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Sample records for acceptance criteria based

  1. Criteria for Identifying Radiologists with Acceptable Screening Mammography Interpretive Performance based on Multiple Performance Measures

    PubMed Central

    Miglioretti, Diana L.; Ichikawa, Laura; Smith, Robert A.; Bassett, Lawrence W.; Feig, Stephen A.; Monsees, Barbara; Parikh, Jay R.; Rosenberg, Robert D.; Sickles, Edward A.; Carney, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Using a combination of performance measures, we updated previously proposed criteria for identifying physicians whose performance interpreting screening mammograms may indicate suboptimal interpretation skills. Materials and Methods In this Institutional Review Board-approved, HIPAA-compliant study, six expert breast imagers used a method based on the Angoff approach to update criteria for acceptable mammography performance on the basis of combined performance measures: (Group 1) sensitivity and specificity, for facilities with complete capture of false-negative cancers; and (Group 2) cancer detection rate (CDR), recall rate, and positive predictive value of a recall (PPV1), for facilities that cannot capture false negatives, but have reliable cancer follow-up information for positive mammograms. Decisions were informed by normative data from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC). Results Updated, combined ranges for acceptable sensitivity and specificity of screening mammography are: (1) sensitivity ≥80% and specificity ≥85% or (2) sensitivity 75–79% and specificity 88–97%. Updated ranges for CDR, recall rate, and PPV1 are: (1) CDR ≥6/1000, recall rate 3–20%, and any PPV1; (2) CDR 4–6/1000, recall rate 3–15%, and PPV1 ≥3%; or (3) CDR 2.5–4/1000, recall rate 5–12%, and PPV1 3–8%. Using the original criteria, 51% of BCSC radiologists had acceptable sensitivity and specificity; 40% had acceptable CDR, recall rate, and PPV1. Using the combined criteria, 69% had acceptable sensitivity and specificity and 62% had acceptable CDR, recall rate, and PPV1. Conclusion The combined criteria improve previous criteria by considering the inter-relationships of multiple performance measures and broaden the acceptable performance ranges compared to previous criteria based on individual measures. PMID:25794100

  2. Acceptance criteria for method equivalency assessments.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Marion J; Borman, Phil J

    2009-12-15

    Quality by design (ICH-Topic Q8) requires that process control strategy requirements are met and maintained. The challenging task of setting appropriate acceptance criteria for assessment of method equivalence is a critical component of satisfying these requirements. The use of these criteria will support changes made to methods across the product lifecycle. A method equivalence assessment is required when a change is made to a method which may pose a risk to its ability to monitor the quality of the process. Establishing appropriate acceptance criteria are a vital, but not clearly understood, prerequisite to deciding the appropriate design/sample size of the equivalency study. A number of approaches are proposed in the literature for setting acceptance criteria for equivalence which address different purposes. This perspective discusses those purposes and then provides more details on setting acceptance criteria based on patient and producer risk, e.g., tolerance interval approach and the consideration of method or process capability. Applying these to a drug substance assay method for batch release illustrates that, for the equivalence assessment to be meaningful, a clear understanding and appraisal of the control requirements of the method is needed. Rather than a single exact algorithm, the analyst's judgment on a number of aspects is required in deciding the appropriate acceptance criteria.

  3. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities.

  4. Hanford Site liquid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    LUECK, K.J.

    1999-09-11

    This document provides the waste acceptance criteria for liquid waste managed by Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (WMH). These waste acceptance criteria address the various requirements to operate a facility in compliance with applicable environmental, safety, and operational requirements. This document also addresses the sitewide miscellaneous streams program.

  5. Natural hazard losses and acceptable risk criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaleghy Rad, M.; Evans, S. G.; Nadim, F.; Lacasse, S.

    2009-12-01

    The criteria for the definition of acceptable risk to the lives of members of a society (commonly called societal risk) resulting from exposure to natural hazards are based in most countries on the frequency and characteristics of industrial accidents, e.g., nuclear power plants. However, historical records indicate that the frequency of natural hazard events is much higher than those involved in industrial hazards and their consequences are far greater. We find that the risk from natural hazards is unacceptable in the current risk criteria framework, i.e., they are an unacceptable risk with respect to the acceptable risk criteria based on the frequency and consequences of industrial accidents. According to a definition of risk, there are two main components; first, the probability of occurrence of the hazard and second, the consequence of the hazard. The occurrence of industrial accident events (hazard) can be controlled to a large extent in contrast to that of natural hazards. However, we can control natural hazard risk, in some cases by engineering solutions to control hazard and by reducing the consequences of the events by mitigating, risk management, warning and monitoring techniques. With reference to natural hazards reducing risk is mainly effected by reducing consequences. The FN-curve is a tool commonly used in societal risk assessment. It is built on a series of frequency-loss data associated with a particular process in a given period of time. It is also used to set acceptable risk criteria for countries or sub-national jurisdictions, by defining slopes and intercepts for plots of a particular (or group of) processes. The intercept of the acceptable risk curve is usually arbitrarily defined in the order of 10-7-10-1 deaths per year, and the slope criteria is based on an adopted aversion factor of the society to accident and disaster losses.The imposed slope criteria is usually between -1 and -2 whereas the slope of FN-curves based on real natural

  6. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  7. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  8. Steam generator tube integrity flaw acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Cochet, B.

    1997-02-01

    The author discusses the establishment of a flaw acceptance criteria with respect to flaws in steam generator tubing. The problem is complicated because different countries take different approaches to the problem. The objectives in general are grouped in three broad areas: to avoid the unscheduled shutdown of the reactor during normal operation; to avoid tube bursts; to avoid excessive leak rates in the event of an accidental overpressure event. For each degradation mechanism in the tubes it is necessary to know answers to an array of questions, including: how well does NDT testing perform against this problem; how rapidly does such degradation develop; how well is this degradation mechanism understood. Based on the above information it is then possible to come up with a policy to look at flaw acceptance. Part of this criteria is a schedule for the frequency of in-service inspection and also a policy for when to plug flawed tubes. The author goes into a broad discussion of each of these points in his paper.

  9. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-10-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  10. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  11. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-09-03

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  12. Acceptance Criteria Framework for Autonomous Biological Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Dzenitis, J M

    2006-12-12

    The purpose of this study was to examine a set of user acceptance criteria for autonomous biological detection systems for application in high-traffic, public facilities. The test case for the acceptance criteria was the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) operating in high-traffic facilities in New York City (NYC). However, the acceptance criteria were designed to be generally applicable to other biological detection systems in other locations. For such detection systems, ''users'' will include local authorities (e.g., facility operators, public health officials, and law enforcement personnel) and national authorities [including personnel from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the BioWatch Program, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)]. The panel members brought expertise from a broad range of backgrounds to complete this picture. The goals of this document are: (1) To serve as informal guidance for users in considering the benefits and costs of these systems. (2) To serve as informal guidance for developers in understanding the needs of users. In follow-up work, this framework will be used to systematically document the APDS for appropriateness and readiness for use in NYC.

  13. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-28

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept DOE non-radioactive classified waste, DOE non-radioactive hazardous classified waste, DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW), DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste for permanent disposal. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and will be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project (WMP) at (702) 295-7063, and your call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  14. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept the following: • DOE hazardous and non-hazardous non-radioactive classified waste • DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) • DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW) • U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste The LLW and MLLW listed above may also be classified waste. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and shall be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. Classified waste may be sent to the NNSS as classified matter. Section 3.1.18 provides the requirements that must be met for permanent burial of classified matter. The NNSA/NFO and support contractors are available to assist the generator in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management Operations (EMO) at (702) 295-7063, and the call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  15. STOL ride quality criteria - Passenger acceptance.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    The ability to mathematically model human reaction to variables involved in transportation systems offers a very desirable tool both for the prediction of passenger acceptance of proposed systems, and for establishing acceptance criteria for the system designer. As a first step in the development of a general model for STOL systems, a mathematical formulation is presented which accepts as inputs nine variables felt to be important in flight under STOL-type conditions and presents an index of human response as the output. The variables used are three linear motions, three angular motions, pressure, temperature and noise level. The results are used to establish specifications for stability augmentation systems to improve the ride quality of existing STOL aircraft.

  16. Acceptance criteria for urban dispersion model evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Steven; Chang, Joseph

    2012-05-01

    The authors suggested acceptance criteria for rural dispersion models' performance measures in this journal in 2004. The current paper suggests modified values of acceptance criteria for urban applications and tests them with tracer data from four urban field experiments. For the arc-maximum concentrations, the fractional bias should have a magnitude <0.67 (i.e., the relative mean bias is less than a factor of 2); the normalized mean-square error should be <6 (i.e., the random scatter is less than about 2.4 times the mean); and the fraction of predictions that are within a factor of two of the observations (FAC2) should be >0.3. For all data paired in space, for which a threshold concentration must always be defined, the normalized absolute difference should be <0.50, when the threshold is three times the instrument's limit of quantification (LOQ). An overall criterion is then applied that the total set of acceptance criteria should be satisfied in at least half of the field experiments. These acceptance criteria are applied to evaluations of the US Department of Defense's Joint Effects Model (JEM) with tracer data from US urban field experiments in Salt Lake City (U2000), Oklahoma City (JU2003), and Manhattan (MSG05 and MID05). JEM includes the SCIPUFF dispersion model with the urban canopy option and the urban dispersion model (UDM) option. In each set of evaluations, three or four likely options are tested for meteorological inputs (e.g., a local building top wind speed, the closest National Weather Service airport observations, or outputs from numerical weather prediction models). It is found that, due to large natural variability in the urban data, there is not a large difference between the performance measures for the two model options and the three or four meteorological input options. The more detailed UDM and the state-of-the-art numerical weather models do provide a slight improvement over the other options. The proposed urban dispersion model acceptance

  17. Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) V2.0 logistics module PBI acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Weidert, R.S.

    1995-02-28

    This document defines the acceptance criteria for the Automated Transportation Management System V2.0 Logistics Module Performance Based Incentive (PBI). This acceptance criteria will be the primary basis for the generation of acceptance test procedures. The purpose of this document is to define the minimum criteria that must be fulfilled to guarantee acceptance of the Logistics Module.

  18. Development of quantitative risk acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmeyer, J. M.; Okrent, D.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the major considerations for effective management of risk are discussed, with particular emphasis on risks due to nuclear power plant operations. Although there are impacts associated with the rest of the fuel cycle, they are not addressed here. Several previously published proposals for quantitative risk criteria are reviewed. They range from a simple acceptance criterion on individual risk of death to a quantitative risk management framework. The final section discussed some of the problems in the establishment of a framework for the quantitative management of risk.

  19. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    W. Mahlon Heileson

    2006-10-01

    The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

  20. Structural acceptance criteria Remote Handling Building Tritium Extraction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, G.

    1999-12-16

    This structural acceptance criteria contains the requirements for the structural analysis and design of the Remote Handling Building (RHB) in the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF). The purpose of this acceptance criteria is to identify the specific criteria and methods that will ensure a structurally robust building that will safely perform its intended function and comply with the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) structural requirements.

  1. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria, December 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    This document establishes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office waste acceptance criteria. The waste acceptance criteria provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites for storage or disposal.

  2. Acceptance Criteria for Aerospace Structural Adhesives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ADHESIVES, *AIRFRAMES, PRIMERS, STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION , DATA ACQUISITION , PARTICLE SIZE, ACCEPTANCE TESTS, ELASTOMERS, BONDING, QUALITY CONTROL, .

  3. Editorial: acceptance criteria and editorial procedures for Optics Letters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Andersen, Peter E; Justus, Brian L; Galtarossa, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Optics Letters Editors strive to provide timely reviews and decisions for authors while bringing top quality papers to the optics community. The purpose of this editorial is to explain Optics Letters' acceptance criteria and editorial procedures. Our hope is that greater transparency concerning the decision-making process will increase understanding as well as acceptance of our criteria and procedures.

  4. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1999-05-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the Nevada Test Site.

  5. Establishing seismic design criteria to achieve an acceptable seismic margin

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2). What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the Safe Shutdown Earthquake ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented.

  6. Acceptance criteria considerations for miscellaneous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, A.R.; Forsberg, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    EPA standards set forth limitations regarding releases to the accessible environment adjacent to a geologic repository. The NRC criteria pertaining to waste form and engineered barrier performance place certain restrictions on the physical and chemical nature of the waste form and require substantially complete confinement of radioactivity until the high-heat-production period is past. After this period, the annual release of radionuclides from the waste package is normally limited to 1 part in 100,000 of the amounts calculated to be present at 1000-y decay. The regulation permits deviation from these criteria in exceptional circumstances. One such circumstance might be the absence of a significant perturbation in temperature around the stored waste. The lack of significant heat release will eliminate the hydrologic driving force for dispersal of radionuclides. Exceptional circumstances which potentially could justify a less stringent long-term release criterion are: small quantity of radioactivity, the nature of the radioactive species, and the nature of the geology in which the waste is to be emplaced. Because the MW after a suitable decay period have low heat release rates per unit volume, they apparently could be so emplaced in a repository that there would be no compelling need, according to the reasoning presented in 10 CFR 60, for a 1000-y container. Regarding attainment of the specified long-term release rate criterion, neither the solubility limits for the various waste forms nor the conductance of potential migration barriers are currently adequately characterized. The relatively small total heat generation rate for the MW in combination with the usual low volumetric heat generation rate apparently will allow application of migration barriers in a low temperature environment where barrier performance would be expected to be unchanged with time.

  7. Implementation of acceptability criteria for dental radiology in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Clarijs, Tom

    2013-02-01

    The implementation of routine quality control (QC) tests in dental radiology in Belgium has been neglected for many years. In 2008, the (Belgian) Federal Agency for Nuclear Control determined acceptability criteria for X-ray equipment used for dentomaxillofacial imaging. An overview of the development of the criteria, together with implementation and the first results of dental QC in Belgium, is discussed.

  8. Heat exchanger, head and shell acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.S.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1992-09-01

    Instability of postulated flaws in the head component of the heat exchanger could not produce a large break, equivalent to a DEGB in the PWS piping, due to the configuration of the head and restraint provided by the staybolts. Rather, leakage from throughwall flaws in the head would increase with flaw length with finite leakage areas that are bounded by a post-instability flaw configuration. Postulated flaws at instability in the shell of the heat exchanger or in the cooling water nozzles could produce a large break in the Cooling Water System (CWS) pressure boundary. An initial analysis of flaw stability for postulated flaws in the heat exchanger head was performed in January 1992. This present report updates that analysis and, additionally, provides acceptable flaw configurations to maintain defined structural or safety margins against flaw instability of the external pressure boundary components of the heat exchanger, namely the head, shell, and cooling water nozzles. Structural and flaw stability analyses of the heat exchanger tubes, the internal pressure boundary of the heat exchangers or interface boundary between the PWS and CWS, were previously completed in February 1992 as part of the heat exchanger restart evaluation and are not covered in this report.

  9. DWPF COAL-CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL WORK (TANK 48 IMPACT STUDY)

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the results of both experimental and modeling studies performed using Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) simulants and FBSR product from Tank 48 simulant testing in order to develop higher levels of coal-carbon that can be managed by DWPF. Once the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process starts up for treatment of Tank 48 legacy waste, the FBSR product stream will contribute higher levels of coal-carbon in the sludge batch for processing at DWPF. Coal-carbon is added into the FBSR process as a reductant and some of it will be present in the FBSR product as unreacted coal. The FBSR product will be slurried in water, transferred to Tank Farm and will be combined with sludge and washed to produce the sludge batch that DWPF will process. The FBSR product is high in both water soluble sodium carbonate and unreacted coal-carbon. Most of the sodium carbonate is removed during washing but all of the coal-carbon will remain and become part of the DWPF sludge batch. A paper study was performed earlier to assess the impact of FBSR coal-carbon on the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) operation and melter off-gas flammability by combining it with SB10-SB13. The results of the paper study are documented in Ref. 7 and the key findings included that SB10 would be the most difficult batch to process with the FBSR coal present and up to 5,000 mg/kg of coal-carbon could be fed to the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. In the present study, a bench-scale demonstration of the DWPF CPC processing was performed using SB10 simulants spiked with varying amounts of coal, and the resulting seven CPC products were fed to the DWPF melter cold cap and off-gas dynamics models to determine the maximum coal that can be processed through the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. Based on the results of these experimental and modeling studies, the presence of coal-carbon in the sludge feed to DWPF is found to have

  10. Community acceptance of helicopter noise: Criteria and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munch, C. L.; King, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to define those criteria necessary for civil helicopter operations to be acoustically acceptable to the communities from which they operate and over which they fly. The study involved surveying existing domestic and foreign Federal regulations and guidelines, state and local noise ordinances, results of community noise annoyance studies, and results of individual aircraft noise annoyance studies, and results of individual aircraft noise annoyance studies in order to establish the criteria. The final criteria selection are based on the Day-Night Level, L sub DN, a measure of total noise exposure. The basic rating unit is the A weighted sound pressure level (dbA) which has accuracy comparable to other units currently used for aircraft. An L sub DN of 60 is recommended as a criterion for areas where the ambient noise is below 58 dbA. An L sub DN value 2 dbA above the local ambient is recommended for areas where the ambient is above 58 dbA.

  11. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA, JUNE 2006

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2006-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  12. MCO combustible gas management leak test acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    SHERRELL, D.L.

    1999-05-11

    Existing leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed multi-canister overpacks (MCO) were evaluated to ensure that MCOs can be handled and stored in stagnant air without compromising the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project's overall strategy to prevent accumulation of combustible gas mixtures within MCO's or within their surroundings. The document concludes that the integrated leak test acceptance criteria for mechanically sealed and weld sealed MCOs (1 x 10{sup -5} std cc/sec and 1 x 10{sup -7} std cc/sec, respectively) are adequate to meet all current and foreseeable needs of the project, including capability to demonstrate compliance with the NFPA 60 Paragraph 3-3 requirement to maintain hydrogen concentrations [within the air atmosphere CSB tubes] t or below 1 vol% (i.e., at or below 25% of the LFL).

  13. Establishment of noise acceptance criteria for wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. G.; Shepherd, K. P.; Grosveld, F.

    1981-01-01

    A program is being conducted to develop noise criteria for wind turbines which minimize annoyance and which can be used in design specifications for future machines. The approach consists of presenting wind turbine noise stimuli to test subjects in a laboratory listening chamber. The responses of the subjects are recorded for a range of stimuli which encompass the designs, operating conditions, and ambient noise levels of current and future installations. Results to date have established the threshold of detectability for a range of impulsive stimuli of the type associated with blade/tower-wake interactions. The status of the ongoing psychoacoustic tests, the subjective data, and the approach to the development of noise acceptance criteria are described.

  14. 78 FR 53483 - Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... COMMISSION Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Determination of inspections, tests, analyses, and..., tests, and analyses have been successfully completed, and that the specified acceptance criteria are...

  15. 78 FR 53484 - Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 4

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... COMMISSION Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 4 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Determination of inspections, tests, analyses, and..., tests, and analyses have been successfully completed, and that the specified acceptance criteria are...

  16. Technical Basis For Radiological Acceptance Criteria For Uranium At The Y-12 National Security Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Veinot, K. G.

    2009-07-22

    The purpose of this report is to establish radiological acceptance criteria for uranium. Other factors for acceptance not considered include criticality safety concerns, contaminants to the process stream, and impacts to the Safety Basis for the affected facilities. Three types of criteria were developed in this report. They include limits on external penetrating and non-penetrating radiation and on the internal hazard associated with inhalation of the material. These criteria are intended to alleviate the need for any special controls beyond what are normally utilized for worker protection from uranium hazards. Any proposed exceptions would require case-by-case evaluations to determine cost impacts and feasibility. Since Y-12 has set rigorous ALARA goals for worker doses, the external limits are based on assumptions of work time involved in the movement of accepted material plus the desire that external doses normally received are not exceeded, and set so that no special personnel monitoring would be required. Internal hazard controls were established so that dose contributions from non-uranium nuclides would not exceed 10% of that expected from the uranium component. This was performed using a Hazard Index (HI) previously established for work in areas contaminated with non-uranium nuclides. The radiological acceptance criteria for uranium are summarized in Table 1. Note that these limits are based on the assumption that radioactive daughter products have reached equilibrium.

  17. Radioactive waste acceptance team and generator interface yields successful implementation of waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, J.G.; Griffin, W.A.; Rast, D.M.

    1996-02-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project has developed a successful Low Level Waste Shipping Program in compliance with the Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements, NVO-325, Revision 1. This shipping program is responsible for the successful disposal of more than 4 million cubic feet of Low Level Waste over the past decade. The success of the Fernald Low Level Waste Shipping Program is due to the generator program staff working closely with the DOE-NV Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program Team to achieve win/win situations. The teamwork is the direct result of dedicated, proactive professionals working together toward a common objective: the safe disposition of low level radioactive waste. The growth and development of this program has many lessons learned to share with the low level waste generating community. The recognition of reciprocal interests enables consistently high annual volumes of Fernald waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site without incident. The large volumes successfully disposed serve testimony to the success of the program which is equally important to all Nevada Test Site and Fernald stakeholders. The Fernald approach to success is currently being shared with other low-level waste generators through DOE-NV sponsored outreach programs. This paper introduces examples of Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation contributions to the DOE-NV Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program outreach initiatives. These practices are applicable to other low level waste disposal programs whether federal, commercial, domestic or international.

  18. How to pass a sensor acceptance test: using the gap between acceptance criteria and operational performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, Piet

    2016-10-01

    When acquiring a new imaging system and operational task performance is a critical factor for success, it is necessary to specify minimum acceptance requirements that need to be met using a sensor performance model and/or performance tests. Currently, there exist a variety of models and test from different origin (defense, security, road safety, optometry) and they all do different predictions. This study reviews a number of frequently used methods and shows the effects that small changes in procedure or threshold criteria can have on the outcome of a test. For example, a system may meet the acceptance requirements but not satisfy the needs for the operational task, or the choice of test may determine the rank order of candidate sensors. The goal of the paper is to make people aware of the pitfalls associated with the acquisition process, by i) illustrating potential tricks to have a system accepted that is actually not suited for the operational task, and ii) providing tips to avoid this unwanted situation.

  19. Nevada Test Site waste acceptance criteria [Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Revision one updates the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the NTS. Review each section of this document. This document is not intended to include all of the requirements; rather, it is meant as a guide toward meeting the regulations. All references in this document should be observed to avoid omission of requirements on which acceptance or rejection of waste will be based. The Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document.

  20. 46 CFR 164.019-7 - Non-standard components; acceptance criteria and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... identification number. (3) The report of a recognized laboratory's test data in accordance with the “acceptance... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-standard components; acceptance criteria and... Components § 164.019-7 Non-standard components; acceptance criteria and procedures. (a) General....

  1. Data Quality Objectives for WTP Feed Acceptance Criteria - 12043

    SciTech Connect

    Arakali, Aruna V.; Benson, Peter A.; Duncan, Garth; Johnston, Jill C.; Lane, Thomas A.; Matis, George; Olson, John W.; Banning, Davey L.; Greer, Daniel A.; Seidel, Cary M.; Thien, Michael G.

    2012-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is under construction for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel National, Inc. and subcontractor URS Corporation (contract no. DE-AC27-01RV14136). The plant when completed will be the world's largest nuclear waste treatment facility. Bechtel and URS are tasked with designing, constructing, commissioning, and transitioning the plant to the long term operating contractor to process the legacy wastes that are stored in underground tanks (from nuclear weapons production between the 1940's and the 1980's). Approximately 56 million gallons of radioactive waste is currently stored in these tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. There are three major WTP facilities being constructed for processing the tank waste feed. The Pretreatment (PT) facility receives feed where it is separated into a low activity waste (LAW) fraction and a high level waste (HLW) fraction. These fractions are transferred to the appropriate (HLW or LAW) facility, combined with glass former material, and sent to high temperature melters for formation of the glass product. In addition to PT, HLW and LAW, other facilities in WTP include the Laboratory (LAB) for analytical services and the Balance of Facilities (BOF) for plant maintenance, support and utility services. The transfer of staged feed from the waste storage tanks and acceptance in WTP receipt vessels require data for waste acceptance criteria (WAC) parameters from analysis of feed samples. The Data Quality Objectives (DQO) development was a joint team effort between WTP and Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) representatives. The focus of this DQO effort was to review WAC parameters and develop data quality requirements, the results of which will determine whether or not the staged feed can be transferred from the TOC to WTP receipt vessels. The approach involved systematic planning for data collection consistent with EPA guidance for the seven-step DQO process

  2. 7 CFR 42.107 - Lot acceptance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and class of defects enumerated on the worksheet to the acceptance and rejection numbers shown in §§ 42.109 through 42.111 for the respective sample size and Acceptable Quality Level (AQL). (b) Unless otherwise specified, use the following AQL's for the respective class of defects: Defect class AQL at...

  3. 24 CFR 203.202 - Plan acceptability and acceptance renewal criteria-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUD acceptance of such change or modification, except that changes mandated by other applicable laws... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plan acceptability and acceptance... Underwriting Procedures Insured Ten-Year Protection Plans (plan) § 203.202 Plan acceptability and...

  4. 46 CFR 54.05-17 - Weld toughness test acceptance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weld toughness test acceptance criteria. 54.05-17... PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-17 Weld toughness test acceptance criteria. (a) For Charpy V-notch impact tests the energy absorbed in both the weld metal and heat affected zone impact tests in...

  5. 46 CFR 28.275 - Acceptance criteria for instructors and course curricula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance criteria for instructors and course curricula... the Aleutian Trade § 28.275 Acceptance criteria for instructors and course curricula. (a) A Fishing Vessel Safety Instructor shall submit a detailed course curriculum that relates directly to...

  6. Development of Waste Acceptance Criteria at 221-U Building: Initial Flow and Transport Scoping Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.; Chen, Yousu

    2007-05-30

    This report documents numerical flow and transport simulations performed that establish initial waste acceptance criteria for the potential waste streams that may be safely sequestered in the 221-U Building and similar canyon structures. Specifically, simulations were executed to identify the maximum loading of contaminant mass (without respect to volume) that can be emplaced within the 221-U Building with no more than 1 pCi/m2 of contaminant migrating outside the structure within a 1,000 year time period. The initial scoping simulations were executed in one dimension to assess important processes, and then two dimensions to establish waste acceptance criteria. Two monolithic conditions were assessed: (1) a grouted canyon monolith; and (2) a canyon monolith filled with sand, both assuming no cracks or fissures were present to cause preferential transport. A three-staged approach was taken to account for different processes that may impact the amount of contaminant that can be safely sequestered in canyon structure. In the first stage, flow and transport simulations established waste acceptance criteria based on a linear (Kd) isotherm approach. In the second stage, impacts on thermal loading were examined and the differences in waste acceptance criteria quantified. In the third stage of modeling, precipitation/dissolution reactions were considered on the release and transport of the contaminants, and the subsequent impact on the maximum contaminant loading. The reactive transport modeling is considered a demonstration of the reactive transport capability, and shows the importance of its use for future performance predictions once site-specific data have been obtained.

  7. Variation transmission model for setting acceptance criteria in a multi-staged pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Montes, Richard O

    2012-03-01

    Pharmaceutical manufacturing processes consist of a series of stages (e.g., reaction, workup, isolation) to generate the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Outputs at intermediate stages (in-process control) and API need to be controlled within acceptance criteria to assure final drug product quality. In this paper, two methods based on tolerance interval to derive such acceptance criteria will be evaluated. The first method is serial worst case (SWC), an industry risk minimization strategy, wherein input materials and process parameters of a stage are fixed at their worst-case settings to calculate the maximum level expected from the stage. This maximum output then becomes input to the next stage wherein process parameters are again fixed at worst-case setting. The procedure is serially repeated throughout the process until the final stage. The calculated limits using SWC can be artificially high and may not reflect the actual process performance. The second method is the variation transmission (VT) using autoregressive model, wherein variation transmitted up to a stage is estimated by accounting for the recursive structure of the errors at each stage. Computer simulations at varying extent of variation transmission and process stage variability are performed. For the scenarios tested, VT method is demonstrated to better maintain the simulated confidence level and more precisely estimate the true proportion parameter than SWC. Real data examples are also presented that corroborate the findings from the simulation. Overall, VT is recommended for setting acceptance criteria in a multi-staged pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  8. 46 CFR 164.120-7 - Acceptance criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Fire Retardant Resins for Lifeboats and Rescue Boats § 164.120-7 Acceptance... Lifesaving Equipment 1 Property Test methods (c) Material Identification Tests 2 (1) Uncatalyzed Liquid...

  9. Elastic-Plastic Strain Acceptance Criteria for Structures Subject to Rapidly Applied Transient Dynamic Loading

    SciTech Connect

    W.R. Solonick

    2003-04-01

    Rapidly applied transient dynamic loads produce stresses and deflections in structures that typically exceed those from static loading conditions. Previous acceptance criteria for structures designed for rapidly applied transient dynamic loading limited stresses to those determined from elastic analysis. Different stress limits were established for different grades of structure depending upon the amount of permanent set considered acceptable. Structure allowed to sustain very limited permanent set is designed to stress limits not significantly greater than yield stress. Greater permanent set in structure under rapidly applied transient dynamic loading conditions is permitted by establishing stress limits that are significantly greater than yield stress but still provide adequate safety margin (with respect to failure). This paper presents a strain-based elastic-plastic (i.e., inelastic) analysis criterion developed as an alternative to the more conservative stress-based elastic analysis stress criterion for structures subjected to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading. The strain limits established are based on material ductility considerations only and are set as a fraction of the strain at ultimate stress obtained from an engineering stress/strain curve of the material. Strains limits are categorized by type as membrane or surface and by region as general, local , or concentrated. The application of the elastic-plastic criterion provides a more accurate, less conservative design/analysis basis for structures than that used in elastic stress-based analysis criteria, while still providing adequate safety margins.

  10. Example Procedures for Developing Acceptance-Range Criteria for BESTEST-EX

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Polly, B.; Bianchi, M.; Neymark, J.

    2010-08-01

    This document provides an example procedure for establishing acceptance-range criteria to assess results from software undergoing BESTEST-EX. This example method for BESTEST-EX is a modified version of the method described in HERS BESTEST.

  11. 10 CFR 50.46a - Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting... criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems. Each nuclear power reactor must be provided with high point vents for the reactor coolant system, for the reactor vessel head, and for other systems...

  12. 10 CFR 50.46a - Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting... criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems. Each nuclear power reactor must be provided with high point vents for the reactor coolant system, for the reactor vessel head, and for other systems...

  13. Preliminary Mark-18A (Mk-18A) Target Material Recovery Program Product Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Sharon M.; Patton, Bradley D.

    2016-09-01

    The Mk-18A Target Material Recovery Program (MTMRP) was established in 2015 to preserve the unique materials, e.g. 244Pu, in 65 previously irradiated Mk-18A targets for future use. This program utilizes existing capabilities at SRS and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to process targets, recover materials from them, and to package the recovered materials for shipping to ORNL. It also utilizes existing capabilities at ORNL to receive and store the recovered materials, and to provide any additional processing of the recovered materials or residuals required to prepare them for future beneficial use. The MTMRP is presently preparing for the processing of these valuable targets which is expected to begin in ~2019. As part of the preparations for operations, this report documents the preliminary acceptance criteria for the plutonium and heavy curium materials to be recovered from the Mk-18A targets at SRNL for transport and storage at ORNL. These acceptance criteria were developed based on preliminary concepts developed for processing, transporting, and storing the recovered Mk-18A materials. They will need to be refined as these concepts are developed in more detail.

  14. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC), Rev. 7-01

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-05-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NTSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal.

  15. Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-12-29

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the waste acceptance criteria applicable to the transportation, storage, and disposal of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These criteria serve as the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) primary directive for ensuring that CH-TRU waste is managed and disposed of in a manner that protects human health and safety and the environment.The authorization basis of WIPP for the disposal of CH-TRU waste includes the U.S.Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear EnergyAuthorization Act of 1980 (reference 1) and the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA;reference 2). Included in this document are the requirements and associated criteriaimposed by these acts and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA,reference 3), as amended, on the CH-TRU waste destined for disposal at WIPP.|The DOE TRU waste sites must certify CH-TRU waste payload containers to thecontact-handled waste acceptance criteria (CH-WAC) identified in this document. Asshown in figure 1.0, the flow-down of applicable requirements to the CH-WAC istraceable to several higher-tier documents, including the WIPP operational safetyrequirements derived from the WIPP CH Documented Safety Analysis (CH-DSA;reference 4), the transportation requirements for CH-TRU wastes derived from theTransuranic Package Transporter-Model II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT Certificates ofCompliance (references 5 and 5a), the WIPP LWA (reference 2), the WIPP HazardousWaste Facility Permit (reference 6), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) Compliance Certification Decision and approval for PCB disposal (references 7,34, 35, 36, and 37). The solid arrows shown in figure 1.0 represent the flow-down of allapplicable payload container-based requirements. The two dotted arrows shown infigure 1.0 represent the flow-down of summary level requirements only; i.e., the sitesmust reference the regulatory source

  16. Waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This Revision 4 of the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), WIPP-DOE-069, identifies and consolidates existing criteria and requirements which regulate the safe handling and preparation of Transuranic (TRU) waste packages for transportation to and emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This consolidation does not invalidate any existing certification of TRU waste to the WIPP Operations and Safety Criteria (Revision 3 of WIPP-DOE--069) and/or Transportation: Waste Package Requirements (TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging [SARP]). Those documents being consolidated, including Revision 3 of the WAC, currently support the Test Phase.

  17. 48 CFR 915.607 - Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal. 915.607 Section 915.607 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 915.607 Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal. (c) DOE's...

  18. 48 CFR 15.607 - Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal. 15.607 Section 15.607 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 15.607 Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal. (a)...

  19. 48 CFR 15.607 - Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal. 15.607 Section 15.607 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 15.607 Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal. (a)...

  20. 48 CFR 915.607 - Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal. 915.607 Section 915.607 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Unsolicited Proposals 915.607 Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal. (c) DOE's...

  1. 46 CFR 164.019-5 - Standard components; acceptance criteria and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard components; acceptance criteria and procedures. 164.019-5 Section 164.019-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Personal Flotation...

  2. 46 CFR 164.019-5 - Standard components; acceptance criteria and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard components; acceptance criteria and procedures. 164.019-5 Section 164.019-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Personal Flotation...

  3. 77 FR 51880 - Requirements for Maintenance of Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 2 and 52 RIN 3150-AI77 Requirements for Maintenance of Inspections, Tests, Analyses... regulations related to verification of nuclear power plant construction activities through inspections, tests... determining that inspections, tests, or analyses were performed as required, or that acceptance criteria...

  4. La composition academique: les limites de l'acceptabilite (Composition for Academic Purposes: Criteria for Acceptability).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenall, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the pedagogical approaches and problems attendant to the development of English writing programs for foreign students. Discusses the skills necessary to handle course work, such as essay tests, term papers and reports, theses and dissertations, and focuses particularly on diagnostic problems and acceptability criteria. Societe Nouvelle…

  5. 48 CFR 915.607 - Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal. 915.607 Section 915.607 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION...

  6. 48 CFR 915.607 - Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal. 915.607 Section 915.607 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION...

  7. 48 CFR 915.607 - Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Criteria for acceptance and negotiation of an unsolicited proposal. 915.607 Section 915.607 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION...

  8. Parents' "Hard" Knowledge of Admission Criteria and Acceptance in Philadelphia's High School Choice Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haxton, Clarisse L.; Neild, Ruth Curran

    2012-01-01

    We examine parents' knowledge of discrete, verifiable facts--what we call "hard knowledge"--in a high school application process. Using parent survey data (n = 658) from the School District of Philadelphia, this study examines whether parents knew the admission criteria and acceptance rate at the high school they most wanted their child…

  9. LANL Waste acceptance criteria, Chapter 3, radioactive liquid waste treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    McClenahan, Robert L.

    2006-08-01

    The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) receives and treats aqueous radioactive wastewater generated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to meet he discharge criteria specified in a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. The majority of this wastewater is received at the RLWTF through a network of buried pipelines, known as the Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System (RLWCS). Other wastewater is transported to the RLWTF by truck. The Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) outlined in this Chapter are applicable to all radioactive wastewaters which are conveyed to the Technical Area 50(T A-50), RL WTF by the RLWCS or by truck.

  10. Addressing patient safety through the use of 'criteria of acceptability' for medical radiation equipment.

    PubMed

    Gilley, Debbie Bray; Holmberg, Ola

    2013-02-01

    Patient safety should be considered in the use of ionising radiation equipment in medicine. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) establishes standards of safety and provides for the application of these standards, also in the area of medical use of radiation. Equipment acceptability, as it relates to radiation in medicine, is the need to satisfy the requirements or standards prior to the use of the device in patient imaging or treatment. Through IAEA activities in establishing and developing Safety Standards, Safety Reports and recommendations to regulatory authorities and end-users, it encourages the adoption of acceptability criteria that are relevant to the medical equipment and its use.

  11. 10 CFR 51.108 - Public hearings on Commission findings that inspections, tests, analyses, and acceptance criteria...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., tests, analyses, and acceptance criteria of combined licenses are met. 51.108 Section 51.108 Energy...) Production and Utilization Facilities § 51.108 Public hearings on Commission findings that inspections, tests, analyses, and acceptance criteria of combined licenses are met. In any public hearing requested under...

  12. 10 CFR 51.108 - Public hearings on Commission findings that inspections, tests, analyses, and acceptance criteria...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., tests, analyses, and acceptance criteria of combined licenses are met. 51.108 Section 51.108 Energy...) Production and Utilization Facilities § 51.108 Public hearings on Commission findings that inspections, tests, analyses, and acceptance criteria of combined licenses are met. In any public hearing requested under...

  13. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... of Licenses and Construction Permits § 50.60 Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) have been submitted, must meet the fracture toughness and...

  14. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... of Licenses and Construction Permits § 50.60 Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) have been submitted, must meet the fracture toughness and...

  15. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... of Licenses and Construction Permits § 50.60 Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for... certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) have been submitted, must meet the fracture toughness and...

  16. Corrosion control acceptance criteria for sacrificial anode type, cathodic protection systems (user guide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, Vincent F.; Noble, Michael; McLeod, Malcolm E.

    1994-07-01

    The Army currently operates and maintains more than 20,000 underground storage tanks and over 3000 miles of underground gas pipelines, all of which require some form of corrosion control. Cathodic protection is one method of corrosion control used to prevent corrosion-induced leaks when a steel structure is exposed to an aggressive soil. The corrosion control acceptance criteria for sacrificial anode type CP systems provides guidelines for the DEH/DPW cathodic protection installation inspectors whose responsibilities are to ensure that the materials and equipment specified are delivered to the job site and subsequently installed in accordance with the engineering drawings and specifications. The sacrificial anode CP acceptance criteria includes all components for the sacrificial anode system such as insulated conductors, anodes, anode backfills, and auxiliary equipment. The sacrificial anode CP acceptance criteria is composed of a checklist that lists each component and that contains a space for the inspector to either check 'yes' or 'no' to indicate whether the component complies with the job specifications. In some cases, the inspector must measure and record physical dimensions or electrical output and compare the measurements to standards shown in attached tables.

  17. Tissue dissociation enzymes for isolating human islets for transplantation: factors to consider in setting enzyme acceptance criteria.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Robert C; Breite, Andrew G; Green, Michael L; Dwulet, Francis E

    2011-01-27

    Tissue dissociation enzymes are critical reagents that affect the yield and quality of human pancreatic islets required for islet transplantation. The United States Food and Drug Administration's oversight of this procedure recommends laboratories to set acceptance criteria for enzymes used in the manufacture of islet products for transplantation. Currently, many laboratories base this selection on personal experience because biochemical analysis is not predictive of success of the islet isolation procedure. This review identifies the challenges of correlating results from enzyme biochemical analysis to their effectiveness in human islet isolation and suggests a path forward to address these challenges to improve control of the islet manufacturing process.

  18. ENVIROCARE OF UTAH: EXPANDING WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA TO PROVIDE LOW-LEVEL AND MIXED WASTE DISPOSAL OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, B.; Loveland, K.

    2003-02-27

    Envirocare of Utah operates a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility 80 miles west of Salt Lake City in Clive, Utah. Accepted waste types includes NORM, 11e2 byproduct material, Class A low-level waste, and mixed waste. Since 1988, Envirocare has offered disposal options for environmental restoration waste for both government and commercial remediation projects. Annual waste receipts exceed 12 million cubic feet. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the Envirocare facility have significantly expanded to accommodate the changing needs of restoration projects and waste generators since its inception, including acceptable physical waste forms, radiological acceptance criteria, RCRA requirements and treatment capabilities, PCB acceptance, and liquids acceptance. Additionally, there are many packaging, transportation, and waste management options for waste streams acceptable at Envirocare. Many subcontracting vehicles are also available to waste generators for both government and commercial activities.

  19. SU-E-T-60: A Plan Quality Index in IMRT QA That Is Independent of the Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D; Kang, S; Kim, T; Kim, K; Cho, M; Shin, D; Suh, T; Kim, S; Park, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In IMRT QA, plan quality evaluation is made based on pass rate under preset acceptance criteria, mostly using gamma-values. This method is convenient but, its Result highly depends on what the acceptance criteria are and suffers from the lack of sensitivity in judging how good the plan is. In this study, we introduced a simple but effective plan quality index of IMRT QA based on dose difference only to supplement such shortcomings, and investigated its validity. Methods: The proposed index is a single value which is calculated mainly based on point-by-point comparison between planned and measured dose distributions, and it becomes “1” in an ideal case. A systematic evaluation was performed with one-dimensional test dose distributions. For 3 hypothetical dose profiles, various displacements (in both dose and space) were introduced, the proposed index was calculated for each case, and the behavior of obtained indices was analyzed and compared with that of gamma evaluation. In addition, the feasibility of the index was assessed with clinical IMRT/VMAT/SBRT QA cases for different sites (prostate, head & neck, liver, lung, spine, and abdomen). Results: The proposed index showed more robust correlation with the amount of induced displacement compared to the gamma evaluation method. No matter what the acceptance criteria are (e.g., whether 3%/3mm or 2%/2mm), it was possible to clearly rank every case with the proposed index while it was difficult to do with the gamma evaluation method. Conclusion: IMRT plan quality can be evaluated quantitatively by the proposed index. It is considered that the proposed index would provide useful information for better judging the level of goodness of each plan and its Result is independent of the acceptance criteria. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R&D program (No. 2013M2A2A7043498) and the Mid-career Researcher Program (2014R1A2A1A10050270) through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the

  20. Improve Quality of Life - additional criteria for health and social care information technology acceptance in an ageing world.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Reversing the rising cost of health and social systems is needed in ageing developed and developing countries. A new model of ageing is advocated by the World Health Organization. This new model asks for more personal health accountability and a more integrated approach on care and preventive cure. Information systems and technologies can play an important role in supporting the changes needed in order to have better and more sustainable health and social care systems. Using value and results for patients as criteria by which systems are accepted by users and by organizations can contribute to a value based competition in health and social care systems. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology is presented, and the pertinence of adding an extension to the theory in order capture Quality of Life improvements expectations is explored.

  1. Methods for verifying compliance with low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the methods that are currently employed and those that can be used to verify compliance with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This report presents the applicable regulations representing the Federal, State, and site-specific criteria for accepting LLW. Typical LLW generators are summarized, along with descriptions of their waste streams and final waste forms. General procedures and methods used by the LLW generators to verify compliance with the disposal facility WAC are presented. The report was written to provide an understanding of how a regulator could verify compliance with a LLW disposal facility`s WAC. A comprehensive study of the methodology used to verify waste generator compliance with the disposal facility WAC is presented in this report. The study involved compiling the relevant regulations to define the WAC, reviewing regulatory agency inspection programs, and summarizing waste verification technology and equipment. The results of the study indicate that waste generators conduct verification programs that include packaging, classification, characterization, and stabilization elements. The current LLW disposal facilities perform waste verification steps on incoming shipments. A model inspection and verification program, which includes an emphasis on the generator`s waste application documentation of their waste verification program, is recommended. The disposal facility verification procedures primarily involve the use of portable radiological survey instrumentation. The actual verification of generator compliance to the LLW disposal facility WAC is performed through a combination of incoming shipment checks and generator site audits.

  2. Initial Acceptance Criteria Concepts and Data for Assessing Longevity of Low-Voltage Cable Insulations and Jackets

    SciTech Connect

    Gary toman

    2005-03-30

    This report establishes a basis for acceptance criteria, provides a method for estimating remaining low-voltage cable life, and provides aging profiles under various thermal and radiation conditions for available cable polymer condition-monitoring techniques. This report is not meant to be the final comprehensive source of acceptance criteria, but rather is intended for trial usage so that it can be further refined for easier reference in the future.

  3. Survey of compliance with European acceptability criteria for HVL and AEC.

    PubMed

    Kepler, K; Vladimirov, A

    2013-02-01

    Half value layer (HVL) was measured for 226 general radiographic X-ray tube assemblies at 80 kV and for 53 dental X-ray tube assemblies at 70 kV, and evaluated by the previous (1997) and the new draft of European acceptability criteria (2009) for HVL as adopted from the IEC collateral standards. Fourteen per cent of the tested general radiography X-ray tube assemblies were subject to readjustment by the new criteria. In routine quality control tests, receptor entrance dose was estimated for 54 AEC systems by using post-exposure mAs values, taking into account the measured tube output at different tube potentials, HVL and estimated scattering for 10, 15 and 21 cm PMMA phantom. Receptor dose (third quartile) varied from 6.4 μGy at 60 kV to 3.8 μGy at 125 kV. The results correspond well to the draft criteria for maximum receptor dose of 10 μGy and for the patient thickness compensation.

  4. 40 CFR 90.510 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 90.510 Section 90.510....510 Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective... test sample until a pass decision is reached for all pollutants or a fail decision is reached for...

  5. 40 CFR 89.510 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 89.510 Section 89.510... Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits... test sample until a pass decision is reached for all pollutants or a fail decision is reached for...

  6. 40 CFR 91.608 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. 91.608 Section 91.608... with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for selective enforcement audits. (a... manufacturer must test engines comprising the test sample until a pass decision is reached for HC+NOX or a...

  7. Proposed GTA welding specification and acceptance criteria for the MC4163

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatkowski, J.J.

    1991-04-12

    This specification documents the gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding process and production weld acceptance criteria requirements for the MC4163. This document is written specifically to apply to the welds on the MC4163 and is not to be used as a general gas tungsten arc welding specification. All sections of this specification must be complied with unless specifically exempted in writing. There are a total of five welds with three different joint designs required to fabricate the MC4163. In the order of fabrication they are (1) initiator closure disc, (2) nozzle to case girth welds, two and, (3) nozzle closure disc welds, two. This specification will only address the nozzle to case girth welds and the nozzle closure disc welds.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF TANK 50 SLURRY FOR SALTSTONE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA, APRIL 2007 SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigler, K; Ned Bibler, N; David Diprete, D

    2007-12-07

    This report summarizes the results from the characterization of the second quarter April 2007 sampling of Tank 50H for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Six one liter samples were taken in polyethylene bottles to analyze for the WAC contaminants and a 200 mL sample was taken in a steel container for analysis of volatile organic compounds. The information from this characterization will be given to Waste Solidification Engineering personnel to qualify the transfer of aqueous waste to the Saltstone Facility. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results found in this report: (1) All six of the one liter samples taken in April 2007 from the mixed slurry in Tank 50 have the same compositions within the experimental uncertainty of the analyses. (2) Of the ninety-one process, chemical, and radioactive WAC target or limit contaminants listed in Revision 7 of the 'Waste Acceptance Criteria for Aqueous Waste sent to the Z-Area Saltstone Production Facility', eighty-nine had concentrations that were unequivocally less than the WAC limit or target. (3) The two contaminants whose concentrations could not be shown to be less than their WAC targets were methanol and radioactive Nb-93m. Currently the AD Section of SRNL does not have a method for measuring methanol in caustic solutions. For Nb-93m the results are ambiguous due to possible interferences in the ICP-MS analysis from Zr-93 or Mo-93. (4) Of the six additional chemical and radioactive contaminants requested in the TTR for Saltstone qualification, five were measured or calculated. These were Sb, Be, Tl, along with total beta and gamma. The AD Section does not have a method to measure the 6th contaminant which was the cyanide ion.

  9. Radioactive waste management: review on clearance levels and acceptance criteria legislation, requirements and standards.

    PubMed

    Maringer, F J; Suráň, J; Kovář, P; Chauvenet, B; Peyres, V; García-Toraño, E; Cozzella, M L; De Felice, P; Vodenik, B; Hult, M; Rosengård, U; Merimaa, M; Szücs, L; Jeffery, C; Dean, J C J; Tymiński, Z; Arnold, D; Hinca, R; Mirescu, G

    2013-11-01

    In 2011 the joint research project Metrology for Radioactive Waste Management (MetroRWM)(1) of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) started with a total duration of three years. Within this project, new metrological resources for the assessment of radioactive waste, including their calibration with new reference materials traceable to national standards will be developed. This paper gives a review on national, European and international strategies as basis for science-based metrological requirements in clearance and acceptance of radioactive waste.

  10. DISPLACEMENT BASED SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    HOFMAYER,C.H.

    1999-03-29

    The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration.

  11. Evaluation of ISDP Batch 2 Qualification Compliance to 512-S, DWPF, Tank Farm, and Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, A.

    2010-05-05

    The purpose of this report is to document the acceptability of the second macrobatch (Salt Batch 2) of Tank 49H waste to H Tank Farm, DWPF, and Saltstone for operation of the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). Tank 49 feed meets the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) requirements specified by References 11, 12, and 13. Salt Batch 2 material is qualified and ready to be processed through ARP/MCU to the final disposal facilities.

  12. Development of flaw acceptance criteria for aging management of spent nuclear fuel multi-purpose canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Poh -Sang; Sindelar, Robert L.

    2015-03-09

    A typical multipurpose canister (MPC) is made of austenitic stainless steel and is loaded with spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The canister may be subject to service-induced degradation when it is exposed to aggressive atmospheric environments during a possibly long-term storage period if the permanent repository is yet to be identified and readied. Because heat treatment for stress relief is not required for the construction of an MPC, stress corrosion cracking may be initiated on the canister surface in the welds or in the heat affected zone. An acceptance criteria methodology is being developed for flaw disposition should the crack-like defects be detected by periodic in-service Inspection. The first-order instability flaw sizes has been determined with bounding flaw configurations, that is, through-wall axial or circumferential cracks, and part-through-wall long axial flaw or 360° circumferential crack. The procedure recommended by the American Petroleum Institute (API) 579 Fitness-for-Service code (Second Edition) is used to estimate the instability crack length or depth by implementing the failure assessment diagram (FAD) methodology. The welding residual stresses are mostly unknown and are therefore estimated with the API 579 procedure. It is demonstrated in this paper that the residual stress has significant impact on the instability length or depth of the crack. The findings will limit the applicability of the flaw tolerance obtained from limit load approach where residual stress is ignored and only ligament yielding is considered.

  13. Development of flaw acceptance criteria for aging management of spent nuclear fuel multiple-purpose canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.; Sindelar, R.

    2015-03-09

    A typical multipurpose canister (MPC) is made of austenitic stainless steel and is loaded with spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The canister may be subject to service-induced degradation when it is exposed to aggressive atmospheric environments during a possibly long-term storage period if the permanent repository is yet to be identified and readied. Because heat treatment for stress relief is not required for the construction of an MPC, stress corrosion cracking may be initiated on the canister surface in the welds or in the heat affected zone. An acceptance criteria methodology is being developed for flaw disposition should the crack-like defects be detected by periodic In-service Inspection. The first-order instability flaw sizes has been determined with bounding flaw configurations, that is, through-wall axial or circumferential cracks, and part-through-wall long axial flaw or 360° circumferential crack. The procedure recommended by the American Petroleum Institute (API) 579 Fitness-for-Service code (Second Edition) is used to estimate the instability crack length or depth by implementing the failure assessment diagram (FAD) methodology. The welding residual stresses are mostly unknown and are therefore estimated with the API 579 procedure. It is demonstrated in this paper that the residual stress has significant impact on the instability length or depth of the crack. The findings will limit the applicability of the flaw tolerance obtained from limit load approach where residual stress is ignored and only ligament yielding is considered.

  14. Prototype Training Materials for Acceptance Criteria of Maintenance ASAP Events Occurring Within Social Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    The aviation maintenance community is at a crossroads with respect to implementing the Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP). While there is considerable interest, several key issues have emerged that cast doubt on how to assure a successful implementation, including buy-in from all levels of the company and training for key participants. There are two objectives for the present report. The first is to provide an examination of limits (or more properly, examples) of the degree of acceptability of more problematic events for risk-based decisions within the current ASAP guidelines. The second objective is to apply these limits of community standards to a set of further refined ASAP training scenarios.

  15. 21 CFR 212.70 - What controls and acceptance criteria must I have for my finished PET drug products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What controls and acceptance criteria must I have for my finished PET drug products? 212.70 Section 212.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  16. 21 CFR 212.70 - What controls and acceptance criteria must I have for my finished PET drug products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What controls and acceptance criteria must I have for my finished PET drug products? 212.70 Section 212.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  17. 21 CFR 212.70 - What controls and acceptance criteria must I have for my finished PET drug products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What controls and acceptance criteria must I have for my finished PET drug products? 212.70 Section 212.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  18. 21 CFR 212.70 - What controls and acceptance criteria must I have for my finished PET drug products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What controls and acceptance criteria must I have for my finished PET drug products? 212.70 Section 212.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  19. 21 CFR 212.70 - What controls and acceptance criteria must I have for my finished PET drug products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What controls and acceptance criteria must I have for my finished PET drug products? 212.70 Section 212.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE...

  20. 32 CFR 37.530 - What criteria do I use in deciding whether to accept a recipient's cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Cost Sharing § 37.530 What criteria do I use in deciding whether to accept a... reimbursed by the Government through other awards. It is standard business practice for all for-profit...

  1. 32 CFR 37.530 - What criteria do I use in deciding whether to accept a recipient's cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and development (IR&D) costs, as described at 32 CFR 34.13(a)(5)(ii), that meet all of the criteria in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section. IR&D is acceptable as cost sharing, even though it may be... procurement contracts is recovered as IR&D) through prices charged to their customers. Thus, the...

  2. 32 CFR 37.530 - What criteria do I use in deciding whether to accept a recipient's cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and development (IR&D) costs, as described at 32 CFR 34.13(a)(5)(ii), that meet all of the criteria in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section. IR&D is acceptable as cost sharing, even though it may be... procurement contracts is recovered as IR&D) through prices charged to their customers. Thus, the...

  3. 32 CFR 37.530 - What criteria do I use in deciding whether to accept a recipient's cost sharing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and development (IR&D) costs, as described at 32 CFR 34.13(a)(5)(ii), that meet all of the criteria in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section. IR&D is acceptable as cost sharing, even though it may be... procurement contracts is recovered as IR&D) through prices charged to their customers. Thus, the...

  4. Selecting the Acceptance Criteria of Medicines in the Reimbursement List of Public Health Insurance of Iran, Using the “Borda” Method: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Viyanchi, Amir; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; SafiKhani, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making for medicines to be accepted in Iran’s public health insurance reimbursement list is a complex process and involves factors, which should be considered in applying a coverage for medicine costs. These processes and factors are not wholly assessed, while assessment of these factors is an essential need for getting a transparent and evidence-based approach toward medicine reimbursement in Iran. This paper aims to show an evidence-based approach toward medicine selection criteria to inform the medical reimbursement decision makers in Iranian health insurance organizations. To explore an adaptable decision-making framework while incorporating a method called “Borda” in medicine reimbursement assessment, we used the help of an expert group including decision makers and clinical researchers who are also policy makers to appraise the five chief criteria that have three sub criteria (Precision, Interpretability, and Cost). Also software “Math-lab”7, “SPSS” 17 and Excel 2007 were used in this study. “Borda” estimates the amount of perceived values from different criteria and creates a range from one to five while providing a comprehensive measurement of a large spectrum of criteria. Participants reported that the framework provided an efficient approach to systematic consideration in a pragmatic format consisting of many parts to guide decision-makings, including criteria and value (a model with the core of Borda) and evidences (medicine reimbursement based on criteria). The most important criterion for medicine acceptance in health insurance companies, in Iran, is the "life-threatening" factor and "evidence quality" is accounted as the fifth important factor. This pilot study showed the usefulness of incorporating Borda in medicine reimbursement decisions to support a transparent and systematic appraisal of health insurance companies' deeds. Further research is needed to advance Borda-based approaches that are effective on health insurance

  5. Structural acceptance criteria for the evaulation of existing double-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Julyk, L.J.; Day, A.D.; Dyrness, A.D.; Moore, C.J.; Peterson, W.S.; Scott, M.A.; Shrivastava, H.P.; Sholman, J.S.; Watts, T.N.

    1995-09-01

    The structural acceptance criteria contained herein for the evaluation of existing underground double-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford Site is part of the Life Management/Aging Management Program of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The purpose of the overall life management program is to ensure that confinement of the waste is maintained over the required service life of the tanks. Characterization of the present condition of the tanks, understanding and characterization of potential degradation mechanisms, and development of tank structural acceptance criteria based on previous service and projected use are prerequisites to assessing tank integrity, to projecting the length of tank service, and to developing and applying prudent fixes or repairs. The criteria provided herein summarize the requirements for the analysis and structural qualification of the existing double-shell tanks for continued operation. Code reconciliation issues and material degradation under aging conditions are addressed. Although the criteria were developed for double-shell tanks, many of the provisions are equally applicable to single-shell tanks. However, the criteria do not apply to the evaluation of tank appurtenances and buried piping.

  6. Common Criteria Based Security Scenario Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Atsushi

    Software is required to comply with the laws and standards of software security. However, stakeholders with less concern regarding security can neither describe the behaviour of the system with regard to security nor validate the system’s behaviour when the security function conflicts with usability. Scenarios or use-case specifications are common in requirements elicitation and are useful to analyze the usability of the system from a behavioural point of view. In this paper, the authors propose both (1) a scenario language based on a simple case grammar and (2) a method to verify a scenario with rules based on security evaluation criteria.

  7. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Strategy for Revising the RIA Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, Paul M.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued interim criteria and guidance for the reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) within the latest revision to NUREG-0800, 'Standard Review Plan' (SRP), Section 4.2, 'Fuel System Design', Appendix B (Revision 03, March 2007). The purpose of this paper is as follows: 1. present a change in regulatory staff position regarding the requirements of 10 CFR 50, Appendix A, General Design Criteria 28 (GDC28) and changes in regulatory guidance provided in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.77, RG 1.195, RG 1.183, and previous versions of NUREG-0800 SRP; 2. describe the implementation strategy and schedule for both new reactors and the existing fleet; and 3. encourage licensees and nuclear fuel vendors to (1) develop improved core physics analytical methods to allow a more deliberate transition to the new fuel cladding failure criteria and (2) develop the technical basis to address the new core coolability criteria. (authors)

  8. Acceptance criteria for the evaluation of Category 1 fuel cycle facility physical security plans

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, P.A.

    1991-10-01

    This NUREG document presents criteria developed from US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for the evaluation of physical security plans submitted by Category 1 fuel facility licensees. Category 1 refers to those licensees who use or possess a formula quantity of strategic special nuclear material.

  9. Data Acceptance Criteria for Standardized Human-Associated Fecal Source Identification Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kelty, Catherine A.; Oshiro, Robin; Haugland, Richard A.; Madi, Tania; Brooks, Lauren; Field, Katharine G.; Sivaganesan, Mano

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for water quality management. The transition from a research tool to a standardized protocol requires a high degree of confidence in data quality across laboratories. Data quality is typically determined through a series of specifications that ensure good experimental practice and the absence of bias in the results due to DNA isolation and amplification interferences. However, there is currently a lack of consensus on how best to evaluate and interpret human fecal source identification qPCR experiments. This is, in part, due to the lack of standardized protocols and information on interlaboratory variability under conditions for data acceptance. The aim of this study is to provide users and reviewers with a complete series of conditions for data acceptance derived from a multiple laboratory data set using standardized procedures. To establish these benchmarks, data from HF183/BacR287 and HumM2 human-associated qPCR methods were generated across 14 laboratories. Each laboratory followed a standardized protocol utilizing the same lot of reference DNA materials, DNA isolation kits, amplification reagents, and test samples to generate comparable data. After removal of outliers, a nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to establish proficiency metrics that include lab-to-lab, replicate testing within a lab, and random error for amplification inhibition and sample processing controls. Other data acceptance measurements included extraneous DNA contamination assessments (no-template and extraction blank controls) and calibration model performance (correlation coefficient, amplification efficiency, and lower limit of quantification). To demonstrate the implementation of the proposed standardized protocols and data acceptance criteria, comparable data from two additional laboratories were reviewed. The data acceptance criteria

  10. Data Acceptance Criteria for Standardized Human-Associated Fecal Source Identification Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Orin C; Kelty, Catherine A; Oshiro, Robin; Haugland, Richard A; Madi, Tania; Brooks, Lauren; Field, Katharine G; Sivaganesan, Mano

    2016-05-01

    There is growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for water quality management. The transition from a research tool to a standardized protocol requires a high degree of confidence in data quality across laboratories. Data quality is typically determined through a series of specifications that ensure good experimental practice and the absence of bias in the results due to DNA isolation and amplification interferences. However, there is currently a lack of consensus on how best to evaluate and interpret human fecal source identification qPCR experiments. This is, in part, due to the lack of standardized protocols and information on interlaboratory variability under conditions for data acceptance. The aim of this study is to provide users and reviewers with a complete series of conditions for data acceptance derived from a multiple laboratory data set using standardized procedures. To establish these benchmarks, data from HF183/BacR287 and HumM2 human-associated qPCR methods were generated across 14 laboratories. Each laboratory followed a standardized protocol utilizing the same lot of reference DNA materials, DNA isolation kits, amplification reagents, and test samples to generate comparable data. After removal of outliers, a nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to establish proficiency metrics that include lab-to-lab, replicate testing within a lab, and random error for amplification inhibition and sample processing controls. Other data acceptance measurements included extraneous DNA contamination assessments (no-template and extraction blank controls) and calibration model performance (correlation coefficient, amplification efficiency, and lower limit of quantification). To demonstrate the implementation of the proposed standardized protocols and data acceptance criteria, comparable data from two additional laboratories were reviewed. The data acceptance criteria

  11. Preliminary waste acceptance criteria for the ICPP spent fuel and waste management technology development program

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.L.; Shikashio, R.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify requirements to be met by the Producer/Shipper of Spent Nuclear Fuel/High-LeveL Waste SNF/HLW in order for DOE to be able to accept the packaged materials. This includes defining both standard and nonstandard waste forms.

  12. The Acceptance and Use of Computer Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzis, Vasileios; Economides, Anastasios A.

    2011-01-01

    The effective development of a computer based assessment (CBA) depends on students' acceptance. The purpose of this study is to build a model that demonstrates the constructs that affect students' behavioral intention to use a CBA. The proposed model, Computer Based Assessment Acceptance Model (CBAAM) is based on previous models of technology…

  13. R&D Plan for RISMC Industry Application #1: ECCS/LOCA Cladding Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Szilard, Ronaldo Henriques; Zhang, Hongbin; Epiney, Aaron Simon; Tu, Lei

    2016-04-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is finalizing a rulemaking change that would revise the requirements in 10 CFR 50.46. In the proposed new rulemaking, designated as 10 CFR 50.46c, the NRC proposes a fuel performance-based equivalent cladding reacted (ECR) criterion as a function of cladding hydrogen content before the accident (pre-transient) in order to include the effects of higher burnup on cladding performance as well as to address other technical issues. A loss of operational margin may result due to the more restrictive cladding embrittlement criteria. Initial and future compliance with the rule may significantly increase vendor workload and licensee costs as a spectrum of fuel rod initial burnup states may need to be analyzed to demonstrate compliance. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has initiated a project, as part of the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRS), to develop analytical capabilities to support the industry in the transition to the new rule. This project is called the Industry Application 1 (IA1) within the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway of LWRS. The general idea behind the initiative is the development of an Integrated Evaluation Model (IEM). The motivation is to develop a multiphysics framework to analyze how uncertainties are propagated across the stream of physical disciplines and data involved, as well as how risks are evaluated in a LOCA safety analysis as regulated under 10 CFR 50.46c. This IEM is called LOTUS which stands for LOCA Toolkit for US, and it represents the LWRS Program’s response to the proposed new rule making. The focus of this report is to complete an R&D plan to describe the demonstration of the LOCA/ECCS RISMC Industry Application # 1 using the advanced RISMC Toolkit and methodologies. This report includes the description and development plan for a RISMC LOCA tool that fully couples advanced MOOSE tools already in development in order to characterize and optimize

  14. A FRAMEWORK TO DEVELOP FLAW ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT OF MULTIPURPOSE CANISTERS FOR EXTENDED STORAGE OF USED NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.; Sindelar, R.; Duncan, A.; Adams, T.

    2014-04-07

    A multipurpose canister (MPC) made of austenitic stainless steel is loaded with used nuclear fuel assemblies and is part of the transfer cask system to move the fuel from the spent fuel pool to prepare for storage, and is part of the storage cask system for on-site dry storage. This weld-sealed canister is also expected to be part of the transportation package following storage. The canister may be subject to service-induced degradation especially if exposed to aggressive environments during possible very long-term storage period if the permanent repository is yet to be identified and readied. Stress corrosion cracking may be initiated on the canister surface in the welds or in the heat affected zone because the construction of MPC does not require heat treatment for stress relief. An acceptance criteria methodology is being developed for flaw disposition should the crack-like defects be detected by periodic Inservice Inspection. The external loading cases include thermal accident scenarios and cask drop conditions with the contribution from the welding residual stresses. The determination of acceptable flaw size is based on the procedure to evaluate flaw stability provided by American Petroleum Institute (API) 579 Fitness-for-Service (Second Edition). The material mechanical and fracture properties for base and weld metals and the stress analysis results are obtained from the open literature such as NUREG-1864. Subcritical crack growth from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and its impact on inspection intervals and acceptance criteria, is not addressed.

  15. How do the Properties of Allan Hills 84001 Compare With Accepted Criteria for Evidence of Ancient Life?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Westall, F.; Romanek, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    Criteria for Past Life: To be confident that any sample contains evidence of past life or biogenic activity, one must determine beyond a shadow of a doubt that certain well-established features or biomarker signatures are present in the sample. In the case of martian samples, the criteria for past life have not been established because if life existed on the planet, we have no way of knowing its detailed characteristics. Lacking independent evidence about the nature of possible past life on Mars, the scientific community must use, for the time being, the criteria established for ancient samples from the Earth: (1) Do we know the geologic context of the sample? Is it compatible with past life? (2) Do we know the age of the sample and its stratigraphic location? Are they understood enough to relate possible life to geologic history? (3) Does the sample contain evidence of cellular morphology? (4) What structural remains of colonies or communities exist within the samples? (5) Is there any evidence of biominerals showing chemical or mineral disequilibria? (6) Is there any evidence of stable isotope patterns unique to biology? (7) Are there any organic biomarkers present? (8) Are the features indigenous to the sample? For acceptance of past life in a geologic sample, essentially all of these criteria must he met.

  16. Factors Influencing the Acceptance of Web-Based Training in Malaysia: Applying the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Junaidah

    2008-01-01

    Companies in Malaysia are beginning to use web-based training to reduce the cost of training and to provide employees with greater access to instruction. However, some people are uncomfortable with technology and prefer person-to-person methods of training. This study examines the acceptance of web-based training among a convenience sample of 261…

  17. Acceptance- versus Change-Based Pain Management: The Role of Psychological Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacker, Kara J.; Herbert, James D.; Forman, Evan M.; Kounios, John

    2012-01-01

    This study compared two theoretically opposed strategies for acute pain management: an acceptance-based and a change-based approach. These two strategies were compared in a within-subjects design using the cold pressor test as an acute pain induction method. Participants completed a baseline pain tolerance assessment followed by one of the two…

  18. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX): Instructions for Implementing the Test Procedure, Calibration Test Reference Results, and Example Acceptance-Range Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Polly, B.; Bianchi, M.; Neymark, J.; Kennedy, M.

    2011-08-01

    This publication summarizes building energy simulation test for existing homes (BESTEST-EX): instructions for implementing the test procedure, calibration tests reference results, and example acceptance-range criteria.

  19. The Rotterdam criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: evidence-based criteria?

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Mol, Ben Willem J

    2017-02-01

    The Rotterdam criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are used by a wide range of medical professionals and researchers. However, the development of these criteria was based on expert meetings and not on evidence-based treatment guidance. Over the last decade, the Rotterdam criteria have been useful in guiding research, and a number of clinical studies on PCOS have been published consequently. We plead to revisit the Rotterdam criteria based on the available evidence in prognostic studies and randomized controlled trials. In this opinion paper, we provide arguments of the strengths and limitations of the Rotterdam criteria in guiding treatment selections and predicting prognoses in women with infertility. While the Rotterdam criteria have shown their advantages in predicting reproductive prognosis, the next step is to evaluate whether they can guide treatment choices in infertility as well as other health aspects of the syndrome. Based on available data in clinical studies, we should be able to determine whether the Rotterdam criteria are evidence-based criteria.

  20. An open trial of Acceptance-based Separated Family Treatment (ASFT) for adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Timko, C Alix; Zucker, Nancy L; Herbert, James D; Rodriguez, Daniel; Merwin, Rhonda M

    2015-06-01

    Family based-treatments have the most empirical support in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa; yet, a significant percentage of adolescents and their families do not respond to manualized family based treatment (FBT). The aim of this open trial was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of an innovative family-based approach to the treatment of anorexia: Acceptance-based Separated Family Treatment (ASFT). Treatment was grounded in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), delivered in a separated format, and included an ACT-informed skills program. Adolescents (ages 12-18) with anorexia or sub-threshold anorexia and their families received 20 treatment sessions over 24 weeks. Outcome indices included eating disorder symptomatology reported by the parent and adolescent, percentage of expected body weight achieved, and changes in psychological acceptance/avoidance. Half of the adolescents (48.0%) met criteria for full remission at the end of treatment, 29.8% met criteria for partial remission, and 21.3% did not improve. Overall, adolescents had a significant reduction in eating disorder symptoms and reached expected body weight. Treatment resulted in changes in psychological acceptance in the expected direction for both parents and adolescents. This open trial provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of ASFT for adolescents with anorexia. Directions for future research are discussed.

  1. Improved Separability Criteria Based on Bloch Representation of Density Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shu-Qian; Yu, Juan; Li, Ming; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The correlation matrices or tensors in the Bloch representation of density matrices are encoded with entanglement properties. In this paper, based on the Bloch representation of density matrices, we give some new separability criteria for bipartite and multipartite quantum states. Theoretical analysis and some examples show that the proposed criteria can be more efficient than the previous related criteria. PMID:27350031

  2. [Preanalytical phase and accreditation: acceptance criteria for samples of multisite laboratory].

    PubMed

    Dialma, Pascale; Piaulenne, Stéphane; Baty, Sonia; Zeitoun, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Performing high quality analyses in order to help physicians in their diagnoses and to ensure better patient care: this represents our routine mission for clinical lab. To achieve this goal, all steps from sampling to the final data transfer must be controlled. The preanalytical phase is one of the most crucial, but also one of the most complicated, especially in the context of a consolidated laboratory network. Transport conditions, delays, temperature, regulatory constraints are all criteria that we need to take into consideration in order to comply to ISO 15189, section 5.4. In this context, our laboratory would like to address the following issues: to control the transport conditions in order to guarantee optimal preservation of the samples, and to define an internal process and identify non-conforming situations linked to delay in sample delivery. An original study dealing with the stability in whole blood of common clinical chemistry and immunochemistry tests in defined transport conditions (delays, temperature, tube position) was performed on a panel of 100 patients' samples. This panel is intended to be a good reflection of the patients usually seen in multi-site laboratory. We observed that most of the analytes (35 of 41) were stable in whole blood; however, some of them demonstrated instability over time. All these results were integrated into our collection manual.

  3. EU landfill waste acceptance criteria and EU Hazardous Waste Directive compliance testing of incinerated sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Donatello, S; Tyrer, M; Cheeseman, C R

    2010-01-01

    A hazardous waste assessment has been completed on ash samples obtained from seven sewage sludge incinerators operating in the UK, using the methods recommended in the EU Hazardous Waste Directive. Using these methods, the assumed speciation of zinc (Zn) ultimately determines if the samples are hazardous due to ecotoxicity hazard. Leaching test results showed that two of the seven sewage sludge ash samples would require disposal in a hazardous waste landfill because they exceed EU landfill waste acceptance criteria for stabilised non-reactive hazardous waste cells for soluble selenium (Se). Because Zn cannot be proven to exist predominantly as a phosphate or oxide in the ashes, it is recommended they be considered as non-hazardous waste. However leaching test results demonstrate that these ashes cannot be considered as inert waste, and this has significant implications for the management, disposal and re-use of sewage sludge ash.

  4. 78 FR 38411 - Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 4; Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... of the following methods: Federal Rulemaking Web site: Go to http://www.regulations.gov and search... select ``Begin Web- based ADAMS Search.'' For problems with ADAMS, please contact the NRC's Public... will be reflected on the NRC's Web site at...

  5. 78 FR 65007 - Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ...-available information related to this action by the following methods: Federal Rulemaking Web site: Go to..., select ``ADAMS Public Documents'' and then select ``Begin Web- based ADAMS Search.'' For problems with... updates to the status of this ITAAC will be reflected on the NRC's Web site at...

  6. Biotechnology-based odour control: design criteria and performance data.

    PubMed

    Quigley, C; Easter, C; Burrowes, P; Witherspoon, J

    2004-01-01

    As neighbouring areas continue to encroach upon wastewater treatment plants, there is an increasing need for odour control to mitigate potential negative offsite odorous impacts. One technology that is gaining widespread acceptance is biotechnology, which utilises the inherent ability of certain microorganisms to biodegrade offensive odorous compounds. Two main advantages of this form of treatment over other odour control technologies include the absence of hazardous chemicals and relatively low operation and maintenance requirements. The purpose of this paper is to provide information related to odour control design criteria used in sizing/selecting biotechnology-based odour control technologies, and to provide odour removal performance data obtained from several different biotechnology-based odour control systems. CH2M HILL has collected biotechnology-based odour control performance data over the last several years in order to track the continued performance of various biofilters and biotowers over time. Specifically, odour removal performance data have been collected from soil-, organic- and inorganic-media biofilters and inert inorganic media biotowers. Results indicate that biotechnology-based odour control is a viable and consistent technology capable of achieving high removal performance for odour and hydrogen sulphide. It is anticipated that the information presented in this paper will be of interest to anyone involved with odour control technology evaluation/selection or design review.

  7. Acceptance criteria for flattening filter-free photon beam from standard medical electron linear accelerator: AERB task group recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Sahani, G.; Sharma, S. D.; Sharma, P. K. Dash; Deshpande, D. D.; Negi, P. S.; Sathianarayanan, V. K.; Rath, G. K.

    2014-01-01

    Medical electron linear accelerators with the capability of generating unflat photon (flattening filter-free, FFF) beams are also available commercially for clinical applications in radiotherapy. However, the beam characteristics evaluation criteria and parameters are not yet available for such photon beams. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) of India constituted a Task Group comprising experts from regulatory agency, advisory body/research and technical institutions, and clinical radiotherapy centers in the country to evolve and recommend the acceptance criteria for the flattening filter-free (FFF) photon beams. The Task Group thoroughly reviewed the literature and inputs of the manufactures/suppliers of the FFF linac and recommended a set of dosimetry parameters for evaluating the characteristics of the unflat photon beam. The recommendations included the evaluation of quality index, degree of unflatness, difference in percentage surface dose between flat and unflat photon beams, percentage depth dose at 10 cm depth, off-axis-ratios and radiation beam penumbra. The recommended parameters were evaluated for FFF photon beams generated by three different models of the linac, and it was observed that recommended evaluation methods are simple and easy to be implemented with the existing dosimetry and quality assurance infrastructure of the linac facilities of the radiotherapy departments. Recommendations were also made for periodic quality control check of the unflat photon beams and constancy evaluation in the beam characteristics. PMID:25525307

  8. Analytical method transfer using equivalence tests with reasonable acceptance criteria and appropriate effort: extension of the ISPE concept.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, L; Schepers, U; Wätzig, H

    2010-12-15

    A method development process is commonly finalized by a method transfer from the developing to the routine laboratory. Statistical tests are performed in order to survey if a transfer succeeded or failed. However, using the classic two-sample t-test can lead to misjudgments and unsatisfying transfer results due to its test characteristics. Therefore the International Society of Pharmaceutical Engineering (ISPE) employed a fixed method transfer design using equivalence tests in their Guide for Technology Transfer. Although it was well received by analytical laboratories worldwide this fixed design can easily bring about high beta-errors (rejection of successful transfers) or high workload (many analysts employed during transfer) if sigma(AN) (error due to different analysts) exceeds 0.6%. Hence this work introduces an extended concept which will help to circumvent this disadvantage by providing guidance to select a personalized and more appropriate experimental design. First of all it demonstrates that former t-test related acceptance criteria can be scaled by a factor of 1.15, which allows for a broader tolerance without a loss of decision certainty. Furthermore a decision guidance to choose the proper number of analysts or series at given percentage acceptance limits (%AL) is presented.

  9. Finding an environmentally acceptable replacement for Halon 2402 that meets Minuteman LITVC performance criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shell, Vaughn; Marlow, Mike; Nimitz, Jon

    1992-07-01

    Halon 2402 (Freon 114B2) is injected into the hot gas exhaust stream of the Minuteman second-stage solid propellant rocket motor nozzle to provide thrust vector control. In response to environmental concerns, specifically ozone depletion, the U.S. Air Force has established a program to find and qualify a replacement for Halon 2402. Because of anticipated schedule constraints, two parallel paths consisting of a 'drop-in' replacement, and a complete thrust vector control system redesign will be pursued during the first phase of the program. Tasks within the first phase support a series of candidate down selections. These tasks include review of various data bases for possible candidates and then evaluating the candidates in terms of environmental effects, cost, storability, compatibility, packaging, and performance. The culmination of the first phase will be two static motor firings in which two drop-in injectant candidates and two redesign system candidates will be tested to determine actual performance. The results of the firings will dictate which path (drop-in or redesign) and which injectant to pursue for formal qualification. Presently, Phase I is approximately 50 percent complete with the many candidates being reduced to three for each path.

  10. Acceptability of Service Targets for ICT-Based Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eun Min

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In order to adopt and activate telemedicine it is necessary to survey how medical staff, who are providers of medical service, and consumers, who are the service targets, perceive information and communication technology (ICT)-based healthcare service. Methods This study surveyed the awareness and acceptability of ICT-based healthcare by involving service targets, specifically workers and students living in the Seoul and Gyeonggi regions who are consumers of healthcare service. To determine the correlation among awareness of ICT-based healthcare, the need for self-management, and acceptability, this study conducted a correlation analysis and a simple regression analysis. Results According to the responses to the questions on the need for ICT-based healthcare service by item, blood pressure (n = 279, 94.3%) and glucose (n = 277, 93.6%) were revealed to be the physiological signal monitoring area. Among the six measurement factors affecting ICT-based healthcare service acceptability, age, health concerns, and effect expectation had the most significant effects. As effect expectation increased, acceptability became 4.38 times higher (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study identified a positive awareness of service targets on ICT-based healthcare service. The fact that acceptability is higher among people who have family disease history or greater health concerns may lead to service targets’ more active participation. This study also confirmed that a policy to motivate active participation of those in their 40s (who had high prevalence rates) was needed. PMID:27895966

  11. Technology, Demographic Characteristics and E-Learning Acceptance: A Conceptual Model Based on Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarhini, Ali; Elyas, Tariq; Akour, Mohammad Ali; Al-Salti, Zahran

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to develop an amalgamated conceptual model of technology acceptance that explains how individual, social, cultural and organizational factors affect the students' acceptance and usage behaviour of the Web-based learning systems. More specifically, the proposed model extends the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to…

  12. Compiler Acceptance Criteria Guidebook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    rrograms generated by a compiler coupled with the expected life of the compiled program (number of times to be used) can often make ? 1 -6 : ! this aspect...concern are! " CPU time per statement or program * core usaae " 1 /0 access time " wait or dead ti-e " disk storage • tape drive mounts In large...left to the specification agency discretion. A prime example is the OS 370 P1eP system. 1 1 -7 0 Level of Expertise Another often neglected cost item is

  13. A PROPOSED METHODOLOGY FOR STRAIN BASED FAILURE CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T

    2008-05-01

    This paper proposes an alternative methodology to determine the failure criteria for use in dynamic simulations of radioactive material shipping packages in the events of hypothetical accident conditions. The current stress failure criteria defined in the Nuclear Regulatory Guide 7.6 [1] and the ASME Code, Section III, Appendix F [2] for Level D Service Loads are based on the ultimate strength of uniaxial tensile test specimen rather than on the material fracture in the state of multi-axial stresses. On the other hand, the proposed strain-based failure criteria are directly related to the material failure mechanisms in multi-axial stresses. In addition, unlike the stress-based criteria, the strain-based failure criteria are applicable to the evaluation of cumulative damages caused by the sequential loads in the hypothetical accident events as required by the Nuclear Regulatory Guide 7.8 [4].

  14. Risk-based versus deterministic explosives safety criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.E.

    1996-12-01

    The Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board (DDESB) is actively considering ways to apply risk-based approaches in its decision- making processes. As such, an understanding of the impact of converting to risk-based criteria is required. The objectives of this project are to examine the benefits and drawbacks of risk-based criteria and to define the impact of converting from deterministic to risk-based criteria. Conclusions will be couched in terms that allow meaningful comparisons of deterministic and risk-based approaches. To this end, direct comparisons of the consequences and impacts of both deterministic and risk-based criteria at selected military installations are made. Deterministic criteria used in this report are those in DoD 6055.9-STD, `DoD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standard.` Risk-based criteria selected for comparison are those used by the government of Switzerland, `Technical Requirements for the Storage of Ammunition (TLM 75).` The risk-based criteria used in Switzerland were selected because they have been successfully applied for over twenty-five years.

  15. [Acceptance and mindfulness-based cognitive-behavioral therapies].

    PubMed

    Ngô, Thanh-Lan

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is one of the main approaches in psychotherapy. It teaches the patient to examine the link between dysfunctional thoughts and maladaptive behaviors and to re- evaluate the cognitive biases involved in the maintenance of symptoms by using strategies such as guided discovery. CBT is constantly evolving in part to improve its' effectiveness and accessibility. Thus in the last decade, increasingly popular approaches based on mindfulness and acceptance have emerged. These therapies do not attempt to modify cognitions even when they are biased and dysfunctional but rather seek a change in the relationship between the individual and the symptoms. This article aims to present the historical context that has allowed the emergence of this trend, the points of convergence and divergence with traditional CBT as well as a brief presentation of the different therapies based on mindfulness meditation and acceptance. Hayes (2004) described three successive waves in behavior therapy, each characterized by "dominant assumptions, methods and goals": traditional behavior therapy, cognitive therapy and therapies based on mindfulness meditation and acceptance. The latter consider that human suffering occurs when the individual lives a restricted life in order avoid pain and immediate discomfort to the detriment of his global wellbeing. These therapies combine mindfulness, experiential, acceptance strategies with traditional behavior principles in order to attain lasting results. There are significant points of convergence between traditional CBT and therapies based on mindfulness meditation and acceptance. They are both empirically validated, based upon a theoretical model postulating that avoidance is key in the maintenance of psychopathology and they recommend an approach strategy in order to overcome the identified problem. They both use behavioral techniques in the context of a collaborative relationship in order to identify precise problems and to

  16. 40 CFR 86.610-98 - Compliance with acceptable quality level and passing and failing criteria for Selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... level and passing and failing criteria for Selective Enforcement Audits. 86.610-98 Section 86.610-98... quality level and passing and failing criteria for Selective Enforcement Audits. (a) The prescribed... test procedures pursuant to § 86.608-98(a). (c)(1) Pass/fail criteria. The manufacturer shall...

  17. Criteria for Evaluating Web-Based Hypertext.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsi-chi

    This study focuses on teachers as designers using constructive hypertext and their perspectives on evaluating Web-based hypertext projects. The research setting was a graduate level course focused on learning hypertext and designing hypertext projects in Web-based environments. The 11 participants were in-service teachers and graduate students…

  18. Assessing Graduate Attributes: Building a Criteria-Based Competency Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ipperciel, Donald; ElAtia, Samira

    2014-01-01

    Graduate attributes (GAs) have become a necessary framework of reference for the 21st century competency-based model of higher education. However, the issue of evaluating and assessing GAs still remains unchartered territory. In this article, we present a criteria-based method of assessment that allows for an institution-wide comparison of the…

  19. Criteria for evidence-based practice in Iranian traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Soltani Arabshahi, SeyyedKamran; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Shams-Ardakani, MohammadReza; Bigdeli, Shoaleh

    2015-07-01

    The major difference between Iranian traditional medicine and allopathic medicine is in the application  of  evidence  and  documents.  In  this  study,  criteria  for  evidence-based  practice  in  Iranian traditional medicine and its rules of practice were studied. The experts' views were investigated through in- depth, semi-structured interviews and the results were categorized into four main categories including Designing clinical questions/clinical question-based search, critical appraisal, resource search criteria and clinical prescription appraisal. Although the application of evidence in Iranian traditional medicine follows Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) principles but it benefits from its own rules, regulations, and criteria that are compatible with EBM.

  20. Acceptability of Flight Deck-Based Interval Management Crew Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdock, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Sara R.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Smail, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The Interval Management for Near-term Operations Validation of Acceptability (IM-NOVA) experiment was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) in support of the NASA Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Airspace Systems Program's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration - 1 (ATD-1). ATD-1 is intended to showcase an integrated set of technologies that provide an efficient arrival solution for managing aircraft using NextGen surveillance, navigation, procedures, and automation for both airborne and ground-based systems. The goal of the IM-NOVA experiment was to assess if procedures outlined by the ATD-1 Concept of Operations, when used with a minimum set of Flight deck-based Interval Management (FIM) equipment and a prototype crew interface, were acceptable to and feasible for use by flight crews in a voice communications environment. To investigate an integrated arrival solution using ground-based air traffic control tools and aircraft automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B) tools, the LaRC FIM system and the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering and Controller Managed Spacing tools developed at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) were integrated in LaRC's Air Traffic Operations Laboratory. Data were collected from 10 crews of current, qualified 757/767 pilots asked to fly a high-fidelity, fixed based simulator during scenarios conducted within an airspace environment modeled on the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Terminal Radar Approach Control area. The aircraft simulator was equipped with the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Area Routes algorithm and a FIM crew interface consisting of electronic flight bags and ADS-B guidance displays. Researchers used "pseudo-pilot" stations to control 24 simulated aircraft that provided multiple air traffic flows into DFW, and recently retired DFW air traffic controllers served as confederate Center, Feeder, Final, and Tower

  1. Diagnostic criteria for Huntington's disease based on natural history.

    PubMed

    Reilmann, Ralf; Leavitt, Blair R; Ross, Christopher A

    2014-09-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is currently diagnosed based on the presence of motor signs indicating 99% "diagnostic confidence" for HD. Recent advances in the understanding of HD natural history and neurobiology indicate that disease-related brain changes begin at least 12 to 15 years before the formal diagnosis based on motor onset. Furthermore, subtle motor dysfunction, cognitive changes, and behavioral alterations are often seen before diagnosis made according to the current criteria. As disease-modifying treatments are developed, likely beginning therapy early will be desirable. We therefore suggest that expanded diagnostic criteria for HD should be adapted to better reflect the natural history of the disease, to enable the conduct of clinical trials in premanifest subjects targeting prevention of neurodegeneration, and to facilitate earlier symptomatic treatment. We propose a new set of criteria for HD diagnostic categories in the International Classification of Diseases that reflect our current understanding of HD natural history and pathogenesis. Based on defined criteria, for example, the Diagnostic Confidence Level and the Total Functional Capacity scales of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, HD should be divided in the categories "genetically confirmed" with the subcategories "presymptomatic," "prodromal," and "manifest" and "not genetically confirmed" subdivided into "clinically at risk," "clinically prodromal," and "clinically manifest."

  2. Durability-based design criteria for an automotive structural composite

    SciTech Connect

    Corum, J.M.; Battiste, R.L.; Brinkman, C.R.; Ren, W.; Ruggles, M.B.; Yahr, G.T.

    1998-11-01

    Before composite structures can be widely used in automotive applications, their long-term durability must be assured. The Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was established by the US Department of Energy to help provide that assurance. The project is closely coordinated with the Automotive Composites Consortium. The experimentally-based, durability-driven design criteria described in this paper are the result of the initial project thrust. The criteria address a single reference composite, which is an SRIM (Structural Reaction Injection Molded) polyurethane, reinforced with continuous strand, swirl-mat E-glass fibers. The durability issues addressed include the effects of cyclic and sustained loadings, temperature, automotive fluid environments, and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and roadway kickups) on strength, stiffness, and deformation. The criteria provide design analysis guidance, a multiaxial strength criterion, time-independent and time-dependent allowable stresses, rules for cyclic loading, and damage tolerance design guidance. Environmental degradation factors and the degrading effects of prior loadings are included. Efforts are currently underway to validate the criteria by application to a second random-glass-fiber composite. Carbon-fiber composites are also being addressed.

  3. Shell Buckling Design Criteria Based on Manufacturing Imperfection Signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Nemeth, Michael P.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis-based approach .for developing shell-buckling design criteria for laminated-composite cylindrical shells that accurately accounts for the effects of initial geometric imperfections is presented. With this approach, measured initial geometric imperfection data from six graphite-epoxy shells are used to determine a manufacturing-process-specific imperfection signature for these shells. This imperfection signature is then used as input into nonlinear finite-element analyses. The imperfection signature represents a "first-approximation" mean imperfection shape that is suitable for developing preliminary-design data. Comparisons of test data and analytical results obtained by using several different imperfection shapes are presented for selected shells. Overall, the results indicate that the analysis-based approach presented for developing reliable preliminary-design criteria has the potential to provide improved, less conservative buckling-load estimates, and to reduce the weight and cost of developing buckling-resistant shell structures.

  4. Quality of laboratory studies assessing effects of Bt-proteins on non-target organisms: minimal criteria for acceptability.

    PubMed

    De Schrijver, Adinda; Devos, Yann; De Clercq, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Romeis, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The potential risks that genetically modified plants may pose to non-target organisms and the ecosystem services they contribute to are assessed as part of pre-market risk assessments. This paper reviews the early tier studies testing the hypothesis whether exposure to plant-produced Cry34/35Ab1 proteins as a result of cultivation of maize 59122 is harmful to valued non-target organisms, in particular Arthropoda and Annelida. The available studies were assessed for their scientific quality by considering a set of criteria determining their relevance and reliability. As a case-study, this exercise revealed that when not all quality criteria are met, weighing the robustness of the study and its relevance for risk assessment is not obvious. Applying a worst-case expected environmental concentration of bioactive toxins equivalent to that present in the transgenic crop, confirming exposure of the test species to the test substance, and the use of a negative control were identified as minimum criteria to be met to guarantee sufficiently reliable data. This exercise stresses the importance of conducting studies meeting certain quality standards as this minimises the probability of erroneous or inconclusive results and increases confidence in the results and adds certainty to the conclusions drawn.

  5. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  6. Development of acceptance criteria for batches of silane primer for external tank thermal protection system bonding applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikes, F.

    1985-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is currently the best technique for observing hydrolytic changes in DC 1200 silane the primers caused by moisture in the atmosphere. To further prove that FTIR can be used as a criterion test for acceptance of silane primer lots, intensities of the FTIR OH- band are being compared with primer adhesive bond strength using a mechanical test suggested by NASA. Results of tests for shear strength and Oh-absorption are tabulated and compared with FTIR absorption intensities in the OH-region.

  7. Assessment Criteria for Competency-Based Education: A Study in Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fastré, Greet M. J.; van der Klink, Marcel R.; Amsing-Smit, Pauline; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of type of assessment criteria (performance-based vs. competency-based), the relevance of assessment criteria (relevant criteria vs. all criteria), and their interaction on secondary vocational education students' performance and assessment skills. Students on three programmes in the domain of nursing and care…

  8. Data Quality Objectives and Criteria for Basic Information, Acceptable Uncertainty, and Quality-Assurance and Quality-Control Documentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.; Bank, Fred G.; Cazenas, Patricia A.

    1998-01-01

    The Federal Highway Administration and State transportation agencies have the responsibility of determining and minimizing the effects of highway runoff on water quality; therefore, they have been conducting an extensive program of water-quality monitoring and research during the last 25 years. The objectives and monitoring goals of highway runoff studies have been diverse, because the highway community must address many different questions about the characteristics and impacts of highway runoff. The Federal Highway Administration must establish that available data and procedures that are used to assess and predict pollutant loadings and impacts from highway stormwater runoff are valid, current, and technically supportable. This report examines criteria for evaluating water-quality data and resultant interpretations. The criteria used to determine if data are valid (useful for intended purposes), current, and technically supportable are derived from published materials from the Federal Highway Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality, the U.S. Geological Survey and from technical experts throughout the U.S. Geological Survey. Water-quality data that are documented to be meaningful, representative, complete, precise, accurate, comparable, and admissible as legal evidence will meet the scientific, engineering, and regulatory needs of highway agencies. Documentation of basic information, such as compatible monitoring objectives and program design features; metadata (when, where, and how data were collected as well as who collected and analyzed the data); ancillary information (explanatory variables and study-site characteristics); and legal requirements are needed to evaluate data. Documentation of sufficient quality-assurance and quality-control information to establish the quality and uncertainty in the data and interpretations also are needed to determine the comparability and utility of

  9. Development of Effects-Based Nutrient Criteria using Biological Endpoints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miltner, R.

    2005-05-01

    Ohio employs biological endpoints to judge the status of aquatic life in rivers and streams. Specifically, numeric criteria derived from biological indices have been incorporated into Ohio's water quality standards for fish and macroinvertebrate communities. When appropriate, chemical-specific water quality standards derived from dose-response curves are used in concert with the biological indices to ascribe the causes and sources of impairment to polluted streams. However, water quality criteria have not been established for all polluting agents, especially those, like nutrients, that do not elicit a simple dose-response curve. In such cases, where biological impairment is observed, the linkage between the impairment and causal agent is made inferentially. Ohio EPA is currently studying the relationship between nutrient concentrations, periphytic chlorophyll a concentrations, and biological indices to ascertain whether a direct relationship exists between nutrient concentration and the biological health of fish and macroinvertebrate communities, with the eventual goal of adopting effects-based nutrient criteria in Ohio's water quality standards. Results from the first field season show a strong relationship between chlorophyll a concentrations, and physical and land use variables. Additionally, 48 h dissolved oxygen flux correlated with periphytic chlorophyll a concentrations and the degree of canopy cover.

  10. Establishment of design criteria for acceptable failure modes and fail safe considerations for the space shuttle structural system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westrup, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of fatigue life, and safe-life and fail-safe design concepts as applied to space shuttle structure are summarized. The results are evaluated to select recommended structural design criteria to provide assurance that premature failure due to propagation of undetected crack-like defects will not occur during shuttle operational service. The space shuttle booster, GDC configuration B-9U, is selected as the reference vehicle. Structural elements used as basis of detail analyses include wing spar caps, vertical stabilizer skins, crew compartment skin, orbiter support frame, and propellant tank shell structure. Fatigue life analyses of structural elements are performed to define potential problem areas and establish upper limits of operating stresses. Flaw growth analyses are summarized in parametric form over a range of initial flaw types and sizes, operating stresses and service life requirements. Service life of 100 to 500 missions is considered.

  11. Acceptance Criteria for Corrosion Resistance of Medical Devices: Statistical Analysis of Nitinol Pitting in In Vivo Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiselstein, Lawrence E.; Steffey, Duane; Nissan, Andrew; Corlett, Nigel; Dugnani, Roberto; Kus, Esra; Stewart, Sarah G.

    2009-08-01

    ASTM F 2129 test method nor the FDA provides any guidance as to what constitutes an acceptance criterion for the corrosion resistance of implantable medical devices. Neither provide any guidance on how many samples to test or how to handle censored data, i.e. datasets where there are only a few tests that breakdown. The development of both a statistically valid acceptance criterion for corrosion resistance and a method of evaluation would be of significant benefit to the medical device community. This study of 420 nitinol cyclic polarization tests, which builds on previous research that was presented at SMST 2007, investigates the effect of long-term exposure to simulated in vivo environments with differing degrees of aeration. This was accomplished by pre-exposing electropolished (EP) nitinol to phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C that had been sparged with either ultra high purity nitrogen or laboratory air. Immersion times ranged from 1 h up to 30 days. A total of 290 EP samples were tested in order to obtain a reasonable number of samples with breakdown, i.e. pitted. In addition, a total of 130 mechanical polished (MP) samples were also analyzed. This data allow us to test our statistical model that was presented at SMST 2007. This model takes into account the probability of breakdown per unit of exposed surface area and, if breakdown occurs, predicts the probability that E b - E r is greater than some threshold value. Aerated PBS environments were found to have a large influence on the margin of safety against pitting in vivo. Statistical methods for treating highly right censored pitting data are presented.

  12. Administrative Process and Criteria Ranking for Drug Entering Health Insurance List in Iran-TOPSIS-Based Consensus Model.

    PubMed

    Viyanchi, Amir; Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; SafiKhani, HamidReza

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of our study were to identify a drug entry process, collect, and prioritize criteria for selecting drugs for the list of basic health insurance commitments to prepare an "evidence based reimbursement eligibility plan" in Iran. The 128 noticeable criteria were found when studying the health insurance systems of developed countries. Four parts (involving criteria) formed the first questionnaire: evaluation of evidences quality, clinical evaluation, economic evaluation, and managerial appraisal. The 85 experts (purposed sampling) were asked to mark the importance of each criterion from 1 to 100 as 1 representing the least and 100 the most important criterion and 45 out of them replied completely. Then, in the next questionnaire, we evaluated the 48 remainder criteria by the same45 participants under four sub-criteria (Cost calculation simplicity, Interpretability, Precision, and Updating capability of a criterion). After collecting the replies, the remainder criteria were ranked by TOPSIS method. Softwares "SPSS" 17 and Excel 2007 were used. The ranks of the five most important criteria which were found for drug approval based on TOPSIS are as follows: 1-domestic production (0.556), 2-duration of using (0.399), 3-independence of the assessment group (0.363) 4-impact budgeting (0.362) 5-decisions of other countries about the same drug (0.358). The numbers in parenthesis are relative closeness alternatives in relation to the ideal solution. This model gave a scientific model for judging fairly on the acceptance of novelty medicines.

  13. Administrative Process and Criteria Ranking for Drug Entering Health Insurance List in Iran-TOPSIS-Based Consensus Model

    PubMed Central

    Viyanchi, Amir; Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; SafiKhani, HamidReza

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of our study were to identify a drug entry process, collect, and prioritize criteria for selecting drugs for the list of basic health insurance commitments to prepare an “evidence based reimbursement eligibility plan” in Iran. The 128 noticeable criteria were found when studying the health insurance systems of developed countries. Four parts (involving criteria) formed the first questionnaire: evaluation of evidences quality, clinical evaluation, economic evaluation, and managerial appraisal. The 85 experts (purposed sampling) were asked to mark the importance of each criterion from 1 to 100 as 1 representing the least and 100 the most important criterion and 45 out of them replied completely. Then, in the next questionnaire, we evaluated the 48 remainder criteria by the same45 participants under four sub-criteria (Cost calculation simplicity, Interpretability, Precision, and Updating capability of a criterion). After collecting the replies, the remainder criteria were ranked by TOPSIS method. Softwares “SPSS” 17 and Excel 2007 were used. The ranks of the five most important criteria which were found for drug approval based on TOPSIS are as follows: 1-domestic production (0.556), 2-duration of using (0.399), 3-independence of the assessment group (0.363) 4-impact budgeting (0.362) 5-decisions of other countries about the same drug (0.358). The numbers in parenthesis are relative closeness alternatives in relation to the ideal solution. This model gave a scientific model for judging fairly on the acceptance of novelty medicines. PMID:27610178

  14. Adolescent Girls' Acceptance and Rejection Based on Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Charlene Duch; Eicher, Joanne B.

    1973-01-01

    Authors gathered evidence that visual assessment of another individual precedes decisions to associate with that individual. Girls in this study made appraisals of the dress of fictional girls and then made subsequent judgments about whether or not they would be willing to have these girls as friends and whether their group would accept the girl…

  15. Gender Incongruence of Adolescence and Adulthood: Acceptability and Clinical Utility of the World Health Organization's Proposed ICD-11 Criteria.

    PubMed

    Beek, Titia F; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Bouman, Walter P; de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Witcomb, Gemma L; Arcelus, Jon; Richards, Christina; Elaut, Els; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is currently updating the tenth version of their diagnostic tool, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD, WHO, 1992). Changes have been proposed for the diagnosis of Transsexualism (ICD-10) with regard to terminology, placement and content. The aim of this study was to gather the opinions of transgender individuals (and their relatives/partners) and clinicians in the Netherlands, Flanders (Belgium) and the United Kingdom regarding the proposed changes and the clinical applicability and utility of the ICD-11 criteria of 'Gender Incongruence of Adolescence and Adulthood' (GIAA). A total of 628 participants were included in the study: 284 from the Netherlands (45.2%), 8 from Flanders (Belgium) (1.3%), and 336 (53.5%) from the UK. Most participants were transgender people (or their partners/relatives) (n = 522), 89 participants were healthcare providers (HCPs) and 17 were both healthcare providers and (partners/relatives of) transgender people. Participants completed an online survey developed for this study. Most participants were in favor of the proposed diagnostic term of 'Gender Incongruence' and thought that this was an improvement on the ICD-10 diagnostic term of 'Transsexualism'. Placement in a separate chapter dealing with Sexual- and Gender-related Health or as a Z-code was preferred by many and only a small number of participants stated that this diagnosis should be excluded from the ICD-11. In the UK, most transgender participants thought there should be a diagnosis related to being trans. However, if it were to be removed from the chapter on "psychiatric disorders", many transgender respondents indicated that they would prefer it to be removed from the ICD in its entirety. There were no large differences between the responses of the transgender participants (or their partners and relatives) and HCPs. HCPs were generally positive about the GIAA diagnosis; most thought the diagnosis was clearly defined and easy

  16. Consumer acceptance of nutrigenomics-based personalised nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ronteltap, A; van Trijp, J C M; Renes, R J

    2009-01-01

    Nutrigenomics is a new and promising development in nutritional science which aims to understand the fundamental molecular processes affected by foods. Despite general agreement on its promise for better understanding diet-health relationships, less consensus exists among experts on the potential of spin-offs aimed at the consumer such as personalised nutrition. Research into consumer acceptance of such applications is scarce. The present study develops a set of key hypotheses on public acceptance of personalised nutrition and tests these in a representative sample of Dutch consumers. An innovative consumer research methodology is used in which consumers evaluate short films which are systematically varied scenarios for the future of personalised nutrition. Consumer evaluations of these films, which are pre-tested in a pilot study, allow a formal test of how consumer perceptions of personalised nutrition drive consumer acceptance and through which fundamental psychological processes these effects are mediated. Public acceptance is enhanced if consumers can make their genetic profile available free at their own choice, if the actual spin-off products provide a clearly recognisable advantage to the consumer, and are easy to implement into the daily routine. Consumers prefer communication on nutrigenomics and personalised nutrition by expert stakeholders to be univocal and aimed at building support with consumers and their direct environments for this intriguing new development. Additionally, an exploratory segmentation analysis indicated that people have different focal points in their preferences for alternative scenarios of personalised nutrition. The insights obtained from the present study provide guidance for the successful further development of nutrigenomics and its applications.

  17. Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: An Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocovski, Nancy L.; Fleming, Jan E.; Rector, Neil A.

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Group Therapy (MAGT) for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is based largely on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes et al., 1999), with enhanced mindfulness mostly from Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT; Segal et al., 2002). The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and initial…

  18. Performance of data acceptance criteria over 50 months from an automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network.

    PubMed

    Casanovas, R; Morant, J J; López, M; Hernández-Girón, I; Batalla, E; Salvadó, M

    2011-08-01

    The automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network of Catalonia (Spain) comprises two subnetworks; one with 9 aerosol monitors and the other with 8 Geiger monitors together with 2 water monitors located in the Ebre river. Since September 2006, several improvements were implemented in order to get better quality and quantity of data, allowing a more accurate data analysis. However, several causes (natural causes, equipment failure, artificial external causes and incidents in nuclear power plants) may produce radiological measured values mismatched with the own station background, whether spurious without significance or true radiological values. Thus, data analysis for a 50-month period was made and allowed to establish an easily implementable statistical criterion to find those values that require special attention. This criterion proved a very useful tool for creating a properly debugged database and to give a quick response to equipment failures or possible radiological incidents. This paper presents the results obtained from the criterion application, including the figures for the expected, raw and debugged data, percentages of missing data grouped by causes and radiological measurements from the networks. Finally, based on the discussed information, recommendations for the improvement of the network are identified to obtain better radiological information and analysis capabilities.

  19. Automatic identification of bullet signatures based on consecutive matching striae (CMS) criteria.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wei; Thompson, Robert M; Song, John; Vorburger, Theodore V

    2013-09-10

    The consecutive matching striae (CMS) numeric criteria for firearm and toolmark identifications have been widely accepted by forensic examiners, although there have been questions concerning its observer subjectivity and limited statistical support. In this paper, based on signal processing and extraction, a model for the automatic and objective counting of CMS is proposed. The position and shape information of the striae on the bullet land is represented by a feature profile, which is used for determining the CMS number automatically. Rapid counting of CMS number provides a basis for ballistics correlations with large databases and further statistical and probability analysis. Experimental results in this report using bullets fired from ten consecutively manufactured barrels support this developed model.

  20. FORUM: Defining Goals and Criteria for Ecosystem-Based Management

    PubMed

    Slocombe

    1998-07-01

    / Identifying goals or targets for landscape and ecosystem management is now a widely recognized need that has received little systematic attention. At a micro-level most planners and managers of both ecosystems and economies continue to pursue traditional goals and targets that miss many desirable characteristics of ecosystem-based management goals. Desirable characteristics of ecosystem and landscape management goals and targets include: addressing complexity, transdisciplinarity, and the dynamic nature of natural systems; reflecting the wide range of interests and goals that exist; recognizing goals and values and limits; involving people and being explainable and implementable in a consistent way to different people and groups; and evolving adaptively as conditions and knowledge change. Substantive and procedural goals can be distinguished; the latter supporting the former. Substantive goals can be grouped according to their relationship to system structure, organization, and process/dynamics, and their disciplinary or subsystemic breadth. These discussions are illustrated by a review of the goals of biodiversity, sustainability, ecological health, and integrity. An example of a hierarchical framework of procedural goals and objectives that supports achievement of substantive goals is also provided. The conclusion is that a parallel, linked system of substantive and procedural goals at different levels of complexity and disciplinarity is needed to facilitate ecosystem-based management.KEY WORDS: Ecosystem management; Goals and objectives; Assessment criteria

  1. Research on performance-based seismic design criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Li-Li; Ma, Yu-Hong

    2002-03-01

    The seismic design criterion adopted in the existing seismic design codes is reviewed. It is pointed out that the presently used seismic design criterion is not satisfied with the requirements of nowadays social and economic development. A new performance-based seismic design criterion that is composed of three components is presented in this paper. It can not only effectively control the economic losses and casualty, but also ensure the building’s function in proper operation during earthquakes. The three components are: classification of seismic design for buildings, determination of seismic design intensity and/or seismic design ground motion for controlling seismic economic losses and casualties, and determination of the importance factors in terms of service periods of buildings. For controlling the seismic human losses, the idea of socially acceptable casualty level is presented and the ‘Optimal Economic Decision Model’ and ‘Optimal Safe Decision Model’ are established. Finally, a new method is recommended for calculating the importance factors of structures by adjusting structures service period on the base of more important structure with longer service period than the conventional ones. Therefore, the more important structure with longer service periods will be designed for higher seismic loads, in case the exceedance probability of seismic hazard in different service period is same.

  2. Facility Composer Design Wizards: A Method for Extensible Codified Design Logic Based on Explicit Facility Criteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    36 22 Submittal worksheet for criterion 1.C7_1-1...Criteria Wizard Criteria Wizards are wizards that assist a user primarily in Planning Composer by providing one or more worksheets consisting of...for these criteria based on user input. Other Cri - teria Wizards currently under development include the Plumbing Fixture Calcu- lation Wizard and

  3. II. Species sensitivity distributions based on biomarkers and whole organism responses for integrated impact and risk assessment criteria.

    PubMed

    Sanni, Steinar; Lyng, Emily; Pampanin, Daniela M; Smit, Mathijs G D

    2016-12-26

    The aim of this paper is to bridge gaps between biomarker and whole organism responses related to oil based offshore discharges. These biomarker bridges will facilitate acceptance criteria for biomarker data linked to environmental risk assessment and translate biomarker results to higher order effects. Biomarker based species sensitivity distributions (SSDbiomarkers) have been constructed for relevant groups of biomarkers based on laboratory data from oil exposures. SSD curves express the fraction of species responding to different types of biomarkers. They have been connected to SSDs for whole organism responses (WORs) constructed in order to relate the SSDbiomarkers to animal fitness parameters that are commonly used in environmental risk assessment. The resulting SSD curves show that biomarkers and WORs can be linked through their potentially affected fraction of species (PAF) distributions, enhancing the capability to monitor field parameters with better correlation to impact and risk assessment criteria and providing improved chemical/biological integration.

  4. Durability-Based Design Criteria for a Chopped-Glass-Fiber Automotive Structural Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Battiste, R.L.; Corum, J.M.; Ren, W.; Ruggles, M.B.

    1999-11-01

    This report provides recommended durability-based design criteria for a chopped-glass-fiber reinforced polymeric composite for automotive structural applications. The criteria closely follow the framework of an earlier criteria document for a continuous-strand-mat (CSM) glass-fiber reference composite. Together these design criteria demonstrate a framework that can be adapted for future random-glass-fiber composites for automotive structural applications.

  5. Investigating Acceptance toward Mobile Learning to Assist Individual Knowledge Management: Based on Activity Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Hatala, Marek; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Mobile devices could facilitate human interaction and access to knowledge resources anytime and anywhere. With respect to wide application possibilities of mobile learning, investigating learners' acceptance towards it is an essential issue. Based on activity theory approach, this research explores positive factors for the acceptance of m-learning…

  6. Proposal of success criteria for strabismus surgery in patients with Graves' orbitopathy based on a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Jellema, Hinke Marijke; Braaksma-Besselink, Yvette; Limpens, Jacqueline; von Arx, Georg; Wiersinga, Wilmar M; Mourits, Maarten P

    2015-11-01

    Proposal of success criteria for strabismus surgery for patients with Graves' orbitopathy (GO) based on a systematic review of the literature. We performed a systematic search of OVID MEDLINE, OVID Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the publisher subset of PubMed, to identify studies reporting on success criteria of strabismus surgery in GO. In addition, we handsearched several orthoptic journals and proceedings of strabismological congresses. Of the 789 articles retrieved, 42 articles described success criteria for strabismus surgery in GO. Most studies defined success in terms of a subjective diplopia-free field in primary and down gaze. Almost half of the studies used a graded scale (excellent, good, acceptable and failure) to describe the outcome of surgery. Three of the eligible studies described a tool to quantify the field of single vision in detail. Quality of life was not reported as an outcome measure in any of the published studies. In conclusion, success criteria for strabismus surgery in patients with GO are poorly defined and no consensus is available. The lack of standardization hampers comparative studies and thus the search for the best surgical treatment for diplopia in patients with GO. Therefore, we propose strict success criteria including a tool for quantification of remaining diplopia plus a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire (the GO-QoL).

  7. Workplace-based assessment of communication skills: A pilot project addressing feasibility, acceptance and reliability.

    PubMed

    Weyers, Simone; Jemi, Iman; Karger, André; Raski, Bianca; Rotthoff, Thomas; Pentzek, Michael; Mortsiefer, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Imparting communication skills has been given great importance in medical curricula. In addition to standardized assessments, students should communicate with real patients in actual clinical situations during workplace-based assessments and receive structured feedback on their performance. The aim of this project was to pilot a formative testing method for workplace-based assessment. Our investigation centered in particular on whether or not physicians view the method as feasible and how high acceptance is among students. In addition, we assessed the reliability of the method. Method: As part of the project, 16 students held two consultations each with chronically ill patients at the medical practice where they were completing GP training. These consultations were video-recorded. The trained mentoring physician rated the student's performance and provided feedback immediately following the consultations using the Berlin Global Rating scale (BGR). Two impartial, trained raters also evaluated the videos using BGR. For qualitative and quantitative analysis, information on how physicians and students viewed feasibility and their levels of acceptance was collected in written form in a partially standardized manner. To test for reliability, the test-retest reliability was calculated for both of the overall evaluations given by each rater. The inter-rater reliability was determined for the three evaluations of each individual consultation. Results: The formative assessment method was rated positively by both physicians and students. It is relatively easy to integrate into daily routines. Its significant value lies in the personal, structured and recurring feedback. The two overall scores for each patient consultation given by the two impartial raters correlate moderately. The degree of uniformity among the three raters in respect to the individual consultations is low. Discussion: Within the scope of this pilot project, only a small sample of physicians and

  8. Workplace-based assessment of communication skills: A pilot project addressing feasibility, acceptance and reliability

    PubMed Central

    Weyers, Simone; Jemi, Iman; Karger, André; Raski, Bianca; Rotthoff, Thomas; Pentzek, Michael; Mortsiefer, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Imparting communication skills has been given great importance in medical curricula. In addition to standardized assessments, students should communicate with real patients in actual clinical situations during workplace-based assessments and receive structured feedback on their performance. The aim of this project was to pilot a formative testing method for workplace-based assessment. Our investigation centered in particular on whether or not physicians view the method as feasible and how high acceptance is among students. In addition, we assessed the reliability of the method. Method: As part of the project, 16 students held two consultations each with chronically ill patients at the medical practice where they were completing GP training. These consultations were video-recorded. The trained mentoring physician rated the student’s performance and provided feedback immediately following the consultations using the Berlin Global Rating scale (BGR). Two impartial, trained raters also evaluated the videos using BGR. For qualitative and quantitative analysis, information on how physicians and students viewed feasibility and their levels of acceptance was collected in written form in a partially standardized manner. To test for reliability, the test-retest reliability was calculated for both of the overall evaluations given by each rater. The inter-rater reliability was determined for the three evaluations of each individual consultation. Results: The formative assessment method was rated positively by both physicians and students. It is relatively easy to integrate into daily routines. Its significant value lies in the personal, structured and recurring feedback. The two overall scores for each patient consultation given by the two impartial raters correlate moderately. The degree of uniformity among the three raters in respect to the individual consultations is low. Discussion: Within the scope of this pilot project, only a small sample of physicians and

  9. Evaluations of indoor noise criteria systems based on human response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Erica E.; Wang, Lily M.

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this research is to examine human response to background noise, and relate results to indoor noise criteria. In previous work by the authors, subjects completed perception surveys, typing tasks, and proofreading tasks under typical heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) noise conditions. Results were correlated with commonly used indoor noise criteria systems including noise criteria (NC), room criteria (RC) and others. The findings suggested that the types of tasks used and the length of exposure can impact the results. To examine these two issues, the authors conducted a new study in which each test subject completed 38 total hours of testing over multiple days. Subjects were exposed to several background noise exposures over 20, 40, 80, and 240 minute trials. During the trials, subjects completed a variety of performance tasks and answered questions about their perception of the noise, the thermal environment, and various other factors. Findings from this study were used to determine optimum testing conditions for on-going research examining the effects of tonal or fluctuating background noise on performance, annoyance, and spectral perception. Results are being used to evaluate the effectiveness of commonly used indoor noise criteria systems. [Work supported by INCE and ASHRAE.

  10. A longitudinal examination of positive parenting following an acceptance-based couple intervention.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Melinda Ippolito; Hawrilenko, Matt; Córdova, James V

    2016-02-01

    Positive parenting practices have been shown to be essential for healthy child development, and yet have also been found to be particularly challenging for parents to enact and maintain. This article explores an innovative approach for increasing positive parenting by targeting specific positive emotional processes within marital relationships. Couple emotional acceptance is a powerful mechanism that has repeatedly been found to improve romantic relationships, but whether these effects extend to the larger family environment is less well understood. The current longitudinal study examined the impact of improved relational acceptance after a couple intervention on mother's and father's positive parenting. Participants included 244 parents (122 couples) in the Marriage Checkup (MC) study, a randomized, controlled, acceptance-based, intervention study. Data indicated that both women and men experienced significantly greater felt acceptance 2 weeks after the MC intervention, treatment women demonstrated greater positive parenting 2 weeks after the intervention, and all treatment participants' positive parenting was better maintained than control couple's 6 months later. Importantly, although mothers' positive parenting was not influenced by different levels of felt acceptance, changes in father's positive parenting were positively associated with changes in felt acceptance. As men felt more accepted by their wives, their levels of positive parenting changed in kind, and this effect on positive parenting was found to be mediated by felt acceptance 2 weeks after the MC. Overall, findings supported the potential benefits of targeting couple acceptance to generate positive cascades throughout the larger family system.

  11. A Longitudinal Examination of Positive Parenting Following an Acceptance-Based Couple Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Morrill, Melinda Ippolito; Hawrilenko, Matt; Córdova, James V.

    2015-01-01

    Positive parenting practices have been shown to be essential for healthy child development, and yet have also been found to be particularly challenging for parents to enact and maintain. This paper explores an innovative approach for increasing positive parenting by targeting specific positive emotional processes within marital relationships. Couple emotional acceptance is a powerful mechanism that has repeatedly been found to improve romantic relationships, but whether these effects extend to the larger family environment is less well understood. The current longitudinal study examined the role of improved levels of acceptance in mother’s and father’s positive parenting after a couple intervention. Participants included 244 parents (122 couples) in the Marriage Checkup (MC) study, a randomized, controlled, acceptance-based, intervention study. Data indicated that both women and men experienced significantly greater felt acceptance two-weeks after the MC intervention, treatment women demonstrated greater positive parenting two weeks after the intervention, and all treatment participants’ positive parenting was better maintained than control couple’s six months later. Importantly, although mothers’ positive parenting was not influenced by different levels of felt acceptance, changes in father’s positive parenting were positively associated with changes in felt acceptance. As men felt more accepted by their wives, their levels of positive parenting changed in kind, and this effect on positive parenting was found to be mediated by felt acceptance two weeks after the MC. Overall, findings supported the potential benefits of targeting couple acceptance to generate positive cascades throughout the larger family system. PMID:26551659

  12. Parental Acceptance of Digital Game-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgonjon, Jeroen; Valcke, Martin; Soetaert, Ronald; de Wever, Bram; Schellens, Tammy

    2011-01-01

    In research about digital game-based learning, the likely negative perceptions of parents are often enlisted as a barrier toward the adoption of games in classroom settings. Teachers, students and policy makers appear to be influenced by what parents think about games in the classroom. Therefore, it is important to study these parental beliefs…

  13. Can mindfulness and acceptance be learnt by self-help?: a systematic review and meta-analysis of mindfulness and acceptance-based self-help interventions.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Kate; Strauss, Clara; Forder, Lewis; Jones, Fergal

    2014-03-01

    There is growing evidence that mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions have positive consequences for psychological and physical health. The most well-established of these interventions typically involve relatively large resource commitments, in terms of both the provider and participant. A number of recent studies have begun to explore whether the benefits of such interventions can be generalised to less intensive methods. Methods include pure and guided self-help utilising resources such as books and workbooks, computer programmes and applications and audio-visual materials. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that have evaluated the effectiveness and acceptability of low-intensity interventions including mindfulness and acceptance-based components. Fifteen RCTs (7 ACT-based, 4 mindfulness-based and 4 multi-component interventions including elements of mindfulness and/or acceptance) were identified and reviewed. Interventions that included mindfulness and/or acceptance-based components produced significant benefits in comparison to control conditions on measures of mindfulness/acceptance, depression and anxiety with small to medium effect sizes. Engagement with the self-help interventions varied but on average two-thirds of participants completed post-intervention measures. Emerging research into low-intensity mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions is hopeful. Recommendations for research and practice are presented.

  14. Probability-Based Design Criteria of the ASCE 7 Tsunami Loads and Effects Provisions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chock, G.

    2013-12-01

    scenarios in the historical record, and should properly be based on the underlying seismicity of subduction zones. Therefore, Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) consistent with source seismicity must be performed in addition to consideration of historical event scenarios. A method of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis has been established that is generally consistent with Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis in the treatment of uncertainty. These new tsunami design zone maps will define the coastal zones where structures of greater importance would be designed for tsunami resistance and community resilience. Structural member acceptability criteria will be based on performance objectives for a 2,500-year Maximum Considered Tsunami. The approach developed by the ASCE Tsunami Loads and Effects Subcommittee of the ASCE 7 Standard would result in the first national unification of tsunami hazard criteria for design codes reflecting the modern approach of Performance-Based Engineering.

  15. Analytical Criteria for Microcomputer-Based Simulation/Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Roger

    Written for practitioners, curriculum developers, and researchers, the document presents evaluation criteria which were developed from an extensive review of research along with the experiences of the author with microcomputer social studies simulation games. The major portion of the document presents the review of research according to seven…

  16. Empirically Based Criteria for Determining Meaningful Effect Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnette, J. Jackson; McLean, James E.

    The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) the extent to which effect sizes vary by chance; (2) the proportion of standardized effect sizes that achieve or exceed commonly used criteria for small, medium, and large effect sizes; (3) whether standardized effect sizes are random or systematic across numbers of groups and sample sizes; and (4)…

  17. Pathogen inactivation of whole blood and red cell components: an overview of concept, design, developments, criteria of acceptability and storage lesion.

    PubMed

    Seghatchian, Jerard; Putter, Jeffrey S

    2013-10-01

    Multilayer preventative strategies have been instituted to enhance transfusion safety for patients in need of critical blood components. Presently blood safety is at its highest levels, with the implementation of precautionary/preventative measures against vCJD, bacterial and viral contamination of the blood supply. The implementation of these strategies together with advances in automation and computerization led to significant improvements in standardisation for transfusion practices. These include validation, verification, adherence to GLP and GMP and other regulatory requirements. In most European countries, universal prestorage leukodepletion is routine practice. In France proactive pathogen inactivation treatments [PITs] have been implemented emphasizing patient safety. This at least conceptually reduces the risk of transfusing viable WBCs, emerging bacteria and viruses, all with potential transfusion complications. In the UK, prion removal filters for red cell products are used selectively for special groups of patients. Some research establishments are exploring the potential impact of pathogen inactivation of whole blood or red cell components, using the new generation of S-303 PIT and the prion removal filters in combination. It needs to be determined whether such a combined strategy, applied synergistically, enhances red cell transfusion safety without compromising the overall criteria of acceptability. It is necessary to critically examine the impact of a new generation of PIT technologies, which may exacerbate the red cell storage lesion and cause the development of undesirable antibodies in the recipient. The development of innovative laboratory tools is vital to study impacts of these measures on the quality of stored blood and their clinical outcome. The ultimate aim of red cell transfusion is to provide oxygen enriched red blood cells to the microcirculations and tissues. Definitive studies are needed to establish the potential unforeseen negative

  18. Patients' acceptance of Internet-based home asthma telemonitoring.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, J; Hripcsak, G; Cabrera, M R

    1998-01-01

    We studied asthma patients from a low-income inner-city community without previous computer experience. The patients were given portable spirometers to perform spirometry tests and palmtop computers to enter symptoms in a diary, to exchange messages with physician and to review test results. The self-testing was performed at home on a daily basis. The results were transmitted to the hospital information system immediately after completion of each test. Physician could review results using an Internet Web browser from any location. A constantly active decision support server monitored all data traffic and dispatched alerts when certain clinical conditions were met. Seventeen patients, out of 19 invited, agreed to participate in the study and have been monitored for three weeks. They have been surveyed then using standardized questionnaire. Most of the patients (82.4%) characterized self-testing procedures as "not complicated at all." In 70.6% of cases self-testing did not interfere with usual activities, and 82.4% of patients felt the self-testing required a "very little" amount of their time. All patients stated that it is important for them to know that the results can be reviewed by professional staff in a timely manner. However, only 29.5% of patients reviewed their results at least once a week at home independently. The majority of the patients (94.1%) were strongly interested in using home asthma telemonitoring in the future. We concluded that Internet-based home asthma telemonitoring can be successfully implemented in the group of patients without previous computer background.

  19. Mindfulness- and Acceptance-based Interventions for Psychosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lauche, Romy; Haller, Heidemarie; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions are increasingly studied as a potential treatment for a variety of mental conditions. Objective: To assess the effects of mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions on psychotic symptoms and hospitalization in patients with psychosis Methods: MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO were screened from inception through April 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were analyzed when they assessed psychotic symptoms or hospitalization in patients with psychosis; affect, acceptance, mindfulness, and safety were defined as secondary outcomes. Results: Eight RCTs with a total of 434 patients comparing mindfulness-based (4 RCTs) or acceptance-based interventions (4 RCTs) to treatment as usual or attention control were included. Six RCTs had low risk of bias. Moderate evidence was found for short-term effects on total psychotic symptoms, positive symptoms, hospitalization rates, duration of hospitalization, and mindfulness and for long-term effects on total psychotic symptoms and duration of hospitalization. No evidence was found for effects on negative symptoms, affect, or acceptance. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions can be recommended as an additional treatment for patients with psychosis. PMID:26937312

  20. 12 CFR 308.202 - Procedures for reclassifying a bank based on criteria other than capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... criteria other than capital. 308.202 Section 308.202 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE... Procedures for reclassifying a bank based on criteria other than capital. (a) Reclassification based on... other evidence in support of the position of the bank regarding the reclassification. (4) Failure...

  1. Objective Motion Cueing Criteria Investigation Based on Three Flight Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaal, Petrus M. T.; Schroeder, Jeffery A.; Chung, William W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper intends to help establish fidelity criteria to accompany the simulator motion system diagnostic test specified by the International Civil Aviation Organization. Twelve air- line transport pilots flew three tasks in the NASA Vertical Motion Simulator under four different motion conditions. The experiment used three different hexapod motion configurations, each with a different tradeoff between motion filter gain and break frequency, and one large motion configuration that utilized as much of the simulator's motion space as possible. The motion condition significantly affected: 1) pilot motion fidelity ratings, and sink rate and lateral deviation at touchdown for the approach and landing task, 2) pilot motion fidelity ratings, roll deviations, maximum pitch rate, and number of stick shaker activations in the stall task, and 3) heading deviation after an engine failure in the takeoff task. Significant differences in pilot-vehicle performance were used to define initial objective motion cueing criteria boundaries. These initial fidelity boundaries show promise but need refinement.

  2. Dealing efficiently with emotions: acceptance-based coping with negative emotions requires fewer resources than suppression.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Hugo J E M; Schneider, Francine; Martijn, Carolien

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have consistently shown that changing or avoiding emotions requires resources and therefore leads to impaired performance on a subsequent self-control task. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which acceptance-based coping requires regulatory resources. Participants who accepted their emotions during exposure to a sad video performed better on a subsequent self-control task than participants who were instructed to suppress their emotions and a control group who received no instructions. These findings suggest that acceptance is an efficient strategy in terms of resources.

  3. The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills.

    PubMed

    Fastré, Greet Mia Jos; van der Klink, Marcel R; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based assessment criteria, describing what students should do, for the task at hand. The performance-based group is compared to a competence-based assessment group in which students receive a preset list of competence-based assessment criteria, describing what students should be able to do. The test phase revealed that the performance-based group outperformed the competence-based group on test task performance. In addition, higher performance of the performance-based group was reached with lower reported mental effort during training, indicating a higher instructional efficiency for novice students.

  4. An investigation of the efficacy of acceptance-based behavioral therapy for academic procrastination.

    PubMed

    Glick, Debra M; Orsillo, Susan M

    2015-04-01

    Procrastination among college students is both prevalent and troublesome, harming both academic performance and physical health. Unfortunately, no "gold standard" intervention exists. Research suggests that psychological inflexibility may drive procrastination. Accordingly, interventions using acceptance and mindfulness methods to increase psychological flexibility may decrease procrastination. This study compared time management and acceptance-based behavioral interventions. College students' predictions of how much assigned reading they should complete were compared to what they did complete. Procrastination, anxiety, psychological flexibility, and academic values were also measured. Although a trend suggested that time management intervention participants completed more reading, no group differences in procrastination were revealed. The acceptance-based behavioral intervention was most effective for participants who highly valued academics. Clinical implications and future research are discussed.

  5. Sustainability Criteria for Planning, Constructing, and Operating Contingency Bases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-22

    Planning 14 and airfields. Don’t want to clean up a site to use i t. Too risky, takes CREDIT 2 Brownfield Redevelopment no Planning N/A too long. Base...clean up a site to use i t. Too risky, takes CREDIT 2 Brownfield Redevelopment no Planning N/A too long. Base camp site location is chosen based on

  6. An Open Trial of an Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that experiential avoidance may play an important role in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; see Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S.M. (2002). "Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: Integrating mindfulness/acceptance-based approaches with existing cognitive-behavioral models." "Clinical…

  7. Improving International-Level Chess Players' Performance with an Acceptance-Based Protocol: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Francisco J.; Luciano, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This study compared an individual, 4-hr intervention based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) versus a no-contact control condition in improving the performance of international-level chess players. Five participants received the brief ACT protocol, with each matched to another chess player with similar characteristics in the control…

  8. An Acceptance and Mindfulness-Based Approach to Social Phobia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Victoria Popick; Whitman, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been a proliferation of theoretical discussions and empirical research on the use of acceptance and mindfulness-based therapies to treat anxiety disorders. Because these treatment approaches are in their infancy, many clinicians may still be uncertain about how to apply such treatments in their work with clients.…

  9. Pilot Study to Gauge Acceptability of a Mindfulness-Based, Family-Focused Preventive Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Larissa G.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to conduct a test of acceptability of a new model for family-focused drug prevention programs for families of early adolescents. An existing evidence-based behavioral intervention, the Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14 (SFP), was adapted to include concepts and activities related to…

  10. Technical Adequacy and Acceptability of Curriculum-Based Measurement and the Measures of Academic Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    January, Stacy-Ann A.; Ardoin, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum-based measurement in reading (CBM-R) and the Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) are assessment tools widely employed for universal screening in schools. Although a large body of research supports the validity of CBM-R, limited empirical evidence exists supporting the technical adequacy of MAP or the acceptability of either measure for…

  11. Acceptance and Values-Based Action in Chronic Pain: A Study of Treatment Effectiveness and Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vowles, Kevin E.; McCracken, Lance M.

    2008-01-01

    Developing approaches within cognitive behavioral therapy are increasingly process-oriented and based on a functional and contextual framework that differs from the focus of earlier work. The present study investigated the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (S. C. Hayes, K. Strosahl, & K. G. Wilson, 1999) in the treatment of…

  12. Targeting Fear of Spiders with Control-, Acceptance-, and Information-Based Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, Alexandra L.; Zettle, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    The relative impact of control-, acceptance-, and information-based approaches in targeting a midlevel fear of spiders among college students was evaluated. Participants listened to a brief protocol presenting one of the three approaches before completing the Perceived-Threat Behavioral Approach Test (PT-BAT; Cochrane, Barnes-Holmes, &…

  13. Feasibility of a Prototype Web-Based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Prevention Program for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Michael E.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Seeley, John R.; Hayes, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the feasibility of a prototype Web-based acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) program for preventing mental health problems among college students. Participants: Undergraduate first-year students ("N" = 76) participated between May and November 2011. Methods: Participants were randomized to ACT or a…

  14. The relationship between maximal lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift in strength-based soldiering tasks.

    PubMed

    Savage, Robert J; Best, Stuart A; Carstairs, Greg L; Ham, Daniel J

    2012-07-01

    Psychophysical assessments, such as the maximum acceptable lift, have been used to establish worker capability and set safe load limits for manual handling tasks in occupational settings. However, in military settings, in which task demand is set and capable workers must be selected, subjective measurements are inadequate, and maximal capacity testing must be used to assess lifting capability. The aim of this study was to establish and compare the relationship between maximal lifting capacity and a self-determined tolerable lifting limit, maximum acceptable lift, across a range of military-relevant lifting tasks. Seventy male soldiers (age 23.7 ± 6.1 years) from the Australian Army performed 7 strength-based lifting tasks to determine their maximum lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift. Comparisons were performed to identify maximum acceptable lift relative to maximum lifting capacity for each individual task. Linear regression was used to identify the relationship across all tasks when the data were pooled. Strong correlations existed between all 7 lifting tasks (rrange = 0.87-0.96, p < 0.05). No differences were found in maximum acceptable lift relative to maximum lifting capacity across all tasks (p = 0.46). When data were pooled, maximum acceptable lift was equal to 84 ± 8% of the maximum lifting capacity. This study is the first to illustrate the strong and consistent relationship between maximum lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift for multiple single lifting tasks. The relationship developed between these indices may be used to help assess self-selected manual handling capability through occupationally relevant maximal performance tests.

  15. Tradeoff-based optimization criteria in clinical trials with multiple objectives and adaptive designs.

    PubMed

    Dmitrienko, Alex; Paux, Gautier; Pulkstenis, Erik; Zhang, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses clinical trial optimization problems in the context of mid- to late-stage drug development. Using the Clinical Scenario Evaluation approach, main objectives of clinical trial optimization are formulated, including selection of clinically relevant optimization criteria, identification of sets of optimal and nearly optimal values of the parameters of interest, and sensitivity assessments. The paper focuses on a class of optimization criteria arising in clinical trials with several competing goals, termed tradeoff-based optimization criteria, and discusses key considerations in constructing and applying tradeoff-based criteria. The clinical trial optimization framework considered in the paper is illustrated using two case studies based on a clinical trial with multiple objectives and a two-stage clinical trial which utilizes adaptive decision rules.

  16. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  17. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: Cognitive bases acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, T. C.; Lindell, M. K.; Rankin, W. L.; Nealey, S. M.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies; and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: short term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), long term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  18. Internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Mats; Andersson, Gerhard; Magnusson, Kristoffer; Johansson, Tomas; Sjögren, Johan; Håkansson, Andreas; Pettersson, Magnus; Kadowaki, Åsa; Cuijpers, Pim; Carlbring, Per

    2016-02-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a disabling condition which can be treated with cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The present study tested the effects of therapist-guided internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy on symptoms of GAD and quality of life. An audio CD with acceptance and mindfulness exercises and a separate workbook were also included in the treatment. Participants diagnosed with GAD (N = 103) were randomly allocated to immediate therapist-guided internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy or to a waiting-list control condition. A six month follow-up was also included. Results using hierarchical linear modelling showed moderate to large effects on symptoms of GAD (Cohen's d = 0.70 to 0.98), moderate effects on depressive symptoms (Cohen's d = 0.51 to 0.56), and no effect on quality of life. Follow-up data showed maintained effects. While there was a 20% dropout rate, sensitivity analyses showed that dropouts did not differ in their degree of change during treatment. To conclude, our study suggests that internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy can be effective in reducing the symptoms of GAD.

  19. Post-traumatic stress disorder: cognitive hypnotherapy, mindfulness, and acceptance-based treatment approaches.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Malakataris, Anne; Condon, Liam; Maxwell, Reed; Cleere, Colleen

    2012-04-01

    In this article, we describe how cognitive hypnotherapy can be used in conjunction with evidence-based practices for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We review cognitive-behavioral interventions for PTSD, including mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches, and contend that (a) empirical support for the use of hypnosis in treating a variety of conditions is considerable; (b) hypnosis is fundamentally a cognitive-behavioral intervention; (c) psychological interventions with a firm footing in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are well-suited to treat the symptoms of PTSD; and (d) hypnosis can be a useful adjunct to evidence-based cognitive-behavioral approaches, including mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions, for treating PTSD.

  20. Family-based association analysis of alcohol dependence criteria and severity

    PubMed Central

    Wetherill, Leah; Kapoor, Manav; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen; Koller, Daniel; Bertelsen, Sarah E.; Le, Nhung; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Almasy, Laura; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kramer, John; Nurnberger, John I.; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay A.; Xuei, Xiaoling; Porjesz, Bernice; Edenberg, Howard J.; Goate, Alison M.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the high heritability of alcohol dependence (AD), the genes found to be associated with it account for only a small proportion of its total variability. The goal of this study was to identify and analyze phenotypes based on homogeneous classes of individuals to increase the power to detect genetic risk factors contributing to the risk of AD. Methods The 7 individual DSM-IV criteria for AD were analyzed using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify classes defined by the pattern of endorsement of the criteria. A genome-wide association study was performed in 118 extended European American families (n = 2,322 individuals) densely affected with AD to identify genes associated with AD, with each of the seven DSM-IV criteria, and with the probability of belonging to two of three latent classes. Results Heritability for DSM-IV AD was 61%, and ranged from 17-60% for the other phenotypes. A SNP in the olfactory receptor OR51L1 was significantly associated (7.3 × 10−8) with the DSM-IV criterion of persistent desire to, or inability to, cut down on drinking. LCA revealed a three-class model: the “low risk” class (50%) rarely endorsed any criteria, and none met criteria for AD; the “moderate risk” class (33) endorsed primarily 4 DSM-IV criteria, and 48% met criteria for AD; the “high risk” class (17%) manifested high endorsement probabilities for most criteria and nearly all (99%) met criteria for AD One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a sodium leak channel NALCN demonstrated genome-wide significance with the high risk class (p=4.1 × 10−8). Analyses in an independent sample did not replicate these associations. Conclusion We explored the genetic contribution to several phenotypes derived from the DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria. The strongest evidence of association was with SNPs in NALCN and OR51L1. PMID:24015780

  1. The Criteria for and Effects of Base Closures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    determine how to improve federal government incentive programs designed to help overcome the sometimes adverse effect of base closures on the local...appoint an independent commission to study realignment or have the Department of Defense designate all bases as candidates for closure and begin appropriate...TV( CeO."t G,", Com Sovnqs Fbote, 33 tn LAct Dinon b Doia 1.11 TV X L Rle: Wesit IleiA 1913 566 K0 300 Fl laviot State Roth MC. CEF Stenv:ee

  2. Criteria for the evaluation of a cloud-based hospital information system outsourcing provider.

    PubMed

    Low, Chinyao; Hsueh Chen, Ya

    2012-12-01

    As cloud computing technology has proliferated rapidly worldwide, there has been a trend toward adopting cloud-based hospital information systems (CHISs). This study examines the critical criteria for selecting the CHISs outsourcing provider. The fuzzy Delphi method (FDM) is used to evaluate the primary indicator collected from 188 useable responses at a working hospital in Taiwan. Moreover, the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) is employed to calculate the weights of these criteria and establish a fuzzy multi-criteria model of CHISs outsourcing provider selection from 42 experts. The results indicate that the five most critical criteria related to CHISs outsourcing provider selection are (1) system function, (2) service quality, (3) integration, (4) professionalism, and (5) economics. This study may contribute to understanding how cloud-based hospital systems can reinforce content design and offer a way to compete in the field by developing more appropriate systems.

  3. Criteria-based evaluation of group 3 level memory telefacsimile equipment for interlibrary loan.

    PubMed

    Bennett, V M; Wood, M S; Malcom, D L

    1990-04-01

    The Interlibrary Loan, Document Delivery, and Union List Task Force of the Health Sciences Libraries Consortium (HSLC)--with nineteen libraries located in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Hershey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware--accepted the charge of evaluating and recommending for purchase telefacsimile hardware to further interlibrary loan among HSLC members. To allow a thorough and scientific evaluation of group 3 level telefacsimile equipment, the task force identified ninety-six hardware features, which were grouped into nine broad criteria. These features formed the basis of a weighted analysis that identified three final candidates, with one model recommended to the HSLC board. This article details each of the criteria and discusses features in terms of library applications. The evaluation grid developed in the weighted analysis process should aid librarians charged with the selection of level 3 telefacsimile equipment.

  4. The Effects of Performance-Based Assessment Criteria on Student Performance and Self-Assessment Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fastre, Greet Mia Jos; van der Klink, Marcel R.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based…

  5. A tentative classification of paleoweathering formations based on geomorphological criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiau-Queney, Yvonne

    1996-05-01

    A geomorphological classification is proposed that emphasizes the usefulness of paleoweathering records in any reconstruction of past landscapes. Four main paleoweathering records are recognized: 1. Paleoweathering formations buried beneath a sedimentary or volcanic cover. Most of them are saprolites, sometimes with preserved overlying soils. Ages range from Archean to late Cenozoic times; 2. Paleoweathering formations trapped in karst: some of them have buried pre-existent karst landforms, others have developed simultaneously with the subjacent karst; 3. Relict paleoweathering formations: although inherited, they belong to the present landscape. Some of them are indurated (duricrusts, silcretes, ferricretes,…); others are not and owe their preservation to a stable morphotectonic environment; 4. Polyphased weathering mantles: weathering has taken place in changing geochemical conditions. After examples of each type are provided, the paper considers the relations between chemical weathering and landform development. The climatic significance of paleoweathering formations is discussed. Some remote morphogenic systems have no present equivalent. It is doubtful that chemical weathering alone might lead to widespread planation surfaces. Moreover, classical theories based on sea-level and rivers as the main factors of erosion are not really adequate to explain the observed landscapes.

  6. Meditation, mindfulness and executive control: the importance of emotional acceptance and brain-based performance monitoring.

    PubMed

    Teper, Rimma; Inzlicht, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have documented the positive effects of mindfulness meditation on executive control. What has been lacking, however, is an understanding of the mechanism underlying this effect. Some theorists have described mindfulness as embodying two facets-present moment awareness and emotional acceptance. Here, we examine how the effect of meditation practice on executive control manifests in the brain, suggesting that emotional acceptance and performance monitoring play important roles. We investigated the effect of meditation practice on executive control and measured the neural correlates of performance monitoring, specifically, the error-related negativity (ERN), a neurophysiological response that occurs within 100 ms of error commission. Meditators and controls completed a Stroop task, during which we recorded ERN amplitudes with electroencephalography. Meditators showed greater executive control (i.e. fewer errors), a higher ERN and more emotional acceptance than controls. Finally, mediation pathway models further revealed that meditation practice relates to greater executive control and that this effect can be accounted for by heightened emotional acceptance, and to a lesser extent, increased brain-based performance monitoring.

  7. Acceptance Control Charts with Stipulated Error Probabilities Based on Poisson Count Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-01-01

    Richard L / Scheaffer ’.* Richard S eavenwort December,... 198 *Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering University of Florida Gainesville...L. Scheaffer N00014-75-C-0783 Richard S. Leavenworth 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS . PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK Industrial and...PROBABILITIES BASED ON POISSON COUNT DATA by Suresh 1Ihatre Richard L. Scheaffer S..Richard S. Leavenworth ABSTRACT An acceptance control charting

  8. Impact of acceptance-based nursing intervention on postsurgical recovery: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Dolores; Luciano, Carmen; Valdivia-Salas, Sonsoles

    2012-11-01

    Research has shown that teaching individuals to experience pain and anxiety as inevitable products of the actions they freely and responsibly undertake yields healthier reactions to suffering. This preliminary study assesses whether a brief acceptance-based psychological intervention along with the usual presurgical protocol for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy will produce healthier reactions to postsurgical pain, and will reduce anxiety, duration of postsurgical hospitalization, and demand of analgesics. After admission, screening, and consent procedures, we assessed pain and anxiety. Patients in the experimental condition (n = 6) then received a brief acceptance-based nursing intervention addressing the individual meaning of surgery, and including a metaphor and defusion practice, along with routine care. Patients in the control condition (n = 7) received routine care only. Twenty-four hr following the intervention, surgery took place. Pain, anxiety, and patients' demand for analgesics were assessed 24 hr or 48 hr after surgery. All six experimental patients, as compared to three of seven control patients, demanded fewer analgesics and left the hospital within 24 hr or 48 hr from surgery even in the presence of frequent and/or intense pain. Anxiety slightly decreased in the experimental patients. The brief acceptance-based intervention was effective in improving postsurgical recovery. These preliminary findings support the potential of this type of intervention as a cost-effective strategy to be implemented in the sanitary context.

  9. The Value of Fidelity of Implementation Criteria to Evaluate School-Based Science Curriculum Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yew-Jin; Chue, Shien

    2013-01-01

    School-based curriculum innovations, including those in science education, are usually not adequately evaluated, if at all. Furthermore, current procedures and instruments for programme evaluations are often unable to support evidence-based decision-making. We suggest that adopting fidelity of implementation (FOI) criteria from healthcare research…

  10. Marking criteria for assessing practice-based portfolios at masters' level.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Melanie A; Fulton, John

    2005-07-01

    Whilst portfolios have increasingly been used to assess attainment and competence in nursing and other health care professions for over a decade, the assessment processes and criteria for assessing them have remained largely rudimentary and undeveloped. In fact, assessment often remains localised, impressionistic and dependent upon the interpretation and adaptation of criteria developed generically for work at this level within individual Higher Education Institutes (HEIs). This paper presents Masters' level marking criteria for portfolios from practice-based healthcare disciplines developed from the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) descriptors of Masters level achievement and graduateness [Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education, 2001. The Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in England, Scotland, Northern Ireland] in combination with practice-based outcomes. A six-stage methodology was devised to analyse these descriptors, develop, re-order, test and refine them in order to enhance their applicability to portfolios from practice-based disciplines. As part of this process the emerging criteria were tested against existing portfolios. Extracts from these are presented to illustrate the criteria. Two case study sites from diverse areas of England are used where Masters' courses in nursing and healthcare disciplines are offered. For portfolios to be effective in demonstrating Masters' level academic criteria, learning outcomes and advanced professional practice they need to demonstrate coherent structure, conclusions drawn from reflection on practice and a body of evidence that is coherent with, and linked to their reflective commentaries. The marking criteria presented to assess these attributes incorporate features of the structures, processes and outcomes of both practice and learning. The strategy can be used by both assessors and students, in formative and summative assessment, to identify student attainments, strengths and weaknesses.

  11. Comparison of acceptance-based and standard cognitive-based coping strategies for craving sweets in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Forman, Evan M; Hoffman, Kimberly L; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Butryn, Meghan L; Herbert, James D

    2013-01-01

    Existing strategies for coping with food cravings are of unknown efficacy and rely on principles that have been shown to have paradoxical effects. The present study evaluated novel, acceptance-based strategies for coping with craving by randomly assigning 48 overweight women to either an experimental psychological acceptance-oriented intervention or a standard cognitive reappraisal/distraction intervention. Participants were required to carry a box of sweets on their person for 72 h while abstaining from any consumption of sweets. Results suggested that the acceptance-based coping strategies resulted in lower cravings and reduced consumption, particularly for those who demonstrate greater susceptibility to the presence of food and report a tendency to engage in emotional eating.

  12. GIS Based Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis For Cement Plant Site Selection For Cuddalore District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabra, A.

    2015-12-01

    India's cement industry is a vital part of its economy, providing employment to more than a million people. On the back of growing demands, due to increased construction and infrastructural activities cement market in India is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.96 percent during the period 2014-2019. In this study, GIS-based spatial Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is used to determine the optimum and alternative sites to setup a cement plant. This technique contains a set of evaluation criteria which are quantifiable indicators of the extent to which decision objectives are realized. In intersection with available GIS (Geographical Information System) and local ancillary data, the outputs of image analysis serves as input for the multi-criteria decision making system. Moreover, the following steps were performed so as to represent the criteria in GIS layers, which underwent the GIS analysis in order to get several potential sites. Satellite imagery from LANDSAT 8 and ASTER DEM were used for the analysis. Cuddalore District in Tamil Nadu was selected as the study site as limestone mining is already being carried out in that region which meets the criteria of raw material for cement production. Several other criteria considered were land use land cover (LULC) classification (built-up area, river, forest cover, wet land, barren land, harvest land and agriculture land), slope, proximity to road, railway and drainage networks.

  13. Open Trial of an Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy Intervention to Engage Newly Diagnosed HIV Patients in Care: Rationale and Evidence of Feasibility and Acceptability.

    PubMed

    Moitra, Ethan; Chan, Philip A; Stein, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Successful linkage and retention in care of newly diagnosed individuals in the United States remains a significant gap in the HIV care continuum. This study assessed the acceptability and feasibility of an acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) intervention to engage patients newly diagnosed with HIV in medical care. Nine patients were recruited over 4 months for this brief ABBT intervention, which consisted of two brief sessions, each lasting less than 20 min. The intervention was developed to promote psychological acceptance of the HIV diagnosis, thereby increasing patients' willingness to make informed disclosure of their status. Eight patients completed a 1-month follow-up assessment, and all approved of the intervention and its components. Over the 1-month period, participants showed increased acceptance, reduced perceptions of HIV stigmatization, and increased disclosure of HIV status to social supports. This pilot study provided support for the continued investigation of ABBT as an adjunctive intervention for newly diagnosed HIV patients who are at high-risk of dropping out of HIV care.

  14. Crack propagation criteria in the framework of X-FEM-based structural analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumstorff, Peter; Meschke, Günther

    2007-02-01

    The extended finite element method (X-FEM) has proven to be capable of simulating cracking and crack propagation in quasi-brittle materials, such as cement paste or concrete, without the need for re-meshing. In the framework of the X-FEM cracks are represented as surfaces of discontinuous displacements continuously propagating through finite elements. Since crack path continuity is required in X-FEM-based analyses, the reliability of numerical analyses of cracked structures crucially depends on the correct prediction of the crack path and, consequently, on the criterion used for the determination of the crack propagation direction. In this paper four different crack propagation criteria proposed in the literature are investigated including two local and two global criteria. The two local criteria include an averaged stress criterion and the maximum circumferential stress criterion based on the linear elastic fracture mechanics. The two global criteria include a global tracking criterion proposed by Oliver and Huespe (Online Proceedings of the Fifth World Congress on Computational Mechanics, 2002) and an energy based X-FEM formulation recently proposed in (Computational Plasticity 2005. CIMNE: Barcelona, 2005; 565-568; Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 2006, in press). Representative numerical benchmark examples, characterized by mode-I dominant fracture as well as by mixed-mode fracture, are used to study the performance and the robustness of the different crack propagation criteria. Copyright

  15. Multi-criteria assessment of community-based fluoride-removal technologies for rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Osterwalder, Lars; Johnson, C Annette; Yang, Hong; Johnston, Richard B

    2014-08-01

    Elevated concentrations of naturally-occurring fluoride in groundwater pose a serious health risk to millions of people living in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. In the absence of low-fluoride water resources of sufficient capacity, fluoride removal from drinking water is the accepted mitigation option. To date, five different community-level fluoride-removal technologies have been implemented in Ethiopia, although only a few units have been found in a functional state in the field. Which technology should be promoted and up-scaled is the subject of controversial debate amongst key stakeholders. This paper describes a multi-criteria decision analysis exercise, which was conducted with the participation of stakeholders in Ethiopia during a one-day workshop, to assess in an objective and transparent manner the available technology options. Criteria for technology comparison were selected and weighted, thus enabling the participants to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the different technologies and hear the views of other stakeholders. It was shown that there is no single most-preferable, technical solution for fluoride removal in Ethiopia. Selection of the most suitable solution depends on location-specific parameters and on the relative importance given to different criteria by the stakeholders involved. The data presented in this paper can be used as reference values for Ethiopia.

  16. European Christians are at the forefront in accepting evolution: results from an internet-based survey.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David P

    2010-01-01

    Beliefs regarding the origins of the universe and life differ substantially between groups of people and are often particularly associated with religious worldviews. It is important to understand factors associated with evolution and creationism beliefs and unacceptance of scientific evidence for evolution. An internet-based survey was conducted to elicit information from people who self-identify as Christians, atheists, agnostics and other belief systems, as well as by geographical location and other demographic variables, on acceptance of evolution or creationism, certainty with which each position is believed, and reasons for rejecting the alternative. It was found that almost 60% of Christians believe in creationism and less than 10% believe in natural evolution. Worldwide, these proportions were relatively consistent across all locations except for in Europe. Among European Christians the majority of Christians believe in a form of evolution. It was found that the vast majority (87%) of Christians are 'absolutely certain' about their beliefs, compared with the minority of atheists and agnostics claiming 'absolute certainty'. Generally, reasons Christians did not accept evolution were based not on evidence but on religious doctrine. In contrast, the most common reason for not accepting the existence of a god by atheists who supported evolution was the lack of evidence. Innovative strategies may be required to communicate evolutionary science effectively to non-European Christians.

  17. An Integrated, Acceptance-Based Behavioral Approach for Depression With Social Anxiety: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Kristy L; Morgan, Theresa A; Lipschitz, Jessica M; Martinez, Jennifer H; Tepe, Elizabeth; Zimmerman, Mark

    2014-07-01

    Depression and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are highly comorbid, resulting in greater severity and functional impairment compared with each disorder alone. Although recently transdiagnostic treatments have been developed, no known treatments have addressed this comorbidity pattern specifically. Preliminary support exists for acceptance-based approaches for depression and SAD separately, and they may be more efficacious for comorbid depression and anxiety compared with traditional cognitive-behavioral approaches. The aim of the current study was to develop and pilot test an integrated acceptance-based behavioral treatment for depression and comorbid SAD. Participants included 38 patients seeking pharmacotherapy at an outpatient psychiatry practice, who received 16 individual sessions of the therapy. Results showed significant improvement in symptoms, functioning, and processes from pre- to post-treatment, as well as high satisfaction with the treatment. These results support the preliminary acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of this treatment in a typical outpatient psychiatry practice, and suggest that further research on this treatment in larger randomized trials is warranted.

  18. Acceptability and Feasibility Results of a Strength-Based Skills Training Program for Dementia Caregiving Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Katherine S.; Yarry, Sarah J.; Orsulic-Jeras, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current article provides an in-depth description of a dyadic intervention for individuals with dementia and their family caregivers. Using a strength-based approach, caregiving dyads received skills training across 5 key areas: (a) education regarding dementia and memory loss, (b) effective communication, (c) managing memory loss, (d) staying active, and (e) recognizing emotions and behaviors. Results of the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention protocols are also presented. Design and Methods: Caregiving dyads were randomly assigned to participate in the intervention. Participants in the treatment condition were asked to complete a series of evaluation questions after each intervention session and an overall evaluation of the program. Data were also collected from the intervention specialists who implemented the protocols. Results: Overall, the evaluation data indicated that the content and process of the intervention were viewed as highly acceptable and feasible by both participants and intervention specialists. Implications: This article highlights the merit of using a strength-based approach for working with caregiving dyads with dementia and how a single intervention protocol can be used to address the goals of both care partners. Furthermore, the intervention program was found to be highly acceptable and feasible, which is an important aspect of developing dyadic protocols. PMID:19808841

  19. Acceptance of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence: a mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence and detrimental health effects of intimate partner violence have resulted in international discussions and recommendations that health care professionals should screen women for intimate partner violence during general and antenatal health care visits. Due to the lack of discussion on routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence during antenatal care in Germany, this study seeks to explore its acceptability among pregnant German women. Methods A mixed methods approach was used, utilizing a self-administered survey on the acceptability of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence in a university hospital’s maternity ward in Munich and in-depth interviews with seven women who experienced violence during pregnancy. Results Of the 401 women who participated in the survey, 92 percent were in favor of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence during antenatal care. Acceptance of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence during antenatal care was significantly associated with women’s experiences of child sexual abuse, being young, less educated, single or divorced and smoking during pregnancy. Open-ended survey questions and in-depth interviews stressed adequate training for screening, sufficient time and provision of referral information as important conditions for routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence. Conclusions Women in this study showed an overwhelming support for routine or case-based screening for intimate partner violence in antenatal care in Germany. Until adequate training is in place to allow providers to inquire for intimate partner violence in a professional manner, this study recommends that health care providers are made aware of the prevalence and health consequences of violence during pregnancy. PMID:23531127

  20. Evaluating terrain based criteria for snow avalanche exposure ratings using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delparte, Donna; Jamieson, Bruce; Waters, Nigel

    2010-05-01

    Snow avalanche terrain in backcountry regions of Canada is increasingly being assessed based upon the Avalanche Terrain Exposure Scale (ATES). ATES is a terrain based classification introduced in 2004 by Parks Canada to identify "simple", "challenging" and "complex" backcountry areas. The ATES rating system has been applied to well over 200 backcountry routes, has been used in guidebooks, trailhead signs and maps and is part of the trip planning component of the AVALUATOR™, a simple decision-support tool for backcountry users. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offers a means to model and visualize terrain based criteria through the use of digital elevation model (DEM) and land cover data. Primary topographic variables such as slope, aspect and curvature are easily derived from a DEM and are compatible with the equivalent evaluation criteria in ATES. Other components of the ATES classification are difficult to extract from a DEM as they are not strictly terrain based. An overview is provided of the terrain variables that can be generated from DEM and land cover data; criteria from ATES which are not clearly terrain based are identified for further study or revision. The second component of this investigation was the development of an algorithm for inputting suitable ATES criteria into a GIS, thereby mimicking the process avalanche experts use when applying the ATES classification to snow avalanche terrain. GIS based classifications were compared to existing expert assessments for validity. The advantage of automating the ATES classification process through GIS is to assist avalanche experts with categorizing and mapping remote backcountry terrain.

  1. Usability and Acceptability of a Web-Based Program for Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Tofthagen, Cindy; Kip, Kevin E; Passmore, Denise; Loy, Ian; Berry, Donna L

    2016-07-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy is a painful and debilitating adverse effect of certain chemotherapy drugs. There have not been any patient-centered, easily accessible Web-based interventions to assist with self-management of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. The aims of this study were to evaluate usability and acceptability and to estimate an effect size of a Web-based intervention for assessing and managing chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. Participants (N = 14) were instructed to complete the Creativity, Optimism, Planning, and Expert Information for Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy program and provide verbal responses to the program. Participants completed the Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Assessment Tool and Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire. Iterative changes were made to the COPE-CIPN. Participants were asked to provide feedback on the revised COPE-CIPN, repeat the Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Assessment Tool, and evaluate acceptability using the Acceptability e-Scale. The COPE-CIPN demonstrated high usability (mean, 1.98 [SD, 1.12]) and acceptability (mean, 4.40 [SD, 0.52]). Comments indicated that the interface was easy to use, and the information was helpful. While neuropathy symptoms continued to increase in this group of patients receiving neurotoxic chemotherapy, there was a decrease in mean level of interference with activities from 53.71 to 39.29 over 3 to 4 months, which indicated a moderate effect (d = 0.39) size. The COPE-CIPN may be a useful intervention to support self-management of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy.

  2. [Permanent essential defacement--remarks on the possibilities of verification of the accepted criteria in medico-legal certification in criminal and civil law proceedings].

    PubMed

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Nowak, Agnieszka; Jabłoński, Christian; Neniczka, Stanisława

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that some criteria of medico-legal certification in criminal and civil proceedings have been established, there are still some topics which are controversial and thus require modification. This is also true of the notion of "permanent essential defacement". In the opinion of the authors, changes in social conventions that are occurring nowadays, as well as a highly diversified, subjective perception of esthetic values indicate the need for discussing a possible modification of the presently obligatory criteria. Apart from the assessment of posttraumatic changes, an important problem is posed by defining the notion of "a part of the body customarily open to the view ". Additionally, the authors bring up for discussion the issue of experts taking into consideration the age and sex of the victims while assessing damages. A separate problem lies in difficulties in assessing the degree of detriment to health because of defacement due to the fact that official tables for evaluating permanent or long-term detriment to health do not include relevant information.

  3. Estimation Criteria for Rock Brittleness Based on Energy Analysis During the Rupturing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Chi; Zhang, Jun; Li, Yu-wei; Zeng, Jia; Yang, Xin-liang; Wang, Ji-gang

    2016-12-01

    Brittleness is one of the most important mechanical properties of rock: it plays a significant role in evaluating the risk of rock bursts and in analysis of borehole-wall stability during shale gas development. Brittleness is also a critical parameter in the design of hydraulic fracturing. However, there is still no widely accepted definition of the concept of brittleness in rock mechanics. Although many criteria have been proposed to characterize rock brittleness, their applicability and reliability have yet to be verified. In this paper, the brittleness of rock under compression is defined as the ability of a rock to accumulate elastic energy during the pre-peak stage and to self-sustain fracture propagation in the post-peak stage. This ability is related to three types of energy: fracture energy, post-peak released energy and pre-peak dissipation energy. New brittleness evaluation indices B 1 and B 2 are proposed based on the stress-strain curve from the viewpoint of energy. The new indices can describe the entire transition of rock from absolute plasticity to absolute brittleness. In addition, the brittle characteristics reflected by other brittleness indices can be described, and the calculation results of B 1 and B 2 are continuous and monotonic. Triaxial compression tests on different types of rock were carried out under different confining pressures. Based on B 1 and B 2, the brittleness of different rocks shows different trends with rising confining pressure. The brittleness of red sandstone decreases with increasing confining pressure, whereas for black shale it initially increases and then decreases in a certain range of confining pressure. Granite displays a constant increasing trend. The brittleness anisotropy of black shale is discussed. The smaller the angle between the loading direction and the bedding plane, the greater the brittleness. The calculation B 1 and B 2 requires experimental data, and the values of these two indices represent only

  4. Criteria for clinical audit of the quality of hospital-based obstetric care in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, W.; Wagaarachchi, P.; Penney, G.; McCaw-Binns, A.; Antwi, K. Y.; Hall, M. H.

    2000-01-01

    Improving the quality of obstetric care is an urgent priority in developing countries, where maternal mortality remains high. The feasibility of criterion-based clinical audit of the assessment and management of five major obstetric complications is being studied in Ghana and Jamaica. In order to establish case definitions and clinical audit criteria, a systematic review of the literature was followed by three expert panel meetings. A modified nominal group technique was used to develop consensus among experts on a final set of case definitions and criteria. Five main obstetric complications were selected and definitions were agreed. The literature review led to the identification of 67 criteria, and the panel meetings resulted in the modification and approval of 37 of these for the next stage of audit. Criterion-based audit, which has been devised and tested primarily in industrialized countries, can be adapted and applied where resources are poorer. The selection of audit criteria for such settings requires local expert opinion to be considered in addition to research evidence, so as to ensure that the criteria are realistic in relation to conditions in the field. Practical methods for achieving this are described in the present paper. PMID:10859855

  5. A column-generation-based method for multi-criteria direct aperture optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salari, Ehsan; Unkelbach, Jan

    2013-02-01

    Navigation-based multi-criteria optimization has been introduced to radiotherapy planning in order to allow the interactive exploration of trade-offs between conflicting clinical goals. However, this has been mainly applied to fluence map optimization. The subsequent leaf sequencing step may cause dose discrepancy, leading to human iteration loops in the treatment planning process that multi-criteria methods were meant to avoid. To circumvent this issue, this paper investigates the application of direct aperture optimization methods in the context of multi-criteria optimization. We develop a solution method to directly obtain a collection of apertures that can adequately span the entire Pareto surface. To that end, we extend the column generation method for direct aperture optimization to a multi-criteria setting in which apertures that can improve the entire Pareto surface are sequentially identified and added to the treatment plan. Our proposed solution method can be embedded in a navigation-based multi-criteria optimization framework, in which the treatment planner explores the trade-off between treatment objectives directly in the space of deliverable apertures. Our solution method is demonstrated for a paraspinal case where the trade-off between target coverage and spinal-cord sparing is studied. The computational results validate that our proposed method obtains a balanced approximation of the Pareto surface over a wide range of clinically relevant plans.

  6. Criteria for the development and use of the methodology for environmentally-acceptable fossil energy site evaluation and selection. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eckstein, L.; Northrop, G.; Scott, R.

    1980-02-01

    This report serves as a companion document to the report, Volume 1: Environmentally-Acceptable Fossil Energy Site Evaluation and Selection: Methodology and Users Guide, in which a methodology was developed which allows the siting of fossil fuel conversion facilities in areas with the least environmental impact. The methodology, known as SELECS (Site Evaluation for Energy Conversion Systems) does not replace a site specific environmental assessment, or an environmental impact statement (EIS), but does enhance the value of an EIS by thinning down the number of options to a manageable level, by doing this in an objective, open and selective manner, and by providing preliminary assessment and procedures which can be utilized during the research and writing of the actual impact statement.

  7. Feasibility and acceptability of a text messaging-based smoking cessation program in ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Holtrop, Jodi S; Bağci Bosi, A Tülay; Bilir, Nazmi; Korchmaros, Josephine D; Salih Emri, A K

    2013-08-01

    Data from high-income countries suggest that cell phone-based smoking cessation programs have the potential to affect cessation rates. There is a paucity of research, however, about the feasibility of cell phone-based smoking cessation programs in lower income countries that have higher smoking prevalence rates. A one-arm feasibility and acceptability pilot study of SMS Turkey, a text messaging-based smoking cessation program, was conducted in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. The authors recruited 75 daily smokers who were seriously thinking about quitting in the subsequent 30 days into the 6-week SMS Turkey program. Recruitment was completed in 4 months. Participant retention was high: Almost all (96%) completed the program, and 84% provided 12-week follow-up data. Most (89%) of the respondents who completed the 4-week follow-up measures (n = 38, 51%) said that the text messages were easy to understand and referred to what they were experiencing and feeling during the quitting process (78%). On the basis of intention to treat, 13% of participants (n = 10) reported, at 12-week follow-up, continuous abstinence since their quit date, confirmed by carbon monoxide readings. The cell phone text messaging-based smoking cessation intervention appears feasible and acceptable in Ankara, Turkey.

  8. Wittgenstein's Contextualist Approach to Judging "Sound" Teaching: Escaping Enthrallment in Criteria-Based Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickney, Jeff Alan

    2009-01-01

    Comparing the early, analytic attempt to define "sound" teaching with the current use of criteria-based rating schemes, Jeff Stickney turns to Wittgenstein's holistic, contextualist approach to judging teaching against its complex "background" within our "form of life." To exemplify this approach, Stickney presents cases of classroom practice…

  9. Habitat-based PCB environmental quality criteria for the protection of endangered killer whales (Orcinus orca).

    PubMed

    Alava, Juan José; Ross, Peter S; Lachmuth, Cara; Ford, John K B; Hickie, Brendan E; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2012-11-20

    The development of an area-based polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) food-web bioaccumulation model enabled a critical evaluation of the efficacy of sediment quality criteria and prey tissue residue guidelines in protecting fish-eating resident killer whales of British Columbia and adjacent waters. Model-predicted and observed PCB concentrations in resident killer whales and Chinook salmon were in good agreement, supporting the model's application for risk assessment and criteria development. Model application shows that PCB concentrations in the sediments from the resident killer whale's Critical Habitats and entire foraging range leads to PCB concentrations in most killer whales that exceed PCB toxicity threshold concentrations reported for marine mammals. Results further indicate that current PCB sediment quality and prey tissue residue criteria for fish-eating wildlife are not protective of killer whales and are not appropriate for assessing risks of PCB-contaminated sediments to high trophic level biota. We present a novel methodology for deriving sediment quality criteria and tissue residue guidelines that protect biota of high trophic levels under various PCB management scenarios. PCB concentrations in sediments and in prey that are deemed protective of resident killer whale health are much lower than current criteria values, underscoring the extreme vulnerability of high trophic level marine mammals to persistent and bioaccumulative contaminants.

  10. A new web-based framework development for fuzzy multi-criteria group decision-making.

    PubMed

    Hanine, Mohamed; Boutkhoum, Omar; Tikniouine, Abdessadek; Agouti, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    Fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making (FMCGDM) process is usually used when a group of decision-makers faces imprecise data or linguistic variables to solve the problems. However, this process contains many methods that require many time-consuming calculations depending on the number of criteria, alternatives and decision-makers in order to reach the optimal solution. In this study, a web-based FMCGDM framework that offers decision-makers a fast and reliable response service is proposed. The proposed framework includes commonly used tools for multi-criteria decision-making problems such as fuzzy Delphi, fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS methods. The integration of these methods enables taking advantages of the strengths and complements each method's weakness. Finally, a case study of location selection for landfill waste in Morocco is performed to demonstrate how this framework can facilitate decision-making process. The results demonstrate that the proposed framework can successfully accomplish the goal of this study.

  11. Effects of Acceptability on Teachers' Implementation of Curriculum-Based Measurement and Student Achievement in Mathematics Computation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allinder, Rose M.; Oats, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    A study of 12 special education teachers who had a high acceptance of curriculum-based assessment and 9 teachers who had a low acceptance found they differed on two of five implementation measures. Also, there was a significant difference in the rate of growth affected by their students in math. (Author/CR)

  12. Comparison of the acceptability ratings of appetizers under laboratory, base level and high altitude field conditions.

    PubMed

    Premavalli, K S; Wadikar, D D; Nanjappa, C

    2009-08-01

    The relationship between laboratory and field ratings was investigated for six different appetizers, including four ready-to-reconstitute mixes and two ready-to-eat munches. Liking ratings on a 5-point hedonic scale were obtained from an Indian Army field study at base level as well as at an altitude of 11,500 ft above sea level and for the same appetizers in the laboratory. The field trials of the six products were conducted in two phases and results revealed that the products were more acceptable at altitude, with increased liking scores as compared to base level. Subjective ratings for hunger revealed that at altitude, appetizer consumption had stimulated the appetite of the soldiers. The ability of laboratory ratings to predict acceptability of foods consumed under realistic conditions appears to depend on the convenience of the appetizer as well as the environmental conditions and the psycho-physiological status of the participants. The appetizers received higher ratings at altitude because of the pungent and spicy nature of appetizer mixes as compared with base field and laboratory conditions. However, for all the appetizers the pungent and sweet taste of the appetizer munches was highly preferred.

  13. Web-Based Depression Screening and Psychiatric Consultation for College Students: A Feasibility and Acceptability Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Aya; LaRocca, Rachel; Chang, Trina; Trinh, Nhi-Ha; Fava, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background. A steady rise in the prevalence of depression among college students has negatively affected student quality of life. This study investigates the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based model, including Skype, to screen and provide psychiatric consultation to depressed college students. Methods. Students completed the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) online; those who screened positive (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) or endorsed any level of suicidal ideation were offered Web-based psychiatric consultation using Skype. After the consultation, students filled out a 7-item satisfaction questionnaire to report on the acceptability of this Web-based method. Results. A total of 972 students consented to the online depression screening and 285 screened positive. Of those, 69 students consented and 17 students successfully completed the psychiatric consultation via Skype. Thirteen (76.4%) students found the interview useful in helping them understand their depression. Fifteen (88.2%) students thought that psychologists and psychiatrists could successfully see patients via videoconferencing. Conclusions. Current online technologies can provide depression screening and psychiatric consultation to college students; those who participated reported a positive experience. Future studies will need to address the low levels of participation among college students and attract students who are underserved, as well as use a videoconferencing platform that adequately protects data confidentiality. PMID:24799895

  14. Perspective: Towards environmentally acceptable criteria for downstream fish passage through mini hydro and irrigation infrastructure in the Lower Mekong River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, Lee J.; Daniel Deng, Z.; Thorncraft, Garry; Boys, Craig A.; Brown, Richard S.; Singhanouvong, Douangkham; Phonekhampeng, Oudom

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rivers have high annual discharges optimal for hydropower and irrigation development. The Mekong River is one of the largest tropical river systems, supporting a unique mega-diverse fish community. Fish are an important commodity in the Mekong, contributing a large proportion of calcium, protein, and essential nutrients to the diet of the local people and providing a critical source of income for rural households. Many of these fish migrate not only upstream and downstream within main-channel habitats but also laterally into highly productive floodplain habitat to both feed and spawn. Most work to date has focused on providing for upstream fish passage, but downstream movement is an equally important process to protect. Expansion of hydropower and irrigation weirs can disrupt downstream migrations and it is important to ensure that passage through regulators or mini hydro systems is not harmful or fatal. Many new infrastructure projects (<6 m head) are proposed for the thousands of tributary streams throughout the Lower Mekong Basin and it is important that designs incorporate the best available science to protect downstream migrants. Recent advances in technology have provided new techniques which could be applied to Mekong fish species to obtain design criteria that can facilitate safe downstream passage. Obtaining and applying this knowledge to new infrastructure projects is essential in order to produce outcomes that are more favorable to local ecosystems and fisheries.

  15. Standard format and content acceptance criteria for the Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) Reform Amendment: 10 CFR Part 74, Subpart E. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In 1987 the NRC revised the material control and accounting requirements for NRC licensees authorized to possess and use a formula quantity (i.e., 5 formula kilograms or more) of strategic special nuclear material. Those revisions issued as 10 CFR 74.51-59 require timely monitoring of in-process inventory and discrete items to detect anomalies potentially indicative of material losses. Timely detection and enhanced loss localization capabilities are beneficial to alarm resolution and also for material recovery in the event of an actual loss. NUREG-1280 was issued in 1987 to present criteria that could be used by applicants, licensees, and NRC license reviewers in the initial preparation and subsequent review of fundamental nuclear material control (FNMC) plans submitted in response to the Reform Amendment. This document is also intended for both licensees and license reviewers with respect to FNMC plan revisions. General performance objectives, system capabilities, process monitoring, item monitoring, alarm resolution, quality assurance, and accounting are addressed. This revision to NUREG-1280 is an expansion of the initial edition, which clarifies and expands upon several topics and addresses issues identified under Reform Amendment implementation experience.

  16. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Web-based Indoor Tanning Intervention: Acceptability and Preliminary Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Jerod L.; Manne, Sharon L.; Darabos, Katie; Greene, Kathryn; Ray, Anne E.; Turner, Amber L.; Coups, Elliot J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This manuscript describes the acceptability and preliminary behavioral outcomes from a pilot randomized control trial of a web-based indoor tanning intervention for young adult women. The intervention targets indoor tanning user’s perceptions of then benefits and value of tanning and addresses the role of body image-related constructs in indoor tanning. Methods Participants were 186 young adult women who reported indoor tanning at least once in the past 12 months. The study design was a 2-arm randomized controlled trial with pre and post assessments and random assignment to an intervention or control condition. Intervention acceptability was assessed by obtaining participants’ evaluation of the intervention. Regression analyses were used to test for intervention condition differences in preliminary behavioral outcomes measured at 6-weeks post-intervention. Results Participants provided favorable evaluations of the intervention on several dimensions and a highly positive overall rating. Intervention participants were more likely to report abstaining from indoor tanning and indicated a lower likelihood of using indoor tanning in the future compared to control participants on the post-intervention assessment. No differences were found for sunburns. Conclusions The results of this pilot randomized controlled trial provide evidence that the indoor tanning intervention is acceptable to participants and may encourage cessation of indoor tanning behavior. The findings provide preliminary support for an indoor tanning intervention that engages tanners to challenge their beliefs about the benefits of indoor tanning. The use of a web-based indoor tanning intervention is unique and provides strong potential for dissemination. PMID:26651469

  17. 12 CFR 165.8 - Procedures for reclassifying a Federal savings association based on criteria other than capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... association based on criteria other than capital. 165.8 Section 165.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE... Federal savings association based on criteria other than capital. (a) Reclassification based on unsafe or... reclassification. (4) Failure to file response. Failure by a Federal savings association to file, within...

  18. Acceptability and Effect of a Community-Based Alcohol Education Program in Rural Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardhana, P.; Dawson, A.H.; Abeyasinge, R.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a brief community-based educational program on changing the drinking pattern of alcohol in a rural community. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was carried out in two rural villages in Sri Lanka. One randomly selected village received a community education program that utilized street dramas, poster campaigns, leaflets and individual and group discussions. The control village had no intervention during this period. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to measure the drinking pattern before and at 6 and 24 months after the intervention in males over 18 years of age in both villages. The recall and the impact of various components of the intervention were assessed at 24 months post-intervention. Results: The intervention was associated with the development of an active community action group in the village and a significant reduction in illicit alcohol outlets. The drama component of the intervention had the highest level of recall and preference. Comparing the control and intervention villages, there were no significant difference between baseline drinking patterns and the AUDIT. There was a significant reduction in the AUDIT scores in the intervention village compared with the control at 6 and 24 months (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: A community-based education program had high acceptance and produces a reduction in alcohol use that was sustained for 2 years. PMID:23161893

  19. A GIS-based extended fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation for landslide susceptibility mapping

    PubMed Central

    Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar; Shadman Roodposhti, Majid; Jankowski, Piotr; Blaschke, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) is making increasing use of GIS-based spatial analysis in combination with multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) methods. We have developed a new multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method for LSM and applied it to the Izeh River basin in south-western Iran. Our method is based on fuzzy membership functions (FMFs) derived from GIS analysis. It makes use of nine causal landslide factors identified by local landslide experts. Fuzzy set theory was first integrated with an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) in order to use pairwise comparisons to compare LSM criteria for ranking purposes. FMFs were then applied in order to determine the criteria weights to be used in the development of a landslide susceptibility map. Finally, a landslide inventory database was used to validate the LSM map by comparing it with known landslides within the study area. Results indicated that the integration of fuzzy set theory with AHP produced significantly improved accuracies and a high level of reliability in the resulting landslide susceptibility map. Approximately 53% of known landslides within our study area fell within zones classified as having “very high susceptibility”, with the further 31% falling into zones classified as having “high susceptibility”. PMID:26089577

  20. A GIS-based extended fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation for landslide susceptibility mapping.

    PubMed

    Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar; Shadman Roodposhti, Majid; Jankowski, Piotr; Blaschke, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) is making increasing use of GIS-based spatial analysis in combination with multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) methods. We have developed a new multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method for LSM and applied it to the Izeh River basin in south-western Iran. Our method is based on fuzzy membership functions (FMFs) derived from GIS analysis. It makes use of nine causal landslide factors identified by local landslide experts. Fuzzy set theory was first integrated with an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) in order to use pairwise comparisons to compare LSM criteria for ranking purposes. FMFs were then applied in order to determine the criteria weights to be used in the development of a landslide susceptibility map. Finally, a landslide inventory database was used to validate the LSM map by comparing it with known landslides within the study area. Results indicated that the integration of fuzzy set theory with AHP produced significantly improved accuracies and a high level of reliability in the resulting landslide susceptibility map. Approximately 53% of known landslides within our study area fell within zones classified as having "very high susceptibility", with the further 31% falling into zones classified as having "high susceptibility".

  1. Scaling of Lift Degradation Due to Anti-Icing Fluids Based Upon the Aerodynamic Acceptance Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Riley, James T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the FAA has worked with Transport Canada, National Research Council Canada (NRC) and APS Aviation, Inc. to develop allowance times for aircraft operations in ice-pellet precipitation. These allowance times are critical to ensure safety and efficient operation of commercial and cargo flights. Wind-tunnel testing with uncontaminated anti-icing fluids and fluids contaminated with simulated ice pellets had been carried out at the NRC Propulsion and Icing Wind Tunnel (PIWT) to better understand the flowoff characteristics and resulting aerodynamic effects. The percent lift loss on the thin, high-performance wing model tested in the PIWT was determined at 8 angle of attack and used as one of the evaluation criteria in determining the allowance times. Because it was unclear as to how performance degradations measured on this model were relevant to an actual airplane configuration, some means of interpreting the wing model lift loss was deemed necessary. This paper describes how the lift loss was related to the loss in maximum lift of a Boeing 737-200ADV airplane through the Aerodynamic Acceptance Test (AAT) performed for fluids qualification. A loss in maximum lift coefficient of 5.24 percent on the B737-200ADV airplane (which was adopted as the threshold in the AAT) corresponds to a lift loss of 7.3 percent on the PIWT model at 8 angle of attack. There is significant scatter in the data used to develop the correlation related to varying effects of the anti-icing fluids that were tested and other factors. A statistical analysis indicated the upper limit of lift loss on the PIWT model was 9.2 percent. Therefore, for cases resulting in PIWT model lift loss from 7.3 to 9.2 percent, extra scrutiny of the visual observations is required in evaluating fluid performance with contamination.

  2. Scaling of Lift Degradation Due to Anti-Icing Fluids Based Upon the Aerodynamic Acceptance Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy; Riley, Jim

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the FAA has worked with Transport Canada, National Research Council Canada (NRC) and APS Aviation, Inc. to develop allowance times for aircraft operations in ice-pellet precipitation. These allowance times are critical to ensure safety and efficient operation of commercial and cargo flights. Wind-tunnel testing with uncontaminated anti-icing fluids and fluids contaminated with simulated ice pellets had been carried out at the NRC Propulsion and Icing Wind Tunnel (PIWT) to better understand the flow-off characteristics and resulting aerodynamic effects. The percent lift loss on the thin, high-performance wing model tested in the PIWT was determined at 8 deg. angle of attack and used as one of the evaluation criteria in determining the allowance times. Because it was unclear as to how performance degradations measured on this model were relevant to an actual airplane configuration, some means of interpreting the wing model lift loss was deemed necessary. This paper describes how the lift loss was related to the loss in maximum lift of a Boeing 737-200ADV airplane through the Aerodynamic Acceptance Test (AAT) performed for fluids qualification. A loss in maximum lift coefficient of 5.24% on the B737-200ADV airplane (which was adopted as the threshold in the AAT) corresponds to a lift loss of 7.3% on the PIWT model at 8 deg. angle of attack. There is significant scatter in the data used to develop the correlation related to varying effects of the anti-icing fluids that were tested and other factors. A statistical analysis indicated the upper limit of lift loss on the PIWT model was 9.2%. Therefore, for cases resulting in PIWT model lift loss from 7.3% to 9.2%, extra scrutiny of the visual observations is required in evaluating fluid performance with contamination.

  3. Common Criteria Related Security Design Patterns for Intelligent Sensors—Knowledge Engineering-Based Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Intelligent sensors experience security problems very similar to those inherent to other kinds of IT products or systems. The assurance for these products or systems creation methodologies, like Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408) can be used to improve the robustness of the sensor systems in high risk environments. The paper presents the background and results of the previous research on patterns-based security specifications and introduces a new ontological approach. The elaborated ontology and knowledge base were validated on the IT security development process dealing with the sensor example. The contribution of the paper concerns the application of the knowledge engineering methodology to the previously developed Common Criteria compliant and pattern-based method for intelligent sensor security development. The issue presented in the paper has a broader significance in terms that it can solve information security problems in many application domains. PMID:22164064

  4. Common criteria related security design patterns for intelligent sensors--knowledge engineering-based implementation.

    PubMed

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Intelligent sensors experience security problems very similar to those inherent to other kinds of IT products or systems. The assurance for these products or systems creation methodologies, like Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408) can be used to improve the robustness of the sensor systems in high risk environments. The paper presents the background and results of the previous research on patterns-based security specifications and introduces a new ontological approach. The elaborated ontology and knowledge base were validated on the IT security development process dealing with the sensor example. The contribution of the paper concerns the application of the knowledge engineering methodology to the previously developed Common Criteria compliant and pattern-based method for intelligent sensor security development. The issue presented in the paper has a broader significance in terms that it can solve information security problems in many application domains.

  5. Gender Incongruence of Adolescence and Adulthood: Acceptability and Clinical Utility of the World Health Organization’s Proposed ICD-11 Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Beek, Titia F.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Bouman, Walter P.; de Vries, Annelou L. C.; Steensma, Thomas D.; Witcomb, Gemma L.; Arcelus, Jon; Richards, Christina; Elaut, Els; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C.

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is currently updating the tenth version of their diagnostic tool, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD, WHO, 1992). Changes have been proposed for the diagnosis of Transsexualism (ICD-10) with regard to terminology, placement and content. The aim of this study was to gather the opinions of transgender individuals (and their relatives/partners) and clinicians in the Netherlands, Flanders (Belgium) and the United Kingdom regarding the proposed changes and the clinical applicability and utility of the ICD-11 criteria of ‘Gender Incongruence of Adolescence and Adulthood’ (GIAA). A total of 628 participants were included in the study: 284 from the Netherlands (45.2%), 8 from Flanders (Belgium) (1.3%), and 336 (53.5%) from the UK. Most participants were transgender people (or their partners/relatives) (n = 522), 89 participants were healthcare providers (HCPs) and 17 were both healthcare providers and (partners/relatives of) transgender people. Participants completed an online survey developed for this study. Most participants were in favor of the proposed diagnostic term of ‘Gender Incongruence’ and thought that this was an improvement on the ICD-10 diagnostic term of ‘Transsexualism’. Placement in a separate chapter dealing with Sexual- and Gender-related Health or as a Z-code was preferred by many and only a small number of participants stated that this diagnosis should be excluded from the ICD-11. In the UK, most transgender participants thought there should be a diagnosis related to being trans. However, if it were to be removed from the chapter on “psychiatric disorders”, many transgender respondents indicated that they would prefer it to be removed from the ICD in its entirety. There were no large differences between the responses of the transgender participants (or their partners and relatives) and HCPs. HCPs were generally positive about the GIAA diagnosis; most thought the diagnosis was clearly

  6. Home-based voluntary HIV counselling and testing found highly acceptable and to reduce inequalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Low uptake of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) in sub-Saharan Africa is raising acceptability concerns which might be associated with ways by which it is offered. We investigated the acceptability of home-based delivery of counselling and HIV testing in urban and rural populations in Zambia where VCT has been offered mostly from local clinics. Methods A population-based HIV survey was conducted in selected communities in 2003 (n = 5035). All participants stating willingness to be HIV tested were offered VCT at home and all counselling was conducted in the participants' homes. In the urban area post-test counselling and giving of results were done the following day whereas in rural areas this could take 1-3 weeks. Results Of those who indicated willingness to be HIV tested, 76.1% (95%CI 74.9-77.2) were counselled and received the test result. Overall, there was an increase in the proportion ever HIV tested from 18% before provision of home-based VCT to 38% after. The highest increase was in rural areas; among young rural men aged 15-24 years up from 14% to 42% vs. for urban men from 17% to 37%. Test rates by educational attainment changed from being positively associated to be evenly distributed after home-based VCT. Conclusions A high uptake was achieved by delivering HIV counselling and testing at home. The highest uptakes were seen in rural areas, in young people and groups with low educational attainment, resulting in substantial reductions in existing inequalities in accessing VCT services. PMID:20553631

  7. CERISE, a French radioprotection code, to assess the radiological impact and acceptance criteria of installations for material handling, and recycling or disposal of very low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Santucci, P.; Guetat, P.

    1993-12-31

    This document describes the code CERISE, Code d`Evaluations Radiologiques Individuelles pour des Situations en Enterprise et dans l`Environnement. This code has been developed in the frame of European studies to establish acceptance criteria of very low-level radioactive waste and materials. This code is written in Fortran and runs on PC. It calculates doses received by the different pathways: external exposure, ingestion, inhalation and skin contamination. Twenty basic scenarios are already elaborated, which have been determined from previous studies. Calculations establish the relation between surface, specific and/or total activities, and doses. Results can be expressed as doses for an average activity unit, or as average activity limits for a set of reference doses (defined for each scenario analyzed). In this last case, the minimal activity values and the corresponding limiting scenarios, are selected and summarized in a final table.

  8. User acceptance of cooperative maneuver-based driving--a summary of three studies.

    PubMed

    Kauer, Michaela; Franz, Benjamin; Schreiber, Michael; Bruder, Ralph; Geyer, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Modern cars offer drivers support with the help of a number of driver assistance systems. Those systems aim to relieve drivers through assumption of sub parts of the driving task (e.g. in case of an Adaptive Cruise Control by regulation of vehicle speed and time gap to preceding vehicle). Today, systems are controlled and monitored separately which leads to efforts to combine the functionality of all systems in an overlying assistance for drivers. The approach of the University of Technology Darmstadt is called Conduct-by-Wire and can be seen as a cooperative maneuver-based driving paradigm, where the driver gives maneuver command to the systems which are automatically executed. This paper summarizes the results of three studies which investigated the user acceptance of this driving paradigm. Overall, it can be said that the acceptance of the system depends on personal traits of the driver and on the driving situation. Almost all participants are willing to use Conduct-by- Wire for routine tasks such as commuting, which makes the systems interesting for company cars. Still, there remain a number of drivers who are not willing to use such a highly automated system at all.

  9. Selection of voxel size and photon number in voxel-based Monte Carlo method: criteria and applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Chen, Bin; Ran, Wei Yu; Wang, Guo Xiang; Wu, Wen Juan

    2015-01-01

    The voxel-based Monte Carlo method (VMC) is now a gold standard in the simulation of light propagation in turbid media. For complex tissue structures, however, the computational cost will be higher when small voxels are used to improve smoothness of tissue interface and a large number of photons are used to obtain accurate results. To reduce computational cost, criteria were proposed to determine the voxel size and photon number in 3-dimensional VMC simulations with acceptable accuracy and computation time. The selection of the voxel size can be expressed as a function of tissue geometry and optical properties. The photon number should be at least 5 times the total voxel number. These criteria are further applied in developing a photon ray splitting scheme of local grid refinement technique to reduce computational cost of a nonuniform tissue structure with significantly varying optical properties. In the proposed technique, a nonuniform refined grid system is used, where fine grids are used for the tissue with high absorption and complex geometry, and coarse grids are used for the other part. In this technique, the total photon number is selected based on the voxel size of the coarse grid. Furthermore, the photon-splitting scheme is developed to satisfy the statistical accuracy requirement for the dense grid area. Result shows that local grid refinement technique photon ray splitting scheme can accelerate the computation by 7.6 times (reduce time consumption from 17.5 to 2.3 h) in the simulation of laser light energy deposition in skin tissue that contains port wine stain lesions.

  10. Hospital-based dental care for persons with disabilities: a study of patient selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Hulland, S; Sigal, M J

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to generate a medical and dental profile of patients attending the Mount Sinai Hospital Dental Program for Persons with Disabilities, to determine if certain selected criteria could identify patients likely to require dental care in that setting. The need for dental care under general anesthesia was used as the prime indicator that care should be provided in a hospital setting. A retrospective review of all the charts of the patients enrolled in this hospital program was undertaken. Results indicated that patients who were treated in this hospital-based dental program had the following characteristics: moderate to profound mental retardation (39.5%), moderate to severe behavioral problems (31.1%), and/or a history of seizure activity (29.1%). Behavioral criteria appear to be the predominant reason for the provision of hospital-based dental care for persons with disabilities.

  11. Probability based earthquake load and resistance factor design criteria for offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bea, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a probability reliability based formulation to determine earthquake Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) parameters for conventional, steel, pile supported, tubular membered platforms that is proposed as a basis for earthquake design criteria and guidelines for offshore platforms that are intended to have worldwide applicability. The formulation is illustrated with application to platforms located in five areas: offshore California, Venezuela (Rio Caribe), the East Coast of Canada, in the Caspian Sea (Azeri), and the Norwegian sector of the North Sea.

  12. A behavior-analytic account of depression and a case report using acceptance-based procedures

    PubMed Central

    Dougher, Michael J.; Hackbert, Lucianne

    1994-01-01

    Although roughly 6% of the general population is affected by depression at some time during their lifetime, the disorder has been relatively neglected by behavior analysts. The preponderance of research on the etiology and treatment of depression has been conducted by cognitive behavior theorists and biological psychiatrists and psychopharmacologists interested in the biological substrates of depression. These approaches have certainly been useful, but their reliance on cognitive and biological processes and their lack of attention to environment—behavior relations render them unsatisfactory from a behavior-analytic perspective. The purpose of this paper is to provide a behavior-analytic account of depression and to derive from this account several possible treatment interventions. In addition, case material is presented to illustrate an acceptance-based approach with a depressed client. PMID:22478195

  13. Multi-criteria clinical decision support: A primer on the use of multiple criteria decision making methods to promote evidence-based, patient-centered healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Current models of healthcare quality recommend that patient management decisions be evidence-based and patient-centered. Evidence-based decisions require a thorough understanding of current information regarding the natural history of disease and the anticipated outcomes of different management options. Patient-centered decisions incorporate patient preferences, values, and unique personal circumstances into the decision making process and actively involve both patients along with health care providers as much as possible. Fundamentally, therefore, evidence-based, patient-centered decisions are multi-dimensional and typically involve multiple decision makers. Advances in the decision sciences have led to the development of a number of multiple criteria decision making methods. These multi-criteria methods are designed to help people make better choices when faced with complex decisions involving several dimensions. They are especially helpful when there is a need to combine “hard data” with subjective preferences, to make trade-offs between desired outcomes, and to involve multiple decision makers. Evidence-based, patient-centered clinical decision making has all of these characteristics. This close match suggests that clinical decision support systems based on multi-criteria decision making techniques have the potential to enable patients and providers to carry out the tasks required to implement evidence-based, patient-centered care effectively and efficiently in clinical settings. The goal of this paper is to give readers a general introduction to the range of multi-criteria methods available and show how they could be used to support clinical decision-making. Methods discussed include the balance sheet, the even swap method, ordinal ranking methods, direct weighting methods, multi-attribute decision analysis, and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) PMID:21394218

  14. Internet based HIV prevention research targeting rural MSM: feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy.

    PubMed

    Bowen, A M; Williams, M L; Daniel, C M; Clayton, S

    2008-12-01

    Internet delivered primary prevention interventions for HIV risk reduction present significant challenges. Changing lifestyle behaviors, such as beginning to use condoms, is difficult and men seeking dates on line may want to avoid thinking about HIV risk which may lead to low initiation and high dropout rates. Many Internet delivered HIV risk reduction programs have mimicked face-to-face outreach programs, failing to take advantage of the Internet's capabilities or did not conduct evaluation. This study focuses on examining the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of an Internet delivered HIV risk reduction program for rural men who have sex with men (MSM). The program included online recruiting, three intervention modules, each with two sessions, online questionnaires. The intervention was developed based on iterative research and the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model. Participants (N = 475) were randomly assigned to one of six module orders and data were collected automatically at pre-test and after each module. Data supports the feasibility and acceptability of the program as demonstrated by good retention and rapid program completion. Knowledge, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies and motivation increase in a dose response fashion. Post-intervention behavior changes included reduced anal sex and significant increases in condom use. Limitations include a short follow-up period, a predominantly young white rural sample, and the lack of an attention control. Overall the results of the study provide support for the efficacy of Internet-based interventions to reduce risk of HIV infection. Results also support traditional research methods to evaluate HIV prevention programs delivered exclusively through the Internet.

  15. Durability-Based Design Criteria for a Quasi-Isotropic Carbon-Fiber Automotive Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Corum, J.M.

    2002-04-17

    This report provides recommended durability-based design properties and criteria for a quasi-isotropic carbon-fiber composite for possible automotive structural applications. The composite, which was made by a rapid molding process suitable for high-volume automotive applications, consisted of continuous Thornel T300 fibers (6K tow) in a Baydur 420 IMR urethane matrix. The reinforcement was in the form of four {+-}45{sup o} stitch-bonded mats in the following layup: [0/90{sup o}/{+-}45{sup o}]{sub S}. This material is the second in a progression of three candidate thermoset composites to be characterized and modeled as part of an Oak Ridge National Laboratory project entitled Durability of Carbon-Fiber Composites. The overall goal of the project, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies and is closely coordinated with the industry Automotive Composites Consortium, is to develop durability-driven design data and criteria to assure the long-term integrity of carbon-fiber-based composite systems for large automotive structural components. This document is in two parts. Part I provides the design criteria, and Part 2 provides the underlying experimental data and models. The durability issues addressed include the effects on deformation, strength, and stiffness of cyclic and sustained loads, operating temperature, automotive fluid environments, and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and kickups of roadway debris). Guidance is provided for design analysis, time-dependent allowable stresses, rules for cyclic loadings, and damage tolerance design guidance, including the effects of holes. Chapter 6 provides a brief summary of the design criteria.

  16. Patients’ Acceptance towards a Web-Based Personal Health Record System: An Empirical Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chung-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Chieh; Jang, Fong-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The health care sector has become increasingly interested in developing personal health record (PHR) systems as an Internet-based telehealthcare implementation to improve the quality and decrease the cost of care. However, the factors that influence patients’ intention to use PHR systems remain unclear. Based on physicians’ therapeutic expertise, we implemented a web-based infertile PHR system and proposed an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) that integrates the physician-patient relationship (PPR) construct into TAM’s original perceived ease of use (PEOU) and perceived usefulness (PU) constructs to explore which factors will influence the behavioral intentions (BI) of infertile patients to use the PHR. From ninety participants from a medical center, 50 valid responses to a self-rating questionnaire were collected, yielding a response rate of 55.56%. The partial least squares (PLS) technique was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the extended model. The results indicate that infertile patients expressed a moderately high intention to use the PHR system. The PPR and PU of patients had significant effects on their BI to use PHR, whereas the PEOU indirectly affected the patients’ BI through the PU. This investigation confirms that PPR can have a critical role in shaping patients’ perceptions of the use of healthcare information technologies. Hence, we suggest that hospitals should promote the potential usefulness of PHR and improve the quality of the physician-patient relationship to increase patients’ intention of using PHR. PMID:24142185

  17. An insight into the public acceptance of nutrigenomic-based personalised nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fallaize, R; Macready, A L; Butler, L T; Ellis, J A; Lovegrove, J A

    2013-06-01

    It is predicted that non-communicable diseases will account for over 73 % of global mortality in 2020. Given that the majority of these deaths occur in developed countries such as the UK, and that up to 80 % of chronic disease could be prevented through improvements in diet and lifestyle, it is imperative that dietary guidelines and disease prevention strategies are reviewed in order to improve their efficacy. Since the completion of the human genome project our understanding of complex interactions between environmental factors such as diet and genes has progressed considerably, as has the potential to individualise diets using dietary, phenotypic and genotypic data. Thus, there is an ambition for dietary interventions to move away from population-based guidance towards 'personalised nutrition'. The present paper reviews current evidence for the public acceptance of genetic testing and personalised nutrition in disease prevention. Health and clear consumer benefits have been identified as key motivators in the uptake of genetic testing, with individuals reporting personal experience of disease, such as those with specific symptoms, being more willing to undergo genetic testing for the purpose of personalised nutrition. This greater perceived susceptibility to disease may also improve motivation to change behaviour which is a key barrier in the success of any nutrition intervention. Several consumer concerns have been identified in the literature which should be addressed before the introduction of a nutrigenomic-based personalised nutrition service. Future research should focus on the efficacy and implementation of nutrigenomic-based personalised nutrition.

  18. Competence-based and integrity-based trust as predictors of acceptance of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS).

    PubMed

    Terwel, Bart W; Harinck, Fieke; Ellemers, Naomi; Daamen, Dancker D L

    2009-08-01

    Public trust in organizations that are involved in the management and use of new technologies affects lay judgments about the risks and benefits associated with these technologies. In turn, judgments about risks and benefits influence lay attitudes toward these technologies. The validity of this (indirect) effect of trust on lay attitudes toward new technologies, which is referred to as the causal chain account of trust, has up till now only been examined in correlational research. The two studies reported in this article used an experimental approach to more specifically test the causal chain account of trust in the context of carbon dioxide capture and storage technology (CCS). Complementing existing literature, the current studies explicitly distinguished between two different types of trust in organizations: competence-based trust (Study 1) and integrity-based trust (Study 2). In line with predictions, results showed that the organizational position regarding CCS implementation (pro versus con) more strongly affected people's risk and benefit perceptions and their subsequent acceptance of CCS when competence-based trust was high rather than low. In contrast, the organizational position had a greater impact on people's level of CCS acceptance when integrity-based trust was low rather than high.

  19. Integrating mindfulness meditation with cognitive and behavioural therapies: the challenge of combining acceptance- and change-based strategies.

    PubMed

    Lau, Mark A; McMain, Shelley F

    2005-11-01

    Recent innovations in psychological treatments have integrated mindfulness meditation techniques with traditional cognitive and behavioural therapies, challenging traditional cognitive and behavioural therapists to integrate acceptance- and change-based strategies. This article details how 2 treatments, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and dialectical behaviour therapy, have met this challenge. We review the integration rationale underlying the 2 treatments, how the treatments combine strategies from each modality to accomplish treatment goals, implications for therapist training, and treatment effectiveness. In addition, we discuss the challenges of assessing the benefits of incorporating acceptance-based strategies. Both therapies have integrated acceptance-based mindfulness approaches with change-based cognitive and behavioural therapies to create efficacious treatments.

  20. Determinants of Intention to Use eLearning Based on the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punnoose, Alfie Chacko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find some of the predominant factors that determine the intention of students to use eLearning in the future. Since eLearning is not just a technology acceptance decision but also involves cognition, this study extended its search beyond the normal technology acceptance variables into variables that could affect…

  1. Assessing the Acceptability, Feasibility, and Effectiveness of a Tablet-Based Cervical Cancer Educational Intervention.

    PubMed

    Caster, M M; Norris, A H; Butao, C; Carr Reese, P; Chemey, E; Phuka, J; Turner, A N

    2017-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a common and deadly disease, especially in developing countries. We developed and implemented an interactive, tablet-based educational intervention to improve cervical cancer knowledge among women in rural Malawi. Chichewa-speaking adult women in six rural villages participated. Each woman took a pretest, participated in the lesson, and then took a posttest. The lesson included information on cervical cancer symptoms, causes, risk factors, prevention, and treatment. Over the 6-month study period, 243 women participated. Women ranged in age from 18 to 77 years. Only 15 % had education beyond primary school. Nearly half of participants (48 %) had heard of cervical cancer prior to viewing the lesson. For these women, the median number of correct responses on the pretest was 11 out of 20; after the lesson, they had a median of 18 correct responses (p < 0.001). After the intervention, 93 % of women indicated a desire for cervical cancer screening. Despite lack of familiarity with computers (96 %), most women (94 %) found the tablet easy to use. A tablet-based educational program was an effective, feasible, and acceptable strategy to disseminate cervical cancer information to women with low education in rural Malawi. This method may be appropriate to distribute health information about other health topics in low-resource settings.

  2. Feasibility and Acceptability of a School-Based Coping Intervention for Latina Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Carolyn; Pintor, Jessie Kemmick; Lindgren, Sandi

    2010-01-01

    Latino girls (Latinas) experience disproportionate rates of emotional distress, including suicidal ideation, which may be indicative of inadequate coping abilities. Prevention of mental health problems, a U.S. public health priority, is particularly critical for Latina adolescents due to lack of access to mental health treatments. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of Project Wings, a 14-session stress management/coping intervention. Latinas in school (ages 15–21) met weekly for 2-hr with two bilingual experienced facilitators to participate in sharing circles, relaxation exercise, and skill building. Intervention participation and post-intervention focus group data were analyzed. Fall semester intervention (n = 10) occurred during school (72% attendance rate); spring semester intervention (n = 11) was after school (84% attendance rate). Focus group data confirmed acceptability. Latina adolescents will participate in a school-based, group-based stress management/coping intervention. The findings offer insights about intervention recruitment and retention that are specifically relevant to school nurses. Future research includes intervention testing using a randomized study design. PMID:19850950

  3. Fisk-based criteria to support validation of detection methods for drinking water and air.

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M.; Bhattacharyya, M.; Finster, M.; Williams, M.; Picel, K.; Chang, Y.-S.; Peterson, J.; Adeshina, F.; Sonich-Mullin, C.; Environmental Science Division; EPA

    2009-02-18

    This report was prepared to support the validation of analytical methods for threat contaminants under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) program. It is designed to serve as a resource for certain applications of benchmark and fate information for homeland security threat contaminants. The report identifies risk-based criteria from existing health benchmarks for drinking water and air for potential use as validation targets. The focus is on benchmarks for chronic public exposures. The priority sources are standard EPA concentration limits for drinking water and air, along with oral and inhalation toxicity values. Many contaminants identified as homeland security threats to drinking water or air would convert to other chemicals within minutes to hours of being released. For this reason, a fate analysis has been performed to identify potential transformation products and removal half-lives in air and water so appropriate forms can be targeted for detection over time. The risk-based criteria presented in this report to frame method validation are expected to be lower than actual operational targets based on realistic exposures following a release. Note that many target criteria provided in this report are taken from available benchmarks without assessing the underlying toxicological details. That is, although the relevance of the chemical form and analogues are evaluated, the toxicological interpretations and extrapolations conducted by the authoring organizations are not. It is also important to emphasize that such targets in the current analysis are not health-based advisory levels to guide homeland security responses. This integrated evaluation of chronic public benchmarks and contaminant fate has identified more than 200 risk-based criteria as method validation targets across numerous contaminants and fate products in drinking water and air combined. The gap in directly applicable values is

  4. Physiological Acceptance Criteria for Cold Weather Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    subjective feelings of thermal comfort and temperature sensation were examined. Under many conditions that Navy cold weather clothing items are worn, it...is not practical to expect that the optimal level of thermal comfort can be obtained. Allowing for a moderate level of cold sensation and thermal

  5. WIPP waste acceptance criteria and transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.F.; Ward, T.R.; Gregory, P.C.

    1991-12-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA, is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed as a permanent repository for transuranic wastes in the center of a 2,000-foot-thick salt bed situated 2,150 feet underground. Construction of the facility started in 1975, under a congressional act of site selection. In 1979, demonstration of safe disposal at the WIPP was authorized by Public Law 96-164. The operational philosophy and practice at the facility are: (1) start clean -- stay clean, (2) meet or exceed regulatory requirements, and (3) control radiation exposure levels to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Strict safety measures must be taken in the areas of waste preparation, transportation, and facility operation.

  6. Considerations for the development of health-based surface dust cleanup criteria for beryllium.

    PubMed

    Shay, Erin; De Gandiaga, Elise; Madl, Amy K

    2013-03-01

    The exposure-response patterns with beryllium sensitization (BeS), chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and lung cancer are influenced by a number of biological and physicochemical factors. Recent studies have suggested dermal exposure as a pathway for BeS. In light of the current non-health-based DOE Beryllium Rule surface criteria, the feasibility of deriving a human health-based surface dust cleanup criteria (SDCC) for beryllium was assessed based on toxicology and health risk factors via all potential routes of exposure. Beryllium-specific and general exposure factors were evaluated, including (1) beryllium physicochemical characteristics, bioavailability and influence on disease prevalence, and (2) chemical dissipation, resuspension and transfer. SDCC for non-cancer (SDCC) and cancer (SDCC) endpoints were derived from a combination of modern methods applied for occupational, residential and building reentry surface dust criteria. The most conservative SDCC estimates were derived for dermal exposure (5-379 μg/100 cm for 0.1-1% damaged skin and 17-3337 μg/100 cm for intact skin), whereas the SDCC for inhalation exposure ranged from 51 to 485 μg/100 cm. Considering this analysis, the lowest DOE surface criterion of 0.2 μg/100 cm is conservative for minimizing exposure and potential risks associated with beryllium-contaminated surfaces released for non-beryllium industrial or public sector use. Although methodological challenges exist with sampling and analysis procedures, data variability and interpretation of surface dust information in relation to anthropogenic and natural background concentrations, this evaluation should provide useful guidance with regard to cleanup of manufacturing equipment or remediation of property for transfer to the general public or non-beryllium industrial facilities.

  7. A method for determining internal noise criteria based on practical speech communication applied to helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Doyle, L. B.

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between the internal noise environment of helicopters and the ability of personnel to understand commands and instructions was studied. A test program was conducted to relate speech intelligibility to a standard measurement called Articulation Index. An acoustical simulator was used to provide noise environments typical of Army helicopters. Speech material (command sentences and phonetically balanced word lists) were presented at several voice levels in each helicopter environment. Recommended helicopter internal noise criteria, based on speech communication, were derived and the effectiveness of hearing protection devices were evaluated.

  8. Appropriate Use Criteria for Echocardiography: Evolving Applications in the Era of Value-Based Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amita

    2017-01-01

    The current climate in healthcare is increasingly emphasizing a value-based approach to diagnostic testing. Cardiac imaging, including echocardiography, has been a primary target of ongoing reforms in healthcare delivery and reimbursement. The Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for echocardiography is a physician-derived tool intended to guide utilization in optimal patient care. To date, the AUC have primarily been employed solely as justification for reimbursement, though evolving broader applications to guide clinical decision-making suggest a far more valuable role in the delivery of high-quality and high-value healthcare. PMID:27553788

  9. Confronting Subjective Criteria in the Evaluation of Computer-Based Critiquing Advice

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Michael A.; Miller, Perry L.; Fisher, Paul R.; Weltin, Gregory G.; Swett, Henry A.

    1988-01-01

    There is a need for formal evaluation in the development of any computer-based expert systems. This may be quite difficult when judging a critiquing system, that is, a system which responds to a proposed management strategy with an explanatory prose discussion of the advisability of that approach. DxCON is an expert system which produces prose critiques discussing the radiologic workup of obstructive jaundice. This paper briefly describes DxCON, and then focuses on a study performed to validate its knowledge. The need to confront subjective as well as objective criteria in the evaluation of expert critiquing systems is explored.

  10. Establishing an Accepted Skill Set and Knowledge Base for Directors of University and College Intensive English Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Megan Julie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish an accepted skill set, knowledge base, and overview of personal qualities necessary to be a director of a university or college based, non-proprietary intensive English program (UIEP). This research serves as a means of moving towards meeting three critical needs in the field. This research should inform…

  11. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Gardening-Based Nutrition Education Program in Preschoolers from Low-Income, Minority Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shreela V.; Hedberg, Ann Marie; Skala, Katherine A.; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Lewis, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Garden-based lessons are gaining popularity as a means of increasing fruit and vegetable intake among children. The study objective was to pilot test a garden-based preschool curriculum for feasibility and acceptability in Harris County Department of Education Head Start using qualitative and quantitative methods. A total of 103, 3- to 5-year-old…

  12. Safety and Acceptability of Community-Based Distribution of Injectable Contraceptives: A Pilot Project in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Jacinto, Ana; Mobaracaly, Mahomed Riaz; Ustáb, Momade Bay; Bique, Cassimo; Blazer, Cassandra; Weidert, Karen; Prata, Ndola

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mozambique has witnessed a climbing total fertility rate in the last 20 years. Nearly one-third of married women have an unmet need for family planning, but the supply of family planning services is not meeting the demand. This study aimed to explore the safety and effectiveness of training 2 cadres of community health workers—traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and agentes polivalentes elementares (APEs) (polyvalent elementary health workers)—to administer the injectable contraceptive depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), and to provide evidence to policy makers on the feasibility of expanding community-based distribution of DMPA in areas where TBAs and APEs are present. A total of 1,432 women enrolled in the study between February 2014 and April 2015. The majority (63% to 66%) of women in the study started using contraception for the first time during the study period, and most women (over 66%) did not report side effects at the 3-month and 6-month follow-up visits. Very few (less than 0.5%) experienced morbidities at the injection site on the arm. Satisfaction with the performance of TBAs and APEs was high and improved over the study period. Overall, the project showed a high continuation rate (81.1%) after 3 injections, with TBA clients having significantly higher continuation rates than APE clients after 3 months and after 6 months. Clients’ reported willingness to pay for DMPA (64%) highlights the latent demand for modern contraceptives. Given Mozambique’s largely rural population and critical health care workforce shortage, community-based provision of family planning in general and of injectable contraceptives in particular, which has been shown to be safe, effective, and acceptable, is of crucial importance. This study demonstrates that community-based distribution of injectable contraceptives can provide access to family planning to a large group of women that previously had little or no access. PMID:27651076

  13. Acceptance Probability (P a) Analysis for Process Validation Lifecycle Stages.

    PubMed

    Alsmeyer, Daniel; Pazhayattil, Ajay; Chen, Shu; Munaretto, Francesco; Hye, Maksuda; Sanghvi, Pradeep

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces an innovative statistical approach towards understanding how variation impacts the acceptance criteria of quality attributes. Because of more complex stage-wise acceptance criteria, traditional process capability measures are inadequate for general application in the pharmaceutical industry. The probability of acceptance concept provides a clear measure, derived from specific acceptance criteria for each quality attribute. In line with the 2011 FDA Guidance, this approach systematically evaluates data and scientifically establishes evidence that a process is capable of consistently delivering quality product. The probability of acceptance provides a direct and readily understandable indication of product risk. As with traditional capability indices, the acceptance probability approach assumes that underlying data distributions are normal. The computational solutions for dosage uniformity and dissolution acceptance criteria are readily applicable. For dosage uniformity, the expected AV range may be determined using the s lo and s hi values along with the worst case estimates of the mean. This approach permits a risk-based assessment of future batch performance of the critical quality attributes. The concept is also readily applicable to sterile/non sterile liquid dose products. Quality attributes such as deliverable volume and assay per spray have stage-wise acceptance that can be converted into an acceptance probability. Accepted statistical guidelines indicate processes with C pk > 1.33 as performing well within statistical control and those with C pk < 1.0 as "incapable" (1). A C pk > 1.33 is associated with a centered process that will statistically produce less than 63 defective units per million. This is equivalent to an acceptance probability of >99.99%.

  14. Gap Acceptance During Lane Changes by Large-Truck Drivers-An Image-Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nobukawa, Kazutoshi; Bao, Shan; LeBlanc, David J; Zhao, Ding; Peng, Huei; Pan, Christopher S

    2015-10-13

    This paper presents an analysis of rearward gap acceptance characteristics of drivers of large trucks in highway lane change scenarios. The range between the vehicles was inferred from camera images using the estimated lane width obtained from the lane tracking camera as the reference. Six-hundred lane change events were acquired from a large-scale naturalistic driving data set. The kinematic variables from the image-based gap analysis were filtered by the weighted linear least squares in order to extrapolate them at the lane change time. In addition, the time-to-collision and required deceleration were computed, and potential safety threshold values are provided. The resulting range and range rate distributions showed directional discrepancies, i.e., in left lane changes, large trucks are often slower than other vehicles in the target lane, whereas they are usually faster in right lane changes. Video observations have confirmed that major motivations for changing lanes are different depending on the direction of move, i.e., moving to the left (faster) lane occurs due to a slower vehicle ahead or a merging vehicle on the right-hand side, whereas right lane changes are frequently made to return to the original lane after passing.

  15. Gap Acceptance During Lane Changes by Large-Truck Drivers—An Image-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nobukawa, Kazutoshi; Bao, Shan; LeBlanc, David J.; Zhao, Ding; Peng, Huei; Pan, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of rearward gap acceptance characteristics of drivers of large trucks in highway lane change scenarios. The range between the vehicles was inferred from camera images using the estimated lane width obtained from the lane tracking camera as the reference. Six-hundred lane change events were acquired from a large-scale naturalistic driving data set. The kinematic variables from the image-based gap analysis were filtered by the weighted linear least squares in order to extrapolate them at the lane change time. In addition, the time-to-collision and required deceleration were computed, and potential safety threshold values are provided. The resulting range and range rate distributions showed directional discrepancies, i.e., in left lane changes, large trucks are often slower than other vehicles in the target lane, whereas they are usually faster in right lane changes. Video observations have confirmed that major motivations for changing lanes are different depending on the direction of move, i.e., moving to the left (faster) lane occurs due to a slower vehicle ahead or a merging vehicle on the right-hand side, whereas right lane changes are frequently made to return to the original lane after passing. PMID:26924947

  16. Nonlibrary Partnerships: Acceptable Use (and Behavior) in the Web-based Depository.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkerhoff, Kathie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses problems facing federal depository libraries regarding patron behavior when using Web sites. Topics include acceptable use policies; existing laws and enforcement offices; protecting library property; pornography, including child pornography; sexual harassment; and other forms of staff harassment. (LRW)

  17. Group-based citizenship in the acceptance of indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Catherine M; Munguambe, Khátia; Pool, Robert

    2010-05-01

    In 2006, the Mozambican Ministry of Health expanded its existing Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) programme into Manhiça District in the south of the country. Widespread household coverage is required to have a significant impact on malaria transmission, making acceptability fundamental to success. Between 2006 and 2008 we conducted anthropological research in order to understand acceptability of IRS in the context of the implementation process, policy debates, local and regional politics and historical processes. In the first phase of this qualitative study, conducted between January and April 2006, 73 interviews and 12 focus groups were conducted with key stakeholders from 14 locales in and around the town of Manhiça: householders, community leaders, health care professionals, sprayers, and District officials. Analysis revealed IRS to be broadly acceptable despite very low levels of perceived efficacy and duration of effect. In contrast to previous studies which have linked acceptance to a reduction in mosquitoes, nuisance biting and malaria, we found people's compliance with the programme to be founded on a sense of group-based citizenship. The involvement of local governmental leaders in the intervention appears to have led many to accept spraying as part of their civic duty, as decreed by post-war decentralisation policy in rural areas. We discuss the implications of this 'passive' form of compliance for the acceptability and sustainability of malaria control and other public health programmes.

  18. Applicability of acceptance and commitment therapy-based mobile app in depression nursing.

    PubMed

    Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Välkkynen, Pasi; Kilkku, Nina

    2016-11-28

    Due to the high burden of depression, new models and methods of mental healthcare need to be developed. Prior research has shown the potential benefits of using technology tools such as mobile apps as self-help or combined with psychological treatment. Therefore, professionals should acquaint themselves with evidence-based apps to be able to use them with clients and guide the clients in their use. The purpose of this study was to explore how an acceptance and commitment therapy-based mobile app was perceived as a self-management tool among nurses, and how it could be applied in the prevention and treatment of depression and other mental health issues. Sixteen Finnish nurses undergoing depression nurse specialist education used the app for 5 weeks and participated in semistructured focus group interviews. Interviews were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. In general, the nurses found the app suitable as a self-management tool and identified three models of using it in clinical practice. Having used the app personally, the nurses were eager to take it into use with various client groups, especially in occupational health but also in the treatment of mental health problems. However, they also raised concerns about the effort needed in familiarizing oneself with the content and pointed out specific client groups for whom the benefits of the app should be carefully weighed against the potential risks. Despite the small sample size, the findings suggest that involving technology tools as part of the nurses' education could ease their adoption in clinical practice. The degree of professional support in the app use should be aligned to the severity of the mental health problems.

  19. Use of Evidence-Based Interventions in Acute Coronary Syndrome - Subanalysis of the ACCEPT Registry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ricardo; Neuenschwander, Fernando Carvalho; Lima, Augusto; Moreira, Celsa Maria; dos Santos, Elizabete Silva; Reis, Helder Jose Lima; Romano, Edson Renato; Mattos, Luiz Alberto Piva e; Berwanger, Otávio; de Andrade, Jadelson Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    Background The recommendations in guidelines are based on evidence; however, there is a gap between recommendations and clinical practice. Objective To describe the practice of prescribing evidence-based treatments for patients with acute coronary syndrome in Brazil. Methods This study carried out a subanalysis of the ACCEPT registry, assessing epidemiological data and the prescription rate of acetylsalicylic acid, p2y12 inhibitors, antithrombotic drugs, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers (IAT1RB), and statins. In addition, the quality of myocardial reperfusion in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction was evaluated. Results This study assessed 2,453 patients. The prescription rates of acetylsalicylic acid, p2y12 inhibitors, antithrombotic drugs, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/IAT1RB, and statins were as follows: in 24 hours - 97.6%, 89.5%, 89.1%, 80.2%, 67.9% and 90.6%; and at six months - 89.3%, 53.6%, 0%, 74.4%, 57.6% and 85.4%, respectively. Regarding ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, only 35.9% and 25.3% of the patients underwent primary angioplasty and thrombolysis, respectively, within the recommended times. Conclusion This registry showed high initial prescription rates of antiplatelet drugs, antithrombotic drugs, and statins, and lower prescription rates of beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/IAT1RB. Independently of the class, the use of all drugs decreased by six months. Most patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction did not undergo myocardial reperfusion within the time recommended. PMID:24652052

  20. Prediction of protein interaction hot spots using rough set-based multiple criteria linear programming.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruoying; Zhang, Zhiwang; Wu, Di; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xinyang; Wang, Yong; Shi, Yong

    2011-01-21

    Protein-protein interactions are fundamentally important in many biological processes and it is in pressing need to understand the principles of protein-protein interactions. Mutagenesis studies have found that only a small fraction of surface residues, known as hot spots, are responsible for the physical binding in protein complexes. However, revealing hot spots by mutagenesis experiments are usually time consuming and expensive. In order to complement the experimental efforts, we propose a new computational approach in this paper to predict hot spots. Our method, Rough Set-based Multiple Criteria Linear Programming (RS-MCLP), integrates rough sets theory and multiple criteria linear programming to choose dominant features and computationally predict hot spots. Our approach is benchmarked by a dataset of 904 alanine-mutated residues and the results show that our RS-MCLP method performs better than other methods, e.g., MCLP, Decision Tree, Bayes Net, and the existing HotSprint database. In addition, we reveal several biological insights based on our analysis. We find that four features (the change of accessible surface area, percentage of the change of accessible surface area, size of a residue, and atomic contacts) are critical in predicting hot spots. Furthermore, we find that three residues (Tyr, Trp, and Phe) are abundant in hot spots through analyzing the distribution of amino acids.

  1. Water Quality Criteria for Copper Based on the BLM Approach in the Freshwater in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yahui; Zang, Wenchao; Qin, Lumei; Zheng, Lei; Cao, Ying; Yan, Zhenguang; Yi, Xianliang; Zeng, Honghu; Liu, Zhengtao

    2017-01-01

    The bioavailability and toxicity of metals to aquatic organisms are highly dependent on water quality parameters in freshwaters. The biotic ligand model (BLM) for copper is an approach to generate the water quality criteria (WQC) with water chemistry in the ambient environment. However, few studies were carried out on the WQCs for copper based on the BLM approach in China. In the present study, the toxicity for copper to native Chinese aquatic organisms was conducted and the published toxicity data with water quality parameters to Chinese aquatic species were collected to derive the WQCs for copper by the BLM approach. The BLM-based WQCs (the criterion maximum criteria (CMC) and the criterion continuous concentration (CCC)) for copper in the freshwater for the nation and in the Taihu Lake were obtained. The CMC and CCC values for copper in China were derived to be 1.391 μg/L and 0.495 μg/L, respectively, and the CMC and CCC in the Taihu Lake were 32.194 μg/L and 9.697 μg/L. The high concentration of dissolved organic carbon might be a main reason which resulted in the higher WQC values in the Taihu Lake. The WQC of copper in the freshwater would provide a scientific foundation for water quality standards and the environment risk assessment in China. PMID:28166229

  2. Selecting islands and shoals for conservation based on biological and aesthetic criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Leopold, D.J.; Smardon, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Consideration of biological quality has long been an important component of rating areas for conservation. Often these same areas are highly valued by people for aesthetic reasons, creating demands for housing and recreation that may conflict with protection plans for these habitats. Most methods of selecting land for conservation purposes use biological factors alone. For some land areas, analysis of aesthetic qualities is also important in describing the scenic value of undisturbed land. A method for prioritizing small islands and shoals based on both biological and visual quality factors is presented here. The study included 169 undeveloped islands and shoals a??0.8 ha in the Thousand Islands Region of the St. Lawrence River, New York. Criteria such as critical habitat for uncommon plant and animal species were considered together with visual quality and incorporated into a rating system that ranked the islands and shoals according to their priority for conservation management and protection from development. Biological factors were determined based on previous research and a field survey. Visual quality was determined by visual diagnostic criteria developed from public responses to photographs of a sample of islands. Variables such as elevation, soil depth, and type of plant community can be used to classify islands into different categories of visual quality but are unsuccessful in classifying islands into categories of overall biological quality.

  3. Selecting islands and shoals for conservation based on biological and aesthetic criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Melinda G.; Leopold, Donald J.; Smardon, Richard C.

    1993-03-01

    Consideration of biological quality has long been an important component of rating areas for conservation. Often these same areas are highly valued by people for aesthetic reasons, creating demands for housing and recreation that may conflict with protection plans for these habitats. Most methods of selecting land for conservation purposes use biological factors alone. For some land areas, analysis of aesthetic qualities is also important in describing the scenic value of undisturbed land. A method for prioritizing small islands and shoals based on both biological and visual quality factors is presented here. The study included 169 undeveloped islands and shoals ⩽0.8 ha in the Thousand Islands Region of the St. Lawrence River, New York. Criteria such as critical habitat for uncommon plant and animal species were considered together with visual quality and incorporated into a rating system that ranked the islands and shoals according to their priority for conservation management and protection from development. Biological factors were determined based on previous research and a field survey. Visual quality was determined by visual diagnostic criteria developed from public responses to photographs of a sample of islands. Variables such as elevation, soil depth, and type of plant community can be used to classify islands into different categories of visual quality but are unsuccessful in classifying islands into categories of overall biological quality.

  4. Acceptance-based Behavior Therapy for Depression with Psychosis: Results from a Pilot Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Busch, Andrew M.; Wenze, Susan J.; Nowlan, Kathryn; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Miller, Ivan W.

    2015-01-01

    Acceptance-based depression and psychosis therapy (ADAPT), a mindfulness/acceptance-based behavioral activation treatment, showed clinically significant effects in the treatment of depression with psychosis in a previous open trial. The goal of the current study was to further test the feasibility of ADAPT to determine the utility of testing it in a future clinical trial, following a stage model of treatment development. Feasibility was determined by randomizing a small number of patients (N = 13) with comorbid depression and psychosis to medication treatment as usual plus enhanced assessment and monitoring (EAM) versus ADAPT for 4 months of outpatient treatment. Both conditions were deemed acceptable by patients. Differences in between-subjects effect sizes favored ADAPT post-treatment and were in the medium to large range for depression, psychosocial functioning, and experiential avoidance (ie, the target mechanism). Thus ADAPT shows promise for improving outcomes compared to medications alone and requires testing in a fully powered randomized trial. PMID:26352221

  5. Web-Based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Mental Health Problems in College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Levin, Michael E; Haeger, Jack A; Pierce, Benjamin G; Twohig, Michael P

    2016-07-20

    There are significant challenges in addressing the mental health needs of college students. The current study tested an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), web-based self-help program to treat a broad range of psychological problems students struggle with. A sample of 79 college students was randomized to web-based ACT or a waitlist condition, with assessments at baseline and posttreatment. Results indicated adequate acceptability and program engagement for the ACT website. Relative to waitlist, participants receiving ACT improved on overall distress, general anxiety, social anxiety, depression, academic concerns, and positive mental health. There were no between-group effects on eating concerns, alcohol use, or hostility, or on some key ACT process of change measures. ACT participants improved more on mindful acceptance and obstruction to valued living, both of which mediated treatment outcomes. Results are discussed in the context of lessons learned with the website prototype, and areas for further research are presented.

  6. Towards bioavailability-based soil criteria: past, present and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Ravi; Channey, Rufus; McConnell, Stuart; Johnston, Niall; Semple, Kirk T; McGrath, Steve; Dries, Victor; Nathanail, Paul; Harmsen, Joop; Pruszinski, Andrew; MacMillan, Janet; Palanisami, Thavamani

    2015-06-01

    Bioavailability has been used as a key indicator in chemical risk assessment yet poorly quantified risk factor. Worldwide, the framework used to assess potentially contaminated sites is similar, and the decisions are based on threshold contaminant concentration. The uncertainty in the definition and measurement of bioavailability had limited its application to environment risk assessment and remediation. Last ten years have seen major developments in bioavailability research and acceptance. The use of bioavailability in the decision making process as one of the key variables has led to a gradual shift towards a more sophisticated risk-based approach. Now a days, many decision makers and regulatory organisations 'more readily accept' this concept. Bioavailability should be the underlying basis for risk assessment and setting remediation goals of those contaminated sites that pose risk to environmental and human health. This paper summarises the potential application of contaminant bioavailability and bioaccessibility to the assessment of sites affected by different contaminants, and the potential for this to be the underlying basis for sustainable risk assessment and remediation in Europe, North America and Australia over the coming decade.

  7. Sustainable management of a coupled groundwater-agriculture hydrosystem using multi-criteria simulation based optimisation.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, Jens; Schütze, Niels; Lennartz, Franz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a new simulation-based integrated water management tool for sustainable water resources management in arid coastal environments. This tool delivers optimised groundwater withdrawal scenarios considering saltwater intrusion as a result of agricultural and municipal water abstraction. It also yields a substantially improved water use efficiency of irrigated agriculture. To allow for a robust and fast operation we unified process modelling with artificial intelligence tools and evolutionary optimisation techniques. The aquifer behaviour is represented using an artificial neural network (ANN) which emulates a numerical density-dependent groundwater flow model. The impact of agriculture is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF). Simulation-based optimisation techniques together with the SCWPF and ANN deliver optimal groundwater abstraction and cropping patterns. To address contradicting objectives, e.g. profit-oriented agriculture vs. sustainable abstraction scenarios, we performed multi-objective optimisations using a multi-criteria optimisation algorithm.

  8. Beyond QALYs: Multi-criteria based estimation of maximum willingness to pay for health technologies.

    PubMed

    Nord, Erik

    2017-03-03

    The QALY is a useful outcome measure in cost-effectiveness analysis. But in determining the overall value of and societal willingness to pay for health technologies, gains in quality of life and length of life are prima facie separate criteria that need not be put together in a single concept. A focus on costs per QALY can also be counterproductive. One reason is that the QALY does not capture well the value of interventions in patients with reduced potentials for health and thus different reference points. Another reason is a need to separate losses of length of life and losses of quality of life when it comes to judging the strength of moral claims on resources in patients of different ages. An alternative to the cost-per-QALY approach is outlined, consisting in the development of two bivariate value tables that may be used in combination to estimate maximum cost acceptance for given units of treatment-for instance a surgical procedure, or 1 year of medication-rather than for 'obtaining one QALY.' The approach is a follow-up of earlier work on 'cost value analysis.' It draws on work in the QALY field insofar as it uses health state values established in that field. But it does not use these values to weight life years and thus avoids devaluing gained life years in people with chronic illness or disability. Real tables of the kind proposed could be developed in deliberative processes among policy makers and serve as guidance for decision makers involved in health technology assessment and appraisal.

  9. Diagnosis of IBS: symptoms, symptom-based criteria, biomarkers or 'psychomarkers'?

    PubMed

    Sood, Ruchit; Law, Graham R; Ford, Alexander C

    2014-11-01

    IBS is estimated to have a prevalence of up to 20% in Western populations and results in substantial costs to health-care services worldwide, estimated to be US$1 billion per year in the USA. IBS remains difficult to diagnose due to its multifactorial aetiology, heterogeneous nature and overlap of symptoms with organic pathologies, such as coeliac disease and IBD. As a result, IBS often continues to be a diagnosis of exclusion, resulting in unnecessary investigations. Available methods for the diagnosis of IBS-including the current gold standard, the Rome III criteria-perform only moderately well. Visceral hypersensitivity and altered pain perception do not discriminate between IBS and other functional gastrointestinal diseases or health with any great accuracy. Attention has now turned to developing novel biomarkers and using psychological markers (so-called psychomarkers) to aid the diagnosis of IBS. This Review describes how useful symptoms, symptom-based criteria, biomarkers and psychomarkers, and indeed combinations of all these approaches, are in the diagnosis of IBS. Future directions in diagnosing IBS could include combining demographic data, gastrointestinal symptoms, biomarkers and psychomarkers using statistical methods. Latent class analysis to distinguish between IBS and non-IBS symptom profiles might also represent a promising avenue for future research.

  10. Ecotoxicologically based marine acute water quality criteria for metals intended for protection of coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Durán, I; Beiras, R

    2013-10-01

    Acute water quality criteria (WQC) for the protection of coastal ecosystems are developed on the basis of short-term ecotoxicological data using the most sensitive life stages of representative species from the main taxa of marine water column organisms. A probabilistic approach based on species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves has been chosen and compared to the WQC obtained applying an assessment factor to the critical toxicity values, i.e. the 'deterministic' approach. The criteria obtained from HC5 values (5th percentile of the SSD) were 1.01 μg/l for Hg, 1.39 μg/l for Cu, 3.83 μg/l for Cd, 25.3 μg/l for Pb and 8.24 μg/l for Zn. Using sensitive early life stages and very sensitive endpoints allowed calculation of WQC for marine coastal ecosystems. These probabilistic WQC, intended to protect 95% of the species in 95% of the cases, were calculated on the basis of a limited ecotoxicological dataset, avoiding the use of large and uncertain assessment factors.

  11. Efficacy of an Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Evaluation in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.; Salters-Pedneault, Kristalyn

    2008-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic anxiety disorder, associated with comorbidity and impairment in quality of life, for which improved psychosocial treatments are needed. GAD is also associated with reactivity to and avoidance of internal experiences. The current study examined the efficacy of an acceptance-based behavioral therapy…

  12. The Role of Peer Influence and Perceived Quality of Teaching in Faculty Acceptance of Web-Based Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.; Welch, Anita G.; Ray, Chris M.; Peterson, Claudette

    2015-01-01

    This study's primary investigation is the impact of "peer influence" and "perceived quality of teaching" on faculty members' usage of web-based learning management systems within the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) framework. These factors are entered into an extended TAM as external variables impacting on the core constructs…

  13. Matching Interventions to Children's Mental Health Needs: Feasibility and Acceptability of a Pilot School-Based Trauma Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elissa J.; McQuaid, Jennifer; Farina, Lana; Ali, Rehana; Winnick-Gelles, Amy

    2006-01-01

    The primary goal was to develop and implement a school-based, trauma-specific intervention program for inner-city children exposed to the World Trade Center attacks on September 11th, 2001. The feasibility and acceptability of the program, and its research component, were examined. The efficacy of the program was evaluated in a pilot study.…

  14. Being Mindful about the Assessment of Culture: A Cultural Analysis of Culturally Adapted Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Therapy for Test Anxiety: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lily A.; Forman, Evan M.; Herbert, James D.; Hoffman, Kimberly L.; Yuen, Erica K.; Goetter, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Many university students suffer from test anxiety that is severe enough to impair performance. Given mixed efficacy results of previous cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) trials and a theoretically driven rationale, an acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) approach was compared to traditional CBT (i.e., Beckian cognitive therapy; CT) for the…

  16. Implementation Process and Acceptance of a Setting Based Prevention Programme to Promote Healthy Lifestyle in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Birgit; Strauss, Angelika; Mayer, Andrea; Duvinage, Kristin; Mitschek, Christine; Koletzko, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the implementation process of a kindergarten-based intervention ("TigerKids") to promote a healthy lifestyle. Design: Questionnaire survey among kindergarten teachers about programme implementation and acceptance. Setting: Kindergartens in Bavaria, Germany. Methods: Two hundred and fifteen kindergartens were…

  17. Acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions for the treatment of chronic pain: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Veehof, M M; Trompetter, H R; Bohlmeijer, E T; Schreurs, K M G

    2016-01-01

    The number of acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions for chronic pain, such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), increased in recent years. Therefore an update is warranted of our former systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that reported effects on the mental and physical health of chronic pain patients. Pubmed, EMBASE, PsycInfo and Cochrane were searched for eligible studies. Current meta-analysis only included randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Studies were rated for quality. Mean quality did not improve in recent years. Pooled standardized mean differences using the random-effect model were calculated to represent the average intervention effect and, to perform subgroup analyses. Outcome measures were pain intensity, depression, anxiety, pain interference, disability and quality of life. Included were twenty-five RCTs totaling 1285 patients with chronic pain, in which we compared acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions to the waitlist, (medical) treatment-as-usual, and education or support control groups. Effect sizes ranged from small (on all outcome measures except anxiety and pain interference) to moderate (on anxiety and pain interference) at post-treatment and from small (on pain intensity and disability) to large (on pain interference) at follow-up. ACT showed significantly higher effects on depression and anxiety than MBSR and MBCT. Studies' quality, attrition rate, type of pain and control group, did not moderate the effects of acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions. Current acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions, while not superior to traditional cognitive behavioral treatments, can be good alternatives.

  18. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Impact of a Web-based Gratitude Exercise among Individuals in Outpatient Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Mannella, Kristin A.; Hassett, Afton L.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Cranford, James A.; Brower, Kirk J.; Higgins, Margaret M.; Meyer, Piper S.

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of a web-based gratitude exercise (the ‘Three Good Things’ exercise (TGT)) among 23 adults in outpatient treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Participants were randomized to TGT or a placebo condition. The intervention was feasible with high rates of completion. Participants found TGT acceptable and welcomed the structure of daily emails; however, they found it difficult at times and discontinued TGT when the study ended. Participants associated TGT with gratitude, although there were no observed changes in grateful disposition over time. TGT had a significant effect on decreasing negative affect and increasing unactivated (e.g., feeling calm, at ease) positive affect, although there were no differences between groups at the 8 week follow up. Qualitative results converged on quantitative findings that TGT was convenient, feasible, and acceptable, and additionally suggested that TGT was beneficial for engendering positive cognitions and reinforcing recovery. PMID:27076837

  19. Gender-based Outcomes and Acceptability of a Computer-assisted Psychosocial Intervention for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Nunes, Edward V.; Pavlicova, Martina; Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Hu, Mei-Chen; Bailey, Genie L.; Sugarman, Dawn E.; Miele, Gloria M.; Rieckmann, Traci; Shores-Wilson, Kathy; Turrigiano, Eva; Greenfield, Shelly F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Digital technologies show promise for increasing treatment accessibility and improving quality of care, but little is known about gender differences. This secondary analysis uses data from a multi-site effectiveness trial of a computer-assisted behavioral intervention, conducted within NIDA's National Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network, to explore gender differences in intervention acceptability and treatment outcomes. Methods Men (n=314) and women (n=192) were randomly assigned to 12-weeks of treatment-as-usual (TAU) or modified TAU + Therapeutic Education System (TES), whereby TES substituted for 2 hours of TAU per week. TES is comprised of 62 web-delivered, multimedia modules, covering skills for achieving and maintaining abstinence plus prize-based incentives contingent on abstinence and treatment adherence. Outcomes were: (1) abstinence from drugs and heavy drinking in the last 4 weeks of treatment, (2) retention, (3) social functioning, and (4) drug and alcohol craving. Acceptability was the mean score across five indicators (i.e., interesting, useful, novel, easy to understand, and satisfaction). Results Gender did not moderate the effect of treatment on any outcome. Women reported higher acceptability scores at week 4 (p=.02), but no gender differences were detected at weeks 8 or 12. Acceptability was positively associated with abstinence, but only among women (p=.01). Conclusions Findings suggest that men and women derive similar benefits from participating in a computer-assisted intervention, a promising outcome as technology-based treatments expand. Acceptability was associated with abstinence outcomes among women. Future research should explore characteristics of women who report less satisfaction with this modality of treatment and ways to improve overall acceptability. PMID:25613105

  20. HPV Vaccine Acceptance in a Clinic-Based Sample of Women in the Rural South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Heather M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; McCree, Donna H.; Wright, Marcie S.; Davis, Jennifer; Hutto, Brent E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a very common sexually transmitted infection linked to cervical disease. Vaccines for some types of HPV were in development at the time of the study. Purpose: The study examined HPV vaccine acceptability among underserved women in a rural region of the southeastern U.S. with high rates of cervical cancer…

  1. Exploring Students' Intention to Use LINE for Academic Purposes Based on Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van De Bogart, Willard; Wichadee, Saovapa

    2015-01-01

    The LINE application is often conceived as purely social space; however, the authors of this paper wanted to determine if it could be used for academic purposes. In this study, we examined how undergraduate students accepted LINE in terms of using it for classroom-related activities (e.g., submit homework, follow up course information queries,…

  2. Impact of Contextuality on Mobile Learning Acceptance: An Empirical Study Based on a Language Learning App

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Böhm, Stephan; Constantine, Georges Philip

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on contextualized features for mobile language learning apps. The scope of this paper is to explore students' perceptions of contextualized mobile language learning. Design/Methodology/Approach: An extended Technology Acceptance Model was developed to analyze the effect of contextual app features on students'…

  3. Disrupting Verbal Processes: Cognitive Defusion in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Other Mindfulness-Based Psychotherapies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackledge, John T.

    2007-01-01

    Applied behavioral psychology pivots on the formation and alteration of stimulus function: on how stimuli come to differentially affect behavior and how these effects can be altered when they prove problematic. Relational frame theory (RFT) offers an account of how uniquely verbal processes transform stimulus functions. Acceptance and commitment…

  4. Investigating Elementary School Students' Technology Acceptance by Applying Digital Game-Based Learning to Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yuh-Ming; Lou, Shi-Jer; Kuo, Sheng-Huang; Shih, Ru-Chu

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve and promote students' environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour, integrating environmental education into the primary education curriculum has become a key issue for environmental education. For this reason, this study aimed to investigate elementary school students' acceptance of technology applying digital game-based…

  5. Acceptability and Satisfaction of an ICT-Based Training for University Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrero, Rocío; Bretón-López, Juana; Farfallini, Luis; Quero, Soledad; Miralles, Ignacio; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    E-learning can be defined as learning facilitated and supported through the use of ICTs. ICTs can increase students' motivation, accelerate the knowledge process and facilitate the information access. The aim of this paper is to analyze the acceptability of three tools presented in a workshop carried out during six weeks, with university teachers…

  6. Adolescents' Acceptance of Same-Sex Peers Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Staccy S.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated tenth- and twelfth-grade adolescents' (N less than or equal to 264) judgments about the acceptability of same-sex peers who varied in terms of their sexual orientation (straight, gay or lesbian) and their conformity to gender conventions or norms in regard to appearance and mannerisms or activity. Overall, the results of…

  7. Faculty's Acceptance of Computer Based Technology: Cross-Validation of an Extended Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; Zainuddin, Ahmad Marzuki; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari

    2010-01-01

    The first aim of the present study is to validate an extended technology acceptance model (TAME) on the data derived from the faculty members of a university in an ongoing, computer mediated work setting. The study extended the original TAM model by including an intrinsic motivation component--computer self efficacy. In so doing, the study…

  8. Comparison of Web 2.0 Technology Acceptance Level Based on Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Sun Joo; Huang, Wen-hao David

    2011-01-01

    In order to inform educators in higher education on the integration of Web 2.0 applications for engaging and effective learning experiences, this survey study compared the use and acceptance of Web 2.0 applications between American and Korean college students through the lens of cultural differences. Undergraduate students were recruited to…

  9. Selenium toxicity to aquatic life: An argument for sediment-based water quality criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Canton, S.P.; Van Derveer, W.D.

    1997-06-01

    A number of streams in Colorado were found to contain waterborne selenium concentrations that consistently exceeded the current US EPA chronic criterion of 5 {micro}g/L and often exceeded the acute criterion of 210 {micro}g/L. Despite these elevated concentrations, no biological impact was observed. These findings led to a review of selenium exposure pathways in freshwater. The literature strongly indicates that chronic selenium toxicity can result from accumulation of selenium in the sediment, movement into the food chain, and resulting dietary uptake. Chronic toxicity does not appear to be strictly a result of waterborne selenium concentrations. In fact, dissolved selenium concentrations are a poor predictor of potential chronic toxicity to freshwater organisms, when evaluated with Hill`s criteria for causal association. To develop a more reliable chronic waterborne criterion, a sediment-based method is needed to describe accurately potential chronic toxicity of selenium on a site-specific basis.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    William E. Kastenberg; Edward Blandford; Lance Kim

    2009-03-31

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public.

  11. The development, feasibility and acceptability of an Internet-based STI–HIV prevention intervention for young Chilean women

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, N.; Santisteban, D.; Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L.; Ambrosia, T.; Peragallo, N.; Lara, L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age are at high risk of contracting sexually transmitted infection (STI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The literature shows a shortage of STI–HIV prevention interventions focused on this specific high-risk population and a unique set of barriers to receiving prevention messages. Internet-based interventions are promising for delivering STI–HIV prevention interventions and avoiding barriers to services. Aims The study aimed to develop a culturally informed Internet-based STI–HIV prevention intervention for Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age, to investigate its feasibility and acceptability, and to compile recommendations on what would make the intervention more acceptable and feasible for these women. Methods The development of the Internet intervention was facilitated by a process that featured consultation with content and technology experts. A pre-post test design was used to test the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention with 40 young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age. Results The intervention website consisted of four modules of content and activities that support learning. The intervention was feasible and acceptable for young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age. Discussion and conclusion This study demonstrated the value of engaging multiple expert panels to develop culturally informed and technology-based interventions. The results of this study support the feasibility and acceptability of conducting an Internet-based intervention with multiple sessions, yielding high participation rates in a population in which there are barriers to discussion of STI–HIV prevention and sex-related content. Implications for nursing and health policy The outcomes have implications for nursing education and clinical practice and they can be used for the legal and judicial systems to promote or reinforce policies that encourage STI–HIV prevention strategies

  12. Guidance on the establishment of acceptable daily exposure limits (ADE) to support Risk-Based Manufacture of Pharmaceutical Products.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Edward V; Faria, Ellen; Pfister, Thomas; Sussman, Robert G

    2013-03-01

    Health-based limits for active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) referred to as acceptable daily exposures (ADEs) are necessary to the pharmaceutical industry and used to derive acceptance limits for cleaning validation purposes and evaluating cross-carryover. ADEs represent a dose of an API unlikely to cause adverse effects if an individual is exposed, by any route, at or below this dose every day over a lifetime. Derivations of ADEs need to be consistent with ICH Q9 as well as other scientific approaches for the derivation of health-based limits that help to manage risks to both product quality and operator safety during the manufacture of pharmaceutical products. Previous methods for the establishment of acceptance limits in cleaning validation programs are considered arbitrary and have largely ignored the available clinical and toxicological data available for a drug substance. Since the ADE utilizes all available pharmaceutical data and applies scientifically acceptable risk assessment methodology it is more holistic and consistent with other quantitative risk assessments purposes such derivation of occupational exposure limits. Processes for hazard identification, dose response assessment, uncertainty factor analysis and documentation are reviewed.

  13. A multiple criteria-based spectral partitioning method for remotely sensed hyperspectral image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Jun; Plaza, Antonio; Sun, Yanli

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing offers a powerful tool in many different application contexts. The imbalance between the high dimensionality of the data and the limited availability of training samples calls for the need to perform dimensionality reduction in practice. Among traditional dimensionality reduction techniques, feature extraction is one of the most widely used approaches due to its flexibility to transform the original spectral information into a subspace. In turn, band selection is important when the application requires preserving the original spectral information (especially the physically meaningful information) for the interpretation of the hyperspectral scene. In the case of hyperspectral image classification, both techniques need to discard most of the original features/bands in order to perform the classification using a feature set with much lower dimensionality. However, the discriminative information that allows a classifier to provide good performance is usually classdependent and the relevant information may live in weak features/bands that are usually discarded or lost through subspace transformation or band selection. As a result, in practice, it is challenging to use either feature extraction or band selection for classification purposes. Relevant lines of attack to address this problem have focused on multiple feature selection aiming at a suitable fusion of diverse features in order to provide relevant information to the classifier. In this paper, we present a new dimensionality reduction technique, called multiple criteria-based spectral partitioning, which is embedded in an ensemble learning framework to perform advanced hyperspectral image classification. Driven by the use of a multiple band priority criteria that is derived from classic band selection techniques, we obtain multiple spectral partitions from the original hyperspectral data that correspond to several band subgroups with much lower spectral dimensionality as compared with

  14. Development of toxicity criteria for petroleum hydrocarbon fractions in the Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group approach for risk-based management of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Twerdok, L E

    1999-02-01

    The Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Croup (TPHCWG) was formed in 1993 based on the observation that widely different clean-up requirements were being used by states at sites that were contaminated with hydrocarbon materials such as fuels, lubricating oils, and crude oils. These requirements were usually presented as concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and ranged from 10 to over 10,000 mg TPH/kg soil. Members of this multi-disciplinary group, consisting of representatives from industry, government and academia, jointly recognized that the numerical standard was not based on a scientific assessment of human health risk and established the following goal for the effort: To develop scientifically defensible information for establishing soil cleanup levels that are protective of human health at hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The approach developed by the TPHCWG for TPH hazard assessment consisted of dividing the petroleum hydrocarbon material into multichemical-containing fractions with similar fate and transport characteristics. These fractions were then assigned fate and transport properties (volatilization factor, soil leaching factor, etc.) and toxicity values (RfDs/RfCs) representative of the fraction. The actual site specific hazard assessment and derivation of cleanup levels is accomplished by analyzing sites to determine which fraction(s) is present and applying the appropriate fate, transport and toxicity factors. The method used by this group to determine TPH Faction specific toxicity criteria is a surrogate approach intended to supplement the indicator approach. Indicators are single, carcinogenic hydrocarbon compounds which are evaluated/regulated individually at either the federal or state level. The TPHCWG surrogate approach utilized all appropriate fraction specific toxicity data (single compound and mixture/product), minus the carcinogenic indicator compounds, to derive the fraction specific RfDs and RfCs. This hazard

  15. Sensory acceptability of slow fermented sausages based on fat content and ripening time.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Alicia; Navarro, José Luis; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica

    2010-10-01

    Low fat dry fermented sausages were manufactured using controlled ripening conditions and a slow fermented process. The effect of fat content and ripening time on the chemical, colour, texture parameters and sensory acceptability was studied. The fat reduction in slow fermented sausages produced an increase in the pH decline during the first stage of the process that was favoured by the higher water content of the low fat sausages. Fat reduction did not affect the external appearance and there was an absence of defects but lower fat content resulted in lower sausage lightness. The sausage texture in low fat sausages caused an increase in chewiness and at longer ripening times, an increase in hardness. The sensory acceptability of the fermented sausages analyzed by internal preference mapping depended on the different preference patterns of consumers. A group of consumers preferred sausages with high and medium fat content and high ripening time. The second group of consumers preferred sausages with low ripening time regardless of fat content except for the appearance, for which these consumers preferred sausages of high ripening time. Finally, the limit to produce high acceptability low fat fermented sausages was 16% fat content in the raw mixture that is half the usual content of dry fermented sausages.

  16. Risk based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in broiler meat in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Nauta, Maarten J; Sanaa, Moez; Havelaar, Arie H

    2012-09-03

    Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) allows evaluating the public health impact of food safety targets to support the control of foodborne pathogens. We estimate the risk reduction of setting microbiological criteria (MCs) for Campylobacter on broiler meat in 25 European countries, applying quantitative data from the 2008 EU baseline survey. We demonstrate that risk based MCs can be derived without explicit consideration of Food Safety Objectives or Performance Objectives. Published QMRA models for the consumer phase and dose response provide a relation between Campylobacter concentration on skin samples and the attending probability of illness for the consumer. Probabilistic modelling is used to evaluate a set of potential MCs. We present the percentage of batches not complying with the potential criteria, in relation to the risk reduction attending totally efficient treatment of these batches. We find different risk estimates and different impacts of MCs in different countries, which offers a practical and flexible tool for risk managers to select the most appropriate MC by weighing the costs (i.e. non-compliant batches) and the benefits (i.e. reduction in public health risk). Our analyses show that the estimated percentage of batches not complying with the MC is better correlated with the risk estimate than surrogate risk measures like the flock prevalence or the arithmetic mean concentration of bacteria on carcasses, and would therefore be a good measure for the risk of Campylobacter on broiler meat in a particular country. Two uncertain parameters in the model are the ratio of within- and between-flock variances in concentrations, and the transition factor of skin sample concentrations to concentrations on the meat. Sensitivity analyses show that these parameters have a considerable effect on our results, but the impact of their uncertainty is small compared to that of the parameters defining the Microbiological Criterion and the concentration

  17. Adult-Based Massive Transfusion Protocol Activation Criteria Do Not Work in Children.

    PubMed

    Acker, Shannon N; Hall, Brianne; Hill, Lauren; Partrick, David A; Bensard, Denis D

    2017-02-01

    Introduction In the adult population, assessment of blood consumption (ABC) score [penetrating mechanism, positive focused assessment sonography for trauma (FAST), systolic blood pressure < 90, and heart rate (HR) > 120] ≥2 identifies trauma patients who require massive transfusion (MT) with sensitivity and specificity of 75 and 86%. We hypothesized that the adult criteria cannot be applied to children, as the vital sign cut-offs are not age-adjusted. We aimed to determine if the use of a shock index, pediatric age-adjusted (SIPA) would improve the discriminate ability of the ABC score in children. Materials and Methods A retrospective review of children age 4 to 15 who received a packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion during admission for trauma between 2008 and 2014 was performed. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of ABC score ≥ 2, elevated SIPA, and age-adjusted ABC score (ABC-S) utilizing SIPA in place of HR and BP, to determine the need for MT. Results A total of 50 children were included, 31 received PRBC transfusion within 6 hours of injury, 7 children had a positive FAST, and 3 suffered penetrating trauma, all in the early transfusion group. ABC score ≥ 2 is 29% sensitive and 100% specific at predicting need for MT while ABC-S score ≥ 1 is 65% sensitive and 84% specific. Conclusions Adult-based criteria for activation of MT perform poorly in the pediatric population. The use of SIPA modestly improves the sensitivity of the ABC score in children; however, the sensitivity and specificity of this score are still worse than when used in an adult population. This suggests the need to develop a new score that takes into account the low rate of penetrating trauma and positive FAST in the pediatric population.

  18. Redefining the Criteria for Grading Varicoceles Based on Reflux Times: A Clinicoradiological Correlation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Vikram; Shetty, S M Chandrashekar; Das, Sudha Kiran

    2016-03-01

    The aims of the study were to redefine the criteria used to grade varicoceles, based on reflux times that correlate with Dubin and Amelar clinical grading by overcoming the limitations of clinical grading and to include the less known entity of intratesticular varicoceles in the grading. Prospective correlative study was undertaken at JSS Hospital, Mysore, India during the period from July 2010 to October 2014. All patients with clinical suspicion of varicocele were clinically graded by Dubin and Amelar grading system and were later subjected to duplex ultrasound examination. The duration of the reflux obtained during the Valsalva maneuver was measured in milliseconds. Patients with intratesticular varicocele were noted and they were subgraded. One hundred patients were examined as per the methodology.The mean reflux times obtained as per the clinically graded varicoceles were as follows: subclinical varicocele, 835 ms; grade 1 varicocele, 1907 ms; grade 2 varicocele, 3108 ms; and grade 3 varicocele, 4508 ms.Based on the results obtained, we propose a modified radiological grading of the varicocele that is based on reflux times at Valsalva maneuver for each clinical grade. The presence of an intratesticular varicocele with any of the above grades is to be suffixed with "I."

  19. Development of risk-based computer models for deriving criteria on residual radioactivity and recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.Y.

    1994-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing multimedia environmental pathway and health risk computer models to assess radiological risks to human health and to derive cleanup guidelines for environmental restoration, decommissioning, and recycling activities. These models are based on the existing RESRAD code, although each has a separate design and serves different objectives. Two such codes are RESRAD-BUILD and RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC. The RESRAD code was originally developed to implement the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) residual radioactive materials guidelines for contaminated soils. RESRAD has been successfully used by DOE and its contractors to assess health risks and develop cleanup criteria for several sites selected for cleanup or restoration programs. RESRAD-BUILD analyzes human health risks from radioactive releases during decommissioning or rehabilitation of contaminated buildings. Risks to workers are assessed for dismantling activities; risks to the public are assessed for occupancy. RESRAD-BUILD is based on a room compartmental model analyzing the effects on room air quality of contaminant emission and resuspension (as well as radon emanation), the external radiation pathway, and other exposure pathways. RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC, currently under development, is intended to perform uncertainty analysis for RESRAD by using the Monte Carlo approach based on the Latin-Hypercube sampling scheme. The codes being developed at ANL are tailored to meet a specific objective of human health risk assessment and require specific parameter definition and data gathering. The combined capabilities of these codes satisfy various risk assessment requirements in environmental restoration and remediation activities.

  20. Barrier potential design criteria in multiple-quantum-well-based solar-cell structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohaidat, Jihad M.; Shum, Kai; Wang, W. B.; Alfano, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The barrier potential design criteria in multiple-quantum-well (MQW)-based solar-cell structures is reported for the purpose of achieving maximum efficiency. The time-dependent short-circuit current density at the collector side of various MQW solar-cell structures under resonant condition was numerically calculated using the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The energy efficiency of solar cells based on the InAs/Ga(y)In(1-y)As and GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As MQW structues were compared when carriers are excited at a particular solar-energy band. Using InAs/Ga(y)In(1-y)As MQW structures it is found that a maximum energy efficiency can be achieved if the structure is designed with barrier potential of about 450 meV. The efficiency is found to decline linearly as the barrier potential increases for GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As MQW-structure-based solar cells.

  1. Effectiveness and acceptance of web-based learning compared to traditional face-to-face learning for performance nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Lee M; Grediagin, Ann; Koenig, Chad; Sanders, LesLee F

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and acceptance of Web-based (WB) versus face-to-face (FF) lecturing. There were 48 soldiers stationed at Fort Bragg, NC who completed the study, participating in either a Web-based or face-to-face lecture on nutrition for performance. The lecture was 30 minutes long. Participants completed a prequiz and survey before the lecture and a postquiz and survey at its conclusion. Results showed there was no difference in the effectiveness of the two mediums on the basis of postquiz scores (Web-based group = 75.68; face-to-face group = 73.27; p = 0.436). Change in scores from pre to post also showed no difference between the two groups (p = 0.375). Assessing the acceptance of the two teaching mediums, there was no significant difference reported, except for the instructor's ability to answer questions (p = 0.05). The conclusion of this study is that Web-based learning can be an effective and acceptable tool for registered dietitians to educate soldiers on nutrition for performance.

  2. Evaluating citizen advisory boards: the importance of theory and participant-based criteria and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Santos, Susan L; Chess, Caron

    2003-04-01

    The role of risk communication and public participation in environmental and public policy decision making has significantly increased over the last 15 years and remains an important social policy issue. In spite of this emphasis, government officials and participants in the process continue to struggle with what makes for "good" public participation. This study used two frameworks--one theoretical and one participant-based-to evaluate two U.S Army Restoration Advisory Boards (RABs). The theoretical framework explores the extent to which the RABs facilitate Habermas's idealized conditions of speech as related to fairness. Not surprisingly, we found that the two RABs do not consistently foster the idealized aspects of fairness suggested by Habermas. The participant-based criteria were elicited through interviews with participants from the various stakeholder groups represented on the RAB, direct observation of RAB meetings, and a review of RAB-related documents. We found that participants' value outcomes (the results of participatory processes) and not just the process itself, which is the focus of the theoretical framework. We also found that participants in the various stakeholder groups had different perceptions of the goals of the participatory process, which were closely related to their notions of success. Our results illustrate both the complexity and importance of using multiple frameworks for evaluating participatory efforts and the need for more systematic evaluation.

  3. Rural tourism spatial distribution based on multi-criteria decision analysis and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongxian; Yang, Qingsheng

    2008-10-01

    To study spatial distribution of rural tourism can provide scientific decision basis for developing rural economics. Traditional ways of tourism spatial distribution have some limitations in quantifying priority locations of tourism development on small units. They can only produce the overall tourism distribution locations and whether locations are suitable to tourism development simply while the tourism develop ranking with different decision objectives should be considered. This paper presents a way to find ranking of location of rural tourism development in spatial by integrating multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and geography information system (GIS). In order to develop country economics with inconvenient transportation, undeveloped economy and better tourism resource, these locations should be firstly develop rural tourism. Based on this objective, the tourism develop priority utility of each town is calculated with MCDA and GIS. Towns which should be first develop rural tourism can be selected with higher tourism develop priority utility. The method is used to find ranking of location of rural tourism in Ningbo City successfully. The result shows that MCDA is an effective way for distribution rural tourism in spatial based on special decision objectives and rural tourism can promote economic development.

  4. Tolerance and acceptability of 14 surgical and hygienic alcohol-based hand rubs.

    PubMed

    Girard, R; Bousquet, E; Carré, E; Bert, C; Coyault, C; Coudrais, S; Regard, A; Garcia, E Laprugne; Valdeyron, M L; Pergay, V

    2006-07-01

    Tests were performed under working practice conditions to measure the tolerance and acceptability of commercially available hand rubs with proven efficacy. The products were compared with those in current use at the Hospices Civils de Lyon for surgical hand disinfection (Sterillium) and hygienic hand disinfection (Purell) to obtain information for public sector purchases. The 12 test products were Alcogel H, Assanis Pro, Clinogel, Dermalcool, Manugel Plus, Manugel Plus NPC, Manurub Liquid, Manurub Gel, Purell 85, Spitacid, Spitagel and Sterillium Gel. They were tested from mid-November to mid-April over four periods of three weeks, separated by two-week intervals during which the customary product was re-introduced. Participation of hospital wards and theatres was voluntary. Skin dryness and irritation were scored before and after each test period. Acceptability and ease of use were assessed by means of a questionnaire. Among the eight surgical hand rubs, only Manurub Liquid, Manurub Gel and Manugel Plus NPC did not cause significantly more dryness and irritation than Sterillium. For the 10 hygienic hand rubs, differences were noted depending upon the test period. Overall, Assanis Pro, Clinogel, Purell 85 and Sterillium Gel did not cause significantly more dryness and irritation than Purell. However, over the (colder) first three test periods, Assanis Pro and Sterillium Gel caused more irritation and Purell 85 caused more dryness than Purell. Responses to the questionnaires on acceptability indicated that users preferred their customary hand rubs (Sterillium and Purell). As these field tests involving many participants did not identify any superior products, previous purchase orders were renewed.

  5. An equation to predict maximum acceptable loads for repetitive tasks based on duty cycle: evaluation with lifting and lowering tasks.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Jim R

    2012-01-01

    Recently, an equation was developed to predict maximal acceptable effort (MAE) for repetitive tasks based on the product of task frequency and effort duration (ie. duty cycle). This equation has been shown to closely match data from psychophysical studies of the upper extremities. In the current paper, the applicability of this equation was tested on lifting and lowering data from Snook and Ciriello (1991) and was found to fit closely, even at very low duty cycles.

  6. Variance-Based Cluster Selection Criteria in a K-Means Framework for One-Mode Dissimilarity Data.

    PubMed

    Vera, J Fernando; Macías, Rodrigo

    2017-02-13

    One of the main problems in cluster analysis is that of determining the number of groups in the data. In general, the approach taken depends on the cluster method used. For K-means, some of the most widely employed criteria are formulated in terms of the decomposition of the total point scatter, regarding a two-mode data set of N points in p dimensions, which are optimally arranged into K classes. This paper addresses the formulation of criteria to determine the number of clusters, in the general situation in which the available information for clustering is a one-mode [Formula: see text] dissimilarity matrix describing the objects. In this framework, p and the coordinates of points are usually unknown, and the application of criteria originally formulated for two-mode data sets is dependent on their possible reformulation in the one-mode situation. The decomposition of the variability of the clustered objects is proposed in terms of the corresponding block-shaped partition of the dissimilarity matrix. Within-block and between-block dispersion values for the partitioned dissimilarity matrix are derived, and variance-based criteria are subsequently formulated in order to determine the number of groups in the data. A Monte Carlo experiment was carried out to study the performance of the proposed criteria. For simulated clustered points in p dimensions, greater efficiency in recovering the number of clusters is obtained when the criteria are calculated from the related Euclidean distances instead of the known two-mode data set, in general, for unequal-sized clusters and for low dimensionality situations. For simulated dissimilarity data sets, the proposed criteria always outperform the results obtained when these criteria are calculated from their original formulation, using dissimilarities instead of distances.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF THE RELEVANCE OF DISPLACEMENT BASED DESIGN METHODS/CRITERIA TO NUCLEAR PLANT STRUCTURES.

    SciTech Connect

    HOFMAYER,C.; MILLER,C.; WANG,Y.; COSTELLO,J.

    2001-08-12

    Revisions to the USNRC Regulatory Guides and Standard Review Plan Sections devoted to earthquake engineering practice are currently in process. The intent is to reflect changes in engineering practice that have evolved in the twenty years that have passed since those criteria were originally published. Additionally, field observations of the effects of the Northridge (1994) and Kobe (1995) earthquakes have inspired some reassessment in the technical community about certain aspects of design practice. In particular, questions have arisen about the effectiveness of basing earthquake resistant designs on resistance to seismic forces and, then evaluating tolerability of the expected displacements. Therefore, a research effort was undertaken to examine the implications for NRC's seismic practice of the move, in the earthquake engineering community, toward using expected displacement rather than force (or stress) as the basis for assessing design adequacy. The results of the NRC sponsored research on this subject are reported in this paper. A slow trend toward the utilization of displacement based methods for design was noted. However, there is a more rapid trend toward the use of displacement based methods for seismic evaluation of existing facilities. A document known as FEMA 273, has been developed and is being used as the basis for the design of modifications to enhance the seismic capability of existing non-nuclear facilities. The research concluded that displacement based methods, such as given in FEMA 273, may be useful for seismic margin studies of existing nuclear power stations. They are unlikely to be useful for the basic design of new stations since nuclear power stations are designed to remain elastic during a seismic event. They could, however, be useful for estimating the margins associated with that design.

  8. A comparison of acceptance- and control-based strategies for coping with food cravings: an analog study.

    PubMed

    Forman, Evan M; Hoffman, Kimberly L; McGrath, Kathleen B; Herbert, James D; Brandsma, Lynn L; Lowe, Michael R

    2007-10-01

    The present study utilized an analog paradigm to investigate the effectiveness of two strategies for coping with food cravings, which was theorized to be critical to the maintenance of weight loss. Ninety-eight undergraduate students were given transparent boxes of chocolate Hershey's Kisses and instructed to keep the chocolates with them, but not to eat them, for 48 h. Before receiving the Kisses, participants were randomized to receive either (a) no intervention, (b) instruction in control-based coping strategies such as distraction and cognitive restructuring, or (c) instruction in acceptance-based strategies such as experiential acceptance and defusion techniques. Measures included the Power of Food Scale (PFS; a measure of psychological sensitivity to the food environment), self-report ratings of chocolate cravings and surreptitiously recorded chocolate consumption. Results suggested that the effect of the intervention depended on baseline PFS levels, such that acceptance-based strategies were associated with better outcomes (cravings, consumption) among those reporting the highest susceptibility to the presence of food, but greater cravings among those who scored lowest on the PFS. It was observed that craving self-report measures predicted chocolate consumption, and baseline PFS levels predicted both cravings and consumption. Results are discussed in terms of the implications for weight loss maintenance strategies.

  9. Implementing a nationwide criteria-based emergency medical dispatch system: A register-based follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A criteria-based nationwide Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) system was recently implemented in Denmark. We described the system and studied its ability to triage patients according to the severity of their condition by analysing hospital admission and case-fatality risks. Methods This was a register-based follow-up study of all 1-1-2 calls in a 6-month period that were triaged according to the Danish Index – the new criteria-based dispatch protocol. Danish Index data were linked with hospital and vital status data from national registries. Confidence intervals (95%) for proportions with binomial data were computed using exact methods. To test for trend the Wald test was used. Results Information on level of emergency according to the Danish Index rating was available for 67,135 patients who received ambulance service. Emergency level A (urgent cases) accounted for 51.4% (n = 34,489) of patients, emergency level B for 46.3% (n = 31,116), emergency level C for 2.1% (n = 1,391) and emergency level D for 0.2% (n = 139). For emergency level A, the median time from call receipt to ambulance dispatch was 2 min 1 s, and the median time to arrival was 6 min 11 s. Data concerning admission and case fatality was available for 55,270 patients. The hospital admission risk for emergency level A patients was 64.4% (95% CI = 63.8-64.9). There was a significant trend (p < 0.001) towards lower admission risks for patients with lower levels of emergency. The case fatality risk for emergency level A patients on the same day as the 1-1-2 call was 4.4% (95% CI = 4.1-4.6). The relative case-fatality risk among emergency level A patients compared to emergency level B–D patients was 14.3 (95% CI: 11.5-18.0). Conclusion The majority of patients were assessed as Danish Index emergency level A or B. Case fatality and hospital admission risks were substantially higher for emergency level A patients than for emergency level B–D patients. Thus

  10. Multi-criteria optimisation problems for chemical engineering systems and algorithms for their solution based on fuzzy mathematical methods.

    PubMed

    Orazbayev, B B; Orazbayeva, K N; Kurmangaziyeva, L T; Makhatova, V E

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical equations for the multi-criteria task of the optimisation of chemical engineering systems, for example for the optimisation of working regimes for industrial installations for benzene production, have been formulated and developed, and based on fuzzy mathematical methods, algorithms for their solution have been developed. Since the chemical engineering system, which is being researched, is characterised by multiple criteria and often functions in conditions of uncertainty, the presenting problem is formulated in the form of multi-criteria equations for fuzzy mathematical programming. New mathematical formulations for the problems being solved in a fuzzy environment and heuristic algorithms for their solution have been developed by the modification of various optimisation principles based on fuzzy mathematical methods.

  11. Multi-criteria optimisation problems for chemical engineering systems and algorithms for their solution based on fuzzy mathematical methods

    PubMed Central

    Orazbayev, B. B.; Orazbayeva, K. N.; Kurmangaziyeva, L. T.; Makhatova, V.E.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical equations for the multi-criteria task of the optimisation of chemical engineering systems, for example for the optimisation of working regimes for industrial installations for benzene production, have been formulated and developed, and based on fuzzy mathematical methods, algorithms for their solution have been developed. Since the chemical engineering system, which is being researched, is characterised by multiple criteria and often functions in conditions of uncertainty, the presenting problem is formulated in the form of multi-criteria equations for fuzzy mathematical programming. New mathematical formulations for the problems being solved in a fuzzy environment and heuristic algorithms for their solution have been developed by the modification of various optimisation principles based on fuzzy mathematical methods. PMID:28275318

  12. Research on test of product based on spatial sampling criteria and variable step sampling mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruihong; Han, Yueping

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents an effective approach for online testing the assembly structures inside products using multiple views technique and X-ray digital radiography system based on spatial sampling criteria and variable step sampling mechanism. Although there are some objects inside one product to be tested, there must be a maximal rotary step for an object within which the least structural size to be tested is predictable. In offline learning process, Rotating the object by the step and imaging it and so on until a complete cycle is completed, an image sequence is obtained that includes the full structural information for recognition. The maximal rotary step is restricted by the least structural size and the inherent resolution of the imaging system. During online inspection process, the program firstly finds the optimum solutions to all different target parts in the standard sequence, i.e., finds their exact angles in one cycle. Aiming at the issue of most sizes of other targets in product are larger than that of the least structure, the paper adopts variable step-size sampling mechanism to rotate the product specific angles with different steps according to different objects inside the product and match. Experimental results show that the variable step-size method can greatly save time compared with the traditional fixed-step inspection method while the recognition accuracy is guaranteed.

  13. Criteria for extending the operation periods of thermoelectric converters based on IV-VI compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadia, Yatir; Ohaion-Raz, Tsion; Ben-Yehuda, Ohad; Korngold, Meidad; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2016-09-01

    The recent energy demands affected by the dilution of conventional energy resources and the growing awareness of environmental considerations, had positioned the research of renewable energy conversion methods in general and of thermoelectric direct conversion of thermal into electrical energies in particular, in the forefront of the currently active applicative sciences. IV-VI thermoelectric compounds (e.g. GeTe, PbTe and SnTe) and their alloys comprise some of the most efficient thermoelectric compositions ever reported. Yet a proper utilization of such materials in practical thermoelectric devices, still requires an overcoming the so-called technological "valley of death", including among others, transport properties' degradation, due to sublimation of volatile Te rich species, while being subjected to elevated temperatures for long periods of time. In an attempt to establish practical operation criteria for extending the operation periods of such thermoelectric converters, it is currently shown based on thermal gravimetric and metallurgical considerations that such harmful sublimation can be practically bridged over by limiting the maximal operating temperatures to the 410-430 °C range for GeTe rich alloys and to 510-530 °C for PbTe and SnTe rich alloys, depending of the thermoelectric leg's diameter.

  14. Extreme value distribution based gene selection criteria for discriminant microarray data analysis using logistic regression.

    PubMed

    Li, Wentian; Sun, Fengzhu; Grosse, Ivo

    2004-01-01

    One important issue commonly encountered in the analysis of microarray data is to decide which and how many genes should be selected for further studies. For discriminant microarray data analyses based on statistical models, such as the logistic regression models, gene selection can be accomplished by a comparison of the maximum likelihood of the model given the real data, L(D|M), and the expected maximum likelihood of the model given an ensemble of surrogate data with randomly permuted label, L(D(0)|M). Typically, the computational burden for obtaining L(D(0)M) is immense, often exceeding the limits of available computing resources by orders of magnitude. Here, we propose an approach that circumvents such heavy computations by mapping the simulation problem to an extreme-value problem. We present the derivation of an asymptotic distribution of the extreme-value as well as its mean, median, and variance. Using this distribution, we propose two gene selection criteria, and we apply them to two microarray datasets and three classification tasks for illustration.

  15. Imaging based enrichment criteria using deep learning algorithms for efficient clinical trials in MCI

    PubMed Central

    Ithapu, Vamsi K.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Chappell, Richard J.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Johnson, Sterling C.

    2015-01-01

    The Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) stage of AD may be optimal for clinical trials to test potential treatments for preventing or delaying decline to dementia. However, MCI is heterogeneous in that not all cases progress to dementia within the time frame of a trial, and some may not have underlying AD pathology. Identifying those MCIs who are most likely to decline during a trial and thus most likely to benefit from treatment will improve trial efficiency and power to detect treatment effects. To this end, employing multi-modal imaging-derived inclusion criteria may be especially beneficial. Here, we present a novel multi-modal imaging marker that predicts future cognitive and neural decline from [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET), amyloid florbetapir PET, and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), based on a new deep learning algorithm (randomized denoising autoencoder marker, rDAm). Using ADNI2 MCI data, we show that employing rDAm as a trial enrichment criterion reduces the required sample estimates by at least five times compared to the no-enrichment regime, and leads to smaller trials with high statistical power, compared to existing methods. PMID:26093156

  16. GIS-based multicriteria municipal solid waste landfill suitability analysis: a review of the methodologies performed and criteria implemented.

    PubMed

    Demesouka, O E; Vavatsikos, A P; Anagnostopoulos, K P

    2014-04-01

    Multicriteria spatial decision support systems (MC-SDSS) have emerged as an integration of the geographical information systems (GIS) and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods. GIS-based MCDA allows the incorporation of conflicting objectives and decision maker (DM) preferences into spatial decision models. During recent decades, a variety of research articles have been published regarding the implementation of methods and/or tools in a variety of real-world case studies. The article discusses, in detail, the criteria and methods that are implemented in GIS-based landfill siting suitability analysis and especially the exclusionary and non-exclusionary criteria that can be considered when selecting sites for municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. This paper reviews 36 seminal articles in which the evaluation of candidate landfill sites is conducted using MCDA methods. After a brief description of the main components of a MC-SDSS and the applied decision rules, the review focuses on the criteria incorporated into the decision models. The review provides a comprehensive guide to the landfill siting analysis criteria, providing details regarding the utilization methods, their decision or exclusionary nature and their monotonicity.

  17. An intelligent, knowledge-based multiple criteria decision making advisor for systems design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongchang

    of an appropriate decision making method. Furthermore, some DMs may be exclusively using one or two specific methods which they are familiar with or trust and not realizing that they may be inappropriate to handle certain classes of the problems, thus yielding erroneous results. These issues reveal that in order to ensure a good decision a suitable decision method should be chosen before the decision making process proceeds. The first part of this dissertation proposes an MCDM process supported by an intelligent, knowledge-based advisor system referred to as Multi-Criteria Interactive Decision-Making Advisor and Synthesis process (MIDAS), which is able to facilitate the selection of the most appropriate decision making method and which provides insight to the user for fulfilling different preferences. The second part of this dissertation presents an autonomous decision making advisor which is capable of dealing with ever-evolving real time information and making autonomous decisions under uncertain conditions. The advisor encompasses a Markov Decision Process (MDP) formulation which takes uncertainty into account when determines the best action for each system state. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  18. Test of the technology acceptance model for a Web-based information system in a Hong Kong Chinese sample.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Emily Yee Man; Sachs, John

    2006-12-01

    The modified technology acceptance model was used to predict actual Blackboard usage (a web-based information system) in a sample of 57 Hong Kong student teachers whose mean age was 27.8 yr. (SD = 6.9). While the general form of the model was supported, Application-specific Self-efficacy was a more powerful predictor of system use than Behavioural Intention as predicted by the theory of reasoned action. Thus in this cultural and educational context, it has been shown that the model does not fully mediate the effect of Self-efficacy on System Use. Also, users' Enjoyment exerted considerable influence on the component variables of Usefulness and Ease of Use and on Application-specific Self-efficacy, thus indirectly influencing system usage. Consequently, efforts to gain students' acceptance and, therefore, use of information systems such as Blackboard must pay adequate attention to users' Self-efficacy and motivational variables such as Enjoyment.

  19. Nutrient Content And Acceptability Of Snakehead-Fish (Ophiocephalus Striatus) And Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) Based Complementary Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratna Noer, Etika; Candra, Aryu; Panunggal, Binar

    2017-02-01

    Poor nutrient-dense complementary foods is one of the common factors contributed for decline growth pattern in children. Snakehead-fish and Pumpkin Complementary Feeding (SPCF) base on locally food can help to reduce child malnutrition. Specifically, high protein and vitamin A in SPCF may improve immunity and nutrition status of malnutrition children. This study aimed to formulate low-cost, nutritive value and acceptable of SPCF on malnutrition children in coastal area. Carbohydrate content was determined by difference, protein by Kjeldahl, betacaroten by spectofotometri and sensory evaluation using a five point hedonic scale. Fe and zinc was determined by AAS. There is an effect of the substitution of snake-head fish flour and yellow pumpkin flour toward the nutrient content and the acceptability

  20. Evaluation of true maximal oxygen uptake based on a novel set of standardized criteria.

    PubMed

    Midgley, Adrian W; Carroll, Sean; Marchant, David; McNaughton, Lars R; Siegler, Jason

    2009-04-01

    In this study, criteria are used to identify whether a subject has elicited maximal oxygen uptake. We evaluated the validity of traditional maximal oxygen uptake criteria and propose a novel set of criteria. Twenty athletes completed a maximal oxygen uptake test, consisting of an incremental phase and a subsequent supramaximal phase to exhaustion (verification phase). Traditional and novel maximal oxygen uptake criteria were evaluated. Novel criteria were: oxygen uptake plateau defined as the difference between modelled and actual maximal oxygen uptake >50% of the regression slope of the individual oxygen uptake-workrate relationship; as in the first criterion, but for maximal verification oxygen uptake; and a difference of criteria, supposedly an indicator of maximal effort, were often satisfied long before volitional exhaustion, even at intensities as low as 61% maximal oxygen uptake. No significant mean differences were observed between the incremental and verification phases for oxygen uptake (t = 0.4; p = 0.7) or heart rate (t = 0.8; p = 0.5). The novel oxygen uptake plateau criterion, maximal oxygen uptake verification criterion, and maximal heart rate verification criterion were satisfied by 17, 18, and 18 subjects, respectively. The small individual absolute differences in oxygen uptake between incremental and verification phases observed in most subjects provided additional confidence that maximal oxygen uptake was elicited. Current maximal oxygen uptake criteria were not valid and novel criteria should be further explored.

  1. Drivers of Vaginal Drug Delivery System Acceptability from Internet-Based Conjoint Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Primrose, Rachel J.; Zaveri, Toral; Bakke, Alyssa J.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Moskowitz, Howard R.; Hayes, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal microbicides potentially empower women to protect themselves from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially when culture, religion, or social status may prevent them from negotiating condom use. The open literature contains minimal information on factors that drive user acceptability of women’s health products or vaginal drug delivery systems. By understanding what women find to be most important with regard to sensory properties and product functionality, developers can iteratively formulate a more desirable product. Conjoint analysis is a technique widely used in market research to determine what combination of elements influence a consumer’s willingness to try or use a product. We applied conjoint analysis here to better understand what sexually-active woman want in a microbicide, toward our goal of formulating a product that is highly acceptable to women. Both sensory and non-sensory attributes were tested, including shape, color, wait time, partner awareness, messiness/leakage, duration of protection, and functionality. Heterosexually active women between 18 and 35 years of age in the United States (n = 302) completed an anonymous online conjoint survey using IdeaMap software. Attributes (product elements) were systematically presented in various combinations; women rated these combinations of a 9-point willingness-to-try scale. By coupling systematic combinations and regression modeling, we can estimate the unique appeal of each element. In this population, a multifunctional product (i.e., broad spectrum STI protection, coupled with conception) is far more desirable than a microbicide targeted solely for HIV protection; we also found partner awareness and leakage are potentially strong barriers to use. PMID:26999009

  2. Acceptability and feasibility of CyberSenga, an Internet-based HIV prevention program for adolescents in Mbarara, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Sheana; Prescott, Tonya L.; Birungi, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Capitalizing on emerging data suggesting that HIV preventive behaviors can be positively affected by Internet-based programs, we developed and tested CyberSenga, an Internet-based, comprehensive sexuality education program for adolescents in Mbarara, Uganda. Three hundred and sixty-six secondary school students were randomly assigned to either the 5-lesson program (+ booster) or a treatment-as-usual control. At three-month follow-up, intervention participants provided feedback on program acceptability. Six focus groups with intervention participants were additionally conducted after the final follow-up at 6 months. Data support a hypothesis of feasibility: Despite schedule interruptions, 95% of intervention participants completed all 5 modules; only 17% deviated from the once-a-week intended delivery schedule. Internet service was uninterrupted during the field period and, in general, the technology performed to specifications. The intervention also appears to be acceptable: 94% of intervention youth somewhat or strongly agreed that they learned a lot and 93% said they were somewhat or very likely to recommend the program. Although more than two in three youth somewhat or strongly agreed that the program talked too much about sex (70%) and condoms (75%), 89% somewhat or strongly disagreed that “I do not think kids like me should do the CyberSenga program”. Feedback from focus group participants further suggested that the content was generally acceptable and did not contradict local norms in most cases. In fact, despite concerns from some local stakeholders to the contrary, information about condoms did not appear to be confusing or contradictory for youth who were abstinent. Nonetheless, some of the sexual topics seemed to be unfamiliar or uncomfortable for some participants – particularly brief references to oral and anal sex. Together, both qualitative and quantitative data suggest that the program is a feasible and acceptable way of delivering HIV

  3. Acceptability and feasibility of CyberSenga: an Internet-based HIV-prevention program for adolescents in Mbarara, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Bull, Sheana S; Prescott, Tonya L; Birungi, Ruth

    2014-04-01

    Capitalizing on emerging data suggesting that HIV-preventive behaviors can be positively affected by Internet-based programs, we developed and tested CyberSenga, an Internet-based, comprehensive sexuality education program for adolescents in Mbarara, Uganda. Three hundred and sixty-six secondary school students were randomly assigned to either the five-lesson program (+ booster) or a treatment-as-usual control. At three-month follow-up, intervention participants provided feedback on the program acceptability. Six focus groups with intervention participants were additionally conducted after the final follow-up at 6 months. Data support a hypothesis of feasibility: despite schedule interruptions, 95% of intervention participants completed all the five modules; only 17% deviated from the once-a-week intended delivery schedule. Internet service was uninterrupted during the field period and, in general, the technology performed to specifications. The intervention also appears to be acceptable: 94% of intervention youth somewhat or strongly agreed that they learned a lot and 93% said they were somewhat or very likely to recommend the program. Although more than two in three youth somewhat or strongly agreed that the program talked too much about sex (70%) and condoms (75%), 89% somewhat or strongly disagreed that "I do not think kids like me should do the CyberSenga program." Feedback from focus group participants further suggested that the content was generally acceptable and did not contradict local norms in most cases. In fact, despite concerns from some local stakeholders to the contrary, information about condoms did not appear to be confusing or contradictory for youth who were abstinent. Nonetheless, some of the sexual topics seemed to be unfamiliar or uncomfortable for some participants - particularly brief references to oral and anal sex. Together, both qualitative and quantitative data suggest that the program is a feasible and acceptable way of delivering HIV

  4. Criteria for extending the operation periods of thermoelectric converters based on IV-VI compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Sadia, Yatir; Ohaion-Raz, Tsion; Ben-Yehuda, Ohad; Korngold, Meidad; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2016-09-15

    The recent energy demands affected by the dilution of conventional energy resources and the growing awareness of environmental considerations, had positioned the research of renewable energy conversion methods in general and of thermoelectric direct conversion of thermal into electrical energies in particular, in the forefront of the currently active applicative sciences. IV-VI thermoelectric compounds (e.g. GeTe, PbTe and SnTe) and their alloys comprise some of the most efficient thermoelectric compositions ever reported. Yet a proper utilization of such materials in practical thermoelectric devices, still requires an overcoming the so-called technological “valley of death”, including among others, transport properties' degradation, due to sublimation of volatile Te rich species, while being subjected to elevated temperatures for long periods of time. In an attempt to establish practical operation criteria for extending the operation periods of such thermoelectric converters, it is currently shown based on thermal gravimetric and metallurgical considerations that such harmful sublimation can be practically bridged over by limiting the maximal operating temperatures to the 410–430 °C range for GeTe rich alloys and to 510–530 °C for PbTe and SnTe rich alloys, depending of the thermoelectric leg's diameter. - Graphical abstract: Evaporation rate in the GeTe and PbTe system showing the measured evaporation rates and the maximal operating temperatures for different compositions. In addition, the microstructure after evaporation is shown for PbTe, TAGS-85, and doped Pb{sub 0.13}Ge{sub 087}Te. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Evaporation rates of GeTe and PbTe based thermoelectric compounds were determined. • A criterion for their maximum operating temperature was established. • The materials showed phase separations and off-stoichiometry compositions.

  5. Criteria for the use of omics-based predictors in clinical trials: explanation and elaboration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput ?omics? technologies that generate molecular profiles for biospecimens have been extensively used in preclinical studies to reveal molecular subtypes and elucidate the biological mechanisms of disease, and in retrospective studies on clinical specimens to develop mathematical models to predict clinical endpoints. Nevertheless, the translation of these technologies into clinical tests that are useful for guiding management decisions for patients has been relatively slow. It can be difficult to determine when the body of evidence for an omics-based test is sufficiently comprehensive and reliable to support claims that it is ready for clinical use, or even that it is ready for definitive evaluation in a clinical trial in which it may be used to direct patient therapy. Reasons for this difficulty include the exploratory and retrospective nature of many of these studies, the complexity of these assays and their application to clinical specimens, and the many potential pitfalls inherent in the development of mathematical predictor models from the very high-dimensional data generated by these omics technologies. Here we present a checklist of criteria to consider when evaluating the body of evidence supporting the clinical use of a predictor to guide patient therapy. Included are issues pertaining to specimen and assay requirements, the soundness of the process for developing predictor models, expectations regarding clinical study design and conduct, and attention to regulatory, ethical, and legal issues. The proposed checklist should serve as a useful guide to investigators preparing proposals for studies involving the use of omics-based tests. The US National Cancer Institute plans to refer to these guidelines for review of proposals for studies involving omics tests, and it is hoped that other sponsors will adopt the checklist as well. PMID:24228635

  6. An expert-based approach to forest road network planning by combining Delphi and spatial multi-criteria evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hayati, Elyas; Majnounian, Baris; Abdi, Ehsan; Sessions, John; Makhdoum, Majid

    2013-02-01

    Changes in forest landscapes resulting from road construction have increased remarkably in the last few years. On the other hand, the sustainable management of forest resources can only be achieved through a well-organized road network. In order to minimize the environmental impacts of forest roads, forest road managers must design the road network efficiently and environmentally as well. Efficient planning methodologies can assist forest road managers in considering the technical, economic, and environmental factors that affect forest road planning. This paper describes a three-stage methodology using the Delphi method for selecting the important criteria, the Analytic Hierarchy Process for obtaining the relative importance of the criteria, and finally, a spatial multi-criteria evaluation in a geographic information system (GIS) environment for identifying the lowest-impact road network alternative. Results of the Delphi method revealed that ground slope, lithology, distance from stream network, distance from faults, landslide susceptibility, erosion susceptibility, geology, and soil texture are the most important criteria for forest road planning in the study area. The suitability map for road planning was then obtained by combining the fuzzy map layers of these criteria with respect to their weights. Nine road network alternatives were designed using PEGGER, an ArcView GIS extension, and finally, their values were extracted from the suitability map. Results showed that the methodology was useful for identifying road that met environmental and cost considerations. Based on this work, we suggest future work in forest road planning using multi-criteria evaluation and decision making be considered in other regions and that the road planning criteria identified in this study may be useful.

  7. Development of the Lupus Interactive Navigator as an Empowering Web-Based eHealth Tool to Facilitate Lupus Management: Users Perspectives on Usability and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Carolyn; Da Costa, Deborah; Rochon, Murray; Peschken, Christine A; Pineau, Christian A; Bernatsky, Sasha; Keeling, Stephanie; Avina-Zubieta, Antonio; Lye, Elizabeth; Eng, Davy

    2016-01-01

    Background Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a serious, complex, and chronic illness. Similar to most other chronic illness states, there is great interest in helping persons with SLE engage in their disease management. Objective The objectives of this study were to (1) develop the Lupus Interactive Navigator (LIN), a web-based self-management program for persons with SLE, and (2) test the LIN for usability and acceptability. Methods The LIN development platform was based on the results of preliminary comprehensive needs assessments and adapted from the Oncology Interactive Navigator, a web-based tool developed for persons with cancer. Medical researchers, writers, designers, and programmers worked with clinical experts and persons with SLE to develop content for the LIN. Usability and acceptability of the LIN was tested on individuals with SLE meeting American College of Rheumatology criteria, who were recruited from five Canadian SLE clinics. Participants were provided with access to the LIN and were asked to use it over a two-week period. Following the testing period, participants were contacted for a 30-minute telephone interview to assess usability and acceptability. Results The content for the LIN was subdivided into six primary information topics with interview videos featuring rheumatologists, allied health professionals, and persons with SLE. Usability and acceptability of the LIN was tested on 43 females with SLE. Of these, 37 (86%) completed telephone interviews. The average age was 43.6 (SD 15.9) years and disease duration averaged 14.1 (SD 10.8) years. Median time spent on LIN was 16.3 (interquartile range [IQR]:13.7, 53.5) minutes and median number of sessions was 2 (IQR: 1, 3). Overall, Likert ratings (0=strongly disagree; 7=strongly agree) of website usability and content were very high, with 75% scoring >6 out of 7 on all items. All participants agreed that LIN was easy to use, would recommend it to others with SLE, and would refer to it for

  8. Mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy and traditional cognitive behavioral group therapy for social anxiety disorder: Mechanisms of change.

    PubMed

    Kocovski, Nancy L; Fleming, Jan E; Hawley, Lance L; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Antony, Martin M

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated mechanisms of change for two group treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD): cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) and mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy (MAGT). Participants were treatment completers (n = 37 for MAGT, n = 32 for CBGT) from a randomized clinical trial. Cognitive reappraisal was the hypothesized mechanism of change for CBGT. Mindfulness and acceptance were hypothesized mechanisms of change for MAGT. Latent difference score (LDS) analysis results demonstrate that cognitive reappraisal coupling (in which cognitive reappraisal is negatively associated with the subsequent rate of change in social anxiety) had a greater impact on social anxiety for CBGT than MAGT. The LDS bidirectional mindfulness model (mindfulness predicts subsequent change in social anxiety; social anxiety predicts subsequent change in mindfulness) was supported for both treatments. Results for acceptance were less clear. Cognitive reappraisal may be a more important mechanism of change for CBGT than MAGT, whereas mindfulness may be an important mechanism of change for both treatments.

  9. Web-based acceptance and commitment therapy for depressive symptoms with minimal support: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, Päivi; Langrial, Sitwat; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Tolvanen, Asko; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2015-11-01

    Low-intensity interventions for people suffering from depressive symptoms are highly desirable. The aim of the present study was to investigate the outcomes of a web-based acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)-based intervention without face-to-face contact for people suffering from depressive symptoms. Participants (N = 39) with depressive symptoms were randomly assigned to an Internet-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy (iACT) intervention or a waiting list control condition (WLC). Participants were evaluated with standardized self-reporting measures (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI-II], Symptom Checklist-90 [SCL-90], Acceptance and Action Questionnaire [AAQ-2], Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire [FFMQ], Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire [ATQ], and White Bear Suppression Inventory [WBSI]) at pre- and post-measurement. Long-term effects in the iACT group were examined using a 12-month follow-up. The iACT program comprised home assignments, online feedback given by master's-level students of psychology over a 7-week intervention period, and automated email-based reminders. Significant effects were observed in favor of the iACT group on depression symptomatology (between effect sizes [ESs] at post-treatment, iACT/WLC, g = .83), psychological and physiological symptoms (g = .60), psychological flexibility (g = .67), mindfulness skills (g = .53), and frequency of automatic thoughts (g = .57) as well as thought suppression (g = .53). The treatment effects in the iACT group were maintained over the 12-month follow-up period (within-iACT ES: BDI-II, g = 1.33; SCL-90, g = 1.04; ATQF/B [Frequency/Believability], FFMQ, WBSI, AAQ-II, g = .74-1.08). The iACT participants stated that they would be happy to recommend the same intervention to others with depressive symptoms. We conclude that an ACT-based guided Internet-delivered treatment with minimal contact can be effective for people with depressive symptoms.

  10. Attitudes towards acceptance of an innovative home-based and remote sensing rehabilitation protocol among cardiovascular patients in Shantou, China

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jia-Ying; Li, Ji-Lin; Li, Zhong-Han; Xu, Duan-Min; Chen, Chang; Xie, Bin; Chen, Helen; Au, William W

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) protocols have diversified to include home-based cardiac tele-rehabilitation (HBCTR) as an alternative to hospital-based or center-based CR. To adopt the use of home-based cardiac tele-rehabilitation, it is necessary to assess cardiac patients' attitudes towards acceptance of such e-health technology, especially in China where knowledge of such technology is deficient. Methods Interviews were conducted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China. After percutaneous coronary interventional (PCI) surgery, patients completed the survey. Results Among the 150 patients, only 13% had ever heard of HBCTR. After an introduction of our HBCTR program, 60% of patients were willing to participate in the program. From our multivariate analysis of questionnaire data, age (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86–0.98; P = 0.007), average family monthly income (OR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.05–0.34; P < 0.001), education level (OR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.10–0.59; P = 0.002) and physical exercise time (OR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.06–0.56; P = 0.003) were independent predictors for acceptance of HBCTR. From the reasons for participation, patients selected: enhanced safety and independence (28.3%), ability to self-monitor physical conditions daily (25.4%), and having automatic and emergency alert (23.1%). Reasons for refusal were: too cumbersome operation (34.3%) and unnecessary protocol (19.4%). Conclusions Most patients lacked knowledge about HBCTR but volunteered to participate after they have learned about the program. Several personal and life-style factors influenced their acceptance of the program. These indicate that both improvement of technology and better understanding of the program will enhance active participation. PMID:27403142

  11. Web-based virtual microscopy at the RWTH Aachen University: didactic concept, methods and analysis of acceptance by the students.

    PubMed

    Merk, Magdalene; Knuechel, Ruth; Perez-Bouza, Alberto

    2010-12-20

    Fundamental knowledge of microscopic anatomy and pathology has always been an essential part in medical education. The traditional didactic concept comprises theoretical and practical lessons using a light microscope and glass slides. High-speed Internet connections and technical improvement in whole-slide digital microscopy (commonly termed "virtual microscopy") provide a new and attractive approach for both teachers and students. High picture quality and unlimited temporal and spatial availability of histology samples from different fields are key advantages of web-based digital microscopy. In this report we discuss the technical requirements, system efficiency, optical resolution and didactic concept. Furthermore, we present a review of the experience gained in the course of one year based on an analysis of student acceptance. Three groups with a total of 192 students between the 3rd and 5th year of medical studies attending the practical courses of general and advanced histopathology had access to both glass-mounted and digitalized slides. Prior to exams, students were asked to answer an anonymous questionnaire. The results of the study reflect the high acceptance and intensive use of the web-based digital histology by students, thus encouraging the development of further Web-based learning strategies for the teaching of histology and pathology.

  12. Is there a role for DWI in the diagnosis of sacroiliitis based on ASAS criteria?

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Neslin; Hacibeyoglu, Hatice; Ince, Ozlem; Solak, Aynur; Uyar, Belkiz; Erol, Ozlem; Uslu, Zulal Alnur; Kobak, Senol

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Sacroiliitis based on MRI is one of the main diagnostic criteria of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Our purpose was to assess (a) whether apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) differ between regions of bone marrow edema (BME) and subchondral normal-appearing bone marrow (NABM) in active sacroiliitis, (b) whether ADC values can differentiate early SpA and chronic SpA, both in the active and inactive phase, and (c) whether ADC values are related to laboratory findings. Materials and methods: 47 patients (24 female, 23 male, mean age: 38.53 years) with the diagnosis of SpA were included in this retrospective study. 20 age- and sex-matched subjects without SpA constituted the control group. ADC measurements were taken from all lesions and NABM of each sacroiliac joint. Results: A total number of 120 subchondral BME lesions (acute: 17, chronic active: 103) were noted. The mean ADC values of the BME lesions (1.30 ± 0.18 × 10-3 mm2/s) were significantly higher than the ADC values in the NABM regions (0.55 ± 0.08 × 10-3 mm2/s) as well as in both the control group (0.56 ± 0.05 × 10-3 mm2/s) and the chronic inactive group (0.54 ± 0.03 × 10-3 mm2/s). There were more BME regions in patients with chronic active sacroiliitis than early SpA patients. Correlation was found between the CRP values and ADC values. Conclusion: DWI with ADC values may be complementary to FS T2-weighted or STIR MR images for accurately diagnosing inflammatory sacroiliitis. The value of DWI versus dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging in the follow-up needs to be clarified. PMID:26221298

  13. Pathophysiology of functional heartburn based on Rome III criteria in Japanese patients

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Yasuhiro; Funaki, Yasushi; Izawa, Shinya; Iida, Akihito; Yamaguchi, Yoshiharu; Adachi, Kazunori; Ogasawara, Naotaka; Sasaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Kasugai, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the pathophysiology of functional heartburn (FH) in Japanese patients. METHODS: A total of 111 patients with proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease underwent intraesophageal pressure testing and 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (24MII-pH) testing. The patients also completed several questionnaires while they were receiving the PPI treatment, including the questionnaire for the diagnosis of reflux disease (QUEST), the frequency scale for the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (FSSG), the gastrointestinal symptoms rating scale (GSRS), SF-36, and the Cornell Medical Index (CMI). The subjects were classified into FH and endoscopy-negative reflux disease (ENRD) groups based on the Rome III criteria. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients with esophageal motility disorder were excluded from this study, while 22 patients with abnormal esophageal acid exposure time (pH-POS) and 34 with hypersensitive esophagus (HE) were included in the ENRD group. The FH group included 22 patients with no reflux involvement. Sex, age, and body mass index did not differ significantly between the groups. The mean SF-36 values were < 50 (normal) for all scales in these groups, with no significant differences. The GSRS scores in these groups were not different and showed overlap with other gastrointestinal symptoms. The QUEST and the FSSG scores did not differ significantly between the groups. Neuroticism was diagnosed using the CMI questionnaire in 17 of the 78 included subjects within the pH-POS (n = 4), HE (n = 8), and FH (n = 5) groups, with no significant differences. CONCLUSION: Clinical characteristics of the FH and PPI-refractory ENRD groups were similar. Therefore, esophageal function should be examined via manometry and 24MII-pH testing to differentiate between them. PMID:25945016

  14. A comparison of water quality criteria for the Great Lakes based on human and wildlife health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, James P.; Giesy, John P.; Summer, Cheryl L.; Bowerman, William; Aulerich, Richard J.; Bursian, Steven J.; Auman, Heidi J.; Jones, Paul D.; Williams, Lisa L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Gilbertson, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Water quality criteria (WQC) can be derived in several ways. The usual techniques involve hazard and risk assessment procedures. For non-persistent, non-biomagnified compounds and elements, WQC are experimentally derived from their acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. For those persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) that are bioaccumulated and biomagnified, these traditional techniques have not been effective, partly because effects higher in the food web were not considered. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the bioaccumulative synthetic chemicals of primary toxicological significance to the Great Lakes biota which have caused widespread injury to wildlife. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, the primary emphasis of hazard assessments has been on the potential for adverse effects in humans who eat fish. The primary regulatory endpoint of traditional hazard and risk assessments underlying current WQC are the probabilities of additional cancers occurring in the human population. The analysis presented here indicates that this is not adequate to restore sensitive wildlife species that are highly exposed to PCBs, especially those that have suffered serious population declines. Because WQC are legal instruments, the methods of deriving WQC have large implications for remediation, litigation, and damage assessments. Here WQC are derived for six species based on the responses of wildlife in the field or produced by feeding fish to surrogate species, rather than projecting a potential of increased cancer rates in humans. If the most sensitive wildlife species are restored and protected for very sensitive reproductive endpoints, then all components of the ecosystem, including human health, should be more adequately protected. The management of Great Lakes wildlife requires an understanding of the injury and causal relationships to persistent toxic substances.

  15. Linguistic hesitant fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making method based on evidential reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huan; Wang, Jian-qiang; Zhang, Hong-yu; Chen, Xiao-hong

    2016-01-01

    Linguistic hesitant fuzzy sets (LHFSs), which can be used to represent decision-makers' qualitative preferences as well as reflect their hesitancy and inconsistency, have attracted a great deal of attention due to their flexibility and efficiency. This paper focuses on a multi-criteria decision-making approach that combines LHFSs with the evidential reasoning (ER) method. After reviewing existing studies of LHFSs, a new order relationship and Hamming distance between LHFSs are introduced and some linguistic scale functions are applied. Then, the ER algorithm is used to aggregate the distributed assessment of each alternative. Subsequently, the set of aggregated alternatives on criteria are further aggregated to get the overall value of each alternative. Furthermore, a nonlinear programming model is developed and genetic algorithms are used to obtain the optimal weights of the criteria. Finally, two illustrative examples are provided to show the feasibility and usability of the method, and comparison analysis with the existing method is made.

  16. Acceptability of an Embodied Conversational Agent-based Computer Application for Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Bredice, Marissa; Meade, Cathy D.; Chaet, Alexis; Rivera, Maria I.; Arroyo, Gloria; Proctor, Sara K.; Barnes, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    There are few Spanish language interactive, technology-driven health education programs. Objectives of this feasibility study were to: 1) learn more about computer and technology usage among Hispanic women living in a rural community; and 2) evaluate acceptability of the concept of using an embodied conversational agent (ECA) computer application among this population. A survey about computer usage history and interest in computers was administered to a convenience sample of 26 women. A sample video prototype of a hospital discharge ECA was administered followed by questions to gauge opinion about the ECA. Data indicate women exhibited both a high level of computer experience and enthusiasm for the ECA. Feedback from community is essential to ensure equity in state of the art dissemination of health information. Hay algunos programas interactivos en español que usan la tecnología para educar sobre la salud. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: 1) aprender más sobre el uso de computadoras y tecnología entre mujeres Hispanas que viven en comunidades rurales y 2) evaluar la aceptabilidad del concepto de usar un programa de computadora utilizando un agente de conversación encarnado (ECA) en esta población. Se administro una encuesta sobre el historial de uso y del interés de aprender sobre computadoras fue a 26 mujeres por muestreo de conveniencia. Un ejemplo del prototipo ECA en forma de video de un alta hospitalaria fue administrado y fue seguido por preguntas sobre la opinión que tenían del ECA. Los datos indican que las mujeres mostraron un alto nivel de experiencia con las computadoras y un alto nivel de entusiasmo sobre el ECA. La retroalimentación de la comunidad es esencial para asegurar equidad en la diseminación de información sobre la salud con tecnología de punta. PMID:26671558

  17. Qualitative evaluation of the relevance and acceptability of a web-based HIV prevention game for rural adolescents.

    PubMed

    Enah, Comfort; Piper, Kendra; Moneyham, Linda

    2015-01-01

    African Americans in the rural Southern United States continue to experience disproportionate increases in new HIV/AIDS infections. Electronic gaming interventions hold promise but the use of HIV prevention games is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the acceptability and relevance of a web-based HIV prevention game for African American rural adolescents. Findings from focus groups conducted with 42 participants suggested that the game was educational and somewhat entertaining but lacking in real-life scenarios and player-control. Findings are congruent with self-efficacy literature and constructivist approaches to learning. Findings have implications for gaming intervention development and further research.

  18. Outcomes of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-Based Skills Training Group for Students with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Quasi-Experimental Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahnke, Johan; Lundgren, Tobias; Hursti, Timo; Hirvikoski, Tatja

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by social impairments and behavioural inflexibility. In this pilot study, the feasibility and outcomes of a 6-week acceptance and commitment therapy-based skills training group were evaluated in a special school setting using a quasi-experimental design (acceptance and commitment therapy/school classes as…

  19. From military to civil loadings: Preliminary numerical-based thorax injury criteria investigations.

    PubMed

    Goumtcha, Aristide Awoukeng; Bodo, Michèle; Taddei, Lorenzo; Roth, Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    Effects of the impact of a mechanical structure on the human body are of great interest in the understanding of body trauma. Experimental tests have led to first conclusions about the dangerousness of an impact observing impact forces or displacement time history with PMHS (Post Mortem human Subjects). They have allowed providing interesting data for the development and the validation of numerical biomechanical models. These models, widely used in the framework of automotive crashworthiness, have led to the development of numerical-based injury criteria and tolerance thresholds. The aim of this process is to improve the safety of mechanical structures in interaction with the body. In a military context, investigations both at experimental and numerical level are less successfully completed. For both military and civil frameworks, the literature list a number of numerical analysis trying to propose injury mechanisms, and tolerance thresholds based on biofidelic Finite Element (FE) models of different part of the human body. However the link between both frameworks is not obvious, since lots of parameters are different: great mass impacts at relatively low velocity for civil impacts (falls, automotive crashworthiness) and low mass at very high velocity for military loadings (ballistic, blast). In this study, different accident cases were investigated, and replicated with a previously developed and validated FE model of the human thorax named Hermaphrodite Universal Biomechanical YX model (HUBYX model). These previous validations included replications of standard experimental tests often used to validate models in the context of automotive industry, experimental ballistic tests in high speed dynamic impact and also numerical replication of blast loading test ensuring its biofidelity. In order to extend the use of this model in other frameworks, some real-world accidents were reconstructed, and consequences of these loadings on the FE model were explored. These various

  20. Assessment of health-care waste disposal methods using a VIKOR-based fuzzy multi-criteria decision making method

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hu-Chen; Wu, Jing; Li, Ping

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Propose a VIKOR-based fuzzy MCDM technique for evaluating HCW disposal methods. • Linguistic variables are used to assess the ratings and weights for the criteria. • The OWA operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers. • A case study is given to illustrate the procedure of the proposed framework. - Abstract: Nowadays selection of the appropriate treatment method in health-care waste (HCW) management has become a challenge task for the municipal authorities especially in developing countries. Assessment of HCW disposal alternatives can be regarded as a complicated multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem which requires consideration of multiple alternative solutions and conflicting tangible and intangible criteria. The objective of this paper is to present a new MCDM technique based on fuzzy set theory and VIKOR method for evaluating HCW disposal methods. Linguistic variables are used by decision makers to assess the ratings and weights for the established criteria. The ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers into a group assessment. The computational procedure of the proposed framework is illustrated through a case study in Shanghai, one of the largest cities of China. The HCW treatment alternatives considered in this study include “incineration”, “steam sterilization”, “microwave” and “landfill”. The results obtained using the proposed approach are analyzed in a comparative way.

  1. Acceptability of a School-Based Intervention for the Prevention of Adolescent Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauriello, Leanne M.; Driskell, Mary Margaret H.; Sherman, Karen J.; Johnson, Sara S.; Prochaska, Janice M.; Prochaska, James O.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development and pilot testing of a computer-based, multiple-behavior obesity prevention program for adolescents. Using the Transtheoretical Model as a framework, this intervention offers individualized feedback based on readiness to engage in physical activity, to consume fruits and vegetables, and to limit television…

  2. Weighting of Criteria for Disease Prioritization Using Conjoint Analysis and Based on Health Professional and Student Opinion

    PubMed Central

    Stebler, Nadine; Schuepbach-Regula, Gertraud; Braam, Peter; Falzon, Laura Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Disease prioritization exercises have been used by several organizations to inform surveillance and control measures. Though most methodologies for disease prioritization are based on expert opinion, it is becoming more common to include different stakeholders in the prioritization exercise. This study was performed to compare the weighting of disease criteria, and the consequent prioritization of zoonoses, by both health professionals and students in Switzerland using a Conjoint Analysis questionnaire. The health professionals comprised public health and food safety experts, cantonal physicians and cantonal veterinarians, while the student group comprised first-year veterinary and agronomy students. Eight criteria were selected for this prioritization based on expert elicitation and literature review. These criteria, described on a 3-tiered scale, were evaluated through a choice-based Conjoint Analysis questionnaire with 25 choice tasks. Questionnaire results were analyzed to obtain importance scores (for each criterion) and mean utility values (for each criterion level), and the latter were then used to rank 16 zoonoses. While the most important criterion for both groups was “Severity of the disease in humans”, the second ranked criteria by the health professionals and students were “Economy” and “Treatment in humans”, respectively. Regarding the criterion “Control and Prevention”, health professionals tended to prioritize a disease when the control and preventive measures were described to be 95% effective, while students prioritized a disease if there were almost no control and preventive measures available. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy was the top-ranked disease by both groups. Health professionals and students agreed on the weighting of certain criteria such as “Severity” and “Treatment of disease in humans”, but disagreed on others such as “Economy” or “Control and Prevention”. Nonetheless, the overall disease ranking

  3. Acceptance and satisfaction of parents and students about a school-based dietary intervention in Isfahan, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Lajevardi, Bahareh; Bahreynian, Maryam; Omid-Ghaemi, Vahid; Movahedian, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Snacks play an important role in child health and nutritional status. Schools are considered as the preferred place to encourage healthy eating among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of buffet school-based intervention on acceptance and satisfaction of parents and students in Iran. Materials and Methods: Primary school students (n = 1120, 68.83% girls) from first to third grade, with one of their parents, participated in this prospective field trial study conducted in Isfahan, Iran. The study was consisted of three phases; schools selection, kitchen selection, implementation including two different parts, getting order and distribution. We provided hot snacks as traditional and healthy fast food according to taste and food preferences of children. Acceptance and satisfaction of parents and students were evaluated via a researcher made questionnaire before and after the intervention in one-third of participants as a representative sample of students who ordered the snacks. Results: Most of the students usually ate snack in the break-time at school, the eagerness of provided snacks was 98.8% and 63.6% in girls and boys, respectively. The most interesting tastes were Ashe Reshteh and Tahchin, (45.1% girls vs. 36.8% boys), while bean (among girls) and Ashe Jo (among boys) were ranked as the lowest. More than half of parents (66.7%) evaluated the price of snacks as “acceptable,” showing their satisfaction. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that school-based interventions accompanied with parental and principals’ support is considered as a practical approach to promote healthful eating at an early age. Developing effective interventions for youth might, therefore, help to prevent unhealthy dietary choices becoming habitual. PMID:27500169

  4. Criteria for Appraising Computer-Based Simulations for Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    94 Table 5. Criteria for Appraising Error Feedback ...individual speech patterns for exact matches to occur. Mostow & Aist (1999) argued that these difficulties limit the types of feedback that a computer... feedback must be phrased to avoid explicitly stating that the student was wrong (or right)” (p. 419). An essential element of any appraisal of computer

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF BIOLOGICALLY BASED SEDIMENT CRITERIA IN MOUNTAIN STREAMS OF THE WESTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment has long been recognized as a leading cause of impairment of biological condition in rivers and streams of the United States. Recently, federal and state agencies have shown increased interest in developing sediment criteria to maintain or improve habitat quality for the...

  6. 49 CFR 240.109 - General criteria for eligibility based on prior safety conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.109 General criteria for....117, or § 240.119. (c) The program shall require evaluation of data which reflect the person's prior..., § 240.113, § 240.115, § 240.117, § 240.119, and § 240.217. (e) When evaluating a person's motor...

  7. Development of a Wearable Instrumented Vest for Posture Monitoring and System Usability Verification Based on the Technology Acceptance Model

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen-Yen; Chou, Wen-Cheng; Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Lin, Chung-Chih; Lee, Ming-Yih

    2016-01-01

    Body posture and activity are important indices for assessing health and quality of life, especially for elderly people. Therefore, an easily wearable device or instrumented garment would be valuable for monitoring elderly people’s postures and activities to facilitate healthy aging. In particular, such devices should be accepted by elderly people so that they are willing to wear it all the time. This paper presents the design and development of a novel, textile-based, intelligent wearable vest for real-time posture monitoring and emergency warnings. The vest provides a highly portable and low-cost solution that can be used both indoors and outdoors in order to provide long-term care at home, including health promotion, healthy aging assessments, and health abnormality alerts. The usability of the system was verified using a technology acceptance model-based study of 50 elderly people. The results indicated that although elderly people are anxious about some newly developed wearable technologies, they look forward to wearing this instrumented posture-monitoring vest in the future. PMID:27999324

  8. A randomised controlled trial of acceptance-based cognitive behavioural therapy for command hallucinations in psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Shawyer, Frances; Farhall, John; Mackinnon, Andrew; Trauer, Tom; Sims, Eliza; Ratcliff, Kirk; Larner, Chris; Thomas, Neil; Castle, David; Mullen, Paul; Copolov, David

    2012-02-01

    Command hallucinations represent a special problem for the clinical management of psychosis. While compliance with both non-harmful and harmful commands can be problematic, sometimes in the extreme, active efforts to resist commands may also contribute to their malignancy. Previous research suggests Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) to be a useful treatment for reducing compliance with harmful command hallucinations. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate whether CBT augmented with acceptance-based strategies from Acceptance and Commitment Therapy could more broadly reduce the negative impact of command hallucinations. Forty-three participants with problematic command hallucinations were randomized to receive 15 sessions of the intervention "TORCH" (Treatment of Resistant Command Hallucinations) or the control, Befriending, then followed up for 6 months. A sub-sample of 17 participants was randomized to a waitlist control before being allocated to TORCH or Befriending. Participants engaged equally well with both treatments. Despite TORCH participants subjectively reporting greater improvement in command hallucinations compared to Befriending participants, the study found no significant group differences in primary and secondary outcome measures based on blinded assessment data. Within-group analyses and comparisons between the combined treatments and waitlist suggested, however, that both treatments were beneficial with a differential pattern of outcomes observed across the two conditions.

  9. Development of a Wearable Instrumented Vest for Posture Monitoring and System Usability Verification Based on the Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Yen; Chou, Wen-Cheng; Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Lin, Chung-Chih; Lee, Ming-Yih

    2016-12-17

    Body posture and activity are important indices for assessing health and quality of life, especially for elderly people. Therefore, an easily wearable device or instrumented garment would be valuable for monitoring elderly people's postures and activities to facilitate healthy aging. In particular, such devices should be accepted by elderly people so that they are willing to wear it all the time. This paper presents the design and development of a novel, textile-based, intelligent wearable vest for real-time posture monitoring and emergency warnings. The vest provides a highly portable and low-cost solution that can be used both indoors and outdoors in order to provide long-term care at home, including health promotion, healthy aging assessments, and health abnormality alerts. The usability of the system was verified using a technology acceptance model-based study of 50 elderly people. The results indicated that although elderly people are anxious about some newly developed wearable technologies, they look forward to wearing this instrumented posture-monitoring vest in the future.

  10. Acceptability of smartphone application-based HIV prevention among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ian W; Rice, Eric; Gibbs, Jeremy; Winetrobe, Hailey; Dunlap, Shannon; Rhoades, Harmony

    2014-02-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are increasingly using mobile smartphone applications ("apps"), such as Grindr, to meet sex partners. A probability sample of 195 Grindr-using YMSM in Southern California were administered an anonymous online survey to assess patterns of and motivations for Grindr use in order to inform development and tailoring of smartphone-based HIV prevention for YMSM. The number one reason for using Grindr (29 %) was to meet "hook ups." Among those participants who used both Grindr and online dating sites, a statistically significantly greater percentage used online dating sites for "hook ups" (42 %) compared to Grindr (30 %). Seventy percent of YMSM expressed a willingness to participate in a smartphone app-based HIV prevention program. Development and testing of smartphone apps for HIV prevention delivery has the potential to engage YMSM in HIV prevention programming, which can be tailored based on use patterns and motivations for use.

  11. Application of risk-based multiple criteria decision analysis for selection of the best agricultural scenario for effective watershed management.

    PubMed

    Javidi Sabbaghian, Reza; Zarghami, Mahdi; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Sharifi, Mohammad Bagher; Herman, Matthew R; Daneshvar, Fariborz

    2016-03-01

    Effective watershed management requires the evaluation of agricultural best management practice (BMP) scenarios which carefully consider the relevant environmental, economic, and social criteria involved. In the Multiple Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) process, scenarios are first evaluated and then ranked to determine the most desirable outcome for the particular watershed. The main challenge of this process is the accurate identification of the best solution for the watershed in question, despite the various risk attitudes presented by the associated decision-makers (DMs). This paper introduces a novel approach for implementation of the MCDM process based on a comparative neutral risk/risk-based decision analysis, which results in the selection of the most desirable scenario for use in the entire watershed. At the sub-basin level, each scenario includes multiple BMPs with scores that have been calculated using the criteria derived from two cases of neutral risk and risk-based decision-making. The simple additive weighting (SAW) operator is applied for use in neutral risk decision-making, while the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) and induced OWA (IOWA) operators are effective for risk-based decision-making. At the watershed level, the BMP scores of the sub-basins are aggregated to calculate each scenarios' combined goodness measurements; the most desirable scenario for the entire watershed is then selected based on the combined goodness measurements. Our final results illustrate the type of operator and risk attitudes needed to satisfy the relevant criteria within the number of sub-basins, and how they ultimately affect the final ranking of the given scenarios. The methodology proposed here has been successfully applied to the Honeyoey Creek-Pine Creek watershed in Michigan, USA to evaluate various BMP scenarios and determine the best solution for both the stakeholders and the overall stream health.

  12. Multi-criteria decision-making methods with optimism and pessimism based on Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting-Yu

    2012-05-01

    The theory of Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets (A-IFSs) developed over the last several decades has found useful application in fields requiring multiple-criteria decision analysis. Since the membership-nonmembership pair in A-IFSs belongs to the bivariate unipolarity type, this article describes an approach that relates optimism and pessimism to multi-criteria decision analysis in an intuitionistic fuzzy-decision environment. First, several optimistic and pessimistic point operators were defined to alter the estimation of decision outcomes. Next, based on the core of the estimations, optimistic and pessimistic score functions were developed to evaluate each alternative with respect to each criterion. The suitability function was then established to determine the degree to which each an alternative satisfies the decision maker's requirement. Because the information on multiple criteria corresponding to decision importance is often incomplete, this study included suitability functions in the optimisation models to account for poorly known membership grades. Using a linear equal-weighted summation method, these models were transformed into a single objective optimisation model to generate the optimal weights for criteria. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods were illustrated through a practical example. Finally, computational experiments with enormous amounts of simulation data were designed to conduct a comparative analysis on the ranking orders yielded by different optimistic/pessimistic point operators.

  13. Derivation of human health-based ambient water quality criteria: a consideration of conservatism and protectiveness goals.

    PubMed

    Tatum, Vickie; Wiegand, Paul; Stratton, Steve; Louch, Jeffrey; Ebert, Ellen; Anderson, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Under the terms of the Clean Water Act, criteria for the protection of human health (Human Health Ambient Water Quality Criteria [HHWQC]) are traditionally derived using equations recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) that include parameters for exposure assessment. To derive "adequately protective" HHWQC, USEPA proposes the use of default values for these parameters that are a combination of medians, means, and percentile estimates targeting the high end (90th percentile) of the general population. However, in practice, in nearly all cases, USEPA's recommended default assumptions represent upper percentiles. This article considers the adequacy of the exposure assessment component of USEPA-recommended equations to yield criteria that are consistent with corresponding health protection targets established in USEPA recommendations or state policies, and concludes that conservative selections for exposure parameters can result in criteria that are substantially more protective than the health protection goals for HHWQC recommended by USEPA, due in large part to the compounding effect that occurs when multiple conservative factors are combined. This situation may be mitigated by thoughtful selection of exposure parameter values when using a deterministic approach, or by using a probabilistic approach based on data distributions for many of these parameters.

  14. Wall thinning criteria for low temperature-low pressure piping

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    This acceptance criteria is intended to prevent gross rupture or rapidly propagating failure during normal and abnormal operating conditions. Pitting may be present in the carbon steel piping. While the acceptance criteria have provisions to preclude gross rupture through a pitted region, they do not protect against throughwall pit growth and subsequent leakage. Potential leakage through a pit in low pressure piping is less than the post-DBE design basis leakage. Both the uniform thinning and LTA criteria protect against leakage, since their potential for leakage is larger. The acceptance criteria protects against gross rupture due to general wall thinning, local wall thinning (LTA's), pitting, and fracture through weld defects. General wall thinning calculations are based on the restart criteria, SEP-24. LTA criteria for hoop stresses are based on ASME Code Case N-480 [open quotes]Examination Requirements for Pipe Wall Thinning Due to Single Phase Erosion and Corrosion[close quotes]. The LTA criteria for axial stress is based on an effective average thickness concept, which prevents plastic collapse of a locally thinned pipe. Limits on pit density, based on an effective cross section concept, are used to prevent gross rupture through a group of pits. The CEGB R-6 failure assessment diagram is used in the fracture evaluation, along with postulated weld defects. This criteria is intended for low temperature, low pressure piping systems. Corrosion and/or weld defects increase the peak stresses during normal operation and may lead to a reduction in fatigue life. Piping systems subject to significant thermal or mechanical fatigue will require additional analysis which is beyond the scope of this document.

  15. Measuring Japanese EFL Student Perceptions of Internet-Based Tests with the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dizon, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has made it possible for teachers to administer online assessments with affordability and ease. However, little is known about Japanese English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students' attitudes of internet-based tests (IBTs). Therefore, this study aimed to measure the perceptions of IBTs among Japanese English language learners with the…

  16. Acceptability and Feasibility Results of a Strength-Based Skills Training Program for Dementia Caregiving Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Katherine S.; Yarry, Sarah J.; Orsulic-Jeras, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current article provides an in-depth description of a dyadic intervention for individuals with dementia and their family caregivers. Using a strength-based approach, caregiving dyads received skills training across 5 key areas: (a) education regarding dementia and memory loss, (b) effective communication, (c) managing memory loss, (d)…

  17. The Acceptability of an Internet-Based Self-Help Treatment for Fear of Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botella, C.; Gallego, M. J.; Garcia-Palacios, A.; Banos, R. M.; Quero, S.; Alcaniz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Several randomised controlled studies have shown the efficacy of Internet-based self-help treatments. These studies have centred their attention on axis I (efficacy) of the Guidelines for Empirically Validated Treatments, although there are a few studies that also take into account axis II (effectiveness). The aim of the present work was to test…

  18. Expanding the evidence within evidence-based healthcare: thinking about the context, acceptability and feasibility of interventions.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rachel L; Larkin, Michael; Flowers, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Evidence-based medicine is crucial to contemporary healthcare. It is dependent on systematic review methodology modeled on an arguably inadequate hierarchy of evidence. There has been a significant increase in medical and health research using qualitative and mixed method designs. The perspective taken in this article is that we need to broaden our evidence base if we are to fully take account of issues of context, acceptability and feasibility in the development and implementation of healthcare interventions. One way of doing this is to use a range of methods that better fit the different aspects of intervention development and implementation. Methods for the systematic review of evidence, other than randomised-controlled trials, are available and there is a readiness to incorporate these other types of evidence into good-practice guidance, but we need a clear methodology to translate these advances in research into the world of policy.

  19. Simulation-based process windows simultaneously considering two and three conflicting criteria in injection molding.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Yáñez, Alicia Berenice; Méndez-Vázquez, Yaileen; Cabrera-Ríos, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Process windows in injection molding are habitually built with only one performance measure in mind. In reality, a more realistic picture can be obtained when considering multiple performance measures at a time, especially in the presence of conflict. In this work, the construction of process windows for injection molding (IM) is undertaken considering two and three performance measures in conflict simultaneously. The best compromises between the criteria involved are identified through the direct application of the concept of Pareto-dominance in multiple criteria optimization. The aim is to provide a formal and realistic strategy to set processing conditions in IM operations. The resulting optimization approach is easily implementable in MS Excel. The solutions are presented graphically to facilitate their use in manufacturing plants.

  20. Tap-Hole Life Cycle Design Criteria: A Case Study Based on Silicomanganese Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenkamp, J. D.; Sutherland, J. J.; Hayman, D. A.; Muller, J.

    2016-06-01

    Managing the tapping of furnaces is a challenge to most furnace operators. As a hole is made in the refractory lining and re-filled with clay, several times a day, the tap-hole is one of the weak spots in the refractory lining. Tap-hole failures are high-risk events, and steps should be taken to minimize the risks. Designing for the life-cycle of the tap-hole is proposed and discussed as a way of minimizing the risks associated with tap-hole failure. Design criteria are proposed not only for a total reline and normal operation but also for emergency conditions, as well as maintenance, and repair of the tap-hole. The criteria are discussed in the context of silicomanganese production in South Africa.

  1. Evaluating Social and National Education Textbooks Based on the Criteria of Knowledge-Based Economy from the Perspectives of Elementary Teachers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Edwan, Zaid Suleiman; Hamaidi, Diala Abdul Hadi

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge-based economy is a new implemented trend in the field of education in Jordan. The ministry of education in Jordan attempts to implement this trend's philosophy in its textbooks. This study examined the extent to which the (1st-3rd grade) social and national textbooks reflect knowledge-based economy criteria from the perspective of…

  2. Design Criteria for Vacuum Wastewater Transfer Systems in Advanced Base Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    System Performance ... ..... 23 Air Admisiion and Control Criteria ..... ............. ... 24 Vacuum Systel-s in Network Applications...States via Vacuum Technology, Inc., in 1970 (Ref 5 ). A number of large-scale operational installations have been made in housing developments in the...lift requirements 4. Sizing the vacuum discharge pumps without recognizing their functions 5 . High potential for solids and grease deposition in the

  3. Drivers and Barriers to Acceptance of Web-Based Aftercare of Patients in Inpatient Routine Care: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hennemann, Severin; Beutel, Manfred E

    2016-01-01

    Background Web-based aftercare can help to stabilize treatment effects and support transition after inpatient treatment, yet uptake by patients seems limited in routine care and little is known about the mechanisms of adoption and implementation. Objective The aim of this study was to (1) determine acceptance of Web-based aftercare and (2) explore its drivers and barriers in different subgroups of a mixed inpatient sample. Method In a cross-sectional design, 38.3% (374/977) of the inpatients from a broad spectrum of diagnostic groups (psychosomatic, cardiologic, orthopedic, pediatric, and substance-related disorders) filled out a self-administered questionnaire prior to discharge. Drivers and barriers to patients’ acceptance of Web-based aftercare were examined based on an extension to the “unified theory of acceptance and use of technology” (UTAUT). In total, 16.7% (59/353) of the participants indicated prior use of eHealth interventions. Results Acceptance (min 1, max 5) was low (mean 2.56, SD 1.22) and differed between diagnostic groups (Welch F4,133.10 =7.77, P<.001), with highest acceptance in adolescent patients (mean 3.46, SD 1.42). Acceptance was significantly predicted by 3 UTAUT predictors: social influence (beta=.39, P<.001), performance expectancy (beta=.31, P<.001), and effort expectancy (beta=.22, P<.001). Furthermore, stress due to permanent availability (beta=−.09, P=.01) was negatively associated with acceptance. Conclusion This study demonstrated a limited acceptance of Web-based aftercare in inpatients. Expectations, social environment’s attitude, and negative experience with permanent availability influence eHealth acceptance. Improving implementation, therefore, means increasing eHealth experience and literacy and facilitating positive attitudes in patients and health professionals through education and reduction of misconceptions about effectiveness or usability. PMID:28011445

  4. Integrated Systems-Based Approach for Reaching Acceptable End Points for Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Michelle H.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Sorenson, Jr., Kent S.; Wymore, Ryan; Freshley, Mark D.

    2013-01-10

    The sheer mass and nature of contaminated materials at DOE and DoD sites, makes it impractical to completely restore these sites to predisposal conditions. DOE faces long-term challenges, particularly with developing monitoring and end state approaches for clean-up that are protective of the environment, technically based and documented, sustainable, and most importantly cost effective. Integrated systems-based monitoring approaches (e.g., tools for characterization and monitoring, multi-component strategies, geophysical modeling) could provide novel approaches and a framework to (a) define risk-informed endpoints and/or conditions that constitute completion of cleanup and (b) provide the understanding for implementation of advanced scientific approaches to meet cleanup goals. Multi-component strategies which combine site conceptual models, biological, chemical, and physical remediation strategies, as well as iterative review and optimization have proven successful at several DOE sites. Novel tools such as enzyme probes and quantitative PCR for DNA and RNA, and innovative modeling approaches for complex subsurface environments, have been successful at facilitating the reduced operation or shutdown of pump and treat facilities and transition of clean-up activities into monitored natural attenuation remedies. Integrating novel tools with site conceptual models and other lines of evidence to characterize, optimize, and monitor long term remedial approaches for complex contaminant plumes are critical for transitioning active remediation into cost effective, yet technically defensible end pointstrategies.

  5. Integrated Systems-Based Approach for Reaching Acceptable End Points for Groundwater - 13629

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M. Hope; Wellman, Dawn; Truex, Mike; Freshley, Mark D.; Sorenson, Kent S. Jr.; Wymore, Ryan

    2013-07-01

    The sheer mass and nature of contaminated materials at DOE and DoD sites, makes it impractical to completely restore these sites to pre-disposal conditions. DOE faces long-term challenges, particularly with developing monitoring and end state approaches for clean-up that are protective of the environment, technically based and documented, sustainable, and most importantly cost effective. Integrated systems-based monitoring approaches (e.g., tools for characterization and monitoring, multi-component strategies, geophysical modeling) could provide novel approaches and a framework to (a) define risk-informed endpoints and/or conditions that constitute completion of cleanup and (b) provide the understanding for implementation of advanced scientific approaches to meet cleanup goals. Multi-component strategies which combine site conceptual models, biological, chemical, and physical remediation strategies, as well as iterative review and optimization have proven successful at several DOE sites. Novel tools such as enzyme probes and quantitative PCR for DNA and RNA, and innovative modeling approaches for complex subsurface environments, have been successful at facilitating the reduced operation or shutdown of pump and treat facilities and transition of clean-up activities into monitored natural attenuation remedies. Integrating novel tools with site conceptual models and other lines of evidence to characterize, optimize, and monitor long term remedial approaches for complex contaminant plumes are critical for transitioning active remediation into cost effective, yet technically defensible endpoint strategies. (authors)

  6. Mindfulness-based acceptance and posttraumatic stress symptoms among trauma-exposed adults without axis I psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Vujanovic, Anka A; Youngwirth, Nicole E; Johnson, Kirsten A; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2009-03-01

    The present investigation examined the incremental predictive validity of mindfulness-based processes, indexed by the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, in relation to posttraumatic stress symptom severity among individuals without any axis I psychopathology. Participants included 239 adults who endorsed exposure to traumatic life events. Results indicated that the Accepting without Judgment subscale was significantly incrementally associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms; effects were above and beyond the variance accounted for by negative affectivity and number of trauma types experienced. The Acting with Awareness subscale was incrementally associated with only posttraumatic stress-relevant re-experiencing symptoms; and no other mindfulness factors were related to the dependent measures. Findings are discussed in relation to extant empirical and theoretical work relevant to mindfulness and posttraumatic stress.

  7. Sediment quality criteria: A review with recommendations for developing criteria for the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-05-01

    Criteria for determining the quality of liver sediment are necessary to ensure that concentrations of contaminants in aquatic systems are within acceptable limits for the protection of aquatic and human life. Such criteria should facilitate decision-making about remediation, handling, and disposal of contaminants. Several approaches to the development of sediment quality criteria (SQC) have been described and include both descriptive and numerical methods. However, no single method measures all impacts at all times to all organisms (U.S. EPA 1992b). The U.S. EPA`s interest is primarily in establishing chemically based, numerical SQC that are applicable nation-wide (Shea 1988). Of the approaches proposed for SQC development, only three are being considered for numerical SQC on a national level. These approaches include an Equilibrium Partitioning Approach, a site-specific method using bioassays (the Apparent Effects Threshold Approach), and an approach similar to EPA`s water quality criteria (Pavlou and Weston 1984). Although national (or even regional) criteria address a number of political, litigative, and engineering needs, some researchers feel that protection of benthic communities require site-specific, biologically based criteria (Baudo et al. 1990). This is particularly true for areas where complex mixtures of contaminants are present in sediments. Other scientifically valid and accepted procedures for freshwater SQC include a background concentration approach, methods using field or spiked bioassays, a screening level concentration approach, the Apparent Effects Threshold Approach, the Sediment Quality Triad, the International Joint Commission Sediment Assessment Strategy, and the National Status and Trends Program Approach. The various sediment assessment approaches are evaluated for application to the Hanford Reach and recommendations for Hanford Site sediment quality criteria are discussed.

  8. A diatom-based biological condition gradient (BCG) approach for assessing impairment and developing nutrient criteria for streams.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Sonja; Charles, Donald F; Gerritsen, Jeroen; Belton, Thomas J

    2016-08-15

    Over-enrichment leading to excess algal growth is a major problem in rivers and streams. Regulations to protect streams typically incorporate nutrient criteria, concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen that should not be exceeded in order to protect biological communities. A major challenge has been to develop an approach for both categorizing streams based on their biological conditions and determining scientifically defensible nutrient criteria to protect the biotic integrity of streams in those categories. To address this challenge, we applied the Biological Condition Gradient (BCG) approach to stream diatom assemblages to develop a system for categorizing sites by level of impairment, and then examined the related nutrient concentrations to identify potential nutrient criteria. The six levels of the BCG represent a range of ecological conditions from natural (1) to highly disturbed (6). A group of diatom experts developed a set of rules and a model to assign sites to these levels based on their diatom assemblages. To identify potential numeric nutrient criteria, we explored the relation of assigned BCG levels to nutrient concentrations, other anthropogenic stressors, and possible confounding variables using data for stream sites in New Jersey (n=42) and in surrounding Mid-Atlantic states, USA (n=1443). In both data sets, BCG levels correlated most strongly with total phosphorus and the percentage of forest in the watershed, but were independent of pH. We applied Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis (TITAN) to determine change-points in the diatom assemblages along the BCG gradient. In both data sets, statistically significant diatom changes occurred between BCG levels 3 and 4. Sites with BCG levels 1 to 3 were dominated by species that grow attached to surfaces, while sites with BCG scores of 4 and above were characterized by motile diatoms. The diatom change-point corresponded with a total phosphorus concentration of about 50μg/L.

  9. The overpowering effect of social comparison information: on the misalignment between mastery-based goals and self-evaluation criteria.

    PubMed

    Van Yperen, Nico W; Leander, N Pontus

    2014-05-01

    If people's goals and evaluative standards were aligned, then individuals with mastery-based goals should, theoretically, primarily rely on temporal comparison information (i.e., on how they performed relative to before). In contrast, individuals with performance-based goals should rely on social comparison information (i.e., on how they performed relative to others). However, across three studies, we explored a misalignment phenomenon we call "the overpowering effect of social comparison information" (TOESCI). We found that, irrespective of individuals' specific achievement goal (performance-based vs. mastery-based), there is a consistent, dominant reliance on social comparisons over temporal comparisons in their performance self-evaluations. These findings suggest that one's goals and evaluation criteria do not always align-that explicitly endorsing mastery-based goals does not necessarily lead one to rely on temporal comparison information over social comparison information. Only after receiving an explicit reminder to consider their mastery-based goal did participants align their goal and performance self-evaluation criteria.

  10. Renal allograft recovery subsequent to apparent hyperacute rejection based on clinical, scintigraphic, and pathologic criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sacks, G.A.; Sandler, M.P.; Partain, C.L.

    1983-02-01

    An unusual case is described in which in spite of clinical, scintigraphic and histologic findings strongly supportive of a diagnosis of hyperacute rejection, recovery of renal function occurred. These findings are in contrast to the current literature in which it is generally accepted that a renal allograft showing neither pertechnetate transit nor hippurate concentration warrants allograft nephrectomy irrespective of the etiology. Scintigraphic evaluation included both dynamic studies after a bolus administration of /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and serial renogram collections after the intravenous administration of /sup 131/I Hippuran.

  11. Monitoring Reading Behavior: Criteria for Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, William R.

    Effective use of the informal reading inventory (IRI) depends upon the criteria used in determining the functional reading levels and more specifically the word recognition criteria employed in describing acceptable limits of oral reading behavior. The author of this paper looks at the diverse sets of criteria commonly used, the problems…

  12. Acceptances for space-based and ground-based fluorescence detectors, and inference of the neutrino-nucleon cross-section above 10{sup 19} eV

    SciTech Connect

    Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Irimia, Andrei; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2006-04-15

    Detection of ultrahigh energy neutrinos will be useful for unraveling the dynamics of the most violent sources in the cosmos and for revealing the neutrino cross-section at extreme energy. If there exists a Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) suppression of cosmic-ray events above E{sub GZK}{approx}5x10{sup 19} eV, as predicted by theory, then the only messengers of energies beyond E{sub GZK} are neutrinos. Cosmic neutrino fluxes can initiate air-showers through interaction in the atmosphere, or in the Earth. Neutrino trajectories will be downgoing to nearly horizontal in the former case, and 'Earth-skimming' in the latter case. Thus it is important to know the acceptances (event rate/flux) of proposed air-shower experiments for detecting both types of neutrino-initiated events. We calculate these acceptances for fluorescence detectors, both space-based as with the EUSO and OWL proposals, and ground-based, as with Auger, HiRes and Telescope Array. The neutrino cross-section {sigma}{sub {nu}}{sub N}{sup CC} is unknown at energies above 5.2x10{sup 13} eV. Although the popular QCD extrapolation of lower-energy physics offers the cross-section value of 0.54x10{sup -31}(E{sub {nu}}/10{sup 20} eV){sup 0.36} cm{sup 2}, new physics could raise or lower this value. Therefore, we present the acceptances of horizontal (HAS) and upgoing (UAS) air-showers as a function of {sigma}{sub {nu}}{sub N}{sup CC} over the range 10{sup -34} to 10{sup -30} cm{sup 2}. The dependences of acceptances on neutrino energy, shower-threshold energy, shower length, and shower column density are also studied. We introduce a cloud layer, and study its effect on rates as viewed from space and from the ground. For UAS, we present acceptances for events over land (rock), and over the ocean (water). Acceptances over water are larger by about an order of magnitude, thus favoring space-based detectors. We revisit the idea of Kusenko and Weiler [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 161101 (2002)] to infer {sigma}{sub {nu

  13. Derivation of marine water quality criteria for metals based on a novel QICAR-SSD model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Mu, Yunsong; Wu, Fengchang; Zhang, Ruiqing; Su, Hailei; Giesy, John P

    2015-03-01

    Establishment of water quality criteria (WQC) is one procedure for protection of marine organisms and their ecosystems. This study, which integrated two separate approaches, quantitative ion character-activity relationships (QICARs) and species sensitivity distributions (SSDs), developed a novel QICAR-SSD model. The QICARs predict relative potencies of individual elements while SSDs integrate relative sensitivities among organisms. The QICAR-SSD approach was applied to derive saltwater WQC for 34 metals or metalloids. Relationships between physicochemical properties of metal ions and their corresponding potencies for acute toxicity to eight selected marine species were determined. The softness index (σp) exhibited the strongest correlation with the acute toxicity of metals (r (2) > 0.66, F > 5.88, P < 0.94 × 10(-2)). Predictive criteria maximum concentrations for the eight metals, derived by applying the SSD approach to values predicted by use of QICARs, were within the same order of magnitude as values recommended by the US EPA (2009). In general, the results support that the QICAR-SSD approach is a rapid method to estimate WQC for metals for which little or no information is available for marine organisms.

  14. When should conscientious objection be accepted?

    PubMed

    Magelssen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper makes two main claims: first, that the need to protect health professionals' moral integrity is what grounds the right to conscientious objection in health care; and second, that for a given claim of conscientious objection to be acceptable to society, a certain set of criteria should be fulfilled. The importance of moral integrity for individuals and society, including its special role in health care, is advocated. Criteria for evaluating the acceptability of claims to conscientious objection are outlined. The precise content of the criteria is dictated by the two main interests that are at stake in the dilemma of conscientious objection: the patient's interests and the health professional's moral integrity. Alternative criteria proposed by other authors are challenged. The bold claim is made that conscientious objection should be recognised by society as acceptable whenever the five main criteria of the proposed set are met.

  15. Evaluation of criteria for sustainability of community-based rural homestay programs via a modified pairwise comparison method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Rohaini; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ramli, Razamin; Kayat, Kalsom; Razak, Rafidah Abd

    2014-12-01

    Ministry of Tourism and Culture Malaysia has long introduced homestay programs across the country to enhance the quality of life of people, especially those living in rural areas. This type of program is classified as a community-based tourism (CBT) as it is expected to economically improve livelihood through cultural and community associated activities. It is the aspiration of the ministry to see that the income imbalance between people in the rural and urban areas is reduced, thus would contribute towards creating more developed states of Malaysia. Since 1970s, there are 154 homestay programs registered with the ministry. However, the performance and sustainability of the programs are still not satisfying. There are only a number of homestay programs that perform well and able to sustain. Thus, the aim of this paper is to identify relevant criteria contributing to the sustainability of a homestay program. The criteria are evaluated for their levels of importance via the use of a modified pairwise method and analyzed for other potentials. The findings will help the homestay operators to focus on the necessary criteria and thus, effectively perform as the CBT business initiative.

  16. A Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis based methodology for quantitatively scoring the reliability and relevance of ecotoxicological data.

    PubMed

    Isigonis, Panagiotis; Ciffroy, Philippe; Zabeo, Alex; Semenzin, Elena; Critto, Andrea; Giove, Silvio; Marcomini, Antonio

    2015-12-15

    Ecotoxicological data are highly important for risk assessment processes and are used for deriving environmental quality criteria, which are enacted for assuring the good quality of waters, soils or sediments and achieving desirable environmental quality objectives. Therefore, it is of significant importance the evaluation of the reliability of available data for analysing their possible use in the aforementioned processes. The thorough analysis of currently available frameworks for the assessment of ecotoxicological data has led to the identification of significant flaws but at the same time various opportunities for improvement. In this context, a new methodology, based on Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) techniques, has been developed with the aim of analysing the reliability and relevance of ecotoxicological data (which are produced through laboratory biotests for individual effects), in a transparent quantitative way, through the use of expert knowledge, multiple criteria and fuzzy logic. The proposed methodology can be used for the production of weighted Species Sensitivity Weighted Distributions (SSWD), as a component of the ecological risk assessment of chemicals in aquatic systems. The MCDA aggregation methodology is described in detail and demonstrated through examples in the article and the hierarchically structured framework that is used for the evaluation and classification of ecotoxicological data is shortly discussed. The methodology is demonstrated for the aquatic compartment but it can be easily tailored to other environmental compartments (soil, air, sediments).

  17. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, C K

    1994-01-01

    I am proud and honored to accept this award on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh, and the millions of Bangladeshi children saved by oral rehydration solution. The Government of Bangladesh is grateful for this recognition of its commitment to international health and population research and cost-effective health care for all. The Government of Bangladesh has already made remarkable strides forward in the health and population sector, and this was recognized in UNICEF's 1993 "State of the World's Children". The national contraceptive prevalence rate, at 40%, is higher than that of many developed countries. It is appropriate that Bangladesh, where ORS was discovered, has the largest ORS production capacity in the world. It was remarkable that after the devastating cyclone in 1991, the country was able to produce enough ORS to meet the needs and remain self-sufficient. Similarly, Bangladesh has one of the most effective, flexible and efficient control of diarrheal disease and epidemic response program in the world. Through the country, doctors have been trained in diarrheal disease management, and stores of ORS are maintained ready for any outbreak. Despite grim predictions after the 1991 cyclone and the 1993 floods, relatively few people died from diarrheal disease. This is indicative of the strength of the national program. I want to take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of ICDDR, B and the important role it plays in supporting the Government's efforts in the health and population sector. The partnership between the Government of Bangladesh and ICDDR, B has already borne great fruit, and I hope and believe that it will continue to do so for many years in the future. Thank you.

  18. Creating the Climate for Student Acceptance of Evidence-Based Practices in Addiction Studies: A Brief Inquiry into How We Know about Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalisove, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This article suggests that evidence based practice instruction should be preceded by an introduction to the 3 types of knowledge about addiction: experiential, professional and research. Each knowledge base should be defined and critiqued. This introduction can create a climate for acceptance of evidence-based practices. The article outlines the…

  19. Feasibility and acceptability of a bar-based sexual risk reduction intervention for bar patrons in Tshwane, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Morojele, Neo K.; Kitleli, Naledi; Ngako, Kgalabi; Kekwaletswe, Connie T.; Nkosi, Sebenzile; Fritz, Katherine; Parry, Charles D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol consumption is a recognised risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol serving establishments have been identified as appropriate venues in which to deliver HIV prevention interventions. This paper describes experiences and lessons learnt from implementing a combined HIV prevention intervention in bar settings in one city- and one township-based bar in Tshwane, South Africa. The intervention consisted of peer-led and brief intervention counselling sub-components. Thirty-nine bar patrons were recruited and trained, and delivered HIV and alcohol risk reduction activities to their peers as peer interventionists. At the same time, nine counsellors received training and visited the bars weekly to provide brief motivational interviewing counselling, advice, and referrals to the patrons of the bars. A responsible server sub-component that had also been planned was not delivered as it was not feasible to train the staff in the two participating bars. Over the eight-month period the counsellors were approached by and provided advice and counselling for alcohol and sexual risk-related problems to 111 bar patrons. The peer interventionists reported 1323 risk reduction interactions with their fellow bar patrons during the same period. The intervention was overall well received and suggests that bar patrons and servers can accept a myriad of intervention activities to reduce sexual risk behaviour within their drinking settings. However, HIV- and AIDS-related stigma hindered participation in certain intervention activities in some instances. The buy-in that we received from the relevant stakeholders (i.e. bar owners/managers and patrons, and the community at large) was an important contributor to the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. PMID:24750106

  20. Design criteria for a PC-based common user interface to remote information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Hall, Philip P.

    1984-01-01

    A set of design criteria are presented which will allow the implementation of an interface to multiple remote information systems on a microcomputer. The focus of the design description is on providing the user with the functionality required to retrieve, store and manipulate data residing in remote information systems through the utilization of a standardized interface system. The intent is to spare the user from learning the details of retrieval from specific systems while retaining the full capabilities of each system. The system design includes multi-level capabilities to enhance usability by a wide range of users and utilizes microcomputer graphics capabilities where applicable. A data collection subsystem for evaluation purposes is also described.

  1. The influence of the oscillation angle and the neck anteversion of the prosthesis on the cup safe-zone that fulfills the criteria for range of motion in total hip replacements. The required oscillation angle for an acceptable cup safe-zone.

    PubMed

    Yoshimine, Fumihiro

    2005-01-01

    A normal hip joint has more than 120 degrees flexion. The reduced range of motion (ROM) of total hip arthroplast leads to frequent prosthetic impingement, subluxation and dislocation. Prosthetic impingement may be more serious for metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-ceramic total hip prosthesis (THP). A larger oscillation angle of THP (OsA) and proper cup and neck positions make a larger theoretical ROM of a patient's artificial hip joint. But what OsA is required and what range of cup positions is kinetically accepted are not clearly understood. A ROM of more than 120 degrees flexion, 45 degrees internal-rotation at 90 degrees flexion, 30 degrees extension and 40 degrees external-rotation was defined as severe criteria for an acceptable ROM. Theoretical cup safe-zones were created that fulfill the severe criteria of ROM for (OsA=110 degrees , 120 degrees , 135 degrees ) by the mathematical formulas. The size of the cup safe-zone mainly depends on the size of the OsA. There is no cup safe-zone for 110 degrees OsA, an extremely small safe-zone for 120 degrees OsA and an acceptable safe-zone for 135 degrees OsA. Each THP has its own OsA, because OsA is the function of head and neck diameter and cup design. More than 135 degrees OsA enlarges the safe-zone of the prosthetic position, so it extends the acceptable range of error that surgeons cannot avoid completely. However, few THPs with more than 135 degrees OsA are currently clinically available. Both surgeons and manufacturers must realize that OsA is as essential as cup and neck orientations for ROM.

  2. Development of the Internet addiction scale based on the Internet Gaming Disorder criteria suggested in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun; Kwon, Min; Choi, Ji-Hye; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Choi, Jung Seok; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to develop and validate a standardized self-diagnostic Internet addiction (IA) scale based on the diagnosis criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, 5th edition (DSM-5). Items based on the IGD diagnosis criteria were developed using items of the previous Internet addiction scales. Data were collected from a community sample. The data were divided into two sets, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed repeatedly. The model was modified after discussion with professionals based on the first CFA results, after which the second CFA was performed. The internal consistency reliability was generally good. The items that showed significantly low correlation values based on the item-total correlation of each factor were excluded. After the first CFA was performed, some factors and items were excluded. Seven factors and 26 items were prepared for the final model. The second CFA results showed good general factor loading, Squared Multiple Correlation (SMC) and model fit. The model fit of the final model was good, but some factors were very highly correlated. It is recommended that some of the factors be refined through further studies.

  3. The seven Cs of the high acceptability of home-based VCT: results from a mixed methods approach in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, Marte; Sandøy, Ingvild F; Michelo, Charles; Fylkesnes, Knut; Mwangala, Sheila; Blystad, Astrid

    2013-11-01

    HIV testing and counselling is a critical gateway to prevention and treatment. Yet, coverage remains insufficient, few couples are tested together and gender differences in access exist. We used an embedded mixed methods approach to investigate possible explanations for the high acceptance of home-based voluntary HIV counselling and testing (HB-VCT) in a pair-matched cluster-randomized trial in Zambia. A baseline survey included 1694 individuals in 36 clusters. Adults in 18 intervention clusters were offered HB-VCT by lay counsellors. Standard testing services were available in both trial arms. After the completion of the intervention, a follow-up survey was conducted in all trial clusters. In addition, 21 in-depth interviews and one focus group discussion were conducted with home-based VCT clients in the intervention arm. Informants favoured the convenience, confidentiality and credibility of HB-VCT. Counsellors were perceived as trustworthy owing to their closeness and conduct, and the consent process was experienced as convincing. Couple testing was selected by 70% of cohabiting couples and was experienced as beneficial by both genders. Levels of first-time testing (68% vs. 29%, p < 0.0001) and re-testing (94% vs. 74%, p < 0.0001) were higher in the intervention than in the control arm. Acceptance of HIV testing and counselling is dependent on stigma, trust and gender. The confidentiality of home-based VCT was essential for overcoming stigma-related barriers, and the selection of local counsellors was important to ensure trust in the services. The high level of couple counselling within HB-VCT may contribute to closing the gender gap in HIV testing, and has benefits for both genders and potentially for prevention of HIV transmission. The study demonstrates the feasibility of achieving high test coverage with an opt-in consent approach. The embedded qualitative component confirmed the high satisfaction with HB-VCT reported in the quantitative survey and was

  4. An Elaboration Likelihood Model Based Longitudinal Analysis of Attitude Change during the Process of IT Acceptance via Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Woong-Kyu

    2012-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to gain insight into attitude changes occurring during IT acceptance from the perspective of elaboration likelihood model (ELM). In particular, the primary target of this study was the process of IT acceptance through an education program. Although the Internet and computers are now quite ubiquitous, and…

  5. Investigating Students' Acceptance and Self-Efficacy of E-Learning at Al-Aqsa University Based on TAM Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahdi, Hasan Rebhi

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed at investigating the influence of E-learning Self-Efficacy (ELSE) on the acceptance of e-learning by using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). According to the TAM which used as the theoretical basis, both of the Perceived Usefulness (PU) and the Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU) influence directly the end user's Behavioral Intention…

  6. Developing a Standards-Based Information Model for Representing Computable Diagnostic Criteria: A Feasibility Study of the NQF Quality Data Model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoqian; Solbrig, Harold R; Pathak, Jyotishman; Chute, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a standards-based information model has been recognized as a major barrier for representing computable diagnostic criteria. In this paper we describe our efforts in examining the feasibility of the Quality Data Model (QDM)-developed by the National Quality Forum (NQF)-for representing computable diagnostic criteria. We collected the diagnostic criteria for a number of diseases and disorders (n=12) from textbooks and profiled the data elements of the criteria using the QDM data elements. We identified a number of common patterns informed by the QDM. In conclusion, the common patterns informed by the QDM are useful and feasible in building a standards-based information model for computable diagnostic criteria.

  7. Defined and refined: criteria for identifying wound infection revisited.

    PubMed

    Cutting, Keith F; White, Richard

    2004-03-01

    Clinical criteria for the identification of wound infection are regularly based on a list created by Cutting and Harding (1994). This list was established from empirical data generated in a large, multidisciplinary clinical practice, and is now widely accepted as a seminal article in wound care. Both Cutting (1998) and Gardner et al (2001) have conducted validation exercises on these wound infection criteria, based on the assumption that the criteria broadly apply to most wound types. Although many of the original criteria do apply across the spectrum of wound types, the major categories of wounds should be considered separately to avoid the possibility of overlooking the presence of infection. The focus of this article is a review of the published literature on wound infection criteria for acute and surgical wounds, diabetic foot ulcers, venous and arterial leg ulcers, pressure ulcers and burns. All known criteria for each wound type are presented, as well as an outline of the ongoing research project to refine the criteria by wound type using a Delphi panel technique. No attempt has been made to correlate visual signs and symptoms with microbiological sampling techniques. It is clear that there are subtle variations between infection criteria for wound types and that these should be recognized if treatment is to be given appropriately and promptly, and morbidity avoided.

  8. A pilot community-based intensive smoking cessation intervention in African Americans: feasibility, acceptability and early outcome indicators.

    PubMed

    King, Andrea; Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Van Orman, Sarah; Cao, Dingcai; Matthews, Alicia

    2008-02-01

    Few intensive and community-based smoking cessation treatment programs have been designed for African-American smokers, a group who experiences numerous health disparities associated with cigarette smoking. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility, acceptability and biochemically verified early outcome indicators in a community-based comprehensive smoking cessation program in 50 urban, low- and middle-income African-American smokers. The intervention was an intensive six-session group program delivered in the community and a one-month supply of the transdermal nicotine patch. Results showed 74% of enrolled participants completed the program and 51% of participants were highly adherent to patch use guidelines. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed that 34% of participants were biochemically confirmed as having quit smoking at one month post quit date. Smoking urges and depressive symptoms also declined significantly during the first month. At three- and six-month follow-up, biochemically confirmed quit rates were 22% and 18%, respectively. Adherence to nicotine patch use, higher ratings of the perceived helpfulness of self-monitoring tasks (wrap sheets) and lower depression scores at baseline all significantly predicted quitting success during the first month of treatment (all p's<0.05). Larger studies are warranted to examine targeted treatment elements and individual difference factors to enhance cessation outcomes in African-American smokers.

  9. Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  10. 48 CFR 2811.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Market acceptance. 2811.103... Planning DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 2811.103 Market acceptance... offerors to demonstrate that the items offered meet the criteria set forth in FAR 11.103(a)....

  11. Lift calculations based on accepted wake models for animal flight are inconsistent and sensitive to vortex dynamics.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Eric; Quinn, Daniel B; Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-12-06

    There are three common methods for calculating the lift generated by a flying animal based on the measured airflow in the wake. However, these methods might not be accurate according to computational and robot-based studies of flapping wings. Here we test this hypothesis for the first time for a slowly flying Pacific parrotlet in still air using stereo particle image velocimetry recorded at 1000 Hz. The bird was trained to fly between two perches through a laser sheet wearing laser safety goggles. We found that the wingtip vortices generated during mid-downstroke advected down and broke up quickly, contradicting the frozen turbulence hypothesis typically assumed in animal flight experiments. The quasi-steady lift at mid-downstroke was estimated based on the velocity field by applying the widely used Kutta-Joukowski theorem, vortex ring model, and actuator disk model. The calculated lift was found to be sensitive to the applied model and its different parameters, including vortex span and distance between the bird and laser sheet-rendering these three accepted ways of calculating weight support inconsistent. The three models predict different aerodynamic force values mid-downstroke compared to independent direct measurements with an aerodynamic force platform that we had available for the same species flying over a similar distance. Whereas the lift predictions of the Kutta-Joukowski theorem and the vortex ring model stayed relatively constant despite vortex breakdown, their values were too low. In contrast, the actuator disk model predicted lift reasonably accurately before vortex breakdown, but predicted almost no lift during and after vortex breakdown. Some of these limitations might be better understood, and partially reconciled, if future animal flight studies report lift calculations based on all three quasi-steady lift models instead. This would also enable much needed meta studies of animal flight to derive bioinspired design principles for quasi-steady lift

  12. Outcomes of an acceptance and commitment therapy-based skills training group for students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pahnke, Johan; Lundgren, Tobias; Hursti, Timo; Hirvikoski, Tatja

    2014-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by social impairments and behavioural inflexibility. In this pilot study, the feasibility and outcomes of a 6-week acceptance and commitment therapy-based skills training group were evaluated in a special school setting using a quasi-experimental design (acceptance and commitment therapy/school classes as usual). A total of 28 high-functioning students with autism spectrum disorder (aged 13-21 years) were assessed using self- and teacher-ratings at pre- and post-assessment and 2-month follow-up. All participants completed the skills training, and treatment satisfaction was high. Levels of stress, hyperactivity and emotional distress were reduced in the treatment group. The acceptance and commitment therapy group also reported increased prosocial behaviour. These changes were stable or further improved at the 2-month follow-up. Larger studies are needed to further evaluate the benefits of acceptance and commitment therapy for autism spectrum disorder.

  13. A comparison of thought suppression to an acceptance-based technique in the management of personal intrusive thoughts: a controlled evaluation.

    PubMed

    Marcks, Brook A; Woods, Douglas W

    2005-04-01

    Research suggests that suppressing unwanted thoughts is not possible, leads to a subsequent increase in frequency of the suppressed thoughts, and results in higher levels of distress. Because thought suppression may have negative effects, an alternative, acceptance-based approach has been proposed. The current paper reports the outcomes of two studies. Study I examined the relationships between two naturally occurring strategies of thought management (thought suppression and acceptance), symptoms of psychopathology, and experiences with personally relevant intrusive thoughts. Results showed that those who naturally suppress personally relevant intrusive thoughts have more, are more distressed by, and have a greater "urge to do something" about the thoughts, while those who are naturally more accepting of their intrusive thoughts are less obsessional, have lower levels of depression, and are less anxious. Study II compared three groups (thought suppression, acceptance, and monitor-only groups) on the frequency and distress associated with experiencing personally relevant intrusive thoughts. Results revealed that those instructed to suppress their personal intrusive thoughts were unable to do so and experienced an increased level of distress after suppression, whereas those instructed to use an acceptance-based strategy experienced a decrease in discomfort level (but not thought frequency) after having used such a strategy. These data offer initial evidence that acceptance may be a useful alternative to the suppression of personally relevant intrusive thoughts.

  14. A comparative analysis based on different strength criteria for evaluation of risk factor for dental implants.

    PubMed

    Natali, A N; Pavan, P G

    2002-04-01

    A numerical analysis is developed to study the interaction phenomena between endousseus titanium dental implants and surrounding jawbone tissue. The interest is focused on the most appropriate evaluation of the stress state arising in the tissue because of the implant under physiological loading. The problem is considered with regard to linear elastic response of the one and to short time effect. Different configurations of bone-implant system are described, using axial-symmetrical and three-dimensional models, by means of finite and geometric element method. The investigation attains to the stress states induced in bone that lead to a limit condition near the effective failure surface. The parameter commonly adopted in literature, such as the Von Mises stress, represents an excessive simplification of problem formulation, leading to an incorrect evaluation of the real failure risk for the implant, due to the assumption of the isotropic and deviatoric nature of the adopted stress measure. More suitable criterion can be assumed, such as the Tsai-Wu criterion, to take into account the anisotropy that characterises the response of bone, as well as the influence of a hydrostatic stress state. The analysis developed offers a comparison of results by using different criteria, leading to an evaluation of reliability of the procedure to be followed and addressing also to an evaluation of a risk factor for the implant investigated.

  15. Internet-based guided self-help intervention for chronic pain based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Trompetter, Hester R; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Veehof, Martine M; Schreurs, Karlein M G

    2015-02-01

    Acceptance-based psychological interventions can potentially minimize the burden of chronic pain. This randomized controlled trial evaluated an internet-delivered, guided self-help intervention based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). A total of 238 chronic pain sufferers from the general population were randomly allocated to either ACT (n = 82), an internet-based control condition Expressive Writing (n = 79) or a waiting list condition (n = 77). Participants completed measures at baseline, posttreatment (3 months) and at a 3-month follow-up. At follow-up, ACT participants had improved in pain interference in daily life (primary outcome) compared to participants in Expressive Writing (Cohen's d = .47), but not compared to waiting list participants (p value = .11). Those who adhered to the ACT-intervention (48%) did improve significantly compared to waiting list participants (d = .49). ACT-participants also showed superior improvement on depression, pain intensity, psychological inflexibility and pain catastrophizing (d: .28-.60). Significant clinical improvement was present. Especially, 28% of ACT-participants showed general clinically relevant improvement in pain interference, as well as in pain intensity and depression (vs. Expressive Writing and waiting list 5%). Given these findings, internet-based ACT programs may be a promising treatment modality for chronic pain.

  16. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 4C on Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Acceptance Criteria for Pharmaceutical Preparations and Substances for Pharmaceutical Use General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    PubMed

    2009-04-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 4C: Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Acceptance Criteria for Pharmaceutical Preparations and Substances for Pharmaceutical Use General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Acceptance Criteria for Pharmaceutical Preparations and Substances for Pharmaceutical Use General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  17. Pilot Evaluation of the Feasibility and Acceptability of StressOFF Strategies: A Single-Session School-Based Stress Management Program for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Amy J.; Heath, Nancy L.; Carsley, Dana

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the pilot evaluation of the feasibility and acceptability of StressOFF Strategies, a "single-session" (45 min) adolescent-targeted, school-based psychoeducational program, which introduces cognitive behavioral techniques and mindfulness-based techniques. Five hundred and sixty-five Grade 9 students (57% female;…

  18. Filtering Chromatic Aberration for Wide Acceptance Angle Electrostatic Lenses II--Experimental Evaluation and Software-Based Imaging Energy Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Fazekas, Ádám; Daimon, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Tóth, László

    2016-03-01

    Here, the experimental results of the method of filtering the effect of chromatic aberration for wide acceptance angle electrostatic lens-based system are described. This method can eliminate the effect of chromatic aberration from the images of a measured spectral image sequence by determining and removing the effect of higher and lower kinetic energy electrons on each different energy image, which leads to significant improvement of image and spectral quality. The method is based on the numerical solution of a large system of linear equations and equivalent with a multivariate strongly nonlinear deconvolution method. A matrix whose elements describe the strongly nonlinear chromatic aberration-related transmission function of the lens system acts on the vector of the ordered pixels of the distortion free spectral image sequence, and produces the vector of the ordered pixels of the measured spectral image sequence. Since the method can be applied not only on 2D real- and $k$ -space diffraction images, but also along a third dimension of the image sequence that is along the optical or in the 3D parameter space, the energy axis, it functions as a software-based imaging energy analyzer (SBIEA). It can also be applied in cases of light or other type of optics for different optical aberrations and distortions. In case of electron optics, the SBIEA method makes possible the spectral imaging without the application of any other energy filter. It is notable that this method also eliminates the disturbing background significantly in the present investigated case of reflection electron energy loss spectra. It eliminates the instrumental effects and makes possible to measure the real physical processes better.

  19. Corps of Engineers Hydraulic Design Criteria. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    of 13. The model scale was 1:25. The Ke ( loss coefficient) values shown are based on model ( ,221-1/1 M! discharge rating curves, computed energy ...available to offices of the Corps of Engineers for use as k hydraulic design criteria. Certain design aids based on accepted theory, such as energy -depth...612 Supercritical Flow 620 Nonuniform Flow 621 Mild Slopes 622 Steep Slopes 630 Energy Losses 631 Friction Losses 632 Special Losses 640Q Transitions

  20. Durability-Based Design Criteria for a Quasi-Isotropic Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Automotive Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J; Corum, James; Klett, Lynn B; Davenport, Mike; Battiste, Rick; Simpson, Jr., William A

    2006-04-01

    This report provides recommended durability-based design properties and criteria for a quais-isotropic carbon-fiber thermoplastic composite for possible automotive structural applications. The composite consisted of a PolyPhenylene Sulfide (PPS) thermoplastic matrix (Fortron's PPS - Ticona 0214B1 powder) reinforced with 16 plies of carbon-fiber unidirectional tape, [0?/90?/+45?/-45?]2S. The carbon fiber was Hexcel AS-4C and was present in a fiber volume of 53% (60%, by weight). The overall goal of the project, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Freedom Car and Vehicle Technologies and is closely coordinated with the Advanced Composites Consortium, is to develop durability-driven design data and criteria to assure the long-term integrity of carbon-fiber-based composite systems for automotive structural applications. This document is in two parts. Part 1 provides design data and correlations, while Part 2 provides the underlying experimental data and models. The durability issues addressed include the effects of short-time, cyclic, and sustained loadings; temperature; fluid environments; and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and kickups of roadway debris) on deformation, strength, and stiffness. Guidance for design analysis, time-independent and time-dependent allowable stresses, rules for cyclic loadings, and damage-tolerance design guidance are provided.

  1. Acceptability and Feasibility of an Evidence-Based Requisition for Bone Mineral Density Testing in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Butt, Debra A.; Anantharajah, Rokeni (Sumi); Huang, Susana; Allin, Sonya; Bereket, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study is to understand the experience of primary care providers (PCPs) using an evidence-based requisition for bone mineral density (BMD) testing. Methods. A qualitative descriptive approach was adopted. Participants were given 3 BMD Recommended Use Requisitions (RUR) to use over a 2-month period. Twenty-six PCPs were interviewed before using the RUR. Those who had received at least one BMD report resulting from RUR use were then interviewed again. An inductive thematic analysis was performed. Results. We identified four themes in interview data: (1) positive and negative characteristics of the RUR, (2) facilitators and barriers for implementation, (3) impact of the RUR, and (4) requisition preference. Positive characteristics of the RUR related to both its content and format. Negative characteristics related to the increased amount of time needed to complete the form. Facilitators to implementation included electronic availability and organizational endorsement. Time constraints were identified as a barrier to implementation. Participants perceived that the RUR would promote appropriate referrals and the majority of participants preferred the RUR to their current requisition. Conclusions. Findings from this study provide support for the RUR as an acceptable point-of-care tool for PCPs to promote appropriate BMD testing. PMID:28050306

  2. Acceptance- and imagery-based strategies can reduce chocolate cravings: A test of the elaborated-intrusion theory of desire.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Sophie; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2017-06-01

    The elaborated-intrusion theory of desire proposes that craving is a two-stage process whereby initial intrusions about a desired target are subsequently elaborated with mental imagery. The present study tested whether the craving reduction strategies of cognitive defusion and guided imagery could differentially target the intrusion and elaboration stages, respectively, and thus differentially impact the craving process. Participants were randomly assigned to a cognitive defusion, a guided imagery or a mind-wandering control condition. Pre- and post-intervention chocolate-related thoughts, intrusiveness of thoughts, vividness of imagery, craving intensity, and chocolate consumption were compared. Experiment 1 recruited a general sample of young women (n = 94), whereas Experiment 2 recruited a sample of chocolate cravers who wanted to reduce their chocolate consumption (n = 97). Across both experiments, cognitive defusion lowered intrusiveness of thoughts, vividness of imagery and craving intensity. Guided imagery reduced chocolate-related thoughts, intrusiveness, vividness and craving intensity for chocolate cravers (Experiment 2), but not for the general sample (Experiment 1). There were no group differences in chocolate consumption in either experiment. Results add to existing evidence supporting the elaborated-intrusion theory of desire in the food domain, and suggest that acceptance- and imagery-based techniques have potential for use in combatting problematic cravings.

  3. Primary display latency criteria based on flying qualities and performance data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, John D., Jr.; Beck, Corin P.; Johns, John B.

    1993-01-01

    With a pilots' increasing use of visual cue augmentation, much requiring extensive pre-processing, there is a need to establish criteria for new avionics/display design. The timeliness and synchronization of the augmented cues is vital to ensure the performance quality required for precision mission task elements (MTEs) where augmented cues are the primary source of information to the pilot. Processing delays incurred while transforming sensor-supplied flight information into visual cues are unavoidable. Relationships between maximum control system delays and associated flying qualities levels are documented in MIL-F-83300 and MIL-F-8785. While cues representing aircraft status may be just as vital to the pilot as prompt control response for operations in instrument meteorological conditions, presently, there are no specification requirements on avionics system latency. To produce data relating avionics system latency to degradations in flying qualities, the Navy conducted two simulation investigations. During the investigations, flying qualities and performance data were recorded as simulated avionics system latency was varied. Correlated results of the investigation indicates that there is a detrimental impact of latency on flying qualities. Analysis of these results and consideration of key factors influencing their application indicate that: (1) Task performance degrades and pilot workload increases as latency is increased. Inconsistency in task performance increases as latency increases. (2) Latency reduces the probability of achieving Level 1 handling qualities with avionics system latency as low as 70 ms. (3) The data suggest that the achievement of desired performance will be ensured only at display latency values below 120 ms. (4) These data also suggest that avoidance of inadequate performance will be ensured only at display latency values below 150 ms.

  4. Prognostic Relevance of Objective Response According to EASL Criteria and mRECIST Criteria in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Treated with Loco-Regional Therapies: A Literature-Based Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Bruno; Di Maio, Massimo; Silletta, Marianna; D’Onofrio, Loretta; Spoto, Chiara; Piccirillo, Maria Carmela; Daniele, Gennaro; Comito, Francesca; Maci, Eliana; Bronte, Giuseppe; Russo, Antonio; Santini, Daniele; Perrone, Francesco; Tonini, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background The European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria and the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) are currently adopted to evaluate radiological response in patients affected by HCC and treated with loco-regional procedures. Several studies explored the validity of these measurements in predicting survival but definitive data are still lacking. Aim To conduct a systematic review of studies exploring mRECIST and EASL criteria usefulness in predictive radiological response in HCC undergoing loco-regional therapies and their validity in predicting survival. Methods A comprehensive search of the literature was performed in electronic databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, COCHRANE LIBRARY, ASCO conferences and EASL conferences up to June 10, 2014. Our overall search strategy included terms for HCC, mRECIST, and EASL. Loco-regional procedures included transarterial embolization (TAE), transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and cryoablation. Inter-method agreement between EASL and mRECIST was assessed using the k coefficient. For each criteria, overall survival was described in responders vs. non-responders patients, considering all target lesions response. Results Among 18 initially found publications, 7 reports including 1357 patients were considered eligible. All studies were published as full-text articles. Proportion of responders according to mRECIST and EASL criteria was 62.4% and 61.3%, respectively. In the pooled population, 1286 agreements were observed between the two methods (kappa statistics 0.928, 95% confidence interval 0.912–0.944). HR for overall survival (responders versus non responders) according to mRECIST and EASL was 0.39 (95% confidence interval 0.26–0.61, p<0.0001) and 0.38 (95% confidence interval 0.24–0.61, p<0.0001), respectively. Conclusion In this literature-based meta-analysis, mRECIST and EASL criteria showed very good concordance in HCC patients undergoing loco-regional treatments. Objective

  5. Acceptability of oral solid medicines in older adults with and without dysphagia: A nested pilot validation questionnaire based observational study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Ghaffur, Ambreen; Bains, Jackreet; Hamdy, Shaheen

    2016-10-30

    Older patients (aged 65years and over) are the major consumers of medicines and many barriers affect their ability in taking medicines orally, especially swallowing difficulties. Moreover, the characteristics of differing medicine formulations might have an impact on their acceptability in older patients. The aims of this study were to validate a Medicines Acceptability Questionnaire (MAQ) and to assess acceptability of oral solid medicines in older ambulatory patients with and without dysphagia. One hundred and fifty six older patients attending community pharmacies were recruited and attended face to face interviews. Two questionnaires were administered during the interviews, the validated Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) assessing oral and pharyngeal swallowing function and the newly developed MAQ evaluating patient acceptability of oral solid medicines. Seventeen (11%) participants displayed symptoms compatible with swallowing difficulties identified by the SSQ. Participants with swallowing difficulties were considered themselves more likely to have problems in swallowing tablets and capsules of large sizes (11mm and 13mm tablets and size #00 capsules) compared to participants without dysphagia. Dispersible/effervescent tablets and orally disintegrating tablets were considered to be the most acceptable in this cohort, followed by mini-tablets. Chewable tablets and granules were the least favoured. Consistently higher acceptability scores were seen in the dysphagic population than in the non-dysphagic population for all of the dosage forms that were easier to swallow than tablets and capsules. The development of these formulations will assist in medication taking in older patients with dysphagia and potentially their adherence to drug treatments.

  6. Development and Validation of the Mindfulness-Based Interventions--Teaching Assessment Criteria (MBI:TAC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Rebecca S.; Eames, Catrin; Kuyken, Willem; Hastings, Richard P.; Williams, J. Mark G.; Bartley, Trish; Evans, Alison; Silverton, Sara; Soulsby, Judith G.; Surawy, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Background: The assessment of intervention integrity is essential in psychotherapeutic intervention outcome research and psychotherapist training. There has been little attention given to it in mindfulness-based interventions research, training programs, and practice. Aims: To address this, the Mindfulness-Based Interventions: Teaching Assessment…

  7. Implementing a Multiple Criteria Model Base in Co-Op with a Graphical User Interface Generator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-23

    Decision Support System (Co-op) for Windows. The algorithms and the graphical user interfaces for these modules are implemented using Microsoft Visual ... Basic under the Windows based environment operating in a IBM compatible microcomputer. Design of the MCDM programs interface is based on general interface design principles of user control, screen design, and layout.

  8. Evaluation Criteria for Competency-Based Syllabi: A Chilean Case Study Applying Mixed Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerez, Oscar; Valenzuela, Leslier; Pizarro, Veronica; Hasbun, Beatriz; Valenzuela, Gabriela; Orsini, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, higher education institutions worldwide have been moving from knowledge-based to competence-based curricula. One of the greatest challenges in this transition is the difficulty in changing the knowledge-oriented practices of teachers. This study evaluates the consistency between syllabus design and the requirements imposed by a…

  9. Placement of Base Stations in Broadband Power Line Communications Access Networks by Means of Multi-criteria Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haidine, Abdelfatteh; Lehnert, Ralf

    Broadband Power Line Communications (B-PLC) technology is an alternative for broadband access networks, allowing bit rates up to currently 200Mbps. This technique uses the wiring of the low-voltage grid in order to offer to the users the telecommunications services, such as Internet, VoIP, VoD, etc. The B-PLC design process is sub-divided into two parts: the Generalized Base Station Placement (GBSP) problem and the PLC Channel Allocation Problem (P-CAP). This paper focuses on GBSP that is modeled as multi-criteria combinatorial optimization problem. Based on our published mathematical modeling, this paper supplies more numerical experiments for the evaluation of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs) in solving GBSP. Their performance is compared with the single-objective optimization.

  10. Terahertz Wide-Angle Imaging and Analysis on Plane-wave Criteria Based on Inverse Synthetic Aperture Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jing Kun; Qin, Yu Liang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Hong Qiang; Li, Jin; Li, Xiang

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents two parts of work around terahertz imaging applications. The first part aims at solving the problems occurred with the increasing of the rotation angle. To compensate for the nonlinearity of terahertz radar systems, a calibration signal acquired from a bright target is always used. Generally, this compensation inserts an extra linear phase term in the intermediate frequency (IF) echo signal which is not expected in large-rotation angle imaging applications. We carried out a detailed theoretical analysis on this problem, and a minimum entropy criterion was employed to estimate and compensate for the linear-phase errors. In the second part, the effects of spherical wave on terahertz inverse synthetic aperture imaging are analyzed. Analytic criteria of plane-wave approximation were derived in the cases of different rotation angles. Experimental results of corner reflectors and an aircraft model based on a 330-GHz linear frequency-modulated continuous wave (LFMCW) radar system validated the necessity and effectiveness of the proposed compensation. By comparing the experimental images obtained under plane-wave assumption and spherical-wave correction, it also showed to be highly consistent with the analytic criteria we derived.

  11. A GIS based spatially-explicit sensitivity and uncertainty analysis approach for multi-criteria decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar; Jankowski, Piotr; Blaschke, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    GIS multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques are increasingly used in landslide susceptibility mapping for the prediction of future hazards, land use planning, as well as for hazard preparedness. However, the uncertainties associated with MCDA techniques are inevitable and model outcomes are open to multiple types of uncertainty. In this paper, we present a systematic approach to uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. We access the uncertainty of landslide susceptibility maps produced with GIS-MCDA techniques. A new spatially-explicit approach and Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) are employed to assess the uncertainties associated with two MCDA techniques, namely Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) and Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) implemented in GIS. The methodology is composed of three different phases. First, weights are computed to express the relative importance of factors (criteria) for landslide susceptibility. Next, the uncertainty and sensitivity of landslide susceptibility is analyzed as a function of weights using Monte Carlo Simulation and Global Sensitivity Analysis. Finally, the results are validated using a landslide inventory database and by applying DST. The comparisons of the obtained landslide susceptibility maps of both MCDA techniques with known landslides show that the AHP outperforms OWA. However, the OWA-generated landslide susceptibility map shows lower uncertainty than the AHP-generated map. The results demonstrate that further improvement in the accuracy of GIS-based MCDA can be achieved by employing an integrated uncertainty-sensitivity analysis approach, in which the uncertainty of landslide susceptibility model is decomposed and attributed to model's criteria weights.

  12. A GIS based spatially-explicit sensitivity and uncertainty analysis approach for multi-criteria decision analysis☆

    PubMed Central

    Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar; Jankowski, Piotr; Blaschke, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    GIS multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques are increasingly used in landslide susceptibility mapping for the prediction of future hazards, land use planning, as well as for hazard preparedness. However, the uncertainties associated with MCDA techniques are inevitable and model outcomes are open to multiple types of uncertainty. In this paper, we present a systematic approach to uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. We access the uncertainty of landslide susceptibility maps produced with GIS-MCDA techniques. A new spatially-explicit approach and Dempster–Shafer Theory (DST) are employed to assess the uncertainties associated with two MCDA techniques, namely Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) and Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) implemented in GIS. The methodology is composed of three different phases. First, weights are computed to express the relative importance of factors (criteria) for landslide susceptibility. Next, the uncertainty and sensitivity of landslide susceptibility is analyzed as a function of weights using Monte Carlo Simulation and Global Sensitivity Analysis. Finally, the results are validated using a landslide inventory database and by applying DST. The comparisons of the obtained landslide susceptibility maps of both MCDA techniques with known landslides show that the AHP outperforms OWA. However, the OWA-generated landslide susceptibility map shows lower uncertainty than the AHP-generated map. The results demonstrate that further improvement in the accuracy of GIS-based MCDA can be achieved by employing an integrated uncertainty–sensitivity analysis approach, in which the uncertainty of landslide susceptibility model is decomposed and attributed to model's criteria weights. PMID:25843987

  13. Aerodynamic Design Criteria for Class 8 Heavy Vehicles Trailer Base Devices to Attain Optimum Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Salari, K; Ortega, J

    2010-12-13

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of its Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), and Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) effort has investigated class 8 tractor-trailer aerodynamics for many years. This effort has identified many drag producing flow structures around the heavy vehicles and also has designed and tested many new active and passive drag reduction techniques and concepts for significant on the road fuel economy improvements. As part of this effort a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design for aerodynamic drag reduction devices has been established. The objective of this report is to provide design guidance for trailer base devices to improve their aerodynamic performance. These devices are commonly referred to as boattails, base flaps, tail devices, and etc. The information provided here is based on past research and our most recent full-scale experimental investigations in collaboration with Navistar Inc. Additional supporting data from LLNL/Navistar wind tunnel, track test, and on the road test will be published soon. The trailer base devices can be identified by 4 flat panels that are attached to the rear edges of the trailer base to form a closed cavity. These devices have been engineered in many different forms such as, inflatable and non-inflatable, 3 and 4-sided, closed and open cavity, and etc. The following is an in-depth discussion with some recommendations, based on existing data and current research activities, of changes that could be made to these devices to improve their aerodynamic performance. There are 6 primary factors that could influence the aerodynamic performance of trailer base devices: (1) Deflection angle; (2) Boattail length; (3) Sealing of edges and corners; (4) 3 versus 4-sided, Position of the 4th plate; (5) Boattail vertical extension, Skirt - boattail transition; and (6) Closed versus open cavity.

  14. Acceptability of a Personally Controlled Health Record in a Community-Based Setting: Implications for Policy and Design

    PubMed Central

    Kaci, Liljana; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2009-01-01

    Background Consumer-centered health information systems that address problems related to fragmented health records and disengaged and disempowered patients are needed, as are information systems that support public health monitoring and research. Personally controlled health records (PCHRs) represent one response to these needs. PCHRs are a special class of personal health records (PHRs) distinguished by the extent to which users control record access and contents. Recently launched PCHR platforms include Google Health, Microsoft’s HealthVault, and the Dossia platform, based on Indivo. Objective To understand the acceptability, early impacts, policy, and design requirements of PCHRs in a community-based setting. Methods Observational and narrative data relating to acceptability, adoption, and use of a personally controlled health record were collected and analyzed within a formative evaluation of a PCHR demonstration. Subjects were affiliates of a managed care organization run by an urban university in the northeastern United States. Data were collected using focus groups, semi-structured individual interviews, and content review of email communications. Subjects included: n = 20 administrators, clinicians, and institutional stakeholders who participated in pre-deployment group or individual interviews; n = 52 community members who participated in usability testing and/or pre-deployment piloting; and n = 250 subjects who participated in the full demonstration of which n = 81 initiated email communications to troubleshoot problems or provide feedback. All data were formatted as narrative text and coded thematically by two independent analysts using a shared rubric of a priori defined major codes. Sub-themes were identified by analysts using an iterative inductive process. Themes were reviewed within and across research activities (ie, focus group, usability testing, email content review) and triangulated to identify patterns. Results Low levels of familiarity with

  15. Modified distance in average linkage based on M-estimator and MADn criteria in hierarchical cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muda, Nora; Othman, Abdul Rahman

    2015-10-01

    The process of grouping a set of objects into classes of similar objects is called clustering. It divides a large group of observations into smaller groups so that the observations within each group are relatively similar and the observations in different groups are relatively dissimilar. In this study, an agglomerative method in hierarchical cluster analysis is chosen and clusters were constructed by using an average linkage technique. An average linkage technique requires distance between clusters, which is calculated based on the average distance between all pairs of points, one group with another group. In calculating the average distance, the distance will not be robust when there is an outlier. Therefore, the average distance in average linkage needs to be modified in order to overcome the problem of outlier. Therefore, the criteria of outlier detection based on MADn criteria is used and the average distance is recalculated without the outlier. Next, the distance in average linkage is calculated based on a modified one step M-estimator (MOM). The groups of cluster are presented in dendrogram graph. To evaluate the goodness of a modified distance in the average linkage clustering, the bootstrap analysis is conducted on the dendrogram graph and the bootstrap value (BP) are assessed for each branch in dendrogram that formed the group, to ensure the reliability of the branches constructed. This study found that the average linkage technique with modified distance is significantly superior than the usual average linkage technique, if there is an outlier. Both of these techniques are said to be similar if there is no outlier.

  16. Acceptability and user satisfaction of a smartphone-based, interactive blood glucose management system in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Jane E; Mackillop, Lucy; Loerup, Lise; Kevat, Dev A; Bartlett, Katy; Gibson, Oliver; Kenworthy, Yvonne; Levy, Jonathan C; Tarassenko, Lionel; Farmer, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The increase in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is challenging maternity services. We have developed an interactive, smartphone-based, remote blood glucose (BG) monitoring system, GDm-health. The objective was to determine women's satisfaction with using the GDm-health system and their attitudes toward their diabetes care. In a service development program involving 52 pregnant women (September 2012 to June 2013), BG was monitored using GDm-health from diagnosis until delivery. Following birth, women completed a structured questionnaire assessing (1) general satisfaction, (2) equipment issues, and (3) relationship with the diabetes care team. Responses were scored on a 7-point Likert-type scale. Reliability and validity of the questionnaire were assessed using statistical methods. Of 52 women, 49 completed the questionnaire; 32 had glucose tolerance test confirmed GDM (gestation at recruitment 29 ± 4 weeks (mean ± SD), and 17 women previous GDM recommended for BG monitoring (18 ± 6 weeks). In all, 45 of 49 women agreed their care was satisfactory and the best for them, 47 of 49 and 43 of 49 agreed the equipment was convenient and reliable respectively, 42 of 49 agreed GDm-health fitted into their lifestyle, and 46 of 49 agreed they had a good relationship with their care team. Written comments supported these findings, with very positive reactions from the majority of women. Cronbach's alpha was .89 with factor analysis corresponding with question thematic trends. This pilot demonstrates that GDm-health is acceptable and convenient for a large proportion of women. Effects on clinical and economic outcomes are currently under investigation in a randomized trial (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01916694).

  17. Design Criteria for Work-Based Learning: Merrill's First Principles of Instruction Expanded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty; Margaryan, Anoush

    2005-01-01

    In multinational corporations, new models of learning are developing. A particular model with direct applications for challenges facing distributed workforces is one that combines the strengths of formal and informal learning while focusing on participants' work-based tasks. An operationalisation of this model in the context of the ongoing…

  18. Intra-District Resource Allocation and Criteria Used for Student Based Funding in Urban School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aloo, Peter Mangla

    2011-01-01

    Resource allocation to school sites in public school districts is inequitable. While Student Based Funding (SBF) has been implemented in several major urban school districts, there are few empirical studies about how SBF policies are derived and implemented. Current efforts to align resources with student need are hindered by a lack of systematic,…

  19. Some Useful Cost-Benefit Criteria for Evaluating Computer-Based Test Delivery Models and Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecht, Richard M.

    2005-01-01

    Computer-based testing (CBT) is typically implemented using one of three general test delivery models: (1) multiple fixed testing (MFT); (2) computer-adaptive testing (CAT); or (3) multistage testing (MSTs). This article reviews some of the real cost drivers associated with CBT implementation--focusing on item production costs, the costs…

  20. Towards bioavailability-based soil criteria: Past, present and future perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioavailability has been used as a key indicator in chemical risk assessment, yet it is a poorly quantified risk factor. Worldwide, the framework used to assess potentially contaminated sites is similar and the decisions are based on threshold contaminant concentration. The uncertainty in the defin...

  1. Defining criteria for good environmental journalism and testing their applicability: An environmental news review as a first step to more evidence based environmental science reporting.

    PubMed

    Rögener, Wiebke; Wormer, Holger

    2015-08-11

    While the quality of environmental science journalism has been the subject of much debate, a widely accepted benchmark to assess the quality of coverage of environmental topics is missing so far. Therefore, we have developed a set of defined criteria of environmental reporting. This instrument and its applicability are tested in a newly established monitoring project for the assessment of pieces on environmental issues, which refer to scientific sources and therefore can be regarded as a special field of science journalism. The quality is assessed in a kind of journalistic peer review. We describe the systematic development of criteria, which might also be a model procedure for other fields of science reporting. Furthermore, we present results from the monitoring of 50 environmental reports in German media. According to these preliminary data, the lack of context and the deficient elucidation of the evidence pose major problems in environmental reporting.

  2. Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueders, Kathryn L.; Thomas, Rayelle E. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria contains descriptions of technical, safety, and crew health medical processes and specifications, and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of the Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  3. Analysis of Utility and Use of a Web-Based Tool for Digital Signal Processing Teaching by Means of a Technological Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toral, S. L.; Barrero, F.; Martinez-Torres, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study about the development of a structural and measurement model for the technological acceptance (TAM) of a web-based educational tool. The aim consists of measuring not only the use of this tool, but also the external variables with a significant influence in its use for planning future improvements. The tool,…

  4. Clinical Considerations in Using Mindfulness- and Acceptance-Based Approaches With Diverse Populations: Addressing Challenges in Service Delivery in Diverse Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobczak, LaTanya Rucker; West, Lindsey M.

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness- and acceptance-based strategies effectively alter clients' relationships with their internal experiences, which may have been previously restricted, avoided, or even beyond clients' awareness. Even though the scientific exploration of the psychological benefits of mindfulness in the treatment literature continues to be in its infancy,…

  5. A Randomized Control Trial Examining the Effect of Acceptance and Commitment Training on Clinician Willingness to Use Evidence-Based Pharmacotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varra, Alethea A.; Hayes, Steven C.; Roget, Nancy; Fisher, Gary

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment training (ACT) for increasing drug and alcohol counselors' willingness to use evidence-based agonist and antagonist pharmacotherapy. Fifty-nine drug and alcohol counselors were randomly assigned to either a 1-day ACT workshop or a 1-day educational control workshop. Both groups…

  6. A Model for Beliefs, Tool Acceptance Levels and Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Science and Technology Preservice Teachers towards Web Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horzum, Mehmet Baris; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    One of the applications applied most nowadays is web based instruction (WBI). Although there are many studies on WBI, no study which researched the relations between beliefs for WBI, WBI tools acceptance levels and web pedagogical content knowledge (WPCK) of science and technology pre-service teachers was found among these studies. The aim of this…

  7. Determination of disk diffusion susceptibility testing interpretive criteria using model-based analysis: development and implementation.

    PubMed

    DePalma, Glen; Turnidge, John; Craig, Bruce A

    2017-02-01

    The determination of diffusion test breakpoints has become a challenging issue due to the increasing resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics. Currently, the most commonly-used method for determining these breakpoints is the modified error-rate bounded method. Its use has remained widespread despite the introduction of several model-based methods that have been shown superior in terms of precision and accuracy. However, the computational complexities associated with these new approaches has been a significant barrier for clinicians. To remedy this, we developed and examine the utility of a free online software package designed for the determination of diffusion test breakpoints: dBETS (diffusion Breakpoint Estimation Testing Software). This software package allows clinicians to easily analyze data from susceptibility experiments through visualization, error-rate bounded, and model-based approaches. We analyze four publicly available data sets from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute using dBETS.

  8. Resolvable cycle criteria for identifying personnel based on clothing and armament variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, Steve; Devitt, Nicole

    2005-05-01

    In the urban environment, it may be necessary to identify personnel based on their type of dress. Observing a police officer or soldier might require a different response than observing an armed civilian. This paper reports on the required number of resolvable cycles to identify different personnel based upon the variations of their clothing and armament. Longwave (LWIR), and midwave infrared (MWIR) images of twelve people at twelve aspects were collected. These images were blurred and 11 human observers performed a 12-alternative forced choice visual identification experiment. The results of the human perception experiments were used to measure the required number of resolvable cycles for identifying these personnel. These results are used in modeling sensor performance tasks and improving war-game simulations oriented to the urban environment.

  9. A Maximin Approach for the Bi-criteria 0-1 Random Fuzzy Programming Problem Based on the Necessity Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Hasuike, Takashi; Ishii, Hiroaki; Katagiri, Hideki

    2009-10-08

    This paper considers a bi-criteria general 0-1 random fuzzy programming problem based on the degree of necessity which include some previous 0-1 stochastic and fuzzy programming problems. The proposal problem is not well-defined due to including randomness and fuzziness. Therefore, by introducing chance constraint and fuzzy goals for objectives, and considering the maximization of the aspiration level for total profit and the degree of necessity that the objective function's value satisfies the fuzzy goal, the main problem is transformed into a deterministic equivalent problem. Furthermore, by using the assumption that each random variable is distributed according to a normal distribution, the problem is equivalently transformed into a basic 0-1 programming problem, and the efficient strict solution method to find an optimal solution is constructed.

  10. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  11. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  12. Can state-of-the-art HVS-based objective image quality criteria be used for image reconstruction techniques based on ROI analysis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostal, P.; Krasula, L.; Klima, M.

    2012-06-01

    Various image processing techniques in multimedia technology are optimized using visual attention feature of the human visual system. Spatial non-uniformity causes that different locations in an image are of different importance in terms of perception of the image. In other words, the perceived image quality depends mainly on the quality of important locations known as regions of interest. The performance of such techniques is measured by subjective evaluation or objective image quality criteria. Many state-of-the-art objective metrics are based on HVS properties; SSIM, MS-SSIM based on image structural information, VIF based on the information that human brain can ideally gain from the reference image or FSIM utilizing the low-level features to assign the different importance to each location in the image. But still none of these objective metrics utilize the analysis of regions of interest. We solve the question if these objective metrics can be used for effective evaluation of images reconstructed by processing techniques based on ROI analysis utilizing high-level features. In this paper authors show that the state-of-the-art objective metrics do not correlate well with subjective evaluation while the demosaicing based on ROI analysis is used for reconstruction. The ROI were computed from "ground truth" visual attention data. The algorithm combining two known demosaicing techniques on the basis of ROI location is proposed to reconstruct the ROI in fine quality while the rest of image is reconstructed with low quality. The color image reconstructed by this ROI approach was compared with selected demosaicing techniques by objective criteria and subjective testing. The qualitative comparison of the objective and subjective results indicates that the state-of-the-art objective metrics are still not suitable for evaluation image processing techniques based on ROI analysis and new criteria is demanded.

  13. Acceptability of a web-based community reinforcement approach for substance use disorders with treatment-seeking American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Aimee N C; Turrigiano, Eva; Moore, Michelle; Miele, Gloria M; Rieckmann, Traci; Hu, Mei-Chen; Kropp, Frankie; Ringor-Carty, Roz; Nunes, Edward V

    2015-05-01

    Longstanding disparities in substance use disorders and treatment access exist among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN). Computerized, web-delivered interventions have potential to increase access to quality treatment and improve patient outcomes. Prior research supports the efficacy of a web-based version [therapeutic education system (TES)] of the community reinforcement approach to improve outcomes among outpatients in substance abuse treatment; however, TES has not been tested among AI/AN. The results from this mixed method acceptability study among a diverse sample of urban AI/AN (N = 40) show that TES was acceptable across seven indices (range 7.8-9.4 on 0-10 scales with 10 indicating highest acceptability). Qualitative interviews suggest adaptation specific to AI/AN culture could improve adoption. Additional efforts to adapt TES and conduct a larger effectiveness study are warranted.

  14. Acceptability of a Web-based Community Reinforcement Approach for Substance Use Disorders with Treatment-seeking American Indians/Alaska Natives

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Turrigiano, Eva; Moore, Michelle; Miele, Gloria M.; Rieckmann, Traci; Hu, Mei-Chen; Kropp, Frankie; Ringor-Carty, Roz; Nunes, Edward V.

    2014-01-01

    Longstanding disparities in substance use disorders and treatment access exist among American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/AN). Computerized, web-delivered interventions have potential to increase access to quality treatment and improve patient outcomes. Prior research supports the efficacy of a web-based version (Therapeutic Education System [TES]) of the Community Reinforcement Approach to improve outcomes among outpatients in substance abuse treatment; however, TES has not been tested among AI/AN. The results from this mixed method acceptability study among a diverse sample of urban AI/AN (N=40) show that TES was acceptable across seven indices (range=7.8 to 9.4 on 0 to 10 scales with 10 indicating highest acceptability). Qualitative interviews suggest adaptation specific to AI/AN culture could improve adoption. Additional efforts to adapt TES and conduct a larger effectiveness study are warranted. PMID:25022913

  15. Assessment of ecological passages along road networks within the Mediterranean forest using GIS-based multi criteria evaluation approach.

    PubMed

    Gülci, Sercan; Akay, Abdullah Emin

    2015-12-01

    Major roads cause barrier effect and fragmentation on wildlife habitats that are suitable places for feeding, mating, socializing, and hiding. Due to wildlife collisions (Wc), human-wildlife conflicts result in lost lives and loss of biodiversity. Geographical information system (GIS)-based multi criteria evaluation (MCE) methods have been successfully used in short-term planning of road networks considering wild animals. Recently, wildlife passages have been effectively utilized as road engineering structures provide quick and certain solutions for traffic safety and wildlife conservation problems. GIS-based MCE methods provide decision makers with optimum location for ecological passages based on habitat suitability models (HSMs) that classify the areas based on ecological requirements of target species. In this study, ecological passages along Motorway 52 within forested areas in Mediterranean city of Osmaniye in Turkey were evaluated. Firstly, HSM coupled with nine eco-geographic decision variables were developed based on ecological requirements of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) that were chosen as target species. Then specified decision variables were evaluated using GIS-based weighted linear combination (WLC) method to estimate movement corridors and mitigation points along the motorway. In the solution process, two linkage nodes were evaluated for eco-passages which were determined based on the least-cost movement corridor intersecting with the motorway. One of the passages was identified as a natural wildlife overpass while the other was suggested as underpass construction. The results indicated that computer-based models provide accurate and quick solutions for positioning ecological passages to reduce environmental effects of road networks on wild animals.

  16. Composting process design criteria. II. Detention time

    SciTech Connect

    Haug, R.T.

    1986-09-01

    Attention has always been directed to detention time as a criteria for design and operation of composting systems. Perhaps this is a logical outgrowth of work on liquid phase systems, where detention time is a fundamental parameter of design. Unlike liquid phase systems, however, the interpretation of detention time and actual values required for design have not been universally accepted in the case of composting. As a case in point, most compost systems incorporate facilities for curing the compost product. However, curing often is considered after the fact or as an add on with little relationship to the first stage, high-rate phase, whether reactor (in-vessel), static pile, or windrow. Design criteria for curing and the relationships between the first-stage, high-rate and second-stage, curing phases of a composting system have been unclear. In Part 2 of this paper, the concepts of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids residence time (SRT) are applied to the composting process. Definitions and design criteria for each are proposed. Based on these criteria, the first and second-stages can be designed and integrated into a complete composting system.

  17. An Empirical Examination of EFL Learners' Perceptual Learning Styles and Acceptance of ASR-Based Computer-Assisted Pronunciation Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Liwei

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the structural relationships among the variables of EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' perceptual learning styles and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Three hundred and forty-one (n = 341) EFL learners were invited to join a self-regulated English pronunciation training program through automatic speech…

  18. Defining the Utility of Clinically Acceptable Variations in Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines for Evaluation of Quality Improvement Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lescoe-Long, Mary; Long, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the usefulness of systematically accounting for acceptable physician variations in guideline application. Review of 141 cases of treatment of acute myocardial infarction in a Canadian hospital show that even seemingly noncontentious guideline protocols do not offer a threshold of variation similar to conventional Continuous Quality…

  19. Feasibility and Acceptability of Classroom-Based Interventions for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Challenges at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State, Talida M.; Harrison, Judith R.; Kern, Lee; Lewis, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the feasibility and acceptability of interventions designed to address the needs of high school students with emotional and behavioral challenges and adopted by their teachers. In this study, 336 general and special education teachers rated classwide interventions (e.g., expectations, routines, positive student-teacher…

  20. Analyses of Acceptability Judgments Made Toward the Use of Nanocarrier-Based Targeted Drug Delivery: Interviews with Researchers and Research Trainees in the Field of New Technologies.

    PubMed

    Chenel, Vanessa; Boissy, Patrick; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre; Patenaude, Johane

    The assessment of nanotechnology applications such as nanocarrier-based targeted drug delivery (TDD) has historically been based mostly on toxicological and safety aspects. The use of nanocarriers for TDD, a leading-edge nanomedical application, has received little study from the angle of experts' perceptions and acceptability, which may be reflected in how TDD applications are developed. In recent years, numerous authors have maintained that TDD assessment should also take into account impacts on ethical, environmental, economic, legal, and social (E(3)LS) issues in order to lead to socially responsible innovation. Semi-structured interviews (n = 22) were conducted with French and Canadian researchers and research trainees with diverse disciplinary backgrounds and involved in research related to emerging technologies. The interviews focussed on scenarios presenting two types of TDD nanocarriers (carbon, synthetic DNA) in two contexts of use (lung cancer, seasonal flu). Content and inductive analyses of interviews showed how facets of perceived impacts such as health, environment, social cohabitation, economy, life and death, representations of the human being and nature, and technoscience were weighed in acceptability judgments. The analyses also revealed that contextual factors related to device (nature of the treatment), to use (gravity of the disease), and to user (culture) influenced the weighting assigned to perceived impacts and thus contributed to variability in interviewees' judgments of acceptability. Giving consideration to researchers' perspective could accompany first steps of implementation and development of nanomedicine by producing a first, but wide, picture of the acceptability of nanocarrier-based TDD.

  1. Development and acceptability of a novel milk-free soybean-maize-sorghum ready-to-use therapeutic food (SMS-RUTF) based on industrial extrusion cooking process.

    PubMed

    Owino, Victor O; Irena, Abel H; Dibari, Filippo; Collins, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Peanut milk-based ready-to-use therapeutic food (P-RUTF) primarily used to treat severe acute malnutrition at community setting is expensive. We developed an alternative milk-free soybean-maize-sorghum-based RUTF (SMS-RUTF) using locally grown ingredients that have the potential to support local economy and reduce the cost of RUTF. We describe the production process and results of acceptability of the new product. Acceptability and tolerance of SMS-RUTF was compared with P-RUTF among 45 children aged 4-11 years old based on a cross-over design. Each child consumed 250 g RUTF for 10 days followed by a five-day washout period and a subsequent 10-day period on the second RUTF. The SMS-RUTF was as acceptable as the P-RUTF among normal children aged 4-11 years of age with no associated adverse effects. SMS-RUTF was stable for at least 12 months without detectable microbiological or chemical deterioration. The major challenge encountered in SMS-RUTF development was the difficulty to accurately determine key nutrient composition due to its high oil content. Use of diversified locally available ingredients to produce RUTF is feasible. The SMS-RUTF meets expected standards and is acceptable to children aged 4-11 months old. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of SMS-RUTF is required.

  2. Prognostic Health Monitoring System: Component Selection Based on Risk Criteria and Economic Benefit Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Binh T. Pham; Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J Lybeck; Magdy S Tawfik

    2012-05-01

    Prognostic health monitoring (PHM) is a proactive approach to monitor the ability of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) to withstand structural, thermal, and chemical loadings over the SSCs planned service lifespans. The current efforts to extend the operational license lifetime of the aging fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants from 40 to 60 years and beyond can benefit from a systematic application of PHM technology. Implementing a PHM system would strengthen the safety of nuclear power plants, reduce plant outage time, and reduce operation and maintenance costs. However, a nuclear power plant has thousands of SSCs, so implementing a PHM system that covers all SSCs requires careful planning and prioritization. This paper therefore focuses on a component selection that is based on the analysis of a component's failure probability, risk, and cost. Ultimately, the decision on component selection depend on the overall economical benefits arising from safety and operational considerations associated with implementing the PHM system.

  3. Microinstability-based models for confinement properties and ignition criteria in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, W.M.; Bishop, C.M.; Coppi, B.; Kaye, S.M.; Perkins, F.W.; Redi, M.H.; Rewoldt, G.

    1987-02-01

    This paper reports on results of theoretical studies dealing with: (1) the use of microinstability-based thermal transport models to interpret the anomalous confinement properties observed in key tokamak experiments such as TFTR and (2) the likely consequences of the presence of such instabilities for future ignition devices. Transport code simulations using profile-consistent forms of anomalous thermal diffusivities due to drift-type instabilities have yielded good agreement with the confinement times and temperatures observed in TFTR under a large variety of operating conditions including pellet-fuelling in both ohmic- and neutral-beam-heated discharges. With regard to achieving an optimal ignition margin, the adverse temperature scaling of anomalous losses caused by drift modes leads to the conclusion that it is best to operate at the maximum allowable density while holding the temperature close to the minimum value required for ignition.

  4. Establishing and Validating Empirically-Based Ground Truth Criteria for Seismic Events Recorded on Regional Networks (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-30

    against the existing global criteria for a range of tectonic settings (i.e., stable craton, plateau within a collisional zone, and an active rift). We...the global 2004 and 2009 criteria. Now that the EBGT criteria appropriate for each tectonic setting has been established, in the second part of this...Plateau resulted from a continent-continent collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates , creating an uplifted region (5km of topography in places

  5. Factors that influence acceptance of web-based e-learning systems for the in-service education of junior high school teachers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Ren; Tseng, Hsiao-Fen

    2012-08-01

    Web-based e-learning is not restricted by time or place and can provide teachers with a learning environment that is flexible and convenient, enabling them to efficiently learn, quickly develop their professional expertise, and advance professionally. Many research reports on web-based e-learning have neglected the role of the teacher's perspective in the acceptance of using web-based e-learning systems for in-service education. We distributed questionnaires to 402 junior high school teachers in central Taiwan. This study used the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as our theoretical foundation and employed the Structure Equation Model (SEM) to examine factors that influenced intentions to use in-service training conducted through web-based e-learning. The results showed that motivation to use and Internet self-efficacy were significantly positively associated with behavioral intentions regarding the use of web-based e-learning for in-service training through the factors of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. The factor of computer anxiety had a significantly negative effect on behavioral intentions toward web-based e-learning in-service training through the factor of perceived ease of use. Perceived usefulness and motivation to use were the primary reasons for the acceptance by junior high school teachers of web-based e-learning systems for in-service training.

  6. Identification in residue analysis based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry: Experimental evidence to update performance criteria.

    PubMed

    Mol, Hans G J; Zomer, Paul; García López, Mónica; Fussell, Richard J; Scholten, Jos; de Kok, Andre; Wolheim, Anne; Anastassiades, Michelangelo; Lozano, Ana; Fernandez Alba, Amadeo

    2015-05-11

    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is one of the most widely used techniques for identification (and quantification) of residues and contaminants across a number of different chemical domains. Although the same analytical technique is used, the parameters and criteria for identification vary depending on where in the world the analysis is performed and for what purpose (e.g. determination of pesticides, veterinary drugs, forensic toxicology, sports doping). The rationale for these differences is not clear and in most cases the criteria are essentially based on expert opinions rather than underpinned by experimental data. In the current study, the variability of the two key identification parameters, retention time and ion ratio, was assessed and compared against requirements set out in different legal and guidance documents. The study involved the analysis of 120 pesticides, representing various chemical classes, polarities, molecular weights, and detector response factors, in 21 different fruit and vegetable matrices of varying degrees of complexity. The samples were analysed non-fortified, and fortified at 10, 50 and 200 μg kg(-1), in five laboratories using different LC-MS/MS instruments and conditions. In total, over 135,000 extracted-ion chromatograms were manually verified to provide an extensive data set for the assessment. The experimental data do not support relative tolerances for retention time, or different tolerances for ion ratios depending on relative abundance of the two product ions measured. Retention times in today's chromatographic systems are sufficiently stable to justify an absolute tolerance of ±0.1 min. Ion ratios are stable as long as sufficient response is obtained for both product ions. Ion ratio deviations are typically within ±20% (relative), and within ±45% (relative) in case the response of product ions are close to the limit of detection. Ion ratio tolerances up to 50% did not result in false positives and

  7. Evaluation of Uncertainty-Based Stopping Criteria for Monte Carlo Calculations of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and Arc Therapy Patient Dose Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderstraeten, Barbara Olteanu, Ana Maria Luiza; Reynaert, Nick; Leal, Antonio; Neve, Wilfried de; Thierens, Hubert

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To formulate uncertainty-based stopping criteria for Monte Carlo (MC) calculations of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and intensity-modulated arc therapy patient dose distributions and evaluate their influence on MC simulation times and dose characteristics. Methods and Materials: For each structure of interest, stopping criteria were formulated as follows: {sigma}{sub rel} {<=}{sigma}{sub rel,tol} or D{sigma}{sub rel} {<=}D{sub lim}{sigma}{sub rel,tol} within {>=}95% of the voxels, where {sigma}{sub rel} represents the relative statistical uncertainty on the estimated dose, D. The tolerated uncertainty ({sigma}{sub rel,tol}) was 2%. The dose limit (D{sub lim}) equaled the planning target volume (PTV) prescription dose or a dose value related to the organ at risk (OAR) planning constraints. An intensity-modulated radiotherapy-lung, intensity-modulated radiotherapy-ethmoid sinus, and intensity-modulated arc therapy-rectum patient case were studied. The PTV-stopping criteria-based calculations were compared with the PTV+OAR-stopping criteria-based calculations. Results: The MC dose distributions complied with the PTV-stopping criteria after 14% (lung), 21% (ethmoid), and 12% (rectum) of the simulation times of a 100 million histories reference calculation, and increased to 29%, 44%, and 51%, respectively, by the addition of the OAR-stopping criteria. Dose-volume histograms corresponding to the PTV-stopping criteria, PTV+OAR-stopping criteria, and reference dose calculations were indiscernible. The median local dose differences between the PTV-stopping criteria and the reference calculations amounted to 1.4% (lung), 2.1% (ethmoid), and 2.5% (rectum). Conclusions: For the patient cases studied, the MC calculations using PTV-stopping criteria only allowed accurate treatment plan evaluation. The proposed stopping criteria provided a flexible tool to assist MC patient dose calculations. The structures of interest and appropriate values of {sigma}{sub rel

  8. Societal Risk Evaluation Scheme (SRES): Scenario-Based Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Synthetic Biology Applications.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Christopher L; Kuzma, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic biology (SB) applies engineering principles to biology for the construction of novel biological systems designed for useful purposes. From an oversight perspective, SB products come with significant uncertainty. Yet there is a need to anticipate and prepare for SB applications before deployment. This study develops a Societal Risk Evaluation Scheme (SRES) in order to advance methods for anticipatory governance of emerging technologies such as SB. The SRES is based upon societal risk factors that were identified as important through a policy Delphi study. These factors range from those associated with traditional risk assessment, such as health and environmental consequences, to broader features of risk such as those associated with reversibility, manageability, anticipated levels of public concern, and uncertainty. A multi-disciplinary panel with diverse perspectives and affiliations assessed four case studies of SB using the SRES. Rankings of the SRES components are compared within and across the case studies. From these comparisons, we found levels of controllability and familiarity associated with the cases to be important for overall SRES rankings. From a theoretical standpoint, this study illustrates the applicability of the psychometric paradigm to evaluating SB cases. In addition, our paper describes how the SRES can be incorporated into anticipatory governance models as a screening tool to prioritize research, information collection, and dialogue in the face of the limited capacity of governance systems. To our knowledge, this is the first study to elicit data on specific cases of SB with the goal of developing theory and tools for risk governance.

  9. Societal Risk Evaluation Scheme (SRES): Scenario-Based Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Synthetic Biology Applications

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic biology (SB) applies engineering principles to biology for the construction of novel biological systems designed for useful purposes. From an oversight perspective, SB products come with significant uncertainty. Yet there is a need to anticipate and prepare for SB applications before deployment. This study develops a Societal Risk Evaluation Scheme (SRES) in order to advance methods for anticipatory governance of emerging technologies such as SB. The SRES is based upon societal risk factors that were identified as important through a policy Delphi study. These factors range from those associated with traditional risk assessment, such as health and environmental consequences, to broader features of risk such as those associated with reversibility, manageability, anticipated levels of public concern, and uncertainty. A multi-disciplinary panel with diverse perspectives and affiliations assessed four case studies of SB using the SRES. Rankings of the SRES components are compared within and across the case studies. From these comparisons, we found levels of controllability and familiarity associated with the cases to be important for overall SRES rankings. From a theoretical standpoint, this study illustrates the applicability of the psychometric paradigm to evaluating SB cases. In addition, our paper describes how the SRES can be incorporated into anticipatory governance models as a screening tool to prioritize research, information collection, and dialogue in the face of the limited capacity of governance systems. To our knowledge, this is the first study to elicit data on specific cases of SB with the goal of developing theory and tools for risk governance. PMID:28052080

  10. Data selection criteria in star-based monitoring of GOES imager visible-channel responsivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, I.-Lok; Crosby, David; Dean, Charles; Weinreb, Michael; Baltimore, Perry; Baucom, Jeanette; Han, Dejiang

    2004-10-01

    Monitoring the responsivities of the visible channels of the operational Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) is an on-going effort at NOAA. Various techniques are being used. In this paper we describe the technique based on the analysis of star signals that are used in the GOES Orbit and Attitude Tracking System (OATS) for satellite attitude and orbit determination. Time series of OATS star observations give information on the degradation of the detectors of a visible channel. Investigations of star data from the past three years have led to several modifications of the method we initially used to calculate the exponential degradation coefficient of a star-signal time series. First we observed that different patterns of detector output versus time result when star images drift across the detector array along different trajectories. We found that certain trajectories should be rejected in the data analysis. We found also that some detector-dependent weighting coefficients used in the OATS analysis tend to scatter the star signals measured by different detectors. We present a set of modifications to our star monitoring algorithms for resolving such problems. Other simple enhancements on the algorithms will also be described. With these modifications, the time series of the star signals show less scatter. This allows for more confidence in the estimated degradation rates and a more realistic statistical analysis on the extent of uncertainty in those rates. The resulting time series and estimated degradation rates for the visible channels of GOES-8 and GOES-10 Imagers will be presented.

  11. Agriculture land suitability analysis evaluation based multi criteria and GIS approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedawi Ahmed, Goma; Shariff, Abdul Rashid M.; Balasundram, Siva Kumar; Abdullah, Ahmad Fikri bin

    2016-06-01

    Land suitability evaluation (LSE) is a valuable tool for land use planning in major countries of the world as well as in Malaysia. However, previous LSE studies have been conducted with the use of biophysical and ecological datasets for the design of equally important socio-economic variables. Therefore, this research has been conducted at the sub national level to estimate suitable agricultural land for rubber crops in Seremban, Malaysia by application of physical variables in combination with widely employed biophysical and ecological variables. The objective of this study has been to provide an up-to date GIS-based agricultural land suitability evaluation (ALSE) for determining suitable agricultural land for Rubber crops in Malaysia. Biophysical and ecological factors were assumed to influence agricultural land use were assembled and the weights of their respective contributions to land suitability for agricultural uses were assessed using an analytic hierarchical process. The result of this study found Senawang, Mambau, Sandakan and Rantau as the most suitable areas for cultivating Rubber; whereas, Nilai and Labu are moderately suitable for growing rubber. Lenggeng, Mantin and Pantai are not suitable for growing rubber as the study foresaw potential environmental degradation of these locations from agricultural intensification. While this study could be useful in assessing the potential agricultural yields and potential environmental degradation in the study area, it could also help to estimate the potential conversion of agricultural land to non-agricultural uses.

  12. Feasibility and acceptability of artemisinin-based combination therapy for the home management of malaria in four African sites

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Browne, Edmund N; Garshong, Bertha; Bateganya, Fred; Yusuf, Bidemi; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Doamekpor, Leticia; Balyeku, Andrew; Munguti, Kaendi; Cousens, Simon; Pagnoni, Franco

    2008-01-01

    Background The Home Management of Malaria (HMM) strategy was developed using chloroquine, a now obsolete drug, which has been replaced by artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in health facility settings. Incorporation of ACT in HMM would greatly expand access to effective antimalarial therapy by the populations living in underserved areas in malaria endemic countries. The feasibility and acceptability of incorporating ACT in HMM needs to be evaluated. Methods A multi-country study was performed in four district-size sites in Ghana (two sites), Nigeria and Uganda, with populations ranging between 38,000 and 60,000. Community medicine distributors (CMDs) were trained in each village to dispense pre-packaged ACT to febrile children aged 6–59 months, after exclusion of danger signs. A community mobilization campaign accompanied the programme. Artesunate-amodiaquine (AA) was used in Ghana and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in Nigeria and Uganda. Harmonized qualitative and quantitative data collection methods were used to evaluate CMD performance, caregiver adherence and treatment coverage of febrile children with ACTs obtained from CMDs. Results Some 20,000 fever episodes in young children were treated with ACT by CMDs across the four study sites. Cross-sectional surveys identified 2,190 children with fever in the two preceding weeks, of whom 1,289 (59%) were reported to have received ACT from a CMD. Coverage varied from 52% in Nigeria to 75% in Ho District, Ghana. Coverage rates did not appear to vary greatly with the age of the child or with the educational level of the caregiver. A very high proportion of children were reported to have received the first dose on the day of onset or the next day in all four sites (range 86–97%, average 90%). The proportion of children correctly treated in terms of dose and duration was also high (range 74–97%, average 85%). Overall, the proportion of febrile children who received prompt treatment and the correct dose for

  13. Linking criteria for incipient motion to field-based measures of bed load transport capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitlick, J.

    2015-12-01

    Early studies of sediment transport, such as those of Gilbert (1914) and Shields (1936), laid the groundwork for countless other studies of bed load entrainment and transport. Gilbert and Shields emphasized somewhat different aspects of sediment transport in their writing, but they had similar objectives in experimenting with conditions that affect both incipient motion and bed load transport capacity. The problem of predicting incipient motion is thus inextricably linked to the problem of predicting bed load transport capacity. In this talk I will discuss field-based approaches for evaluating incipient motion at channel-length scales ranging from a few km to many 10s of km. In the best-case scenario, where time and equipment are available to sample the bed load, the most robust approach for determining incipient motion is to extrapolate from measurements taken over a range of flows, and find the shear stress corresponding to a low but measureable transport rate. Alternatively, if channel properties (width, depth, slope and grain size) can be measured at a sufficient number of locations (say, more than 20), the reference shear stress can be estimated by assuming it scales with the channel-forming (bankfull) shear stress. Another new approach, which makes use of repeat aerial LiDAR and records of daily discharge, is to develop a two-parameter sediment rating curve that produces the same sediment flux for a time series of daily flows as the sediment flux estimated from topographic differencing. Last, in situations where a qualitative (yes/no) assessment of sediment motion is sufficient (e.g. during a reservoir release), longitudinal variations in bed load transport intensity can be detected with acoustical sensors- hydrophones- mounted on a kayak or boat equipped with a global positioning system (GPS). Pros and cons of these different approaches will also be discussed.

  14. Integrating knowledge-based multi-criteria evaluation techniques with GIS for landfill site selection: A case study using AHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagbohun, B. J.; Aladejana, O. O.

    2016-09-01

    A major challenge in most growing urban areas of developing countries, without a pre-existing land use plan is the sustainable and efficient management of solid wastes. Siting a landfill is a complicated task because of several environmental regulations. This challenge gives birth to the need to develop efficient strategies for the selection of proper waste disposal sites in accordance with all existing environmental regulations. This paper presents a knowledge-based multi-criteria decision analysis using GIS for the selection of suitable landfill site in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. In order to identify suitable sites for landfill, seven factors - land use/cover, geology, river, soil, slope, lineament and roads - were taken into consideration. Each factor was classified and ranked based on prior knowledge about the area and existing guidelines. Weights for each factor were determined through pair-wise comparison using Saaty's 9 point scale and AHP. The integration of factors according to their weights using weighted index overlay analysis revealed that 39.23 km2 within the area was suitable to site a landfill. The resulting suitable area was classified as high suitability covering 6.47 km2 (16.49%), moderate suitability 25.48 km2 (64.95%) and low suitability 7.28 km2 (18.56%) based on their overall weights.

  15. Overcoming recruitment challenges of web-based interventions for tobacco use: the case of web-based acceptance and commitment therapy for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Wyszynski, Christopher M; Comstock, Bryan; Mercer, Laina D; Bricker, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    Web-based behavioral interventions for substance use are being developed at a rapid pace, yet there is a dearth of information regarding the most effective methods for recruiting participants into web-based intervention trials. In this paper, we describe our successful recruitment of participants into a pilot trial of web-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for smoking cessation and compare traditional and web-based methods of recruitment in terms of their effects on baseline participant characteristics, association with study retention and treatment outcome, yield, and cost-effectiveness. Over a 10-week period starting June 15, 2010, we recruited 222 smokers for a web-based smoking cessation study using a variety of recruitment methods. The largest portion of randomized participants were recruited through Google AdWords (36%), followed by medical Internet media (23%), standard media (14%), word of mouth (12%), broadcast emails (11%), and social media (6%). Recruitment source was not related to baseline participant characteristics, 3-month data retention, or 30-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at the 3-month outcome assessment. Cost per randomized participant ranged from $5.27/participant for word of mouth to $172.76/participant for social media, with a mean cost of $42.48/participant. Our diversified approach to recruitment, including both traditional and web-based methods, enabled timely enrollment of participants into the study. Because there was no evidence of a substantive difference in baseline characteristics, retention, or outcomes based on recruitment channel, the yield and cost-effectiveness of recruitment methods may be the more critical considerations in developing a feasible recruitment plan for a web-based smoking cessation intervention study.

  16. Covariance Based Pre-Filters and Screening Criteria for Conjunction Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, E., Chan, K.

    2012-09-01

    Several relationships are developed relating object size, initial covariance and range at closest approach to probability of collision. These relationships address the following questions: - Given the objects' initial covariance and combined hard body size, what is the maximum possible value of the probability of collision (Pc)? - Given the objects' initial covariance, what is the maximum combined hard body radius for which the probability of collision does not exceed the tolerance limit? - Given the objects' initial covariance and the combined hard body radius, what is the minimum miss distance for which the probability of collision does not exceed the tolerance limit? - Given the objects' initial covariance and the miss distance, what is the maximum combined hard body radius for which the probability of collision does not exceed the tolerance limit? The first relationship above allows the elimination of object pairs from conjunction analysis (CA) on the basis of the initial covariance and hard-body sizes of the objects. The application of this pre-filter to present day catalogs with estimated covariance results in the elimination of approximately 35% of object pairs as unable to ever conjunct with a probability of collision exceeding 1x10-6. Because Pc is directly proportional to object size and inversely proportional to covariance size, this pre-filter will have a significantly larger impact on future catalogs, which are expected to contain a much larger fraction of small debris tracked only by a limited subset of available sensors. This relationship also provides a mathematically rigorous basis for eliminating objects from analysis entirely based on element set age or quality - a practice commonly done by rough rules of thumb today. Further, these relations can be used to determine the required geometric screening radius for all objects. This analysis reveals the screening volumes for small objects are much larger than needed, while the screening volumes for

  17. 16 CFR 1031.12 - Membership criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Membership criteria. 1031.12 Section 1031.12... EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN VOLUNTARY STANDARDS ACTIVITIES Employee Involvement § 1031.12 Membership criteria..., the Commission's Voluntary Standards Coordinator may accept such membership. (c) Commission...

  18. 16 CFR 1031.12 - Membership criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Membership criteria. 1031.12 Section 1031.12... EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN VOLUNTARY STANDARDS ACTIVITIES Employee Involvement § 1031.12 Membership criteria..., the Commission's Voluntary Standards Coordinator may accept such membership. (c) Commission...

  19. 16 CFR 1031.12 - Membership criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership criteria. 1031.12 Section 1031.12... EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN VOLUNTARY STANDARDS ACTIVITIES Employee Involvement § 1031.12 Membership criteria..., the Commission's Voluntary Standards Coordinator may accept such membership. (c) Commission...

  20. 16 CFR 1031.12 - Membership criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Membership criteria. 1031.12 Section 1031.12... EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN VOLUNTARY STANDARDS ACTIVITIES Employee Involvement § 1031.12 Membership criteria..., the Commission's Voluntary Standards Coordinator may accept such membership. (c) Commission...

  1. 16 CFR 1031.12 - Membership criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Membership criteria. 1031.12 Section 1031.12... EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN VOLUNTARY STANDARDS ACTIVITIES Employee Involvement § 1031.12 Membership criteria..., the Commission's Voluntary Standards Coordinator may accept such membership. (c) Commission...

  2. Feasibility and acceptability of CD-ROM-based cognitive-behavioural treatment for binge-eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Jennifer R; Reba-Harrelson, Lauren; Dymek-Valentine, Maureen; Woolson, Sandra L; Hamer, Robert M; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2007-05-01

    We compared preliminary feasibility and acceptability of CD-ROM-delivered CBT for overweight individuals with binge-eating disorder (BED) to 10 weekly group CBT sessions (Group) and to a waiting list control (WL). Attrition was numerically greater in the Group than the CD-ROM condition; although only Group differed significantly from WL in dropout rates. Those in the CD-ROM condition reported continued use of their CD-ROM after treatment. Also, the majority of WL participants elected to receive CD-ROM over Group treatment at the end of the waiting period. Preliminarily, no significant differences emerged across the active treatment groups on most outcome measures. However, there was a significantly greater decline in binge days in the two active groups relative to WL. CD-ROM appears to be an acceptable and at least initially preferred method of CBT delivery for overweight individuals with BED.

  3. HLAMatchmaker-based strategy to identify acceptable HLA class I mismatches for highly sensitized kidney transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, Rene J; Witvliet, Marian; Doxiadis, Ilias I N; de Fijter, Hans; Claas, Frans H J

    2004-01-01

    HLAMatchmaker determines HLA compatibility at the level of polymorphic amino acid triplets in antibody-accessible sequence positions. Recent studies have shown that among HLA-DR-matched kidney transplants, the HLA-A,B antigen mismatches which are compatible at the triplet level have almost identical graft survival rates as the zero-HLA-A,B antigen mismatches. This finding provides the basis of a new strategy to identify HLA-mismatched organs that have similar success rates as the zero-HLA-antigen mismatches. This report describes how in conjunction with the Acceptable Mismatch program in Eurotransplant, HLAMatchmaker can expand the pool of potential donors for highly sensitized patients, for whom it is very difficult to find a compatible transplant. Sera from 35 highly sensitized kidney transplant candidates with an average PRA of 96% were screened by lymphocytotoxicity with HLA-typed panels that included cells that were selectively mismatched for one or two HLA antigens for each patient. Acceptable and unacceptable HLA-A,B antigen mismatches were determined from the serum reactivity with the cell panel. HLAMatchmaker analysis was applied to identify additional HLA class I antigens that were matched at the triplet level. For each patient, we calculated the probability of finding a donor (PFD) in the different match categories from HLA gene frequencies in the kidney donor population. The median PFD for a zero-antigen mismatch was 0.025%. Matching at the triplet level increased the median PFD to 0.037% ( P = 0.008). The median PFD was 0.058% for a 0-1-triplet mismatch and 0.226% for a 0-2-triplet mismatch. Serum screening identified acceptable antigen mismatches for 28 of 35 highly sensitized patients, and the median PFD increased to 0.307% for a zero/acceptable antigen mismatch. The application of HLAMatchmaker permitted for 33 patients (or 92%) the identification of additional antigens that were acceptable at the triplet level, and the median PFD for a zero/acceptable

  4. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-10-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility.

  5. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  6. Common Risk Criteria for National Test Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    operations, excluding aviation operations. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Range Safety Group; debris injury thresholds; debris hazard thresholds; acceptable...excluding aviation operations. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Range Safety Group; debris injury thresholds; debris hazard thresholds; acceptable risk criteria 16...uncertainty applies to all hazards, not just debris . h. Modifying the description of catastrophic risk in Chapter 4 and Chapter 7 of the Supplement

  7. [About the introduction the criteria of brain death in Poland in 1984].

    PubMed

    Paprocka-Lipińska, Anna

    2016-09-29

    Significant recovery of discussion about the need for the formulation of criteria of death was provoked due to the progress of medicine. Development of anaesthesiology and intensive therapy, introduction of new resuscitation techniques and devices, which are increasingly better able to maintain and sometimes even replace functions of the respiratory or cardiovascular system, which are essential for the survival meant that existing for centuries, socially accepted classical criteria of death, based on cessation of breath and circulation, are no longer sufficient. The criteria of brain death developed by the Ad Hoc Committee - 12-experts commission at Harvard University, published in Journal of American Medical Association in August 1968 and were the breaking point. The concept has been adopted and accepted by society in many countries soon, while in Poland the process of formulating and introduction of criteria for brain death took much more time. Based on the available literature and preserved archival materials, this article describing the process of development of new death criteria, acceptance by the National Team of Specialists and publication in 1984 the announcement by the Minister of Health and Social Welfare about the criteria of brain death.

  8. COMPARING RATING PARADIGMS FOR EVIDENCE-BASED PROGRAM REGISTERS IN BEHAVIORAL HEALTH: EVIDENTIARY CRITERIA AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ASSESSING PROGRAMS

    PubMed Central

    Means, Stephanie N.; Magura, Stephen; Burkhardt, Jason T.; Schröter, Daniela C.; Coryn, Chris L.S.

    2014-01-01

    Decision makers need timely and credible information about the effectiveness of behavioral health interventions. Online evidence-based program registers (EBPRs) have been developed to address this need. However, the methods by which these registers determine programs and practices as being “evidence-based” has not been investigated in detail. This paper examines the evidentiary criteria EBPRs use to rate programs and the implications for how different registers rate the same programs. Although the registers tend to employ a standard Campbellian hierarchy of evidence to assess evaluation results, there is also considerable disagreement among the registers about what constitutes an adequate research design and sufficient data for designating a program as evidence-based. Additionally, differences exist in how registers report findings of “no effect,” which may deprive users of important information. Of all programs on the 15 registers that rate individual programs, 79% appear on only one register. Among a random sample of 100 programs rated by more than one register, 42% were inconsistently rated by the multiple registers to some degree. PMID:25450778

  9. Optimality criteria-based topology optimization of a bi-material model for acoustic-structural coupled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Linyuan; Zhao, Guozhong

    2016-06-01

    This article investigates topology optimization of a bi-material model for acoustic-structural coupled systems. The design variables are volume fractions of inclusion material in a bi-material model constructed by the microstructure-based design domain method (MDDM). The design objective is the minimization of sound pressure level (SPL) in an interior acoustic medium. Sensitivities of SPL with respect to topological design variables are derived concretely by the adjoint method. A relaxed form of optimality criteria (OC) is developed for solving the acoustic-structural coupled optimization problem to find the optimum bi-material distribution. Based on OC and the adjoint method, a topology optimization method to deal with large calculations in acoustic-structural coupled problems is proposed. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the applications of topology optimization for a bi-material plate under a low single-frequency excitation and an aerospace structure under a low frequency-band excitation, and to prove the efficiency of the adjoint method and the relaxed form of OC.

  10. Identifying High-Risk Populations of Tuberculosis Using Environmental Factors and GIS Based Multi-Criteria Decision Making Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasam, A. R. Abdul; Shariff, N. M.; Dony, J. F.

    2016-09-01

    Development of an innovative method to enhance the detection of tuberculosis (TB) in Malaysia is the latest agenda of the Ministry of Health. Therefore, a geographical information system (GIS) based index model is proposed as an alternative method for defining potential high-risk areas of local TB cases at Section U19, Shah Alam. It is adopted a spatial multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method for ranking environmental risk factors of the disease in a standardised five-score scale. Scale 1 and 5 illustrate the lowest and the highest risk of the TB spread respectively, while scale from 3 to 5 is included as a potential risk level. These standardised scale values are then combined with expert normalised weights (0 to 1) to calculate the overall index values and produce a TB ranked map using a GIS overlay analysis and weighted linear combination. It is discovered that 71.43% of the Section is potential as TB high risk areas particularly at urban and densely populated settings. This predictive result is also reliable with the current real cases in 2015 by 76.00% accuracy. A GIS based MCDM method has demonstrated analytical capabilities in targeting high-risk spots and TB surveillance monitoring system of the country, but the result could be strengthened by applying other uncertainty assessment method.

  11. A proposal for new criteria for the classification of hantaviruses, based on S and M segment protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Maes, Piet; Klempa, Boris; Clement, Jan; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Gajdusek, D Carleton; Krüger, Detlev H; Van Ranst, Marc

    2009-09-01

    Hantaviruses, members of the family Bunyaviridae, are the causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Hantaviruses are currently demarcated into species based on the guidelines provided by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). These guidelines however, are often ignored by the descriptors of novel hantaviruses. With this study we attempted to refine the second ICTV guideline for hantavirus species demarcation by phylogenetically analyzing all in Genbank available complete sequences derived from the S, M or L segments of hantaviruses. S and M segment amino acid sequence comparison allowed clear and unequivocal distinction between different hantavirus species, and lead us to propose additional criteria for the demarcation of hantavirus species (S segment amino acid distance >10% or M segment amino acid distance >12%) and hantavirus groups (S segment amino distance >24% or M segment amino acid distance >32%). With this study, we propose to adjust the second rule of the ICTV classification guidelines ("a 7% difference in amino acid identity when comparing the complete S segment and M segment sequences") to a more appropriate rule, "a 10% difference in S segment similarity and a 12% difference in M segment similarity based on complete amino acid sequences" in accordance with the current situation in the hantavirus field.

  12. [Criteria for the reintegration to their jobs of workers with musculoskeletal pathologies of the upper limbs based on preliminary practical experiences].

    PubMed

    Colombini, D; Menoni, O; De Marco, F; Ricci, M G; Bergamasco, R; Grea, V; Girola, C; Occhipinti, E

    1996-01-01

    The report presents a preliminary study on the return to the workforce of employees with WMSDs of the upper limbs, and their reallocation to jobs with "low exposure". The study, which is still underway, involves a large engineering firm and includes some 100 workers affected by WMSDs. The trial envisages: providing a definition of the criteria for characterising "accommodating" jobs (i.e. frequency of action < or = 20 actions per minute; virtual absence of other risk factors such as force, posture, inadequate pauses, etc.); concretely identifying jobs meeting such criteria (or jobs which, with minimal modifications, could be made suitable); classifying WMSDs workers, according to the type and severity of the disorder; matching WMSDs workers with the jobs best suited to them; specific training for the workers and their supervisors; carrying out a follow-up of the return of WMSDs workers to the workforce in organisational terms (i.e. need for further modifications to equipment or procedures) and clinical terms (i.e. symptom patterns, acceptability of the condition). The preliminary results, 6-12 months after the start of the trial, are extremely encouraging, and show that when workers return to the workforce in jobs that fully meet defined criteria, a significant prevalence of "improvements" are reported among the involved workers. The investigation will need to be extended, but already it shows quite convincingly that it is possible for workers with what can be described as a "reduced working capacity" to remain "productive" (albeit in jobs featuring a lower exposure potential than the acceptable threshold for "healthy" workers).

  13. Flight Termination Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, Jerold M.; Larson, Erik

    2013-09-01

    The first line of defense in protecting the public against the threat of injury from a failing space booster is the flight termination system. Consequently, these systems must be highly reliable and the criteria for flight termination must be carefully formulated. Criteria must be developed based on observable data that allows adequate time for the data to be assessed and a flight termination action to be triggered. Criteria should be set so that 1) the chance a good vehicle will be terminated is small, 2) the chance of failing to terminate an errant vehicle before it can hazard population centers or valuable assets is minimal, and 3) there is assurance that the combination of the planned trajectory and mission rules do not induce excessive risks to land based populations, air lanes, and shipping lanes should the vehicle need to be terminated [1].This paper provides an overview of the approaches to developing and implement flight termination criteria and a tool for understanding risk implications of proposed criteria.

  14. Young Children’s Affective Responses to Acceptance and Rejection From Peers: A Computer-based Task Sensitive to Variation in Temperamental Shyness and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, Grace Z.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a novel task examining young children’s affective responses to evaluative feedback—specifically, social acceptance and rejection—from peers. We aimed to determine (1) whether young children report their affective responses to hypothetical peer evaluation predictably and consistently, and (2) whether young children’s responses to peer evaluation vary as a function of temperamental shyness and gender. Four- to seven-year-old children (N = 48) sorted pictures of unknown, similar-aged children into those with whom they wished or did not wish to play. Computerized peer evaluation later noted whether the pictured children were interested in a future playdate with participants. Participants then rated their affective responses to each acceptance or rejection event. Children were happy when accepted by children with whom they wanted to play, and disappointed when these children rejected them. Highly shy boys showed a wider range of responses to acceptance and rejection based on initial social interest, and may be particularly sensitive to both positive and negative evaluation. Overall, the playdate task captures individual differences in affective responses to evaluative peer feedback and is potentially amenable to future applications in research with young children, including pairings with psychophysiological measures. PMID:23997429

  15. User Acceptance of a Software Tool for Decision Making in IT Outsourcing: A Qualitative Study in Large Companies from Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, Christoffer; Hodosi, Georg; Saprykina, Irina; Rusu, Lazar

    Decisions for IT outsourcing are very complex and needs to be supported by considerations based on many (multiple) criteria. In order to facilitate the use of a specific tool by a decision-maker in IT outsourcing, we need to find out whether such a tool for this purpose will be accepted or rejected or what improvements must be added to this tool to be accepted by some IT decision makers in large companies from Sweden.

  16. Modeling nurses' attitude toward using automated unit-based medication storage and distribution systems: an extension of the technology acceptance model.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Rodríguez, Tomás; Romero-Alonso, María Mercedes

    2013-05-01

    This article analyzes the attitude of nurses toward the use of automated unit-based medication storage and distribution systems and identifies influencing factors. Understanding these factors provides an opportunity to explore actions that might be taken to boost adoption by potential users. The theoretical grounding for this research is the Technology Acceptance Model. The Technology Acceptance Model specifies the causal relationships between perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude toward using, and actual usage behavior. The research model has six constructs, and nine hypotheses were generated from connections between these six constructs. These constructs include perceived risks, experience level, and training. The findings indicate that these three external variables are related to the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of automated unit-based medication storage and distribution systems, and therefore, they have a significant influence on attitude toward the use of these systems.

  17. Deformability-based circulating tumor cell separation with conical-shaped microfilters: Concept, optimization, and design criteria

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaolin; Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) separation technology has made positive impacts on cancer science in many aspects. The ability of detecting and separating CTCs can play a key role in early cancer detection and treatment. In recent years, there has been growing interest in using deformability-based CTC separation microfilters due to their simplicity and low cost. Most of the previous studies in this area are mainly based on experimental work. Although experimental research provides useful insights in designing CTC separation devices, there is still a lack of design guidelines based on fundamental understandings of the cell separation process in the filters. While experimental efforts face challenges, especially microfabrication difficulties, we adopt numerical simulation here to study conical-shaped microfilters using deformability difference between CTCs and blood cells for the separation process. We use the liquid drop model for modeling a CTC passing through such microfilters. The accuracy of the model in predicting the pressure signature of the system is validated by comparing it with previous experiments. Pressure-deformability analysis of the cell going through the channel is then carried out in detail in order to better understand how a CTC behaves throughout the filtration process. Different system design criteria such as system throughput and unclogging of the system are discussed. Specifically, pressure behavior under different system throughput is analyzed. Regarding the unclogging issue, we define pressure ratio as a key parameter representing the ability to overcome clogging in such CTC separation devices and investigate the effect of conical angle on the optimum pressure ratio. Finally, the effect of unclogging applied pressure on the system performance is examined. Our study provides detailed understandings of the cell separation process and its characteristics, which can be used for developing more efficient CTC separation devices. PMID:26064193

  18. Morphometry and land cover based multi-criteria analysis for assessing the soil erosion susceptibility of the western Himalayan watershed.

    PubMed

    Altaf, Sadaff; Meraj, Gowhar; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Complex mountainous environments such as Himalayas are highly susceptibility to natural hazards particular those that are triggered by the action of water such as floods, soil erosion, mass movements and siltation of the hydro-electric power dams. Among all the natural hazards, soil erosion is the most implicit and the devastating hazard affecting the life and property of the millions of people living in these regions. Hence to review and devise strategies to reduce the adverse impacts of soil erosion is of utmost importance to the planners of watershed management programs in these regions. This paper demonstrates the use of satellite based remote sensing data coupled with the observational field data in a multi-criteria analytical (MCA) framework to estimate the soil erosion susceptibility of the sub-watersheds of the Rembiara basin falling in the western Himalaya, using geographical information system (GIS). In this paper, watershed morphometry and land cover are used as an inputs to the MCA framework to prioritize the sub-watersheds of this basin on the basis of their different susceptibilities to soil erosion. Methodology included the derivation of a set of drainage and land cover parameters that act as the indicators of erosion susceptibility. Further the output from the MCA resulted in the categorization of the sub-watersheds into low, medium, high and very high erosion susceptibility classes. A detailed prioritization map for the susceptible sub-watersheds based on the combined role of land cover and morphometry is finally presented. Besides, maps identifying the susceptible sub-watersheds based on morphometry and land cover only are also presented. The results of this study are part of the watershed management program in the study area and are directed to instigate appropriate measures to alleviate the soil erosion in the study area.

  19. Deformability-based circulating tumor cell separation with conical-shaped microfilters: Concept, optimization, and design criteria.

    PubMed

    Aghaamoo, Mohammad; Zhang, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiaolin; Xu, Jie

    2015-05-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) separation technology has made positive impacts on cancer science in many aspects. The ability of detecting and separating CTCs can play a key role in early cancer detection and treatment. In recent years, there has been growing interest in using deformability-based CTC separation microfilters due to their simplicity and low cost. Most of the previous studies in this area are mainly based on experimental work. Although experimental research provides useful insights in designing CTC separation devices, there is still a lack of design guidelines based on fundamental understandings of the cell separation process in the filters. While experimental efforts face challenges, especially microfabrication difficulties, we adopt numerical simulation here to study conical-shaped microfilters using deformability difference between CTCs and blood cells for the separation process. We use the liquid drop model for modeling a CTC passing through such microfilters. The accuracy of the model in predicting the pressure signature of the system is validated by comparing it with previous experiments. Pressure-deformability analysis of the cell going through the channel is then carried out in detail in order to better understand how a CTC behaves throughout the filtration process. Different system design criteria such as system throughput and unclogging of the system are discussed. Specifically, pressure behavior under different system throughput is analyzed. Regarding the unclogging issue, we define pressure ratio as a key parameter representing the ability to overcome clogging in such CTC separation devices and investigate the effect of conical angle on the optimum pressure ratio. Finally, the effect of unclogging applied pressure on the system performance is examined. Our study provides detailed understandings of the cell separation process and its characteristics, which can be used for developing more efficient CTC separation devices.

  20. A subjective framework for seat comfort based on a heuristic multi criteria decision making technique and anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Fazlollahtabar, Hamed

    2010-12-01

    Consumer expectations for automobile seat comfort continue to rise. With this said, it is evident that the current automobile seat comfort development process, which is only sporadically successful, needs to change. In this context, there has been growing recognition of the need for establishing theoretical and methodological automobile seat comfort. On the other hand, seat producer need to know the costumer's required comfort to produce based on their interests. The current research methodologies apply qualitative approaches due to anthropometric specifications. The most significant weakness of these approaches is the inexact extracted inferences. Despite the qualitative nature of the consumer's preferences there are some methods to transform the qualitative parameters into numerical value which could help seat producer to improve or enhance their products. Nonetheless this approach would help the automobile manufacturer to provide their seats from the best producer regarding to the consumers idea. In this paper, a heuristic multi criteria decision making technique is applied to make consumers preferences in the numeric value. This Technique is combination of Analytical Hierarchy Procedure (AHP), Entropy method, and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). A case study is conducted to illustrate the applicability and the effectiveness of the proposed heuristic approach.