches used in that basin as part of a MWI pilot assessment in 1994. To guide development of the monitoring program, reviews were conducted of general principles of network design, including monitoring objectives and approaches, and of ongoing monitoring activities of Massachusetts State agencies.Network tiers described in this report are primarily (1) a statewide, basin-based assessment of existing surface-water-quality conditions, and (2) a fixed-station network for determining contaminant loads carried by major rivers. Other components, including (3) targeted programs for hot-spot monitoring and other objectives, and (4) compliance monitoring, also are discussed. Monitoring programs for the development of Total Maximum Daily Loads for specific water bodies, which would constitute another tier of the network, are being developed separately and are not described in this report. The basin-based assessment of existing conditions is designed to provide information on the status of surface waters with respect to State water-quality standards and designated uses in accordance with the

  20. Contested environmental policy infrastructure: Socio-political acceptance of renewable energy, water, and waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wolsink, Maarten

    2010-09-15

    The construction of new infrastructure is hotly contested. This paper presents a comparative study on three environmental policy domains in the Netherlands that all deal with legitimising building and locating infrastructure facilities. Such infrastructure is usually declared essential to environmental policy and claimed to serve sustainability goals. They are considered to serve (proclaimed) public interests, while the adverse impact or risk that mainly concerns environmental values as well is concentrated at a smaller scale, for example in local communities. The social acceptance of environmental policy infrastructure is institutionally determined. The institutional capacity for learning in infrastructure decision-making processes in the following three domains is compared: 1.The implementation of wind power as a renewable energy innovation; 2.The policy on space-water adaptation, with its claim to implement a new style of management replacing the current practice of focusing on control and 'hard' infrastructure; 3.Waste policy with a focus on sound waste management and disposal, claiming a preference for waste minimization (the 'waste management hierarchy'). All three cases show a large variety of social acceptance issues, where the appraisal of the impact of siting the facilities is confronted with the desirability of the policies. In dealing with environmental conflict, the environmental capacity of the Netherlands appears to be low. The policies are frequently hotly contested within the process of infrastructure decision-making. Decision-making on infrastructure is often framed as if consensus about the objectives of environmental policies exists. These claims are not justified, and therefore stimulating the emergence of environmental conflicts that discourage social acceptance of the policies. Authorities are frequently involved in planning infrastructure that conflicts with their officially proclaimed policy objectives. In these circumstances, they are

  1. Canadian water quality guidelines. Appendix 22: Interim marine and estuarine water quality guidelines for general variables

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This document has been prepared in response to the need for marine water quality guidelines for general water quality variables. It presents interim guidelines, summaries of existing guidelines if any, the rationale for the guidelines, and variable-specific background information, and notes gaps in data, for the following variables: Debris, including floating or submerged litter, and settleable matter; dissolved oxygen; pH; salinity; temperature; and suspended solids and turbidity. For the purpose of this document, the marine environment includes shorelines, estuaries up to the freshwater limit, and nearshore and offshore waters.

  2. Water quality problems in Nogales, Sonora.

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, R A

    1995-01-01

    This article presents the results of a transboundary water quality monitoring program at the two Nogales area in the Arizona-Sonora border region. The program was carried out jointly in 1990 by U.S. and Mexican institutions. The results show pollution problems due to deficiencies in Nogales, Sonora municipal sewerage system, causing not only sewage spills in several parts of the city but also creating occasional transboundary problems. The results also showed potential illegal dumping of industrial hazardous waste (VOCs) into Nogales' municipal sewerage system. All of the organic compounds found in the sewage samples are solvents frequently used by the border industry. Occasional brakes of pipes spill the pollutants into the Nogales Wash, a water stream that runs parallel to Nogales' main sewerage line. Samples of the municipal water system showed no traces of pollutants. However, two rounds of samples detected concentrations of VOCs in wells used to supply water by trucks to low income neighborhoods in Nogales, Sonora. Ironically, the pollution detected in these wells has a greater impact in low income groups of the city that pay three to four times more per liter of water they consume, than the rest of the inhabitants with clean water from the municipal system. PMID:7621811

  3. Water quality problems in Nogales, Sonora.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, R A

    1995-02-01

    This article presents the results of a transboundary water quality monitoring program at the two Nogales area in the Arizona-Sonora border region. The program was carried out jointly in 1990 by U.S. and Mexican institutions. The results show pollution problems due to deficiencies in Nogales, Sonora municipal sewerage system, causing not only sewage spills in several parts of the city but also creating occasional transboundary problems. The results also showed potential illegal dumping of industrial hazardous waste (VOCs) into Nogales' municipal sewerage system. All of the organic compounds found in the sewage samples are solvents frequently used by the border industry. Occasional brakes of pipes spill the pollutants into the Nogales Wash, a water stream that runs parallel to Nogales' main sewerage line. Samples of the municipal water system showed no traces of pollutants. However, two rounds of samples detected concentrations of VOCs in wells used to supply water by trucks to low income neighborhoods in Nogales, Sonora. Ironically, the pollution detected in these wells has a greater impact in low income groups of the city that pay three to four times more per liter of water they consume, than the rest of the inhabitants with clean water from the municipal system.

  4. Determining regional water quality patterns and their ecological relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, Tim W.; Hunsaker, Carolyn T.; Beauchamp, John J.

    1987-08-01

    A multivariate statistical method for analyzing spatial patterns of water quality in Georgia and Kansas was tested using data in the US Environmental Protection Agency's STORET data system. Water quality data for Georgia and Kansas were organized by watersheds. We evaluated three questions: (a) can distinctive regional water quality patterns be detected and predicted using only a few water quality variables, (b) are regional water quality patterns correlated with terrestrial biotic regions, and (c) are regional water quality patterns correlated with fish distributions? Using existing data, this method can distinguish regions with water quality very different from the average conditions (as in Georgia), but it does not discriminate well between regions that do not have diverse water quality conditions (as in Kansas). Data that are spatially and temporally adequate for representing large regions and for multivariate statistical analysis are available for only a few common water quality parameters. Regional climate, lithology, and biotic regimes all have the potential to affect water quality, and terrestrial biotic regions and fish distributions do compare with regional water quality patterns, especially in a state like Georgia, where watershed characteristics are diverse. Thus, identifiable relationships between watershed characteristics and water quality should allow the development of an integrated landaquatic classification system that would be a valuable tool for resource management. Because geographical distributions of species may be limited by Zoogeographic and environmental factors, the recognition of patterns in fish distributions that correlate with regional water quality patterns could influence management strategies and aid regional assessments.

  5. Maternal diet during early childhood, but not pregnancy, predicts diet quality and fruit and vegetable acceptance in offspring.

    PubMed

    Ashman, Amy M; Collins, Clare E; Hure, Alexis J; Jensen, Megan; Oldmeadow, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Studies have identified prenatal flavour exposure as a determinant of taste preferences in infants; however, these studies have focused on relatively small samples and limited flavours. As many parents struggle with getting children to accept a variety of nutritious foods, a study of the factors influencing food acceptance is warranted. The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure to a wider variety of fruit and vegetables and overall higher diet quality in utero results in acceptance of a greater variety of these foods and better diet quality for offspring during childhood. This study is a secondary data analysis of pregnant women (n = 52) and their resulting offspring recruited for the Women and Their Children's Health study in NSW, Australia. Dietary intake of mothers and children was measured using food frequency questionnaires. Diet quality and vegetable and fruit variety were calculated using the Australian Recommended Food Score and the Australian Child and Adolescent Recommended Food Score. Associations between maternal and child diet quality and variety were assessed using Pearson's correlations and the total effect of in utero maternal pregnancy diet on childhood diet was decomposed into direct and indirect effect using mediation analysis. Maternal pregnancy and post-natal diet were both correlated with child diet for overall diet quality and fruit and vegetable variety (P < 0.001). Mediation analyses showed that the indirect effect of maternal pregnancy diet on child diet was mediated through maternal post-natal diet, particularly for fruit (P = 0.045) and vegetables (P = 0.055). Nutrition intervention should therefore be aimed at improving diet quality and variety in mothers with young children, in order to subsequently improve eating habits of offspring.

  6. Anthropological perspectives on water availability, water quality and water managament in the IMPETUS research areas of Benin and Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirscht, H.; Bollig, M.; Casciarri, B.; Casimir, M.; Rössler, M.; Bako-Arifari, N.

    2003-04-01

    The anthropological research in the framework of the interdisciplinary IMPETUS West Africa-project focuses on water availability, water quality and on social problems and conflicts concerning the management of this sometimes scarce or polluted resource. The northern project area, the catchment of the Drâa river in Southern Moroco, is characterised by a very low precipitation rate and an overall shortage of available water, a situation which has been aggravated by a drought in recent years. But even in the much moister southern research region, the catchment of the river Ouémé in Benin, water is not always available in the required quantity and quality. Although Morocco and Benin share no common cultural or ethnic identities, local 'traditional' water management institutions exist in both countries. The common objective of anthropological research is to identify and analyse these institutions on a micro- or mezzo-level, and to look into the social and cultural processes which lead to a sustainable - or ineffective - use of water. The prime research unit for anthropologists is the household, which is in general congruent with the basic economic unit. It is obvious that gender relations are an important aspect to consider if one looks into the management of water resources. Women are often in charge of supplying the household with drinking water, and in Benin many women are farmers, who, according to local concepts, spend more time on the fields than men. In addition, social changes caused by the shortage of water and their consequences for water management systems are investigated. In Morocco, the emigration of young men is a reaction to the recent droughts, transforming the household structure and gender relations in rural settlements. In return, the investment of the remittances into agriculture, for instance the purchase of motor-pumps for irrigation, affects the water management by circumventing traditional social and politically accepted water distribution

  7. Quality-assurance and data-management plan for water-quality activities in the Kansas Water Science Center, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Foster, Guy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Putnam, James E.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey is relied on to collect high-quality data, and produce factual and impartial interpretive reports. This quality-assurance and data-management plan provides guidance for water-quality activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center. Policies and procedures are documented for activities related to planning, collecting, storing, documenting, tracking, verifying, approving, archiving, and disseminating water-quality data. The policies and procedures described in this plan complement quality-assurance plans for continuous water-quality monitoring, surface-water, and groundwater activities in Kansas.

  8. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended. PMID:25307764

  9. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended.

  10. 1990 National Water Quality Laboratory Services Catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritt, Jeffrey; Jones, Berwyn E.

    1989-01-01

    PREFACE This catalog provides information about analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) to support programs of the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, the catalog lists cost, sample volume, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation techniques for samples to be submitted for analysis. Prices for services reflect operationa1 costs, the complexity of each analytical procedure, and the costs to ensure analytical quality control. The catalog consists of five parts. Part 1 is a glossary of terminology; Part 2 lists the bottles, containers, solutions, and other materials that are available through the NWQL; Part 3 describes the field processing of samples to be submitted for analysis; Part 4 describes analytical services that are available; and Part 5 contains indices of analytical methodology and Chemical Abstract Services (CAS) numbers. Nomenclature used in the catalog is consistent with WATSTORE and STORET. The user is provided with laboratory codes and schedules that consist of groupings of parameters which are measured together in the NWQL. In cases where more than one analytical range is offered for a single element or compound, different laboratory codes are given. Book 5 of the series 'Techniques of Water Resources Investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey' should be consulted for more information about the analytical procedures included in the tabulations. This catalog supersedes U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 86-232 '1986-87-88 National Water Quality Laboratory Services Catalog', October 1985.

  11. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2000. Volume 3. Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, M.J.; Mattes, G.L.; Burns, H.L.; Thomas, A.M.; Gray, B.J.; Doyle, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharage, and quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and levels and quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface and ground water hydrologic conditions for the 2000 water year, a listing of current water-resource projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 125 continuing-record surface-water stations, 62 miscellaneous surface-water sites, 73 ground-water sites, and records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 45 continuous-recording stations. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 18-20. Locations of miscellaneous water-quality sites are shown in figures 11 and 42-49. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  12. Understanding the mediating effects of relationship quality on technology acceptance: an empirical study of e-appointment system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Chih; Liu, Shih-Chi; Li, Shing-Han; Yen, David C

    2013-12-01

    This study extends the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by incorporating relationship quality as a mediator to construct a comprehensive framework for understanding the influence on continuance intention in the hospital e-appointment system. A survey of 334 Taiwanese citizens who were contacted via phone or the Internet and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used for path analysis and hypothesis tests. The study shows that perceived ease of use (PEOU) and perceived usefulness (PU) have significant influence on continuance intention through the mediation of relationship quality, consisting of satisfaction and trust. The direct impact of relationship quality on continuance intention is also significant. The analytical results reveal that the relationship between the hospital, patients and e-appointment users can be improved via enhancing the continued usage of e-appointment. This paper also proposes a general model to synthesize the essence of PEOU, PU, and relationship quality for explaining users' continuous intention of e-appointment.

  13. Analysis of water quality of the Mahoning River in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bednar, Gene A.; Collier, Charles R.; Cross, William Perry

    1968-01-01

    The Mahoning River drains the densely populated and industrialized Warren-Youngstown area in northeastern Ohio. Significant chemical constituents and physical properties generally regarded as important in establishing water-quality standards for the Mahoning River are evaluated on the basis of hydrologic conditions and water use. Most of the interpretations and the appraisal of water-quality conditions are based on data collected from January 1963 to December 1965. Generally, streamflow during this period was lower than during a selected long-term reference period ; however, extremely low flows that occurred in the reference period did not occur in the 3-year study period. Water temperatures of the Mahoning River at Pricetown and Leavittsburg were not affected by thermal loading. Water temperatures at those stations ranged from the freezing point to 78?F during the 1963-65 period. Downstream from Leavittsburg, the use of large quantities of water for industrial cooling caused critical thermal loading during periods of low streamflow. Maximum water temperatures were 108?F and 104?F at Struthers and Lowellville, respectively. Water temperatures of the Mahoning River were lower during high water discharges and increased with higher steel-production indices. Flow augmentation and modifications in industrial processes have improved the water-temperature conditions in recent years. A combination of oxygen-consuming materials and warmed water from industrial and municipal wastes discharged into the lower reaches of the Mahoning River frequently depleted the dissolved-oxygen content. At Lowellville, the river water had a dissolved-oxygen content of 5 ppm (parts per million) or less for 67 percent of the time and 3 ppm or less for 16 percent of the time during the study period. The percentage of saturation of dissolved oxygen followed a similar trend. Both the dissolved-oxygen concentration and the percentage of saturation were noticeably lower downstream from Leavittsburg

  14. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2005Volume 3 - Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, Michael J.; Heckathorn, Heather A.; Lewis, Jason M.; Gray, Bonnie J.; Feinson, Lawrence S.

    2006-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2005 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water-quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water-quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface- and ground-water hydrologic conditions for the 2005 water year, a listing of current water-resources projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 118 continuing-record surface-water stations, 30 ground-water sites, records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 9 continuous-recording stations, and 5 special studies that included 89 stream, 11 lake, and 29 ground-water sites. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 23-25. Locations of special-study sites are shown in figures 41-46. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating federal, state, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  15. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2003; Volume 3. Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, Michael J.; Hoppe, Heidi L.; Heckathorn, Heather A.; Riskin, Melissa L.; Gray, Bonnie J.; Melvin, Emma-Lynn; Liu, Nicholas A.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water-quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water-quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface- and ground-water hydrologic conditions for the 2003 water year, a listing of current water-resources projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 123 continuing-record surface-water stations, 35 ground-water sites, records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 20 continuous-recording stations, and 5 special-study sites consisting of 2 surface-water sites, 1 spring site, and 240 groundwater sites. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 21-25. Locations of special-study sites are shown in figures 49-53. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating federal, state, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  16. Quality-assurance data for routine water analysis in the National Water-Quality Laboratory of the US Geological Survey for water year 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucey, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    The US Geological Survey maintains a quality assurance program based on the analysis of reference samples for its National Water Quality Laboratory located in Denver, Colorado. Reference samples containing selected inorganic, nutrient, and precipitation (low-level concentration) constituents are prepared at the Survey 's Water Quality Services Unit in Ocala, Florida, disguised as routine samples, and sent daily or weekly, as appropriate, to the laboratory through other Survey offices. The results are stored permanently in the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), the Survey 's database for all water data. These data are analyzed statistically for precision and bias. An overall evaluation of the inorganic major ion and trace metal constituent data for water year 1988 indicated a lack of precision in the National Water Quality Laboratory for the determination of 8 out of 58 constituents: calcium (inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry), fluoride, iron (atomic absorption spectrometry), iron (total recoverable), magnesium (atomic absorption spectrometry), manganese (total recoverable), potassium, and sodium (inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry). The results for 31 constituents had positive or negative bias during water year 1988. A lack of precision was indicated in the determination of three of the six nutrient constituents: nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen as nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen as nitrogen, and orthophosphate as phosphorus. A biased condition was indicated in the determination of ammonia nitrogen as nitrogen, ammonia plus organic nitrogen as nitrogen, and nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen as nitrogen. There was acceptable precision in the determination of all 10 constituents contained in precipitation samples. Results for ammonia nitrogen as nitrogen, sodium, and fluoride indicated a biased condition. (Author 's abstract)

  17. MATERIALS SUPPORTING THE NEW RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing new, rapid methods for monitoring water quality at beaches to determine adequacy of water quality for swimming. The methods being developed rely upon quantitive polymerase chain reaction technology. They will permit real time decisions regarding beach closures...

  18. Relating watershed nutrient loads to satellite derived estuarine water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient enhanced phytoplankton production is a cause of degraded estuarine water quality. Yet, relationships between watershed nutrient loads and the spatial and temporal scales of phytoplankton blooms and subsequent water quality impairments remain unquantified for most systems...

  19. Barriers to adopting satellite remote sensing for water quality management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Satellite technology can provide a robust and synoptic approach for measuring water quality parameters. Water quality measures typically include chlorophyll-a, suspended material, light attenuation, and colored dissolved organic matter. The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal ...

  20. Cellular-enabled water quality measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Kerkez, B.

    2013-12-01

    While the past decade has seen significant improvements in our ability to measure nutrients and other water quality parameters, the use of these sensors has yet to gain traction due to their costprohibitive nature and deployment expertise required on the part of researchers. Furthermore, an extra burden is incurred when real-time data access becomes an experimental requirement. We present an open-source hardware design to facilitate the real-time, low-cost, and robust measurements of water quality across large urbanized areas. Our hardware platform interfaces an embedded, vastly configurable, high-precision, ultra-low power measurement system, with a low-power cellular module. Each sensor station is configured with an IP address, permitting reliable streaming of sensor data to off-site locations as measurements are made. We discuss the role of high-quality hardware components during extreme event scenarios, and present preliminary performance metrics that validate the ability of the platform to provide streaming access to sensor measurements.

  1. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey Montana Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambing, John H.

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the USGS Montana Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the USGS Montana Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures presented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities complement the quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and suspended-sediment analysis.

  2. Connecting Water Quality With Air Quality Through Microbial Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, M. Elias

    air by increasing microbial aerosol settling rates and enhancing viability of aerosolized marine microbes. Using methods developed for the non-urban site, the role of local environment and winds in mediating water-air connections was further investigated in the urban environment. The local environment, including water surfaces, was an important source of microbial aerosols at urban sites. Large portions of the urban waterfront microbial aerosol communities were aquatic and, at a highly polluted Superfund waterfront, were closely related to bacteria previously described in environments contaminated with hydrocarbons, heavy metals, sewage and other industrial waste. Culturable urban aerosols and surface waters contained bacterial genera known to include human pathogens and asthma agents. High onshore winds strengthened this water-air connection by playing both a transport and production role. The microbial connection between water and air quality outlined by this dissertation highlights the need for information on the mechanisms that deliver surface water materials to terrestrial systems on a much larger scale. Moving from point measurements to landscape-level analyses will allow for the quantitative assessment of implications for this microbial water-air-land transfer in both urban and non-urban arenas.

  3. Quality and acceptability of a set-type yogurt made from camel milk.

    PubMed

    Hashim, I B; Khalil, A H; Habib, H

    2009-03-01

    Camel milk (CM) set yogurts were formulated with gelatin, alginate (ALG), and calcium (Ca). Titratable acidity, pH, sensory properties, and acceptability of CM yogurts were studied. Twelve treatments were prepared; 3 using gelatin at 0.5, 0.75, and 1% levels and 9 with combinations of ALG and Ca at different levels. Titratable acidity and pH of fresh yogurt were not affected by the addition of gelatin or the ALG and Ca combinations. Trained sensory panel results showed that CM yogurt containing 1% gelatin or 0.75% ALG + 0.075% Ca had the highest intensities for firmness and body. Consumer results indicated that the hedonic ratings of the sensory attributes and acceptability of CM yogurt containing 0.75% ALG + 0.075% Ca were similar to that of cow's milk yogurt. The CM yogurts containing ALG + Ca and flavored with 4 different fruit concentrates (15%) had similar hedonic ratings and acceptability. Addition of 0.75% ALG + 0.075% Ca could be used to produce acceptable plain or flavored CM yogurt.

  4. Water quality monitoring in membrane filtration systems.

    PubMed

    Abogrean, Elhadi M; Boerlage, Siobhan F E; Kennedy, Maria D; El-Azizi, Ibrahim M; Galjaard, Gilbert; Schippers, Jan S

    2003-03-01

    We report on an experimental study of UF membrane fouling by colloidal particles. Deposition colloidal particles during membrane filtration causes a decline in permeate flux. Membrane flux is monitored on a laboratory scale, crossflow employing UF membranes. The existing modified fouling index (MFI) uses a microfilter membrane as a quick test of feed water quality. The MFI is based on cake filtration, and thus, a model can be developed for flux decline predication. However, this MFI is not sensitive to the presence of smaller particles. Therefore, more recently MFI using ultrafiltration membranes (MFI-UF) was developed. This research investigates various critical aspects of the MFI-UF test for use as a water quality indicator; stability of the MFI-UF over time, linearity of the index with particulate concentration, and reproducibility (1) of the test (reusability of a UF module) and (2) module manufacture. Pressure dependence of the MFI-UF was also examined. The aforementioned criteria were examined using a polyacrylonitrile module with 13,000 molecular weight cutoff for low fouling (tap and process water). The MFI-UF was stable over time and directly related to colloidal concentration. The MFI-UF test was reproducible for one module with repeated testing; reproducible module manufacture was found for 80% of the test modules.

  5. Reading Water Quality Variables with a Smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Overloop, Peter-Jules; Minkman, Ellen

    2015-04-01

    Many relevant water quality variables can be measured cost-effectively with standard indicator strips. These are local measurements, although usually done within a larger water network. Only if these measurements can be made available in a central database, the entire network can benefit from the extra data point. This requires an analog data source to be converted to a digital data point. A tool that is equipped to do that and also communicate the value to a central system, is a smartphone. A water quality monitoring method is introduced that requires standard indicator strips attached to a reference card and an app with which a picture can be taken from this card. The color or other indication is automatically read with dedicated pattern recognition algorithms and, by using the gps-localization of the smartphone, is stored in the right location in the central database. The method is low-cost and very user-friendly, which makes it suitable for crowd sourcing.

  6. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2002--Volume 3. Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, M.J.; Hoppe, H.L.; Heckathorn, H.A.; Gray, B.J.; Riskin, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and levels and quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface- and ground-water hydrologic conditions for the 2002 water year, a listing of current water-resources projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 118 continuing-record surface-water stations, 15 miscellaneous ground-water sites, and records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 6 continuous-recording stations. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 12-14. Locations of miscellaneous water-quality sites are shown in figures 40-41. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating federal, state, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  7. U.S. Geological Survey Catskill/Delaware Water-Quality Network: Water-Quality Report Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHale, Michael R.; Siemion, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operates a 60-station streamgaging network in the New York City Catskill/Delaware Water Supply System. Water-quality samples were collected at 13 of the stations in the Catskill/Delaware streamgaging network to provide resource managers with water-quality and water-quantity data from the water-supply system that supplies about 85 percent of the water needed by the more than 9 million residents of New York City. This report summarizes water-quality data collected at those 13 stations plus one additional station operated as a part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Long-Term Monitoring Network for the 2006 water year (October 1, 2005 to September 30, 2006). An average of 62 water-quality samples were collected at each station during the 2006 water year, including grab samples collected every other week and storm samples collected with automated samplers. On average, 8 storms were sampled at each station during the 2006 water year. The 2006 calendar year was the second warmest on record and the summer of 2006 was the wettest on record for the northeastern United States. A large storm on June 26-28, 2006, caused extensive flooding in the western part of the network where record peak flows were measured at several watersheds.

  8. Bacteriological Assessment of Spoon River Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shundar; Evans, Ralph L.; Beuscher, Davis B.

    1974-01-01

    Data from a study of five stations on the Spoon River, Ill., during June 1971 through May 1973 were analyzed for compliance with Illinois Pollution Control Board's water quality standards of a geometric mean limitation of 200 fecal coliforms per 100 ml. This bacterial limit was achieved about 20% of the time during June 1971 through May 1972, and was never achieved during June 1972 through May 1973. Ratios of fecal coliform to total coliform are presented. By using fecal coliform-to-fecal streptococcus ratios to sort out fecal pollution origins, it was evident that a concern must be expressed not only for municipal wastewater effluents to the receiving stream, but also for nonpoint sources of pollution in assessing the bacterial quality of a stream. PMID:4604145

  9. A workbook for preparing a district quality- assurance plan for water-quality activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schertz, Terry L.; Childress, Carolyn J.O.; Kelly, Valerie J.; Boucher, Michelle S.; Pederson, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    APPEARS TO BE A REPORT ON HOW TO WRITE REPORTS --THE 'ABSTRACT' THAT FOLLOWS IS JUST THE GENERIC ABSTRACT TO BE USED FOR WATER USE REPORTS: In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the [State name] District in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the [State name] District for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures that are documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the District quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and to supplement the [State name] District quality-assurance plan.

  10. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan...

  11. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  12. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan...

  13. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  14. ANIMATION AND VISUALIZATION OF WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water may undergo a number of changes in the distribution system, making the quality of the water at the customer's tap different from the quality of the water that leaves the treatment plant. Such changes in quality may be caused by chemical or biological variations or by a loss...

  15. Toward a Global Water Quality Observing and Forecasting System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Coastal and Inland Water Quality Working Group held a Water Quality Summit at the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in Geneva, Switzerland April 20 to 22, 2015. The goal was to define specific water quality component requirements and de...

  16. A Water Quality Monitoring Programme for Schools and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Ian; Ward, Jonet; Smith, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    A water quality monitoring programme for schools is described. The purpose of the programme is to introduce school children to the concept of reporting on the "state of the environment" by raising the awareness of water quality issues and providing skills to monitor water quality. The programme is assessed and its relevance in the context of…

  17. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan...

  18. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  19. Monitoring of recharge water quality under woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajenbrink, G. J. W.; Ronen, D.; Van Duijvenbooden, W.; Magaritz, M.; Wever, D.

    1988-03-01

    The study compares the quality of groundwater in the water table zone and soil moisture below the root zone, under woodland, with the quality of the regional precipitation. The water quality under forest shows evidence of the effect of atmospheric deposition of acidic components (e.g. SO 2) and ammonia volatilized from land and feed lots. Detailed chemical profiles of the upper meter of groundwater under different plots of forest, at varying distances from cultivated land, were obtained with a multilayer sampler, using the dialysis-cell method. Porous ceramic cups and a vacuum method were used to obtain soil moisture samples at 1.20 m depth under various types of trees, an open spot and arable land, for the period of a year. The investigation took place in the recharge area of a pumping station with mainly mixed forest, downwind of a vast agricultural area with high ammonia volatilization and underlain by an ice-deformed aquifer. Very high NO -3 concentrations were observed in soil moisture and groundwater (up to 21 mg Nl -1) under coniferous forest, especially in the border zone. This raises the question of the dilution capacity of recharge water under woodland in relation to the polluted groundwater under farming land. The buffering capacity of the unsaturated zone varies substantially and locally a low pH (4.5) was observed in groundwater. The large variability of leachate composition on different scales under a forest and the lesser but still significant concentration differences in the groundwater prove the importance of a monitoring system for the actual solute flux into the groundwater.

  20. Progress at Fresh Kills improving water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Londres, E.J.

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports that in December 1987, the federal district court in Nevada issued a consent order forcing New York City (NYC) to improve its handling of solid waste and reduce the discharge of solid waste into the surrounding waterway. Implementation of the consent order by NYC resulted in many improvements in the transport of solid waste from the Marine Transfer Station (MTS) to Fresh Kills Landfill. The end result was a marked reduction in solid waste discharge and an improvement in water quality along the New Jersey shore areas.

  1. Lake water quality mapping from Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherz, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    In the project described remote sensing was used to check the quality of lake waters. The lakes of three Landsat scenes were mapped with the Bendix MDAS multispectral analysis system. From the MDAS color coded maps, the lake with the worst algae problem was easily located. The lake was closely checked, and the presence of 100 cows in the springs which fed the lake could be identified as the pollution source. The laboratory and field work involved in the lake classification project is described.

  2. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities in the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Kimbrough, Robert A.; Turney, Gary L.

    2007-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), this quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the USGS Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) in conducting water-quality activities. The plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the personnel of the WAWSC for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures that are documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the WAWSC's quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and to supplement the WAWSC quality-assurance plan.

  3. Water quality management library. 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Malina, J.F.; Patterson, J.W.

    1998-12-31

    A series of ten books offered in conjunction with Water Quality International, the Biennial Conference and Exposition of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC). Volume 1, Activated Sludge Process, Design and Control, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 2, Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plants, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 3, Toxicity Reduction, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 4, Municipal Sewage Sludge Management, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 5, Design and Retrofit of Wastewater Treatment Plants for Biological Nutrient Removal, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 6, Dynamics and Control of the Activated Sludge Process, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 7: Design of Anaerobic Processes for the Treatment of Industrial and Municipal Wastes, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 8, Groundwater Remediation, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 9, Nonpoint Pollution and Urban Stormwater Management, 1st edition, 1995: Volume 10, Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse, 1st edition, 1998.

  4. Infrared optical sensors for water quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mizaikoff, B

    2003-01-01

    In-situ monitoring of water quality with particular emphasis on organic pollutants is a global priority topic in water analysis. Recent developments in optical sensor technology provide advanced analytical tools for continuous assessment of pollution levels in the liquid phase and in the gas phase. Infrared sensing schemes are among the most promising concepts due to inherent molecular specificity provided by absorption patterns of fundamental molecular vibrations of organic molecules. The advent of mid-infrared transparent optical fibers and waveguides, appropriate light source technology, such as quantum cascade lasers, and the potential for the development of highly integrated analytical devices based on microfabrication technology substantiates the trend towards spectroscopic sensing techniques. Chemical modification of the waveguide surface leads to enhanced analyte recognition based on tunable properties of enrichment or (bio)chemical recognition layers. Discussion of fundamental sensing technology is complemented by recent examples, highlighting the state-of-the-art in this dynamic research field.

  5. Longitudinal evaluation of balance quality using a modified bathroom scale: usability and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Duchêne, Jacques; Hewson, David J

    2011-01-01

    We adapted a commercial bathroom scale in order to acquire the raw data from the weight sensors and then to send them to a server via a mobile phone. We investigated the usability and acceptability of the device in a long-term experiment with 22 elderly users that produced more than 5000 weight recordings. Four basic variables were extracted from the vertical force measurements and the stabilogram. The technology was accepted unreservedly, presumably because it did not differ from devices usually encountered in the home. The quantitative results showed a high variability of day-to-day measurement, which was countered by taking a moving average. A balance index was able to identify changes in balance over time. The preliminary results appear promising.

  6. Proceedings and findings of the 1976 Workshop on Ride Quality. [passenger acceptance of transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    The workshop was organized around the study of the three basic transfer functions required to evaluate and/or predict passenger acceptance of transportation systems: These are the vehicle, passenger, and value transfer functions. For the purpose of establishing working groups corresponding to the basic transfer functions, it was decided to split the vehicle transfer function into two distinct groups studying surface vehicles and air/marine vehicles, respectively.

  7. Measuring Performance Excellence: Key Performance Indicators for Institutions Accepted into the Academic Quality Improvement Program (AQIP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Given growing interest in accountability and outcomes, the North Central Association's Higher Learning Commission developed a new path for accreditation, the Academic Quality Improvement Program (AQIP). The goal is to infuse continuous improvement and quality in the culture of higher education, and to blend traditional accreditation with the…

  8. Evaluation of military field-water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Selleck, R.E.; Ungun, Z.; Chesler, G.; Diyamandoglu, V.; Marinas, B. . Sanitary Engineering and Environmental Health Research Lab.); Daniels, J.I. )

    1990-05-01

    A comparison is made between the performances of the 600-gph Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit (ROWPU) operated in the bypass mode and the Mobile Water Purification Unit (MWPU, frequently referred to as an ERDLATOR because the equipment was developed at the Engineer Research and Development Laboratory at Fort Belvoir, VA.) Generally, the performance of the MWPU is significantly better than the pretreatment units of the ROWPU in terms of removing both turbidity and pathogenic organisms. It is recommended that the practice of bypassing the reverse osmosis (RO) components of the ROWPU be avoided unless it can be demonstrated clearly that the cartridge filters will remove the cysts of infectious organisms effectively and reliably. If the ROWPU must be operated in the bypass mode, it is recommended that the dose of disinfectant used be made equal to that currently employed in the field for untreated raw water. The analytical methods used to determine total dissolved solids (TDS) and residual free chlorine with the new Water-Quality Monitor (WQM) are also reviewed briefly. The limitations of the methods used to calibrate the TDS and free-chlorine probes of the new WQM are discussed. 98 refs., 19 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. Quality of Surface Water in Missouri, Water Year 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otero-Benitez, William; Davis, Jerri V.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2008 water year (October 1, 2007, through September 30, 2008), data were collected at 67 stations, including two U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations and one spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and selected pesticide data summaries are presented for 64 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and seven-day low flow is presented.

  10. Water Quality Monitoring of Inland Waters using Meris data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potes, M.; Costa, M. J.; Salgado, R.; Le Moigne, P.

    2012-04-01

    The successful launch of ENVISAT in March 2002 has given a great opportunity to understand the optical changes of water surfaces, including inland waters such as lakes and reservoirs, through the use of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). The potential of this instrument to describe variations of optically active substances has been examined in the Alqueva reservoir, located in the south of Portugal, where satellite spectral radiances are corrected for the atmospheric effects to obtain the surface spectral reflectance. In order to validate this spectral reflectance, several field campaigns were carried out, with a portable spectroradiometer, during the satellite overpass. The retrieved lake surface spectral reflectance was combined with limnological laboratory data and with the resulting algorithms, spatial maps of biological quantities and turbidity were obtained, allowing for the monitoring of these water quality indicators. In the framework of the recent THAUMEX 2011 field campaign performed in Thau lagoon (southeast of France) in-water radiation, surface irradiation and reflectance measurements were taken with a portable spectrometer in order to test the methodology described above. At the same time, water samples were collected for laboratory analysis. The two cases present different results related to the geographic position, water composition, environment, resources exploration, etc. Acknowledgements This work is financed through FCT grant SFRH/BD/45577/2008 and through FEDER (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade - COMPETE) and National funding through FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia in the framework of projects FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-007122 (PTDC / CTE-ATM / 65307 / 2006) and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-009303 (PTDC/CTE-ATM/102142/2008). Image data has been provided by ESA in the frame of ENVISAT projects AOPT-2423 and AOPT-2357. We thank AERONET investigators for their effort in establishing and maintaining Évora AERONET

  11. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2002--Volume 1: Continuous water-level, streamflow, water-quality data, and periodic water-quality data, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, Andrew C.; Kerestes, John F.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2002, including: discharge records of 154 gaging stations; stage for 165 gaging stations; precipitation for 105 gaging stations; information for 20 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 27 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 72 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 50 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2002, including continuous water-level records of 155 ground-water wells and periodic records at 132 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia.

  12. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2003, Volume 1: Continuous water-level, streamflow, water-quality data, and periodic water-quality data, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, Andrew C.; Kerestes, John F.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2003, including: discharge records of 163 gaging stations; stage for 187 gaging stations; precipitation for 140 gaging stations; information for 19 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 40 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 65 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 36 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data at 162 stations in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2003, including continuous water-level records of 156 ground-water wells and periodic records at 130 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia.

  13. Quality requirements for irrigation with sewage water

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwer, H.; Idelovitch, E. )

    1987-11-01

    Irrigation is an excellent use for sewage effluent because it is mostly water with nutrients. For small flows, the effluent can be used on special, well-supervised sewage farms, where forage, fiber, or seed crops are grown that can be irrigated with standard primary or secondary effluent. Large-scale use of the effluent requires special treatment so that it meets the public health, agronomic, and aesthetic requirements for unrestricted use. Crops in the unrestricted-use category include those that are consumed raw or brought raw into the kitchen. Most state or government standards deal only with public health aspects, and prescribe the treatment processes or the quality parameters that the effluent must meet before it can be used to irrigate a certain category of crops. However, agronomic aspects related to crops and soils must also be taken into account. Quality parameters to be considered include bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens; total salt content and sodium adsorption ratio of the water; nitrogen; phosphorus; chloride and chlorine; bicarbonate; heavy metals, boron, and other trace elements; pH; and synthetic organics. 23 refs., 9 tabs.

  14. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-09-15

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish.

  15. Efficacy and environmental acceptability of two ballast water treatment chemicals and an alkylamine based-biocide.

    PubMed

    La Carbona, Stéphanie; Viitasalo-Frösen, Satu; Masson, Daniel; Sassi, Jukka; Pineau, Samuel; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Corroler, David

    2010-12-15

    Ship's ballast waters transport large numbers of organisms which may become invasive in coastal regions. One option to address this problem is the use of biocides as ballast water treatment (BWT). Efficacy and environmental acceptability of three commercial active substances (the BWT biocides Peraclean(®) Ocean and Seakleen(®), and alkylamine-based biocide Mexel(®) 432/336) were tested against three bacteria species, two vegetative microalgae and one zooplanktonic larva, in 10 and 30 Practical Salinity Unit (PSU) waters. In both salinities, PeraClean(®) Ocean was the most effective biocide against bacteria causing >90% mortality at 20mg/l, compared with 50mg/l for Mexel(®) 432/336 and >500 mg/l for Seakleen(®). Regarding zooplankton, Seakleen(®) was the most effective chemical causing 90% mortality in 24h at concentrations <6 mg/l (LC90(24h)) in both salinities, compared with 23 and 26 mg/l for Mexel(®) 432/336 and 370 and 480 mg/l for PeraClean(®) Ocean in 10 and 30 PSU, respectively. Similar pattern of efficacy was obtained for microalgae in 30 PSU: effective concentrations inducing 50% growth inhibition in 4 days were ≤ 1.6 mg/l for Seakleen(®), ≤ 10.1mg/l for Mexel(®) 432/336 and ≤ 30.9 mg/l for PeraClean(®) Ocean. Our work highlighted that treated waters displayed residual toxicity after 24h still inducing mortality depending on the organism and biocide. However Mexel(®) 432/336 is the only biocide which had no impact on oyster larvae development at effective concentration. Altogether our data showed that Mexel(®) 432/336 was the only biocide displaying a broad spectrum efficacy in concentrations <50mg/l and not toxic for oyster larvae development at this concentration. However residual toxicity of treated waters for any organism should be taken into account in BWT systems utilising biocides. PMID:21056457

  16. Water quality success stories: Integrated assessments from the IOOS regional associations and national water quality monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragsdale, Rob; Vowinkel, Eric; Porter, Dwayne; Hamilton, Pixie; Morrison, Ru; Kohut, Josh; Connell, Bob; Kelsey, Heath; Trowbridge, Phil

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) Regional Associations and Interagency Partners hosted a water quality workshop in January 2010 to discuss issues of nutrient enrichment and dissolved oxygen depletion (hypoxia), harmful algal blooms (HABs), and beach water quality. In 2007, the National Water Quality Monitoring Council piloted demonstration projects as part of the National Water Quality Monitoring Network (Network) for U.S. Coastal Waters and their Tributaries in three IOOS Regional Associations, and these projects are ongoing. Examples of integrated science-based solutions to water quality issues of major concern from the IOOS regions and Network demonstration projects are explored in this article. These examples illustrate instances where management decisions have benefited from decision-support tools that make use of interoperable data. Gaps, challenges, and outcomes are identified, and a proposal is made for future work toward a multiregional water quality project for beach water quality.

  17. Chemometric characterization of river water quality.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Menka; Tripathi, Smriti; Pathak, Vinita; Tripathi, B D

    2013-04-01

    Various industrial facilities in the city of Varanasi discharge their effluent mixed with municipal sewage into the River Ganges at different discharge points. In this study, chemometric tools such as cluster analysis and box-whisker plots were applied to interpret data obtained during examination of River Ganges water quality. Specifically, we investigated the temperature (T), pH, total alkalinity, total acidity, electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate nitrogen (N), phosphate (PO 4(2-) ), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in water samples collected from six sampling stations. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis was conducted using Ward's method. Proximity distance between EC and Cr was the smallest revealing a relationship between these parameters, which was confirmed by Pearson's correlation. Based on proximity distances, EC, Cr, Ni, Fe, N, COD, temperature, BOD, and total acidity comprised one group; Zn, Pb, Cd, total alkalinity, Cu, and phosphate (PO 4(2-) ) were in another group; and DO and pH formed a separate group. These groups were confirmed by Pearson's correlation (r) values that indicated significant and positive correlation between variables in the same group. Box-whisker plots revealed that as we go downstream, the pollutant concentration increases and maximum at the downstream station Raj Ghat and minimum at the upstream station Samane Ghat. Seasonal variations in water quality parameters signified that total alkalinity, total acidity, DO, BOD, COD, N, phosphate (PO 4(2-) ), Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb, and Zn were the highest in summer (March-June) and the lowest during monsoon season (July-October). Temperature was the highest in summer and the lowest in winter (November-February). DO was the highest in winter and the lowest in summer season. pH was observed to be the highest in monsoon and the lowest in

  18. Literature relevant to remote sensing of water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, E. M.; Marcell, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    References relevant to remote sensing of water quality were compiled, organized, and cross-referenced. The following general categories were included: (1) optical properties and measurement of water characteristics; (2) interpretation of water characteristics by remote sensing, including color, transparency, suspended or dissolved inorganic matter, biological materials, and temperature; (3) application of remote sensing for water quality monitoring; (4) application of remote sensing according to water body type; and (5) manipulation, processing and interpretation of remote sensing digital water data.

  19. Water-balance uncertainty in Honduras: a limits-of-acceptability approach to model evaluation using a time-variant rating curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerberg, I.; Guerrero, J.-L.; Beven, K.; Seibert, J.; Halldin, S.; Lundin, L.-C.; Xu, C.-Y.

    2009-04-01

    The climate of Central America is highly variable both spatially and temporally; extreme events like floods and droughts are recurrent phenomena posing great challenges to regional water-resources management. Scarce and low-quality hydro-meteorological data complicate hydrological modelling and few previous studies have addressed the water-balance in Honduras. In the alluvial Choluteca River, the river bed changes over time as fill and scour occur in the channel, leading to a fast-changing relation between stage and discharge and difficulties in deriving consistent rating curves. In this application of a four-parameter water-balance model, a limits-of-acceptability approach to model evaluation was used within the General Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) framework. The limits of acceptability were determined for discharge alone for each time step, and ideally a simulated result should always be contained within the limits. A moving-window weighted fuzzy regression of the ratings, based on estimated uncertainties in the rating-curve data, was used to derive the limits. This provided an objective way to determine the limits of acceptability and handle the non-stationarity of the rating curves. The model was then applied within GLUE and evaluated using the derived limits. Preliminary results show that the best simulations are within the limits 75-80% of the time, indicating that precipitation data and other uncertainties like model structure also have a significant effect on predictability.

  20. 76 FR 16285 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... CFR Part 410 Incorporation by reference, Water audit, Water pollution control, Water reservoirs, Water... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware Estuary and Extend These Criteria...

  1. Water quality of Rhode Island streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, J.C.; Feiffer, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Water quality data collected from November 1979 through September 1983 at five stream stations within Rhode Island and one in Massachusetts show that concentrations of the common constituents were low. Mean water hardness at all sites was in the ' soft ' category. Sodium concentrations were less than 20 mg/L at two sites and less than 35 mg/L at the other sites. Mean nitrogen values for the two Blackstone River sites were in the range that could cause undesirable growths of aquatic plants. Mean phosphorus values exceeded the recommended limits for protection of aquatic life at four sites. Trace-element concentrations in the water were generally low. Those trace elements which were found in concentrations near or exceeding any standard or criterion include cadmium, chromium, lead, iron, and manganese. High concentrations of several trace elements were found in the bottom materials at several sites. The bottom materials also contained pesticides and organic chemicals including aldrin, chlordane, DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldren, endosulfan , endrin, heptachlor, Mirex, and PCB. Results of trend analysis of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and specific conductance show a downward trend in phosphorus at two sites; an upward trend in nitrogen at one site; and one downward trend and one upward trend in specific conductance. (USGS)

  2. Microbiological monitoring for the US Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Myers, Donna N.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    2000-01-01

    Data to characterize the microbiological quality of the Nation?s fresh, marine, and estuarine waters are usually collected for local purposes, most often to judge compliance with standards for protection of public health in swimmable or drinkable waters. Methods and procedures vary with the objectives and practices of the parties collecting data and are continuously being developed or modified. Therefore, it is difficult to provide a nationally consistent picture of the microbial quality of the Nation?s waters. Study objectives and guidelines for a national microbiological monitoring program are outlined in this report, using the framework of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. A national program is designed to provide long-term data on the presence of microbiological pathogens and indicators in ground water and surface water to support effective water policy and management. Three major groups of waterborne pathogens affect the public health acceptability of waters in the United States?bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Microbiological monitoring in NAWQA would be designed to assess the occurrence, distribution, and trends of pathogenic organisms and indicators in surface waters and ground waters; relate the patterns discerned to factors that help explain them; and improve our understanding of the processes that control microbiological water quality.

  3. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Presented are abstracts and indexes to selected materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction. In addition, some materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation are included. Also included are procedures to illustrate how instructors and curriculum developers in the water quality…

  4. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    Presented is a compilation of over 3,000 abstracts on print and non-print materials related to water quality and water resources education. Entries are included from all levels of governmental sources, private concerns, and educational institutions. Each entry includes: title, author, cross references, descriptors, and availability. (CLS)

  5. Service User- and Carer-Reported Measures of Involvement in Mental Health Care Planning: Methodological Quality and Acceptability to Users

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Chris J.; Bee, Penny E.; Walker, Lauren; Price, Owen; Lovell, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increasing service user and carer involvement in mental health care planning is a key healthcare priority but one that is difficult to achieve in practice. To better understand and measure user and carer involvement, it is crucial to have measurement questionnaires that are both psychometrically robust and acceptable to the end user. Methods: We conducted a systematic review using the terms “care plan$,” “mental health,” “user perspective$,” and “user participation” and their linguistic variants as search terms. Databases were searched from inception to November 2012, with an update search at the end of September 2014. We included any articles that described the development, validation or use of a user and/or carer-reported outcome measures of involvement in mental health care planning. We assessed the psychometric quality of each instrument using the “Evaluating the Measurement of Patient-Reported Outcomes” (EMPRO) criteria. Acceptability of each instrument was assessed using novel criteria developed in consultation with a mental health service user and carer consultation group. Results: We identified eleven papers describing the use, development, and/or validation of nine user/carer-reported outcome measures. Psychometric properties were sparsely reported and the questionnaires met few service user/carer-nominated attributes for acceptability. Where reported, basic psychometric statistics were of good quality, indicating that some measures may perform well if subjected to more rigorous psychometric tests. The majority were deemed to be too long for use in practice. Discussion: Multiple instruments are available to measure user/carer involvement in mental health care planning but are either of poor quality or poorly described. Existing measures cannot be considered psychometrically robust by modern standards, and cannot currently be recommended for use. Our review has identified an important knowledge gap, and an urgent need to

  6. Rural drinking water at supply and household levels: quality and management.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Bilqis A; Hallman, Kelly; Levy, Jason; Bouis, Howarth; Ali, Nahid; Khan, Feroze; Khanam, Sufia; Kabir, Mamun; Hossain, Sanower; Shah Alam, Mohammad

    2006-09-01

    Access to safe drinking water has been an important national goal in Bangladesh and other developing countries. While Bangladesh has almost achieved accepted bacteriological drinking water standards for water supply, high rates of diarrheal disease morbidity indicate that pathogen transmission continues through water supply chain (and other modes). This paper investigates the association between water quality and selected management practices by users at both the supply and household levels in rural Bangladesh. Two hundred and seventy tube-well water samples and 300 water samples from household storage containers were tested for fecal coliform (FC) concentrations over three surveys (during different seasons). The tube-well water samples were tested for arsenic concentration during the first survey. Overall, the FC was low (the median value ranged from 0 to 4 cfu/100ml) in water at the supply point (tube-well water samples) but significantly higher in water samples stored in households. At the supply point, 61% of tube-well water samples met the Bangladesh and WHO standards of FC; however, only 37% of stored water samples met the standards during the first survey. When arsenic contamination was also taken into account, only 52% of the samples met both the minimum microbiological and arsenic content standards of safety. The contamination rate for water samples from covered household storage containers was significantly lower than that of uncovered containers. The rate of water contamination in storage containers was highest during the February-May period. It is shown that safe drinking water was achieved by a combination of a protected and high quality source at the initial point and maintaining quality from the initial supply (source) point through to final consumption. It is recommended that the government and other relevant actors in Bangladesh establish a comprehensive drinking water system that integrates water supply, quality, handling and related educational

  7. Derivation of water quality guidelines for priority pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anupama; Batley, Graeme E; Nidumolu, Bhanu; Hutchinson, Thomas H

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceuticals can enter freshwater and affect aquatic ecosystem health. Although toxicity tests have been carried out for the commonly used pharmaceuticals, evidence-based water quality guidelines have not been derived. High-reliability water quality guideline values have been derived for 4 pharmaceuticals-carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine, and propranolol-in freshwaters using a Burr type III distribution applied to species sensitivity distributions of chronic toxicity data. Data were quality-assured and had to meet acceptability criteria for "chronic" no-observed-effect concentrations or concentrations affecting 10% of species, endpoints of population relevance (namely, effect endpoints based on development, growth, reproduction, and survival). Biomarker response data (e.g., biochemical, histological, or molecular responses) were excluded from the derivation because they are typically not directly relevant to wildlife population-related impacts. The derived guideline values for 95% species protection were 9.2 μg/L, 770 μg/L, 1.6 μg/L, and 14 μg/L for carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine, and propranolol, respectively. These values are significantly higher than the unknown reliability values derived for the European Commission, Switzerland, or Germany that are based on the application of assessment factors to the most sensitive experimental endpoint (which may include biochemical, histological, or molecular biomarker responses) of a limited data set. The guideline values derived in the present study were not exceeded in recent data for Australian rivers and streams receiving pharmaceutical-containing effluents from wastewater-treatment plants. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1815-1824. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26660719

  8. Links Among Italian Preschoolers’ Socio-Emotional Competence, Teacher-Child Relationship Quality and Peer Acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Sette, Stefania; Spinrad, Tracy; Baumgartner, Emma

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations of teacher-child relationship quality (close, conflictive, and dependent), children’s social behavior, and peer likability in a sample of Italian preschool-aged children (46 boys; 42 girls). Preschool teachers evaluated the quality of the teacher-child relationship and children’s social behaviors (i.e., social competence, anger-aggression, and anxiety-withdrawal). Peer-rated likability was measured using a sociometric procedure. Results indicated that conflictual teacher-child relationships were related to high aggressive behavior, and dependent teacher-child relationships were positively associated with children’s anxiety-withdrawal. Moreover, we found an indirect association between close teacher-child relationship quality and peer likability through children’s social competence. The findings provide evidence that the teacher-child relationship is critical for children’s social behaviors, and that social competence was uniquely related to peer likability. PMID:24039375

  9. Methods for comparing water-quality conditions among National Water-Quality Assessment Study Units, 1992-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilliom, Robert J.; Mueller, David K.; Nowell, Lisa H.

    1998-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment is based on intensive investigations of stream and ground-water quality in selected major hydrologic basins (study units) of the United States. One objective of the national assessment is to comparatively evaluate water-quality conditions within and among the different study units. Methods were developed to compare the water-quality conditions of 20 study units that were studied during 1992-1995. Two approaches were taken: (1) water-quality conditions for each study unit were ranked in relation to the findings for all study units, and (2) water-quality conditions for each study unit were compared to established criteria for the protection of human health and aquatic life. Separate rankings were developed for several major characteristics of water quality by using selected combinations of measured values for individual constituents or properties. The water-quality characteristics that were evaluated for streams were nutrients and pesticides in water, organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in bed sediment and tissue, semivolatile organic compounds and trace elements in bed sediment, fish community degradation, and stream habitat degradation. The water-quality characteristics that were evaluated for ground water were nitrate, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, dissolved solids, and radon. The water-quality rankings are relative strictly to the distribution of conditions measured at sampling sites included in developing the method. Sites in the first 20 National Water-Quality Assessment study units include a broad range of environmental settings, but are not a statistically representative sample of the Nation. > To supplement the relative rankings, established water-quality criteria were used to indicate where particular constituents may have adverse effects, and thus merit further investigation. Established water-quality criteria, which provide consistent benchmarks for national comparisons of individual

  10. Groundwater quality data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Terri L.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Musgrove, Marylynn; Kingsbury, James A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-06-20

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 748 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from May 2012 through December 2013. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and radionuclides. These groundwater quality data are tabulated in this report. Quality-control samples also were collected; data from blank and replicate quality-control samples are included in this report.

  11. Water quality and water contamination in the Harlem River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge untreated sewage into the Harlem River during rainstorms; which elevated nutrient and bacteria/pathogen levels, degraded water quality, reduced dissolved oxygen levels, impact on fish consumption safety and threatening public health. Swimming, boating, fishing was not safe especially during rainstorms. Harlem River, a 9 miles natural straight connects the Hudson River and the East River, was used for water recreation in the past. Phosphate, ammonia, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pathogens levels in CSOs collected during storms were significantly higher than EPA/DEP's standards (phosphate <0.033mg/L; ammonia<0.23mg/L; turbidity<5.25FAU; DO>=4mg/L; fecal coliform<200MPN/100ml; E.Coli.<126MPN/100ml; enterococcus < 104MPN /100ml). The maximum values are: phosphate: 0.181mg/L; ammonia: 2.864mg/L; turbidity: 245 FAU& 882 FAU; fecal coliform>millions MPN/100ml; E.coli > 5000MPN /100ml; enterococcus>10,000MPN/100ml; DO<2.9 mg/L. Data showed that pathogen levels are higher than published data from riverkeepers (enterococcus) and USGS (fecal coliform). PCB 11 (3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl, C12H8Cl2), an indicator of raw sewage and stormwater runoff, is analyzed. Fish caught from the Harlem River is banned from commercial. New York State Department of Health (NYS DOH) suggests that not to eat the fish because concerns of PCBs, dioxin and cadmium. How to reduce CSOs is critical on water quality improvement. Green wall/roof and wetland has been planned to use along the river to reduce stormwater runoff consequently to reduce CSOs volume.

  12. Maintaining Acceptable Indoor Air Quality during the Renovation of a School. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bruce W.

    Information that school facility personnel can use concerning the potential impacts of renovation projects on indoor air quality (IAQ), along with details of some effective control strategies, are presented. Various kinds of contaminants may be generated by renovations, including volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, dusts and fibers (e.g.,…

  13. GROUND WATER QUALITY SURROUNDING LAKE TEXOMA DURING DROUGHT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality data from 55 producing monitoring wells during drought conditions surrounding Lake Texoma, located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas, was compared to assess the influence of drought on groundwater quality. The main water quality parameter measured was nitrate, an...

  14. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Lathrop, R.G., JR. )

    1992-04-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions. 17 refs.

  15. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathrop, Richard G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions.

  16. Hydroeconomic optimization of reservoir management under downstream water quality constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo; Holm, Peter E.; Trapp, Stefan; Rosbjerg, Dan; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2015-10-01

    A hydroeconomic optimization approach is used to guide water management in a Chinese river basin with the objectives of meeting water quantity and water quality constraints, in line with the China 2011 No. 1 Policy Document and 2015 Ten-point Water Plan. The proposed modeling framework couples water quantity and water quality management and minimizes the total costs over a planning period assuming stochastic future runoff. The outcome includes cost-optimal reservoir releases, groundwater pumping, water allocation, wastewater treatments and water curtailments. The optimization model uses a variant of stochastic dynamic programming known as the water value method. Nonlinearity arising from the water quality constraints is handled with an effective hybrid method combining genetic algorithms and linear programming. Untreated pollutant loads are represented by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and the resulting minimum dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is computed with the Streeter-Phelps equation and constrained to match Chinese water quality targets. The baseline water scarcity and operational costs are estimated to 15.6 billion CNY/year. Compliance to water quality grade III causes a relatively low increase to 16.4 billion CNY/year. Dilution plays an important role and increases the share of surface water allocations to users situated furthest downstream in the system. The modeling framework generates decision rules that result in the economically efficient strategy for complying with both water quantity and water quality constraints.

  17. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2001, Volume 1: Continuous water-level, streamflow, water-quality data, and periodic water-quality data, Water Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCallum, Brian E.; Kerestes, John F.; Hickey, Andrew C.

    2001-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2001, including: discharge records of 133 gaging stations; stage for 144 gaging stations; precipitation for 58 gaging stations; information for 19 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 17 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 76 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 27 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2001, including continuous water-level records of 159 ground-water wells and periodic records at 138 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia. Note: Historically, this report was published as a paper report. For the 1999 and subsequent water-year reports, the Water Resources Data for Georgia changed to a new, more informative and functional format on CD-ROM. The format is based on a geographic information system (GIS) user interface that allows the user to view map locations of the hydrologic monitoring stations and networks within respective river basins.

  18. Improving Water Quality With Conservation Buffers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowrance, R.; Dabney, S.; Schultz, R.

    2003-12-01

    Conservation buffer technologies are new approaches that need wider application. In-field buffer practices work best when used in combination with other buffer types and other conservation practices. Vegetative barriers may be used in combination with edge-of-field buffers to protect and improve their function and longevity by dispersing runoff and encouraging sediment deposition upslope of the buffer. It's important to understand how buffers can be managed to help reduce nutrient transport potential for high loading of nutrients from manure land application sites, A restored riparian wetland buffer retained or removed at least 59 percent of the nitrogen and 66 percent of the phosphorus that entered from an adjacent manure land application site. The Bear Creek National Restoration Demonstration Watershed project in Iowa has been the site of riparian forest buffers and filter strips creation; constructed wetlands to capture tile flow; stream-bank bioengineering; in-stream structures; and controlling livestock grazing. We need field studies that test various widths of buffers of different plant community compositions for their efficacy in trapping surface runoff, reducing nonpoint source pollutants in subsurface waters, and enhancing the aquatic ecosystem. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of different riparian grazing strategies on channel morphology, water quality, and the fate of livestock-associated pathogens and antibiotics. Integrating riparian buffers and other conservation buffers into these models is a key objective in future model development.

  19. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  3. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2111 Revised water... stream segments which have not, at least once since December 29, 1981, had their water quality...

  4. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2111 Revised water... stream segments which have not, at least once since December 29, 1981, had their water quality...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  6. WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF HYPORHEIC PROCESSING IN A LARGE RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality changes along hyporheic flow paths may have
    important effects on river water quality and aquatic habitat. Previous
    studies on the Willamette River, Oregon, showed that river water follows
    hyporheic flow paths through highly porous deposits created by river...

  7. National Water Quality Inventory, 1975 Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This document summarizes state submissions and provides a national overview of water quality as requested in Section 305(b) of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments (P.L. 92-500). This report provides the first opportunity for states to summarize their water quality and to report to EPA and Congress. Chapters of this report deal…

  8. Applications of spectroscopy to remote determination of water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, M. C.; Weiner, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    The use of remote laser Raman and molecular spectroscopic techniques to measure water quality is examined. Measurements cover biological, chemical, and physical properties of the water. Experimental results show chemical properties are harder to obtain remotely than biological or physical properties and that molecular spectroscopy seems to be the best method for obtaining water quality data.

  9. The Water Quality Portal: a single point of access for water quality data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreft, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Water Quality Portal (WQP) is a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) overseen by the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC). It was launched in April of 2012 as a single point of access for discrete water quality samples stored in the USGS NWIS and EPA STORET systems. Since launch thousands of users have visited the Water Quality Portal to download billions of results that are pertinent to their interests. Numerous tools have also been developed that use WQP web services as a source of data for further analysis. Since the launch of the Portal, the WQP development team at the USGS Center for Integrated Data Analytics has worked with USGS and EPA stakeholders as well as the wider user community to add significant new features to the WQP. WQP users can now directly plot sites of interest on a web map based on any of the 164 WQP query parameters, and then download data of interest directly from that map. In addition, the WQP has expanded beyond just serving out NWIS and STORET data, and provides data from the US Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service STEWARDS system, the USGS BioData system and is working with others to bring in additional data. Finally, the WQP is linked to another NWQMC-supported project, the National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), so WQP users can easily find the method behind the data that they are using. Future work is focused on incorporating additional biological data from the USGS BioData system, broadening the scope of discrete water quality sample types from STORET, and developing approaches to make the data in the WQP more visible and usable. The WQP team is also exploring ways to further integrate with other systems, such as those operated the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and other federal agencies to facilitate the overarching goal of improving access to water quality data for all users.

  10. Water quality mapping using Landsat TM imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Alias, A. N.; Wong, C. J.; Mustapha-Rosli, M. R.; Mohd Saleh, N.

    2009-05-01

    Environmental monitoring through the method of traditional ship sampling is time consuming and requires a high survey cost. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of Landsat TM imagery for total suspended solids (TSS) mapping using a newly developed algorithm over Penang Island. The study area is the seawater region around Penang Island, Malaysia. Water samples were collected during a 3-hour period simultaneously with the satellite image acquisition and later analyzed in the laboratory above the study area. The samples locations were determined using a handheld GPS. The satellite image was geometrically corrected using the second order polynomial transformation. The satellite image also was atmospheric corrected by using ATCOR2 image processing software. The digital numbers for each band corresponding to the sea-truth locations were extracted and then converted into reflectance values for calibration of the water quality algorithm. The proposed algorithm is based on the reflectance model that is a function of the inherent optical properties of water, which can be related to its constituent's concentrations. The generated algorithm was developed for three visible wavelenghts, red, green and blue for this study. Results indicate that the proposed developed algorithm was superior based on the correlation coefficient (R) and root-mean-square deviation (RMS) values. Finally the proposed algorithm was used for TSS mapping at Penang Island, Malaysia. The generated TSS map was colour-coded for visual interpretation and image smoothing was performed on the map to remove random noise. This preliminary study has produced a promising result. This study indicates that the empirical algorithm is suitable for TSS mapping around Penang Island by using satellite Landsat TM data.

  11. Criteria for acceptance to preprofessional dietetics programs vs desired qualities of professionals: an analysis.

    PubMed

    Moore, K K

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to examine the literature and compare and contrast (a) qualities preferred in preprofessional dietetics students by directors of internships and approved preprofessional practice programs (AP4s), (b) characteristics needed to succeed in a scientific field, (c) traits emphasized by dietetics training programs compared with those most valued by employers, (d) skills needed by high-level managerial dietitians and those in business and communications, and (e) qualities dietitians have aspired to develop for increased competitiveness in the marketplace. Even though the revised Standards of Education have been in place since 1988, recent evaluation of criteria for internship and AP4 admission has shown traditional emphasis on academic performance and the importance of work experience. Success in scientific pursuits has been linked with more than innate intelligence; a drive for success and enthusiasm for learning are also involved. Internships foster mostly technical learning, so development of skills in human and conceptual areas are somewhat lacking. These skills, which have been identified as valuable to employers, need greater development or more consistent identification in the selection and training process. Perhaps serious consideration should be given to applicants for preprofessional programs who have shown leadership qualities through extracurricular activities or who have given themselves the opportunity to develop and improve these skills. Such students might hasten the metamorphosis of dietetics practitioners toward improved levels of compensation and professional fulfillment. PMID:7798584

  12. Quality and sensory acceptability of a chilled functional apple ready-dessert.

    PubMed

    Keenan, D F; Brunton, N P; Gormley, T R; Butler, F

    2012-04-01

    An apple and dairy based ready-dessert with an added prebiotic was stored and chill temperatures and number of quality attributes were monitored during chill (4 °C) storage for 30 days. All ready-desserts were thermally processed by sous vide (P (90) > 10 min). The stability of the dairy component in ready-desserts was monitored by measuring volatile free fatty acids. Changes in these components were more evident in prebiotic-enriched samples compared to controls. However, no significant differences were observed over storage in control and prebiotic-enriched ready-desserts. This was supported by sensory analysis that showed no significant changes over storage in control or prebiotic-enriched samples. Of the other quality parameters, the addition of prebiotic inclusions resulted in lower L and b values and dry matter (p < 0.05), while increasing (p < 0.05) soluble solids content compared to control samples. Fluctuations in some of the quality parameters were also observed over storage. Rheological characteristics, i.e. flow behaviour (n), consistency index (K), storage (G'), loss (G″) and complex (G*) moduli were unaffected by prebiotic inclusion. However, storage affected the rheological characteristics of ready-desserts. A decrease (p < 0.05) in flow behaviour (n) led to concomitant increases in consistency index (K) and complex modulus (G*) values in control samples. PMID:22407955

  13. Criteria for acceptance to preprofessional dietetics programs vs desired qualities of professionals: an analysis.

    PubMed

    Moore, K K

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to examine the literature and compare and contrast (a) qualities preferred in preprofessional dietetics students by directors of internships and approved preprofessional practice programs (AP4s), (b) characteristics needed to succeed in a scientific field, (c) traits emphasized by dietetics training programs compared with those most valued by employers, (d) skills needed by high-level managerial dietitians and those in business and communications, and (e) qualities dietitians have aspired to develop for increased competitiveness in the marketplace. Even though the revised Standards of Education have been in place since 1988, recent evaluation of criteria for internship and AP4 admission has shown traditional emphasis on academic performance and the importance of work experience. Success in scientific pursuits has been linked with more than innate intelligence; a drive for success and enthusiasm for learning are also involved. Internships foster mostly technical learning, so development of skills in human and conceptual areas are somewhat lacking. These skills, which have been identified as valuable to employers, need greater development or more consistent identification in the selection and training process. Perhaps serious consideration should be given to applicants for preprofessional programs who have shown leadership qualities through extracurricular activities or who have given themselves the opportunity to develop and improve these skills. Such students might hasten the metamorphosis of dietetics practitioners toward improved levels of compensation and professional fulfillment.

  14. Investigating quality attributes and consumer acceptance of uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added commercial hams, bacons, and frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Sindelar, J J; Cordray, J C; Olson, D G; Sebranek, J G; Love, J A

    2007-10-01

    Increasing demands for natural, organic, and/or preservative-free foods have resulted in the consumer availability of uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added processed meat and poultry products. A comprehensive understanding about the quality and sensory attributes of commercially available uncured products is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if quality and sensory differences exist between uncured and cured meat products. Five different commercial brands (Brands A to E; 4 uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added, and 1 nitrite-added) of 3 product types (hams, frankfurters, and bacons) were obtained from retail supermarkets. The samples were evaluated for color, pigment content, pH, lipid oxidation, residual nitrate and nitrite content, and consumer acceptance. All brands from all product types evaluated, except for 1 bacon (Brand B), had cured color, aroma, and flavor attributes similar to the nitrite-added control (Brand E). All product types and brands contained residual nitrate and residual nitrite except for Brands B and D bacons (< 1 ppm nitrite). Lipid oxidation as measured by 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances revealed a large variation in the occurrence of lipid oxidation both between and within product types, with frankfurters reporting the highest levels. Color measurements indicated the majority of the brands within each product type were similar to the control. Consumer sensory ratings for surface/lean color, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall acceptance determined that variation existed. Brand E (nitrite-added control) and 1 uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added brand for each product type were not different (P > 0.05) for overall acceptance and received higher scores (P < 0.05) than all other brands within each product type. PMID:17995620

  15. 76 FR 295 - Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive... (``Commission'') proposes to amend its Water Quality Regulations (``WQR''), Water Code and Comprehensive Plan by adding a new Article 7 to the WQR providing for the conservation and development of water resources...

  16. The Maladies of Water and War: Addressing Poor Water Quality in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Water is essential in providing nutrients, but contaminated water contributes to poor population health. Water quality and availability can change in unstructured situations, such as war. To develop a practical strategy to address poor water quality resulting from intermittent wars in Iraq, I reviewed information from academic sources regarding waterborne diseases, conflict and war, water quality treatment, and malnutrition. The prevalence of disease was high in impoverished, malnourished populations exposed to contaminated water sources. The data aided in developing a strategy to improve water quality in Iraq, which encompasses remineralized water from desalination plants, health care reform, monitoring and evaluation systems, and educational public health interventions. PMID:23597360

  17. The maladies of water and war: addressing poor water quality in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Zolnikov, Tara Rava

    2013-06-01

    Water is essential in providing nutrients, but contaminated water contributes to poor population health. Water quality and availability can change in unstructured situations, such as war. To develop a practical strategy to address poor water quality resulting from intermittent wars in Iraq, I reviewed information from academic sources regarding waterborne diseases, conflict and war, water quality treatment, and malnutrition. The prevalence of disease was high in impoverished, malnourished populations exposed to contaminated water sources. The data aided in developing a strategy to improve water quality in Iraq, which encompasses remineralized water from desalination plants, health care reform, monitoring and evaluation systems, and educational public health interventions.

  18. The maladies of water and war: addressing poor water quality in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Zolnikov, Tara Rava

    2013-06-01

    Water is essential in providing nutrients, but contaminated water contributes to poor population health. Water quality and availability can change in unstructured situations, such as war. To develop a practical strategy to address poor water quality resulting from intermittent wars in Iraq, I reviewed information from academic sources regarding waterborne diseases, conflict and war, water quality treatment, and malnutrition. The prevalence of disease was high in impoverished, malnourished populations exposed to contaminated water sources. The data aided in developing a strategy to improve water quality in Iraq, which encompasses remineralized water from desalination plants, health care reform, monitoring and evaluation systems, and educational public health interventions. PMID:23597360

  19. Water quality in water lines of dental units in the public dental health service in Göteborg, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Alenäs-Jarl, Elna; Hjort, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    Presence of bacteria in high levels in the water lines of dental units is well known. The extent of this problem is however less well studied.This study was conducted to evaluate the water quality of all dental units within the Public Dental Health Service (Folktandvården, FTV) of the city of Göteborg, Sweden. 405 dental units in 35 clinics were tested.The evaluation included both "fast growing" (2 days incubation) and "slow growing" (7 days incubation) bacteria in 50 ml water sample from the units. The presence of potential pathogens, e.g., coliforms, Pseudomonas spp and Legionella pneumophila were also examined. Of the 405 dental units, 303 (75%) did not have acceptable (<100 CFU/ml fast growing and <5000 CFU/ml of slow growing bacteria) water quality. From 61 (15%) dental units in 13 clinics L. pneumophila were present but usually as few cells only. Immediate measures were introduced in Legionella positive units. No coliforms or Pseudomonas spp were detected. It can be concluded that the water in the dental units is generally not acceptable and does not fulfill drinking water standard. Many units have extremely high bacterial levels, which must be regarded as a risk for certain patient groups, e.g., immune-compromised and older patients. A general program for desinfection of all units of the Public Dental Health Service is needed.

  20. An Evaluation of Two Hydrograph Separation Methods of Potential Use in Regional Water Quality Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    Streamflow data are more useful for evaluating hydrologic model results and studying water quality once baseflow and storm runoff have been separated. However, it is important to select an appropriate hydrograph separation method. They examined tow methods and evaluated their conceptual basis, ease of application, cost of data processing, and acceptability of results. they chose the quick flow hydrograph separation method, which is in use at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, because it gives acceptable results and is easy and inexpensive to use. For regional assessment, they anticipate that the Coweeta program will be useful as an aid in developing general quantitative relationships between changes in land use and the associated changes in surface runoff yield and water quality degradation.

  1. Water quality in south-central Texas, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bush, Peter W.; Ardis, Ann F.; Fahlquist, Lynne; Ging, Patricia B.; Hornig, C. Evan; Lanning-Rush, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes major findings about water quality in south-central Texas that emerged from an assessment conducted between 1996 and 1998 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Water quality is discussed in terms of local and regional issues and compared to conditions found in all 36 NAWQA study areas, called Study Units, assessed to date. Findings also are explained in the context of selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. The NAWQA Program was not intended to assess the quality of the Nation’s drinking water, such as by monitoring water from household taps. Rather, the assessments focus on the quality of the resource itself, thereby complementing many ongoing Federal, State, and local drinking-water monitoring programs. The comparisons made in this report to drinking-water standards and guidelines are only in the context of the available untreated resource. Finally, this report includes information about the status of aquatic communities and the condition of instream habitats as elements of a complete water-quality assessment. Many topics covered in this report reflect the concerns of officials of State and Federal agencies, water-resource managers, and members of stakeholder groups who provided advice and input during the assessment. Residents who wish to know more about water quality in the areas where they live will find this report informative as well.

  2. Quantitative Prediction of Computational Quality (so the S and C Folks will Accept it)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemsch, Michael J.; Luckring, James M.; Morrison, Joseph H.

    2004-01-01

    Our choice of title may seem strange but we mean each word. In this talk, we are not going to be concerned with computations made "after the fact", i.e. those for which data are available and which are being conducted for explanation and insight. Here we are interested in preventing S&C design problems by finding them through computation before data are available. For such a computation to have any credibility with those who absorb the risk, it is necessary to quantitatively PREDICT the quality of the computational results.

  3. Southwest Principal Aquifers Regional Ground-Water Quality Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, D.W.; Thiros, S.A.; Bexfield, L.M.; McKinney, T.S.; Green, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifers in the southwestern United States. The Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the region to ground-water contamination by synthesizing the baseline knowledge of ground-water quality conditions in 15 basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. The improved understanding of aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability to contamination is assisting in the development of tools that water managers can use to assess and protect the quality of ground-water resources. This fact sheet provides an overview of the basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States and description of the completed and planned regional analyses of ground-water quality being performed by the SWPA study.

  4. Quality attributes and consumer acceptance of new ready-to-eat frozen restructured chicken.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Marcio Aurelio; Villanueva, Nilda Doris Montes; Gonçalves, José Ricardo; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a new restructured product, cooked and frozen ready-to-eat product that was prepared with boneless chicken meat (breast and drumstick) and mechanically separated chicken meat (MSCM). Non-meat ingredients, such as transglutaminase (TG) and egg albumin powder, were tested to obtain a better strength of adhesion between the meat particles. Five formulations for restructured chicken were developed as follows: T1 (1 % transglutaminase), T2 (1 % transglutaminase and 15 % MSCM), T3 (1 % egg albumin powder), T4 (1 % egg albumin powder and 15 % MSCM) and T5 (1 % transglutaminase, 1 % egg albumin powder and 15 % MSCM). The results of the experiment showed a greater luminosity (L*) in the treatments with TG (T1) and albumin (T3). The treatments without MSCM (T1 and T3) presented significantly lower mean values for redness (a*) when compared to treatments with MSCM (T2, T4 and T5) (p ≤ 0.05). No significant differences were noted between the treatments (p ≥ 0.05) when analyzing the percentage of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and cholesterol content. Consumer testing showed a high acceptance of the restructured products in all evaluated attributes. Similarly, with regard to the purchase intention, consumers mostly expressed that they would probably or certainly buy the products, for treatments T1, T2, T3 and T5. Moreover, the meat cuts with no commercial value, can transform into new ready-to-eat products that have a high probability of success in the market.

  5. Quality attributes and consumer acceptance of new ready-to-eat frozen restructured chicken.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Marcio Aurelio; Villanueva, Nilda Doris Montes; Gonçalves, José Ricardo; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a new restructured product, cooked and frozen ready-to-eat product that was prepared with boneless chicken meat (breast and drumstick) and mechanically separated chicken meat (MSCM). Non-meat ingredients, such as transglutaminase (TG) and egg albumin powder, were tested to obtain a better strength of adhesion between the meat particles. Five formulations for restructured chicken were developed as follows: T1 (1 % transglutaminase), T2 (1 % transglutaminase and 15 % MSCM), T3 (1 % egg albumin powder), T4 (1 % egg albumin powder and 15 % MSCM) and T5 (1 % transglutaminase, 1 % egg albumin powder and 15 % MSCM). The results of the experiment showed a greater luminosity (L*) in the treatments with TG (T1) and albumin (T3). The treatments without MSCM (T1 and T3) presented significantly lower mean values for redness (a*) when compared to treatments with MSCM (T2, T4 and T5) (p ≤ 0.05). No significant differences were noted between the treatments (p ≥ 0.05) when analyzing the percentage of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and cholesterol content. Consumer testing showed a high acceptance of the restructured products in all evaluated attributes. Similarly, with regard to the purchase intention, consumers mostly expressed that they would probably or certainly buy the products, for treatments T1, T2, T3 and T5. Moreover, the meat cuts with no commercial value, can transform into new ready-to-eat products that have a high probability of success in the market. PMID:25892785

  6. [Influence of water source switching on water quality in drinking water distribution system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Niu, Zhang-bin; Zhang, Xiao-jian; Chen, Chao; He, Wen-jie; Han, Hong-da

    2007-10-01

    This study investigates the regularity of the change on the physical and chemical water qualities in the distribution system during the process of water source switching in A city. Due to the water source switching, the water quality is chemical-astable. Because of the differences between the two water sources, pH reduced from 7.54 to 7.18, alkalinity reduced from 188 mg x L(-1) to 117 mg x L(-1), chloride (Cl(-)) reduced from 310 mg x L(-1) to 132 mg x L(-1), conductance reduced from 0.176 S x m(-1) to 0.087 S x m(-1) and the ions of calcium and magnesium reduced to 15 mg x L(-1) and 11 mg x L(-1) respectively. Residual chlorine changed while the increase of the chlorine demand and the water quantity decreasing at night, and the changes of pH, alkalinity and residual chlorine brought the iron increased to 0.4 mg x L(-1) at the tiptop, which was over the standard. The influence of the change of the water parameters on the water chemical-stability in the drinking water distribution system is analyzed, and the controlling countermeasure is advanced: increasing pH, using phosphate and enhancing the quality of the water in distribution system especially the residual chlorine.

  7. Refining models for quantifying the water quality benefits of improved animal management for use in water quality trading

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality trading (WQT) is a market-based approach that allows point sources of water pollution to meet their water quality obligations by purchasing credits from the reduced discharges from other point or nonpoint sources. Non-permitted animal operations and fields of permitted animal operatio...

  8. Water quality of hydrologic bench marks; an indicator of water quality in the natural environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biesecker, James E.; Leifeste, Donald K.

    1974-01-01

    Water-quality data, collected at 57 hydrologic bench-mark stations in 37 States, allow the definition of water quality in the 'natural' environment and the comparison of 'natural' water quality with water quality of major streams draining similar water-resources regions. Results indicate that water quality in the 'natural' environment is generally very good. Streams draining hydrologic bench-mark basins generally contain low concentrations of dissolved constituents. Water collected at the hydrologic bench-mark stations was analyzed for the following minor metals: arsenic, barium, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, and zinc. Of 642 analyses, about 65 percent of the observed concentrations were zero. Only three samples contained metals in excess of U.S. Public Health Service recommended drinking-water standards--two selenium concentrations and one cadmium concentration. A total of 213 samples were analyzed for 11 pesticidal compounds. Widespread but very low-level occurrence of pesticide residues in the 'natural' environment was found--about 30 percent of all samples contained low-level concentrations of pesticidal compounds. The DDT family of pesticides occurred most commonly, accounting for 75 percent of the detected occurrences. The highest observed concentration of DDT was 0.06 microgram per litre, well below the recommended maximum permissible in drinking water. Nitrate concentrations in the 'natural' environment generally varied from 0.2 to 0.5 milligram per litre. The average concentration of nitrate in many major streams is as much as 10 times greater. The relationship between dissolved-solids concentration and discharge per unit area in the 'natural' environment for the various physical divisions in the United States has been shown to be an applicable tool for approximating 'natural' water quality. The relationship between dissolved-solids concentration and discharge per unit area is applicable in all the physical

  9. Land use/land cover water quality nexus: quantifying anthropogenic influences on surface water quality.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Cyril O

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic forces widely influence the composition, configuration, and trend of land use and land cover (LULC) changes with potential implications for surface water quality. These changes have the likelihood of generating non-point source pollution with additional environmental implications for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Monitoring the scope and trajectory of LULC change is pivotal for region-wide planning, tracking the sustainability of natural resources, and meeting the information needs of policy makers. A good comprehension of the dynamics of anthropogenic drivers (proximate and underlying) that influence such changes in LULC is important because any potential adverse change in LULC that may be inimical to sustainable water quality might be addressed at the anthropogenic driver level rather than the LULC change stage. Using a dense time stack of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images, a hydrologic water quality and socio-geospatial modeling framework, this study quantifies the role of anthropogenic drivers of LULC change on total suspended solids and total phosphorus concentrations in the Lower Chippewa River Watershed, Wisconsin, at three time steps-1990, 2000, and 2010. Results of the study demonstrated that proximate drivers of LULC change accounted for between 32 and 59% of the concentration and spatial distribution of total suspended solids, while the extent of phosphorus impairment attributed to the proximate drivers ranged between 31 and 42%. PMID:26065891

  10. Land use/land cover water quality nexus: quantifying anthropogenic influences on surface water quality.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Cyril O

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic forces widely influence the composition, configuration, and trend of land use and land cover (LULC) changes with potential implications for surface water quality. These changes have the likelihood of generating non-point source pollution with additional environmental implications for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Monitoring the scope and trajectory of LULC change is pivotal for region-wide planning, tracking the sustainability of natural resources, and meeting the information needs of policy makers. A good comprehension of the dynamics of anthropogenic drivers (proximate and underlying) that influence such changes in LULC is important because any potential adverse change in LULC that may be inimical to sustainable water quality might be addressed at the anthropogenic driver level rather than the LULC change stage. Using a dense time stack of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images, a hydrologic water quality and socio-geospatial modeling framework, this study quantifies the role of anthropogenic drivers of LULC change on total suspended solids and total phosphorus concentrations in the Lower Chippewa River Watershed, Wisconsin, at three time steps-1990, 2000, and 2010. Results of the study demonstrated that proximate drivers of LULC change accounted for between 32 and 59% of the concentration and spatial distribution of total suspended solids, while the extent of phosphorus impairment attributed to the proximate drivers ranged between 31 and 42%.

  11. Microbiological water methods: quality control measures for Federal Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act regulatory compliance.

    PubMed

    Root, Patsy; Hunt, Margo; Fjeld, Karla; Kundrat, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) data are required in order to have confidence in the results from analytical tests and the equipment used to produce those results. Some AOAC water methods include specific QA/QC procedures, frequencies, and acceptance criteria, but these are considered to be the minimum controls needed to perform a microbiological method successfully. Some regulatory programs, such as those at Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 136.7 for chemistry methods, require additional QA/QC measures beyond those listed in the method, which can also apply to microbiological methods. Essential QA/QC measures include sterility checks, reagent specificity and sensitivity checks, assessment of each analyst's capabilities, analysis of blind check samples, and evaluation of the presence of laboratory contamination and instrument calibration and checks. The details of these procedures, their performance frequency, and expected results are set out in this report as they apply to microbiological methods. The specific regulatory requirements of CFR Title 40 Part 136.7 for the Clean Water Act, the laboratory certification requirements of CFR Title 40 Part 141 for the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the International Organization for Standardization 17025 accreditation requirements under The NELAC Institute are also discussed. PMID:24830168

  12. Role and design of water quality monitoring on forested watersheds

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.D.; Rasmussen, T.C.

    1993-01-01

    The role of water quality monitoring is important for resolving issues related to the selection of Best Management Practices for silvicultural nonpoint source pollution control. Water quality monitoring provides direct information related to the suitability of various management options and to the simulation of water quality processes. In addition to the traditional physical and chemical parameters, the monitoring should focus on other environmental and biological indicators of ecosystem structure and function. A framework for designing water quality monitoring systems is presented that includes the special conditions exhibited by forested watersheds.

  13. Recreational stream assessment using Malaysia water quality index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Hanisah; Kutty, Ahmad Abas

    2013-11-01

    River water quality assessment is crucial in order to quantify and monitor spatial and temporally. Malaysia is producing WQI and NWQS indices to evaluate river water quality. However, the study on recreational river water quality is still scarce. A study was conducted to determine selected recreational river water quality area and to determine impact of recreation on recreational stream. Three recreational streams namely Sungai Benus, Sungai Cemperuh and Sungai Luruh in Janda Baik, Pahang were selected. Five sampling stations were chosen from each river with a 200-400 m interval. Six water quality parameters which are BOD5, COD, TSS, pH, ammoniacal-nitrogen and dissolved oxygen were measured. Sampling and analysis was conducted following standard method prepared by USEPA. These parameters were used to calculate the water quality subindex and finally an indicative WQI value using Malaysia water quality index formula. Results indicate that all recreational streams have excellent water quality with WQI values ranging from 89 to 94. Most of water quality parameter was homogenous between sampling sites and between streams. An one-way ANOVA test indicates that no significant difference was observed between each sub index values (p> 0.05, α=0.05). Only BOD and COD exhibit slightly variation between stations that would be due to organic domestic wastes done by visitors. The study demonstrated that visitors impact on recreational is minimum and recreation streams are applicable for direct contact recreational.

  14. Water quality in Iowa during 1986 and 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of the water-quality monitoring, assessment, and control programs conducted in Iowa during 1986 and 1987. It was prepared to satisfy Section 305(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) which requires biennial water-quality reporting by each state. Discussions in the report include the following topics: surface-water quality, public health and aquatic life concerns, ground-water quality, special state concerns, point-source control programs, lake pollution-control programs, nonpoint source control programs, state program costs, surface-water monitoring programs, intensive water surveys, and DNR recommendations to EPA. A new requirement of the CWA addresses impairment of water bodies due to toxic and conventional pollutants. The section is addressed in detail in the report.

  15. MODIS water quality algorithms for northwest Florida estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synoptic and frequent monitoring of water quality parameters from satellite is useful for determining the health of aquatic ecosystems and development of effective management strategies. Northwest Florida estuaries are classified as optically-complex, or waters influenced by chlo...

  16. Water quality program elements for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Ramanathan, Raghupathy; Straub, John E.; Schultz, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A strategy is outlined for the development of water-quality criteria and standards relevant to recycling and monitoring the in-flight water for the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The water-reclamation subsystem of the SSF's ECLSS is described, and the objectives of the water-quality are set forth with attention to contaminants. Quality parameters are listed for potable and hygiene-related water including physical and organic parameters, inorganic constituents, bactericides, and microbial content. Comparisons are made to the quality parameters established for the Shuttle's potable water and to the EPA's current standards. Specific research is required to develop in-flight monitoring techniques for unique SSF contaminants, ECLSS microbial control, and on- and off-line monitoring. After discussing some of the in-flight water-monitoring hardware it is concluded that water reclamation and recycling are necessary and feasible for the SSF.

  17. A Geographically Variable Water Quality Index Used in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunnette, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the procedure developed in Oregon to formulate a valid water quality index which accounts for the specific conditions in the water body of interest. Parameters selected include oxygen depletion, BOD, eutrophication, dissolved substances, health hazards, and physical characteristics. (CS)

  18. National Water-Quality Inventory. 1988 Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This study is divided into four parts. Part one contains the introduction. Part two focuses on surface water quality (rivers and streams, lakes and reservoirs, the great lakes, estuaries and coastal waters, wetlands, public health/aquatic life concerns). Part three discusses ground-water quality (current ground-water use, ground-water protection programs). Lastly, part four describes water pollution control programs (point source control program, nonpoint source control program, surface water monitoring, costs and benefits of pollution control, and state recommendations).

  19. Design, Certification, and Deployment of the Colorimetric Water Quality Monitoring Kit (CWQMK)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Nolan, Daniel J.; Rutz, Jeff A.; Schultz, John R.; Siperko, Lorraine M.; Porter, Marc D.; Lipert, Robert J.; Flint, Stephanie M.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2010-01-01

    In August 2009, an experimental water quality monitoring kit based on Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE) technology was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard STS-128/17A. The kit, called the Colorimetric Water Quality Monitoring Kit (CWQMK), was flown and deployed as a Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) experiment on the ISS. The goal of the SDTO experiment is to evaluate the acceptability of CSPE technology for routine water quality monitoring on the ISS. This paper provides an overview of the SDTO experiment, as well as a detailed description of the CWQMK hardware and a summary of the testing and analysis conducted to certify the CWQMK for use on the ISS. The initial results obtained from the SDTO experiment are also reported and discussed in detail

  20. Drinking-water quality management: the Australian framework.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Rizak, Samantha

    The most effective means of assuring drinking-water quality and the protection of public health is through adoption of a preventive management approach that encompasses all steps in water production from catchment to consumer. However, the reliance of current regulatory structures on compliance monitoring of treated water tends to promote a reactive management style where corrective actions are initiated after monitoring reveals that prescribed levels have been exceeded, and generally after consumers have received the noncomplying water. Unfortunately, the important limitations of treated water monitoring are often not appreciated, and there is a widespread tendency to assume that intensification of compliance monitoring or lowering of compliance limits is an effective strategy to improving the protection of public health. To address these issues and emphasize the role of preventive system management, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council in collaboration with the Co-operative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment has developed a comprehensive quality management approach for drinking water. This Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality will assist water suppliers in providing a higher level of assurance for drinking water quality and safety. The framework integrates quality and risk management principles, and provides a comprehensive, flexible, and proactive means of optimizing, drinking-water quality and protecting public health. It does not eliminate the requirement for compliance monitoring but allows it to be viewed in the proper perspective as providing verification that preventive measures are effective, rather than as the primary means of protecting public health.

  1. Drinking-water quality management: the Australian framework.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Rizak, Samantha

    The most effective means of assuring drinking-water quality and the protection of public health is through adoption of a preventive management approach that encompasses all steps in water production from catchment to consumer. However, the reliance of current regulatory structures on compliance monitoring of treated water tends to promote a reactive management style where corrective actions are initiated after monitoring reveals that prescribed levels have been exceeded, and generally after consumers have received the noncomplying water. Unfortunately, the important limitations of treated water monitoring are often not appreciated, and there is a widespread tendency to assume that intensification of compliance monitoring or lowering of compliance limits is an effective strategy to improving the protection of public health. To address these issues and emphasize the role of preventive system management, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council in collaboration with the Co-operative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment has developed a comprehensive quality management approach for drinking water. This Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality will assist water suppliers in providing a higher level of assurance for drinking water quality and safety. The framework integrates quality and risk management principles, and provides a comprehensive, flexible, and proactive means of optimizing, drinking-water quality and protecting public health. It does not eliminate the requirement for compliance monitoring but allows it to be viewed in the proper perspective as providing verification that preventive measures are effective, rather than as the primary means of protecting public health. PMID:15371202

  2. Geospatial Water Quality Analysis of Dilla Town, Gadeo Zone, Ethiopia - A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhale, G. K.; Wakeyo, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Dilla is a socio-economically important town in Ethiopia, established on the international highway joining capital cities of Ethiopia and Kenya. It serves as an administrative center of the Gedeo Zone in SNNPR region of Ethiopia accommodating around 65000 inhabitants and also as an important trade centre for coffee. Due to the recent developments and urbanization in town and surrounding area, waste and sewage discharge has been raised significantly into the water resources. Also frequent rainfall in the region worsens the problem of water quality. In this view, present study aims to analyze water quality profile of Dilla town using 12 physico-chemical parameters. 15 Sampling stations are identified amongst the open wells, bore wells and from surface water, which are being extensively used for drinking and other domestic purposes. Spectrophotometer is used to analyze data and Gaussian process regression is used to interpolate the same in GIS environment to represent spatial distribution of parameters. Based on observed and desirable values of parameters, water quality index (WQI); an indicator of weighted estimate of the quantities of various parameters ranging from 1 to 100, is developed in GIS. Higher value of WQI indicates better while low value indicates poor water quality. This geospatial analysis is carried out before and after rainfall to understand temporal variation with reference to rainfall which facilitates in identifying the potential zones of drinking water. WQI indicated that 8 out of 15 locations come under acceptable category indicating the suitability of water for human use, however remaining locations are unfit. For example: the water sample at main_campus_ustream_1 (site name) site has very low WQI after rainfall, making it unfit for human usage. This suggests undertaking of certain measures in town to enhance the water quality. These results are useful for town authorities to take corrective measures and ameliorate the water quality for human

  3. Water Quality in the Yukon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Hooper, Rick; Landa, Ed

    2001-01-01

    The Yukon River Basin, which encompasses 330,000 square miles in northwestern Canada and central Alaska (Fig. 1), is one of the largest and most diverse ecosystems in North America. The Yukon River is also fundamental to the ecosystems of the eastern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea, providing most of the freshwater runoff, sediments, and dissolved solutes. Despite its remoteness and perceived invulnerability, the Yukon River Basin is changing. For example, records of air temperature during 1961-1990 indicate a warming trend of about 0.75 deg C per decade at latitudes where the Yukon River is located. Increases in temperature will have wide-ranging effects on permafrost distribution, glacial runoff and the movement of carbon and nutrients within and from the basin. In addition, Alaska has many natural resources such as timber, minerals, gas, and oil that may be developed in future years. As a consequence of these changes, several issues of scientific and cultural concern have come to the forefront. At present, water quality data for the Yukon River Basin are very limited. This fact sheet describes a program to provide the data that are needed to address these issues.

  4. Ambient aquatic life water quality criteria for hexachlorobenzene. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-31

    The Clean Water Act requires the EPA Administrator to publish water quality criteria that accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge on the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on health and welfare that might be expected from the presence of pollutants in any body of water. Pursuant to that end, the document proposes water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life. These criteria do not involve consideration of effects on human health.

  5. Guidelines for use of water-quality monitors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, A. Brice; Katzenbach, Max S.

    1983-01-01

    This manual contains methods and procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for collecting specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, water temperature, and pH data for ground water, streams, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries by means of permanently installed, continuously recording, water quality monitors. The topics discussed include the selection of monitoring sites, selection and installation of shelters and equipment, and standard methods of calibration, operation and maintenance of water-quality monitors.

  6. Environmental assessment of drainage water impacts on water quality and eutrophication level of Lake Idku, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ali, Elham M; Khairy, Hanan M

    2016-09-01

    Lake Idku, northern Egypt, receives large quantities of drainage water from four main discharging drains. Ecological and biological status of Lake Idku has been monitored during (autumn 2012 to summer 2013) to examine the lake water quality and eutrophication level in response to the quality as well as the source of the discharging water. Discrete water samples were collected from the lake body and the drains. Chemical analyses revealed an excessive nutrient load goes into the lake. A range of 1.4-10.6 mg nitrites/L was determined for drain waters, however a sudden increase was observed in lake and drain water samples of up to 84 and 74.5 mg/L, respectively. Reactive silicate ranged between 2.9 and 4.8 mg/L; while inorganic phosphate fluctuated between 0.2 and 0.43 mg/L. Transparency varied from 45 cm to 134 cm with better light conditions at drain sites. Biological results indicated a hyper-eutrophic status for the lake with a range of chlorophyll-a varied from a minimum of 39.9 μg/L (at Idku Drains) and a maximum of 104.2 μg/L (at El-Khairy drain). Phytoplankton community structure revealed higher abundance at lake sites compared with the drains. Maximum phytoplankton density was detected during summer with the dominance of Bacilariophyceae (e.g. Cyclotella meneghiniana, Cyclotella comate, Melosira varians) followed by Chlorophycean taxon (e.g. Scenedesmus dimorphus, S. bijuga and Crucigenia tetrapedia). Five indices were applied to evaluate the water quality of the lake. Diversity Index (DI) indicated slight to light pollution along all sites; while Sapropic Index (SI) indicated slight pollution with acceptable oxygen conditions and an availability of sensitive species. Palmer Index (PI) gave a strong evidence of high organic pollution at some sites in the lake, while Generic Diatom Index (GDI) revealed that levels of pollution varied from average to strong. Trophic Index (TI), suggest that there are an obvious signs of eutrophication in the lake. PMID

  7. Population and climate pressures on global river water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2015-04-01

    We present a global analysis of the combined effects of population growth and climate change on river water quality. In-stream Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) concentration is calculated along global river networks using past, current and future information on gridded population and river discharge. Our model accounts for the accumulation (from populated areas), transport, dilution, and degradation of BOD to reveal the combined effects of population growth and climate change on river water quality. From 1950 to 2000, our analysis indicates that rivers that flow through regions with increasing population undergo a prominent deterioration of water quality, especially in developing countries with a lack of treatment plants. By 2050, population growth and climate change have varying effects on degradation of river water quality, with their combined effect amplified in region undergoing both population growth (more pollutant loading) and decrease in discharge (less dilution capacity). Keywords: Population growth, Climate change, River water quality, Space-time analysis, Water management

  8. The need for water quality criteria for frogs.

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, R; Grue, C E

    1995-01-01

    Amphibians are considered reliable indicators of environmental quality. In the western United States, a general decline of frog populations parallels an apparent worldwide decline. The factors thought to be contributing to declines in frog populations include habitat loss, introduction of exotic species, overexploitation, disease, climate change, and decreasing water quality. With respect to water quality, agroecosystems use 80-90% of the water resources in the western United States, frequently resulting in highly eutrophic conditions. Recent investigations suggest that these eutrophic conditions (elevated pH, water temperature, and un-ionized ammonia) may be associated with frog embryo mortality or malformations. However, water quality criteria for frogs and other amphibians do not currently exist. Here, we briefly review data that support the need to develop water quality parameters for frogs in agroecosystems and other habitats. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 5. PMID:7607135

  9. Quality-control design for surface-water sampling in the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David K.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Lopes, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    The data-quality objectives of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program include estimating the extent to which contamination, matrix effects, and measurement variability affect interpretation of chemical analyses of surface-water samples. The quality-control samples used to make these estimates include field blanks, field matrix spikes, and replicates. This report describes the design for collection of these quality-control samples in National Water-Quality Assessment Program studies and the data management needed to properly identify these samples in the U.S. Geological Survey's national data base.

  10. A ground-water-quality monitoring program for Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowlin, Jon O.

    1986-01-01

    A program was designed for the systematic monitoring of ground-water quality in Nevada. Basic hydrologic and water-quality principles are discussed in the formulation of a rational approach to developing a statewide monitoring program. A review of ground-water monitoring efforts in Nevada through 1977 indicates that few requirements for an effective statewide program are being met. A suggested program has been developed that consists of five major elements: (1) A Background-Quality Network to assess the existing water quality in Nevada aquifers, (2) a Contamination Source Inventory of known or potential threats to ground-water quality, (3) Surveillance Networks to monitor ground-water quality in selected hydrographic areas, (4) Intensive Surveys of individual instances of known or potential ground-water contamination, and (5) Ground-Water Data File to manage data generated by the other monitoring elements. Two indices have been developed to help assign rational priorities for monitoring ground water in the 255 hydrographic areas of Nevada: (1) A Hydrographic-Area Priority Index for surveillance monitoring, and (2) A Development-Potential Index for background monitoring of areas with little or no current development. Requirements for efficient management of data from ground-water monitoring are discussed and the three major systems containing Nevada ground-water data are reviewed. More than 11,000 chemical analyses of ground water have been acquired from existing systems and incorporated into a prototype data base.

  11. National water-quality inventory: 1990 report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The contents of this report includes the following: executive summary; (rivers and streams, lakes and reservoirs, the great lakes, estuaries and coastal waters, wetlands, public health/aquatic life concerns, ground-water quality, state and federal ground-water protection programs); point source control program; nonpoint source control program; surface water monitoring; costs and benefits of pollution control; and state recommendations.

  12. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhihua; Morton, Lois Wright; Mahler, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report bottled water as their primary drinking water source when they perceive that drinking water is not safe. Furthermore, those who give lower ratings to the quality of their ground water are more likely to regularly purchase bottle water for drinking and use bottle water as their primary drinking water source. PMID:21556204

  13. Bottled water: United States consumers and their perceptions of water quality.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhihua; Morton, Lois Wright; Mahler, Robert L

    2011-02-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report bottled water as their primary drinking water source when they perceive that drinking water is not safe. Furthermore, those who give lower ratings to the quality of their ground water are more likely to regularly purchase bottle water for drinking and use bottle water as their primary drinking water source.

  14. Influence of oak maturation regimen on composition, sensory properties, quality, and consumer acceptability of cabernet sauvignon wines.

    PubMed

    Crump, Anna M; Johnson, Trent E; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Bastian, Susan E P

    2015-02-11

    Oak barrels have long been the preferred method for oak maturation of wine, but barrels contribute significantly to production costs, so alternate oak maturation regimens have been introduced, particularly for wines at lower price points. To date, few studies have investigated consumers' acceptance of wines made using non-traditional oak treatments. In this study, two Cabernet Sauvignon wines were aged using traditional (i.e., barrel) and/or alternative (i.e., stainless steel or plastic tanks and vats, with oak wood added) maturation regimens. Chemical and sensory analyses were subsequently performed to determine the influence on wine composition and sensory properties, that is, the presence of key oak-derived volatile compounds and perceptible oak aromas and flavor. The quality of a subset of wines was rated by a panel of 10 wine experts using a 20-point scoring system, with all wines considered technically sound. Consumer acceptance of wines was also determined. Hedonic ratings ranged from 5.7 to 5.9 (on a 9-point scale), indicating there was no significant difference in consumers' overall liking of each wine. However, segmentation based on individual liking scores identified three distinct clusters comprising consumers with considerably different wine preferences. These results justify wine producers' use of alternative oak maturation regimens to achieve wine styles that appeal to different segments of their target market.

  15. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  16. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  17. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement VIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials; related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and…

  18. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XVI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  19. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  20. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  1. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources, Supplement XIV (1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  2. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  3. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  4. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement XVIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  5. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XVII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  6. Current issues in schizophrenia: overview of patient acceptability, functioning capacity and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Martin; Naber, Dieter

    2004-01-01

    The increasing interest in the subjective wellbeing and quality of life (QoL) of patients with schizophrenia represents a conceptual extension of therapeutic outcome criteria. For a long time, the reduction of positive symptoms alone was the most important outcome parameter, but the development of atypical antipsychotic drugs in the early 1990s resulted in the adoption of more wide-reaching measures of therapeutic outcome. Patient satisfaction appears to be strongly related to their willingness to be or stay engaged in psychosocial and pharmacological treatment, and therefore to the symptomatic and functional outcome. Existing studies that deal with QoL and subjective wellbeing differ in their methodology and are difficult to compare because of varying underlying concepts of QoL or subjective wellbeing, different assessment scales or small sample sizes. Although QoL is a heterogeneous concept, it is clearly correlated with a number of factors, including illness, medication and stress process-related variables. Various protective factors have been identified; among these are personality traits, the degree of social support and treatment interventions. In clinical studies, atypical antipsychotic agents are associated with greater improvements in QoL and subjective wellbeing than are conventional agents. The reason for this is probably the ability of atypical agents to have a positive impact on factors most associated with QoL, such as negative and affective symptoms and drug tolerability. The most appropriate clinical approach to maximize QoL and subjective wellbeing for patients with schizophrenia is to use atypical antipsychotic drugs as a first-line treatment approach. Ideally, an atypical drug which is known not to have a negative effect on attention, affect or motivation should be chosen.

  7. Water quality problems associated with intermittent water supply.

    PubMed

    Tokajian, S; Hashwa, F

    2003-01-01

    A controlled study was conducted in Lebanon over a period of 12 months to determine bacterial regrowth in a small network supplying the Beirut suburb of Naccache that had a population of about 3,000. The residential area, which is fed by gravity, is supplied twice a week with chlorinated water from two artesian wells of a confined aquifer. A significant correlation was detected between the turbidity and the levels of heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPC) in the samples from the distribution network as well as from the artesian wells. However, a negative significant correlation was found between the temperature and the HPC count in the samples collected from the source. A statistically significant increase in counts, possibly due to regrowth, was repeatedly established between two sampling points lying on a straight distribution line but 1 km apart. Faecal coliforms were detected in the source water but none in the network except during a pipe breakage incident with confirmed Escherichia coli reaching 40 CFU/100 mL. However, coliforms such as Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans, E. cloacae and E. skazakii were repeatedly isolated from the network, mainly due to inadequate chlorination. A second controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of storage on the microbial quality of household storage tanks (500 L), which were of two main types - galvanized cast iron and black polyethylene. The mean bacterial count increased significantly after 7 d storage in both tank types. A significant difference was found in the mean HPC/mL between the winter and the summer. Highest counts were found April-June although the maximum temperature was reported later in the summer. A positive correlation was established between the HPC/mL and pH, temperature and storage time.

  8. Water quality status and trends in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Werkheiser, William H.; Ahuja, Satinder

    2013-01-01

    Information about water quality is vital to ensure long-term availability and sustainability of water that is safe for drinking and recreation and suitable for industry, irrigation, fish, and wildlife. Protecting and enhancing water quality is a national priority, requiring information on water-quality status and trends, progress toward clean water standards, continuing problems, and emerging challenges. In this brief review, we discuss U.S. Geological Survey assessments of nutrient pollution, pesticides, mixtures of organic wastewater compounds (known as emerging contaminants), sediment-bound contaminants (like lead and DDT), and mercury, among other contaminants. Additionally, aspects of land use and current and emerging challenges associated with climate change are presented. Climate change must be considered, as water managers continue their efforts to maintain sufficient water of good quality for humans and for the ecosystem.

  9. Evaluation of Xylem EXO water-quality sondes and sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snazelle, Teri T.

    2015-01-01

    Two models of multiparameter sondes manufactured by Xylem, parent company of Yellow Springs Incorporated (YSI)—EXO1 and EXO2—equipped with EXO conductivity/temperature (C/T), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and turbidity sensors, were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility. The sondes and sensors were evaluated in two phases for compliance with the manufacturer’s specifications and the USGS acceptance criteria for continuous water-quality monitors. Phase one tested the accuracy of the water-quality sondes equipped: (a) with a C/T, pH, DO, and turbidity sensor by comparing the EXO sensors’ measured values to those of an equivalently configured YSI 6920 V2-2 sensor, and (b) with multiple sensors of the same parameter type (such as three pH sensors and a C/T sensor) on a single sonde at room temperature and at an extended temperature range. In addition to accuracy, the communication protocols and the manufacturing specifications for range of detection and operating temperature were also tested during this phase. Phase two evaluated the sondes’ performance in a surface-water environment by deploying an EXO1 and an EXO2 equipped with pH, C/T, DO, and turbidity sensors at USGS site 02492620 located at East Pearl River near Bay Saint Louis, Mississippi. The EXO sondes’ temperature deviations from a certified YSI 4600 digital thermometer were within the ±0.2 degree Celsius (°C) USGS criteria, but were greater than the ±0.01 °C manufacturing specification. The conductivity sensors met the ±3 percent USGS criteria for specific conductance greater than 100 microsiemens per centimeter. The sensors met the more stringent ±0.5 percent manufacturing specification only at room temperature in the 250 microsiemens per centimeter (µS/cm) standard. The manufacturing and USGS criteria (±0.2 pH unit) were met in pH standards 4, 9.2, 10, and 12.45, but were not met in pH 1.68 standard. The DO sensors met both the ±0.3 milligram

  10. ASSESSING WATER CLARITY AS A COMPONENT OF WATER QUALITY IN GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) uses water clarity as a water quality indicator for integrated assessments. After the publication of the first National Coastal Condition Report, the national water clarity reference v...

  11. Water-quality assessment of the Merced River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, Stephen K.

    1982-01-01

    The Merced River and its major tributaries have been subject of water-quality and water-quantity studies by local, State, and Federal agencies since before 1900. Data have been compiled and analyzed, and even though water-quality problems exist in the basin, the water generally is of good quality for most of the beneficial uses defined by the California State Water Resources Control Board. Water-quality objectives for dissolved oxygen, pesticides, and pH were violated in some parts of the basin. The most likely cause of the dissolved-oxygen and pesticide violations is the return of agricultural irrigation water to the river in the lower 30 miles of the river. Violations of pH objectives occurred only in the upper drainage and were likely due to naturally occurring, poorly buffered water. Water quality is currently being monitored at three stations in the basin by California Department of Water Resources, at one station by the U.S. Geological Survey, and at several sites by the National Park Service. Modifications to the current water-quality monitoring program are proposed to gain further information on dissolved-oxygen fluctuations and pesticide concentrations in the lower river and to investigate nutrient input to Lake McClue. (USGS)

  12. Water Quality: Water Education for Teachers. A 4-H School Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, G. Morgan; Kling, Emily B.

    This looseleaf notebook is a teacher resource package that is designed for enrichment program use. It contains five units dealing with water quality: (1) The Water Cycle; (2) Our Water Supply; (3) Waste/Water Treatment; (4) Water Conservation; (5) Water Pollution. The units provide background information, experiments, stories, poems, plays, and…

  13. Ground-Water Quality in Western New York, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckhardt, David A.V.; Reddy, James E.; Tamulonis, Kathryn L.

    2008-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 7 production wells and 26 private residential wells in western New York from August through December 2006 and analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of ground water. Wells at 15 of the sites were screened in sand and gravel aquifers, and 18 were finished in bedrock aquifers. The wells were selected to represent areas of greatest ground-water use and to provide a geographical sampling from the 5,340-square-mile study area. Samples were analyzed for 5 physical properties and 219 constituents that included nutrients, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), phenolic compounds, organic carbon, and bacteria. Results indicate that ground water used for drinking supply is generally of acceptable quality, although concentrations of some constituents or bacteria exceeded at least one drinking-water standard at 27 of the 33 wells. The cations that were detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; anions that were detected in the highest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrients were nitrate and ammonia; nitrate concentrations were higher in samples from sand and gravel aquifers than in samples from bedrock. The trace elements barium, boron, copper, lithium, nickel, and strontium were detected in every sample; the trace elements with the highest concentrations were barium, boron, iron, lithium, manganese, and strontium. Eighteen pesticides, including 9 pesticide degradates, were detected in water from 14 of the 33 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded State or Federal Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs). Fourteen volatile organic compounds were detected in water from 12 of the 33 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded MCLs. Eight chemical analytes and three types of bacteria were detected in concentrations that exceeded Federal and State drinking-water standards, which are typically identical

  14. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Central Oklahoma aquifer, Oklahoma; hydrologic, water-quality, and quality-assurance data 1987-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferree, D.M.; Christenson, S.C.; Rea, A.H.; Mesander, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents data collected from 202 wells between June 1987 and September 1990 as part of the Central Oklahoma aquifer pilot study of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The report describes the sampling networks, the sampling procedures, and the results of the ground-water quality and quality-assurance sample analyses. The data tables consist of information about the wells sampled and the results of the chemical analyses of ground water and quality-assurance sampling. Chemical analyses of ground-water samples in four sampling networks are presented: A geochemical network, a low-density survey bedrock network, a low-density survey alluvium and terrace deposits network, and a targeted urban network. The analyses generally included physical properties, major ions, nutrients, trace substances, radionuclides, and organic constituents. The chemical analyses of the ground-water samples are presented in five tables: (1) Physical properties and concentrations of major ions, nutrients, and trace substances; (2) concentrations of radionuclides and radioactivities; (3) carbon isotope ratios and delta values (d-values) of selected isotopes; (4) concentrations of organic constituents; and (5) organic constituents not reported in ground-water samples. The quality of the ground water sampled varied substantially. The sum of constituents (dissolved solids) concentrations ranged from 71 to 5,610 milligrams per liter, with 38 percent of the wells sampled exceeding the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level of 500 milligrams per liter established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Values of pH ranged from 5.7 to 9.2 units with 20 percent of the wells outside the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level of 6.5 to 8.5 units. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations ranged from less than 0.1 to 85 milligrams per liter with 8 percent of the wells exceeding the proposed Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of trace substances were highly variable

  15. [Hygienic bases for management of bottled drinking water quality].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, D V; Mikhaĭlova, R I

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the existing normative requirements, by controlling the packaged drinking waters versus tap water; substantiates additions into a list, the regulated levels of a number of indices for this type of products, including those for the waters designed for babies, and the narrowed list of indices for state control. To assure the high quality of finished products, it is shown to be important to perform a sanitary-and-epidemiological study of raw water for pouring and finished products in full conformity with normative documents and to use current water conditioning technologies by the level of major biogenic elements to have physiologically adequate waters of high quality.

  16. Development of Water Quality Modeling in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes historical trends in water quality model development in the United States, reviews current efforts, and projects promising future directions. Water quality modeling has a relatively long history in the United States. While its origins lie in the work...

  17. Upper Washita River Experimental Watersheds: Nutrient Water Quality Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality datasets were acquired by the USDA-ARS in three large research watersheds in Oklahoma: the Southern Great Plains Research Watershed (SGPRW), and the Little Washita River and Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental Watersheds (LWREW and FCREW, respectively). Water quality data in the SGPRW we...

  18. Bacteriological Methods in Water Quality Control Programs. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This instructor's manual presents material on basic bacteriological laboratory procedures as required by Federal Register Water Quality Guidelines. Course topics include: characteristics, occurrences, and significance of bacterial indicators of pollution; bacteriological water quality standards and criteria; collection and handling of samples;…

  19. Bacteriological Methods in Water Quality Control Programs. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on basic bacteriological laboratory procedures as required by Federal Register Water Quality Guidelines. Course topics include: characteristics, occurrences, and significance of bacterial indicators of pollution; bacteriological water quality standards and criteria; collection and handling of samples;…

  20. How Can Remote Sensing Be Used for Water Quality Monitoring?

    EPA Science Inventory

    “How can remote sensing address information needs and gaps in water quality and quantity management?” was a workshop convened during the biennial National Water Quality Monitoring Conference 2014, held in Cincinnati, OH. The focus of this workshop was to provide an o...

  1. Long-term Trends in St. Louis River Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality impairments caused by sewage and industrial waste discharge into the St. Louis River have been a primary concern for clean-up efforts throughout the last century. Surveys dating back to 1928 reveal severely degraded water quality in much of the river below Fond du L...

  2. Primary Datasets for Case Studies of River-Water Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulder, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Level 6 (final-year BSc) students undertook case studies on between-site and temporal variation in river-water quality. They used professionally-collected datasets supplied by the Environment Agency. The exercise gave students the experience of working with large, real-world datasets and led to their understanding how the quality of river water is…

  3. Techniques of trend analysis for monthly water quality data.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, R.M.; Slack, J.R.; Smith, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the characteristics that complicate the analysis of water quality time series are non-normal distributions, seasonality, flow relatedness, missing values, values below the limit of detection, and serial correlation. Presented here are techniques that are suitable in the face of the complications listed above for the exploratory analysis of monthly water quality data for monotonic trends.-from Authors

  4. ANALYZING WATER QUALITY WITH IMAGES ACQUIRED FROM AIRBORNE SENSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring different parameters of water quality can be a time consuming and expensive activity. However, the use of airborne light-sensitive (optical) instruments may enhance the abilities of resource managers to monitor water quality in rivers in a timely and cost-effective ma...

  5. Estimating water-quality benefits: an econometric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.K.; Desvousges, W.H.; McGivney, M.P.

    1983-10-01

    This paper presents a generalized demand model for recreation sites that permits an evaluation of the recreation benefits associated with changes in the water-quality designations assigned to specific sites. This approach to modeling recreation demand may have important implications for the implementation of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) proposed changes in water quality regulations. 35 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  6. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... management planning. (a) From funds reserved under § 35.2020(d) the Regional Administrator shall make grants to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  7. DEVELOPING WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR SUSPENDED AND BEDDED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA’s Framework for Developing Suspended and Bedded Sediments (SABS) Water Quality Criteria (SABS Framework) is a nationally-consistent process for developing ambient sediment quality criteria for surface waters. The SABS Framework accommodates natural variation among wa...

  8. Great Lakes nearshore-offshore: Distinct water quality regions

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared water quality of nearshore regions in the Laurentian Great Lakes to water quality in offshore regions. Sample sites for the nearshore region were from the US EPA National Coastal Condition Assessment and based on a criteria or sample-frame of within the 30-m depth co...

  9. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  10. Nutrient Management Certification for Delaware: Developing a Water Quality Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David J.; Binford, Gregory D.

    2004-01-01

    Water quality is a critical environmental, social, and political issue in Delaware. In the late 1990s, a series of events related to water quality issues led to the passage of a state nutrient management law. This new law required nutrient management planning and established a state certification program for nutrient users in the agricultural and…

  11. Initial Influence of Fertilizer Nitrogen Types on Water Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using different sources of nitrogen as fertilizer in nursery ponds may affect water quality and plankton responses. We evaluated water quality variables and plankton population responses when using different nitrogen sources for catfish nursery pond fertilization. We compared calcium nitrate (12% ...

  12. Issues in water quality trading: Introduction to featured collection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality trading is a type of market mechanism for water pollution control. Policy makers have discovered that market mechanisms can play important roles in protecting and improving environmental quality by changing the economic signals an individual or firm faces. Potenti...

  13. Chapter 12: Uncertainty in measured water quality data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality assessment, management, and regulation continue to rely on measured water quality data, in spite of advanced modeling capabilities. However, very little information is available on one very important component of the measured data - the inherent measurement uncertainty. Although all ...

  14. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2111 Revised water quality standards. After December 29, 1984, no grant can be awarded for projects that discharge...

  15. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2111 Revised water quality standards. After December 29, 1984, no grant can be awarded for projects that discharge...

  16. Statistical Analysis of Regional Surface Water Quality in Southeastern Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodo, Byron A.

    1992-01-01

    Historical records from Ontario's Provincial Water Quality Monitoring Network for rivers and streams were analyzed to assess the feasibility of mapping regional water quality patterns in southeastern Ontario, spanning the Precambrian Shield and the St. Lawrence Lowlands. The study served as a model for much of Ontario. (54 references) (Author/MDH)

  17. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2023 Section 35.2023 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality management planning. (a) From...

  18. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35.2111 Section 35.2111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2111 Revised water quality standards. After December 29,...

  19. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2102 Section 35.2102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality management planning. Before...

  20. Phosphorus Indices: What is the water quality goal?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have collected water quality and land use data from plot- and field-scale studies throughout the South (AR, GA, MS, NC, OK, and TX). The water quality data provide information on runoff and P concentrations and loads. Land use data provide information on management practices, including the amount...