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Sample records for acceptance magnetic spectrometer

  1. The MAGNEX large acceptance spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Carbone, D.; Foti, A.

    2010-03-01

    The main features of the MAGNEX large acceptance magnetic spectrometer are described. It has a quadrupole + dipole layout and a hybrid detector located at the focal plane. The aberrations due to the large angular (50 msr) and momentum (+- 13%) acceptance are reduced by an accurate hardware design and then compensated by an innovative software ray-reconstruction technique. The obtained resolution in energy, angle and mass are presented in the paper. MAGNEX has been used up to now for different experiments in nuclear physics and astrophysics confirming to be a multipurpose device.

  2. The CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecking, B. A.; Adams, G.; Ahmad, S.; Anciant, E.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Asryan, G.; Audit, G.; Auger, T.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J. P.; Barbosa, F. J.; Barrow, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Beard, K.; Berman, B. L.; Bianchi, N.; Boiarinov, S.; Bonneau, P.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Carstens, T.; Cetina, C.; Christo, S. B.; Cole, P. L.; Coleman, A.; Connelly, J.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Crannell, H.; Cuevas, R. C.; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Dennis, L.; DeSanctis, E.; DeVita, R.; Distelbrink, J.; Dodge, G. E.; Dodge, W.; Doolittle, G.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Duncan, W. S.; Dytman, S.; Egiyan, H.; Egiyan, K. S.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Feuerbach, R. J.; Ficenec, J.; Frolov, V.; Funsten, H.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Golovatch, E.; Gram, J.; Guidal, M.; Gyurjyan, V.; Heddle, D.; Hemler, P.; Hersman, F. W.; Hicks, K.; Hicks, R. S.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; Insley, D.; Ito, M. M.; Jacobs, G.; Jenkins, D.; Joo, K.; Joyce, D.; Kashy, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Klusman, M.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L.; Koubarovski, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lake, A.; Lawrence, D.; Longhi, A.; Lukashin, K.; Lachniet, J.; Magahiz, R. A.; Major, W.; Manak, J. J.; Marchand, C.; Martin, C.; Matthews, S. K.; McMullen, M.; McNabb, J. W. C.; Mestayer, M. D.; Minehart, R.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Muccifora, V.; Mueller, J.; Murphy, L. Y.; Mutchler, G. S.; Napolitano, J.; Niculescu, I.; Niczyporuk, B. B.; Nozar, M.; O'Brien, J. T.; Opper, A. K.; O'Meara, J. E.; Pasyuk, E.; Philips, S. A.; Polli, E.; Price, J. W.; Pozdniakov, S.; Qin, L. M.; Raue, B. A.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Riggs, C.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Robb, J.; Ronchetti, F.; Rossi, P.; Roudot, F.; Salgado, C.; Sapunenko, V.; Schumacher, R. A.; Serov, V. S.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, L. C.; Smith, T.; Sober, D. I.; Stavinsky, A.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, W. M.; Taylor, S.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Thoma, U.; Thompson, R.; Tilles, D.; Todor, L.; Tung, T. Y.; Tuzel, W.; Vineyard, M. F.; Vlassov, A. V.; Weinstein, L. B.; Welsh, R. E.; Weygand, D. P.; Wilkin, G. R.; Witkowski, M.; Wolin, E.; Yegneswaran, A.; Yergin, P.; Yun, J.

    2003-05-01

    The CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS) is used to study photo- and electro-induced nuclear and hadronic reactions by providing efficient detection of neutral and charged particles over a good fraction of the full solid angle. A collaboration of about 30 institutions has designed, assembled, and commissioned CLAS in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The CLAS detector is based on a novel six-coil toroidal magnet which provides a largely azimuthal field distribution. Trajectory reconstruction using drift chambers results in a momentum resolution of 0.5% at forward angles. Cherenkov counters, time-of-flight scintillators, and electromagnetic calorimeters provide good particle identification. Fast triggering and high data-acquisition rates allow operation at a luminosity of 10 34 nucleon cm -2 s-1. These capabilities are being used in a broad experimental program to study the structure and interactions of mesons, nucleons, and nuclei using polarized and unpolarized electron and photon beams and targets. This paper is a comprehensive and general description of the design, construction and performance of CLAS.

  3. ISS Update: Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Trent Martin, Johnson Space Center project manager for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) aboard the International Space Station. Questions...

  4. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Overview

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is flying to the station on STS-134. The AMS experiment is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 ...

  5. MICE Spectrometer Magnet System Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.

    2007-08-27

    The first magnets for the muon ionization cooling experimentwill be the tracker solenoids that form the ends of the MICE coolingchannel. The primary purpose of the tracker solenoids is to provide auniform 4 T field (to better than +-0.3 percent over a volume that is 1meter long and 0.3 meters in diameter) spectrometer magnet field for thescintillating fiber detectors that are used to analyze the muons in thechannel before and after ionization cooling. A secondary purpose for thetracker magnet is the matching of the muon beam between the rest of theMICE cooling channel and the uniform field spectrometer magnet. Thetracker solenoid is powered by three 300 amp power supplies. Additionaltuning of the spectrometer is provided by a pair of 50 amp power suppliesacross the spectrometer magnet end coils. The tracker magnet will becooled using a pair of 4 K pulse tube coolers that each provide 1.5 W ofcooling at 4.2 K. Final design and construction of the tracker solenoidsbegan during the summer of 2006. This report describes the progress madeon the construction of the tracker solenoids.

  6. Workshop on high-resolution, large-acceptance spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Zeidman, B.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on High-Resolution, Large-Acceptance Spectrometers was to provide a means for exchange of information among those actively engaged in the design and construction of these new spectrometers. Thirty-seven papers were prepared for the data base.

  7. Polarization Measurements in Photoproduction with CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    E. Pasyuk

    2010-05-01

    A significant part of the experimental program in Hall-B of the Jefferson Lab is dedicated to the studies of the structure of baryons. CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS), availability of circularly and linearly polarized photon beams and recent addition of polarized targets provides remarkable opportunity for single, double and in some cases triple polarization measurements in photoproduction. An overview of the experiments will be presented.

  8. First Results from The MAGNEX Large Acceptance Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Carbone, D.; Schillaci, C.; Foti, A.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Petrascu, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2008-11-11

    The MAGNEX large-acceptance spectrometer was commissioned with beams from the LNS Tandem. First results of physical interest are presented. The obtained 10{sup -3} energy resolution confirms the ambitious characteristic of the calculations and allows considering the instrument as an ideal tool for future studies in the field of nuclear spectroscopy and reaction mechanisms at incident energies not far form the Coulomb barrier.

  9. R×B drift momentum spectrometer with high resolution and large phase space acceptance.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Konrad, G; Abele, H

    2013-02-11

    We propose a new type of momentum spectrometer, which uses the R×B drift effect to disperse the charged particles in a uniformly curved magnetic field, and measures the particles with large phase space acceptance and high resolution. This kind of R×B spectrometer is designed for the momentum analyses of the decay electrons and protons in the PERC (Proton and Electron Radiation Channel) beam station, which provides a strong magnetic field to guide the charged particles in the instrument. Instead of eliminating the guiding field, the R×B spectrometer evolves the field gradually to the analysing field, and the charged particles can be adiabatically transported during the dispersion and detection. The drifts of the particles have similar properties as their dispersion in the normal magnetic spectrometer. Besides, the R×B spectrometer is especially ideal for the measurements of particles with low momenta and large incident angles. We present a design of the R×B spectrometer, which can be used in PERC. For the particles with solid angle smaller than 88 msr, the maximum aberration is below 10(-4). The resolution of the momentum spectra can reach 14.4 keV/c, if the particle position measurements have a resolution of 1 mm. PMID:23576831

  10. An improved nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Manatt, S. L.

    1967-01-01

    Cylindrical sample container provides a high degree of nuclear stabilization to a nuclear magnetic resonance /nmr/ spectrometer. It is placed coaxially about the nmr insert and contains reference sample that gives a signal suitable for locking the field and frequency of an nmr spectrometer with a simple audio modulation system.

  11. MICE Spectrometer Solenoid Magnetic Field Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Leonova, M.

    2013-09-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate ionization cooling in a muon beam. Its goal is to measure a 10% change in transverse emittance of a muon beam going through a prototype Neutrino Factory cooling channel section with an absolute measurement accuracy of 0.1%. To measure emittances, MICE uses two solenoidal spectrometers, with Solenoid magnets designed to have 4 T fields, uniform at 3 per mil level in the tracking volumes. Magnetic field measurements of the Spectrometer Solenoid magnet SS2, and analysis of coil parameters for input into magnet models will be discussed.

  12. What Happened with Spectrometer Magnet 2B

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A

    2010-05-27

    The spectrometer solenoid is supposed to be the first magnets installed in MICE [1]-[4]. This report described what happened during the test of the MICE spectrometer solenoid 2B. First, the report describes the temperatures in the magnet, the cooler top plate and the shield during the run where the magnet quenched at 258 A. During this quench, a lead between the bottom of the HTS leads and the diode bank burned out causing the magnet to quench. Second, three methods for measuring the net heat flow into the cold mass are described. Third, there is a discussion of possible resistive heating in the HTS leads between liquid helium temperature and the copper plate, which is at about 50 K. Fourth, there is a discussion of the measured first stage heat loads in the magnet, when there is no current in the magnet. The first stage heat load calculations are based on knowing the first stage temperatures of the three two-stage pulse tube coolers and the single stage GM cooler. Fifth, the estimated heat load to the first stage when the magnet has current in it is discussed. Sixth, there is a comparison of the stage 1 heat loads in magnet 1A [5], magnet 2A [6], and magnet 2B [7]. Finally there is a discussion of recommended changes for improving the spectrometer solenoids so that the coolers can keep them cold.

  13. Superconducting magnets for space flight. [magnetic cosmic ray spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The operating principle and application of superconducting magnetic spectrometers for cosmic ray analysis are described. Magnetic spectrometer experiments are thought to be possible in the areas of charge composition and its possible energy dependence, isotopic separation up to several GeV/n, electrons and positrons energy spectra, galactic secondary antiprotons, searches for primordial antimatter, searches for substructure in energy spectra, and gamma ray astronomy. Operational problems associated with the magnets are discussed, and a possible shuttle payload is also described.

  14. A high resolution, broad energy acceptance spectrometer for laser wakefield acceleration experiments.

    PubMed

    Sears, Christopher M S; Cuevas, Sofia Benavides; Schramm, Ulrich; Schmid, Karl; Buck, Alexander; Habs, Dieter; Krausz, Ferenc; Veisz, Laszlo

    2010-07-01

    Laser wakefield experiments present a unique challenge in measuring the resulting electron energy properties due to the large energy range of interest, typically several 100 MeV, and the large electron beam divergence and pointing jitter >1 mrad. In many experiments the energy resolution and accuracy are limited by the convolved transverse spot size and pointing jitter of the beam. In this paper we present an electron energy spectrometer consisting of two magnets designed specifically for laser wakefield experiments. In the primary magnet the field is produced by permanent magnets. A second optional electromagnet can be used to obtain better resolution for electron energies above 75 MeV. The spectrometer has an acceptance of 2.5-400 MeV (E(max)/E(min)>100) with a resolution of better than 1% rms for electron energies above 25 MeV. This high resolution is achieved by refocusing electrons in the energy plane and without any postprocessing image deconvolution. Finally, the spectrometer employs two complimentary detection mechanisms: (1) absolutely calibrated scintillation screens imaged by cameras outside the vacuum chamber and (2) an array of scintillating fibers coupled to a low-noise charge-coupled device. PMID:20687714

  15. A high resolution, broad energy acceptance spectrometer for laser wakefield acceleration experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Christopher M. S.; Cuevas, Sofia Benavides; Veisz, Laszlo; Schramm, Ulrich; Schmid, Karl; Buck, Alexander; Habs, Dieter; Krausz, Ferenc

    2010-07-15

    Laser wakefield experiments present a unique challenge in measuring the resulting electron energy properties due to the large energy range of interest, typically several 100 MeV, and the large electron beam divergence and pointing jitter >1 mrad. In many experiments the energy resolution and accuracy are limited by the convolved transverse spot size and pointing jitter of the beam. In this paper we present an electron energy spectrometer consisting of two magnets designed specifically for laser wakefield experiments. In the primary magnet the field is produced by permanent magnets. A second optional electromagnet can be used to obtain better resolution for electron energies above 75 MeV. The spectrometer has an acceptance of 2.5-400 MeV (E{sub max}/E{sub min}>100) with a resolution of better than 1% rms for electron energies above 25 MeV. This high resolution is achieved by refocusing electrons in the energy plane and without any postprocessing image deconvolution. Finally, the spectrometer employs two complimentary detection mechanisms: (1) absolutely calibrated scintillation screens imaged by cameras outside the vacuum chamber and (2) an array of scintillating fibers coupled to a low-noise charge-coupled device.

  16. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindi, V.

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a particle physics detector designed to measure charged cosmic rays spectra up to TV region, with high energy photon detection capability up to few hundred GeV. With the large acceptance, the long duration (3 years) and the state of the art particle identification techniques, AMS will provide the most sensitive search for the existence of anti matter nuclei and for the origin of dark matter. The detector is being constructed with an eight layers Silicon Tracker inside a large superconducting magnet, providing a ~ 0.8 Tm2 bending power and an acceptance of ~ 0.5 m2 sr. A Transition Radiation Detector and a 3D Electromagnetic Calorimeter allow for electron, positron and photon identification, while independent velocity measurements are performed by a Time of Flight scintillating system and a Ring Image Cerenkov detector. This contribution will describe the current status of the overall detector construction and its expected performances

  17. Associated Particle Tagging (APT) in Magnetic Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, David V.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Sean C.; Chichester, David; Dale, Daniel; Kim, Yujong; Harmon, Frank

    2012-10-16

    Summary In Brief The Associated Particle Tagging (APT) project, a collaboration of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Idaho State University (ISU)/Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), has completed an exploratory study to assess the role of magnetic spectrometers as the linchpin technology in next-generation tagged-neutron and tagged-photon active interrogation (AI). The computational study considered two principle concepts: (1) the application of a solenoidal alpha-particle spectrometer to a next-generation, large-emittance neutron generator for use in the associated particle imaging technique, and (2) the application of tagged photon beams to the detection of fissile material via active interrogation. In both cases, a magnetic spectrometer momentum-analyzes charged particles (in the neutron case, alpha particles accompanying neutron generation in the D-T reaction; in the tagged photon case, post-bremsstrahlung electrons) to define kinematic properties of the relevant neutral interrogation probe particle (i.e. neutron or photon). The main conclusions of the study can be briefly summarized as follows: Neutron generator: • For the solenoidal spectrometer concept, magnetic field strengths of order 1 Tesla or greater are required to keep the transverse size of the spectrometer smaller than 1 meter. The notional magnetic spectrometer design evaluated in this feasibility study uses a 5-T magnetic field and a borehole radius of 18 cm. • The design shows a potential for 4.5 Sr tagged neutron solid angle, a factor of 4.5 larger than achievable with current API neutron-generator designs. • The potential angular resolution for such a tagged neutron beam can be less than 0.5o for modest Si-detector position resolution (3 mm). Further improvement in angular resolution can be made by using Si-detectors with better position resolution. • The report documents several features of a notional generator design incorporating the

  18. Recent experiments in inverse kinematics with the magnetic spectrometer PRISMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioretto, E.; Corradi, L.; Montanari, D.; Szilner, S.; Pollarolo, G.; Galtarossa, F.; Ackermann, D.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Stefanini, A. M.; Courtin, S.; Goasduff, A.; Haas, F.; Jelavić-Malenica, D.; Michelagnoli, C.; Mijatović, T.; Soić, N.; Ur, C.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    In the last period, two classes of experiments have been carried out with the large acceptance magnetic spectrometer PRISMA. In particular, the one- and two-neutron transfer processes at energies ranging from the Coulomb barrier to deep below it and the population of exotic neutron rich nuclei in the A~130 and A~200 mass regions have been studied. Both kinds of experiments have been performed in inverse kinematics identifying in A, Z and velocity the light target-like recoils with PRISMA placed at very forward angles in order to have, at the same time, high efficiency and good energy and mass resolutions.

  19. Large acceptance spectrometers for invariant mass spectroscopy of exotic nuclei and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Kondo, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Large acceptance spectrometers at in-flight RI separators have played significant roles in investigating the structure of exotic nuclei. Such spectrometers are in particular useful for probing unbound states of exotic nuclei, using invariant mass spectroscopy with reactions at intermediate and high energies. We discuss here the key characteristic features of such spectrometers, by introducing the recently commissioned SAMURAI facility at the RIBF, RIKEN. We also investigate the issue of cross talk in the detection of multiple neutrons, which has become crucial for exploring further unbound states and nuclei beyond the neutron drip line. Finally we discuss future perspectives for large acceptance spectrometers at the new-generation RI-beam facilities.

  20. A wide-acceptance Compton spectrometer for spectral characterization of a medical x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy, Michelle A.; Gehring, A.; Belian, A.; Haines, T.; Hunter, J.; James, M.; Klasky, M.; Mendez, J.; Moir, D.; Sedillo, R.; Shurter, R.; Stearns, J.; Van Syoc, K.; Volegov, P.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate knowledge of the x-ray spectra used in medical treatment and radiography is important for dose calculations and material decomposition analysis. Indirect measurements via transmission through materials are possible. However, such spectra are challenging to measure directly due to the high photon fluxes. One method of direct measurement is via a Compton spectrometer (CS) method. In this approach, the x-rays are converted to a much lower flux of electrons via Compton scattering on a converter foil (typically beryllium or aluminum). The electrons are then momentum selected by bending in a magnetic field. With tight angular acceptance of electrons into the magnet of ~ 1 deg, there is a linear correlation between incident photon energy and electron position recorded on an image plate. Here we present measurements of Bremsstrahlung spectrum from a medical therapy machine, a Scanditronix M22 Microtron. Spectra with energy endpoints from 6 to 20 MeV are directly measured, using a CS with a wide energy range from 0.5 to 20 MeV. We discuss the sensitivity of the device and the effects of converter material and collimation on the accuracy of the reconstructed spectra. Approaches toward improving the sensitivity, including the use of coded apertures, and potential future applications to characterization of spectra are also discussed.

  1. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertucci, Bruna

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a particle physics detector designed to measure charged cosmic rays spectra up to TV region, with high energy photon detection capability up to few hundred GeV. With the large acceptance, the long duration (3 years) and the state of the art particle identification techniques, AMS will provide the most sensitive search for the existence of anti matter nuclei and for the origin of dark matter. The detector is being integrated with an eight layers Silicon Tracker inside a large superconducting magnet, providing a 0.8 Tm2 bending power and an acceptance of 0.5 m2 sr. A Transition Radiation Detector and a 3D Electromagnetic Calorimeter allow for electron, positron and photon identification, while independent velocity measurements are performed by a Time of Flight scintillating system and a Ring Image Cerenkov detector. This contribution will describe the current status of the overall detector integration and preliminary results from cosmic ray test on ground.

  2. Drift-Chamber Gas System Controls Development for the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    M. F. Vineyard; T. J. Carroll; M. N. Lack

    1996-07-01

    The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) is a superconducting toroidal magnet with a large volume of drift chambers for charged particle tracking. The performance of these chambers depends on accurate monitoring and control of the mixture, flow rate, pressure, temperature, and contaminant levels of the gas. To meet these requirements, a control system is being developed with EPICS. The interface hardware consists of VME ADCs and three RS-232 low-level hardware controllers. The RS-232 instruments include MKS 647A mass flow controllers to control and monitor the gas mixture and flow, MKS 146B pressure gauge controllers to measure pressures, and a Panametrics hygrometer to monitor temperatures and the concentrations of oxygen, water vapor, and ethane. Many of the parameters are available as analog signals which will be monitored with XYCOM VME analog input cards and configured for alarms and data logging. The RS-232 interfaces will be used for remote control of the hardware and verification of the analog readings. Information will be passed quickly and efficiently to and from the user through a graphical user interface. A discussion of the requirements and design of the system is presented.

  3. RBS with high depth resolution using small magnetic spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grötzschel, Rainer; Klein, Christoph; Mäder, Michael

    2004-06-01

    The increasing importance of ultra-thin layers for novel technologies demands quantitative analysis techniques with a depth resolution of atomic monolayers, which can be obtained for RBS and ERDA by magnetic spectrometers. We operate at the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator a magnetic spectrometer consisting of an UHV scattering chamber and a simple dipole magnet with circular field boundaries (Browne-Buechner spectrometer). Since in many cases of high resolution ion beam analysis the samples must be prepared in situ in UHV, the chamber with a base vacuum of 4 × 10 -10 mbar is equipped with an ion sputter gun and two low rate e-beam evaporators for in situ layer deposition. A RHEED system is used to check the surface reconstruction and monitor the layer growth. Samples are transferred, together with a BN heater, to the precision 5-axes channelling goniometer. The magnet with a mean radius of 0.65 m is mounted vertically and can be positioned either at 35.5° or 144.5°. The backward position offers the advantage of a high mass resolution, but the Rutherford cross sections are a factor of about 100 lower than at the forward angle, which is the preferred position if kinematically possible. At the 5 MV tandem accelerator a QQDS magnetic spectrometer is being installed. The facilities for in situ sample preparation in UHV are similar. These spectrometers are described in detail and recent applications are discussed.

  4. Neutron nano-spin-echo spectrometer based on magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, V. L.; Nikitenko, Yu. V.; Osipov, A. A.

    2007-09-01

    A neutron spin-echo spectrometer based on spin precessors in the form of magnetic layered nanostructures is described. A model of a spin-echo spectrometer is developed on beam no. 9 in the IBR-2 reactor. In this model, spin precession occurs during motion of neutrons in a magnetic field and their double reflection from Al(30 nm)/Fe(15 nm)/Al(120 nm)/Cu(150 nm) magnetic layered structures. The obtained spectrometer parameters make it possible to investigate excitations in films with a wave vector oriented along the neutron beam direction in the range from 10-3 to 10-1 Å-1 and perpendicularly to the beam in the range from 10-4 to 10-5 Å-1.

  5. Proton Form Factor Puzzle and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) two-photon exchange experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimal, Dipak

    The electromagnetic form factors are the most fundamental observables that encode information about the internal structure of the nucleon. The electric (GE) and the magnetic ( GM) form factors contain information about the spatial distribution of the charge and magnetization inside the nucleon. A significant discrepancy exists between the Rosenbluth and the polarization transfer measurements of the electromagnetic form factors of the proton. One possible explanation for the discrepancy is the contributions of two-photon exchange (TPE) effects. Theoretical calculations estimating the magnitude of the TPE effect are highly model dependent, and limited experimental evidence for such effects exists. Experimentally, the TPE effect can be measured by comparing the ratio of positron-proton elastic scattering cross section to that of the electron-proton [R = sigma(e +p)/sigma(e+p)]. The ratio R was measured over a wide range of kinematics, utilizing a 5.6 GeV primary electron beam produced by the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab. This dissertation explored dependence of R on kinematic variables such as squared four-momentum transfer (Q2) and the virtual photon polarization parameter (epsilon). A mixed electron-positron beam was produced from the primary electron beam in experimental Hall B. The mixed beam was scattered from a liquid hydrogen (LH2) target. Both the scattered lepton and the recoil proton were detected by the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The elastic events were then identified by using elastic scattering kinematics. This work extracted the Q2 dependence of R at high epsilon(epsilon > 0.8) and the $epsilon dependence of R at approx 0.85 GeV2. In these kinematics, our data confirm the validity of the hadronic calculations of the TPE effect by Blunden, Melnitchouk, and Tjon. This hadronic TPE effect, with additional corrections contributed by higher excitations of the intermediate state nucleon, largely

  6. A magnetic-bottle multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Akitaka; Fushitani, Mizuho; Tseng, Chien-Ming; Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Eland, John H. D.; Hishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2011-10-01

    A novel multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer developed on the basis of a 1.5 m-long magnetic-bottle electron spectrometer is presented. Electrons are guided by an inhomogeneous magnetic field to a detector at the end of the flight tube, while a set of optics is used to extract counterpart ions to the same detector, by a pulsed inhomogeneous electric field. This setup allows ion detection with high mass resolution, without impairing the high collection efficiency for electrons. The performance of the coincidence spectrometer was tested with double ionization of carbon disulfide, CS2 → CS_2^{2+} + e- + e-, in ultrashort intense laser fields (2.8 × 1013 W/cm2, 280 fs, 1030 nm) to clarify the electron correlation below the rescattering threshold.

  7. A magnetic-bottle multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Akitaka; Fushitani, Mizuho; Tseng, Chien-Ming; Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Eland, John H D; Hishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2011-10-01

    A novel multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer developed on the basis of a 1.5 m-long magnetic-bottle electron spectrometer is presented. Electrons are guided by an inhomogeneous magnetic field to a detector at the end of the flight tube, while a set of optics is used to extract counterpart ions to the same detector, by a pulsed inhomogeneous electric field. This setup allows ion detection with high mass resolution, without impairing the high collection efficiency for electrons. The performance of the coincidence spectrometer was tested with double ionization of carbon disulfide, CS(2) → CS(2)(2+) + e(-) + e(-), in ultrashort intense laser fields (2.8 × 10(13) W/cm(2), 280 fs, 1030 nm) to clarify the electron correlation below the rescattering threshold. PMID:22047278

  8. A magnetic-bottle multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Akitaka; Hishikawa, Akiyoshi; Fushitani, Mizuho; Tseng, Chien-Ming; Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Eland, John H. D.

    2011-10-15

    A novel multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer developed on the basis of a 1.5 m-long magnetic-bottle electron spectrometer is presented. Electrons are guided by an inhomogeneous magnetic field to a detector at the end of the flight tube, while a set of optics is used to extract counterpart ions to the same detector, by a pulsed inhomogeneous electric field. This setup allows ion detection with high mass resolution, without impairing the high collection efficiency for electrons. The performance of the coincidence spectrometer was tested with double ionization of carbon disulfide, CS{sub 2} {yields} CS{sub 2}{sup 2+} + e{sup -} + e{sup -}, in ultrashort intense laser fields (2.8 x 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, 280 fs, 1030 nm) to clarify the electron correlation below the rescattering threshold.

  9. Design and performance of AERHA, a high acceptance high resolution soft x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiuzbǎian, Sorin G.; Hague, Coryn F.; Avila, Antoine; Delaunay, Renaud; Jaouen, Nicolas; Sacchi, Maurizio; Polack, François; Thomasset, Muriel; Lagarde, Bruno; Nicolaou, Alessandro; Brignolo, Stefania; Baumier, Cédric; Lüning, Jan; Mariot, Jean-Michel

    2014-04-01

    A soft x-ray spectrometer based on the use of an elliptical focusing mirror and a plane varied line spacing grating is described. It achieves both high resolution and high overall efficiency while remaining relatively compact. The instrument is dedicated to resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies. We set out how this optical arrangement was judged best able to guarantee performance for the 50 - 1000 eV range within achievable fabrication targets. The AERHA (adjustable energy resolution high acceptance) spectrometer operates with an effective angular acceptance between 100 and 250 μsr (energy dependent) and a resolving power well in excess of 5000 according to the Rayleigh criterion. The high angular acceptance is obtained by means of a collecting pre-mirror. Three scattering geometries are available to enable momentum dependent measurements with 135°, 90°, and 50° scattering angles. The instrument operates on the Synchrotron SOLEIL SEXTANTS beamline which serves as a high photon flux 2 × 200 μm2 focal spot source with full polarization control.

  10. Design and performance of AERHA, a high acceptance high resolution soft x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chiuzbăian, Sorin G. Hague, Coryn F.; Brignolo, Stefania; Baumier, Cédric; Lüning, Jan; Avila, Antoine; Delaunay, Renaud; Mariot, Jean-Michel; Jaouen, Nicolas; Polack, François; Thomasset, Muriel; Lagarde, Bruno; Nicolaou, Alessandro; Sacchi, Maurizio

    2014-04-15

    A soft x-ray spectrometer based on the use of an elliptical focusing mirror and a plane varied line spacing grating is described. It achieves both high resolution and high overall efficiency while remaining relatively compact. The instrument is dedicated to resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies. We set out how this optical arrangement was judged best able to guarantee performance for the 50 − 1000 eV range within achievable fabrication targets. The AERHA (adjustable energy resolution high acceptance) spectrometer operates with an effective angular acceptance between 100 and 250 μsr (energy dependent) and a resolving power well in excess of 5000 according to the Rayleigh criterion. The high angular acceptance is obtained by means of a collecting pre-mirror. Three scattering geometries are available to enable momentum dependent measurements with 135°, 90°, and 50° scattering angles. The instrument operates on the Synchrotron SOLEIL SEXTANTS beamline which serves as a high photon flux 2 × 200 μm{sup 2} focal spot source with full polarization control.

  11. The Monitor online system of the OPERA muon magnetic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugolino, U.; Ambrosio, M.; Acquafredda, R.; Masone, V.

    2008-06-01

    The OPERA muon magnetic spectrometer has been designed for muon detection, tracking and timing. The 44 bakelite Resistive Chambers (RPC) planes, imbibed inside the magnet iron slabs, must provide the tracking of the muon curved in the magnetic field to ease the momentum and charge measurement provided by the HPT. Furthermore, it provides the momentum for muons stopping in the iron. RPC signals will be also used as start of drift tube acquisition thanks to the very good time resolution of RPC detectors. Due to the required performances the tracking detector must be fully efficient and stable. In this conditions an online monitor is mandatory to continuously control stability of run conditions. We report the main characteristics and performances of the monitor system for the OPERA spectrometer and capabilities of the software developed for settings and data acquisition.

  12. A highly integrated FPGA-based nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Kazuyuki

    2007-03-01

    The digital circuits required for a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer, including a pulse programmer, a direct digital synthesizer, a digital receiver, and a PC interface, have been built inside a single chip of the field-programmable gate-array (FPGA). By combining the FPGA chip with peripheral analog components, a compact, laptop-sized homebuilt spectrometer has been developed, which is capable of a rf output of up to 400 MHz with amplitude-, phase-, frequency-, and pulse-modulation. The number of rf channels is extendable up to three without further increase in size.

  13. Calibration of a compact magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianfu; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianpeng; Ruan, Jinlu; Zhang, Guoguang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Qiu, Suizheng; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jinliang; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Yang, Shaohua

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer is considered as a powerful instrument to measure deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron spectrum, as it is currently used in inertial confinement fusion facilities and large Tokamak devices. The energy resolution (ER) and neutron detection efficiency (NDE) are the two most important parameters to characterize a neutron spectrometer. In this work, the ER calibration for the MPR spectrometer was performed by using the HI-13 tandem accelerator at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), and the NDE calibration was performed by using the neutron generator at CIAE. The specific calibration techniques used in this work and the associated accuracies were discussed in details in this paper. The calibration results were presented along with Monte Carlo simulation results.

  14. Magnet coil system for a superconducting spectrometer (HISS)

    SciTech Connect

    Reimers, R.M.; Wolgast, R.C.; Yamamoto, R.M.

    1983-03-01

    The Heavy Ion Superconducting Spectrometer (HISS) facility and coils are briefly described while most of the paper discusses the support structures consisting of flanged doubly tapered stainless steel cylinders having a Z-shaped cross-section with average diameter of approximately 2.35 meters and height of approx. .49 meters. This member serves as a one piece coil support to resist gravitational, seismic, and magnetic forces with an approximate heat leak to helium of 59 watts per cylinder during operation of magnet at 4 degrees K. Maximum magnetic forces on each coil are over 11 meganewtons at 3T excitation. Magnetic forces attracting the coils to the core vary with excitation in direction as well as in magnitude. Radial magnetic forces produce stresses internal to the coil bobbin.

  15. Performance of a short "magnetic bottle" electron spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Mucke, M; Förstel, M; Lischke, T; Arion, T; Bradshaw, A M; Hergenhahn, U

    2012-06-01

    In this article, a newly constructed electron spectrometer of the magnetic bottle type is described. The instrument is part of an apparatus for measuring the electron spectra of free clusters using synchrotron radiation. Argon and helium outer valence photoelectron spectra have been recorded in order to investigate the characteristic features of the spectrometer. The energy resolution (E/ΔE) has been found to be ∼30. Using electrostatic retardation of the electrons, it can be increased to at least 110. The transmission as a function of kinetic energy is flat, and is not impaired much by retardation with up to 80% of the initial kinetic energy. We have measured a detection efficiency of most probably 0.6(-0.1) (+0.05), but at least of 0.4. Results from testing the alignment of the magnet, and from trajectory simulations, are also discussed. PMID:22755614

  16. Performance of a short ``magnetic bottle'' electron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucke, M.; Förstel, M.; Lischke, T.; Arion, T.; Bradshaw, A. M.; Hergenhahn, U.

    2012-06-01

    In this article, a newly constructed electron spectrometer of the magnetic bottle type is described. The instrument is part of an apparatus for measuring the electron spectra of free clusters using synchrotron radiation. Argon and helium outer valence photoelectron spectra have been recorded in order to investigate the characteristic features of the spectrometer. The energy resolution (E/ΔE) has been found to be ˜30. Using electrostatic retardation of the electrons, it can be increased to at least 110. The transmission as a function of kinetic energy is flat, and is not impaired much by retardation with up to 80% of the initial kinetic energy. We have measured a detection efficiency of most probably 0.6^{+0.05}_{-0.1}, but at least of 0.4. Results from testing the alignment of the magnet, and from trajectory simulations, are also discussed.

  17. Performance of a short 'magnetic bottle' electron spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Mucke, M.; Lischke, T.; Arion, T.; Foerstel, M.; Bradshaw, A. M.; Hergenhahn, U.

    2012-06-15

    In this article, a newly constructed electron spectrometer of the magnetic bottle type is described. The instrument is part of an apparatus for measuring the electron spectra of free clusters using synchrotron radiation. Argon and helium outer valence photoelectron spectra have been recorded in order to investigate the characteristic features of the spectrometer. The energy resolution (E/{Delta}E) has been found to be {approx}30. Using electrostatic retardation of the electrons, it can be increased to at least 110. The transmission as a function of kinetic energy is flat, and is not impaired much by retardation with up to 80% of the initial kinetic energy. We have measured a detection efficiency of most probably 0.6{sub -0.1}{sup +0.05}, but at least of 0.4. Results from testing the alignment of the magnet, and from trajectory simulations, are also discussed.

  18. An approximately 4. pi. tracking magnetic spectrometer for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    A tracking magnetic spectrometer based on large Time Projection Chambers (TPC) is proposed to measure the momentum of charged particles emerging from the RHIC beam pipe at angles larger than four degrees and to identify the particle type for those beyond fifteen degrees with momenta up to 700 MeV/c, which is a large fraction of the final charged particles emitted by a low rapidity quark-gluon plasma.

  19. A particle astrophysics magnet spectrometer facility for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormes, J. F.; Israel, M. H.; Mewaldt, R.; Wiedenbeck, M.

    1987-01-01

    Planning for and design tradeoff studies related to the particle astrophysics magnet spectrometer known as Astromag are presented. This facility is being planned for the Space Station Freedom and address questions regarding the origin and acceleration of cosmic rays, explore the synthesis of elements by making detailed measurements of cosmic ray isotopic composition, and search for evidence of antimatter and other cosmologically significant particles. This work was supported by an international study team which includes particle physicists and cosmic ray physicists.

  20. Source test of the prototype neutron detector for the large-acceptance multipurpose spectrometer at RAON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Mulilo, Benard; Hong, Byungsik

    2013-05-01

    A neutron detector array will be essential for the study of the nuclear symmetry energy in the large-acceptance multipurpose spectrometer (LAMPS) at the planned rare-isotope beam facility RAON in Korea. We have built the prototype neutron detector for LAMPS and examined its performance by using radiation sources. For data taking, we tested the voltage-threshold discriminator (VTD) and the constant-fraction discriminator (CFD) modules for the pulse process. The intrinsic time resolution of the prototype detector is estimated to be 723 ps for VTD and 488 ps for CFD. The fission neutrons and gammas emitted from 252Cf can be clearly separated in the time distribution. We reconstruct the energy spectrum of the spontaneous fission neutrons from 252Cf, which can be described well by using the empirical Watt spectrum.

  1. Inverse photoelectron spectrometer with magnetically focused electron gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainsky, Isay L.

    1991-01-01

    An inverse photoelectron spectrometer is described which is based on the design of a magnetically focused low energy electron gun. The magnetic lens extends its field over a relatively large segment of the electron trajectory, which could provide a better focusing effect on a high-current-density low-velocity electron beam, providing the magnetic field in the vicinity of the target is reduced sufficiently to preserve the collinearity of the beam. In order to prove the concept, ray tracing is conducted using the Herrmannsfeldt program for solving electron trajectories in electrostatic and magnetostatic focusing systems. The program allows the calculation of the angles of the electron trajectories with the z axis, at the target location. The results of the ray-tracing procedure conducted for this gun are discussed. Some of the advantages of the magnetic focusing are also discussed.

  2. A personal computer-based nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Job, Constantin; Pearson, Robert M.; Brown, Michael F.

    1994-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using personal computer-based hardware has the potential of enabling the application of NMR methods to fields where conventional state of the art equipment is either impractical or too costly. With such a strategy for data acquisition and processing, disciplines including civil engineering, agriculture, geology, archaeology, and others have the possibility of utilizing magnetic resonance techniques within the laboratory or conducting applications directly in the field. Another aspect is the possibility of utilizing existing NMR magnets which may be in good condition but unused because of outdated or nonrepairable electronics. Moreover, NMR applications based on personal computer technology may open up teaching possibilities at the college or even secondary school level. The goal of developing such a personal computer (PC)-based NMR standard is facilitated by existing technologies including logic cell arrays, direct digital frequency synthesis, use of PC-based electrical engineering software tools to fabricate electronic circuits, and the use of permanent magnets based on neodymium-iron-boron alloy. Utilizing such an approach, we have been able to place essentially an entire NMR spectrometer console on two printed circuit boards, with the exception of the receiver and radio frequency power amplifier. Future upgrades to include the deuterium lock and the decoupler unit are readily envisioned. The continued development of such PC-based NMR spectrometers is expected to benefit from the fast growing, practical, and low cost personal computer market.

  3. Characterization of a turbomolecular-pumped magnetic sector mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Narinder K.

    1988-10-01

    A Perkin Elmer MGA-1200, turbomolecular-pumped, magnetic sector, multiple gas analyzer mass spectrometer with modified inlet for fast response was characterized for the analysis of hydrogen, helium, oxygen and argon in nitrogen and helium background gases. This instrument was specially modified for the Vanderberg AFB SLC-6 Hydrogen Disposal Test Program, as a part of the Hydrogen Sampling System (H2S2). Linearity, precision, drift, detection limits and accuracy among other analytical parameters for each of the background gas were studied to evaluate the performance of the instrument. The result demonstrates that H2S2 mass spectrometer is a stable instrument and can be utilized for the quantitative analytical determination of hydrogen, helium, oxygen and argon in nitrogen and helium background gases.

  4. Characterization of a turbomolecular-pumped magnetic sector mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Narinder K.

    1988-01-01

    A Perkin Elmer MGA-1200, turbomolecular-pumped, magnetic sector, multiple gas analyzer mass spectrometer with modified inlet for fast response was characterized for the analysis of hydrogen, helium, oxygen and argon in nitrogen and helium background gases. This instrument was specially modified for the Vanderberg AFB SLC-6 Hydrogen Disposal Test Program, as a part of the Hydrogen Sampling System (H2S2). Linearity, precision, drift, detection limits and accuracy among other analytical parameters for each of the background gas were studied to evaluate the performance of the instrument. The result demonstrates that H2S2 mass spectrometer is a stable instrument and can be utilized for the quantitative analytical determination of hydrogen, helium, oxygen and argon in nitrogen and helium background gases.

  5. A 4. pi. tracking TPC magnetic spectrometer for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Danby, G.; Eiseman, S.E.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Van Dijk, J.H. ); Lindenbaum, S.J. City Coll., New York, NY ); Chan, C.S.; Kramer, M.A.; Zhao, K. ); Biswas, N.; Kenney, P.; Piekarz, J. (Notre Dame Univ

    1990-01-01

    The primary physics objective of the 4{pi} TPC magnetic spectrometer proposal is to search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma. In previous workshops we have discussed what the possible hadronic signatures of such a state of matter would be. Succinctly, the QGP is a direct prediction of non-perturbative QCD. Therefore the question of the existence of this new state of matter bears directly on the validity of non-perturbative QCD. However, since non-perturbative QCD has never been established, it is apparent that what may await us is a host of new phenomena that will go beyond the standard model.

  6. Light nuclear charge measurement with Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basara, Laurent; Choutko, Vitaly; Li, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a high energy particle detector installed and operating on board of the International Space Station (ISS) since May 2011. So far more than 70 billion cosmic ray events have been recorded by AMS. In the present paper the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) detector of AMS is used to measure cosmic ray nuclear charge magnitudes up to Z=10. The obtained charge magnitude resolution is about 0.1 and 0.3 charge unit for Helium and Carbon, respectively. These measurements are important for an accurate determination of the interaction probabilities of various nuclei with the AMS materials. The ECAL charge calibration and measurement procedures are presented.

  7. Computing strategy of Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choutko, V.; Klimentov, A.

    2003-04-01

    Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is an experiment to search in the space for dark matter, missing matter, and antimatter scheduled for being flown on the International Space Station in the fall of year 2005 for at least 3 consecutive years. This paper gives an overview of the AMS software with emphasis on the distributed production system based on client/server approach. We also describe our choice of hardware components to build a processing farm with TByte RAID arrays of IDE disks and highlight the strategies that make our system different from many other experimental systems.

  8. In-flight performances of the PAMELA magnetic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannuccini, Elena

    PAMELA cosmic-ray detector is orbiting around the Earth on board the Resurs DK1 satellite since June 2006. The experiment is designed to study charged particles in the cosmic radiation, being optimized in particular for antiprotons and positrons. The core of the detector is a spectrometer composed of six planes of silicon microstrip sensors, which are placed inside the cavity of a permanent magnet. The detector has been designed to determine precisely the rigidity (up to 1 TV) and the electric charge (up to berillium) of particles crossing the apparatus. The spectrometer plays a crucial role in the high-energy antiproton analysis, where the main source of background comes from protons which recostructed trajectories have a negative curvature due to the finite resolution of the tracking system ("spillover" background). In this work the in-flight performances of the spectrometer will be presented, with main focus on the momentum resolution of singly-charged particles. A key point of track reconstruction is the alignment of the tracking system, which is done with the help of the energy information provided by the calorimeter for electrons and positrons. The good quality of flight data and the agreement with simulation indicate that the instrument provides a reliable estimate of the particle rigidity over a wide energy range. Finally, the criteria applied to minimize the spillover background in the antiproton sample and extend the identification to high energy will be discussed.

  9. Photoproduction of Scalar Mesons Using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandavar, Shloka K.

    The search for glueballs has been ongoing for several decades. The lightest glueball has been predicted by quenched lattice QCD to have mass in the range of 1.0--1.7 GeV and JPC = 0++ . The mixing of glueball states with neighbouring meson states complicates their identification and hence several experiments have been carried out over the years to study the glueball candidates. By analyzing the decay channels and production mechanisms of these candidates, their glueball content can theoretically be determined. In reality, a lot of confusion still exists about the status of these glueball candidates. The f0(1500) is one of several contenders for the lightest glueball, which has been extensively studied in several different kinds of experiments. However, there exists no photoproduction data on this particle. In the analysis presented in this dissertation, the presence of the f0(1500) in the KS 0KS0 channel is investigated in photoproduction using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, also called Jefferson Lab (JLab). This is done by studying the reaction, gammap → fJp → KS0 KS0p → 2(pi +pi-)p using data from the g12 experiment. A clear peak is seen at 1500 MeV in the background subtracted data. This is enhanced if the momentum transfer is restricted to be less than 1 GeV2. Comparing with simulations, it is seen that this peak is associated with t channel production mechanism. The f 2'(1525) has a mass of 1525 MeV and a width of 73 MeV, and hence there is a possibility of it contributing to the peak observed in our data. A moments analysis seems to suggest some presence of a D wave, however, the low acceptance at forward and backward angles prohibits a definitive conclusion.

  10. A 4. pi. tracking magnetic spectrometer for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    A tracking magnetic spectrometer based on large Time Projection Chambers (TPC) was previously proposed to measure the momentum of charged particles emerging from the RHIC beam pipe at angles larger than four degrees and to identify the particle type for those beyond fifteen degrees with momenta up to 700 MeV/c, which is a large fraction of the final charged particles emitted by a low cm rapidity quark-gluon plasma. Experimental progress in the successful performance of a TPC developed for AGS E-810 is reported. We have also included typical results of our event generator which contains an interface of an improved HIJET and a plasma bubble model. Typical plasma signals one can expect from this model are presented. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  11. APES: Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer -- A high time resolution monodirectional magnetic deflection electron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michell, R. G.; Samara, M.; Grubbs, G.; Ogasawara, K.; Miller, G.; Trevino, J. A.; Webster, J.; Stange, J.

    2016-06-01

    We present a description of the Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer (APES) that was designed and built for the Ground-to-Rocket Electron Electrodynamics Correlative Experiment (GREECE) auroral sounding rocket mission. The purpose was to measure the precipitating electron spectrum with high time resolution, on the order of milliseconds. The trade-off made in order to achieve high time resolution was to limit the aperture to only one look direction. The energy selection was done by using a permanent magnet to separate the incoming electrons, such that the different energies would fall onto different regions of the microchannel plate and therefore be detected by different anodes. A rectangular microchannel plate (MCP) was used (15 mm × 100 mm), and there was a total of 50 discrete anodes under the MCP, each one 15 mm × 1.5 mm, with a 0.5 mm spacing between anodes. The target energy range of APES was 200 eV to 30 keV.

  12. Small Explorer (SMEX) POsitron Electron Magnet Spectrometer (POEMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LHeureux, Jacques; Evenson, Paul A.; Aleman, R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the activities of Louisiana State University (LSU) under subcontract 26053-EX between LSU and the Bartol Research Institute (Bartol), which began January 1, 1994. The purpose of this subcontract was for LSU to participate in and support Bartol in the work to define the SMEX (Small Explorer)/POEMS (Positron Electron Magnet Spectrometer) spaceflight mission under NASA Contract NAS5-38098 between NASA and Bartol. The conclusions of this study were that for a 1998 launch into a 600km altitude, 98 degrees, approximately sun synchronous orbit, (a) the total radiation dose would be typically a few k-rad per year, certainly less than 20 k-rad per year for the anticipated shielding and potential solar flare environment, (b) detector counting rates would be dominated by the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and the horns of the Van Allen belts, (c) the galactic electron and positron 'signal' can be extracted from the albedo background and the trapped populations by detailed evaluation of the geomagnetic transmission function (cut-off) for each event, (d) POEMS could make significant contributions to magnetospheric science if sufficient downlink capacity were provided and, (e) a fully functioning, cost efficient, data processing and analysis facility design was developed for the mission. Overall, POEMS was found to be a relatively simple experiment to manifest, operate and analyze and had potential for fundamental new discoveries in cosmic, heliospheric, solar and magnetospheric science.

  13. Cosmic-Ray Studies with an Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS Detector) on the International Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Plyaskin, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    A brief description of the physics research program implemented with an alpha magnetic spectrometer (AMS detector) by a large-scale international collaboration on board the International Space Station is presented. The features of the experimental facility under construction are given, along with some results obtained during the test flight of the prototype spectrometer on board a space shuttle.

  14. Design and implementation of an integrated magnetic spectrometer for multiplexed biosensing.

    PubMed

    Sideris, Constantine; Hajimiri, Ali

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic spectroscopy allows for characterization of the magnetic susceptibility of magnetic beads across a broad frequency range. This enables differentiation and quantification of multiple beads of varying types concurrently present in the active volume of a sensor's surface. A magnetic spectrometer can be used for multi-probe tagging and identification akin to multi-color fluorescent bio-sensing. We propose a new sensing methodology to perform magnetic spectroscopy and analyze various important design parameters such as SNR and gain uniformity. We present a proof-of-concept design of a fully integrated CMOS magnetic spectrometer that can detect, quantify, and characterize magnetic materials in the 1.1 GHz to 3.3 GHz frequency range, where we demonstrate magnetic multiplexing capability using a mixture of two different kinds of magnetic beads. The sensor consumes less than 2 mW of DC power within the whole frequency range, requires no external biasing magnetic fields, is implemented in a standard CMOS process, and can be powered and operated completely from a USB interface. The magnetic spectrometer not only increases the throughput and multiplexing of biosensing experiments for a given sensor area, but also can enable additional applications, such as magnetic flow cytometry and signal-collocation assays of multiple probes. PMID:24473542

  15. The magnetic shielding for the neutron decay spectrometer aSPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, Gertrud; Ayala Guardia, Fidel; Baeßler, Stefan; Borg, Michael; Glück, Ferenc; Heil, Werner; Hiebel, Stefan; Muñoz Horta, Raquel; Sobolev, Yury

    2014-12-01

    Many experiments in nuclear and neutron physics are confronted with the problem that they use a superconducting magnetic spectrometer which potentially affects other experiments by their stray magnetic field. The retardation spectrometer aSPECT consists, inter alia, of a superconducting magnet system that produces a strong longitudinal magnetic field of up to 6.2 T. In order not to disturb other experiments in the vicinity of aSPECT, we had to develop a magnetic field return yoke for the magnet system. While the return yoke must reduce the stray magnetic field, the internal magnetic field and its homogeneity should not be affected. As in many cases, the magnetic shielding for aSPECT must manage with limited space. In addition, we must ensure that the additional magnetic forces on the magnet coils are not destructive. In order to determine the most suitable geometry for the magnetic shielding for aSPECT, we simulated a variety of possible geometries and combinations of shielding materials of non-linear permeability. The results of our simulations were checked through magnetic field measurements both with Hall and nuclear magnetic resonance probes. The experimental data are in good agreement with the simulated values: the mean deviation from the simulated exterior magnetic field is (-1.7±4.8)%. However, in the two critical regions, the internal magnetic field deviates by 0.2% (decay volume) and < 1 ×10-4 (analyzing plane) from the simulated values.

  16. DC superconducting quantum interference device usable in nuclear quadrupole resonance and zero field nuclear magnetic spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Fan, N.Q.; Clarke, J.

    1993-10-19

    A spectrometer for measuring the nuclear quadrupole resonance spectra or the zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectra generated by a sample is disclosed. The spectrometer uses an amplifier having a dc SQUID operating in a flux-locked loop for generating an amplified output as a function of the intensity of the signal generated by the sample. The flux-locked loop circuit includes an integrator. The amplifier also includes means for preventing the integrator from being driven into saturation. As a result, the time for the flux-locked loop to recover from the excitation pulses generated by the spectrometer is reduced. 7 figures.

  17. DC superconducting quantum interference device usable in nuclear quadrupole resonance and zero field nuclear magnetic spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Non Q.; Clarke, John

    1993-01-01

    A spectrometer for measuring the nuclear quadrupole resonance spectra or the zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectra generated by a sample is disclosed. The spectrometer uses an amplifier having a dc SQUID operating in a flux-locked loop for generating an amplified output as a function of the intensity of the signal generated by the sample. The flux-locked loop circuit includes an integrator. The amplifier also includes means for preventing the integrator from being driven into saturation. As a result, the time for the flux-locked loop to recover from the excitation pulses generated by the spectrometer is reduced.

  18. First results and planned experiments with the INFN-LNS ray-tracing magnetic spectrometer MAGNEX

    SciTech Connect

    Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Foti, A.; Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Petrascu, H.; Carbone, D.

    2010-05-21

    The MAGNEX large-acceptance ray-tracing magnetic spectrometer has recently been used with beams from the INFN-LNS Tandem accelerator. After an accurate commissioning, the instrument has started an ambitious experimental program. In the first experiment the {sup 19}F({sup 7}Li,{sup 7}Be){sup 19}O charge-exchange reaction was studied at 52 MeV incident energy. The {sup 19}O excitation energy spectrum was reconstructed and the angular distributions measured. The second experiment was aimed at the study of the {sup 15}C via the {sup 13}C({sup 18}O,{sup 16}O){sup 15}C reaction at 84 MeV incident energy. The ejectiles where detected at forward angles and mass identified by means of an innovative technique. The {sup 15}C excitation energy spectra up to about 20 MeV were obtained with a 250 keV FWHM energy resolution. In addition to several known states, the spectra show two unknown resonant-like structures at 11.4 and 14.0 MeV. The strong population of these structures, together with the measured widths, could indicate the collective nature of these states associated to a correlated neutron pair transfer. Besides the first results of physical interest from these two experiments, future experiments with MAGNEX are briefly outlined.

  19. Design, construction, and performance of a magnetically shielded room for a neutron spin echo spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltner, Helmut; Pabst, Ulrich; Butzek, Michael; Ohl, Michael; Kozielewski, Tadeusz; Monkenbusch, Michael; Sokol, Don; Maltin, Larry; Lindgren, Eric; Koch, Stuart; Fugate, David

    2011-07-01

    A double-layer magnetically shielded room (MSR) has been designed and constructed for the neutron spin echo (NSE) spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The primary objective of the MSR is to ensure an undisturbed operation of the spectrometer in terms of external magnetic fields from high-field magnets at neighboring beamlines and from other external devices. Because of the required mobility of the spectrometer along its beamline the MSR features a total length of about 17 m, which makes it the largest MSR worldwide. Several physics and engineering aspects addressed in the design phase and during the construction of this unique MSR are described in this article.

  20. Development of a compact magnetic proton recoil spectrometer for measurement of deuterium-tritium neutrons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianfu; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Guoguang; Ruan, Jinlu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xianpeng; Yang, Shaohua; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Li, Hongyun

    2015-12-01

    A new compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer has been designed for precise measurement of deuterium-tritium (DT) neutrons. This design is presented emphasizing the magnetic analyzing system, which is based on a compact quadrupole-dipole (QD) electromagnet. The focal plane detector (FPD) is also discussed with respect to application for the next step. The characteristics of the MPR spectrometer were calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation. A preliminary experiment was performed to test the magnetic analyzing system and the proton images of the FPD. Since the QD electromagnet design allows for a larger foil thickness and solid angle to be utilized, the MPR spectrometer defined in this paper can achieve neutron detection efficiency more than 5 × 10(-7) at an energy resolution of 1.5% for measuring DT neutrons. PMID:26724081

  1. Development of a compact magnetic proton recoil spectrometer for measurement of deuterium-tritium neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianfu; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Guoguang; Ruan, Jinlu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xianpeng; Yang, Shaohua; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Li, Hongyun

    2015-12-01

    A new compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer has been designed for precise measurement of deuterium-tritium (DT) neutrons. This design is presented emphasizing the magnetic analyzing system, which is based on a compact quadrupole-dipole (QD) electromagnet. The focal plane detector (FPD) is also discussed with respect to application for the next step. The characteristics of the MPR spectrometer were calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation. A preliminary experiment was performed to test the magnetic analyzing system and the proton images of the FPD. Since the QD electromagnet design allows for a larger foil thickness and solid angle to be utilized, the MPR spectrometer defined in this paper can achieve neutron detection efficiency more than 5 × 10-7 at an energy resolution of 1.5% for measuring DT neutrons.

  2. Development of a compact magnetic proton recoil spectrometer for measurement of deuterium-tritium neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jianfu Ouyang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianpeng; Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Guoguang; Ruan, Jinlu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yang, Shaohua; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Li, Hongyun

    2015-12-15

    A new compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer has been designed for precise measurement of deuterium-tritium (DT) neutrons. This design is presented emphasizing the magnetic analyzing system, which is based on a compact quadrupole-dipole (QD) electromagnet. The focal plane detector (FPD) is also discussed with respect to application for the next step. The characteristics of the MPR spectrometer were calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation. A preliminary experiment was performed to test the magnetic analyzing system and the proton images of the FPD. Since the QD electromagnet design allows for a larger foil thickness and solid angle to be utilized, the MPR spectrometer defined in this paper can achieve neutron detection efficiency more than 5 × 10{sup −7} at an energy resolution of 1.5% for measuring DT neutrons.

  3. What Caused the Lead burn-out in Spectrometer Magnet 2B

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A

    2010-11-29

    The spectrometer solenoids are supposed to be the first magnets installed in the MICE Cooling Channel. The results of the test of Spectrometer Magnet 2B are reported in a previous MICE Note. Magnet 2B was tested with all five coils connected in series. The magnet failed because a lead to coil M2 failed before it could be trained to its full design current of 275 A. First, this report describes the condition of the magnet when the lead failure occurred. The lead that failed was between the cold mass feed-through and the heavy lead that connected to coil M2 and the quench protection diodes. It is believed that the lead failed because the minimum propagation zone (MPZ) length was too short. The quench was probably triggered by lead motion in the field external to the magnet center coil. The effect of heat transfer on quench propagation and MPZ length is discussed. The MPZ length is compared for a number of cases that apply to the spectrometer solenoid 2B as built and as it has been repaired. The required heat transfer coefficient for cryogenic stability and the quench propagation velocity along the leads are compared for various parts of the Magnet leads inside the cold mass cryostat. The effect of the insulation on leads on heat transfer is and stability is discussed.

  4. Polarisation Analysis Neutron Spectrometer, POLANO, at J-PARC - Concept and Magnetic Field Optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohoyama, K.; Yokoo, T.; Itoh, S.; Nanbu, M.; Iwasa, K.; Ohkawara, M.; Kaneko, N.; Ino, T.; Hayashida, H.; Oku, T.; Kira, H.; Tasaki, S.; Takeda, M.; Kimura, H.; Sato, T. J.

    2016-04-01

    The status of the polarised neutron spectrometer constructed at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex through a collaboration between Tohoku University and KEK will be reported. In particular, the optimisation of magnetic fields to minimise neutron- beam depolarisation using the finite element method will be discussed on the basis of several simulations using the finite element method.

  5. Composition measurements of the topside ionosphere using a magnetic mass spectrometer, ion mass spectrometer on ISIS-2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The ion mass spectrometer (IMS) on the ISIS-II satellite is described; it measures the composition and distribution of positive ions in the earth's ionosphere in the mass range of 1 to 64 atomic mass units. Significant data were received which show a wide variation in ion composition at night near the equator and in the daytime poleward of the plasmapause. It was found that these data enable further study of the polar wind and that the experiment produced timely data during the August, 1972 magnetic storm to show the development of a unique ionosphere above the plasmapause during the period of the storm. The scientific objectives and results of the experiment, the technical description of the instrument, a bibliography with sample papers attached, and a summary of recommendations for further study are presented.

  6. The effect of the earth's and stray magnetic fields on mobile mass spectrometer systems.

    PubMed

    Bell, Ryan J; Davey, Nicholas G; Martinsen, Morten; Short, R Timothy; Gill, Chris G; Krogh, Erik T

    2015-02-01

    Development of small, field-portable mass spectrometers has enabled a rapid growth of in-field measurements on mobile platforms. In such in-field measurements, unexpected signal variability has been observed by the authors in portable ion traps with internal electron ionization. The orientation of magnetic fields (such as the Earth's) relative to the ionization electron beam trajectory can significantly alter the electron flux into a quadrupole ion trap, resulting in significant changes in the instrumental sensitivity. Instrument simulations and experiments were performed relative to the earth's magnetic field to assess the importance of (1) nonpoint-source electron sources, (2) vertical versus horizontal electron beam orientation, and (3) secondary magnetic fields created by the instrument itself. Electron lens focus effects were explored by additional simulations, and were paralleled by experiments performed with a mass spectrometer mounted on a rotating platform. Additionally, magnetically permeable metals were used to shield (1) the entire instrument from the Earth's magnetic field, and (2) the electron beam from both the Earth's and instrument's magnetic fields. Both simulation and experimental results suggest the predominant influence on directionally dependent signal variability is the result of the summation of two magnetic vectors. As such, the most effective method for reducing this effect is the shielding of the electron beam from both magnetic vectors, thus improving electron beam alignment and removing any directional dependency. The improved ionizing electron beam alignment also allows for significant improvements in overall instrument sensitivity. PMID:25527328

  7. Development of a highly-sensitive Penning ionization electron spectrometer using the magnetic bottle effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Masahiro; Ishiguro, Yuki; Nakajima, Yutaro; Miyauchi, Naoya; Yamakita, Yoshihiro

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports on a highly-sensitive retarding-type electron spectrometer for a continuous source of electrons, in which the electron collection efficiency is increased by utilizing the magnetic bottle effect. This study demonstrates an application to Penning ionization electron spectroscopy using collisional ionization with metastable He*(23S) atoms. Technical details and performances of the instrument are presented. This spectrometer can be used for studies of functional molecules and assemblies, and exterior electron densities are expected to be selectively observed by the Penning ionization.

  8. Development of a Gas Filled Magnet spectrometer within the FIPPS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebboubi, A.; Kessedjian, G.; Faust, H.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Köster, U.; Materna, T.; Méplan, O.; Sage, C.; Serot, O.

    2016-06-01

    The Fission Product Prompt γ -ray Spectrometer, FIPPS, is under development to enable prompt γ -ray spectroscopy correlated with fission fragment identification. This will open new possibilities in the study of fission and of nuclear structure of neutron rich nuclei. FIPPS will consist of an array of γ and neutron detectors coupled with a fission fragment filter. The chosen solution for the filter is a Gas Filled Magnet (GFM). Both experimental and modeling work was performed in order to extract the key parameters of such a device and design the future GFM of the FIPPS project. Experiments performed with a GFM behind the LOHENGRIN spectrometer demonstrated the capability of additional beam purification.

  9. Shuttle DNP spectrometer with a two-center magnet.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Alexander; Lottmann, Philip; Marquardsen, Thorsten; Tavernier, Andreas; Türke, Maria-Teresa; Reese, Marcel; Leonov, Andrei; Bennati, Marina; Hoefer, Peter; Engelke, Frank; Griesinger, Christian

    2010-06-14

    A DNP set-up is described where a liquid sample is hyperpolarized by the electron-nucleus Overhauser effect in a field of 0.34 T and transferred to a field of 14.09 T for NMR detection. In contrast to a previous set-up, using two dedicated magnets for polarization and detection, a dedicated ferroshim system was inserted into the bore of a 14.09 T shielded cryomagnet to provide a homogeneous low-field region in the stray field above the magnetic center. After polarization in the low-field the sample is transferred to the high-field magnetic center within 40 ms by a pneumatic shuttle system. In our set-up a standard high-resolution inverse (1)H/(13)C selective probe was used for NMR detection and a homebuilt EPR cavity, operating in the TM(110) mode was used for polarisation. First experimental data are presented. We observed a maximum proton Overhauser enhancement of up to epsilon(HF) = -3.7 in the high-field position for a 5 mM 4-Oxo-TEMPO-D,(15)N (TEMPONE)/H(2)O sample. While this reproduces the DNP enhancement observed also in the old set-up, with the new set-up we observe enhancement on larger molecules that were impossible to enhance in the old set-up. Therefore, we can demonstrate for the first time Overhauser enhanced high resolution proton spectra of glucose and 2,2-dimethyl-2-silapentane-5-sulfonic acid sodium salt (DSS) in D(2)O, where the high resolution spectrum was acquired in the high-field position after polarizing the sample in the low-field. PMID:20461246

  10. Experiment definition and integration study for the accommodation of magnetic spectrometer payload on Spacelab/shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, A.

    1978-01-01

    A super-cooled magnetic spectrometer for a cosmic-ray experiment is considered for application in the high energy astronomical observatory which may be used on a space shuttle spacelab mission. New cryostat parameters are reported which are appropriate to shuttle mission weight and mission duration constraints. Since a super-conducting magnetic spectrometer has a magnetic fringe field, methods for shielding sensitive electronic and mechanical components on nearby experiments are described.

  11. Development of cryogenic alpha spectrometers using metallic magnetic calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranitzsch, P. C.; Kempf, S.; Pabinger, A.; Pies, C.; Porst, J.-P.; Schäfer, S.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L.; Enss, C.; Jang, Y. S.; Kim, I. H.; Kim, M. S.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, S. J.; Yoon, W. S.; Yuryev, Y. N.

    2011-10-01

    Cryogenic particle detectors have recently been adopted in radiation detection and measurement because of their high energy resolution. Many of these detectors have demonstrated energy resolutions better than the theoretical limit of semiconductor detectors. We report the development of a micro-fabricated magnetic calorimeter coupled to a large-area particle absorber. It is based on a planar, 1 mm 2 large paramagnetic temperature sensor made of sputtered Au:Er, which covers a superconducting meander-shaped pickup coil coupled to a low-noise dc-SQUID to monitor the magnetization of the sensor. A piece of gold foil of 2.5×2.5×0.07 mm 3 was glued to the Au:Er film to serve as an absorber for incident alpha particles. The detector performance was investigated with an 241Am source. The signal size comparison for alpha and gamma peaks with a large difference in energy demonstrated that the detector had good linear behavior. An energy resolution of 2.83±0.05 keV in FWHM was obtained for 5.5 MeV alpha particles.

  12. Unfolding the response of a zero-degree magnetic spectrometer from measurements of the Δ resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, J.; Benlliure, J.; Caamaño, M.

    2013-04-01

    The magnetic spectrometer FRagment Separator at GSI has been used to investigate the in-medium Δ-resonance excitation in peripheral heavy-ion reactions. The resolving power of this spectrometer makes it possible to disentangle the longitudinal-momentum loss induced by the excitation of the Δ resonance in the projectile residues produced in isobaric charge-exchange collisions. However, beam emittance, electromagnetic interactions of projectile and residual nuclei in the target, and the accuracy of the tracking detectors limit the final resolution. The characterization of the Δ resonance requires then to unfold the measured longitudinal-momentum distribution from the response of the spectrometer. In this work, we use an unfolding procedure based on the Richardson-Lucy method with a regularization technique to optimize the stability of the solution against statistical fluctuations. The method is validated using measurements of isobaric charge-changing collisions with a 136Xe beam at 500 A MeV.

  13. A digital magnetic resonance imaging spectrometer using digital signal processor and field programmable gate array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiao; Binghe, Sun; Yueping, Ma; Ruyan, Zhao

    2013-05-01

    A digital spectrometer for low-field magnetic resonance imaging is described. A digital signal processor (DSP) is utilized as the pulse programmer on which a pulse sequence is executed as a subroutine. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices that are logically mapped into the external addressing space of the DSP work as auxiliary controllers of gradient control, radio frequency (rf) generation, and rf receiving separately. The pulse programmer triggers an event by setting the 32-bit control register of the corresponding FPGA, and then the FPGA automatically carries out the event function according to preset configurations in cooperation with other devices; accordingly, event control of the spectrometer is flexible and efficient. Digital techniques are in widespread use: gradient control is implemented in real-time by a FPGA; rf source is constructed using direct digital synthesis technique, and rf receiver is constructed using digital quadrature detection technique. Well-designed performance is achieved, including 1 μs time resolution of the gradient waveform, 1 μs time resolution of the soft pulse, and 2 MHz signal receiving bandwidth. Both rf synthesis and rf digitalization operate at the same 60 MHz clock, therefore, the frequency range of transmitting and receiving is from DC to ˜27 MHz. A majority of pulse sequences have been developed, and the imaging performance of the spectrometer has been validated through a large number of experiments. Furthermore, the spectrometer is also suitable for relaxation measurement in nuclear magnetic resonance field.

  14. A digital magnetic resonance imaging spectrometer using digital signal processor and field programmable gate array.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao; Binghe, Sun; Yueping, Ma; Ruyan, Zhao

    2013-05-01

    A digital spectrometer for low-field magnetic resonance imaging is described. A digital signal processor (DSP) is utilized as the pulse programmer on which a pulse sequence is executed as a subroutine. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices that are logically mapped into the external addressing space of the DSP work as auxiliary controllers of gradient control, radio frequency (rf) generation, and rf receiving separately. The pulse programmer triggers an event by setting the 32-bit control register of the corresponding FPGA, and then the FPGA automatically carries out the event function according to preset configurations in cooperation with other devices; accordingly, event control of the spectrometer is flexible and efficient. Digital techniques are in widespread use: gradient control is implemented in real-time by a FPGA; rf source is constructed using direct digital synthesis technique, and rf receiver is constructed using digital quadrature detection technique. Well-designed performance is achieved, including 1 μs time resolution of the gradient waveform, 1 μs time resolution of the soft pulse, and 2 MHz signal receiving bandwidth. Both rf synthesis and rf digitalization operate at the same 60 MHz clock, therefore, the frequency range of transmitting and receiving is from DC to ~27 MHz. A majority of pulse sequences have been developed, and the imaging performance of the spectrometer has been validated through a large number of experiments. Furthermore, the spectrometer is also suitable for relaxation measurement in nuclear magnetic resonance field. PMID:23742570

  15. THz Gyrotron and BWO Designed for Operation in DNP-NMR Spectrometer Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratman, V. L.; Fedotov, A. E.; Kalynov, Yu. K.; Makhalov, P. B.; Samoson, A.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy requires medium-power terahertz radiation, which nowadays can be provided basically by gyrotrons with superconducting magnets. As the electron cyclotron frequency is very close to the frequency of electron paramagnetic resonance for the same magnetic field, under certain conditions the gyrotron can be installed inside the same solenoid used for NMR spectrometer. This eliminates the need for an additional superconducting magnet, results in a shorter terahertz transmission line, and can make DNP systems practical. In addition to an extremely low-voltage gyrotron ("gyrotrino"), we analyze also advantages of strong magnetic field for a slow-wave electron device as an alternative terahertz source.

  16. Home-built magnetic resonance imaging system (0.3 T) with a complete digital spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Shen; Qin, Xu; Ying, Liu; Gengying, Li

    2005-10-01

    A home-built magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system with a complete digital spectrometer has been designed for investigation of plants and animals. With the application of the latest digital integrated circuit technology, the digital spectrometer is greatly simplified without the loss of flexibility and performance. A powerful pulse sequence compiler with a graphical editor can allow the user to edit the pulse sequence more easily and more conveniently than ever before. Moreover, a permanent magnet capable of producing a 180 mm diam spherical homogeneous region is employed in our MRI system to ensure a comparatively large image size. Compared with previous work, our MRI system has the features of flexibility, relatively large imaging size, and low cost. Experimental results obtained with the proposed system are presented in this article.

  17. First result for the neutrino magnetic moment from measurements with the GEMMA spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Beda, A. G.; Brudanin, V. B.; Demidova, E. V.; Vylov, C.; Gavrilov, M. G.; Egorov, V. G.; Starostin, A. S.; Shirchenko, M. V.

    2007-11-15

    The first result obtained in the measurements of the neutrino magnetic moment at the Kalinin nuclear power plant with the GEMMA spectrometer is presented. A high-purity germanium detector of mass 1.5 kg placed at a distance of 13.9 m from the reactor core is used in the spectrometer. The antineutrino flux at the detector position is 2.73 x 10{sup 13{nu}}-bar/(cm{sup 2} s). The differential method is used to select events of electromagnetic antineutrino-electron scattering. The spectra taken in the reactor-on and reactor-off modes over 6200 and 2064 h, respectively, are compared. On the basis of a data analysis, an upper limit of 5.8 x 10{sup -11} {mu}B was set on the neutrino magnetic moment {mu}{sub {nu}}at a 90% C.L.

  18. Site-specific Auger electron spectra of ethyl trifluoroacelate molecules studied by magnetic bottle electron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwayama, Hiroshi; Shigemasa, Eiji; Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Nakano, Motoyoshi; Ito, Kenji; Lablanquie, Pascal; Penet, Francis; Andric, Lidija; Selles, Patricia

    2012-11-01

    We performed multielectron coincidence measurements for inner-shell photoionizations of ethyl trifluoroacelate molecules (C4H5F3O2) using a magnetic bottle electron spectrometer. From a two dimensional coincidence map between a photoelectron and Auger electron for C 1s ionizations, we extracted site-specific Auger electron spectra for each carbon site and corresponding binding energy of doubly charged states.

  19. On the analysis of inhomogeneous magnetic field spectrometer for laser-driven ion acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, D.; Senje, L.; McCormack, O.; Dromey, B.; Zepf, M.; Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Letzring, S.; Gautier, D. C.; Fernandez, J. C.; Toncian, T.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2015-03-15

    We present a detailed study of the use of a non-parallel, inhomogeneous magnetic field spectrometer for the investigation of laser-accelerated ion beams. Employing a wedged yoke design, we demonstrate the feasibility of an in-situ self-calibration technique of the non-uniform magnetic field and show that high-precision measurements of ion energies are possible in a wide-angle configuration. We also discuss the implications of a stacked detector system for unambiguous identification of different ion species present in the ion beam and explore the feasibility of detection of high energy particles beyond 100 MeV/amu in radiation harsh environments.

  20. HyReSpect: A broadband fast-averaging spectrometer for nuclear magnetic resonance of magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allodi, G.; Banderini, A.; De Renzi, R.; Vignali, C.

    2005-08-01

    We announce the successful development of a homemade frequency-swept nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer entirely designed and built at the University of Parma, optimized for the study of magnetic materials but also offering good performance as a general-purpose instrument for solid-state NMR. The spectrometer features heterodyne-based pulser and receiver with four-quadrant phase shifting and quadrature detection; a 150 MHz digital signal processor as a digital pulser for timing and control functions, capable of triggering events with a resolution of 6.6 ns; a two-channel 12 bit 25MS/s digitizer hosted by a personal computer; and a graphical user interface control program running under Linux, which also integrates external field and temperature controls. The receiver exhibits a flat response from 8 up to 670 MHz, a frequency span suitable for the investigation of magnetic transition metal compounds (V, Co, Mn, Cu), and intrinsic dead time of less than 2μs, as required with the fast-relaxing NMR signals often encountered in magnetic materials. The rf design employing only one external signal generator, and the fast-averaging performance of the system (more than 10 000 repetitions per second), are probably the most remarkable features of our apparatus.

  1. First measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) at the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenje, J.; Casey, D.; Li, C.; Seguin, F.; Petrasso, R.; Bionta, R.; Cerjan, C.; Eckart, M.; Haan, S.; Hatchett, S.; Khater, H.; Landen, O.; MacKinnon, A.; Moran, M.; Rygg, J.; Kilkenny, J.; Glebov, V.; Sangster, T.; Meyerhofer, D.; Magoon, J.; Fletcher, K.; Leeper, R.

    2010-11-01

    Proper assembly of capsule mass, as manifested through evolution of fuel areal density (ρR), is fundamentally important for achieving hot-spot ignition planned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Experimental information about ρR and ρR asymmetries, Ti and yield is therefore essential for understanding how this assembly occurs. To obtain this information, a neutron spectrometer, called the Magnetic-Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been implemented on the NIF. Its primary objective is to measure the absolute neutron spectrum in the range 5 to 30 MeV, from which ρR, Ti and yield can be directly inferred for both low-yield tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) and high-yield DT implosions. In this talk, the results from the first measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum produced in exploding pusher and THD implosions will be presented. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL and LLE.

  2. Implementation of a compact magnetic electron energy spectrometer for intense relativistic electron beams. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Gregor, J.A.; Antoniades, J.A.

    1993-11-05

    A diagnostic used for measuring the energy of 1 to 5 MEV pulsed electron beams by means independent of the beam generating device is investigated. The method employed is capable of collecting the required data optically in a single pulse. The beam energy is measured using a magnetic electron spectrometer coupled with a scintillating material. Using a polaroid camera to collect data, the energy of electron beams from two field emission diode accelerators is measured. The first is a nominal 1 MEV, 16 kA, 25 ns FWHM electron beam and the second is a nominal 5 MEV, 20 kA, 50 ns FWHM electron beam. A detailed study of measurement accuracy and possible sources of error was accomplished. Energy, Relativistic, Electron beam. Electron, Spectrometer.

  3. Periodic magnetic field as a polarized and focusing thermal neutron spectrometer and monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Cremer, J. T.; Williams, D. L.; Fuller, M. J.; Gary, C. K.; Piestrup, M. A.; Pantell, R. H.; Feinstein, J.; Flocchini, R. G.; Boussoufi, M.; Egbert, H. P.; Kloh, M. D.; Walker, R. B.

    2010-01-15

    A novel periodic magnetic field (PMF) optic is shown to act as a prism, lens, and polarizer for neutrons and particles with a magnetic dipole moment. The PMF has a two-dimensional field in the axial direction of neutron propagation. The PMF alternating magnetic field polarity provides strong gradients that cause separation of neutrons by wavelength axially and by spin state transversely. The spin-up neutrons exit the PMF with their magnetic spins aligned parallel to the PMF magnetic field, and are deflected upward and line focus at a fixed vertical height, proportional to the PMF period, at a downstream focal distance that increases with neutron energy. The PMF has no attenuation by absorption or scatter, as with material prisms or crystal monochromators. Embodiments of the PMF include neutron spectrometer or monochromator, and applications include neutron small angle scattering, crystallography, residual stress analysis, cross section measurements, and reflectometry. Presented are theory, experimental results, computer simulation, applications of the PMF, and comparison of its performance to Stern-Gerlach gradient devices and compound material and magnetic refractive prisms.

  4. Molecular Structure Laboratory. Fourier Transform Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (FTNMR) Spectrometer and Ancillary Instrumentation at SUNY Geneseo

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, David K

    2015-12-31

    An Agilent 400-MR nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer and ancillary equipment were purchased, which are being used for molecular structure elucidation.  The instrumentation is housed in a pre-existing facility designed specifically for its use. This instrument package is being used to expand the research and educational efforts of the faculty and students at SUNY-Geneseo and is made available to neighboring educational institutions and business concerns.  Funds were also used for training of College personnel, maintenance of the instrumentation, and installation of the equipment.

  5. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) experiment on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpat, Behcet

    2001-04-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a detector designed to operate in space to search for antimatter components in cosmic ray, the annihilation products of darkmatter and to study the antiprotons, positrons and light nuclei. A 'baseline' version of the experiment has successfully completed the precursor flight on Space Shuttle Discovery (June 2-12, 1998). The complete AMS is programmed for installation on International Space Station in year 2003 for an operational period of 3 years. In this contribution we report on the experimental configuration of AMS that will be installed on International Space Station.

  6. Backtracing particle rays through magnetic spectrometers: avoiding systematic errors in the reconstruction of target coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veit, Th.; Friedrich, J.; Offermann, E. A. J. M.

    1993-12-01

    The procedures used to model [J. Friedrich, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 293 (1990) 575] or to determine [N. Voegler et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 249 (1986) 337, H. Blok et al., ibid., vol. A 262 (1987) 291, and E.A.J.M. Offermann et al., ibid., vol. A 262 (1987) 298] the mapping properties of a magnetic spectrometer are based on a minimization of the variance of target coordinates. We show that backtracing with matrix elements, determined in this way, may contain systematic errors. As alternative, we propose to minimize the variance of the detector coordinates. This procedure avoids these systematic errors.

  7. Toward the Direct Measurement of Coronal Magnetic Fields: An Airborne Infrared Spectrometer for Eclipse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samra, J.; DeLuca, E. E.; Golub, L.; Cheimets, P.

    2014-12-01

    The solar magnetic field enables the heating of the corona and provides its underlying structure. Energy stored in coronal magnetic fields is released in flares and coronal mass ejections (CME) and provides the ultimate source of energy for space weather. Therefore, direct measurements of the coronal magnetic field have significant potential to enhance understanding of coronal dynamics and improve solar forecasting models. Of particular interest are observations of coronal field lines in the transitional region between closed and open flux systems, providing important information on the origin of the slow solar wind. While current instruments routinely observe only the photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields, a proposed airborne spectrometer will take a step toward the direct observation of coronal fields by measuring plasma emission in the infrared at high spatial and spectral resolution. The targeted lines are four forbidden magnetic dipole transitions between 2 and 4 μm. The airborne system will consist of a telescope, grating spectrometer, and pointing/stabilization system to be flown on the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) during the August 2017 total solar eclipse. The project incorporates several optical engineering challenges, centered around maintaining adequate spectral and spatial resolution in a compact and inexpensive package and on a moving platform. Design studies are currently underway to examine the tradeoffs between various optical geometries and control strategies for the pointing/stabilization system. The results will be presented and interpreted in terms of the consequences for the scientific questions. In addition, results from a laboratory prototype and simulations of the final system will be presented.

  8. Design and commissioning of a high magnetic field muon spin relaxation spectrometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source.

    PubMed

    Lord, J S; McKenzie, I; Baker, P J; Blundell, S J; Cottrell, S P; Giblin, S R; Good, J; Hillier, A D; Holsman, B H; King, P J C; Lancaster, T; Mitchell, R; Nightingale, J B; Owczarkowski, M; Poli, S; Pratt, F L; Rhodes, N J; Scheuermann, R; Salman, Z

    2011-07-01

    The high magnetic field (HiFi) muon instrument at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source is a state-of-the-art spectrometer designed to provide applied magnetic fields up to 5 T for muon studies of condensed matter and molecular systems. The spectrometer is optimised for time-differential muon spin relaxation studies at a pulsed muon source. We describe the challenges involved in its design and construction, detailing, in particular, the magnet and detector performance. Commissioning experiments have been conducted and the results are presented to demonstrate the scientific capabilities of the new instrument. PMID:21806196

  9. Design and commissioning of a high magnetic field muon spin relaxation spectrometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J. S.; McKenzie, I.; Baker, P. J.; Cottrell, S. P.; Giblin, S. R.; Hillier, A. D.; Holsman, B. H.; King, P. J. C.; Nightingale, J. B.; Pratt, F. L.; Rhodes, N. J.; Blundell, S. J.; Lancaster, T.; Good, J.; Mitchell, R.; Owczarkowski, M.; Poli, S.; Scheuermann, R.; Salman, Z.

    2011-07-15

    The high magnetic field (HiFi) muon instrument at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source is a state-of-the-art spectrometer designed to provide applied magnetic fields up to 5 T for muon studies of condensed matter and molecular systems. The spectrometer is optimised for time-differential muon spin relaxation studies at a pulsed muon source. We describe the challenges involved in its design and construction, detailing, in particular, the magnet and detector performance. Commissioning experiments have been conducted and the results are presented to demonstrate the scientific capabilities of the new instrument.

  10. The lead-glass electromagnetic calorimeters for the magnetic spectrometers in Hall C at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Carlini, Roger D.; Tadevosyan, Vardan H.; Arrington, John Robert; Asaturyan, Arshak Razmik; Christy, Michael Eric; Dutta, Dipangkar; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard C.; Gaskell, David J.; Horn, Tanja; Jones, Mark K.; Keppel, Cynthia; Mack, David J.; Malace, Simona P.; Mkrtchyan, Arthur; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Seely, Charles Jason; Tvaskis, Vladas; Wood, Stephen A.; Zhamkochyan, Simon

    2013-08-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeters of the various magnetic spectrometers in Hall C at Jefferson Lab are presented. For the existing HMS and SOS spectrometers design considerations, relevant construction information, and comparisons of simulated and experimental results are included. The energy resolution of the HMS and SOS calorimeters is better than $\\sigma/E \\sim 6%/\\sqrt E $, and pion/electron ($\\pi/e$) separation of about 100:1 has been achieved in energy range 1 -- 5 GeV. Good agreement has been observed between the experimental and simulated energy resolutions, but simulations systematically exceed experimentally determined $\\pi^-$ suppression factors by close to a factor of two. For the SHMS spectrometer presently under construction details on the design and accompanying GEANT4 simulation efforts are given. The anticipated performance of the new calorimeter is predicted over the full momentum range of the SHMS. Good electron/hadron separation is anticipated by combining the energy deposited in an initial (preshower) calorimeter layer with the total energy deposited in the calorimeter.

  11. Methyl quantum tunneling and nitrogen-14 NQR NMR studies using a SQUID magnetic resonance spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Black, B.E. |

    1993-07-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) techniques have been very successful in obtaining molecular conformation and dynamics information. Unfortunately, standard NMR and NQR spectrometers are unable to adequately detect resonances below a few megahertz due to the frequency dependent sensitivity of their Faraday coil detectors. For this reason a new spectrometer with a dc SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) detector, which has no such frequency dependence, has been developed. Previously, this spectrometer was used to observe {sup 11}B and {sup 27}Al NQR resonances. The scope of this study was increased to include {sup 23}Na, {sup 51}V, and {sup 55}Mn NQR transitions. Also, a technique was presented to observe {sup 14}N NQR resonances through cross relaxation of the nitrogen polarization to adjacent proton spins. When the proton Zeeman splitting matches one nitrogen quadrupoler transition the remaining two {sup 14}N transitions can be detected by sweeping a saturating rf field through resonance. Additionally, simultaneous excitation of two nitrogen resonances provides signal enhancement which helps to connect transitions from the same site. In this way, nitrogen-14 resonances were observed in several amino acids and polypeptides. This spectrometer has also been useful in the direct detection of methyl quantum tunneling splittings at 4.2 K. Tunneling, frequencies of a homologous series of carboxylic acids were measured and for solids with equivalent crystal structures, an exponential correlation between the tunneling frequency and the enthalpy of fusion is observed. This correlation provides information about the contribution of intermolecular interactions to the energy barrier for methyl rotation.

  12. Quantitative two-dimensional HSQC experiment for high magnetic field NMR spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskela, Harri; Heikkilä, Outi; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka; Heikkinen, Sami

    2010-01-01

    The finite RF power available on carbon channel in proton-carbon correlation experiments leads to non-uniform cross peak intensity response across carbon chemical shift range. Several classes of broadband pulses are available that alleviate this problem. Adiabatic pulses provide an excellent magnetization inversion over a large bandwidth, and very recently, novel phase-modulated pulses have been proposed that perform 90° and 180° magnetization rotations with good offset tolerance. Here, we present a study how these broadband pulses (adiabatic and phase-modulated) can improve quantitative application of the heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) experiment on high magnetic field strength NMR spectrometers. Theoretical and experimental examinations of the quantitative, offset-compensated, CPMG-adjusted HSQC (Q-OCCAHSQC) experiment are presented. The proposed experiment offers a formidable improvement to the offset performance; 13C offset-dependent standard deviation of the peak intensity was below 6% in range of ±20 kHz. This covers the carbon chemical shift range of 150 ppm, which contains the protonated carbons excluding the aldehydes, for 22.3 T NMR magnets. A demonstration of the quantitative analysis of a fasting blood plasma sample obtained from a healthy volunteer is given.

  13. Commissioning of horizontal-bend superconducting magnet for Jefferson Lab's 11-GeV super high momentum spectrometer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sun, Eric; Brindza, Paul D.; Lassiter, Steven R.; Fowler, Mike J.; Fenker, Howard C.; DeKamp, Jon C.

    2016-03-02

    Commissioning characteristics of the Superconducting High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS) Horizontal Bend (HB) magnet was presented. Pre-commissioning peer review of the magnet uncovered issues with eddy currents in the thermal shield, resulting in additional testing and modeling of the magnet. A three-stage test plan was discussed. A solution of using a small dump resistor and a warm thermal shield was presented. Analyses illustrated that it was safe to run the magnet to full test current. As a result, the HB magnet was successfully cooled to 4 K and reached its maximum test current of 4000 A.

  14. Results of a search for deuterium at 25-50 GC/c using a magnetic spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, R. L.; Stephens, S. A.; Webber, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for separately identifying isotopes using a Cerenkov detector and a magnet spectrometer. Simulations of the method are given for separating deuterium from protons. The simulations are compared with data gathered from the 1979 flight of the New Mexico State University balloonborne magnet spectrometer. The simulation and the data show the same general characteristics lending credence to the technique. The data show an apparent deuteron signal which is (11 + or - 3)% of the total sample in the rigidity region 38.5 to 50 GV/c. Until further background analysis and subtraction is performed this should be regarded as an upper limit to the deuteron/(deuteron+proton) ratio.

  15. First measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Frenje, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Li, C. K.; Rygg, J. R.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Yu Glebov, V.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Hatchett, S.; Haan, S.; Cerjan, C.; Landen, O.; Moran, M.; Song, P.; Wilson, D. C.; Leeper, R. J.

    2008-10-15

    A neutron spectrometer, called a magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS), has been built and implemented at the OMEGA laser facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] for absolute measurements of the neutron spectrum in the range of 6-30 MeV, from which fuel areal density ({rho}R), ion temperature (T{sub i}), and yield (Y{sub n}) can be determined. The results from the first MRS measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum are presented. In addition, measuring {rho}R at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)] will be essential for assessing implosion performance during all stages of development from surrogate implosions to cryogenic fizzles to ignited implosions. To accomplish this, we are also developing an MRS for the NIF. As much of the research and development and instrument optimization of the MRS at OMEGA are directly applicable to the MRS at the NIF, a description of the design and characterization of the MRS on the NIF is discussed as well.

  16. First measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA (invited).

    PubMed

    Frenje, J A; Casey, D T; Li, C K; Rygg, J R; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Hatchett, S; Haan, S; Cerjan, C; Landen, O; Moran, M; Song, P; Wilson, D C; Leeper, R J

    2008-10-01

    A neutron spectrometer, called a magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS), has been built and implemented at the OMEGA laser facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] for absolute measurements of the neutron spectrum in the range of 6-30 MeV, from which fuel areal density (rhoR), ion temperature (T(i)), and yield (Y(n)) can be determined. The results from the first MRS measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum are presented. In addition, measuring rhoR at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)] will be essential for assessing implosion performance during all stages of development from surrogate implosions to cryogenic fizzles to ignited implosions. To accomplish this, we are also developing an MRS for the NIF. As much of the research and development and instrument optimization of the MRS at OMEGA are directly applicable to the MRS at the NIF, a description of the design and characterization of the MRS on the NIF is discussed as well. PMID:19044488

  17. Optical Calibration For Jefferson Lab HKS Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    L. Yuan; L. Tang

    2005-11-04

    In order to accept very forward angle scattering particles, Jefferson Lab HKS experiment uses an on-target zero degree dipole magnet. The usual spectrometer optics calibration procedure has to be modified due to this on-target field. This paper describes a new method to calibrate HKS spectrometer system. The simulation of the calibration procedure shows the required resolution can be achieved from initially inaccurate optical description.

  18. Cryogenic magnetic bearing scanning mechanism design for the SPICA/SAFARI Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Dool, Teun C.; Hamelinck, Roger F. M. M.; Kruizinga, Bob; Gielesen, Wim L. M.; Braam, Ben C.; Nijenhuis, Jan R.; Loix, Nicolas; Luyckx, Stanislas; van Loon, Dennis; Kooijman, Peter Paul; Swinyard, Bruce M.

    2010-07-01

    TNO, together with its partners Micromega and SRON, have designed a cryogenic scanning mechanism for use in the SAFARI Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board of the SPICA mission. The optics of the FTS scanning mechanism (FTSM) consists of two back-to-back cat's-eyes. The optics are mounted on a central "back-bone" tube which houses all the important mechatronic parts: the magnetic bearing linear guiding system, a magnetic linear motor serving as the OPD actuator, internal metrology with nanometer resolution, and a launch lock. A magnetic bearing is employed to enable a large scanning stroke in a small volume. It supports the optics in a free-floating way with no friction, or other non-linearities, enabling sub-nanometer accuracy within a single stage with a stroke of -4 mm to +31.5 mm. Because the FTSM will be used at cryogenic temperatures of 4 Kelvin, the main structure and optics are all constructed from 6061 Aluminum. The overall outside dimensions of the FTSM are: 393 x 130 x 125 mm, and the mass is 2.2 kg.

  19. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M.; Ulreich, J.; Ashabranner, R. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Felker, B.; Khater, H. Y.; LePape, S.; MacKinnon, A.; McKernan, M. A.; Moran, M.; Rygg, J. R.; Yeoman, M. F.; Zacharias, R.; Leeper, R. J.; Fletcher, K.; Farrell, M.; Jasion, D.; Kilkenny, J.; Paguio, R.

    2013-04-01

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  20. The magnetic toroidal sector: a broad-band electron-positron pair spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagmann, Siegbert; Hillenbrand, Pierre-Michel; Litvinov, Yuri; Spillmann, Uwe

    2016-05-01

    At the future relativistic storage-ring HESR at FAIR the study of electron-positron pairs from non-nuclear, atomic processes will be one of the goals of the experimental program with kinematically complete experiments focusing on momentum spectroscopy of coincident emission of electrons and positrons from free-free pairs and corresponding recoil ions. The underlying production mechanisms belong to central topics of QED in strong fields. We present first results on the electron-optical properties of a magnetic toroidal sector configuration enabling coincident detection of free-free electron-positron pairs; this spectrometer is suitable for implementation into a storage ring with a supersonic jet target and covering a wide range of lepton emission into the forward hemisphere. The simulation calculations are performed using the OPERA code.

  1. Large volume liquid helium relief device verifacation apparatus for the alpha magnetic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimas, Richard John; McIntyre, P.; Colvin, John; Zeigler, John; Van Sciver, Steven; Ting, Samual

    2012-06-01

    Here we present details of an experiment for verifying the liquid helium vessel relief device for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-02 (AMS-02). The relief device utilizes a series of rupture discs designed to open in the event of a vacuum failure of the AMS-02 cryogenic system. A failure of this type is classified to be a catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum accident. This apparatus differs from other approaches due to the size of the test volumes used. The verification apparatus consists of a 250 liter vessel used for the test quantity of liquid helium that is located inside a vacuum insulated vessel. A large diameter valve is suddenly opened to simulate the loss of insulating vacuum in a repeatable manner. Pressure and temperature vs. time data are presented and discussed in the context of the AMS-02 hardware configuration.

  2. Measuring the absolute DT neutron yield using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, A; Casey, D; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M G; Seguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Y; Katz, J; Knauer, J; Meyerhofer, D; Sangster, T; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Hachett, S P; Hartouni, E; Lepape, S; Mckernan, M; Moran, M; Yeamans, C

    2012-05-03

    A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  3. Large solid angle tracking of Monte Carlo events of heavy ion collisions in TPC magnetic spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Asoka-Kumar, P.P.V.

    1986-01-01

    The collision of 15 GeV/nucleon sulfur and carbon or oxygen ions with various fixed targets such as carbon, sulfur, and gold is to be observed in the MPS magnetic spectrometer with a time projection chamber (TPC) module. This TPC will be placed just downstream of the target and be able to track approximately 50% of all charged particles. The design and construction of the TPC is proceeding, and prototypes of the TPC readout system have been tested and production devices are to be delivered. A TPC track reconstruction program has been developed. Monte Carlo events have been generated and tracked. The track reconstruction program consists of three parts: a local pattern recognition which associates contiguous readouts on adjacent readout wires to form a single hit; a subroutine which positions the hits into slices in the vertical plane; and the track reconstruction section. (LEW)

  4. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF.

    PubMed

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M Gatu; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Magoon, J; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Shoup, M; Ulreich, J; Ashabranner, R C; Bionta, R M; Carpenter, A C; Felker, B; Khater, H Y; LePape, S; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Rygg, J R; Yeoman, M F; Zacharias, R; Leeper, R J; Fletcher, K; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Kilkenny, J; Paguio, R

    2013-04-01

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF. PMID:23635195

  5. Magnetic mass spectrometer search at 2750 m. for hypothetical massive particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, H. B.; Bowen, T.; Delise, D. A.; Jenkins, E. W.; Jones, J. J.; Kalbach, R. M.; Pifer, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    A search was conducted for hypothetical singly charged massive particles which might be produced in collisions of very highly energetic cosmic ray particles with nuclei in the upper atmosphere. If such particles have sufficiently long lifetime and small cross section for interaction, they could survive to mountain altitude. A cosmic ray spectrometer consisting of superconducting magnet, wire spark chambers and time-of-flight scintillation counters was used to search for these particles at mountain altitude (2750 m). For any choice of hypothetical mass in the 5 to 10 GeV/c-squared range the upper limit to the vertical intensity of the particle was observed to be less than or roughly equal to 10 to the -6th/sq. cm/s/(GeV/c).

  6. Gain stabilization control system of the upgraded magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer at JET

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoestrand, Henrik; Sunden, E. Andersson; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Giacomelli, L.; Hellesen, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Ronchi, E.; Weiszflog, M.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Popovichev, S. [EURATOM Collaboration: JET EFDA Contributors

    2009-06-15

    Burning plasma experiments such as ITER and DEMO require diagnostics capable of withstanding the harsh environment generated by the intense neutron flux and to maintain stable operating conditions for times longer than present day systems. For these reasons, advanced control and monitoring (CM) systems will be necessary for the reliable operation of diagnostics. This paper describes the CM system of the upgraded magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer installed at the Joint European Torus focusing in particular on a technique for the stabilization of the gain of the photomultipliers coupled to the neutron detectors. The results presented here show that this technique provides good results over long time scales. The technique is of general interest for all diagnostics that employ scintillators coupled to photomultiplier tubes.

  7. Precision Cosmic Ray Physics on the Iss with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    One hundred years after their discovery by Victor Hess, Cosmic Rays are nowadays subject of intense research from space based detectors, able to perform for the first time high precision measurement of their composition and spectra as well as of isotropy and time variability. On May 2011, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS - 02), has been installed on the International Space Station, to measure with high accuracy the Cosmic Rays properties searching for rare events which could be indication of the nature of Dark Matter or presence of nuclear Antimatter. AMS - 02 is the result of nearly two decades of effort of an international collaboration, to design and build a state of the art detector capable to perform high precision Cosmic Rays measurement. In this paper I will briefly report on the first results of AMS - 02 two years after the beginning of the operations in space.

  8. Precision measurements of e+ e- in Cosmic Ray with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    One hundred years after their discovery by Victor Hess, Cosmic Rays are nowadays subject of intense research from space based detectors, able to perform for the first time high precision measurement of their composition and spectra as well as of isotropy and time variability. On May 2011, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02), has been installed on the International Space Station, to measure with high accuracy the Cosmic Rays properties searching for rare events which could be indication of the nature of Dark Matter or presence of nuclear Antimatter. AMS-02 is the result of nearly two decades of effort of an international collaboration, to design and build a state of the art detector capable to perform high precision Cosmic Rays measurement. In this paper I will briefly report on the first results of AMS-02 two years after the beginning of the operations in space.

  9. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M.; Ulreich, J.; Ashabranner, R. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Felker, B.; Khater, H. Y.; LePape, S.; MacKinnon, A.; McKernan, M. A.; Moran, M.; Rygg, J. R.; Yeoman, M. F.; Zacharias, R.; Leeper, R. J.; Fletcher, K.; Farrell, M.; Jasion, D.; Kilkenny, J.; Paguio, R.

    2013-04-18

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, iontemperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  10. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; et al

    2013-04-18

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, iontemperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describesmore » ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.« less

  11. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M.; Ulreich, J.; Ashabranner, R. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Felker, B.; Khater, H. Y.; LePape, S.; MacKinnon, A.; and others

    2013-04-15

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  12. Design of a magnetic shielding system for the time of flight enhanced diagnostics neutron spectrometer at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Z. Q.; Chen, Z. J.; Xie, X. F.; Peng, X. Y.; Hu, Z. M.; Du, T. F.; Ge, L. J.; Zhang, X.; Yuan, X.; Fan, T. S.; Chen, J. X.; Li, X. Q. E-mail: guohuizhang@pku.edu.cn; Zhang, G. H. E-mail: guohuizhang@pku.edu.cn; Xia, Z. W.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhong, G. Q.; Lin, S. Y.; Wan, B. N.

    2014-11-15

    The novel neutron spectrometer TOFED (Time of Flight Enhanced Diagnostics), comprising 90 individual photomultiplier tubes coupled with 85 plastic scintillation detectors through light guides, has been constructed and installed at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. A dedicated magnetic shielding system has been constructed for TOFED, and is designed to guarantee the normal operation of photomultiplier tubes in the stray magnetic field leaking from the tokamak device. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations carried out employing the finite element method are combined to optimize the design of the magnetic shielding system. The system allows detectors to work properly in an external magnetic field of 200 G.

  13. Design of a magnetic shielding system for the time of flight enhanced diagnostics neutron spectrometer at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Cui, Z Q; Chen, Z J; Xie, X F; Peng, X Y; Hu, Z M; Du, T F; Ge, L J; Zhang, X; Yuan, X; Xia, Z W; Hu, L Q; Zhong, G Q; Lin, S Y; Wan, B N; Fan, T S; Chen, J X; Li, X Q; Zhang, G H

    2014-11-01

    The novel neutron spectrometer TOFED (Time of Flight Enhanced Diagnostics), comprising 90 individual photomultiplier tubes coupled with 85 plastic scintillation detectors through light guides, has been constructed and installed at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. A dedicated magnetic shielding system has been constructed for TOFED, and is designed to guarantee the normal operation of photomultiplier tubes in the stray magnetic field leaking from the tokamak device. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations carried out employing the finite element method are combined to optimize the design of the magnetic shielding system. The system allows detectors to work properly in an external magnetic field of 200 G. PMID:25430242

  14. Design of a magnetic shielding system for the time of flight enhanced diagnostics neutron spectrometer at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Z. Q.; Chen, Z. J.; Xie, X. F.; Peng, X. Y.; Hu, Z. M.; Du, T. F.; Ge, L. J.; Zhang, X.; Yuan, X.; Xia, Z. W.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhong, G. Q.; Lin, S. Y.; Wan, B. N.; Fan, T. S.; Chen, J. X.; Li, X. Q.; Zhang, G. H.

    2014-11-01

    The novel neutron spectrometer TOFED (Time of Flight Enhanced Diagnostics), comprising 90 individual photomultiplier tubes coupled with 85 plastic scintillation detectors through light guides, has been constructed and installed at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. A dedicated magnetic shielding system has been constructed for TOFED, and is designed to guarantee the normal operation of photomultiplier tubes in the stray magnetic field leaking from the tokamak device. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations carried out employing the finite element method are combined to optimize the design of the magnetic shielding system. The system allows detectors to work properly in an external magnetic field of 200 G.

  15. A broadband microwave Corbino spectrometer at 3He temperatures and high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Pan, LiDong; Armitage, N. P.

    2014-09-01

    We present the technical details of a broadband microwave spectrometer for measuring the complex conductance of thin films covering the range from 50 MHz up to 16 GHz in the temperature range 300 mK-6 K and at applied magnetic fields up to 8 T. We measure the complex reflection from a sample terminating a coaxial transmission line and calibrate the signals with three standards with known reflection coefficients. Thermal isolation of the heat load from the inner conductor is accomplished by including a section of NbTi superconducting cable (transition temperature around 8-9 K) and hermetic seal glass bead adapters. This enables us to stabilize the base temperature of the sample stage at 300 mK. However, the inclusion of this superconducting cable complicates the calibration procedure. We document the effects of the superconducting cable on our calibration procedure and the effects of applied magnetic fields and how we control the temperature with great repeatability for each measurement. We have successfully extracted reliable data in this frequency, temperature, and field range for thin superconducting films and highly resistive graphene samples.

  16. A broadband microwave Corbino spectrometer at ³He temperatures and high magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Pan, LiDong; Armitage, N P

    2014-09-01

    We present the technical details of a broadband microwave spectrometer for measuring the complex conductance of thin films covering the range from 50 MHz up to 16 GHz in the temperature range 300 mK-6 K and at applied magnetic fields up to 8 T. We measure the complex reflection from a sample terminating a coaxial transmission line and calibrate the signals with three standards with known reflection coefficients. Thermal isolation of the heat load from the inner conductor is accomplished by including a section of NbTi superconducting cable (transition temperature around 8-9 K) and hermetic seal glass bead adapters. This enables us to stabilize the base temperature of the sample stage at 300 mK. However, the inclusion of this superconducting cable complicates the calibration procedure. We document the effects of the superconducting cable on our calibration procedure and the effects of applied magnetic fields and how we control the temperature with great repeatability for each measurement. We have successfully extracted reliable data in this frequency, temperature, and field range for thin superconducting films and highly resistive graphene samples. PMID:25273708

  17. A stretch/compress scheme for a high temporal resolution detector for the magnetic recoil spectrometer time (MRSt)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hilsabeck, T. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Hares, J. D.; Wink, C. W.

    2016-08-02

    Here we present a time-resolved detector concept for the magnetic recoil spectrometer for time-resolved measurements of the NIF neutron spectrum. The measurement is challenging due to the time spreading of the recoil protons (or deuterons) as they transit an energy dispersing magnet system. Ions arrive at the focal plane of the magnetic spectrometer over an interval of tens of nanoseconds. We seek to measure the time-resolved neutron spectrum with 20 ps precision by manipulating an electron signal derived from the ions. A stretch-compress scheme is employed to remove transit time skewing while simultaneously reducing the bandwidth requirements for signal recording.more » Simulation results are presented along with design concepts for structures capable of establishing the required electromagnetic fields.« less

  18. The Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) Instruments Aboard the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, J. B.; Carranza, P. A.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Clemmons, J. H.; Crain, W. R.; Dotan, Y.; Fennell, J. F.; Fuentes, F. H.; Galvan, R. M.; George, J. S.; Henderson, M. G.; Lalic, M.; Lin, A. Y.; Looper, M. D.; Mabry, D. J.; Mazur, J. E.; McCarthy, B.; Nguyen, C. Q.; O'Brien, T. P.; Perez, M. A.; Redding, M. T.; Roeder, J. L.; Salvaggio, D. J.; Sorensen, G. A.; Spence, H. E.; Yi, S.; Zakrzewski, M. P.

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instruments aboard the RBSP spacecraft from an instrumentation and engineering point of view. There are four magnetic spectrometers aboard each of the two spacecraft, one low-energy unit (20-240 keV), two medium-energy units (80-1200 keV), and a high-energy unit (800-4800 keV). The high unit also contains a proton telescope (55 keV-20 MeV). The magnetic spectrometers focus electrons within a selected energy pass band upon a focal plane of several silicon detectors where pulse-height analysis is used to determine if the energy of the incident electron is appropriate for the electron momentum selected by the magnet. Thus each event is a two-parameter analysis, an approach leading to a greatly reduced background. The physics of these instruments are described in detail followed by the engineering implementation. The data outputs are described, and examples of the calibration results and early flight data presented.

  19. Conceptual design of the gamma-to-electron magnetic spectrometer for the National Ignition Facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Herrmann, H. W.; Jorgenson, H. J.; Barlow, D. B.; Young, C. S.; Stoeffl, W.; Casey, D.; Clancy, T.; Lopez, F. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Hilsabeck, T.; Moy, K.; Batha, S. H.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma-to-Electron Magnetic Spectrometer (GEMS) diagnostic is designed to measure the prompt γ-ray energy spectrum during high yield deuterium-tritium (DT) implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The prompt γ-ray spectrum will provide "burn-averaged" observables, including total DT fusion yield, total areal density (ρR), ablator ρR, and fuel ρR. These burn-averaged observables are unique because they are essentially averaged over 4π, providing a global reference for the line-of-sight-specific measurements typical of x-ray and neutron diagnostics. The GEMS conceptual design meets the physics-based requirements: ΔE/E = 3%-5% can be achieved in the range of 2-25 MeV γ-ray energy. Minimum DT neutron yields required for 15% measurement uncertainty at low-resolution mode are: 5 × 1014 DT-n for ablator ρR (at 0.2 g/cm2); 2 × 1015 DT-n for total DT yield (at 4.2 × 10-5 γ/n); and 1 × 1016 DT-n for fuel ρR (at 1 g/cm2).

  20. Note: Spectrometer with multichannel photon-counting detector for beam emission spectroscopy in magnetic fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizunov, A.; Khilchenko, A.; Khilchenko, V.; Kvashnin, A.; Zubarev, P.

    2015-12-01

    A spectrometer based on a linear array photomultiplier tube (PMT) has been developed and calibrated. A 0.635 m focal length Czerny-Turner monochromator combined with a coupling optics provides an image of a narrow 0.5 nm spectral range with a resolution of 0.015 nm/channel on a 32-anode PMT. The system aims at spectroscopy of Dα or Hα lines emitted by a diagnostic atomic beam in a plasma (primarily a motional Stark effect diagnostics). To record a low photon flux of ˜106 s-1 per channel with the time resolution of 100 μs, a pulse counting approach has been used. Wideband amplifiers scale single-electron pulses and transmit them to a digital data processing core hardwired in a programmable logic matrix. Calibrations have shown that the aberration-limited instrument function fits to a single detector channel of 1 mm width. Pilot results of passive measurements of Dα light emission from the plasma confined in a magnetic trap are presented.

  1. Investigations on the temperature warnings of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Sun, Qie; Song, Lipeng; Cui, Zheng; Wang, Naihua; Cheng, Lin

    2015-08-01

    The thermal environment of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) on the International Space Station (ISS) is complicated due to the varying β angle (the angle between ISS orbital plane and the solar vector) and the ISS manoeuvres, which can induce temperature warnings to the AMS. We gave a statistical analysis on the temperature dependence on β, found the occurrence regularity of the temperature warnings, and the β intervals where temperature warnings tend to occur. We also analysed the impacts of the ISS manoeuvres on the local temperature of these components, and found that adjusting the position of the ISS starboard radiator can help to adjust the local temperature of the components located at the port side of the AMS, we also found locking solar arrays brought temperature drop on the AMS in most of cases but temperature rise on the tracker plane 1 located at the top of the AMS when β < - 70 °, attitude adjustment generally doesn't bring temperature warning except the attitude in which the wake radiator was constantly illuminated. The investigations provide reference for the long-time thermal control of the AMS, and provide knowledge for the ISS operation to take into account.

  2. Note: Spectrometer with multichannel photon-counting detector for beam emission spectroscopy in magnetic fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lizunov, A.; Khilchenko, A.; Khilchenko, V.; Kvashnin, A.; Zubarev, P.

    2015-12-15

    A spectrometer based on a linear array photomultiplier tube (PMT) has been developed and calibrated. A 0.635 m focal length Czerny-Turner monochromator combined with a coupling optics provides an image of a narrow 0.5 nm spectral range with a resolution of 0.015 nm/channel on a 32-anode PMT. The system aims at spectroscopy of D{sub α} or H{sub α} lines emitted by a diagnostic atomic beam in a plasma (primarily a motional Stark effect diagnostics). To record a low photon flux of ∼10{sup 6} s{sup −1} per channel with the time resolution of 100 μs, a pulse counting approach has been used. Wideband amplifiers scale single-electron pulses and transmit them to a digital data processing core hardwired in a programmable logic matrix. Calibrations have shown that the aberration-limited instrument function fits to a single detector channel of 1 mm width. Pilot results of passive measurements of D{sub α} light emission from the plasma confined in a magnetic trap are presented.

  3. Possibility of testing the light dark matter hypothesis with the alpha magnetic spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Dan; Xue, Wei

    2013-01-25

    The spectrum and morphology of gamma rays from the Galactic center and the spectrum of synchrotron emission observed from the Milky Way's radio filaments have each been interpreted as possible signals of ∼ 7-10 GeV dark matter particles annihilating in the inner Galaxy. In dark matter models capable of producing these signals, the annihilations should also generate significant fluxes of ∼ 7-10 GeV positrons which can lead to a distinctive bumplike feature in a local cosmic ray positron spectrum. In this Letter, we show that while such a feature would be difficult to detect with PAMELA, it would likely be identifiable by the currently operating Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment. As no known astrophysical (i.e., nondark matter) sources or mechanisms are likely to produce such a sharp feature, the observation of a positron bump at around 7-10 GeV would significantly strengthen the case for a dark matter interpretation of the reported gamma-ray and radio anomalies. PMID:25166150

  4. Conceptual design of the gamma-to-electron magnetic spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Herrmann, H W; Jorgenson, H J; Barlow, D B; Young, C S; Stoeffl, W; Casey, D; Clancy, T; Lopez, F E; Oertel, J A; Hilsabeck, T; Moy, K; Batha, S H

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma-to-Electron Magnetic Spectrometer (GEMS) diagnostic is designed to measure the prompt γ-ray energy spectrum during high yield deuterium-tritium (DT) implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The prompt γ-ray spectrum will provide "burn-averaged" observables, including total DT fusion yield, total areal density (ρR), ablator ρR, and fuel ρR. These burn-averaged observables are unique because they are essentially averaged over 4π, providing a global reference for the line-of-sight-specific measurements typical of x-ray and neutron diagnostics. The GEMS conceptual design meets the physics-based requirements: ΔE/E = 3%-5% can be achieved in the range of 2-25 MeV γ-ray energy. Minimum DT neutron yields required for 15% measurement uncertainty at low-resolution mode are: 5 × 10(14) DT-n for ablator ρR (at 0.2 g/cm(2)); 2 × 10(15) DT-n for total DT yield (at 4.2 × 10(-5) γ/n); and 1 × 10(16) DT-n for fuel ρR (at 1 g/cm(2)). PMID:25430301

  5. Note: Spectrometer with multichannel photon-counting detector for beam emission spectroscopy in magnetic fusion devices.

    PubMed

    Lizunov, A; Khilchenko, A; Khilchenko, V; Kvashnin, A; Zubarev, P

    2015-12-01

    A spectrometer based on a linear array photomultiplier tube (PMT) has been developed and calibrated. A 0.635 m focal length Czerny-Turner monochromator combined with a coupling optics provides an image of a narrow 0.5 nm spectral range with a resolution of 0.015 nm/channel on a 32-anode PMT. The system aims at spectroscopy of D(α) or H(α) lines emitted by a diagnostic atomic beam in a plasma (primarily a motional Stark effect diagnostics). To record a low photon flux of ∼10(6) s(-1) per channel with the time resolution of 100 μs, a pulse counting approach has been used. Wideband amplifiers scale single-electron pulses and transmit them to a digital data processing core hardwired in a programmable logic matrix. Calibrations have shown that the aberration-limited instrument function fits to a single detector channel of 1 mm width. Pilot results of passive measurements of D(α) light emission from the plasma confined in a magnetic trap are presented. PMID:26724090

  6. A full range detector for the HIRRBS high resolution RBS magnetic spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Skala, Wayne G.; Haberl, Arthur W.; Bakhru, Hassaram; Lanford, William

    2013-04-19

    The UAlbany HIRRBS (High Resolution RBS) system has been updated for better use in rapid analysis. The focal plane detector now covers the full range from U down to O using a linear stepper motor to translate the 1-cm detector across the 30-cm range. Input is implemented with zero-back-angle operation in all cases. The chamber has been modified to allow for quick swapping of sample holders, including a channeling goniometer. A fixed standard surface-barrier detector allows for normal RBS simultaneously with use of the magnetic spectrometer. The user can select a region on the standard spectrum or can select an element edge or an energy point for collection of the expanded spectrum portion. The best resolution currently obtained is about 2-to-3 keV, probably representing the energy width of the incoming beam. Calibration is maintained automatically for any spectrum portion and any beam energy from 1.0 to 3.5 MeV. Element resolving power, sensitivity and depth resolution are shown using several examples. Examples also show the value of simultaneous conventional RBS.

  7. A full range detector for the HIRRBS high resolution RBS magnetic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skala, Wayne G.; Haberl, Arthur W.; Bakhru, Hassaram; Lanford, William

    2013-04-01

    The UAlbany HIRRBS (High Resolution RBS) system has been updated for better use in rapid analysis. The focal plane detector now covers the full range from U down to O using a linear stepper motor to translate the 1-cm detector across the 30-cm range. Input is implemented with zero-back-angle operation in all cases. The chamber has been modified to allow for quick swapping of sample holders, including a channeling goniometer. A fixed standard surface-barrier detector allows for normal RBS simultaneously with use of the magnetic spectrometer. The user can select a region on the standard spectrum or can select an element edge or an energy point for collection of the expanded spectrum portion. The best resolution currently obtained is about 2-to-3 keV, probably representing the energy width of the incoming beam. Calibration is maintained automatically for any spectrum portion and any beam energy from 1.0 to 3.5 MeV. Element resolving power, sensitivity and depth resolution are shown using several examples. Examples also show the value of simultaneous conventional RBS.

  8. Conceptual design of the gamma-to-electron magnetic spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y. Herrmann, H. W.; Jorgenson, H. J.; Barlow, D. B.; Young, C. S.; Lopez, F. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Batha, S. H.; Stoeffl, W.; Casey, D.; Clancy, T.; Hilsabeck, T.; Moy, K.

    2014-11-15

    The Gamma-to-Electron Magnetic Spectrometer (GEMS) diagnostic is designed to measure the prompt γ-ray energy spectrum during high yield deuterium-tritium (DT) implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The prompt γ-ray spectrum will provide “burn-averaged” observables, including total DT fusion yield, total areal density (ρR), ablator ρR, and fuel ρR. These burn-averaged observables are unique because they are essentially averaged over 4π, providing a global reference for the line-of-sight-specific measurements typical of x-ray and neutron diagnostics. The GEMS conceptual design meets the physics-based requirements: ΔE/E = 3%–5% can be achieved in the range of 2–25 MeV γ-ray energy. Minimum DT neutron yields required for 15% measurement uncertainty at low-resolution mode are: 5 × 10{sup 14} DT-n for ablator ρR (at 0.2 g/cm{sup 2}); 2 × 10{sup 15} DT-n for total DT yield (at 4.2 × 10{sup −5} γ/n); and 1 × 10{sup 16} DT-n for fuel ρR (at 1 g/cm{sup 2})

  9. Study of Neutron-Deuteron Reactions Using a Magnetic Quadrupole Triplet Spectrometer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Vivek Dattatraya

    Neutron induced breakup of deuteron has been used to determine the value of neutron-neutron scattering length, a quantity of fundamental importance in low-energy nucleon -nucleon interaction. It is found that the value depends strongly on the details of the experiment and theoretical analysis. Various values lying between -16 fm and -24 fm have been derived in previous works. This work concerns the investigation of the final state interaction peak at the upper end of the proton energy spectrum at forward angles in the ('2)H(n,p)2n breakup reaction carried out at various incident neutron energies up to 25 MeV with good energy resolution. Most of the previous investigations of this reaction have been at 14 MeV. The scope of this work also includes the measurement of the angular distribution of ('2)H(n,d)n elastic scattering and the simultaneous theoretical analysis of breakup and elastic scattering data with the main intention of testing their sensitivity to the value of n-n scattering length. A new magnetic quadrupole triplet spectrometer has been constructed at Ohio University to investigate neutron induced charged particle reactions, and the experimental aspect of this work mainly involves the testing and debugging of this device and its use in the measurements of n-d breakup and elastic scattering. The quadrupole triplet spectrometer, which is based on an earlier design at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, consists of 3.4 m long transport tube with a diameter of 20 cm. The radiator is located close to the neutron source. The spectrometer allows placement of the detector 3.4 m away from the radiator while retaining a substantial solid angle. This reduces neutron induced background and improves signal -to-background ratio. The background is further reduced by placing brass shadow bars and collimators at appropriate locations inside the spectrometer. The device is a poor -resolution momentum spectrometer, and the energy resolution is regained by using a semiconductor

  10. On the Subjective Acceptance during Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 7.0 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Klix, Sabrina; Els, Antje; Paul, Katharina; Graessl, Andreas; Oezerdem, Celal; Weinberger, Oliver; Winter, Lukas; Thalhammer, Christof; Huelnhagen, Till; Rieger, Jan; Mehling, Heidrun; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examines the subjective acceptance during UHF-CMR in a cohort of healthy volunteers who underwent a cardiac MR examination at 7.0T. Methods Within a period of two-and-a-half years (January 2012 to June 2014) a total of 165 healthy volunteers (41 female, 124 male) without any known history of cardiac disease underwent UHF-CMR. For the assessment of the subjective acceptance a questionnaire was used to examine the participants experience prior, during and after the UHF-CMR examination. For this purpose, subjects were asked to respond to the questionnaire in an exit interview held immediately after the completion of the UHF-CMR examination under supervision of a study nurse to ensure accurate understanding of the questions. All questions were answered with “yes” or “no” including space for additional comments. Results Transient muscular contraction was documented in 12.7% of the questionnaires. Muscular contraction was reported to occur only during periods of scanning with the magnetic field gradients being rapidly switched. Dizziness during the study was reported by 12.7% of the subjects. Taste of metal was reported by 10.1% of the study population. Light flashes were reported by 3.6% of the entire cohort. 13% of the subjects reported side effects/observations which were not explicitly listed in the questionnaire but covered by the question about other side effects. No severe side effects as vomiting or syncope after scanning occurred. No increase in heart rate was observed during the UHF-CMR exam versus the baseline clinical examination. Conclusions This study adds to the literature by detailing the subjective acceptance of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging examinations at a magnetic field strength of 7.0T. Cardiac MR examinations at 7.0T are well tolerated by healthy subjects. Broader observational and multi-center studies including patient cohorts with cardiac diseases are required to gain further insights into the subjective

  11. Thermal conditions on the International Space Station: Effects of operations of the station Main Radiators on the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Min; Burger, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    A thermal model of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station (ISS) has been developed, and Thermal Desktop® (with RadCAD®) and SINDA/FLUINT software have been used to calculate the effects of the operations of the ISS Main Radiators on AMS temperatures. We find that the ISS Starboard Main Radiator has significant influence on temperatures on the port side of AMS. The simulation results are used in AMS thermal control operations.

  12. Observation of the Magnetization of Superparamagnetic Particles in Rocks and Other Natural Materials Using a Coercivity Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourgaliev, D. K.; Heller, F.; Iassonov, P. G.

    2003-04-01

    Very small single-domain (SD) grains with magnetization energy barriers comparable to their thermal energy [Neel, 1949] and hence unable to retain a remanence at a specific temperature are called "superparamagnetic" (SP) [Bean and Livingston, 1959]. Their magnetic moment follows Langevin paramagnetic behavior with changing temperature and magnetic field strength. These chemically stable magnetic particles have been observed in different natural magnetic materials: rocks, soils, lake and marine sediments, meteorites. Their size, composition and shape may provide information about the natural formation processes, such as the dynamics of igneous rocks crystallization, chemical and biological production and dissolution of magnetic particles in sediments and soils. It is not easy to determine the properties of SP materials, especially when SD, MD or paramagnetic minerals are present in the same samples. All methods proposed to measure SP properties are based on the time-dependence of the SP magnetic moment [e.g., Maher, 1986; Heller et al., 1991; Worm, 1998; Hunt and Banerjee, 1992; Worm, 1999; Smirnov and Tarduno, 2001]. Their application may be hampered by low concentration of the SP component, narrow limits of the experimental time, strong influence of other magnetic fractions. Some of these methods are not useful for rapidly measuring a large number of samples. The "coercivity spectrometer" developed by Burov et al. [1986] and modernized by Iassonov et al. [1998] overcomes several of these limitations. It uses principles that provide easy and extremely quick measurement of SP component properties in weakly magnetic natural materials at room temperature. The full SP magnetic signal can be studied within a split second after high field magnetization (IRM) has been imprinted. In this way, paramagnetic and induced magnetizations of SD and MD grains can be excluded, but the magnetic signal arising from the SP component is saved at the same time. In this paper we will

  13. The low energy magnetic spectrometer on Ulysses and ACE response to near relativistic protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgado, Bruno; Filipe Maia, Dalmiro Jorge; Lanzerotti, Louis; Gonçalves, Patrícia; Patterson, J. Douglas

    2015-05-01

    Aims: We show that the Heliosphere Instrument for Spectra Composition and Anisotropy at Low Energies (HISCALE) on board the Ulysses spacecraft and the Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (EPAM) on board the Advance Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft can be used to measure properties for ion populations with kinetic energies in excess of 1 GeV. This previously unexplored source of information is valuable for understanding the origin of near relativistic ions of solar origin. Methods: We model the instrumental response from the low energy magnetic spectrometers from EPAM and HISCALE using a Monte Carlo approach implemented in the Geant4 toolkit to determine the response of different energy channels to energies up to 5 GeV. We compare model results with EPAM observations for 2012 May 17 ground level solar cosmic ray event, including directional fluxes. Results: For the 2012 May event, all the ion channels in EPAM show an onset more than one hour before ions with the highest nominal energy range (1.8 to 4.8 MeV) were expected to arrive. We show from Monte Carlo simulations that the timing at different channels, the ratio between counts at the different channels, and the directional fluxes within a given channel, are consistent with and can be explained by the arrival of particles with energies from 35 MeV to more than 1 GeV. Onset times for the EPAM penetrating protons are consistent with the rise seen in neutron monitor data, implying that EPAM and ground neutron monitors are seeing overlapping energy ranges and that both are consistent with GeV ions being released from the Sun at 10:38 UT.

  14. Measurement of single spin asymmetry and fifth structure function for the proton(electron vec, electron Kaon+)Lambda reaction with CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rahksha Nasseripour

    2005-08-31

    The single spin asymmetry, A{sub LT} ?, and the polarized structure function, ?{sub LT}?, for the p(e,e?K{sup +})? reaction in the resonance region have been measured and extracted using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab. Data were taken at an electron beam energy of 2.567 GeV. The large acceptance of CLAS allows for full azimuthal angle coverage over a large range of center-of-mass scattering angles. Results were obtained that span a range in Q{sup 2} from 0.5 to 1.3 GeV{sup 2} and W from threshold up to 2.1 GeV and were compared to existing theoretical calculations. The polarized structure function is sensitive to the interferences between various resonant amplitudes, as well as to resonant and non-resonant amplitudes. This measurement is essential for understanding the structure of nucleons and searching for previously undetected nucleon excited states (resonances) predicted by quark models. The W dependence of the ?{sub LT} ? in the kinematic regions dominated by s and u channel exchange (cos q{sup cm} k = ?0.50, ?0.167, 0.167) indicated possible resonance structures not predicted by theoretical calculations. The ?{sub LT} ? behavior around W = 1.875 GeV could be the signature of a resonance predicted by the quark models and possibly seen in photoproduction. In the very forward angles where the reaction is dominated by the t-channel, the average ?{sub LT} ? was zero. There was no indication of the interference between resonances or resonant and non-resonant amplitudes. This might be indicating the dominance of a single t-channel exchange. Study of the sensitivity of the fifth structure function data to the resonance around 1900 MeV showed that these data were highly sensitive to the various assumptions of the models for the quantum number of this resonance. This project was part of a larger CLAS program to measure cross sections and polarization observables for kaon electroproduction in the nucleon resonance region.

  15. The magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRSt) for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Frenje, J. A.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Wink, C. W.; Bell, P.; Bionta, R.; Cerjan, C.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; et al

    2016-08-02

    The next-generation magnetic recoil spectrometer for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum has been conceptually designed for the National Ignition Facility. This spectrometer, called MRSt, represents a paradigm shift in our thinking about neutron spectrometry for inertial confinement fusion applications, as it will provide simultaneously information about the burn history and time evolution of areal density (ρR), apparent ion temperature (Ti), yield (Yn), and macroscopic flows during burn. From this type of data, an assessment of the evolution of the fuel assembly, hotspot, and alpha heating can be made. According to simulations, the MRSt will provide accurate data with amore » time resolution of ~20 ps and energy resolution of ~100 keV for total neutron yields above ~1016. Lastly, at lower yields, the diagnostic will be operated at a higher-efficiency, lower-energy-resolution mode to provide a time resolution of ~20 ps.« less

  16. MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    White, F.A.

    1960-08-23

    A mass spectrometer is designed with a first adjustable magnetic field for resolving an ion beam into beams of selected masses, a second adjustable magnetic field for further resolving the ion beam from the first field into beams of selected masses, a thin foil disposed in the path of the beam between the first and second magnets to dissociate molecular ions incident thereon, an electrostatic field for further resolving the ion beam from the second field into beams of selected masses, and a detector disposed adjacent to the electrostatic field to receive the ion beam.

  17. Two-screen single-shot electron spectrometer for laser wakefield accelerated electron beams.

    PubMed

    Soloviev, A A; Starodubtsev, M V; Burdonov, K F; Kostyukov, I Yu; Nerush, E N; Shaykin, A A; Khazanov, E A

    2011-04-01

    The laser wakefield acceleration electron beams can essentially deviate from the axis of the system, which distinguishes them greatly from beams of conventional accelerators. In case of energy measurements by means of a permanent-magnet electron spectrometer, the deviation angle can affect accuracy, especially for high energies. A two-screen single-shot electron spectrometer that correctly allows for variations of the angle of entry is considered. The spectrometer design enables enhancing accuracy of measuring narrow electron beams significantly as compared to a one-screen spectrometer with analogous magnetic field, size, and angular acceptance. PMID:21529002

  18. Discriminating Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats Using a High-Tc SQUID Detected Nuclear Resonance Spectrometer in a Magnetic Shielding Box

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kai-Wen; Chen, Hsin-Hsien; Yang, Hong-Chang; Horng, Herng-Er; Liao, Shu-Hsien; Yang, Shieh Yueh; Chieh, Jen-Jie; Wang, Li-Ming

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we report the spin-lattice relaxation rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and normal liver tissue in rats using a high-Tc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) based nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer. The resonance spectrometer used for discriminating liver tumors in rats via the difference in longitudinal relaxation time in low magnetic fields was set up in a compact and portable magnetic shielding box. The frequency-domain NMR signals of HCC tissues and normal liver tissues were analyzed to study their respective longitudinal relaxation rate T1−1. The T1−1 of liver tissues for ten normal rats and ten cancerous rats were investigated respectively. The averaged T1−1 value of normal liver tissue was (6.41±0.66) s−1, and the averaged T1−1 value of cancerous tissue was (3.38±0.15) s−1. The ratio of T1−1 for normal liver tissues and cancerous liver tissues of the rats investigated is estimated to be 1.9. Since this significant statistical difference, the T1−1 value can be used to distinguish the HCC tissues from normal liver tissues. This method of examining liver and tumor tissues has the advantages of being convenient, easy to operate, and stable. PMID:23071710

  19. High-precision three-dimensional field mapping of a high resolution magnetic spectrometer for hypernuclear spectroscopy at JLab

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yuu; Hashimoto, Osamu; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Nakamura, Satoshi N.; Ohtani, Atsushi; Okayasu, Yuichi; Oyamada, Masamichi; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Kato, Seigo; Matsui, Jumei; Sako, Katsuhisa; Brindza, Paul

    2015-09-01

    The High Resolution Kaon Spectrometer (HKS), which consists of two quadrupole magnets and one dipole magnet, was designed and constructed for high-resolution spectroscopy of hypernuclei using the (e,e'K+) reaction in Hall C, Jefferson Lab (JLab). It was used to analyze momenta of around 1.2 GeV/c K^+ s with a resolution of 2 ×10^-4 (FWHM). To achieve the target resolution, a full three-dimensional magnetic field measurement of each magnet was successfully performed, and a full three-dimensional magnetic field map of the HKS magnets was reconstructed. Using the measured field map, the initial reconstruction function was generated. The target resolution would be achieved via careful tuning of the reconstruction function of HKS with the p(e,e'K+)Lambda,Sigma^0 and C-12 (e,e'K+)12_Lambda B_g.s. reactions. After tuning of the initial reconstruction function generated from the measured map, the estimated HKS momentum resolution was 2.2×10^-4 (FWHM).

  20. Improvements in Fabrication of Elastic Scattering Foils Used to Measure Neutron Yield by the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Reynolds, H. G.; Schoff, M. E.; Farrell, M. P.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Bionta, R. M.; Frenje, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    The magnetic recoil spectrometer uses a deuterated polyethylene polymer (CD2) foil to measure neutron yield in inertial confinement fusion experiments. Higher neutron yields in recent experiments have resulted in primary signal saturation in the detector CR-39 foils, necessitating the fabrication of thinner CD2 foils than established methods could provide. A novel method of fabricating deuterated polymer foils is described. The resulting foils are thinner, smoother, and more uniform in thickness than the foils produced by previous methods. Here, these new foils have successfully been deployed at the National Ignition Facility, enabling higher neutron yield measurements than previous foils, with nomore » primary signal saturation.« less

  1. Using an NMR Spectrometer to Do Magnetic Resonance Imaging: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmetz, Wayne E.; Maher, M. Cyrus

    2007-01-01

    A conventional Fourier-transform NMR spectrometer with a triple-axis gradient probe can function as a MRI imager. In this experiment students gain hands-on experience with MRI while they learn about important principles underlying the practice of NMR, such as gradients, multi-dimensional spectroscopy, and relaxation. Students image a biological…

  2. Assessment of Alphamagnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Upper Experiment Structural Configuration Shielding Effectiveness Associated with Change from Cryo-Cooled Magnet to Permanent Magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In the spring of 2010, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer 2 (AMS-02) underwent a series of system level electromagnetic interference control measurements, followed by thermal vacuum testing. Shortly after completion of the thermal vacuum testing, the project decided to remove the cryogenically cooled superconducting magnet, and replace it with the original permanent magnet design employed in the earlier AMS- 01 assembly. Doing so necessitated several structural changes, as well as removal or modification of numerous electronic and thermal control devices and systems. At this stage, the project was rapidly approaching key milestone dates for hardware completion and delivery for launch, and had little time for additional testing or assessment of any impact to the electromagnetic signature of the AMS-02. Therefore, an analytical assessment of the radiated emissions behavioural changes associated with the system changes was requested.

  3. Portable mass spectrometer with one or more mechanically adjustable electrostatic sectors and a mechanically adjustable magnetic sector all mounted in a vacuum chamber

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmons, J.F.; Martin, W.H.; Myers, D.W.; Keville, R.F.

    1992-10-06

    A portable mass spectrometer is described having one or more electrostatic focusing sectors and a magnetic focusing sector, all of which are positioned inside a vacuum chamber, and all of which may be adjusted via adjustment means accessible from outside the vacuum chamber. Mounting of the magnetic sector entirely within the vacuum chamber permits smaller magnets to be used, thus permitting reductions in both weight and bulk. 13 figs.

  4. Portable mass spectrometer with one or more mechanically adjustable electrostatic sectors and a mechanically adjustable magnetic sector all mounted in a vacuum chamber

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Eckels, Joel D.; Kimmons, James F.; Martin, Walter H.; Myers, David W.; Keville, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    A portable mass spectrometer is described having one or more electrostatic focusing sectors and a magnetic focusing sector, all of which are positioned inside a vacuum chamber, and all of which may be adjusted via adjustment means accessible from outside the vacuum chamber. Mounting of the magnetic sector entirely within the vacuum chamber permits smaller magnets to be used, thus permitting reductions in both weight and bulk.

  5. Dynamic stabilization of the magnetic field surrounding the neutron electric dipole moment spectrometer at the Paul Scherrer Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Afach, S.; Fertl, M.; Franke, B. E-mail: bernhard.lauss@psi.ch; Kirch, K.; Bison, G.; Burri, F.; Chowdhuri, Z.; Daum, M.; Henneck, R.; Lauss, B. E-mail: bernhard.lauss@psi.ch; Meier, M.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Zsigmond, G.; Bodek, K.; Zejma, J.; Grujic, Z.; Kasprzak, M.; Weis, A.; Hélaine, V.; Koch, H.-C.; and others

    2014-08-28

    The Surrounding Field Compensation (SFC) system described in this work is installed around the four-layer Mu-metal magnetic shield of the neutron electric dipole moment spectrometer located at the Paul Scherrer Institute. The SFC system reduces the DC component of the external magnetic field by a factor of about 20. Within a control volume of approximately 2.5 m × 2.5 m × 3 m, disturbances of the magnetic field are attenuated by factors of 5–50 at a bandwidth from 10{sup −3} Hz up to 0.5 Hz, which corresponds to integration times longer than several hundreds of seconds and represent the important timescale for the neutron electric dipole moment measurement. These shielding factors apply to random environmental noise from arbitrary sources. This is achieved via a proportional-integral feedback stabilization system that includes a regularized pseudoinverse matrix of proportionality factors which correlates magnetic field changes at all sensor positions to current changes in the SFC coils.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance at millitesla fields using a zero-field spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Tayler, Michael C D; Sjolander, Tobias F; Pines, Alexander; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-09-01

    We describe new analytical capabilities for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in which signal detection is performed with chemical resolution (via spin-spin J couplings) in the zero to ultra-low magnetic field region, below 1μT. Using magnetic fields in the 100μT to 1mT range, we demonstrate the implementation of conventional NMR pulse sequences with spin-species selectivity. PMID:27391123

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance at millitesla fields using a zero-field spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayler, Michael C. D.; Sjolander, Tobias F.; Pines, Alexander; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-09-01

    We describe new analytical capabilities for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in which signal detection is performed with chemical resolution (via spin-spin J couplings) in the zero to ultra-low magnetic field region, below 1 μT. Using magnetic fields in the 100 μT to 1 mT range, we demonstrate the implementation of conventional NMR pulse sequences with spin-species selectivity.

  8. Design and Fabrication of the Superconducting Horizontal Bend Magnet for the Super High Momentum Spectrometer at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Chouhan, Shailendra S.; DeKamp, Jon; Burkhart, E. E,; Bierwagen, J.; Song, H.; Zeller, Albert F.; Brindza, Paul D.; Lassiter, Steven R.; Fowler, Michael J.; Sun, Qiuli

    2015-06-01

    A collaboration exists between NSCL and JLab to design and build JLab's Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS) horizontal bend magnet that allows the bending of the 12 GeV/c particles horizontally by 3° to allow SHMS to reach angles as low as 5.5°. Two full size coils have been wound and are cold tested for both magnetic and structural properties. Each coil is built from 90 layers of single-turn SSC outer conductor cable. An initial test coil with one third the turns was fabricated to demonstrate that the unique saddle shape with fully contoured ends could be wound with Rutherford superconducting cable. Learned lessons during the trial winding were integrated into the two complete full-scale coils that are now installed in the helium vessel. The fabrication of the iron yoke, cold mass, and thermal shield is complete, and assembly of the vacuum vessel is in progress. This paper presents the process and progress along with the modified magnet design to reduce the fringe field in the primary beam region and also includes the impact of the changes on coil forces and coil restraint system.

  9. Electron and positron fluxes in primary cosmic rays measured with the alpha magnetic spectrometer on the international space station.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, M; Aisa, D; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chikanian, A; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D'Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Kunz, S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schuckardt, D; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Wang, L Q; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2014-09-19

    Precision measurements by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of the primary cosmic-ray electron flux in the range 0.5 to 700 GeV and the positron flux in the range 0.5 to 500 GeV are presented. The electron flux and the positron flux each require a description beyond a single power-law spectrum. Both the electron flux and the positron flux change their behavior at ∼30  GeV but the fluxes are significantly different in their magnitude and energy dependence. Between 20 and 200 GeV the positron spectral index is significantly harder than the electron spectral index. The determination of the differing behavior of the spectral indices versus energy is a new observation and provides important information on the origins of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons. PMID:25279617

  10. Prognosis for a mid-infrared magnetic rotation spectrometer for the in situ detection of atmospheric free radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Thomas A.; Chackerian, Charles, Jr.; Podolske, James R.

    1996-02-01

    Mid-infrared magnetic rotation spectroscopy (MRS) experiments on nitric oxide (NO) are quantitatively modeled by theoretical calculations. The verified theory is used to specify an instrument that can make in situ measurements on NO and NO2 in the Earth's atmosphere at a sensitivity level of a few parts in 1012 by volume per second. The prototype instrument used in the experiments has an extrapolated detection limit for NO of 30 parts in 109 for a 1-s integration time over a 12-cm path length. The detection limit is an extrapolation of experimental results to a signal-to-noise ratio of one, where the noise is considered to be one-half the peak-to-peak baseline noise. Also discussed are the various factors that can limit the sensitivity of a MRS spectrometer that uses liquid-nitrogen-cooled lead-salt diode lasers and photovoltaic detectors.

  11. Thermal conditions on the International Space Station: Heat flux and temperature investigation of main radiators for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Min; Gao, Jianmin; Wu, Shaohua; Qin, Yukun

    2016-09-01

    The investigation on heat flux can clarify the thermal condition and explain temperature behavior on the main radiators of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS). In this paper, a detailed investigation of heat flux on the AMS main radiators is proposed. The heat transfer process of the AMS main radiators is theoretically analyzed. An updated thermal model of the AMS on the International Space Station (ISS) is developed to calculate the external heat flux density on the AMS main radiators. We conclude the ISS components and operations affect on the solar flux density of the AMS main radiators by reflecting or shading solar illumination. According to the energy conservation on the AMS main radiators, the temperature variation mainly depends on the solar flux change. The investigations are conducive to reference for the long-duration thermal control of the AMS, and knowledge for the thermal conditions on the ISS.

  12. Measuring the absolute deuterium-tritium neutron yield using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF.

    PubMed

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Knauer, J P; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Bionta, R M; Bleuel, D L; Döppner, T; Glenzer, S; Hartouni, E; Hatchett, S P; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Moses, E; Park, H-S; Ralph, J; Remington, B A; Smalyuk, V; Yeamans, C B; Kline, J; Kyrala, G; Chandler, G A; Leeper, R J; Ruiz, C L; Cooper, G W; Nelson, A J; Fletcher, K; Kilkenny, J; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Paguio, R

    2012-10-01

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF. PMID:23126915

  13. Measuring the absolute deuterium-tritium neutron yield using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Bleuel, D. L.; Doeppner, T.; Glenzer, S.; Hartouni, E.; Hatchett, S. P.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; MacKinnon, A.; and others

    2012-10-15

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  14. High-efficiency cross-beam magnetic electron-impact source for improved miniature Mattauch-Herzog mass spectrometer performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjar, O.; Fowler, W. K.

    2012-06-15

    We describe a newly designed cross-beam magnetic electron-impact ion source (CBM-EI). We demonstrate its superiority in comparison with a conventional source (CB-EI) when used with a commercial miniature sector-field-type, non-scanning mass spectrometer featuring Mattauch-Herzog geometry (MH-MS) and a permanent sector-field magnet. This paper clearly shows the value of the CBM-EI for enhancing MH-MS sensitivity. Unlike secondary electron-multiplier type detectors, the pixelated detector (IonCCD Trade-Mark-Sign ) used in the commercial MH-MS has no gain. The MH-MS/IonCCD system is therefore challenged to compete with time-of-flight and quadrupole MS systems due to their higher ion transmissions and detector gains. Using the new CBM-EI, we demonstrate an instrument sensitivity increase of 20-fold to 100-fold relative to the CB-EI-equipped instrument. This remarkable signal increase by the simple addition of the magnet assembly arises from the magnet-induced gyromotion of the thermionic electrons, which vastly increases the effective path length of the electrons through the ionization region, and the collimated nature of the electron flux, which optimizes the ion transmission through the 100-{mu}m object slit of the MH-MS. Some or all of the realized sensitivity increase may be exchanged for an increase in resolution and/or mass range through the use of a narrower object slit, or for a reduction in ion-source pressure to limit quenching. The CBM-EI should facilitate development of a differentially pumped ion source to extend the lifetime of the filament, especially in otherwise intractable applications associated with oxidizing and corrosive samples.

  15. MEMS-Based Force-Detected Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (FDNMR) Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Choonsup; Butler, Mark C.; Elgammal, Ramez A.; George, Thomas; Hunt, Brian; Weitekamp, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy allows assignment of molecular structure by acquiring the energy spectrum of nuclear spins in a molecule, and by interpreting the symmetry and positions of resonance lines in the spectrum. As such, NMR has become one of the most versatile and ubiquitous spectroscopic methods. Despite these tremendous successes, NMR experiments suffer from inherent low sensitivity due to the relatively low energy of photons in the radio frequency (rt) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Here, we describe a high-resolution spectroscopy in samples with diameters in the micron range and below. We have reported design and fabrication of force-detected nuclear magnetic resonance (FDNMR).

  16. MEMS-based force-detected nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer for in situ planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, T.; Leskowitz, G.; Madsen, L.; Weitekamp, D.; Tang, W.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic resonance (NMR) is a well-known spectroscopic technique used by chemists and is especially powerful in detecting the presence of water and distinguishing between arbitrary physisorbed and chemisorbed states. This ability is of particular importance in the search for extra-terrestrial life on planets such as Mars.

  17. MINIATURE NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROMETER FOR IN-SITU AND IN-PROCESS ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research project is to develop a new analytical instrument based on the principle of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for in-situ, in-field and in-process characterization and monitoring of various substances and chemical processes. The new instrument will b...

  18. Opportunities with the K600 Magnetic Spectrometer During Phase 1 of the iThemba LABS RIB Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveling, R.

    2015-11-01

    Measurements of hadronic scattering and reactions at zero degrees is highly sought after because of its selectivity to excitations with low angular momentum transfer. High energy resolution measurements of this nature can only be performed at a few facilities worldwide, including iThemba LABS. Such measurements present significant experimental challenges due to the small difference in magnetic rigidity between the projectiles and the particles of interest. Hence a substantial amount of time and effort is required to achieve suitably stable and clean beam conditions before any measurement can be attempted. This results in large inefficiencies in beam usage and data collection under the current beam schedule at iThemba LABS, severely limiting the scope of research that can be performed with this facility. However, it is foreseen that during the first phase of the radioactive-ion beam (RIB) project at iThemba LABS a significant amount of beam-time will become available for stable beam nuclear physics research. It is imperative to plan ahead to ensure optimum utilization of beam-time during this period while taking advantage of the existing unique facilities at iThemba LABS. Potential projects that can make use of the zero-degree capabilities of the K600 magnetic spectrometer are discussed.

  19. Minature Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer for In-situ and In-Process Analysis and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gennady Friedman

    2004-05-04

    The effort in this project has been in 3 distinct directions. (1) First, we focused on development of minature microfabricated micro-coil NMR detectors with maximum Signal-to-Noise (SNR) ratio. (2) Secondly, we focused on design of minature micro-coil NMR detectors that have minimal effect on the NMR spectrum distortions. (3) Lastly we focused on the development of a permanent magnet capable of generating fields on the order of 1 Tesla with better than 10 ppm uniformity.

  20. A range-based method to calibrate a magnetic spectrometer measuring the energy spectrum of the backward electron beam of a plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Ceccolini, E.; Mostacci, D.; Sumini, M.; Rocchi, F.; Tartari, A.

    2011-08-15

    The electron beam emitted from the back of plasma focus devices is being studied as a radiation source for intraoperative radiation therapy applications. A plasma focus device is being developed for this purpose, and there is a need for characterizing its electron beam, particularly, insofar as the energy spectrum is concerned. The instrument used is a magnetic spectrometer. To calibrate this spectrometer, a procedure relying on the energy-range relation in Mylar has been devised and applied. By measuring the transmission through increasing thicknesses of the material, electron energies could be assessed and compared to the spectrometer readings. Thus, the original calibration of the instrument has been extended to higher energies and also to better accuracy. Methods and results are presented.

  1. A range-based method to calibrate a magnetic spectrometer measuring the energy spectrum of the backward electron beam of a plasma focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccolini, E.; Rocchi, F.; Mostacci, D.; Sumini, M.; Tartari, A.

    2011-08-01

    The electron beam emitted from the back of plasma focus devices is being studied as a radiation source for intraoperative radiation therapy applications. A plasma focus device is being developed for this purpose, and there is a need for characterizing its electron beam, particularly, insofar as the energy spectrum is concerned. The instrument used is a magnetic spectrometer. To calibrate this spectrometer, a procedure relying on the energy-range relation in Mylar® has been devised and applied. By measuring the transmission through increasing thicknesses of the material, electron energies could be assessed and compared to the spectrometer readings. Thus, the original calibration of the instrument has been extended to higher energies and also to better accuracy. Methods and results are presented.

  2. Fabrication, Testing and Modeling of the MICE Superconducting Spectrometer Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Virostek, S.P.; Green, M.A.; Trillaud, F.; Zisman, M.S.

    2010-05-16

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), an international collaboration sited at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, will demonstrate ionization cooling in a section of realistic cooling channel using a muon beam. A five-coil superconducting spectrometer solenoid magnet will provide a 4 tesla uniform field region at each end of the cooling channel. Scintillating fiber trackers within the 400 mm diameter magnet bore tubes measure the emittance of the beam as it enters and exits the cooling channel. Each of the identical 3-meter long magnets incorporates a three-coil spectrometer magnet section and a two-coil section to match the solenoid uniform field into the other magnets of the MICE cooling channel. The cold mass, radiation shield and leads are currently kept cold by means of three two-stage cryocoolers and one single-stage cryocooler. Liquid helium within the cold mass is maintained by means of a re-condensation technique. After incorporating several design changes to improve the magnet cooling and reliability, the fabrication and acceptance testing of the spectrometer solenoids have proceeded. The key features of the spectrometer solenoid magnets, the development of a thermal model, the results of the recently completed tests, and the current status of the project are presented.

  3. Construction and operation of parallel electric and magnetic field spectrometers for mass/energy resolved multi-ion charge exchange diagnostics on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, S.S.; Roquemore, A.L.

    1998-07-01

    A novel charge exchange spectrometer using a dee-shaped region of parallel electric and magnetic fields was developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for neutral particle diagnostics on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The E{parallel}B spectrometer has an energy range of 0.5{le}Athinsp(amu)Ethinsp(keV){le}600 and provides mass-resolved energy spectra of H{sup +}, D{sup +}, and T{sup +} (or {sup 3}He{sup +}) ion species simultaneously during a single discharge. The detector plane exhibits parallel rows of analyzed ions, each row containing the energy dispersed ions of a given mass-to-charge ratio. The detector consists of a large area microchannel plate (MCP) which is provided with three rectangular, semicontinuous active area strips, one coinciding with each of the mass rows for detection of H{sup +}, D{sup +}, and T{sup +} (or {sup 3}He{sup +}) and each mass row has 75 energy channels. To suppress spurious signals attending operation of the plate in the magnetic fringe field of the spectrometer, the MCP was housed in a double-walled iron shield with a wire mesh ion entrance window. Using an accelerator neutron generator, the MCP neutron detection efficiency was measured to be 1.7{times}10{sup {minus}3} and 6.4{times}10{sup {minus}3}thinspcounts/neutron/cm{sup 2} for 2.5 MeV-DD and 14 MeV-DT neutrons, respectively. The design and calibration of the spectrometer are described in detail, including the effect of MCP exposure to tritium, and results obtained during high performance D{endash}D operation on TFTR are presented to illustrate the performance of the E{parallel}B spectrometer. The spectrometers were not used during D{endash}T plasma operation due to the cost of providing the required radiation shielding. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Data acquisition and pulse generation system for nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers on a single PC-ISA compatible board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosetti, R.; Ranieri, G. A.; Ricci, D.

    1998-08-01

    A data acquisition and pulse generation system for NMR spectrometers is described. It has been implemented on a single board for MS-DOS personal computers with an ISA standard bus interface and uses a simple architecture optimizing the integration of the hardware and software resources. The system, owing to its versatility and low cost, is particularly suitable to upgrade old pulsed NMR instruments with outdated data and control systems, for applications where expensive new cryomagnetic instruments would be inappropriate, such as in industrial control or as educational tools. The board provides two simultaneous data acquisition channels allowing 250 000 12-bit conversions per second per channel, including real-time signal averaging, and is able to produce essentially any pulse sequence on several output lines. The duration of each pulse can range from 0957-0233/9/8/024/img6s to 180 s with a minimum pulse separation of 0957-0233/9/8/024/img7s and with a resolution of 0957-0233/9/8/024/img6s. All classic NMR pulse sequences are allowed in addition to those required for self-diffusion coefficient measurements using pulsed magnetic field gradients. All functions of the system are managed by machine-language routines callable from within a VisualBASIC program. The cost of the hardware of this device is under US500.

  5. Matrix-assisted laser desorption using a fast-atom bombardment ion source and a magnetic mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Annan, R S; Köchling, H J; Hill, J A; Biemann, K

    1992-04-01

    A conventional fast-atom bombardment (FAB) ion source was used to achieve matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALD) in a high-mass, double-focusing, magnetic mass spectrometer. The pulsed ion signals generated by irradiation of a mixture of sample and matrix (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid) with either a XeF excimer laser (353 nm) or a nitrogen laser (337 nm) were recorded with a focal-plane detector. A resolution (full-width at half maximum) of 4500 was achieved at m/z 1347.7 (the peptide substance P), 2500 for CsI cluster ions at m/z 10,005.7, and 1250 for the isotope cluster of the small protein cytochrome c (horse) [M+H]+ = m/z 12,360 (average). Sensitivity is demonstrated with 11 fmol of substance P. A survey scan is taken to locate the m/z of the sample molecular ion. The segment that contains the sample can then be integrated for a longer time to produce a better signal-to-noise ratio. In addition to higher sensitivity and lower matrix interference, the advantage of MALD over FAB is the former's lower susceptibility to the presence of salts, and competition between hydrophobic and hydrophilic components of a mixture. This feature is demonstrated by the complete MALD spectrum of a crude partial tryptic digest of sperm-whale apomyoglobin, containing 24 peptides, representing the entire sequence of this protein. PMID:1373978

  6. Akebono/Suprathermal Mass Spectrometer observations of low-energy ion outflow: Dependence on magnetic activity and solar wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cully, C. M.; Donovan, E. F.; Yau, A. W.; Arkos, G. G.

    2003-02-01

    We present observations by the Suprathermal Mass Spectrometer (SMS) on Akebono (EXOS-D) of ion outflow in the energy range from <1 to ˜70 eV. These observations cover a unique region of phase space and present an opportunity to "tie together" observations from disparate satellites. Variation of the total hemispheric O+ and H+ outflow rates with solar radio flux (monitored by the Penticton F10.7 index), with geomagnetic activity (monitored by the Kp index), and with solar wind parameters is discussed. Comparisons of F10.7 and Kp trends to results from Polar and Dynamics Explorer-1 (DE-1) lead us to conclude that flows of H+ in this low energy range are entirely sufficient to account for higher-energy flows at higher altitudes. On the other hand, we infer a substantial amount of O+ at energies above 70 eV. Both H+ and O+ outflow rates in this range exhibit a strong correlation with the solar wind kinetic pressure, the solar wind electric field, and the variability in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in the hour preceding. While these factors are also associated with increased geomagnetic activity (Kp), a separate, Kp-independent effect is also found, showing a correlation of ion outflow with solar wind density and an anticorrelation with solar wind velocity.

  7. Gamma-to-electron magnetic spectrometer (GEMS): An energy-resolved γ-ray diagnostic for the National Ignition Facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Moy, K.; Stoeffl, W.; Mack, J. M.; Young, C. S.; Wu, W.; Barlow, D. B.; Schillig, J. B.; Sims, J. R.; Lopez, F. E.; Mares, D.; Oertel, J. A.; Hayes-Sterbenz, A. C.

    2012-10-01

    The gamma-to-electron magnetic spectrometer, having better than 5% energy resolution, is proposed to resolve γ-rays in the range of Eo ± 20% in single shot, where Eo is the central energy and is tunable from 2 to 25 MeV. Gamma-rays from inertial confinement fusion implosions interact with a thin Compton converter (e.g., beryllium) located at approximately 300 cm from the target chamber center (TCC). Scattered electrons out of the Compton converter enter an electromagnet placed outside the NIF chamber (approximately 600 cm from TCC) where energy selection takes place. The electromagnet provides tunable Eo over a broad range in a compact manner. Energy resolved electrons are measured by an array of quartz Cherenkov converters coupled to photomultipliers. Given 100 detectable electrons in the energy bins of interest, 3 × 1014 minimum deuterium/tritium (DT) neutrons will be required to measure the 4.44 MeV 12C γ-rays assuming 200 mg/cm2 plastic ablator areal density and 3 × 1015 minimum DT neutrons to measure the 16.75 MeV DT γ-ray line.

  8. Gamma-to-electron magnetic spectrometer (GEMS): An energy-resolved {gamma}-ray diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.; Herrmann, H. W.; Mack, J. M.; Young, C. S.; Barlow, D. B.; Schillig, J. B.; Sims, J. R. Jr.; Lopez, F. E.; Mares, D.; Oertel, J. A.; Hayes-Sterbenz, A. C.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Wu, W.; Moy, K.; Stoeffl, W.

    2012-10-15

    The gamma-to-electron magnetic spectrometer, having better than 5% energy resolution, is proposed to resolve {gamma}-rays in the range of E{sub o}{+-} 20% in single shot, where E{sub o} is the central energy and is tunable from 2 to 25 MeV. Gamma-rays from inertial confinement fusion implosions interact with a thin Compton converter (e.g., beryllium) located at approximately 300 cm from the target chamber center (TCC). Scattered electrons out of the Compton converter enter an electromagnet placed outside the NIF chamber (approximately 600 cm from TCC) where energy selection takes place. The electromagnet provides tunable E{sub o} over a broad range in a compact manner. Energy resolved electrons are measured by an array of quartz Cherenkov converters coupled to photomultipliers. Given 100 detectable electrons in the energy bins of interest, 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} minimum deuterium/tritium (DT) neutrons will be required to measure the 4.44 MeV {sup 12}C {gamma}-rays assuming 200 mg/cm{sup 2} plastic ablator areal density and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} minimum DT neutrons to measure the 16.75 MeV DT {gamma}-ray line.

  9. Direct current superconducting quantum interference device spectrometer for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance and nuclear quadrupole resonance at frequencies up to 5 MHz

    SciTech Connect

    TonThat, D.M.; Clarke, J. |

    1996-08-01

    A spectrometer based on a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) has been developed for the direct detection of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) at frequencies up to 5 MHz. The sample is coupled to the input coil of the niobium-based SQUID via a nonresonant superconducting circuit. The flux locked loop involves the direct offset integration technique with additional positive feedback in which the output of the SQUID is coupled directly to a low-noise preamplifier. Precession of the nuclear quadrupole spins is induced by a magnetic field pulse with the feedback circuit disabled; subsequently, flux locked operation is restored and the SQUID amplifies the signal produced by the nuclear free induction signal. The spectrometer has been used to detect {sup 27}Al NQR signals in ruby (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}[Cr{sup 3+}]) at 359 and 714 kHz. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Electron-proton spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An electron-proton spectrometer was designed to measure the geomagnetically trapped radiation in a geostationary orbit at 6.6 earth radii in the outer radiation belt. This instrument is to be flown on the Applications Technology Satellite-F (ATS-F). The electron-proton spectrometer consists of two permanent magnet surface barrier detector arrays and associated electronics capable of selecting and detecting electrons in three energy ranges: (1) 30-50 keV, (2) 150-200 keV, and (3) 500 keV and protons in three energy ranges. The electron-proton spectrometer has the capability of measuring the fluxes of electrons and protons in various directions with respect to the magnetic field lines running through the satellite. One magnet detector array system is implemented to scan between EME north and south through west, sampling the directional flux in 15 steps. The other magnet-detector array system is fixed looking toward EME east.

  11. A high-field magnetic resonance imaging spectrometer using an oven-controlled crystal oscillator as the local oscillator of its radio frequency transceiver.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao; Tang, Xin; Tang, Weinan; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2014-09-01

    A home-made high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) spectrometer with multiple receiving channels is described. The radio frequency (RF) transceiver of the spectrometer consists of digital intermediate frequency (IF) circuits and corresponding mixing circuits. A direct digital synthesis device is employed to generate the IF pulse; the IF signal from a down-conversion circuit is sampled and followed by digital quadrature detection. Both the IF generation and the IF sampling use a 50 MHz clock. An oven-controlled crystal oscillator, which has outstanding spectral purity and a compact circuit, is used as the local oscillator of the RF transceiver. A digital signal processor works as the pulse programmer of the spectrometer, as a result, 32 control lines can be generated simultaneously while an event is triggered. Field programmable gate array devices are utilized as the auxiliary controllers of the IF generation, IF receiving, and gradient control. High performance, including 1 μs time resolution of the soft pulse, 1 MHz receiving bandwidth, and 1 μs time resolution of the gradient waveform, is achieved. High-quality images on a 1.5 T MRI system using the spectrometer are obtained. PMID:25273752

  12. Monolithic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, S.; Egert, C.M.; Kahl, W.K.; Snyder, W.B. Jr.; Evans, B.M. III; Marlar, T.A.; Cunningham, J.P.

    1998-05-19

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays. 6 figs.

  13. Monolithic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, Slobodan; Egert, Charles M.; Kahl, William K.; Snyder, Jr., William B.; Evans, III, Boyd M.; Marlar, Troy A.; Cunningham, Joseph P.

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  14. Internet Technology in Magnetic Resonance: A Common Gateway Interface Program for the World-Wide Web NMR Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buszko, Marian L.; Buszko, Dominik; Wang, Daniel C.

    1998-04-01

    A custom-written Common Gateway Interface (CGI) program for remote control of an NMR spectrometer using a World Wide Web browser has been described. The program, running on a UNIX workstation, uses multiple processes to handle concurrent tasks of interacting with the user and with the spectrometer. The program's parent process communicates with the browser and sends out commands to the spectrometer; the child process is mainly responsible for data acquisition. Communication between the processes is via the shared memory mechanism. The WWW pages that have been developed for the system make use of the frames feature of web browsers. The CGI program provides an intuitive user interface to the NMR spectrometer, making, in effect, a complex system an easy-to-use Web appliance.

  15. High-resolution measurements of the DT neutron spectrum using new CD foils in the Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Bionta, R. M.; Casey, D. T.; Eckart, M. J.; Farrell, M. P.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hoppe, M.; et al

    2016-08-09

    The Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility measures the DT neutron spectrum from cryogenically layered inertial confinement fusion implosions. Yield, areal density, apparent ion temperature, and directional fluid flow are inferred from the MRS data. Here, this paper describes recent advances in MRS measurements of the primary peak using new, thinner, reduced-area deuterated plastic (CD) conversion foils. The new foils allow operation of MRS at yields 2 orders of magnitude higher than previously possible, at a resolution down to ~200 keV FWHM.

  16. Testing flight software on the ground: Introducing the hardware-in-the-loop simulation method to the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenhao; Cai, Xudong; Meng, Qiao

    2016-04-01

    Complex automatic protection functions are being added to the onboard software of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation method has been introduced to overcome the difficulties of ground testing that are brought by hardware and environmental limitations. We invented a time-saving approach by reusing the flight data as the data source of the simulation system instead of mathematical models. This is easy to implement and it works efficiently. This paper presents the system framework, implementation details and some application examples.

  17. Correlation spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Flemming, Jeb H.; Jones, Gary D.; Tigges, Chris P.

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  18. CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) Physics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The CLAS Physics Data Base contains experimental data obtained by the CLAS Collaboration since 1998. Currently content of the DB is limited by experimental data on measured observables such as cross-sections, polarization asymmetries and structure functions. Information on completely integrated single and multi-differential cross-sections are available for various exclusive reactions off proton, neutron and nuclei, induced by real and virtual photons. The kinematics range covered by data sets are W < 4.0 GeV and Q2 < 5.0 GeV2. The search engine allows data to be selected according to various criteria, for instance: the initial and final states, particular kinematics range, observables of interest, date and author name(s) [Copied from http://clasweb.jlab.org/physicsdb/intro.html] A username and password are required to access and search the entire database. However, the Overview page provides links to detailed data pages for each of the experiments available for public access. There are many experiments with data that the public can freely access.

  19. Electron/proton spectrometer certification documentation analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleeson, P.

    1972-01-01

    A compilation of analyses generated during the development of the electron-proton spectrometer for the Skylab program is presented. The data documents the analyses required by the electron-proton spectrometer verification plan. The verification plan was generated to satisfy the ancillary hardware requirements of the Apollo Applications program. The certification of the spectrometer requires that various tests, inspections, and analyses be documented, approved, and accepted by reliability and quality control personnel of the spectrometer development program.

  20. Multidimensional spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Zanni, Martin Thomas; Damrauer, Niels H.

    2010-07-20

    A multidimensional spectrometer for the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a method for making multidimensional spectroscopic measurements in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multidimensional spectrometer facilitates measurements of inter- and intra-molecular interactions.

  1. Construction of a magnetic bottle spectrometer and its application to pulse duration measurement of X-ray laser using a pump-probe method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, S.; Hasegawa, N.; Kishimoto, M.; Nishikino, M.; Ishino, M.; Kawachi, T.

    2015-11-01

    To characterize the temporal evolution of ultrashort X-ray pulses emitted by laser plasmas using a pump-probe method, a magnetic bottle time-of-flight electron spectrometer is constructed. The design is determined by numerical calculations of a mirror magnetic field and of the electron trajectory in a flight tube. The performance of the spectrometer is characterized by measuring the electron spectra of xenon atoms irradiated with a laser-driven plasma X-ray pulse. In addition, two-color above-threshold ionization (ATI) experiment is conducted for measurement of the X-ray laser pulse duration, in which xenon atoms are simultaneously irradiated with an X-ray laser pump and an IR laser probe. The correlation in the intensity of the sideband spectra of the 4d inner-shell photoelectrons and in the time delay of the two laser pulses yields an X-ray pulse width of 5.7 ps, in good agreement with the value obtained using an X-ray streak camera.

  2. Construction of a magnetic bottle spectrometer and its application to pulse duration measurement of X-ray laser using a pump-probe method

    SciTech Connect

    Namba, S.; Hasegawa, N.; Kishimoto, M.; Nishikino, M.; Ishino, M.; Kawachi, T.

    2015-11-15

    To characterize the temporal evolution of ultrashort X-ray pulses emitted by laser plasmas using a pump-probe method, a magnetic bottle time-of-flight electron spectrometer is constructed. The design is determined by numerical calculations of a mirror magnetic field and of the electron trajectory in a flight tube. The performance of the spectrometer is characterized by measuring the electron spectra of xenon atoms irradiated with a laser-driven plasma X-ray pulse. In addition, two-color above-threshold ionization (ATI) experiment is conducted for measurement of the X-ray laser pulse duration, in which xenon atoms are simultaneously irradiated with an X-ray laser pump and an IR laser probe. The correlation in the intensity of the sideband spectra of the 4d inner-shell photoelectrons and in the time delay of the two laser pulses yields an X-ray pulse width of 5.7 ps, in good agreement with the value obtained using an X-ray streak camera.

  3. High performance compact magnetic spectrometers for energetic ion and electron measurement in ultra intense short pulse laser solid interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Link, A; van Maren, R; Patel, P; Shepherd, R; Wilks, S C; Beiersdorfer, P

    2008-05-08

    Ultra intense short pulse lasers incident on solid targets can generate relativistic electrons that then accelerate energetic protons and ions. These fast electrons and ions can effectively heat the solid target, beyond the region of direct laser interaction, and are vital to realizing the fast ignition concept. To study these energetic ions and electrons produced from the laser-target interactions, we have developed a range of spectrometers that can cover a large energy range (from less than 0.1 MeV to above 100 MeV). They are physically compact and feature high performance and low cost. We will present the basic design of these spectrometers and their test results from recent laser experiments.

  4. Ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Inventor); Clay, D. R.; Goldstein, B. E.; Goldstein, R.

    1984-01-01

    An ion mass spectrometer is described which detects and indicates the characteristics of ions received over a wide angle, and which indicates the mass to charge ratio, the energy, and the direction of each detected ion. The spectrometer includes a magnetic analyzer having a sector magnet that passes ions received over a wide angle, and an electrostatic analyzer positioned to receive ions passing through the magnetic analyzer. The electrostatic analyzer includes a two dimensional ion sensor at one wall of the analyzer chamber, that senses not only the lengthwise position of the detected ion to indicate its mass to charge ratio, but also detects the ion position along the width of the chamber to indicate the direction in which the ion was traveling.

  5. Engine spectrometer probe and method of use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, Sarkis (Inventor); Kittinger, Scott A. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The engine spectrometer probe and method of using the same of the present invention provides a simple engine spectrometer probe which is both lightweight and rugged, allowing an exhaust plume monitoring system to be attached to a vehicle, such as the space shuttle. The engine spectrometer probe can be mounted to limit exposure to the heat and debris of the exhaust plume. The spectrometer probe 50 comprises a housing 52 having an aperture 55 and a fiber optic cable 60 having a fiber optic tip 65. The fiber optic tip 65 has an acceptance angle 87 and is coupled to the aperture 55 so that the acceptance angle 87 intersects the exhaust plume 30. The spectrometer probe can generate a spectrum signal from light in the acceptance angle 506 and the spectrum signal can be provided to a spectrometer 508.

  6. SCINTILLATION SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Bell, P.R.; Francis, J.E.

    1960-06-21

    A portable scintillation spectrometer is described which is especially useful in radio-biological studies for determining the uptake and distribution of gamma -emitting substances in tissue. The spectrometer includes a collimator having a plurality of apertures that are hexagonal in cross section. Two crystals are provided: one is activated to respond to incident rays from the collimator; the other is not activated and shields the first from external radiation.

  7. Cryostat design and analysis of the superconducting magnets for Jefferson Lab's 11-GEV/C super high momentum spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    P. Brindza, E. Sun, S. Lassiter, M. Fowler

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design and analysis of the cryostats for the two cos(2theta) quadrupoles and the cos(theta) dipole. All the magnets are currently being bid for commercial fabrication. The results of finite element analysis for the magnet cryostat helium vessels and outer vacuum chambers which investigate the mechanical integrity under maximum allowable internal working pressure, maximum allowable external working pressure, and cryogenic temperature are discussed. The allowable stress criterion is determined based on the allowable stress philosophy of the ASME codes. The computed cryogenic heat load of the magnets is compared with the allowable cryogenic consumption budget. The presented cool-down time of the magnets was studied under the conditions of a limited supply rate and a controlled temperature differential of 50 K in the magnets.

  8. Cryostat Design and Analysis of the Superconducting Magnets for Jefferson Lab's 11 Gev/c Super High Momentum Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindza, P.; Sun, E.; Lassiter, S.; Fowler, M.

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design and analysis of the cryostats for the two cos(2θ) quadrupoles and the cos(θ) dipole. All the magnets are currently being bid for commercial fabrication. The results of finite element analysis for the magnet cryostat helium vessels and outer vacuum chambers which investigate the mechanical integrity under maximum allowable internal working pressure, maximum allowable external working pressure, and cryogenic temperature are discussed. The allowable stress criterion is determined based on the allowable stress philosophy of the ASME codes. The computed cryogenic heat load of the magnets is compared with the allowable cryogenic consumption budget. The presented cool-down time of the magnets was studied under the conditions of a limited supply rate and a controlled temperature differential of 50 K in the magnets.

  9. Measurements of ion temperature and flow of pulsed plasmas produced by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun device using an ion Doppler spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Y.; Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2012-10-01

    It is important to know surface damage characteristics of plasma-facing component materials during transient heat and particle loads such as type I ELMs. A magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) device has been used as transient heat and particle source in ELM simulation experiments. Characteristics of pulsed plasmas produced by the MCPG device play an important role for the plasma material interaction. In this study, ion temperature and flow velocity of pulsed He plasmas were measured by an ion Doppler spectrometer (IDS). The IDS system consists of a light collection system including optical fibers, 1m-spectrometer and a 16 channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector. The IDS system measures the width and Doppler shift of HeII (468.58 nm) emission line with the time resolution of 1 μs. The Doppler broadened and shifted spectra were measured with 45 and 135 degree angles with respect to the plasmoid traveling direction. The observed emission line profile was represented by sum of two Gaussian components to determine the temperature and flow velocity. The minor component at around the wavelength of zero-velocity was produced by the stationary plasma. As the results, the ion velocity and temperature were 68 km/s and 19 eV, respectively. Thus, the He ion flow energy is 97 eV. The observed flow velocity agrees with that measured by a time of flight technique.

  10. The Results of Tests of the MICE Spectrometer Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.

    2009-10-19

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) spectrometer solenoid magnets will be the first magnets to be installed within the MICE cooling channel. The spectrometer magnets are the largest magnets in both mass and surface area within the MICE ooling channel. Like all of the other magnets in MICE, the spectrometer solenoids are kept cold using 1.5 W (at 4.2 K) pulse tube coolers. The MICE spectrometer solenoid is quite possibly the largest magnet that has been cooled using small coolers. Two pectrometer magnets have been built and tested. This report discusses the results of current and cooler tests of both magnets.

  11. The coincidence counting technique for orders of magnitude background reduction in data obtained with the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rinderknecht, H.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Schaeffer, J. C.; Frankel, R.; Sinenian, N.; Childs, R. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Burke, M.; Roberts, S.

    2011-07-15

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been built and successfully used at OMEGA for measurements of down-scattered neutrons (DS-n), from which an areal density in both warm-capsule and cryogenic-DT implosions have been inferred. Another MRS is currently being commissioned on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for diagnosing low-yield tritium-hydrogen-deuterium implosions and high-yield DT implosions. As CR-39 detectors are used in the MRS, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). The coincidence counting technique was developed to reduce these types of background tracks to the required level for the DS-n measurements at OMEGA and the NIF. Using this technique, it has been demonstrated that the number of background tracks is reduced by a couple of orders of magnitude, which exceeds the requirement for the DS-n measurements at both facilities.

  12. Measurements of fuel and ablator ρR in Symmetry-Capsule implosions with the Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Gatu Johnson, M; Frenje, J A; Li, C K; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R D; Bionta, R M; Casey, D T; Caggiano, J A; Hatarik, R; Khater, H Y; Sayre, D B; Knauer, J P; Sangster, T C; Herrmann, H W; Kilkenny, J D

    2014-11-01

    The Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) measures the neutron spectrum in the energy range of 4-20 MeV. This paper describes MRS measurements of DT-fuel and CH-ablator ρR in DT gas-filled symmetry-capsule implosions at the NIF. DT-fuel ρR's of 80-140 mg/cm(2) and CH-ablator ρR's of 400-680 mg/cm(2) are inferred from MRS data. The measurements were facilitated by an improved correction of neutron-induced background in the low-energy part of the MRS spectrum. This work demonstrates the accurate utilization of the complete MRS-measured neutron spectrum for diagnosing NIF DT implosions. PMID:25430283

  13. Optimization of a partially non-magnetic primary radiation. shielding for the triple-axis spectrometer PANDA at the Munich high-flux reactor FRM-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyka, N. M.; Noack, K.; Rogov, A.

    Monte Carlo simulations have been used to optimize the monochromator shielding of the polarized cold-neutron triple-axis spectrometer PANDA at the Munich high-flux reactor FRM-II. By using the Monte Carlo program MCNP-4B, the density of the total spectrum of incoming neutrons and γ radiation from the beam tube SR-2 has been determined during the three-dimensional diffusion process in different types of heavy concrete and other absorbing material. Special attention has been paid to build a compact and highly efficient shielding, partially non-magnetic, with a total biological radiation dose of less than 10 μSv/h at its outsides. Especially considered was the construction of an albedo reducer, which serves to reduce the background in the experiment outside the shielding.

  14. Measurements of fuel and ablator ρR in Symmetry-Capsule implosions with the Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Bionta, R. M.; Casey, D. T.; Caggiano, J. A.; Hatarik, R.; Khater, H. Y.; Sayre, D. B.; Knauer, J. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2014-11-01

    The Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) measures the neutron spectrum in the energy range of 4-20 MeV. This paper describes MRS measurements of DT-fuel and CH-ablator ρR in DT gas-filled symmetry-capsule implosions at the NIF. DT-fuel ρR's of 80-140 mg/cm2 and CH-ablator ρR's of 400-680 mg/cm2 are inferred from MRS data. The measurements were facilitated by an improved correction of neutron-induced background in the low-energy part of the MRS spectrum. This work demonstrates the accurate utilization of the complete MRS-measured neutron spectrum for diagnosing NIF DT implosions.

  15. The coincidence counting technique for orders of magnitude background reduction in data obtained with the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF.

    PubMed

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Rosenberg, M J; Rinderknecht, H; Manuel, M J-E; Gatu Johnson, M; Schaeffer, J C; Frankel, R; Sinenian, N; Childs, R A; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Sangster, T C; Burke, M; Roberts, S

    2011-07-01

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been built and successfully used at OMEGA for measurements of down-scattered neutrons (DS-n), from which an areal density in both warm-capsule and cryogenic-DT implosions have been inferred. Another MRS is currently being commissioned on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for diagnosing low-yield tritium-hydrogen-deuterium implosions and high-yield DT implosions. As CR-39 detectors are used in the MRS, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). The coincidence counting technique was developed to reduce these types of background tracks to the required level for the DS-n measurements at OMEGA and the NIF. Using this technique, it has been demonstrated that the number of background tracks is reduced by a couple of orders of magnitude, which exceeds the requirement for the DS-n measurements at both facilities. PMID:21806180

  16. Measurements of fuel and ablator ρR in Symmetry-Capsule implosions with the Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gatu Johnson, M. Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Bionta, R. M.; Casey, D. T.; Caggiano, J. A.; Hatarik, R.; Khater, H. Y.; Sayre, D. B.; Knauer, J. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2014-11-15

    The Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) measures the neutron spectrum in the energy range of 4–20 MeV. This paper describes MRS measurements of DT-fuel and CH-ablator ρR in DT gas-filled symmetry-capsule implosions at the NIF. DT-fuel ρR's of 80–140 mg/cm{sup 2} and CH-ablator ρR's of 400–680 mg/cm{sup 2} are inferred from MRS data. The measurements were facilitated by an improved correction of neutron-induced background in the low-energy part of the MRS spectrum. This work demonstrates the accurate utilization of the complete MRS-measured neutron spectrum for diagnosing NIF DT implosions.

  17. Multiaperture Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schindler, Rudolf A.; Pagano, Robert J.; O'Callaghan, Fred G.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed multiaperture spectrometer containing single grating provides high spectral resolution over broad spectrum. Produces parallel line images, each of which highly spectrally resolved display of intensity vs. wavelength in wavelength band of one of orders of spectrum produced by grating. Advantages; convenient two-dimensional spectral image, fewer components, and greater efficiency.

  18. Spectrometer gun

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, David A.; Wolf, Michael A.; Umbarger, C. John

    1985-01-01

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  19. Spectrometer gun

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-11-03

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun is described that includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  20. Versatile cluster based photoelectron spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Knappenberger, K. L. Jr.; Jones, C. E. Jr.; Sobhy, M. A.; Castleman, A. W. Jr.

    2006-12-15

    A recently constructed cluster based photoelectron spectrometer is described. This instrumentation is unique in that it enables the kinetic energy analysis of electrons ejected from both anions and neutral clusters. This capability permits the investigation of discrete electronic levels in all charge states (anionic, neutral, and cationic). A laser vaporization plasma reactor cluster source affixed with a sublimation cell is employed to produce a variety of metal clusters, and the resulting cluster distributions are analyzed with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The corresponding electronic structure is analyzed with a 'magnetic bottle' photoelectron spectrometer. Examples of instrument performance operating in both anion photodetachment and neutral multiphoton ionization (MPI) modes are provided. In the case of neutral MPI, the corresponding product distribution is collected with a Wiley-McLaren [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 26, 1150 (1955)] mass spectrometer mounted perpendicular to the magnetic bottle photoelectron spectrometer.

  1. Cryogenic system design of 11 GEV/C super high momentum spectrometer superconducting magnets at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Eric; Brindza, Paul; Lassister, Steven; Fowler, Mike

    2012-06-01

    The design of the cryogenic system for the 11 GeV/c Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS) is presented. A description of the cryogenic control reservoir and the cryogenic transfer line is given. Details of the cryogenic control reservoirs, cryogenic transfer lines, and pressure piping are summarized. Code compliance is ensured through following the requirements of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code and Pressure Piping Code. An elastic-plastic-analysis-based combined safety factor approach is proposed to meet the low stress requirement of ASME 2007 Section VIII, Division 2 so that Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact testing can be avoided through analysis. Material toughness requirements in ASME 2007 Section VIII, Division 2 are adopted as CVN impact testing rules of stainless steel 304 piping at 4.2 K and 77 K. A formula-based combined safety factor approach for pressure piping is also proposed to check whether the impact testing can be avoided due to low stress. Analysis and calculation have shown that no CVN impact testing of base metal and heat affected zones is required for the helium reservoir, nitrogen reservoir, and their relevant piping. Total heat loads to liquid helium and liquid nitrogen are studied also. The total heat load to LHe for SHMS is estimated to be 137 W, and the total load to LN2 is calculated to be 420 W.

  2. Cryogenic system design of 11 GEV/C super high momentum spectrometer superconducting magnets at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Sun, Paul Brindza, Steven Lassister, Mike Fowler

    2012-07-01

    The design of the cryogenic system for the 11 GeV/c Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS) is presented. A description of the cryogenic control reservoir and the cryogenic transfer line is given. Details of the cryogenic control reservoirs, cryogenic transfer lines, and pressure piping are summarized. Code compliance is ensured through following the requirements of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code and Pressure Piping Code. An elastic-plastic-analysis-based combined safety factor approach is proposed to meet the low stress requirement of ASME 2007 Section VIII, Division 2 so that Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact testing can be avoided through analysis. Material toughness requirements in ASME 2007 Section VIII, Division 2 are adopted as CVN impact testing rules of stainless steel 304 piping at 4.2 K and 77 K. A formula-based combined safety factor approach for pressure piping is also proposed to check whether the impact testing can be avoided due to low stress. Analysis and calculation have shown that no CVN impact testing of base metal and heat affected zones is required for the helium reservoir, nitrogen reservoir, and their relevant piping. Total heat loads to liquid helium and liquid nitrogen are studied also. The total heat load to LHe for SHMS is estimated to be 137 W, and the total load to LN2 is calculated to be 420 W.

  3. Design of a compact permanent magnet Cyclotron Mass Spectrometer for the detection and measurement of trace isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Young, A.T.; Bertsche, K.J.; Clark, D.J.; Halbach, K.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leung, K.N.; Li, C.Y.

    1992-07-01

    A technique for the detection of trace amounts of rare isotopes, Cyclotron mass Spectrometry (CMS), is described. This technique uses the relationships between particle mass, charge, magnetic field strength and cyclotron orbital frequency to provide high mass resolution. The instrument also has high sensitivity and is capable of measuring isotopes with abundances of < 10{sub {minus} 12}. Improvements now being implemented will lead to further increases in the sensitivity and enhance operating parameters such as cost, portability, and sample throughput.

  4. The Spectrometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old…

  5. NEPTUN-A spectrometer for measuring the Spin Analyzing Power in p-p elastic scattering at large P2⊥ at 400 GeV (and 3 TeV) at UNK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ali M. T.

    1995-09-01

    We are constructing the NEPTUN-A spectrometer for measuring the Spin Analyzing Power in p+p↑→p+p at P2⊥=2 to 10 (GeV/c)2 at 400 GeV (or at 3 TeV) when the UNK accelerator in Protvino, Russia, becomes operational. The spectrometer consists of a 55 m long recoil arm with 3 horizontally bending magnets to guide the recoil protons onto a fixed 37° line. Then two vertical dipole magnets bend the protons up by 12° for momentum analysis. The momentum will be measured to an accuracy of 0.1% using chambers. In order to accept a large solid angle, the spectrometer contains a strong-focusing pair of quadrupoles looking at the polarized proton jet target. The forward arm consists of scintillator hodoscopes for measurement of the forward vertical angle. Acceptances and event rates are calculated. The status of the spectrometer is reported.

  6. A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) for ρR_fuel and Ti measurements of warm, fizzle and ignited implosions at OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Deciantis, J. L.; Kurebayashi, S.; Rygg, J. R.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Soures, J. M.; Hatchett, S. P.; Hann, S. W.; Schmid, G. J.; Landen, O. L.; Izumi, N.

    2003-10-01

    A method for determining ρR_fuel of cryogenic deuterium-tritium plasmas involves measurement of the energy spectrum of elastically-scattered, primary neutrons. A spectrometer has been designed for doing this at OMEGA and the NIF, using scattered neutrons in the energy range 7-10 MeV to determine ρR_fuel and primary neutrons to measure T_i. The instrument utilizes a magnet and a conversion foil for production of charged particles. A large dynamic range (>10^6) will allow operation at yields as low as 10^12. This will allow ρR_fuel and Ti measurements of warm and cryogenic DT targets at OMEGA, and fizzle and ignited cryogenic DT targets at the NIF. This work was supported in part by the US DoE (contract W-7405-ENG-48 with LLNL, grant DE-FG03-99DP00300 and Cooperative Agreement DE-FC03-92SF19460), LLE (subcontract P0410025G), and LLNL (subcontract B313975).

  7. Investigation of neutron-induced background in Magnetic-Recoil-Spectrometer CR-39 data using a DT neutron source and MCNP simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanese, Lucio M.; Frenje, Johan; Gatu Johnson, Maria; Lahmann, Brandon; Sio, Hong; Petrasso, Richard

    2015-11-01

    The Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometers (MRS) installed on the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are routinely used to measure neutron yield, areal density and ion temperatures from DT implosions. The observed background in the lower-energy part of MRS spectra is significantly higher than expected from analysis of neutron-induced background data obtained in stand-alone CR-39 experiments at OMEGA. A possible explanation relates to the scattering of neutrons in the MRS housing vessel, which is not accounted for in current modeling. To test experimentally the impact of individual vessel components on the observed background, parts of the MRS housing have been mocked up and CR-39 data have been collected employing a DT neutron source. The experimental results are contrasted to MCNP simulations to improve our understanding of the mechanism behind the enhanced neutron background. The results will be used to correct measured spectra from OMEGA and the NIF to allow detailed analysis of lower energy data. This work was supported in part by NLUF, US DOE, and LLE.

  8. Nuclear astrophysics studies by SAMURAI spectrometer in RIKEN RIBF

    SciTech Connect

    Yoneda, K.

    2012-11-12

    SAMURAI is a spectrometer which is now being constructed at RIKEN RI Beam Factory. This spectrometer is characterized by a large angular-and momentum-acceptance enabling, for example, multi-particle coincidence measurements. Here brief descriptions of SAMURAI spectrometer and physics topics relevant to nuclear astrophysics are presented.

  9. RAPID EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE DURING THE IMPULSIVE PHASE OF A MICROFLARE OBSERVED WITH THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER ABOARD HINODE: HINTS OF CHROMOSPHERIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.

    2013-11-10

    We obtained rapid cadence (11.2 s) EUV stare spectra of a solar microflare with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer aboard Hinode. The intensities of lines formed at temperatures too cool to be found in the corona brightened by factors around 16 early during this event, indicating that we observed a site of energy deposition in the chromosphere. We derive the density evolution of the flare plasma at temperature around 2 MK from the intensity ratio of Fe XIV lines at 264.789 Å and 274.204 Å. From both lines we removed the bright pre-flare quiescent emission, and from 274.204 we removed the blended emission of Si VII λ274.180 based on the Si VII λ274.180/275.361 intensity ratio, which varies only slightly with density. In this way the flare electron density is derived with emission from only the flare plasma. The density increased by an order of magnitude from its pre-flare quiescent average of (3.43 ± 0.19) × 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3} to its maximum impulsive phase value of (3.04 ± 0.57) × 10{sup 10} cm{sup –3} in 2 minutes. The fact that this rapid increase in density is not accompanied by systematic, large upward velocities indicates that the density increase is not due to the filling of loops with evaporated chromospheric material, but rather due to material being directly heated in the chromosphere, likely by magnetic reconnection. The density increase may be due to a progression of reconnection sites to greater depths in the chromosphere, where it has access to larger densities, or it may be due to compression of 2 MK plasma by the 10 MK plasma as it attempts to expand against the high-density chromospheric plasma.

  10. A cometary ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, E. G.; Simpson, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of flight suitable analyzer units for that part of the GIOTTO Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) experiment designated the High Energy Range Spectrometer (HERS) is discussed. Topics covered include: design of the total ion-optical system for the HERS analyzer; the preparation of the design of analyzing magnet; the evaluation of microchannel plate detectors and associated two-dimensional anode arrays; and the fabrication and evaluation of two flight-suitable units of the complete ion-optical analyzer system including two-dimensional imaging detectors and associated image encoding electronics.

  11. Methods for Optical Calibration of the BigBite Hadron Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    M. Mihovilovic, K. Allada, B.D. Anderson, J.R.M. Annand, T. Averett, A. Camsonne, R.W. Chan, J.-P. Chen, K. Chirapatpimol, C.W. de Jager, S. Gilad, D.J. Hamilton, J.-O. Hansen, D.W. Higinbotham, J. Juang, X. Jiang, G. Jin, W. Korsch, J.J. LeRose, R.A. Lindgren, N. Liyanage, E. Long, R. Michaels, B. Moffit, P. Monaghan, V. Nelyubin, B.E. Norum, E. Piasetzky, X. Qian, Y. Qiang, S. Riordan, G. Ron, G. Rosner, B. Sawatzky, M. Shabestari, A. Shahinyan, R. Shneor, S. Sirca, R. Subedi, V. Sulkosky, J.W. Watson, B. Wojtsekhowski, Y.-W. Zhang

    2012-09-01

    The techniques for optical calibration of Jefferson Lab's large-acceptance magnetic hadron spectrometer, BigBite, have been examined. The most consistent and stable results were obtained by using a method based on singular value decomposition. In spite of the complexity of the optics, the particles positions and momenta at the target have been precisely reconstructed from the coordinates measured in the detectors by means of a single back-tracing matrix. The technique is applicable to any similar magnetic spectrometer and any particle type. For 0.55 GeV/c protons, we have established the vertex resolution of 1.2 cm, angular resolutions of 7 mrad and 16 mrad (in-plane and out-of-plane, respectively), and a relative momentum resolution of 1.6%.

  12. Methods for optical calibration of the BigBite hadron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihovilovič, M.; Širca, S.; Allada, K.; Anderson, B. D.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; Camsonne, A.; Chan, R. W.; Chen, J.-P.; Chirapatpimol, K.; de Jager, C. W.; Gilad, S.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hansen, J.-O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Huang, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, G.; Korsch, W.; LeRose, J. J.; Lindgren, R. A.; Liyanage, N.; Long, E.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Monaghan, P.; Nelyubin, V.; Norum, B. E.; Piasetzky, E.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Riordan, S.; Ron, G.; Rosner, G.; Sawatzky, B.; Shabestari, M.; Shahinyan, A.; Shneor, R.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Watson, J. W.; Zhang, Y.-W.

    2012-09-01

    The techniques for the optical calibration of Jefferson Lab's large-acceptance magnetic hadron spectrometer, BigBite, have been examined. The most consistent and stable results were obtained using a method based on singular value decomposition. In spite of the complexity of the optics, the particles' positions and momenta at the target have been precisely reconstructed from the coordinates measured in the detectors by means of a single back-tracing matrix. The technique is applicable to any similar magnetic spectrometer and any particle type. For 0.55 GeV/c protons, we have established a vertex resolution of 1.2 cm, angular resolutions of 7 mrad and 13 mrad (in-plane and out-of-plane, respectively), and a relative momentum resolution of 1.6%.

  13. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mass spectrometer for clinical use. 862.2860... Instruments § 862.2860 Mass spectrometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A mass spectrometer for... by means of an electrical and magnetic field according to their mass. (b) Classification. Class...

  14. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mass spectrometer for clinical use. 862.2860... Instruments § 862.2860 Mass spectrometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A mass spectrometer for... by means of an electrical and magnetic field according to their mass. (b) Classification. Class...

  15. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mass spectrometer for clinical use. 862.2860... Instruments § 862.2860 Mass spectrometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A mass spectrometer for... by means of an electrical and magnetic field according to their mass. (b) Classification. Class...

  16. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mass spectrometer for clinical use. 862.2860... Instruments § 862.2860 Mass spectrometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A mass spectrometer for... by means of an electrical and magnetic field according to their mass. (b) Classification. Class...

  17. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mass spectrometer for clinical use. 862.2860... Instruments § 862.2860 Mass spectrometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A mass spectrometer for... by means of an electrical and magnetic field according to their mass. (b) Classification. Class...

  18. Particle Spectrometers for FRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amthor, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    FRIB promises to dramatically expand the variety of nuclear systems available for direct experimental study by providing rates of many rare isotopes orders of magnitude higher than those currently available. A new generation of experimental systems, including new particle spectrometers will be critical to our ability to take full advantage of the scientific opportunities offered by FRIB. The High-Rigidity Spectrometer (HRS) will allow for experiments with the most neutron-rich and short-lived isotopes produced by in-flight fragmentation at FRIB. The bending capability of the HRS (8 Tm) matches to the rigidity for which rare isotopes are produced at the highest intensity in the FRIB fragment separator. The experimental program will be focused on nuclear structure and astrophysics, and allow for the use of other cutting-edge detection systems for gamma, neutron, and charged-particle detection. Stopped and reaccelerated beam studies will be an important compliment to in-flight techniques at FRIB, providing world-unique, high quality, intense rare isotope beams at low energies up to and beyond the Coulomb barrier--with the completion of ReA12--and serving many of the science goals of the broader facility, from nuclear structure and astrophysics to applications. Two specialized recoil spectrometers are being developed for studies with reaccelerated beams. SECAR, the Separator for Capture Reactions, will be built following ReA3, coupled to a windowless gas jet target, JENSA, and will focus on radiative capture reactions for astrophysics, particularly those needed to improve our understanding of novae and X-ray bursts. A recoil separator following ReA12 is proposed to address a variety of physics cases based on fusion-evaporation, Coulomb excitation, transfer, and deep-inelastic reactions by providing a large angular, momentum and charge state acceptance; a high mass resolving power; and the flexibility to couple to a variety of auxiliary detector systems. Two designs

  19. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  20. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  1. Development of a tunable Fabry-Perot etalon-based near-infrared interference spectrometer for measurement of the HeI 2³S-2³P spectral line shape in magnetically confined torus plasmas.

    PubMed

    Ogane, S; Shikama, T; Zushi, H; Hasuo, M

    2015-10-01

    In magnetically confined torus plasmas, the local emission intensity, temperature, and flow velocity of atoms in the inboard and outboard scrape-off layers can be separately measured by a passive emission spectroscopy assisted by observation of the Zeeman splitting in their spectral line shape. To utilize this technique, a near-infrared interference spectrometer optimized for the observation of the helium 2(3)S-2(3)P transition spectral line (wavelength 1083 nm) has been developed. The applicability of the technique to actual torus devices is elucidated by calculating the spectral line shapes expected to be observed in LHD and QUEST (Q-shu University Experiment with Steady State Spherical Tokamak). In addition, the Zeeman effect on the spectral line shape is measured using a glow-discharge tube installed in a superconducting magnet. PMID:26520955

  2. Development of a tunable Fabry-Perot etalon-based near-infrared interference spectrometer for measurement of the HeI 23S-23P spectral line shape in magnetically confined torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogane, S.; Shikama, T.; Zushi, H.; Hasuo, M.

    2015-10-01

    In magnetically confined torus plasmas, the local emission intensity, temperature, and flow velocity of atoms in the inboard and outboard scrape-off layers can be separately measured by a passive emission spectroscopy assisted by observation of the Zeeman splitting in their spectral line shape. To utilize this technique, a near-infrared interference spectrometer optimized for the observation of the helium 23S-23P transition spectral line (wavelength 1083 nm) has been developed. The applicability of the technique to actual torus devices is elucidated by calculating the spectral line shapes expected to be observed in LHD and QUEST (Q-shu University Experiment with Steady State Spherical Tokamak). In addition, the Zeeman effect on the spectral line shape is measured using a glow-discharge tube installed in a superconducting magnet.

  3. Development of a tunable Fabry-Perot etalon-based near-infrared interference spectrometer for measurement of the HeI 2{sup 3}S-2{sup 3}P spectral line shape in magnetically confined torus plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ogane, S.; Shikama, T. Hasuo, M.; Zushi, H.

    2015-10-15

    In magnetically confined torus plasmas, the local emission intensity, temperature, and flow velocity of atoms in the inboard and outboard scrape-off layers can be separately measured by a passive emission spectroscopy assisted by observation of the Zeeman splitting in their spectral line shape. To utilize this technique, a near-infrared interference spectrometer optimized for the observation of the helium 2{sup 3}S–2{sup 3}P transition spectral line (wavelength 1083 nm) has been developed. The applicability of the technique to actual torus devices is elucidated by calculating the spectral line shapes expected to be observed in LHD and QUEST (Q-shu University Experiment with Steady State Spherical Tokamak). In addition, the Zeeman effect on the spectral line shape is measured using a glow-discharge tube installed in a superconducting magnet.

  4. The MAGNEX spectrometer: Results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappuzzello, F.; Agodi, C.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.

    2016-06-01

    This review discusses the main achievements and future perspectives of the MAGNEX spectrometer at the INFN-LNS laboratory in Catania (Italy). MAGNEX is a large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer for the detection of the ions emitted in nuclear collisions below Fermi energy. In the first part of the paper an overview of the MAGNEX features is presented. The successful application to the precise reconstruction of the momentum vector, to the identification of the ion masses and to the determination of the transport efficiency is demonstrated by in-beam tests. In the second part, an overview of the most relevant scientific achievements is given. Results from nuclear elastic and inelastic scattering as well as from transfer and charge-exchange reactions in a wide range of masses of the colliding systems and incident energies are shown. The role of MAGNEX in solving old and new puzzles in nuclear structure and direct reaction mechanisms is emphasized. One example is the recently observed signature of the long searched Giant Pairing Vibration. Finally, the new challenging opportunities to use MAGNEX for future experiments are briefly reported. In particular, the use of double charge-exchange reactions toward the determination of the nuclear matrix elements entering in the expression of the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. The new NUMEN project of INFN, aiming at these investigations, is introduced. The challenges connected to the major technical upgrade required by the project in order to investigate rare processes under high fluxes of detected heavy ions are outlined.

  5. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and Airborne Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, T.; Beer, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an instrument being developed for the NASA Earth Observing System Chemistry Platform. TES will measure the distribution of ozone and its precursors in the lower atmosphere. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES) is an aircraft precursor to TES. Applicable descriptions are given of instrument design, technology challenges, implementation and operations for both.

  6. Lessons Learned for the MICE Coupling Solenoid from the MICE Spectrometer Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong; Guo, Xinglong; Li, S. Y.; Zheng, S. X.; Virostek, Steve P.; DeMello, Allen J.; Li, Derun; Trillaud, Frederick; Zisman, Michael S.

    2010-05-30

    Tests of the spectrometer solenoids have taught us some important lessons. The spectrometer magnet lessons learned fall into two broad categories that involve the two stages of the coolers that are used to cool the magnets. On the first spectrometer magnet, the problems were centered on the connection of the cooler 2nd-stage to the magnet cold mass. On the first test of the second spectrometer magnet, the problems were centered on the cooler 1st-stage temperature and its effect on the operation of the HTS leads. The second time the second spectrometer magnet was tested; the cooling to the cold mass was still not adequate. The cryogenic designs of the MICE and MuCOOL coupling magnets are quite different, but the lessons learned from the tests of the spectrometer magnets have affected the design of the coupling magnets.

  7. Compact Infrared Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2009-01-01

    Concentric spectrometer forms are advantageous for constructing a variety of systems spanning the entire visible to infrared range. Spectrometer examples are given, including broadband or high resolution forms. Some issues associated with the Dyson catadioptric type are also discussed.

  8. Mini-orange spectrometer at CIAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yun; Wu, Xiao-Guang; Li, Guang-Sheng; Li, Cong-Bo; He, Chuang-Ye; Chen, Qi-Ming; Zhong, Jian; Zhou, Wen-Kui; Deng, Li-Tao; Zhu, Bao-Ji

    2016-08-01

    A mini-orange spectrometer used for in-beam measurements of internal conversion electrons, consisting of a Si(Li) detector and different sets of SmO5 permanent magnets for filtering and transporting the conversion electrons to the Si(Li) detector, has been developed at the China Institute of Atomic Energy. The working principles and configuration of the mini-orange spectrometer are described. The performance of the setup is illustrated by measured singles conversion electron spectra using the mini-orange spectrometer. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11305269, 11375267, 11475072, 11405274, 11205068, 11175259)

  9. Forward fitting of experimental data from a NE213 neutron detector installed with the magnetic proton recoil upgraded spectrometer at JET

    SciTech Connect

    Binda, F. Ericsson, G.; Eriksson, J.; Hellesen, C.; Conroy, S.; Sundén, E. Andersson; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Team

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we present the results obtained from the data analysis of neutron spectra measured with a NE213 liquid scintillator at JET. We calculated the neutron response matrix of the instrument combining MCNPX simulations, a generic proton light output function measured with another detector and the fit of data from ohmic pulses. For the analysis, we selected a set of pulses with neutral beam injection heating (NBI) only and we applied a forward fitting procedure of modeled spectral components to extract the fraction of thermal neutron emission. The results showed the same trend of the ones obtained with the dedicated spectrometer TOFOR, even though the values from the NE213 analysis were systematically higher. This discrepancy is probably due to the different lines of sight of the two spectrometers (tangential for the NE213, vertical for TOFOR). The uncertainties on the thermal fraction estimates were from 4 to 7 times higher than the ones from the TOFOR analysis.

  10. Particle Transportation Through the JLab Hall A BigBite Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsalmi, Sheren

    2015-04-01

    The BigBite spectrometer of the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab is under refurbishment for use in an experiment (E120-10-103) to measure deep inelastic electron scattering off helium-3 and tritium mirror nuclei in the valence quark region (high Bjorken x range). The experiment will use an 11 GeV upgraded beam to determine the ratio of the neutron to proton F2 inelastic structure functions, and the ratio of the down to up quark, d/u, quark probability distributions in the nucleon. The BigBite spectrometer is based on a custom-shaped dipole magnet, which provides for large momentum and angular acceptances needed for the above measurements. Simulations using a ROOT-based Monte Carlo model for tracking and visualizing scattered electrons passing through the BigBite magnet will be presented. The optics parameters of the dipole magnet have been extracted from a field map produced by a TOSCA magnetostatics calculation. The simulations are necessary to estimate the phase space of the scattered electrons inside the relocated detectors of the spectrometer, and check for electrons which could possibly miss a detector and escape detection. This work is supported by Saudi Arabian Cultural Mission SACM, Kent State University, NSF Grant PHY-1405814, and DOE Contract DE-AC05-06OR23177. Kent State University, Kent, OH, 44242.

  11. Spectrometers for Beta Decay Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yong; Hirshfield, Jay

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by the neutrino mass direct measurement experiment Project 8, precision spectrometers are proposed to simultaneously measure energy and momentum of beta-decay electrons produced in rare nuclear events with improved energy resolution. For detecting single beta decay electrons near the end-point from a gaseous source such as tritium, one type of spectrometer is proposed to utilize stimulated cyclotron resonance interaction of microwaves with electrons in a waveguide immersed in a magnetic mirror. In the external RF fields, on-resonance electrons will satisfy both the cyclotron resonance condition and waveguide dispersion relationship. By correlating the resonances at two waveguide modes, one can associate the frequencies with both the energy and longitudinal momentum of an on-resonance electron to account for the Doppler shifts. For detecting neutrino-less double-beta decay, another spectrometer is proposed with thin foil of double-beta-allowed material immersed in a magnetic field, and RF antenna array for detection of synchrotron radiation from electrons. It utilizes the correlation between the antenna signals including higher harmonics of radiation to reconstruct the total energy distribution.

  12. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M

    1994-01-01

    In Bangladesh, the assistant administrator of USAID gave an acceptance speech at an awards ceremony on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of oral rehydration solution (ORS). The ceremony celebrated the key role of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) in the discovery of ORS. Its research activities over the last 25 years have brought ORS to every village in the world, preventing more than a million deaths each year. ORS is the most important medical advance of the 20th century. It is affordable and client-oriented, a true appropriate technology. USAID has provided more than US$ 40 million to ICDDR,B for diarrheal disease and measles research, urban and rural applied family planning and maternal and child health research, and vaccine development. ICDDR,B began as the relatively small Cholera Research Laboratory and has grown into an acclaimed international center for health, family planning, and population research. It leads the world in diarrheal disease research. ICDDR,B is the leading center for applied health research in South Asia. It trains public health specialists from around the world. The government of Bangladesh and the international donor community have actively joined in support of ICDDR,B. The government applies the results of ICDDR,B research to its programs to improve the health and well-being of Bangladeshis. ICDDR,B now also studies acute respiratory diseases and measles. Population and health comprise 1 of USAID's 4 strategic priorities, the others being economic growth, environment, and democracy, USAID promotes people's participation in these 4 areas and in the design and implementation of development projects. USAID is committed to the use and improvement of ORS and to complementary strategies that further reduce diarrhea-related deaths. Continued collaboration with a strong user perspective and integrated services will lead to sustainable development. PMID:12345470

  13. Acceptance speech.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, C K

    1994-01-01

    I am proud and honored to accept this award on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh, and the millions of Bangladeshi children saved by oral rehydration solution. The Government of Bangladesh is grateful for this recognition of its commitment to international health and population research and cost-effective health care for all. The Government of Bangladesh has already made remarkable strides forward in the health and population sector, and this was recognized in UNICEF's 1993 "State of the World's Children". The national contraceptive prevalence rate, at 40%, is higher than that of many developed countries. It is appropriate that Bangladesh, where ORS was discovered, has the largest ORS production capacity in the world. It was remarkable that after the devastating cyclone in 1991, the country was able to produce enough ORS to meet the needs and remain self-sufficient. Similarly, Bangladesh has one of the most effective, flexible and efficient control of diarrheal disease and epidemic response program in the world. Through the country, doctors have been trained in diarrheal disease management, and stores of ORS are maintained ready for any outbreak. Despite grim predictions after the 1991 cyclone and the 1993 floods, relatively few people died from diarrheal disease. This is indicative of the strength of the national program. I want to take this opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of ICDDR, B and the important role it plays in supporting the Government's efforts in the health and population sector. The partnership between the Government of Bangladesh and ICDDR, B has already borne great fruit, and I hope and believe that it will continue to do so for many years in the future. Thank you. PMID:12345479

  14. Spherical grating spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh; Clemens, J. Christopher

    2014-07-01

    We describe designs for spectrometers employing convex dispersers. The Offner spectrometer was the first such instrument; it has almost exclusively been employed on satellite platforms, and has had little impact on ground-based instruments. We have learned how to fabricate curved Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings and, in contrast to the planar gratings of traditional spectrometers, describe how such devices can be used in optical/infrared spectrometers designed specifically for curved diffraction gratings. Volume Phase Holographic gratings are highly efficient compared to conventional surface relief gratings; they have become the disperser of choice in optical / NIR spectrometers. The advantage of spectrometers with curved VPH dispersers is the very small number of optical elements used (the simplest comprising a grating and a spherical mirror), as well as illumination of mirrors off axis, resulting in greater efficiency and reduction in size. We describe a "Half Offner" spectrometer, an even simpler version of the Offner spectrometer. We present an entirely novel design, the Spherical Transmission Grating Spectrometer (STGS), and discuss exemplary applications, including a design for a double-beam spectrometer without any requirement for a dichroic. This paradigm change in spectrometer design offers an alternative to all-refractive astronomical spectrometer designs, using expensive, fragile lens elements fabricated from CaF2 or even more exotic materials. The unobscured mirror layout avoids a major drawback of the previous generation of catadioptric spectrometer designs. We describe laboratory measurements of the efficiency and image quality of a curved VPH grating in a STGS design, demonstrating, simultaneously, efficiency comparable to planar VPH gratings along with good image quality. The stage is now set for construction of a prototype instrument with impressive performance.

  15. Broadband Single-Shot Electron Spectrometer for GeV-Class Laser Plasma Based Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, K.; Wan, W.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Syversrud, D.; Wallig, J.; Leemans, W.P.

    2008-05-01

    Laser-plasma-based accelerators can provide electrons over a broad energy range and/or with large momentum spread. The electron beam energy distribution can be controlled via accurate control of laser and plasma properties, and beams with energies ranging from'0.5 to 1000 MeV have been observed. Measuring these energy distributions in a single shot requires the use of a diagnostic with large momentum acceptance and, ideally, sufficient resolution to accurately measure energy spread in the case of narrow energy spread. Such a broadband single-shot electron magnetic spectrometer for GeV-class laser-plasma-based accelerators has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. A detailed description of the hardware and the design concept is presented, as well as a performance evaluation of the spectrometer. The spectrometer covered electron beam energies raging from 0.01 to 1.1 GeV in a single shot, and enabled the simultaneous measurement of the laser properties at the exit of the accelerator through the use of a sufficiently large pole gap. Based on measured field maps and 3rd-order transport analysis, a few percent-level resolution and determination of the absolute energy were achieved over the entire energy range. Laser-plasma-based accelerator experiments demonstrated the capability of the spectrometer as a diagnostic and its suitability for such a broadband electron source.

  16. First result from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station: precision measurement of the positron fraction in primary cosmic rays of 0.5-350 GeV.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, M; Alberti, G; Alpat, B; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Anderhub, H; Arruda, L; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Baret, B; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Basili, A; Batalha, L; Bates, J; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, R; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Biland, A; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bolmont, J; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Boudoul, G; Bourquin, M; Brun, P; Buénerd, M; Burger, J; Burger, W; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Casadei, D; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, C R; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chernoplyiokov, N; Chikanian, A; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Commichau, V; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Costado Dios, M T; Coste, B; Crespo, D; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirkoz, B; Dennett, P; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Diao, X H; Diago, A; Djambazov, L; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Du, W J; Dubois, J M; Duperay, R; Duranti, M; D'Urso, D; Egorov, A; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; van Es, J; Esser, H; Falvard, A; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Flood, K; Foglio, R; Fohey, M; Fopp, S; Fouque, N; Galaktionov, Y; Gallilee, M; Gallin-Martel, L; Gallucci, G; García, B; García, J; García-López, R; García-Tabares, L; Gargiulo, C; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gentile, S; Gervasi, M; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Girard, L; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy-Henningsen, C; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Grechko, A; Gross, A; Guerri, I; de la Guía, C; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Hauler, F; He, Z H; Heil, M; Heilig, J; Hermel, R; Hofer, H; Huang, Z C; Hungerford, W; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jacholkowska, A; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Jongmanns, M; Journet, L; Jungermann, L; Karpinski, W; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Koulemzine, A; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lauritzen, C; Lebedev, A; Lee, M W; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; León Vargas, H; Lepareur, V; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Z H; Lipari, P; Lin, C H; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lomtadze, T; Lu, Y S; Lucidi, S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luo, J Z; Lustermann, W; Lv, S; Madsen, J; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masciocchi, F; Masi, N; Maurin, D; McInturff, A; McIntyre, P; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Menichelli, M; Mereu, I; Millinger, M; Mo, D C; Molina, M; Mott, P; Mujunen, A; Natale, S; Nemeth, P; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oh, S; Oliva, A; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Park, W H; Pauluzzi, M; Pauss, F; Pauw, A; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Perrin, E; Pessina, G; Pierschel, G; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pochon, J; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Porter, S; Pouxe, J; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X N; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ren, Z L; Ricol, J S; Riihonen, E; Rodríguez, I; Roeser, U; Rosier-Lees, S; Rossi, L; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sabellek, A; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Santos, B; Saouter, P; Sarchioni, M; Schael, S; Schinzel, D; Schmanau, M; Schwering, G; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shi, J Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Siedling, R; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Steuer, M; Stiff, K; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Sun, X H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tassan-Viol, J; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Titus, C; Tomassetti, N; Toral, F; Torsti, J; Tsai, J R; Tutt, J C; Ulbricht, J; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vargas Trevino, M; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Vergain, M; Verlaat, B; Vescovi, C; Vialle, J P; Viertel, G; Volpini, G; Wang, D; Wang, N H; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Wallraff, W; Weng, Z L; Willenbrock, M; Wlochal, M; Wu, H; Wu, K Y; Wu, Z S; Xiao, W J; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J G; Zhang, Z; Zhang, M M; Zheng, Z M; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2013-04-01

    A precision measurement by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of the positron fraction in primary cosmic rays in the energy range from 0.5 to 350 GeV based on 6.8 × 10(6) positron and electron events is presented. The very accurate data show that the positron fraction is steadily increasing from 10 to ∼ 250  GeV, but, from 20 to 250 GeV, the slope decreases by an order of magnitude. The positron fraction spectrum shows no fine structure, and the positron to electron ratio shows no observable anisotropy. Together, these features show the existence of new physical phenomena. PMID:25166975

  17. The hot plasma spectrometers on Freja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, O.; Eliasson, L.

    1991-11-01

    The hot plasma instrumentation F3H on the Swedish-German Freja satellite due for launch in 1992 will consist of electron and ion spectrometers. The spectrometer Magnetic imaging Two dimensional Electron (MATE) will measure the two dimensional electron distribution in the spin plane in the energy range 0.1 to 120 keV. The ion mass spectrometer Three dimensional Ion Composition Spectrometer (TICS) measures a full three dimensional distribution in the energy range 0.5 to 15000 eV/q with high mass resolution. The instruments use a particle 'imaging' detector technique based on a large diameter microchannel plate with position sensitive anode. The topics to be studied with the Freja hot plasma spectrometers include auroral particle acceleration, heating and acceleration of ionospheric ions, and the dynamics of auroral arc systems. Of special importance to the scientific objectives is the high data rate from the Freja instrumentation, the MATE and TICS spectrometers will be sampled every 10 ms, corresponding to a spatial resolution better than 70 m at ionospheric heights. The design, simulation, and calibration of the spectrometers are discussed.

  18. Dual Electron Spectrometer for Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission: Results of the Comprehensive Tests of the Engineering Test Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avanov, Levon A.; Gliese, Ulrik; Mariano, Albert; Tucker, Corey; Barrie, Alexander; Chornay, Dennis J.; Pollock, Craig James; Kujawski, Joseph T.; Collinson, Glyn A.; Nguyen, Quang T.; Auletti, Craig R.; Rosnack, Traci P.; Zeuch, Michael A.; Christian, Kent; Bigio, Victor L.; Tull, Kimathi N.; Rucker, Alan M.; Cao, Nga T.; Smith, Darrell L.; Lobbel, James V.; Jacques, Arthus D.

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) is designed to study fundamental phenomena in space plasma physics such as a magnetic reconnection. The mission consists of four spacecraft, equipped with identical scientific payloads, allowing for the first measurements of fast dynamics in the critical electron diffusion region where magnetic reconnection occurs and charged particles are demagnetized. The MMS orbit is optimized to ensure the spacecraft spend extended periods of time in locations where reconnection is known to occur: at the dayside magnetopause and in the magnetotail. In order to resolve fine structures of the three dimensional electron distributions in the diffusion region (reconnection site), the Fast Plasma Investigation's (FPI) Dual Electron Spectrometer (DES) is designed to measure three dimensional electron velocity distributions with an extremely high time resolution of 30 ms. In order to achieve this unprecedented sampling rate, four dual spectrometers, each sampling 180 x 45 degree sections of the sky, are installed on each spacecraft. We present results of the comprehensive tests performed on the DES Engineering & Test Unit (ETU). This includes main parameters of the spectrometer such as energy resolution, angular acceptance, and geometric factor along with their variations over the 16 pixels spanning the 180-degree tophat Electro Static Analyzer (ESA) field of view and over the energy of the test beam. A newly developed method for precisely defining the operational space of the instrument is presented as well. This allows optimization of the trade-off between pixel to pixel crosstalk and uniformity of the main spectrometer parameters.

  19. A nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer concept for hermetically sealed magic angle spinning investigations on highly toxic, radiotoxic, or air sensitive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L.; Somers, J.; Berkmann, C.; Koepp, F.; Rothermel, A.; Pauvert, O.; Selfslag, C.; Farnan, I.

    2013-05-01

    A concept to integrate a commercial high-resolution, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) probe capable of very rapid rotation rates (70 kHz) in a hermetically sealed enclosure for the study of highly radiotoxic materials has been developed and successfully demonstrated. The concept centres on a conventional wide bore (89 mm) solid-state NMR magnet operating with industry standard 54 mm diameter probes designed for narrow bore magnets. Rotor insertion and probe tuning take place within a hermetically enclosed glovebox, which extends into the bore of the magnet, in the space between the probe and the magnet shim system. Oxygen-17 MAS-NMR measurements demonstrate the possibility of obtaining high quality spectra from small sample masses (˜10 mg) of highly radiotoxic material and the need for high spinning speeds to improve the spectral resolution when working with actinides. The large paramagnetic susceptibility arising from actinide paramagnetism in (Th1-xUx)O2 solid solutions gives rise to extensive spinning sidebands and poor resolution at 15 kHz, which is dramatically improved at 55 kHz. The first 17O MAS-NMR measurements on NpO2+x samples spinning at 55 kHz are also reported. The glovebox approach developed here for radiotoxic materials can be easily adapted to work with other hazardous or even air sensitive materials.

  20. The Results of Recent MICE Superconducting Spectrometer Solenoid Test

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A; Virostek, Steve P.; Zisman, Michael S.

    2010-10-15

    The MICE spectrometer solenoid magnets will be the first magnets to be installed within the MICE cooling channel. The MICE spectrometer solenoids may be the largest magnets that have been cooled using small two stage coolers. During the previous test of this magnet, the cooler first stage temperatures were too high. The causes of some of the extra first stage heat load has been identified and corrected. The rebuilt magnet had a single stage GM cooler in addition to the three pulse tube coolers. The added cooler reduces the temperature of the top of the HTS leads, the shield and of the first stage of the pulse tube coolers.

  1. Double focusing ion mass spectrometer of cylindrical symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coplan, M. A.; Moore, J. H.; Hoffman, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    A mass spectrometer consisting of an electric sector followed by a magnetic sector is described. The geometry is a cylindrically symmetric generalization of the Mattauch-Herzog spectrometer (1934). With its large annular entrance aperture and a position-sensitive detector, the instrument provides a large geometric factor and 100-percent duty factor, making it appropriate for spacecraft experiments.

  2. Advanced Laboratory NMR Spectrometer with Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biscegli, Clovis; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of an inexpensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer suitable for use in advanced laboratory courses. Applications to the nondestructive analysis of the oil content in corn seeds and in monitoring the crystallization of polymers are presented. (SK)

  3. The Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheson, E.; Harris, T. J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and operation of a quadrupole mass spectrometer for experiments in an advanced-teaching laboratory. Discusses the theory of operation of the spectrometer and the factors affecting the resolution. Some examples of mass spectra obtained with this instrument are presented and discussed. (LC)

  4. Differential Moessbauer spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kurinyi, Yu.A.; Grotov, Yu.D.

    1988-07-01

    A spectrometer is described that permits hardware differentiation of spectra with respect to the energy of gamma radiation, specimen temperature, etc. Differentiation is performed by secondary modulation of source motion with subsequent phase-sensitive detection at the harmonics. The spectrometer is CAMAC-compatible and permits simultaneous measurement of the first four harmonics.

  5. Mass spectrometer and methods of increasing dispersion between ion beams

    DOEpatents

    Appelhans, Anthony D.; Olson, John E.; Delmore, James E.

    2006-01-10

    A mass spectrometer includes a magnetic sector configured to separate a plurality of ion beams, and an electrostatic sector configured to receive the plurality of ion beams from the magnetic sector and increase separation between the ion beams, the electrostatic sector being used as a dispersive element following magnetic separation of the plurality of ion beams. Other apparatus and methods are provided.

  6. Commissioning Measurements of the KATRIN Main Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierman, Kevin; Katrin Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Beginning in May 2013, the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) collaboration began measurements to commission the 10-m diameter main spectrometer. KATRIN utilizes the spectrometer to provide magnetic adiabatic collimation and electrostatic filtering designed to analyze the tritium beta decay spectrum for contributions from the neutrino mass. In order to achieve an order-of-magnitude improvement on previous neutrino mass experiments the desired sensitivity of the apparatus must be 200 meV in the decay endpoint region. Goals of the recent measurements include identification and reduction of backgrounds and determination of the spectrometer transfer function. Backgrounds have been probed by utilizing electromagnetic field configurations to explore decays in the spectrometer, Penning traps and field emission. A 148-pixel PIN diode array is employed to detect particles exiting the spectrometer, which permits angular and radial distributions of particles to be analyzed. This has allowed for high precision comparison between measurements and simulations of expected backgrounds to be investigated in order to commission the spectrometer. This work is supported by grants from the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics and the Helmholtz Association.

  7. The SAGE spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Sorri, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Greenlees, P. T.; Butler, P. A.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cox, D. M.; Cresswell, J. R.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Konki, J.; Lazarus, I. H.; Letts, S. C.; Mistry, A.; Page, R. D.; Parr, E.; Pucknell, V. F. E.; Rahkila, P.; Sampson, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Seddon, D. A.; Simpson, J.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D.

    2014-03-01

    The SAGE spectrometer has been constructed for in-beam nuclear structure studies. SAGE combines a Ge-detector array and an electron spectrometer for detection of -rays and internal conversion electrons, respectively, and allows simultaneous observation of both electrons and -rays emitted from excited nuclei. SAGE is set up in the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä and works in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator and the GREAT focal-plane spectrometer allowing the use of the recoil-decay tagging method.

  8. A multichannel magneto-chiral dichroism spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopnov, G.; Rikken, G. L. J. A.

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we describe a multichannel magneto-chiral dichroism spectrometer for the visible and near infrared wavelength ranges. The optical signal acquisition is based on commercially available Czerny-Turner spectrograph systems equipped with solid state detector arrays. The signal analysis method is based on post-processing phase sensitive detection, where the optical properties of the sample are modulated by an alternating external magnetic field. As an illustration of the performance of this spectrometer, magneto-chiral dichroism was measured in crystals of α - NiSO4 . 6H2O and good agreement with literature results was obtained.

  9. Mass spectrometers with energy focusing: Combinations of magnetic and electric sector fields whose mean planes of deflection are tilted with respect to each other

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldrich, H.; Ewald, H.

    1988-01-01

    First a combination of two sector fields is considered, for instance a homogeneous magnetic field followed by an electric cylinder condenser. The mean planes of deflection of the fields are tilted with respect to each other by an oblique angle. Such a combination has astigmatic focusing properties for paraxial rays of ions of certain mass and energy coming from an object point assumed at a certain distance before the first field on the incoming central ray. At different distances from the field combination are formed. calculated in first order, two real or virtual straight astigmatic focusing lines which are perpendicular to each other and to the outgoing central ray. By proper assumptions of the dimensions of the combination it can be arranged that its first order energy dispersion and one real of its astigmatic focusing lines have exactly the same direction. Then by addition of a third sector field (again a homogeneous magnetic field) it can be achieved that the astigmatic focusing will be changed into a stigmatic one while at the same time the energy dispersion can be reduced to small values. The mass dispersion of this three field combination in the given numerical example is about perpendicular to the direction of the energy dispersion.

  10. Composite Spectrometer Prisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Page, N. A.; Rodgers, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Efficient linear dispersive element for spectrometer instruments achieved using several different glasses in multiple-element prism. Good results obtained in both two-and three-element prisms using variety of different glass materials.

  11. The SLIM spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Kevin M; Ingle, James D

    2003-01-01

    A new spectrometer, here denoted the SLIM (simple, low-power, inexpensive, microcontroller-based) spectrometer, was developed that exploits the small size and low cost of solid-state electronic devices. In this device, light-emitting diodes (LED), single-chip integrated circuit photodetectors, embedded microcontrollers, and batteries replace traditional optoelectronic components, computers, and power supplies. This approach results in complete customizable spectrometers that are considerably less expensive and smaller than traditional instrumentation. The performance of the SLIM spectrometer, configured with a flow cell, was evaluated and compared to that of a commercial spectrophotometer. Thionine was the analyte, and the detection limit was approximately 0.2 microM with a 1.5-mm-path length flow cell. Nonlinearity due to the broad emission profile of the LED light sources is discussed. PMID:12530815

  12. Imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.

    1993-09-13

    This invention is comprised of an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer having a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer providing a series of images to a focal plane array camera. The focal plane array camera is clocked to a multiple of zero crossing occurrences as caused by a moving mirror of the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and as detected by a laser detector such that the frame capture rate of the focal plane array camera corresponds to a multiple of the zero crossing rate of the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The images are transmitted to a computer for processing such that representations of the images as viewed in the light of an arbitrary spectral ``fingerprint`` pattern can be displayed on a monitor or otherwise stored and manipulated by the computer.

  13. The imaging spectrometer approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    Two important sensor design drivers are the requirement for spatial registration of the spectral components and the implementation of the advanced multispectral capability, including spectral band width, number of bands and programmability. The dispersive approach, fundamental to the imaging spectrometer concept, achieves these capabilities by utilizing a spectrometer to disperse the spectral content while preserving the spatial identity of the information in the cross-track direction. Area array detectors in the spectrometer focal plane detect and store the spatial and multispectral content for each line of the image. The choice of spectral bands, image IFOV and swath width is implemented by programmed readout of the focal plane. These choices in conjunction with data compression are used to match the output data rate with the telemetry link capability. Progress in the key technologies of optics, focal plane detector arrays, onboard processing, and focal plane cooling supports the viability of the imaging spectrometer approach.

  14. Microbolometer imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, William R; Hook, Simon J; Shoen, Steven M

    2012-03-01

    Newly developed, high-performance, long-wave- and mid-wave-IR Dyson spectrometers offer a compact, low-distortion, broadband, imaging spectrometer design. The design is further accentuated when coupled to microbolometer array technology. This novel coupling allows radiometric and spectral measurements of high-temperature targets. It also serves to be unique since it allows for the system to be aligned warm. This eliminates the need for cryogenic temperature cycling. Proof of concept results are shown for a spectrometer with a 7.5 to 12.0 μm spectral range and approximately 20 nm per spectral band (~200 bands). Results presented in this Letter show performance for remote hot targets (>200 °C) using an engineering grade spectrometer and IR commercial lens assembly. PMID:22378399

  15. A Simple Raman Spectrometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blond, J. P.; Boggett, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some basic physical ideas about light scattering and describes a simple Raman spectrometer, a single prism monochromator and a multiplier detector. This discussion is intended for British undergraduate physics students. (HM)

  16. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  17. SPEG: An energy loss spectrometer for GANIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, L.; Fernandez, B.; Gastebois, J.; Gillibert, A.; Mittig, W.; Barrette, J.

    1989-04-01

    Since July 1985, an energy loss spectrometer (SPEG) is under operation at the National Heavy Ion Laboratory (GANIL), at Caen (France). It has been designed to allow the study of quantum states populated in reactions induced by nuclei accelerated at energies up to 100 A MeV. The spectrometer has been designed by P. Birien. The optical properties and the main magnetic features have been calculated by Birien and Valero. A detailed reported of their study is given in ref. [1]. In the first part of the present paper, after recalling the specifications of the spectrometer, we shall give an overall description of the main characteristics, together with indications about the various shimming procedures which have been used to achieve the desired resolution (sections 1-4). In the second part, we shall describe various accessories and the different kinds of detectors which are used during experiments, with several illustrations of experimental results (sections 5 and 6).

  18. The Pickup Ion Composition Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Jason A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Battel, Steven

    2016-06-01

    Observations of newly ionized atoms that are picked up by the magnetic field in the expanding solar wind contain crucial information about the gas or dust compositions of their origins. The pickup ions (PUIs) are collected by plasma mass spectrometers and analyzed for their density, composition, and velocity distribution. In addition to measurements of PUIs from planetary sources, in situ measurements of interstellar gas have been made possible by spectrometers capable of differentiating between heavy ions of solar and interstellar origin. While important research has been done on these often singly charged ions, the instruments that have detected many of them were designed for the energy range and ionic charge states of the solar wind and energized particle populations, and not for pickup ions. An instrument optimized for the complete energy and time-of-flight characterization of pickup ions will unlock a wealth of data on these hitherto unobserved or unresolved PUI species. The Pickup Ion Composition Spectrometer (PICSpec) is one such instrument and can enable the next generation of pickup ion and isotopic mass composition measurements. By combining a large-gap time-of-flight-energy sensor with a -100 kV high-voltage power supply for ion acceleration, PUIs will not only be above the detection threshold of traditional solid-state energy detectors but also be resolved sufficiently in time of flight that isotopic composition can be determined. This technology will lead to a new generation of space composition instruments, optimized for measurements of both heliospheric and planetary pickup ions.

  19. Nuclear structure analysis using the Orange Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Regis, J.-M.; Pascovici, Gh.; Christen, S.; Meersschout, T.; Bernards, C.; Fransen, Ch.; Dewald, A.; Braun, N.; Heinze, S.; Thiel, S.; Jolie, J.; Materna, Th.

    2009-01-28

    Recently, an Orange spectrometer, a focusing iron-free magnetic spectrometer, has been installed at a beam line of the 10 MV Tandem accelerator of the IKP of the University of Cologne. The high efficiency of 15% of 4{pi} for the detection of conversion electrons and the energy resolution of 1% makes the Orange spectrometer a powerful instrument. From the conversion electron spectrum, transition multipolarities can be determined using the so called K to L ratio. In combination with an array of germanium and lanthanum bromide detectors, e{sup -}-{gamma}-coincidences can be performed to investigate the level scheme. Moreover, the very fast lanthanum bromide scintillator with an energy resolution of 3% allows e{sup -}-{gamma} lifetime measurements down to 0.3 ns. A second Orange spectrometer can be added to build the Double Orange Spectrometer for e{sup -}-e{sup -}-coincidences. It is indispensable for lifetime measurements of low intensity or nearby lying transitions as often occur in odd-A and odd-odd nuclei. The capabilities are illustrated with several examples.

  20. ELECTRONICS UPGRADE OF HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mcintosh, J; Joe Cordaro, J

    2008-03-10

    High resolution mass spectrometers are specialized systems that allow researchers to determine the exact mass of samples to four significant digits by using magnetic and electronic sector mass analyzers. Many of the systems in use today at research laboratories and universities were designed and built more than two decades ago. The manufacturers of these systems have abandoned the support for some of the mass spectrometers and parts to power and control them have become scarce or obsolete. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been involved in the upgrade of the electronics and software for these legacy machines. The Electronics Upgrade of High Resolution Mass Spectrometers consists of assembling high-end commercial instrumentation from reputable manufacturers with a minimal amount of customization to replace the electronics for the older systems. By taking advantage of advances in instrumentation, precise magnet control can be achieved using high resolution current sources and continuous feedback from a high resolution hall-effect probe. The custom equipment include a precision voltage divider/summing amplifier chassis, high voltage power supply chassis and a chassis for controlling the voltage emission for the mass spectrometer source tube. The upgrade package is versatile enough to interface with valve control, vacuum and other instrumentation. Instrument communication is via a combination of Ethernet and traditional IEEE-488 GPIB protocols. The system software upgrades include precision control, feedback and spectral waveform analysis tools.

  1. Compact Grism Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teare, S. W.

    2003-05-01

    Many observatories and instrument builders are retrofitting visible and near-infrared spectrometers into their existing imaging cameras. Camera designs that reimage the focal plane and have the optical filters located in a pseudo collimated beam are ideal candidates for the addition of a spectrometer. One device commonly used as the dispersing element for such spectrometers is a grism. The traditional grism is constructed from a prism that has had a diffraction grating applied on one surface. The objective of such a design is to use the prism wedge angle to select the desired "in-line" or "zero-deviation" wavelength that passes through on axis. The grating on the surface of the prism provides much of the dispersion for the spectrometer. A grism can also be used in a "constant-dispersion" design which provides an almost linear spatial scale across the spectrum. In this paper we provide an overview of the development of a grism spectrometer for use in a near infrared camera and demonstrate that a compact grism spectrometer can be developed on a very modest budget that can be afforded at almost any facility. The grism design was prototyped using visible light and then a final device was constructed which provides partial coverage in the near infrared I, J, H and K astronomical bands using the appropriate band pass filter for order sorting. The near infrared grism presented here provides a spectral resolution of about 650 and velocity resolution of about 450 km/s. The design of this grism relied on a computer code called Xspect, developed by the author, to determine the various critical parameters of the grism. This work was supported by a small equipment grant from NASA and administered by the AAS.

  2. Broad band waveguide spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Goldman, Don S.

    1995-01-01

    A spectrometer for analyzing a sample of material utilizing a broad band source of electromagnetic radiation and a detector. The spectrometer employs a waveguide possessing an entry and an exit for the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source. The waveguide further includes a surface between the entry and exit portions which permits interaction between the electromagnetic radiation passing through the wave guide and a sample material. A tapered portion forms a part of the entry of the wave guide and couples the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source to the waveguide. The electromagnetic radiation passing from the exit of the waveguide is captured and directed to a detector for analysis.

  3. The Apollo Alpha Spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Carroll, J.

    1973-01-01

    Located in the Science Instrument Module of Apollo 15 and 16, the Alpha Particle Spectrometer was designed to detect and measure the energy of alpha particles emitted by the radon isotopes and their daughter products. The spectrometer sensor consisted of an array of totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors. Biased amplifier and linear gate techniques were utilized to reduce resolution degradation, thereby permitting the use of a single 512 channel PHA. Sensor identification and in-flight radioactive calibration were incorporated to enhance data reduction.

  4. Comparison of imaging spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C

    2000-01-09

    Realistic signal to noise performance estimates for the various types of instruments being considered for NGST are compared, based on the point source detection values quoted in the available ISIM final reports. The corresponding sensitivity of the various types of spectrometers operating in a full field imaging mode, for both emission line objects and broad spectral distribution objects, is computed and displayed. For the purpose of seeing the earliest galaxies, or the faintest possible emission line sources, the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer emerges superior to all others, by orders of magnitude in speed.

  5. Inverse kinematics (p, n) reactions studies using the WINDS slow neutron detector and the SAMURAI spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, J.; Sasano, M.; Zegers, R. G. T.; Baba, H.; Chao, W.; Dozono, M.; Fukuda, N.; Inabe, N.; Isobe, T.; Jhang, G.; Kameda, D.; Kubo, T.; Kurata-Nishimura, M.; Milman, E.; Motobayashi, T.; Otsu, H.; Panin, V.; Powell, W.; Sakai, H.; Sako, M.; Sato, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Stuhl, L.; Suzuki, H.; Tangwancharoen, S.; Takeda, H.; Uesaka, T.; Yoneda, K.; Zenihiro, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Sumikama, T.; Tako, T.; Nakamura, T.; Kondo, Y.; Togano, Y.; Shikata, M.; Tsubota, J.; Yako, K.; Shimoura, S.; Ota, S.; Kawase, S.; Kubota, Y.; Takaki, M.; Michimasa, S.; Kisamori, K.; Lee, C. S.; Tokieda, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Koyama, S.; Kobayashi, N.; Wakasa, T.; Sakaguchi, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Murakami, T.; Nakatsuka, N.; Kaneko, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Mucher, D.; Reichert, S.; Bazin, D.; Lee, J. W.

    2016-06-01

    We have combined the low-energy neutron detector WINDS (Wide-angle Inverse-kinematics Neutron Detectors for SHARAQ) and the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIKEN Nishina Center RI Beam Factory (RIBF) in order to perform (p, n) reactions in inverse kinematics for unstable nuclei in the mass region around A ∼ 100 . In this setup, WINDS is used for detecting recoil neutrons and the SAMURAI spectrometer is used for tagging decay channel of heavy residue. The first experiment by using the setup was performed to study Gamow-Teller transitions from 132Sn in April 2014. The atomic number Z and mass-to-charge ratio A / Q of the beam residues were determined from the measurements of time of flight, magnetic rigidity and energy loss. The obtained A / Q and Z resolutions were σA/Q = 0.14 % and σZ = 0.22 , respectively. Furthermore, owing to the large momentum acceptance (50 %) of SAMURAI, the beam residues associated with the γ , 1n and 2n decay channel were measured in the same magnetic field setting. The kinematic loci of the measured recoil neutron energy and laboratory angle are clearly seen. It shows that the excitation energy up to about 20 MeV can be reconstructed.

  6. Preliminary Test Results for the MICE Spectrometer Superconducting Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Virostek, Steve P.; Green, Michael A; Li, Derun; Zisman, Michael S.; Wang, S.T.; Wahrer, R.; Taylor, Clyde; Lu, X.; Chen, J. Y.; Wang, Mimi; Juang, Tiki

    2008-08-02

    This report describes the MICE spectrometer solenoids as built. Each magnet consists of five superconducting coils. Two coils are used to tune the beam going from or to the MICE spectrometer from the rest of the MICE cooling channel. Three spectrometer coils (two end coils and a long center coil) are used to create a uniform 4 T field (to {+-}0.3 percent) over a length of 1.0 m within a diameter of 0.3 m. The three-coil spectrometer set is connected in series. The two end coils use small power supplies to tune the uniform field region where the scintillating fiber tracker is located. This paper will present the results of the preliminary testing of the first spectrometer solenoid.

  7. Mass Spectrometers in Space!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Exploration of our solar system over several decades has benefitted greatly from the sensitive chemical analyses offered by spaceflight mass spectrometers. When dealing with an unknown environment, the broadband detection capabilities of mass analyzers have proven extremely valuable in determining the composition and thereby the basic nature of space environments, including the outer reaches of Earth s atmosphere, interplanetary space, the Moon, and the planets and their satellites. Numerous mass analyzer types, including quadrupole, monopole, sector, ion trap, and time-of-flight have been incorporated in flight instruments and delivered robotically to a variety of planetary environments. All such instruments went through a rigorous process of application-specific development, often including significant miniaturization, testing, and qualification for the space environment. Upcoming missions to Mars and opportunities for missions to Venus, Europa, Saturn, Titan, asteroids, and comets provide new challenges for flight mass spectrometers that push to state of the art in fundamental analytical technique. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on the recently-launch Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission incorporates a quadrupole analyzer to support direct evolved gas as well as gas chromatograph-based analysis of martian rocks and atmosphere, seeking signs of a past or present habitable environment. A next-generation linear ion trap mass spectrometer, using both electron impact and laser ionization, is being incorporated into the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) instrument, which will be flown to Mars in 2018. These and other mass spectrometers and mission concepts at various stages of development will be described.

  8. Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the global atmospheric changes is difficult with today's current technology. However, with high resolution and nearly continuous observations from a satellite, it's possible to transform our understanding of the atmosphere. To enable the next generation of atmospheric science, a new class of orbiting atmospheric sensors is being developed. The foundation of this advanced concept is the Fourier Transform Spectrometer, or FTS.

  9. Cyclotrons as mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    The principles and design choices for cyclotrons as mass spectrometers are described. They are illustrated by examples of cyclotrons developed by various groups for this purpose. The use of present high energy cyclotrons for mass spectrometry is also described. 28 references, 12 figures.

  10. Note: A new angle-resolved proton energy spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Y.; Su, L. N.; Liu, M.; Liu, B. C.; Shen, Z. W.; Fan, H. T.; Li, Y. T.; Chen, L. M.; Lu, X.; Ma, J. L.; Wang, W. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Wei, Z. Y.; Zhang, J.

    2013-09-15

    In typical laser-driven proton acceleration experiments Thomson parabola proton spectrometers are used to measure the proton spectra with very small acceptance angle in specific directions. Stacks composed of CR-39 nuclear track detectors, imaging plates, or radiochromic films are used to measure the angular distributions of the proton beams, respectively. In this paper, a new proton spectrometer, which can measure the spectra and angular distributions simultaneously, has been designed. Proton acceleration experiments performed on the Xtreme light III laser system demonstrates that the spectrometer can give angle-resolved spectra with a large acceptance angle. This will be conductive to revealing the acceleration mechanisms, optimization, and applications of laser-driven proton beams.

  11. Smartphone spectrometer for colorimetric biosensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Liu, Xiaohu; Chen, Peng; Tran, Nhung Thi; Zhang, Jinling; Chia, Wei Sheng; Boujday, Souhir; Liedberg, Bo

    2016-05-23

    We report on a smartphone spectrometer for colorimetric biosensing applications. The spectrometer relies on a sample cell with an integrated grating substrate, and the smartphone's built-in light-emitting diode flash and camera. The feasibility of the smartphone spectrometer is demonstrated for detection of glucose and human cardiac troponin I, the latter in conjunction with peptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles. PMID:27163736

  12. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  13. Simulation of the SAGE spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, D. M.; Konki, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Hauschild, K.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sorri, J.

    2015-06-01

    The SAGE spectrometer combines a Ge-detector array with a Si detector to allow simultaneous detection of γ-rays and electrons. A comprehensive GEANT4 simulation package of the SAGE spectrometer has been developed with the ability to simulate the expected datasets based on user input files. The measured performance of the spectrometer is compared to the results obtained from the simulations.

  14. A compact Raman converter for UV-VIS spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisson, Patrick J.; Whitten, James E.

    2015-05-01

    A small form factor, easily constructed converter that adapts fiber coupled UV/VIS CCD detector-based spectrometers into a right angle scattering Raman spectrometer is described. Its design philosophy and design are discussed. An example measurement, the depolarization ratio of carbon tetrachloride, a classic Raman test compound, is presented. The unique instrument features a blue-violet (405 nm wavelength) diode laser that takes advantage of the inverse fourth power wavelength dependence of Raman scattering. The converter also features Glan-Thompson polarizing prisms that enable measurement of depolarization ratios. The spectrometer is also capable of measuring a standard Raman spectrum. A fiber optic link offers flexibility when adapting the converter to any spectrometer system that accepts a fiber optic input. The performance of the instrument is critically discussed in the context of an example measurement.

  15. A compact Raman converter for UV-VIS spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Patrick J; Whitten, James E

    2015-05-01

    A small form factor, easily constructed converter that adapts fiber coupled UV/VIS CCD detector-based spectrometers into a right angle scattering Raman spectrometer is described. Its design philosophy and design are discussed. An example measurement, the depolarization ratio of carbon tetrachloride, a classic Raman test compound, is presented. The unique instrument features a blue-violet (405 nm wavelength) diode laser that takes advantage of the inverse fourth power wavelength dependence of Raman scattering. The converter also features Glan-Thompson polarizing prisms that enable measurement of depolarization ratios. The spectrometer is also capable of measuring a standard Raman spectrum. A fiber optic link offers flexibility when adapting the converter to any spectrometer system that accepts a fiber optic input. The performance of the instrument is critically discussed in the context of an example measurement. PMID:26026558

  16. Short-orbit spectrometer for Hall C at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, H.E.; Potterveld, D.H.; Zeidman, B.

    1995-08-01

    An examination of the proposed experimental program for Hall C at CEBAF reveals a major emphasis on coincidence experiments involving a {open_quotes}core{close_quotes} spectrometer and a second arm capable of detecting particles with momenta < 2 GeV/c with moderate energy and angular resolution. In most cases, the core spectrometer serves to tag a virtual photon, which induces a reaction in a nuclear target resulting in the ejection of a hadron in the energy range (0.2-2.0 GeV) which is observed in the second spectrometer. Nuclear physics topics addressed in these experiments include color transparency, nucleon propagation, pion electroproduction, and hyperon physics. All of these programs require an acceptance in the hadron spectrometer as large as possible in solid angle and momentum to maximize operational efficiency. In addition, relatively short spectrometer drift lengths are required in experiments involving detection of pions or kaons in order to minimize decay losses. Because the requirements for energy resolution in this class of experiments is moderate, typically {approximately} 10{sup -3}, an optimized design with a short optical length less than 10 m will provide a well-matched spectrometer capability. Excellent particle discrimination will be essential for detection of pions and kaons in the presence of high backgrounds. Operation at luminosities as high as 10{sup 38}/cm{sup 2} sec will be required frequently. To provide this second-arm capability, the Argonne group has built, under contract to CEBAF, a short-orbit spectrometer, the SOS, based on a QD{bar D} design. The QD{bar D} configuration provides a large momentum acceptance, with good energy resolution and solid-angle acceptance in a very compact geometry which can meet the needs of a broad spectrum of studies appropriate for Hall C at CEBAF.

  17. Analysis of Superconducting Dipole Coil of 11 GeV Super High Momentum Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Eric; Cheng, Gary; Lassiter, Steve R.; Brindza, Paul D.; Fowler, Michael J.

    2015-06-01

    Jefferson Lab is constructing five Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS) superconducting magnets for the 12 GeV Upgrade. This paper reports measured coil material properties and the results of the extensive finite element analysis (FEA) for the dipole coil. To properly define the smeared orthotropic material of the coil, a detailed coil model is set up to compute material parameters because not all parameters were measured. Stress and strain acceptance criteria are discussed. Eight load steps are defined. The preheat temperature of the force collar is optimized under two loading scenarios so that the positive pressure between the inner coil and central spacer is maintained while there is not too much squeeze to the coil.

  18. Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

    1993-04-14

    The operating principles of an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such instruments with respect to alternative imaging spectrometers are discussed. The primary advantages of the IFTS are the capacity to acquire more than an order of magnitude more spectral channels than alternative systems with more than an order of magnitude greater etendue than for alternative systems. The primary disadvantage of IFTS, or FTS in general, is the sensitivity to temporal fluctuations, either random or periodic. Data from the IRIFTS (ir IFTS) prototype instrument, sensitive in the infrared, are presented having a spectral sensitivity of 0.01 absorbance units, a spectral resolution of 6 cm{sup {minus}1} over the range 0 to 7899 cm{sup {minus}1}, and a spatial resolution of 2.5 mr.

  19. FAST NEUTRON SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Davis, F.J.; Hurst, G.S.; Reinhardt, P.W.

    1959-08-18

    An improved proton recoil spectrometer for determining the energy spectrum of a fast neutron beam is described. Instead of discriminating against and thereby"throwing away" the many recoil protons other than those traveling parallel to the neutron beam axis as do conventional spectrometers, this device utilizes protons scattered over a very wide solid angle. An ovoidal gas-filled recoil chamber is coated on the inside with a scintillator. The ovoidal shape of the sensitive portion of the wall defining the chamber conforms to the envelope of the range of the proton recoils from the radiator disposed within the chamber. A photomultiplier monitors the output of the scintillator, and a counter counts the pulses caused by protons of energy just sufficient to reach the scintillator.

  20. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calcutt, Simon; Taylor, Fredric; Ade, Peter; Kunde, Virgil; Jennings, Donald

    1992-01-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) is a remote sensing instrument to be flown on the Cassini orbiter. It contains two Fourier transform spectrometers covering wavelengths of 7-1000 microns. The instrument is expected to have higher spectral resolution, smaller field of view, and better signal-to-noise performance than its counterpart, IRIS, on the Voyager missions. These improvements allow the study of the variability of the composition and temperature of the atmospheres of both Saturn and Titan with latitude, longitude and height, as well as allowing the possibility of discovery of previously undetected chemical species in these atmospheres. The long wavelengths accessible to CIRS allow sounding deeper into both atmospheres than was possible with IRIS.

  1. Surface Plasmon Based Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wig, Andrew; Passian, Ali; Boudreaux, Philip; Ferrell, Tom

    2008-03-01

    A spectrometer that uses surface plasmon excitation in thin metal films to separate light into its component wavelengths is described. The use of surface plasmons as a dispersive medium sets this spectrometer apart from prism, grating, and interference based variants and allows for the miniaturization of this device. Theoretical and experimental results are presented for two different operation models. In the first case surface plasmon tunneling in the near field is used to provide transmission spectra of different broad band-pass, glass filters across the visible wavelength range with high stray-light rejection at low resolution as well as absorption spectra of chlorophyll extracted from a spinach leaf. The second model looks at the far field components of surface plasmon scattering.

  2. Miniaturized Ion Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaye, William J. (Inventor); Stimac, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    By utilizing the combination of a unique electronic ion injection control circuit in conjunction with a particularly designed drift cell construction, the instantly disclosed ion mobility spectrometer achieves increased levels of sensitivity, while achieving significant reductions in size and weight. The instant IMS is of a much simpler and easy to manufacture design, rugged and hermetically sealed, capable of operation at high temperatures to at least 250.degree. C., and is uniquely sensitive, particularly to explosive chemicals.

  3. The Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Edwin F.; Haas, Michael R.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Simpson, Janet P.; Rubin, Robert H.

    1995-01-01

    The Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer (CGS) first flew on the KAO in 1982 December and has been open to guest investigators since 1984 October. In the past 12 years it has completed over 100 research flights supporting 13 different principal investigators studying a variety of objects. We briefly describe the instrument, its capabilities and accomplishments, and acknowledge the people who have contributed to its development and operation.

  4. Spherical electrostatic electron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T.-S.; Kolk, B.; Kachnowski, T.; Trooster, J.; Benczer-Koller, N.

    1982-06-01

    A high transmission, low energy spherical electrostatic electron spectrometer particularly suited to the geometry required for Mössbauer-conversion electron spectroscopy was built. A transmission of 13% at an energy resolution of 2% was obtained with an 0.5 cm diameter source of 13.6 keV electrons. Applications to the study of hyperfine interactions of surfaces and interfaces are discussed.

  5. X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray Spectrometer (XRS) instrument is a revolutionary non-dispersive spectrometer that will form the basis for the Astro-E2 observatory to be launched in 2005. We have recently installed a flight spare X R S microcalorimeter spectrometer at the EBIT-I facility at LLNL replacing the XRS from the earlier Astro-E mission and providing twice the resolution. The X R S microcalorimeter is an x-ray detector that senses the heat deposited by the incident photon. It achieves a high energy resolution by operating at 0.06K and by carefully controlling the heat capacity and thermal conductance. The XRS/EBIT instrument has 32 pixels in a square geometry and achieves an energy resolution of 6 eV at 6 keV, with a bandpass from 0.1 to 12 keV (or more at higher operating temperature). The instrument allows detailed studies of the x-ray line emission of laboratory plasmas. The XRS/EBIT also provides an extensive calibration "library" for the Astro-E2 observatory.

  6. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a

  7. Measuring Flash X-Ray Spectra with a Compton Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Amanda; Espy, Michelle; Haines, Todd; Hunter, James; King, Nick; Merrill, Frank; Sedillo, Robert; Urbaitis, Algis; Volegov, Petr

    2014-09-01

    The determination of the x-ray energy spectra of flash radiographic sources is difficult due to the short nature of the pulses (~50 ns). Recently, a Compton spectrometer has been refurbished and investigated as a potential device for conducting these measurements. The spectrometer was originally designed and characterized by Morgan et al.. The spectrometer consists of a 300 kg neodymium-iron magnet and measures spectra in the <1 MeV to 20 MeV energy range. In this apparatus, the incoming x-rays are collimated into a narrow beam before encountering a converter foil. Compton electrons are ejected and collimated so that the forward-directed electrons enter the magnetic field region of the device. The position of the electrons on the magnet focal plane is a function of their energy, allowing the x-ray spectrum to be reconstructed. Recent energy calibration measurements and the spectrum reconstruction of a Bremsstrahlung source will be presented. The determination of the x-ray energy spectra of flash radiographic sources is difficult due to the short nature of the pulses (~50 ns). Recently, a Compton spectrometer has been refurbished and investigated as a potential device for conducting these measurements. The spectrometer was originally designed and characterized by Morgan et al.. The spectrometer consists of a 300 kg neodymium-iron magnet and measures spectra in the <1 MeV to 20 MeV energy range. In this apparatus, the incoming x-rays are collimated into a narrow beam before encountering a converter foil. Compton electrons are ejected and collimated so that the forward-directed electrons enter the magnetic field region of the device. The position of the electrons on the magnet focal plane is a function of their energy, allowing the x-ray spectrum to be reconstructed. Recent energy calibration measurements and the spectrum reconstruction of a Bremsstrahlung source will be presented. LA-UR-14-23602.

  8. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Tommy E.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Colella, Nicholas J.

    1991-01-01

    This invention uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements.

  9. Primary Beam Steering Due To Field Leakage From Superconducting SHMS Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Michael; Covrig, Silviu; Carlini, Roger; Waidyawansa, Buddhini; Benesch, Jay

    2014-03-01

    The Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS) was designed for the 12 GeV/c physics program in Hall C at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator (JLab). At JLab an electron beam impinges on a fixed target and scattered particles are analyzed with magnetic spectrometers. The SHMS angular acceptance is 5 .5° <= θ <=40° . When positioned at θ = 5 .5° and full field strength the external fields from the magnets are large enough to steer the unscattered primary beam away from the beam dump window located 51.8 m from the target. The effects of these magnetic fields on the primary beam line downstream of the target are studied using Opera 3-D and TOSCA. A solution is presented that uses passive elements to shape these fields and assure that the primary beam is steered onto the beam dump window.

  10. High-resolving mass spectrographs and spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollnik, Hermann

    2015-11-01

    Discussed are different types of high resolving mass spectrographs and spectrometers. In detail outlined are (1) magnetic and electric sector field mass spectrographs, which are the oldest systems, (2) Penning Trap mass spectrographs and spectrometers, which have achieved very high mass-resolving powers, but are technically demanding (3) time-of-flight mass spectrographs using high energy ions passing through accelerator rings, which have also achieved very high mass-resolving powers and are equally technically demanding, (4) linear time-of-flight mass spectrographs, which have become the most versatile mass analyzers for low energy ions, while the even higher performing multi-pass systems have only started to be used, (5) orbitraps, which also have achieved remarkably high mass-resolving powers for low energy ions.

  11. Cryogenic system for a superconducting spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, J.

    1983-03-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable, pool boiling design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. This paper describes the cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration, gas management, liquid nitrogen system, and the overall control strategy. The system normally operates with a 4 K heat load of 150 watts; the LN/sub 2/ circuits absorb an additional 4000 watts. 80K intercept control is by an LSI 11 computer. Total available refrigeration at 4K is 400 watts using reciprocating expanders at the 20K and 4K level. The minicomputer has the capability of optimizing overall utility input cost by varying operating points. A hybrid of pneumatic, analog, and digital control is successful in providing full time unattended operation. The 7m diameter magnet/cryostat assembly is rotatable through 180 degrees to provide a variety of spectrometer orientations.

  12. Interface for liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Fought, Eric R.

    1989-01-01

    A moving belt interface for real-time, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)/mass spectrometer (MS) analysis which strips away the HPLC solvent as it emerges from the end of the HPLC column and leaves a residue suitable for mass-spectral analysis. The interface includes a portable, stand-alone apparatus having a plural stage vacuum station, a continuous ribbon or belt, a drive train magnetically coupled to an external drive motor, a calibrated HPLC delivery system, a heated probe tip and means located adjacent the probe tip for direct ionization of the residue on the belt. The interface is also capable of being readily adapted to fit any mass spectrometer.

  13. Interface for liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Fought, E.R.

    1989-09-19

    A moving belt interface is described for real-time, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)/mass spectrometer (MS) analysis which strips away the HPLC solvent as it emerges from the end of the HPLC column and leaves a residue suitable for mass-spectral analysis. The interface includes a portable, stand-alone apparatus having a plural stage vacuum station, a continuous ribbon or belt, a drive train magnetically coupled to an external drive motor, a calibrated HPLC delivery system, a heated probe tip and means located adjacent the probe tip for direct ionization of the residue on the belt. The interface is also capable of being readily adapted to fit any mass spectrometer. 8 figs.

  14. Astronomical Fourier spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Connes, P; Michel, G

    1975-09-01

    A high resolution near ir Fourier spectrometer with the same general design as previously described laboratory instruments has been built for astronomical observations at a coudé focus. Present spectral range is 0.8-3.5 microm with PbS and Ge detectors and maximum path difference 1 m. The servo system can accommodate various recording modes: stepping or continuous scan, path difference modulation, sky chopping. A real time computer is incorporated into the system, which has been set up at the Hale 500-cm telescope on Mount Palomar. Samples of the results are given. PMID:20154966

  15. Mossbauer spectrometer radiation detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A Mossbauer spectrometer with high efficiencies in both transmission and backscattering techniques is described. The device contains a sodium iodide crystal for detecting radiation caused by the Mossbauer effect, and two photomultipliers to collect the radiation detected by the crystal. When used in the transmission technique, the sample or scatterer is placed between the incident radiation source and the detector. When used in a backscattering technique, the detector is placed between the incident radiation source and the sample of scatterer such that the incident radiation will pass through a hole in the crystal and strike the sample. Diagrams of the instrument are provided.

  16. Automated transportable mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echo, M. W.

    1981-09-01

    The need was identified for a mass spectrometer (MS) which can be conveniently transported among several facilities for rapid verification of the isotopic composition of special nuclear material. This requirement for a light weight, transportable MS for U and Pu mass analysis was met by deleting the gas chromograph (GC) portions of a Hewlett-Packard Model 5992 Quadrupole GCMS and substituting a vacuum lock sample entry system. A programmable power supply and vacuum gauge were added and circuitry modifications were made to enable use of the supplied software.

  17. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, S.H.

    1988-03-10

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are colliminated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. 1 fig.

  18. Neutron Transverse Spin Structure using BigBite and Super BigBite Spectrometers in Jefferson Lab's Hall A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckett, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    The Super BigBite Spectrometer (SBS), currently under construction for experiments in Jefferson Lab's Hall A, is a novel magnetic spectrometer designed for the detection of charged and neutral particles at forward scattering angles with large solid angle and momentum acceptance at the highest luminosities achievable using JLab's 11 GeV electron beam. Originally designed to facilitate precision measurements of nucleon electromagnetic form factors at large momentum transfers, the capabilities of SBS also make it suitable for the investigation of the nucleon's three-dimensional spin structure in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS). The precision study of novel polarization phenomena such as target transverse single-spin asymmetries (SSA) in SIDIS, requires measurements with high statistical precision and wide coverage of the 4-dimensional kinematic phase space of the SIDIS process. This talk will present an overview of approved JLab experiment E12-09-018, that will use the SBS, the existing BigBite spectrometer and an upgraded high-luminosity polarized 3He target to map the transverse spin structure of the neutron in the valence region with unprecedented precision. Supported by the US Department of Energy Office of Science.

  19. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. COCHRANE; J.V. PARKER; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  20. Progress on the Design and Fabircation of the MICE SpectrometerSolenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Virostek, S.P.; Green, M.A.; Lia, D.; Sizman, M.S.

    2007-06-20

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) willdemonstrate ionization cooling in a short section of a realistic coolingchannel using a muon beam at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in theUK. A five-coil, superconducting spectrometer solenoid magnet at each endof the cooling channel will provide a 4 T uniform field region for thescintillating fiber tracker within the magnet bore tubes. The trackermodules are used to measure the muon beam emittance as it enters andexits the cooling channel. The cold mass for the 400 mm warm bore magnetconsists of two sections: a three-coil spectrometer magnet and a two-coilmatching section that matches the uniform field of the solenoid into theMICE cooling channel. The spectrometer solenoid detailed designandanalysis has been completed, and the fabrication of the magnets is wellunder way. The primary features of the spectrometer solenoid magnet andmechanical designs are presented along with a summary of key fabricationissues and photos of the construction.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Facility (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Magnetic Resonance Facility capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center. Liquid and solid-state analysis capability for a variety of biomass, photovoltaic, and materials characterization applications across NREL. NREL scientists analyze solid and liquid samples on three nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers as well as an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer.

  2. MAGNETS

    DOEpatents

    Hofacker, H.B.

    1958-09-23

    This patent relates to nmgnets used in a calutron and more particularly to means fur clamping an assembly of magnet coils and coil spacers into tightly assembled relation in a fluid-tight vessel. The magnet comprises windings made up of an assembly of alternate pan-cake type coils and spacers disposed in a fluid-tight vessel. At one end of the tank a plurality of clamping strips are held firmly against the assembly by adjustable bolts extending through the adjacent wall. The foregoing arrangement permits taking up any looseness which may develop in the assembly of coils and spacers.

  3. Photoelectron spectrometer for attosecond spectroscopy of liquids and gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, I.; Huppert, M.; Brown, M. A.; van Bokhoven, J. A.; Wörner, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    A new apparatus for attosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids and gases is described. It combines a liquid microjet source with a magnetic-bottle photoelectron spectrometer and an actively stabilized attosecond beamline. The photoelectron spectrometer permits venting and pumping of the interaction chamber without affecting the low pressure in the flight tube. This pressure separation has been realized through a sliding skimmer plate, which effectively seals the flight tube in its closed position and functions as a differential pumping stage in its open position. A high-harmonic photon spectrometer, attached to the photoelectron spectrometer, exit port is used to acquire photon spectra for calibration purposes. Attosecond pulse trains have been used to record photoelectron spectra of noble gases, water in the gas and liquid states as well as solvated species. RABBIT scans demonstrate the attosecond resolution of this setup.

  4. Photoelectron spectrometer for attosecond spectroscopy of liquids and gases

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, I.; Huppert, M.; Wörner, H. J.; Brown, M. A.; Bokhoven, J. A. van

    2015-12-15

    A new apparatus for attosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids and gases is described. It combines a liquid microjet source with a magnetic-bottle photoelectron spectrometer and an actively stabilized attosecond beamline. The photoelectron spectrometer permits venting and pumping of the interaction chamber without affecting the low pressure in the flight tube. This pressure separation has been realized through a sliding skimmer plate, which effectively seals the flight tube in its closed position and functions as a differential pumping stage in its open position. A high-harmonic photon spectrometer, attached to the photoelectron spectrometer, exit port is used to acquire photon spectra for calibration purposes. Attosecond pulse trains have been used to record photoelectron spectra of noble gases, water in the gas and liquid states as well as solvated species. RABBIT scans demonstrate the attosecond resolution of this setup.

  5. Photoelectron spectrometer for attosecond spectroscopy of liquids and gases.

    PubMed

    Jordan, I; Huppert, M; Brown, M A; van Bokhoven, J A; Wörner, H J

    2015-12-01

    A new apparatus for attosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquids and gases is described. It combines a liquid microjet source with a magnetic-bottle photoelectron spectrometer and an actively stabilized attosecond beamline. The photoelectron spectrometer permits venting and pumping of the interaction chamber without affecting the low pressure in the flight tube. This pressure separation has been realized through a sliding skimmer plate, which effectively seals the flight tube in its closed position and functions as a differential pumping stage in its open position. A high-harmonic photon spectrometer, attached to the photoelectron spectrometer, exit port is used to acquire photon spectra for calibration purposes. Attosecond pulse trains have been used to record photoelectron spectra of noble gases, water in the gas and liquid states as well as solvated species. RABBIT scans demonstrate the attosecond resolution of this setup. PMID:26724045

  6. Improved multisphere spectrometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Shonka, J.J.; Schwahn, S.O.; Rogers, P.E.; Misko, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    Shonka Research Associated undertook a research program to improve the capabilities and ease of use of the Bonner sphere spectrometer system. Two key elements formed the heart of this research: replacement of the lithium iodide (LiI(Eu)) detector normally used in the spectrometer system with a spherical boron triflouride (BF{sub 3}) proportional counter and exploitation of an optimized set of nested polyethylene spheres, including boron-loaded spherical shells. Use of a spherical BF{sub 3} detector offers many advantages over the LiI(Eu) crystal. The BF{sub 3} detectors are insensitive to gamma radiation. Lack of gamma sensitivity permits acquiring data with simple electronics and allows determination of neutron spectra and dose in lower neutron-to-gamma ratio fields, including background terrestrial radiation fields. The importance of the lack of gamma sensitivity is underscored by the pending changes in neutron quality factors. The nearly perfect spherical symmetry offers advantages for BF{sub 3} over LiI(Eu) detectors as well. A light pipe, which perturbs measurements, is not needed. The bare BF{sub 3} detector response is not affected by the moderation of neutrons as is the case of the organic light pipe used with LiI(Eu). The spherical symmetry permits the use of smaller diameter shells, which add to the number of response functions.

  7. Spectrometers beyond the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, W.

    1996-11-01

    Two new types of miniature Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) presently being built have enabled this technology to be taken out of the laboratory and into the field. Both designs are very rugged, use little power to run, and can be made extremely small and lightweight. They are excellent candidates for airborne use, both in aircraft and satellite applications. One, the Mcro FT, is a mass balanced linear reciprocating scan operating in the 1-2 scan per second speed range. The other, the Turbo FT, uses a rotary scan, enabling it to run at much higher speeds, from 10 to 1000 scans per second. Either type can be built in the visible, near K and thermal IR wavelength ranges, and provide spectral resolution of 1-2 wave-numbers. Results obtained in all these wavelength ranges are presented here. The rotary configuration is more suited to airborne and satellite survey type deployments, due mostly to its rapid scan rate. Either of these sensors will fit into a small, commercially available stabilized pod which can easily be attached to a helicopter or light plane. This results in a very economical flight spectrometer system. 11 figs.

  8. The Athena Raman Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Alian; Haskin, Larry A.; Jolliff, Bradley; Wdowiak, Tom; Agresti, David; Lane, Arthur L.

    2000-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful tool for in situ mineralogy, petrology, and detection of water and carbon. The Athena Raman spectrometer is a microbeam instrument intended for close-up analyses of targets (rock or soils) selected by the Athena Pancam and Mini-TES. It will take 100 Raman spectra along a linear traverse of approximately one centimeter (point-counting procedure) in one to four hours during the Mars' night. From these spectra, the following information about the target will extracted: (1) the identities of major, minor, and trace mineral phases, organic species (e.g., PAH or kerogen-like polymers), reduced inorganic carbon, and water-bearing phases; (2) chemical features (e.g. Mg/Fe ratio) of major minerals; and (3) rock textural features (e.g., mineral clusters, amygdular filling and veins). Part of the Athena payload, the miniaturized Raman spectrometer has been under development in a highly interactive collaboration of a science team at Washington University and the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and an engineering team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The development has completed the brassboard stage and has produced the design for the engineering model.

  9. Resonant ultrasound spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert; Visscher, William M.; Fisk, Zachary

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasound resonant spectrometer determines the resonant frequency spectrum of a rectangular parallelepiped sample of a high dissipation material over an expected resonant response frequency range. A sample holder structure grips corners of the sample between piezoelectric drive and receive transducers. Each transducer is mounted on a membrane for only weakly coupling the transducer to the holder structure and operatively contacts a material effective to remove system resonant responses at the transducer from the expected response range. i.e., either a material such as diamond to move the response frequencies above the range or a damping powder to preclude response within the range. A square-law detector amplifier receives the response signal and retransmits the signal on an isolated shield of connecting cabling to remove cabling capacitive effects. The amplifier also provides a substantially frequency independently voltage divider with the receive transducer. The spectrometer is extremely sensitive to enable low amplitude resonance to be detected for use in calculating the elastic constants of the high dissipation sample.

  10. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Mitchell, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Richard Maurer, Ronald Wolff

    2010-06-16

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production [ship effect], [a, n] reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  11. The DARHT Scattering Wire Spectrometer: Operation and Checkout on ETA II

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T J

    2005-03-09

    The DARHT Scattering wire energy spectrometer has been realized and checked out on ETA II. The ETA II beam energy is generally around 5.3 MeV. This value varies from pulse-to-pulse by around 0.5% and from month-to-month by as much as 6%. The energy acceptance of the spectrometer is {+-} 5% and the time response is less than 10 ns. The instrument was calibrated to enable absolute measurements of the ETA II beam energy accurate to {+-}3%. The beam energy in MeV is related to the bending magnetic field B{sub kG} according to E{sub MeV} = 0.511[{radical}(1+347.2B{sub kG}{sup 2}) -1]. The major difficulty encountered was in the development of detectors for the scattered electrons passing through the instrument. Fortunately one detector was fabricated that worked satisfactorily which enabled us to complete the tests on ETA II. The ETA II experiments and initial FXR experiments suggest that spurious X-ray signals will not prove troublesome. No results are yet available in the x-ray environment of DARHT.

  12. Operation of a 400 MHz NMR magnet using a (RE:Rare Earth)Ba2Cu3O7-x high-temperature superconducting coil: Towards an ultra-compact super-high field NMR spectrometer operated beyond 1 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Y.; Piao, R.; Iguchi, S.; Nakagome, H.; Takao, T.; Kominato, K.; Hamada, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Suematsu, H.; Jin, X.; Takahashi, M.; Yamazaki, T.; Maeda, H.

    2014-12-01

    High-temperature superconductors (HTS) are the key technology to achieve super-high magnetic field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers with an operating frequency far beyond 1 GHz (23.5 T). (RE)Ba2Cu3O7-x (REBCO, RE: rare earth) conductors have an advantage over Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-x (Bi-2223) and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-x (Bi-2212) conductors in that they have very high tensile strengths and tolerate strong electromagnetic hoop stress, thereby having the potential to act as an ultra-compact super-high field NMR magnet. As a first step, we developed the world's first NMR magnet comprising an inner REBCO coil and outer low-temperature superconducting (LTS) coils. The magnet was successfully charged without degradation and mainly operated at 400 MHz (9.39 T). Technical problems for the NMR magnet due to screening current in the REBCO coil were clarified and solved as follows: (i) A remarkable temporal drift of the central magnetic field was suppressed by a current sweep reversal method utilizing ∼10% of the peak current. (ii) A Z2 field error harmonic of the main coil cannot be compensated by an outer correction coil and therefore an additional ferromagnetic shim was used. (iii) Large tesseral harmonics emerged that could not be corrected by cryoshim coils. Due to those harmonics, the resolution and sensitivity of NMR spectra are ten-fold lower than those for a conventional LTS NMR magnet. As a result, a HSQC spectrum could be achieved for a protein sample, while a NOESY spectrum could not be obtained. An ultra-compact 1.2 GHz NMR magnet could be realized if we effectively take advantage of REBCO conductors, although this will require further research to suppress the effect of the screening current.

  13. Operation of a 400MHz NMR magnet using a (RE:Rare Earth)Ba2Cu3O7-x high-temperature superconducting coil: Towards an ultra-compact super-high field NMR spectrometer operated beyond 1GHz.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Y; Piao, R; Iguchi, S; Nakagome, H; Takao, T; Kominato, K; Hamada, M; Matsumoto, S; Suematsu, H; Jin, X; Takahashi, M; Yamazaki, T; Maeda, H

    2014-10-18

    High-temperature superconductors (HTS) are the key technology to achieve super-high magnetic field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers with an operating frequency far beyond 1GHz (23.5T). (RE)Ba2Cu3O7-x (REBCO, RE: rare earth) conductors have an advantage over Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-x (Bi-2223) and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-x (Bi-2212) conductors in that they have very high tensile strengths and tolerate strong electromagnetic hoop stress, thereby having the potential to act as an ultra-compact super-high field NMR magnet. As a first step, we developed the world's first NMR magnet comprising an inner REBCO coil and outer low-temperature superconducting (LTS) coils. The magnet was successfully charged without degradation and mainly operated at 400MHz (9.39T). Technical problems for the NMR magnet due to screening current in the REBCO coil were clarified and solved as follows: (i) A remarkable temporal drift of the central magnetic field was suppressed by a current sweep reversal method utilizing ∼10% of the peak current. (ii) A Z2 field error harmonic of the main coil cannot be compensated by an outer correction coil and therefore an additional ferromagnetic shim was used. (iii) Large tesseral harmonics emerged that could not be corrected by cryoshim coils. Due to those harmonics, the resolution and sensitivity of NMR spectra are ten-fold lower than those for a conventional LTS NMR magnet. As a result, a HSQC spectrum could be achieved for a protein sample, while a NOESY spectrum could not be obtained. An ultra-compact 1.2GHz NMR magnet could be realized if we effectively take advantage of REBCO conductors, although this will require further research to suppress the effect of the screening current. PMID:25462945

  14. Grazing-incidence spectrometer on the SSPX spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Clementson, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Magee, E W

    2008-05-02

    The Silver Flat Field Spectrometer (SFFS) is a high-resolution grazing-incidence diagnostic for magnetically confined plasmas. It covers the wavelength range of 25-450 {angstrom} with a resolution of {Delta}{lambda} = 0.3 {angstrom} FWHM. The SFFS employs a spherical 1200 lines/mm grating for flat-field focusing. The imaging is done using a back-illuminated Photometrics CCD camera allowing a bandwidth of around 200 {angstrom} per spectrum. The spectrometer has been used for atomic spectroscopy on electron beam ion traps and for plasma spectroscopy on magnetic confinement devices. The design of the SFFS and the spectrometer setup at the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) in Livermore will be presented.

  15. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-12-26

    A charged particle spectrometer is described for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode. 12 figs.

  16. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A charged particle spectrometer for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode.

  17. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.

  18. Optical fiber smartphone spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2016-05-15

    An optical fiber-based smartphone spectrometer incorporating an endoscopic fiber bundle is demonstrated. The endoscope allows transmission of the smartphone camera LED light to a sample, removing complications from varying background illumination. The reflected spectra collected from a surface or interface is dispersed onto the camera CMOS using a reflecting diffraction grating. A spectral resolution as low as δλ∼2.0  nm over a bandwidth of Δλ∼250  nm is obtained using a slit width, ωslit=0.7  mm. The instrument has vast potential in a number of industrial applications including agricultural produce analysis. Spectral analysis of apples shows straightforward measurement of the pigments anthocyanins, carotenoid, and chlorophyll, all of which decrease with increasing storage time. PMID:27176971

  19. Cryogenic Neutron Spectrometer Development

    SciTech Connect

    Niedermayr, T; Hau, I D; Friedrich, S; Burger, A; Roy, U N; Bell, Z W

    2006-03-08

    Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors operating at temperatures around {approx}0.1 K have been developed for the last two decades, driven mostly by the need for ultra-high energy resolution (<0.1%) in X-ray astrophysics and dark matter searches [1]. The Advanced Detector Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed different cryogenic detector technologies for applications ranging from X-ray astrophysics to nuclear science and non-proliferation. In particular, we have adapted cryogenic detector technologies for ultra-high energy resolution gamma-spectroscopy [2] and, more recently, fast-neutron spectroscopy [3]. Microcalorimeters are essentially ultra-sensitive thermometers that measure the energy of the radiation from the increase in temperature upon absorption. They consist of a sensitive superconducting thermometer operated at the transition between its superconducting and its normal state, where its resistance changes very rapidly with temperature such that even the minute energies deposited by single radiation quanta are sufficient to be detectable with high precision. The energy resolution of microcalorimeters is fundamentally limited by thermal fluctuations to {Delta}E{sub FWHM} {approx} 2.355 (k{sub B}T{sup 2}C{sub abs}){sup 1/2}, and thus allows an energy below 1 keV for neutron spectrometers for an operating temperature of T {approx} 0.1 K . The {Delta}E{sub FWHM} does not depend on the energy of the incident photon or particle. This expression is equivalent to the familiar (F{var_epsilon}E{sub {gamma}}){sup 1/2} considering that an absorber at temperature T contains a total energy C{sub abs}T, and the associated fluctuation are due to variations in uncorrelated (F=1) phonons ({var_epsilon} = k{sub B}T) dominated by the background energy C{sub abs}T >> E{gamma}. The rationale behind developing a cryogenic neutron spectrometer is the very high energy resolution combined with the high efficiency. Additionally, the response function is simple

  20. Acceptance, values, and probability.

    PubMed

    Steel, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This essay makes a case for regarding personal probabilities used in Bayesian analyses of confirmation as objects of acceptance and rejection. That in turn entails that personal probabilities are subject to the argument from inductive risk, which aims to show non-epistemic values can legitimately influence scientific decisions about which hypotheses to accept. In a Bayesian context, the argument from inductive risk suggests that value judgments can influence decisions about which probability models to accept for likelihoods and priors. As a consequence, if the argument from inductive risk is sound, then non-epistemic values can affect not only the level of evidence deemed necessary to accept a hypothesis but also degrees of confirmation themselves. PMID:26386533

  1. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Presents the Newbery Medal acceptance speech of Russell Freedman, writer of children's nonfiction. Discusses the place of nonfiction in the world of children's literature, the evolution of children's biographies, and the author's work on "Lincoln." (ARH)

  2. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    Reprints the text of Ms. Cleary's Newbery medal acceptance speech in which she gives personal history concerning her development as a writer and her response to the letters she receives from children. (CRH)

  3. Caldecott Medal Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provensen, Alice; Provensen, Martin

    1984-01-01

    Reprints the text of the Provensens' Caldecott medal acceptance speech in which they describe their early interest in libraries and literature, the collaborative aspect of their work, and their current interest in aviation. (CRH)

  4. Lunar orbital mass spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, W. P.

    1971-01-01

    The design, development, manufacture, test and calibration of five lunar orbital mass spectrometers with the four associated ground support equipment test sets are discussed. A mass spectrometer was installed in the Apollo 15 and one in the Apollo 16 Scientific Instrument Module within the Service Module. The Apollo 15 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 38 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit and 50 hours of data were collected during transearth coast. The Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 76 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit. However, the Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was ejected into lunar orbit upon malfunction of spacecraft boom system just prior to transearth insection and no transearth coast data was possible.

  5. Design of Large Momentum Acceptance Transport Systems

    SciTech Connect

    D.R. Douglas

    2005-05-01

    The use of energy recovery to enable high power linac operation often gives rise to an attendant challenge--the transport of high power beams subtending large phase space volumes. In particular applications--such as FEL driver accelerators--this manifests itself as a requirement for beam transport systems with large momentum acceptance. We will discuss the design, implementation, and operation of such systems. Though at times counterintuitive in behavior (perturbative descriptions may, for example, be misleading), large acceptance systems have been successfully utilized for generations as spectrometers and accelerator recirculators [1]. Such systems are in fact often readily designed using appropriate geometric descriptions of beam behavior; insight provided using such a perspective may in addition reveal inherent symmetries that simplify construction and improve operability. Our discussion will focus on two examples: the Bates-clone recirculator used in the Jefferson Lab 10 kW IR U pgrade FEL (which has an observed acceptance of 10% or more) and a compaction-managed mirror-bend achromat concept with an acceptance ranging from 50 to 150 MeV.

  6. The PNL high-transmission three-stage mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffels, J. J.; Ells, D. R.; Bond, L. A.; Freedman, P. A.; Tattersall, B. N.; Lagergren, C. R.

    1992-12-01

    We have constructed a three-stage isotope-ratio mass spectrometer of unique ion-optical design that achieves high ion transmission efficiency and high abundance sensitivity. The spectrometer has tandem 90 deg deflection magnets with boundaries 18 deg off normal. The magnet drift lengths are 1.48 times the 27-cm radius of deflection. This extended geometry gives a mass dispersion equivalent to a 40-cm-radius magnet with normal boundaries. The first magnet renders the ion beam parallel in the vertical plane and provides a focus in the horizontal plane of mass dispersion. The second magnet brings the beam to a stigmatic focus. This novel ion-optical design gives 100 percent transmission without the need for intermediate focusing lenses. It also provides a 16 percent increase in mass resolution over the traditional tandem geometry with normal magnet boundaries. Complete transmission of ions is maintained through a third-stage cylindrical electric sector of 38-cm radius, which provides increased isotope-abundance sensitivity. The isotope-abundance sensitivity of the new mass spectrometer is an order of magnitude better than similar instruments with normal magnet boundaries. This is because the vertical focusing of the ion beam prevents ion scattering from the top and bottom of the flight tube. The measured values of the isotope-abundance sensitivity one-half mass unit away from the rhenium ion peaks at masses 185 and 187 are M - 1/2 = (6.5 +/- 0.5)(10)(exp -10) and M + 1/2 = (3.1 +/- 0.8)(10)(exp -10). By extrapolation, the uranium isotope-abundance sensitivity is M - 1 = 1(10)(exp -10). Construction of the instrument was facilitated by using standard commercial mass spectrometer components.

  7. Design of a compact spectrometer for high-flux MeV gamma-ray beams

    SciTech Connect

    Corvan, D. J. Sarri, G.; Zepf, M.

    2014-06-15

    A novel design for a compact gamma-ray spectrometer is presented. The proposed system allows for spectroscopy of high-flux multi-MeV gamma-ray beams with MeV energy resolution in a compact design. In its basic configuration, the spectrometer exploits conversion of gamma-rays into electrons via Compton scattering in a low-Z material. The scattered electron population is then spectrally resolved using a magnetic spectrometer. The detector is shown to be effective for gamma-ray energies between 3 and 20 MeV. The main properties of the spectrometer are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. VEGAS: VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussa, Srikanth; VEGAS Development Team

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (NSF-ATI) program is funding a new spectrometer backend for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This spectrometer is being built by the CICADA collaboration - collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California Berkeley.The backend is named as VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) and will replace the capabilities of the existing spectrometers. This backend supports data processing from focal plane array systems. The spectrometer will be capable of processing up to 1.25 GHz bandwidth from 8 dual polarized beams or a bandwidth up to 10 GHz from a dual polarized beam.The spectrometer will be using 8-bit analog to digital converters (ADC), which gives a better dynamic range than existing GBT spectrometers. There will be 8 tunable digital sub-bands within the 1.25 GHz bandwidth, which will enhance the capability of simultaneous observation of multiple spectral transitions. The maximum spectral dump rate to disk will be about 0.5 msec. The vastly enhanced backend capabilities will support several science projects with the GBT. The projects include mapping temperature and density structure of molecular clouds; searches for organic molecules in the interstellar medium; determination of the fundamental constants of our evolving Universe; red-shifted spectral features from galaxies across cosmic time and survey for pulsars in the extreme gravitational environment of the Galactic Center.

  9. Cascaded interferometric imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Swinyard, Bruce; Ferlet, Marc

    2007-09-01

    We present what we believe to be a novel method for order sorting a Fabry-Perot interferometer using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) in tandem. We demonstrate how the order sorting is achieved using a model instrument response as an example of an instrument working in the 5-25 microm band, although the method is generally applicable at all wavelengths. We show that an instrument of this type can be realized with a large bandwidth, a large field of view, and good transmission efficiency. These attributes make this instrument concept a useful technique in applications where true imaging spectroscopy is required, such as mapping large astronomical sources. We compare the performance of the new instrument to grating and standard FTS instruments in circumstances where the measurement is background and detector noise limited. We use a figure of merit based on the field of view and speed of detection and find that the new system has a speed advantage over a FTS with the same field of view in all circumstances. The instrument will be faster than a grating instrument with the same spectral resolution once the field of view is >13 times larger under high background conditions and >50 times larger with detector performances that match the photon noise from Zodiacal light. PMID:17805378

  10. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected autoionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy.

  11. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-08-08

    A method and apparatus are described for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected auto-ionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy. 8 figs.

  12. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, Stephen H.

    1989-06-06

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

  13. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jian; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  14. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  15. Method for calibrating mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Brands, Michael D [Richland, WA; Bruce, James E [Schwenksville, PA; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2002-12-24

    A method whereby a mass spectra generated by a mass spectrometer is calibrated by shifting the parameters used by the spectrometer to assign masses to the spectra in a manner which reconciles the signal of ions within the spectra having equal mass but differing charge states, or by reconciling ions having known differences in mass to relative values consistent with those known differences. In this manner, the mass spectrometer is calibrated without the need for standards while allowing the generation of a highly accurate mass spectra by the instrument.

  16. A simple charged particle spectrometer for a pion production experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borozdin, Konstantin; Brockwell, Michael; Chung, Kiwhan; Green, Andrew; Hogan, Gary; Jason, Andy; Mariam, Fesseha; Miyadera, Haruo; Morris, Christopher; Spaulding, Randy; Wang, Zhehui

    2010-02-01

    Measurement of a charged particle energy is not a new task, but inexpensive ways of such measurement are of interest, in particular as they open new opportunities for advanced charged particle radiography. We describe a magnetic spectrometer we have recently built for pion production measurement experiments at LANSCE (Los Alamos). The spectrometer consists of four modules of drift tubes and a bending magnet. A maximum magnetic field in the bending magnet was about 7500 Gauss. Drift tubes of 2 inches in diameter were made of thin carbon fiber to minimize multiple scattering in their walls. The spectrometer was used in the scattering experiment with primary beam of 800 MeV protons and C or Al target. We present measurements of secondary protons, pions and muons scattered in the reverse direction. Energy deposited in 1 cm thick plastic scintillator and 4" CsI was compared to the energy measured from the particle bending in the magnetic field. Experimental data are compared to GEANT4 modeling. We discuss, how this technology may be applied to the particle identification and to the energy loss measurements. )

  17. Design of and data reduction from compact Thomson parabola spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, J. T.; Willis, C.; Freeman, R. R.; Van Woerkom, L.

    2011-03-01

    Thomson parabola spectrometers are used to characterize MeV ion beams produced in high intensity laser interactions. These spectrometers disperse multiple ion species according to their charge to mass ratio through the use of parallel electric and magnetic fields. Analytical solutions for ion deflection in electric and magnetic fields have been used to extract ion spectra with the assumption that fringing effects are negligible. Experimental space restrictions and dynamic range requirements necessitate designs that stress the analytical assumptions. Depending on design parameters, the error in the analytical assumption can be comparable to the energy resolution. Estimates are provided to approximate the error on the total ion deflection. A method for modeling ion trajectories including fringing effects is presented using software freely available or in common use. The magnetostatic fields are modeled in 3D, including material properties of nearby magnetic materials using RADIA. Electrostatic fields are modeled in 2D for a spectrometer implementing angled plates using the partial differential equation toolbox in MATLAB®. Using these models to calculate the ion trajectory allows for analysis of a Thomson parabola spectrometer with an arbitrary field configuration.

  18. Design of and data reduction from compact Thomson parabola spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Morrison, J T; Willis, C; Freeman, R R; Van Woerkom, L

    2011-03-01

    Thomson parabola spectrometers are used to characterize MeV ion beams produced in high intensity laser interactions. These spectrometers disperse multiple ion species according to their charge to mass ratio through the use of parallel electric and magnetic fields. Analytical solutions for ion deflection in electric and magnetic fields have been used to extract ion spectra with the assumption that fringing effects are negligible. Experimental space restrictions and dynamic range requirements necessitate designs that stress the analytical assumptions. Depending on design parameters, the error in the analytical assumption can be comparable to the energy resolution. Estimates are provided to approximate the error on the total ion deflection. A method for modeling ion trajectories including fringing effects is presented using software freely available or in common use. The magnetostatic fields are modeled in 3D, including material properties of nearby magnetic materials using RADIA. Electrostatic fields are modeled in 2D for a spectrometer implementing angled plates using the partial differential equation toolbox in MATLAB(®). Using these models to calculate the ion trajectory allows for analysis of a Thomson parabola spectrometer with an arbitrary field configuration. PMID:21456736

  19. A rotatable electron spectrometer for multicoincidence experiments.

    PubMed

    Céolin, D; Forsell, J-O; Wannberg, B; Legendre, S; Palaudoux, J; Ohrwall, G; Svensson, S; Piancastelli, M N

    2010-06-01

    We have developed a rotatable hemispherical spectrometer with good energy and angular resolution, which can be positioned with the lens axis arbitrarily within a solid angle of 1 pi. The collection angle of the emitted electrons with respect to the polarization axis of the light is set by means of a three-axes goniometer, operating under vacuum. An important requirement for this setup was the possibility to perform coincidences between the electron analyzed by the spectrometer and one or several other particles, such as ions, electrons, or photons. The lens system and the hemispheres have been designed to accommodate such experimental demands, regarding parameters such as the resolving power, the acceptance angle, or the width of the kinetic energy window which can be recorded for a given pass energy. We have chosen to detect the impact position of the electron at the focal plane of the hemispherical analyzer with a delay line detector and a time-to-digital converter as acquisition card rather than using a conventional charge-coupled device camera. PMID:20590230

  20. A rotatable electron spectrometer for multicoincidence experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ceolin, D.; Forsell, J.-O.; Wannberg, B.; Legendre, S.; Palaudoux, J.; Oehrwall, G.; Svensson, S.; Piancastelli, M. N.

    2010-06-15

    We have developed a rotatable hemispherical spectrometer with good energy and angular resolution, which can be positioned with the lens axis arbitrarily within a solid angle of 1 {pi}. The collection angle of the emitted electrons with respect to the polarization axis of the light is set by means of a three-axes goniometer, operating under vacuum. An important requirement for this setup was the possibility to perform coincidences between the electron analyzed by the spectrometer and one or several other particles, such as ions, electrons, or photons. The lens system and the hemispheres have been designed to accommodate such experimental demands, regarding parameters such as the resolving power, the acceptance angle, or the width of the kinetic energy window which can be recorded for a given pass energy. We have chosen to detect the impact position of the electron at the focal plane of the hemispherical analyzer with a delay line detector and a time-to-digital converter as acquisition card rather than using a conventional charge-coupled device camera.

  1. GHz nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, T.A.; Drobny, G.; Trewhella, J.

    1994-12-01

    For the past dozen years, 500- and 600-MHz spectrometers have become available in many laboratories. The first 600-MHz NMR spectrometer (at Carnegie Mellon University) was commissioned more than 15 years ago and, until 1994, represented the highest field available for high-resolution NMR. This year, we have witnessed unprecedented progress in the development of very high field magnets for NMR spectroscopy, including the delivery of the first commercial 750-MHz NMR spectrometers. In addition, NMR signals have been obtained from 20-Tesla magnets (850 MHz for {sup 1}H`s) at both Los Alamos National Laboratory and Florida State University in the NHMFL (National High Magnetic Field Laboratory). These preliminary experiments have been performed in magnets with 100-ppm homogeneity, but a 20-Tesla magnet developed for the NHMFL will be brought to field this year with a projected homogeneity of 0.1 ppm over a 1-cm-diam spherical volume.

  2. Accept or divert?

    PubMed

    Angelucci, P A

    1999-09-01

    Stretching scarce resources is more than a managerial issue. Should you accept the patient to an understaffed ICU or divert him to another facility? The intense "medical utility" controversy focuses on a situation that critical care nurses now face every day. PMID:10614370

  3. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  4. 1984 Newbery Acceptance Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    This acceptance speech for an award honoring "Dear Mr. Henshaw," a book about feelings of a lonely child of divorce intended for eight-, nine-, and ten-year-olds, highlights children's letters to author. Changes in society that affect children, the inception of "Dear Mr. Henshaw," and children's reactions to books are highlighted. (EJS)

  5. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  6. UGV acceptance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Robin R.

    2006-05-01

    With over 100 models of unmanned vehicles now available for military and civilian safety, security or rescue applications, it is important to for agencies to establish acceptance testing. However, there appears to be no general guidelines for what constitutes a reasonable acceptance test. This paper describes i) a preliminary method for acceptance testing by a customer of the mechanical and electrical components of an unmanned ground vehicle system, ii) how it has been applied to a man-packable micro-robot, and iii) discusses the value of testing both to ensure that the customer has a workable system and to improve design. The test method automated the operation of the robot to repeatedly exercise all aspects and combinations of components on the robot for 6 hours. The acceptance testing process uncovered many failures consistent with those shown to occur in the field, showing that testing by the user does predict failures. The process also demonstrated that the testing by the manufacturer can provide important design data that can be used to identify, diagnose, and prevent long-term problems. Also, the structured testing environment showed that sensor systems can be used to predict errors and changes in performance, as well as uncovering unmodeled behavior in subsystems.

  7. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in "pushbroom" mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in acrosstrack linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15. Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft-position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas shown.

  8. HELIOS: A high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, T.E.; Broholm, C.; Fultz, B.

    1998-12-31

    A proposal to construct a high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE as part of the SPSS upgrade project is discussed. HELIOS will be optimized for science requiring high sensitivity neutron spectroscopy. This includes studies of phonon density of states in small polycrystalline samples, magnetic excitations in quantum magnets and highly correlated electron systems, as well as parametric studies (as a function of pressure, temperature, or magnetic field) of S(Q,{omega}). By employing a compact design together with the use of supermirror guide in the incident flight path the neutron flux at HELIOS will be significantly higher than any other comparable instrument now operating.

  9. Micromachined Slits for Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Daniel; Kenny, James; White, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Slits for imaging spectrometers can now be fabricated to a precision much greater than previously attainable. What makes this possible is a micromachining process that involves the use of microlithographic techniques.

  10. Fast-neutron spectrometer developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moler, R. B.; Zagotta, W. E.; Baker, S. I.

    1973-01-01

    Li6 sandwich-type neutron spectrometer is equipped with proportional counter for particle identification. System uses current-sensitive preamplifiers to minimize pile-up of gamma-ray and particle pulses.

  11. The GRAVITY spectrometers: optical qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazici, Senol; Straubmeier, Christian; Wiest, Michael; Wank, Imke; Fischer, Sebastian; Horrobin, Matthew; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy; Perraut, Karine; Brandner, Wolfgang; Amorim, Antonio; Schöller, Markus; Eckart, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY1 is a 2nd generation Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) operated in the astronomical K-band. In the Beam Combiner Instrument2 (BCI) four Fiber Couplers3 (FC) will feed the light coming from each telescope into two fibers, a reference channel for the fringe tracking spectrometer4 (FT) and a science channel for the science spectrometer4 (SC). The differential Optical Path Difference (dOPD) between the two channels will be corrected using a novel metrology concept.5 The metrology laser will keep control of the dOPD of the two channels. It is injected into the spectrometers and detected at the telescope level. Piezo-actuated fiber stretchers correct the dOPD accordingly. Fiber-fed Integrated Optics6 (IO) combine coherently the light of all six baselines and feed both spectrometers. Assisted by Infrared Wavefront Sensors7 (IWS) at each Unit Telescope (UT) and correcting the path difference between the channels with an accuracy of up to 5 nm, GRAVITY will push the limits of astrometrical accuracy to the order of 10 μas and provide phase-referenced interferometric imaging with a resolution of 4 mas. The University of Cologne developed, constructed and tested both spectrometers of the camera system. Both units are designed for the near infrared (1.95 - 2.45 μm) and are operated in a cryogenic environment. The Fringe Tracker is optimized for highest transmission with fixed spectral resolution (R = 22) realized by a double-prism.8 The Science spectrometer is more diverse and allows to choose from three different spectral resolutions8 (R = [22, 500, 4000]), where the lowest resolution is achieved with a prism and the higher resolutions are realized with grisms. A Wollaston prism in each spectrometer allows for polarimetric splitting of the light. The goal for the spectrometers is to concentrate at least 90% of the ux in 2 × 2 pixel (36 × 36 μm2) for the Science channel and in 1 pixel (24 × 24 μm) in the Fringe Tracking channel. In Section 1, we present

  12. Resonance-filtered beam spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brugger, R.M.; Taylor, A.D.; Olsen, C.E.; Goldstone, J.A.; Soper, A.K.

    1982-01-01

    A new inelastic neutron scattering spectrometer which operates in the range 1 eV to 15 eV has been developed at the Los Alamos pulsed spallation source WNR. Based on a nuclear resonance filtering the beam, the concept has been tested in direct, inverted and sample geometries. A number of resonance filters have been tested to determine their effectiveness. The spectrometer is described and examples of data are presented.

  13. Magnetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboud, Essam; El-Masry, Nabil; Qaddah, Atef; Alqahtani, Faisal; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.

    2015-06-01

    The Rahat volcanic field represents one of the widely distributed Cenozoic volcanic fields across the western regions of the Arabian Peninsula. Its human significance stems from the fact that its northern fringes, where the historical eruption of 1256 A.D. took place, are very close to the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. In the present work, we analyzed aeromagnetic data from the northern part of Rahat volcanic field as well as carried out a ground gravity survey. A joint interpretation and inversion of gravity and magnetic data were used to estimate the thickness of the lava flows, delineate the subsurface structures of the study area, and estimate the depth to basement using various geophysical methods, such as Tilt Derivative, Euler Deconvolution and 2D modeling inversion. Results indicated that the thickness of the lava flows in the study area ranges between 100 m (above Sea Level) at the eastern and western boundaries of Rahat Volcanic field and getting deeper at the middle as 300-500 m. It also showed that, major structural trend is in the NW direction (Red Sea trend) with some minor trends in EW direction.

  14. Novel pulsed switched power supply for a fast field cycling NMR spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Sousa, D M; Fernandes, P A L; Marques, G D; Ribeiro, A C; Sebastião, P J

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we outline the operating principles of a pulsed switched power supply for a fast field-cycling nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. The power supply uses a variant of a four-quadrant chopper with a duty cycle that defines the average output current. With this topology only two semiconductors are necessary to drive hundreds of amperes with an output power of several kilowatts. The output current ripple has a well-defined shape that can be reduced to acceptable values by a careful design of the semiconductors' controlling circuits and drivers. A power supply prototype was tested with a home build air-core magnet operating with fields between 0 and 0.21 T. The system is computer controlled using pulse generator and data acquisition PC cards, and specific user-friendly home-developed software. A comparative proton relaxometry study in two well-known liquid crystal compounds 5CB and MBBA was performed to check the reproducibility of the T1 measurements. PMID:14698404

  15. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2004-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in pushbroom mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in across-track linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15 . Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft- position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas (see figure). The visible subsystem is based on a grating spectrograph and a rapid-readout charge-coupled-device camera. Images of the swatch are acquired in 256 spectral bands at wavelengths from 400 to 800 nm. The infrared subsystem, which is sensitive in a single

  16. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  17. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-12-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  18. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  19. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  20. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macenka, Steven A.; Chrisp, Michael P.

    1988-01-01

    The development of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has been completed at JPL. This paper outlines the functional requirements of the spectrometer optics subsystem, and describes the spectrometer optical design. The optical subsystem performance is shown in terms of spectral modulation transfer functions, radial energy distributions, and system transmission at selected wavelengths for the four spectrometers. An outline of the spectrometer alignment is included.

  1. Imaging spectrometers for remote sensing from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrisp, M. P.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Macenka, S. A.; Page, N. A.

    1986-01-01

    Three imaging spectrometers and two camera systems for remote sensing are described. Two of the imaging spectrometers are versions of the Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) for Mars Observer and the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission. The other spectrometer is the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) which is currently under construction. The optical imaging systems are the wide angle and narrow angle cameras for the CRAF mission.

  2. A Novel MOEMS NIR Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhihai, Zhang; Xiangxia, Mo; Yuanjun, Guo; Wei, Wang

    In order to detect luminous intensity of light signal in NIR (Near-infrared) wavelength range, a novel MOEMS(Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems) NIR spectrometer is proposed in the paper. It uses DMD (Digital Micro-mirror Device) to band filter the input spectrum. The merits of DMD are small size, low price and high scan speed. Especially, when DMD acts as a Hadamard Transform encoding mask, the SNR (signal-to-noise-ratio) can be improved by multiplexing the light intensities. The structure and the theory of this spectrometer are analyzed. The Hadamard-S matrix and mask of 63-order and 127-order are designed. The output spectrum of the new spectrometer coincides with experimental result of Shimadzu spectrometer. The resolution of the new spectrometer is 19 nm over the spectral range between 900∼1700 nm while single scan time is only 2.4S. The SNR is 44.67:1. The size of optical path is 70mm × 130 mm, and it has a weight less than 1Kg. It can meet the requirement of real time measurement and portable application.

  3. Resolution-enhanced Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumer, J. B.; Aubrun, J. N.; Rosenberg, W. J.; Roche, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    A familiar mapping spectrometer implementation utilizes two dimensional detector arrays with spectral dispersion along one direction and spatial along the other. Spectral images are formed by spatially scanning across the scene (i.e., push-broom scanning). For imaging grating and prism spectrometers, the slit is perpendicular to the spatial scan direction. For spectrometers utilizing linearly variable focal-plane-mounted filters the spatial scan direction is perpendicular to the direction of spectral variation. These spectrometers share the common limitation that the number of spectral resolution elements is given by the number of pixels along the spectral (or dispersive) direction. Resolution enhancement by first passing the light input to the spectrometer through a scanned etalon or Michelson is discussed. Thus, while a detector element is scanned through a spatial resolution element of the scene, it is also temporally sampled. The analysis for all the pixels in the dispersive direction is addressed. Several specific examples are discussed. The alternate use of a Michelson for the same enhancement purpose is also discussed. Suitable for weight constrained deep space missions, hardware systems were developed including actuators, sensor, and electronics such that low-resolution etalons with performance required for implementation would weigh less than one pound.

  4. An electrostatic autoresonant ion trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ermakov, A. V.; Hinch, B. J.

    2010-01-15

    A new method for ion extraction from an anharmonic electrostatic trap is introduced. Anharmonicity is a common feature of electrostatic traps which can be used for small scale spatial confinement of ions, and this feature is also necessary for autoresonant ion extraction. With the aid of ion trajectory simulations, novel autoresonant trap mass spectrometers (ART-MSs) have been designed based on these very simple principles. A mass resolution {approx}60 is demonstrated for the prototypes discussed here. We report also on the pressure dependencies, and the (mV) rf field strength dependencies of the ART-MS sensitivity. Importantly the new MS designs do not require heavy magnets, tight manufacturing tolerances, introduction of buffer gases, high power rf sources, nor complicated electronics. The designs described here are very inexpensive to implement relative to other instruments, and can be easily miniaturized. Possible applications are discussed.

  5. Low-energy neutral-atom spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, D.E.; Cohen, S.A.

    1982-04-01

    The design, calibration, and performance of a low energy neutral atom spectrometer are described. Time-of-flight analysis is used to measure the energy spectrum of charge-exchange deuterium atoms emitted from the PLT tokamak plasma in the energy range from 20 to 1000 eV. The neutral outflux is gated on a 1 ..mu..sec time scale by a slotted rotating chopper disc, supported against gravity in vacuum by magnetic levitation, and is detected by secondary electron emission from a Cu-Be plate. The energy dependent detection efficiency has been measured in particle beam experiments and on the tokamak so that the diagnostic is absolutely calibrated, allowing quantitative particle fluxes to be determined with 200 ..mu..sec time resolution. In addition to its present application as a plasma diagnostic, the instrument is capable of making a wide variety of measurements relevant to atomic and surface physics.

  6. Miniature NMR spectrometer to analyse minerals at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    There are some equipments and apparatuses for the study of interesting astrobiological places as planet Mars and moons Europa, Titan and Enceladus. As for Mars, some robotic missions have already analyzed its atmosphere and surface, using equipment with resolution down to milimetric scale. The NASA's Opportunity and Spirit rovers used microscope to study the sub-surface of the red planet at milimetric depth in drilled holes on rocks. In 1996, a NASA team announced the finding of organic molecules and morphological structures at nanometric scale, inside a meteorite which came from Mars. These possibly could be derived from an ancient Martian signature of biochemical activity, hypothetically, a fossilized `Archae-type' microorgan-ism. . In order to be acquired better resolutions for the mineralogical study of samples of its surface, it is necessary the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers, with which one can obtain detailed astrobiological information below micrometer scale. NMR spectrome-ters are big equipment, but there are already miniature, lightweight, NMR spectrometers being developed which do not contain permanent magnets -they are designed to operate without applied magnetic fields; instead, they exploit the natural magnetic fields of the mineral phases (that contain iron) to be studied. These fields give rise to nuclear magnetic resonance of the isotope 57Fe at frequencies in the approximate range of 60 to 74 MHz. Such instrument has a mass of only 65 g (battery included) and consumes a power of only 0.2 W. It will be interesting the use of NMR spectroscopy at Mars. So, here in this paper, with the objective of the search for hypothetical extinct or extant life on Mars, I propose that in future robotic missions and a possible manned research at Mars, to be used miniature NMR spectrometers -rovers can have at the end of their robotic arms such those spectrometers and also astronauts can use those miniature NMR spectrometers to in-situ do very

  7. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  8. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  9. Mobile spectrometer measures radar backscatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gogineni, S.; Moore, R. K.; Onstott, R. G.; Kim, Y. S.; Bushnell, D.

    1984-01-01

    The present article is concerned with a helicopter-borne spectrometer (Heloscat), which has been developed to permit high-quality scattering measurements from a mobile platform at remote sites. The term 'spectrometer' referes to a class of scatterometers. The term 'scatterometer' is employed to denote a specialized radar for measuring scattering coefficients as a function of angle. A spectrometer, on the other hand, is a scatterometer which can measure backscatter at several frequencies. The Heloscat system is discussed, taking into account two antennas, RF hardware, and an externally mounted pendulum for angle encoding. A dual-antenna configuration is used for cross-polarized measurements, while a single-antenna system is used for like-polarized measurements. Attention is also given to oscillator characteristics, efficient data handling, and aspects of calibration.

  10. Thermal Infrared Profiling Spectrometer (TIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzl, Franz; Miosga, G.; Lehmann, F.; Richter, R.; Tank, V.

    1989-12-01

    An airborne/spaceborne sensor concept developed for scientific observations in remote sensing of the earth surface is presented. The spectrometer design is based on a fast scanning Fourier spectrometer using a rotating retroreflector. The spectrometer covers the 3-13-micron band with a spectral resolution of 5/cm. The measured signal is an interferogramm, while derived quantities are spectral emissivity, spectral radiance, and surface temperature. The optical system consists of an aperture-filling plane tilting mirror to provide off-nadir observation and calibration modes. The collecting mirror focal length and the detector area yield an instantaneous field of view of 1.2 mrad, noise equivalent temperature resolution of 0.004 K, and a noise equivalent change in emissivity of 0.0006. The simulation results of signal-to-noise performance of the TIPS are presented and discussed.

  11. Multichannel Spectrometer of Time Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akindinova, E. V.; Babenko, A. G.; Vakhtel, V. M.; Evseev, N. A.; Rabotkin, V. A.; Kharitonova, D. D.

    2015-06-01

    For research and control of characteristics of radiation fluxes, radioactive sources in particular, for example, in paper [1], a spectrometer and methods of data measurement and processing based on the multichannel counter of time intervals of accident events appearance (impulses of particle detector) MC-2A (SPC "ASPECT") were created. The spectrometer has four independent channels of registration of time intervals of impulses appearance and correspondent amplitude and spectrometric channels for control along the energy spectra of the operation stationarity of paths of each of the channels from the detector to the amplifier. The registration of alpha-radiation is carried out by the semiconductor detectors with energy resolution of 16-30 keV. Using a spectrometer there have been taken measurements of oscillations of alpha-radiation 239-Pu flux intensity with a subsequent autocorrelative statistical analysis of the time series of readings.

  12. Development of an Accelerator Mass Spectrometer based on a Cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dogyun; Bhang, Hyeongchan; Kim, Jongwon

    2011-12-13

    An accelerator mass spectrometer based on a cyclotron has been developed, and a prototype of the injection beam line has been constructed. Mass resolution of the cyclotron is designed to be over 4000. A sawtooth RF buncher in the beam line and a flat-topping RF system for the cyclotron were utilized to enhance beam transmission efficiency, which is a primary factor for improvement compared to previous cyclotron mass spectrometers. The injection beam line comprises an ion source, Einzel lens, RF buncher, 90 deg. dipole magnet and a slit box containing beam diagnostic devices. A carbon beam was measured at the location of the slit box, and beam phase spaces will be measured. The design of a cyclotron magnet was done, and orbit tracking was carried out using cyclotron optics codes. A scheme of radial injection was chosen to place a beam on the equilibrium orbit of the cyclotron. The injection scheme will be optimized after the beam measurements are completed.

  13. OPENCORE NMR: open-source core modules for implementing an integrated FPGA-based NMR spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kazuyuki

    2008-06-01

    A tool kit for implementing an integrated FPGA-based NMR spectrometer [K. Takeda, A highly integrated FPGA-based nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78 (2007) 033103], referred to as the OPENCORE NMR spectrometer, is open to public. The system is composed of an FPGA chip and several peripheral boards for USB communication, direct-digital synthesis (DDS), RF transmission, signal acquisition, etc. Inside the FPGA chip have been implemented a number of digital modules including three pulse programmers, the digital part of DDS, a digital quadrature demodulator, dual digital low-pass filters, and a PC interface. These FPGA core modules are written in VHDL, and their source codes are available on our website. This work aims at providing sufficient information with which one can, given some facility in circuit board manufacturing, reproduce the OPENCORE NMR spectrometer presented here. Also, the users are encouraged to modify the design of spectrometer according to their own specific needs. A home-built NMR spectrometer can serve complementary roles to a sophisticated commercial spectrometer, should one comes across such new ideas that require heavy modification to hardware inside the spectrometer. This work can lower the barrier of building a handmade NMR spectrometer in the laboratory, and promote novel and exciting NMR experiments. PMID:18374613

  14. The GRAVITY spectrometers: thermal behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wank, Imke; Straubmeier, Christian; Wiest, Michael; Yazici, Senol; Fischer, Sebastian; Eisenhauer, Frank; Perrin, Guy S.; Perraut, Karine; Brandner, Wolfgang; Amorim, Antonio; Schöller, Markus; Eckart, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY is a 2nd generation VLTI Instrument o which operates on 6 interferometric baselines by using all 4 Unit Telescopes. It will deliver narrow angle astrometry with 10μas accuracy at the infrared K-band. At the 1. Physikalische Institut of the University of Cologne, which is part of the international GRAVITY consortium, two spectrometers, one for the sciene object, and one for the fringe tracking object, have been designed, manufactured and tested. These spectrometers are two individual devices, each with own housing and interfaces. For a minimized thermal background, the spectrometers are actively cooled down to an operating temperature of 80K in the ambient temperature environment of the Beam Combiner Instrument (BCI) cryostat. The outer casings are mounted thermal isolated to the base plate by glass fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) stands, copper cooling structures conduct the cold inside the spectrometers where it is routed to components via Cu cooling stripes. The spectrometers are covered with shells made of multi insulation foil. There will be shown and compared 3 cooling installations: setups in the Cologne test dewar, in the BCI dewar and in a mock-up cad model. There are some striking differences between the setup in the 2 different dewars. In the Cologne Test dewar the spectrometers are connected to the coldplate (80K); a Cu cooling structure and the thermal isolating GRP stands are bolted to the coldplate. In the BCI dewer Cu cooling structure is connected to the bottom of the nitrogen tank (80K), the GRP stands are bolted to the base plate (240K). The period of time during the cooldown process will be analyzed.

  15. Portable smartphone optical fibre spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    A low cost, optical fibre based spectrometer has been developed on a smartphone platform for field-portable spectral analysis. Light of visible wavelength is collected using a multimode optical fibre and diffracted by a low cost nanoimprinted diffraction grating. A measurement range over 300 nm span (λ = 400 to 700 nm) is obtained using the smartphone CMOS chip. The spectral resolution is Δλ ~ 0.42 nm/screen pixel. A customized Android application processed the spectra on the same platform and shares with other devices. The results compare well with commercially available spectrometer.

  16. The Bruny Island Radio Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, W. C.

    1997-11-01

    A radio spectrometer has been built on Bruny Island, south of Hobart, for the study of solar bursts in the rarely observed frequency range from 3 to 20 MHz. This spectrometer is an adaptive device that employs digital techniques to avoid most of the strong terrestrial interference prevalent in this frequency range. The residual interference that cannot be avoided is excised during off-line processing. As a result, successful observations are made down to the minimum frequency that can propagate through the ionosphere to the antenna. This minimum frequency depends upon the zenith distance of the Sun and it is usually between 4 and 8 MHz.

  17. JPL Fourier transform ultraviolet spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cageao, R. P.; Friedl, R. R.; Sander, Stanley P.; Yung, Y. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Fourier Transform Ultraviolet Spectrometer (FTUVS) is a new high resolution interferometric spectrometer for multiple-species detection in the UV, visible and near-IR. As an OH sensor, measurements can be carried out by remote sensing (limb emission and column absorption), or in-situ sensing (long-path absorption or laser-induced fluorescence). As a high resolution detector in a high repetition rate (greater than 10 kHz) LIF system, OH fluorescence can be discriminated against non-resonant background emission and laser scatter, permitting (0, 0) excitation.

  18. Forward spectrometers at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Most of SSC phase space and a great deal of physics potential is in the forward/backward region (absolute value of theta < 100 mrad). Comprehensive open-geometry spectrometers are feasible and very cost effective. Examples of such devices are sketched. Because such spectrometers are very long and may operate at high ..beta.. and longer bunch spacing, they impact now on SSC interaction - region design. The data acquisition load is as heavy as for central detectors, although there may be less emphasis on speed and more emphasis on sophisticated parallel and/or distributed processing for event selection, as well as on high-capacity buffering.

  19. Towed seabed gamma ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.G. )

    1994-08-01

    For more than 50 years, the measurement of radioactivity has been used for onshore geological surveys and in laboratories. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has extended the use of this type of equipment to the marine environment with the development of seabed gamma ray spectrometer systems. The present seabed gamma ray spectrometer, known as the Eel, has been successfully used for sediment and solid rock mapping, mineral exploration, and radioactive pollution studies. The range of applications for the system continues to expand. This paper examines the technological aspects of the Eel and some of the applications for which it has been used.

  20. Mass spectrometers and atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunton, D. E.; Trzcinski, E.; Cross, J. B.; Spangler, L. H.; Hoffbauer, M. H.; Archuleta, F. H.; Visentine, J. T.

    1987-01-01

    The likely role of atmospheric atomic oxygen in the recession of spacecraft surfaces and in the shuttle glow has revived interest in the accurate measurement of atomic oxygen densities in the upper atmosphere. The Air Force Geophysics Laboratory is supplying a quadrupole mass spectrometer for a materials interactions flight experiment being planned by the Johnson Space Center. The mass spectrometer will measure the flux of oxygen on test materials and will also identify the products of surface reactions. The instrument will be calibrated at a new facility for producing high energy beams of atomic oxygen at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The plans for these calibration experiments are summarized.

  1. Realistic simulations of the AGATA Demonstrator+PRISMA Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ince, E.; Erduran, M. N.; Farnea, E.; Latina, A.

    2008-11-11

    The performance of the AGATA Demonstrator Array coupled to the PRISMA magnetic spectrometer have been evaluated in a consistent way using detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the two devices. Results for the {sup 90}Zr+{sup 208}Pb at 560 MeV reaction are presented and discussed here, proving that the Doppler correction capabilities of the AGATA+PRISMA setup will be very close to the intrinsic energy resolution of the germanium detectors.

  2. Interfacing an aspiration ion mobility spectrometer to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Adamov, Alexey; Viidanoja, Jyrki; Kaerpaenoja, Esko; Paakkanen, Heikki; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kostiainen, Risto; Sysoev, Alexey; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2007-04-15

    This article presents the combination of an aspiration-type ion mobility spectrometer with a mass spectrometer. The interface between the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer and the mass spectrometer was designed to allow for quick mounting of the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer onto a Sciex API-300 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The developed instrumentation is used for gathering fundamental information on aspiration ion mobility spectrometry. Performance of the instrument is demonstrated using 2,6-di-tert-butyl pyridine and dimethyl methylphosphonate.

  3. A simple digital TDPAC spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, T. A.; Nikkinen, Leo; Gallego, Juan; Ryan, D. H.

    2013-05-01

    We present a simplified digital time differential perturbed γ - γ angular correlation (TDPAC) spectrometer that demonstrates that such instruments can be built using primarily commercial components and with relatively modest coding effort. The system handles data rates of 70 kcps/detector with a timing resolution of better than 500 ps, and has been used with both 111In and 181Hf.

  4. Convex Diffraction Grating Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A 1:1 Offner mirror system for imaging off-axis objects is modified by replacing a concave spherical primary mirror that is concentric with a convex secondary mirror with two concave spherical mirrors M1 and M2 of the same or different radii positioned with their respective distances d1 and d2 from a concentric convex spherical diffraction grating having its grooves parallel to the entrance slit of the spectrometer which replaces the convex secondary mirror. By adjusting their distances d1 and d2 and their respective angles of reflection alpha and beta, defined as the respective angles between their incident and reflected rays, all aberrations are corrected without the need to increase the spectrometer size for a given entrance slit size to reduce astigmatism, thus allowing the imaging spectrometer volume to be less for a given application than would be possible with conventional imaging spectrometers and still give excellent spatial and spectral imaging of the slit image spectra over the focal plane.

  5. Acoustically-tuned optical spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sklar, E.

    1981-01-01

    Lens arrangement corrects for aberrations and gives resolution of 0.7 seconds of arc. In spectrometer, light from telescope is relayed by doublet lens to acoustically tuned optical filter. Selected wavelengths are relayed by triplet lens to charge coupled device camera. Intervening cylindrical lens, tilted at 12 degree angle, corrects for astigmatism and coma introduced by two element birefringent crystal in filter.

  6. IPNS-I chopper spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.; Carpenter, J.M.; Pelizzari, C.A.; Sinha, S.K.; Bresof, I.; Ostrowski, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    We briefly describe the layout and operation of the two chopper experiments at IPNS-I. The recent measurement on solid /sup 4/He by Hilleke et al. provides examples of time-of-flight data from the Low Resolution Chopper Spectrometer.

  7. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  8. Time of flight mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Ulbricht, Jr., William H.

    1984-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described in which ions are desorbed from a sample by nuclear fission fragments, such that desorption occurs at the surface of the sample impinged upon by the fission fragments. This configuration allows for the sample to be of any thickness, and eliminates the need for complicated sample preparation.

  9. Tracking System for Infrared Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.; Webster, C. R.; Menzies, R. T.; Morrison, G. B.; Riccio, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Visible laser tracking system for infrared laser spectometer keeps probe infrared laser beam aimed at moving reflector, thereby keeping reflector image and return laser beam within spectrometer field of view. System includes tracking mirror tilted by stepping motors under microprocessor control to deflect beams toward continually changing reflector position.

  10. Imaging IR spectrometer, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradie, Jonathan; Lewis, Ralph; Lundeen, Thomas; Wang, Shu-I

    1990-01-01

    The development is examined of a prototype multi-channel infrared imaging spectrometer. The design, construction and preliminary performance is described. This instrument is intended for use with JPL Table Mountain telescope as well as the 88 inch UH telescope on Mauna Kea. The instrument is capable of sampling simultaneously the spectral region of 0.9 to 2.6 um at an average spectral resolution of 1 percent using a cooled (77 K) optical bench, a concave holographic grating and a special order sorting filter to allow the acquisition of the full spectral range on a 128 x 128 HgCdTe infrared detector array. The field of view of the spectrometer is 0.5 arcsec/pixel in mapping mode and designed to be 5 arcsec/pixel in spot mode. The innovative optical design has resulted in a small, transportable spectrometer, capable of remote operation. Commercial applications of this spectrometer design include remote sensing from both space and aircraft platforms as well as groundbased astronomical observations.

  11. A cryogenic scan mechanism for use in Fourier transform spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakun, Claef F.; Blumenstock, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements, design, assembly and testing of the linear Scan Mechanism (SM) of the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) Instrument. The mechanism consists of an over constrained flexible structure, an innovative moving magnet actuator, passive eddy current dampers, a Differential Eddy Current (DEC) sensor, Optical Limit Sensors (OLS), and a launch lock. Although all the components of the mechanism are discussed, the flexible structure and the magnetic components are the primary focus. Several problems encountered and solutions implemented during the development of the scan mechanism are also described.

  12. A versatile Mossbauer spectrometer and its applications in vibration measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Howser, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    A Fe-57 Mossbauer spectrometer, equally efficient in transmission and reflection geometries, is described. The radiation detector consists of a 1.524- by 5.08 by 5.08-cm rectangular NaI(Tl) crystal with a hole 1.524 cm in diameter. The front and back faces of the crystal are covered with beryllium windows 0.0127 cm thick and 3.81 cm in diameter. The energy of the radiation accepted for counting ranges from 6.3 keV conversion X-rays to the 14.4 keV reemitted gamma rays. The spectrometer was used to measure various types of low frequency (10 Hz) and low amplitude (0.254 mm) periodic motion of steel specimens.

  13. Progress on the Fabrication and Testing of the MICE Spectrometer Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Virostek, Steve; Green, M.A.; Li, Derun; Zisman, Michael

    2009-05-19

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is an international collaboration that will demonstrate ionization cooling in a section of a realistic cooling channel using a muon beam at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. At each end of the cooling channel a spectrometer solenoid magnet consisting of five superconducting coils will provide a 4 tesla uniform field region. The scintillating fiber tracker within the magnet bore will measure the muon beam emittance as it enters and exits the cooling channel. The 400 mm diameter warm bore, 3 meter long magnets incorporate a cold mass consisting of two coil sections wound on a single aluminum mandrel: a three-coil spectrometer magnet and a two-coil section that matches the solenoid uniform field into the MICE cooling channel. The fabrication of the first of two spectrometer solenoids has been completed, and preliminary testing of the magnet is nearly complete. The key design features of the spectrometer solenoid magnets are presented along with a summary of the progress on the training and testing of the first magnet.

  14. The spin-echo spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohl, M.; Monkenbusch, M.; Arend, N.; Kozielewski, T.; Vehres, G.; Tiemann, C.; Butzek, M.; Soltner, H.; Giesen, U.; Achten, R.; Stelzer, H.; Lindenau, B.; Budwig, A.; Kleines, H.; Drochner, M.; Kaemmerling, P.; Wagener, M.; Möller, R.; Iverson, E. B.; Sharp, M.; Richter, D.

    2012-12-01

    A novel neutron spin-echo spectrometer with superconducting main coils enabling enclosure by a double walled μ-metal magnetic shielding chamber has been built and set into operation at the spallation neutron source in Oak Ridge. The layout of the spectrometer is described. Performance with emphasis on the superconducting main solenoids and the time-of-flight operation is described. Data on resolution, stability and first experiments are shown.

  15. Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer for use at Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, S L

    2010-04-07

    The Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer (EPPS) is mounted in a TIM (Ten-Inch Manipulator) system on the Omega-60 or Omega-EP laser facilities at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), when in use, see Fig. 1. The Spectrometer assembly, shown in Fig. 2, is constructed of a steel box containing magnets, surrounded by Lead 6% Antimony shielding with SS threaded insert, sitting on an Aluminum 6061-T6 plate.

  16. Performance of and planned improvements to a mountain altitude cosmic ray mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. J.; Barber, H. B.; Bowen, T.; Delise, D. A.; Jenkins, E. W.; Kalbach, R. M.; Pifer, A. E.; Rothschild, R. E.; Thompson, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    A cosmic ray mass spectrometer with superconducting magnet, wire spark chambers, and time-of-flight scintillation counters has been operated at an altitude of 2750 meters. Various specifications of the spectrometer are presented and the method of event analysis described. Corrections to the data, resolutions and efficiencies of the spark chambers, and momentum resolution are discussed. Recent and planned improvements of the apparatus are indicated.

  17. Barrel Calorimeter for the Hall D Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    David Urner

    1998-06-01

    The barrel calorimeter for the hall D spectrometer is discussed for standard pointing geometry and a parallel geometry using Lead Scintillating fibres as active material. A comparison with a CSI spectrometer is shown.

  18. Precise Determination of the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor to Higher Q{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    William K. Brooks; Jeffery D. Lachniet

    2004-10-01

    The neutron elastic magnetic form factor G{sub M}{sup n} has been extracted from quasielastic scattering from deuterium in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, CLAS. The kinematic coverage of the measurement is continuous over a broad range, extending from below 1 GeV{sup 2} to nearly 5 GeV{sup 2} in four-momentum transfer squared. High precision is achieved by employing a ratio technique in which most uncertainties cancel, and by a simultaneous in-situ calibration of the neutron detection efficiency, the largest correction to the data. Preliminary results are shown with statistical errors only.

  19. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hui E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Magee, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Stone, G.; Williams, G. J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M. E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Hill, K. W.; Kerr, S.

    2014-11-15

    Adapting a concept developed for magnetic confinement fusion experiments, an imaging crystal spectrometer has been designed and tested for HED plasmas. The instrument uses a spherically bent quartz [211] crystal with radius of curvature of 490.8 mm. The instrument was tested at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by irradiating titanium slabs with laser intensities of 10{sup 19}–10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. He-like and Li-like Ti lines were recorded, from which the spectrometer performance was evaluated. This spectrometer provides very high spectral resolving power (E/dE > 7000) while acquiring a one-dimensional image of the source.

  20. Calibration of an imaging crystal spectrometer for low x-ray energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Bitter, M.

    2008-01-15

    An x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer was designed for the Hanbit magnetic mirror device to observe spectra of heliumlike neon at 13.4474 A. The spectrometer consists of a spherically bent mica crystal and an x-ray sensitive vacuum charge coupled device camera. This spectrometer can provide spatially resolved spectra, making it possible to obtain profiles of the ion charge state distribution from line ratios and profiles of the plasma rotation velocity from Doppler shift measurements. The paper describes measurements of spectral resolution of this instrument for low x-ray energies.

  1. A compact electron spectrometer for an LWFA.

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.; Crowell, R.; Li, Y.; Nemeth, K.

    2007-01-01

    The use of a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) beam as a driver for a compact free-electron laser (FEL) has been proposed recently. A project is underway at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to operate an LWFA in the bubble regime and to use the quasi-monoenergetic electron beam as a driver for a 3-m-long undulator for generation of sub-ps UV radiation. The Terawatt Ultrafast High Field Facility (TUHFF) in the Chemistry Division provides the 20-TW peak power laser. A compact electron spectrometer whose initial fields of 0.45 T provide energy coverage of 30-200 MeV has been selected to characterize the electron beams. The system is based on the Ecole Polytechnique design used for their LWFA and incorporates the 5-cm-long permanent magnet dipole, the LANEX scintillator screen located at the dispersive plane, a Roper Scientific 16-bit MCP-intensified CCD camera, and a Bergoz ICT for complementary charge measurements. Test results on the magnets, the 16-bit camera, and the ICT will be described, and initial electron beam data will be presented as available. Other challenges will also be addressed.

  2. Sample rotating turntable kit for infrared spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Eckels, Joel Del; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2008-03-04

    An infrared spectrometer sample rotating turntable kit has a rotatable sample cup containing the sample. The infrared spectrometer has an infrared spectrometer probe for analyzing the sample and the rotatable sample cup is adapted to receive the infrared spectrometer probe. A reflectance standard is located in the rotatable sample cup. A sleeve is positioned proximate the sample cup and adapted to receive the probe. A rotator rotates the rotatable sample cup. A battery is connected to the rotator.

  3. Measuring Transmission Efficiencies Of Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Santosh K.

    1989-01-01

    Coincidence counts yield absolute efficiencies. System measures mass-dependent transmission efficiencies of mass spectrometers, using coincidence-counting techniques reminiscent of those used for many years in calibration of detectors for subatomic particles. Coincidences between detected ions and electrons producing them counted during operation of mass spectrometer. Under certain assumptions regarding inelastic scattering of electrons, electron/ion-coincidence count is direct measure of transmission efficiency of spectrometer. When fully developed, system compact, portable, and used routinely to calibrate mass spectrometers.

  4. An Airborne Infrared Spectrometer for Solar Eclipse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samra, Jenna; DeLuca, Edward E.; Golub, Leon; Cheimets, Peter; Philip, Judge

    2016-05-01

    The airborne infrared spectrometer (AIR-Spec) is an innovative solar spectrometer that will observe the 2017 solar eclipse from the NSF/NCAR High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER). AIR-Spec will image five infrared coronal emission lines to determine whether they may be useful probes of coronal magnetism.The solar magnetic field provides the free energy that controls coronal heating, structure, and dynamics. Energy stored in coronal magnetic fields is released in flares and coronal mass ejections and ultimately drives space weather. Therefore, direct coronal field measurements have significant potential to enhance understanding of coronal dynamics and improve solar forecasting models. Of particular interest are observations of field lines in the transitional region between closed and open flux systems, providing important information on the origin of the slow solar wind.While current instruments routinely observe only the photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields, AIR-Spec will take a step toward the direct observation of coronal fields by measuring plasma emission in the infrared at high spatial and spectral resolution. During the total solar eclipse of 2017, AIR-Spec will observe five magnetically sensitive coronal emission lines between 1.4 and 4 µm from the HIAPER Gulfstream V at an altitude above 14.9 km. The instrument will measure emission line intensity, width, and Doppler shift, map the spatial distribution of infrared emitting plasma, and search for waves in the emission line velocities.AIR-Spec consists of an optical system (feed telescope, grating spectrometer, and infrared detector) and an image stabilization system, which uses a fast steering mirror to correct the line-of-sight for platform perturbations. To ensure that the instrument meets its research goals, both systems are undergoing extensive performance modeling and testing. These results are shown with reference to the science requirements.

  5. Waveguide infrared spectrometer platform for point and standoff chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadha, Suneet; Henning, Pat; Landers, Frank; Weling, Ani

    2004-03-01

    Advanced autonomous detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals has long been a major military concern. At present, our capability to rapidly assess the immediate environment is severely limited and our domestic infrastructure is burdened by the meticulous procedures required to rule out false threats. While significant advances have recently been accomplished in remote spectral sensing using rugged FTIRs and point detectors, efforts towards low cost chemical discrimination have been lacking. Foster-Miller has developed a unique waveguide spectrometer which is a paradigm shift from the conventional FTIR approach. The spectrometer provides spectral discrimination over the 3-14 μm range and will be the spectrometer platform for both active and passive detection. Foster-Miller has leveraged its innovations in infrared fiber-optic probes and the recent development of a waveguide spectrometer to build a novel infrared sensor platform for both point and stand-off chemical sensing. A monolithic wedge-grating optic provides the spectral dispersion with low cost thermopile point or array detectors picking off the diffracted wavelengths from the optic. The integrated optic provides spectral discrimination between 3-12 μm with resolution at 16 cm-1 or better and overall optical throughput approaching 35%. The device has a fixed cylindrical grating bonded to the edge of a ZnSe conditioning "wedge". The conditioning optic overcomes limitations of concave gratings as it accepts high angle (large FOV) light at the narrow end of the wedge and progressively conditions it to be near normal to the grating. On return, the diffracted wavelengths are concentrated on the discrete or array detector (pixel) elements by the wedge, providing throughput comparable to that of an FTIR. The waveguide spectrometer coupled to ATR probes, flow through liquid cells or multipass gas cells provides significant cost advantage over conventional sampling methodologies. We will

  6. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; McCurdy, David A.

    1992-04-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  7. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  8. Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Chastagner, P.

    2001-08-01

    This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.

  9. Electron spectrometer for gas-phase spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bozek, J.D.; Schlachter, A.S.

    1997-04-01

    An electron spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy of gaseous samples using synchrotron radiation has been designed and constructed. The spectrometer consists of a gas cell, cylindrical electrostatic lens, spherical-sector electron energy analyzer, position-sensitive detector and associated power supplies, electronics and vacuum pumps. Details of the spectrometer design are presented together with some representative spectra.

  10. Multilayer scintillation spectrometer for charged pionium detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, V. A.; Karnyushina, L. V.; Kuznetsov, S. N.; Kurepin, A. B.; Livanov, A. N.; Pilyar, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    The design description and characteristics of a 14-layer scintillation spectrometer for meson recording are given. The results from testing the spectrometer, calibrating it with cosmic-ray particles, and using the particle beams at energies reaching 1 GeV are presented. The spectrometer design is based on flat scintillation plates glued with wavelength-shifting optic fibers.

  11. Commissioning of the vacuum system of the KATRIN Main Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenz, M.; Babutzka, M.; Bahr, M.; Barrett, J. P.; Bauer, S.; Beck, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behrens, J.; Bergmann, T.; Besserer, U.; Blümer, J.; Bodine, L. I.; Bokeloh, K.; Bonn, J.; Bornschein, B.; Bornschein, L.; Büsch, S.; Burritt, T. H.; Chilingaryan, S.; Corona, T. J.; De Viveiros, L.; Doe, P. J.; Dragoun, O.; Drexlin, G.; Dyba, S.; Ebenhöch, S.; Eitel, K.; Ellinger, E.; Enomoto, S.; Erhard, M.; Eversheim, D.; Fedkevych, M.; Felden, A.; Fischer, S.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fränkle, F.; Furse, D.; Ghilea, M.; Gil, W.; Glück, F.; Gonzalez Ureña, A.; Görhardt, S.; Groh, S.; Grohmann, S.; Grössle, R.; Gumbsheimer, R.; Hackenjos, M.; Hannen, V.; Harms, F.; Haußmann, N.; Heizmann, F.; Helbing, K.; Herz, W.; Hickford, S.; Hilk, D.; Hillen, B.; Höhn, T.; Holzapfel, B.; Hötzel, M.; Howe, M. A.; Huber, A.; Jansen, A.; Kernert, N.; Kippenbrock, L.; Kleesiek, M.; Klein, M.; Kopmann, A.; Kosmider, A.; Kovalík, A.; Krasch, B.; Kraus, M.; Krause, H.; Krause, M.; Kuckert, L.; Kuffner, B.; La Cascio, L.; Lebeda, O.; Leiber, B.; Letnev, J.; Lobashev, V. M.; Lokhov, A.; Malcherek, E.; Mark, M.; Martin, E. L.; Mertens, S.; Mirz, S.; Monreal, B.; Müller, K.; Neuberger, M.; Neumann, H.; Niemes, S.; Noe, M.; Oblath, N. S.; Off, A.; Ortjohann, H.-W.; Osipowicz, A.; Otten, E.; Parno, D. S.; Plischke, P.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prall, M.; Priester, F.; Ranitzsch, P. C.-O.; Reich, J.; Rest, O.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Röllig, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Rupp, S.; Ryšavý, M.; Schlösser, K.; Schlösser, M.; Schönung, K.; Schrank, M.; Schwarz, J.; Seiler, W.; Seitz-Moskaliuk, H.; Sentkerestiová, J.; Skasyrskaya, A.; Slezák, M.; Špalek, A.; Steidl, M.; Steinbrink, N.; Sturm, M.; Suesser, M.; Telle, H. H.; Thümmler, T.; Titov, N.; Tkachev, I.; Trost, N.; Unru, A.; Valerius, K.; Vénos, D.; Vianden, R.; Vöcking, S.; Wall, B. L.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weber, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Weiss, C.; Welte, S.; Wendel, J.; Wierman, K. L.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Winzen, D.; Wolf, J.; Wüstling, S.; Zacher, M.; Zadoroghny, S.; Zbořil, M.

    2016-04-01

    The KATRIN experiment will probe the neutrino mass by measuring the β-electron energy spectrum near the endpoint of tritium β-decay. An integral energy analysis will be performed by an electro-static spectrometer (``Main Spectrometer''), an ultra-high vacuum vessel with a length of 23.2 m, a volume of 1240 m3, and a complex inner electrode system with about 120 000 individual parts. The strong magnetic field that guides the β-electrons is provided by super-conducting solenoids at both ends of the spectrometer. Its influence on turbo-molecular pumps and vacuum gauges had to be considered. A system consisting of 6 turbo-molecular pumps and 3 km of non-evaporable getter strips has been deployed and was tested during the commissioning of the spectrometer. In this paper the configuration, the commissioning with bake-out at 300 °C, and the performance of this system are presented in detail. The vacuum system has to maintain a pressure in the 10‑11 mbar range. It is demonstrated that the performance of the system is already close to these stringent functional requirements for the KATRIN experiment, which will start at the end of 2016.

  12. Imaging X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, P. A.; Jackson, J. W., Jr.; Alcorn, G. E.; Marshall, F. E.

    1984-09-01

    An X-ray spectrometer for providing imaging and energy resolution of an X-ray source is described. This spectrometer is comprised of a thick silicon wafer having an embedded matrix or grid of aluminum completely through the wafer fabricated, for example, by thermal migration. The aluminum matrix defines the walls of a rectangular array of silicon X-ray detector cells or pixels. A thermally diffused aluminum electrode is also formed centrally through each of the silicon cells with biasing means being connected to the aluminum cell walls and causes lateral charge carrier depletion between the cell walls so that incident X-ray energy causes a photoelectric reaction within the silicon producing collectible charge carriers in the form of electrons which are collected and used for imaging.

  13. Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald E. Bell

    2004-12-08

    The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

  14. Concerning the Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Lenzner, Matthias; Diels, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-25

    A modified Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS) is used for measuring atomic emission spectra with high resolution. This device is basically a Fourier Transform Spectrometer, but the Fourier transform is taken in the directions perpendicular to the optical propagation and heterodyned around one preset wavelength. In recent descriptions of this device, one specific phenomenon - the tilt of the energy front of wave packets when diffracted from a grating - was neglected. This led to an overestimate of the resolving power of this spectrograph, especially in situations when the coherence length of the radiation under test is in the order of the effective aperture of the device. The limits of usability are shown here together with some measurements of known spectral lines. PMID:26832561

  15. Concerning the Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lenzner, Matthias; Diels, Jean -Claude

    2016-01-22

    A modified Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS) is used for measuring atomic emission spectra with high resolution. This device is basically a Fourier Transform Spectrometer, but the Fourier transform is taken in the directions perpendicular to the optical propagation and heterodyned around one preset wavelength. In recent descriptions of this device, one specific phenomenon - the tilt of the energy front of wave packets when diffracted from a grating - was neglected. This led to an overestimate of the resolving power of this spectrograph, especially in situations when the coherence length of the radiation under test is in the order ofmore » the effective aperture of the device. In conclusion, the limits of usability are shown here together with some measurements of known spectral lines.« less

  16. Temporal dispersion of a spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Visco, A; Drake, R P; Froula, D H; Glenzer, S H; Pollock, B B

    2008-10-01

    The temporal dispersion of an optical spectrometer has been characterized for a variety of conditions related to optical diagnostics to be fielded at the National Ignition Facility (e.g., full-aperture backscatter station, Thomson scattering). Significant time smear is introduced into these systems by the path length difference through the spectrometer. The temporal resolution is shown to depend only on the order of the grating, wavelength, and the number of grooves illuminated. To enhance the temporal resolution, the spectral gratings can be masked limiting the number of grooves illuminated. Experiments have been conducted to verify these calculations. The size and shape of masks are investigated and correlated with the exact shape of the temporal instrument function, which is required when interpreting temporally resolved data. The experiments used a 300 fs laser pulse and a picosecond optical streak camera to determine the temporal dispersion. This was done for multiple spectral orders, gratings, and optical masks. PMID:19044687

  17. On-chip plasmonic spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Tsur, Yuval; Arie, Ady

    2016-08-01

    We report a numerical and experimental study of an on-chip optical spectrometer, utilizing propagating surface plasmon polaritons in the telecom spectral range. The device is based on two holographic gratings, one for coupling, and the other for decoupling free-space radiation with the surface plasmons. This 800 μm×100 μm on-chip spectrometer resolves 17 channels spectrally separated by 3.1 nm, spanning a freely tunable spectral window, and is based on standard lithography fabrication technology. We propose two potential applications for this new device; the first employs the holographic control over the amplitude and phase of the input spectrum, for intrinsically filtering unwanted frequencies, like pump radiation in Raman spectroscopy. The second prospect utilizes the unique plasmonic field enhancement at the metal-dielectric boundary for the spectral analysis of very small samples (e.g., Mie scatterers) placed between the two gratings. PMID:27472609

  18. Imaging X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, P. A.; Jackson, J. W., Jr.; Alcorn, G. E.; Marshall, F. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An X-ray spectrometer for providing imaging and energy resolution of an X-ray source is described. This spectrometer is comprised of a thick silicon wafer having an embedded matrix or grid of aluminum completely through the wafer fabricated, for example, by thermal migration. The aluminum matrix defines the walls of a rectangular array of silicon X-ray detector cells or pixels. A thermally diffused aluminum electrode is also formed centrally through each of the silicon cells with biasing means being connected to the aluminum cell walls and causes lateral charge carrier depletion between the cell walls so that incident X-ray energy causes a photoelectric reaction within the silicon producing collectible charge carriers in the form of electrons which are collected and used for imaging.

  19. Gamma-ray spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. R.; Peterson, L. E.; Metzger, A. E.; Trombka, J. I.

    1972-01-01

    The experiments in gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the geochemical composition of the lunar surface are reported. The theory is discussed of discrete energy lines of natural radioactivity, and the lines resulting from the bombardment of the lunar surface by high energy cosmic rays. The gamma-ray spectrometer used in lunar orbit and during transearth coast is described, and a preliminary analysis of the results is presented.

  20. ORFEUS focal plane instrumentation: The Berkeley spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Mark; Bowyer, Stuart

    1988-01-01

    A spectrograph for the ORFEUS mission that incorporates four varied line-space, spherically figured diffraction gratings was designed. The ORFEUS, a 1-m normal incidence telescope is equipped with 2 focal plane spectrographs. The Berkeley spectrograph was developed with an optimizing raytracing computer code. Each grating accepts the light from 20 percent of the aperture of the telescope primary mirror and has a unique set of characteristics to cover a sub-bandpass within the 390 to 1200 A spectral range. Two photon-counting detectors incorporating a time delay readout system are used to record the spectra from all four gratings simultaneously. The nominal design achieves a spectral resolution (FWHM) in excess of 5500 at all wavelengths within the bandpass. The resolution is limited primarily by the detector spatial resolution. The 1 sigma astigmatism of this design varies between 13 and 150 micrometer on the same focal surface. An independent, direct imaging system tracks the drift of the target within the spectrometer aperture and allows measurement of the misalignment between the telescope optical axis and that of the external star tracker. The resolution and astigmatism achievable with this design are superior to those of a standard Rowland spectrograph designed with the same constraints.

  1. Landsat swath imaging spectrometer design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; Green, Robert O.; Van Gorp, Byron; Moore, Lori B.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Bender, Holly A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a high-throughput and high-uniformity pushbroom imaging spectrometer and telescope system that is capable of Landsat swath and resolution while providing better than 10 nm per pixel spectral resolution over the full visible to short-wave infrared band. The design is based on a 3200×480 element×18 μm pixel size focal plane array, two of which are utilized to cover the full swath. At an optical speed of F/1.8, the system is the fastest proposed to date to our knowledge. The utilization of only two Dyson-type spectrometer modules fed from the same telescope reduces system complexity while providing a solution within achievable detector technology. Two telescope designs are shown to achieve the required swath and resolution from different altitudes. Predictions of complete system response are shown. Also, it is shown that detailed ghost analysis is a requirement for this type of spectrometer and forms an essential part of a complete design.

  2. Thermal Infrared Profiling Spectrometer (TIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzl, Franz; Miosga, Gerhard; Lehmann, Frank; Richter, Rudolf; Tank, Volker; Boehl, R.

    1990-01-01

    The Thermal Infrared Profiling Spectrometer (TIPS) is an airborne/spaceborne sensor concept developed at DLR-Institute for Optoelectronics for scientific observations in remote sensing of the earth surface. The patented spectrometer design is based on a fast scanning Fourier spectrometer (FSM) using a rotating retroreflector to achieve the appropriate path alteration thus avoiding the usual linear movement of one of the mirrors in an conventional Michelson interferometer. The spectral band covers the 3 - 13 μm band with a spectral resolution of 5 cm-1 (50 nm at 10 μm). The measured signal is an interferogramm, derived quantities are spectral emissivity, spectral radiance and surface temperature. The optical system consists of an aperture filling plane tilting mirror to provide off-nadir observation and calibration mode. The collecting mirror focal length and the detector area yields an instantaneous field of view (ifov) of 1.2 mrad, noise equivalent temperature resolution of 0.04K (300K), and a noise equivalent change in emissivity Δɛof 6 x 10-4. Calibration is performed by two aperture filling area blackbodies at two different temperatures. An extensive simulation of signal/noise performance of the TIPS has been evaluated by means of the simulation programm SENSAT9, developed by DI.R. This simulation comprises the sensor performance, typical variations of atmospheric conditions and selected spectra from ground surfaces. Results of this simulation are discussed and a description of the sensor is presented.

  3. Electromagnetic induction moisture measurement system acceptance test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this acceptance test plan (ATP) is to verify that the mechanical, electrical and software features of the ElectroMagnetic Induction (EMI) probe are operating as designed,and that the unit is ready for field service. The accepted EMI and Surface Moisture Measurement Systems (SMMS) will be used primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement of organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

  4. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) spectrometer design and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macenka, Steven A.; Chrisp, Michael P.

    1987-01-01

    The development of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has been completed at JPL. This paper outlines the functional requirements of the spectrometer optics subsystem, and describes the spectrometer optical design. The optical subsystem performance is shown in terms of spectral modulation transfer functions, radial energy distributions, and system transmission at selected wavelengths for the four spectrometers. An outline of the spectrometer alignment is included.

  5. Penning Trap Searches in the KATRIN Main Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierman, Kevin; Katrin Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN) aims to make a precision measurement of the tritium beta decay spectrum with a projected sensitivity to neutrino mass of 200 meV. Meeting this goal requires low backgrounds in the beta decay endpoint region. In KATRIN, spatially confined charged particles represent a potential source of backgrounds and systematic errors. Trapping conditions can occur in KATRIN's 10m diameter main spectrometer due to the high magnetic and electrostatic fields required to momentum analyze the electrons. Backgrounds are generated by trapped particles due to scattering off residual gas in the spectrometer causing negative ions to be accelerated towards KATRIN's detector system. Additionally, systematic errors in the neutrino mass measurement can be caused by the electrostatic field generated by trapped electrons. To search for these conditions, the spectrometer was probed by a monoenergetic electron source to determine trapping probabilities as a function of the applied electric and magnetic fields. We acknowledge the support of the German Helmholtz Association, the German Ministry for Education and Research, the Helmholtz Alliance for Astroparticle Physics, the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, and the US Department of Energy.

  6. Physics Opportunities with the Neutral Particle Spectrometer in Hall C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Tanja; NPS Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The two-arm combination of neutral-particle detection and a high-resolution magnetic spectrometer offers unique scientific capabilities to push the energy scale for studies of the transverse spatial and momentum structure of the nucleon through reactions with neutral particles requiring precision and high luminosity. It enables precision measurements of the deeply-virtual Compton scattering cross section at different beam energies to extract the real part of the Compton form factor without any assumptions. It allows measurements to push the energy scale of real Compton scattering, the process of choice to explore factorization in a whole class of wide-angle processes, and its extension to neutral pion photo-production. It further makes possible measurements of the basic semi-inclusive neutral-pion cross section in a kinematic region where the QCD factorization scheme is expected to hold, which is crucial to validate the foundation of this cornerstone of 3D transverse momentum imaging. Adding the option of polarized targets to such a setup, allows for exploration of further scientific directions, e.g., timelike Compton scattering. We describe the unique science program as enabled by the Neutral-Particle Spectrometer and the magnetic spectrometer pair in Hall C at JLab. Supported in part by NSF Grants PHY-1530874 and PHY-1306227.

  7. Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

    2005-07-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

  8. Ion Mobility Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka, Deborah E; Austin, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400).Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS)The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.3 AcronymsIMSion mobility spectrometryMAAMaterial Access AreaMSmass spectrometryoaTOForthogonal acceleration time

  9. aCORN Beta Spectrometer and Electrostatic Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Md; aCORN Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    aCORN uses a high efficiency backscatter suppressed beta spectrometer to measure the electron-antineutrino correlation in neutron beta decay. We measure the correlation by counting protons and beta electrons in coincidence with precisely determined electron energy. There are 19 photomultiplier tubes arranged in a hexagonal array coupled to a single phosphor doped polystyrene scintillator. The magnetic field is shaped so that electrons that backscatter without depositing their full energy strike a tulip-shaped array of scintillator paddles and these events are vetoed. The detailed construction, performance and calibration of this beta spectrometer will be presented. I will also present the simulation, construction, and features of our novel electrostatic mirror. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation and the NIST Center for Neutron Research.

  10. Cavity BPM System Tests for the ILC Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, M.

    2007-12-21

    The main physics program of the International Linear Collider (ILC) requires a measurement of the beam energy at the interaction point with an accuracy of 10{sup -4} or better. To achieve this goal a magnetic spectrometer using high resolution beam position monitors (BPMs) has been proposed. This paper reports on the cavity BPM system that was deployed to test this proposal. We demonstrate sub-micron resolution and micron level stability over 20 hours for a 1 m long BPM triplet. We find micron-level stability over 1 hour for 3 BPM stations distributed over a 30 m long baseline. The understanding of the behavior and response of the BPMs gained from this work has allowed full spectrometer tests to be carried out.

  11. Compact mass spectrometer for plasma discharge ion analysis

    DOEpatents

    Tuszewski, M.G.

    1997-07-22

    A mass spectrometer and methods are disclosed for mass spectrometry which are useful in characterizing a plasma. This mass spectrometer for determining type and quantity of ions present in a plasma is simple, compact, and inexpensive. It accomplishes mass analysis in a single step, rather than the usual two-step process comprised of ion extraction followed by mass filtering. Ions are captured by a measuring element placed in a plasma and accelerated by a known applied voltage. Captured ions are bent into near-circular orbits by a magnetic field such that they strike a collector, producing an electric current. Ion orbits vary with applied voltage and proton mass ratio of the ions, so that ion species may be identified. Current flow provides an indication of quantity of ions striking the collector. 7 figs.

  12. Compact mass spectrometer for plasma discharge ion analysis

    DOEpatents

    Tuszewski, Michel G.

    1997-01-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry which are useful in characterizing a plasma. This mass spectrometer for determining type and quantity of ions present in a plasma is simple, compact, and inexpensive. It accomplishes mass analysis in a single step, rather than the usual two-step process comprised of ion extraction followed by mass filtering. Ions are captured by a measuring element placed in a plasma and accelerated by a known applied voltage. Captured ions are bent into near-circular orbits by a magnetic field such that they strike a collector, producing an electric current. Ion orbits vary with applied voltage and proton mass ratio of the ions, so that ion species may be identified. Current flow provides an indication of quantity of ions striking the collector.

  13. Use of a Fourier transform spectrometer on a balloon-borne telescope and at the multiple mirror telescope (MMT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, W. A.; Chance, K. V.; Brasunas, J. C.; Vrtilek, J. M.; Carleton, N. P.

    1982-01-01

    The design and use of an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer which has been used for observations of laboratory, stratospheric, and astronomical spectra are described. The spectrometer has a spectral resolution of 0.032/cm and has operated in the mid-infrared (12 to 13 microns) as well as the far-infrared (40 to 140 microns), using both bolometer and photoconductor cryogenic detectors. The spectrometer is optically sized to accept an f/9 beam from the multi-mirror telescope (MMT). The optical and electronic design are discussed, including remote operation of the spectrometer on a balloon-borne 102-cm telescope. The performance of the laser-controlled, screw-driven moving cat's-eye mirror is discussed. Segments of typical far-infrared balloon flight spectra, lab spectra, and mid-infrared MMT spectra are presented. Data reduction, interferogram processing, artifact removal, wavelength calibration, and intensity calibration methods are discussed. Future use of the spectrometer is outlined.

  14. Accepters and Rejecters of Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Harriett A.; Elton, Charles F.

    Personality differences between students who accept or reject proffered counseling assistance were investigated by comparing personality traits of 116 male students at the University of Kentucky who accepted or rejected letters of invitation to group counseling. Factor analysis of Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) scores to two groups of 60 and…

  15. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  16. Alpha-particle spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.

    1972-01-01

    Mapping the radon emanation of the moon was studied to find potential areas of high activity by detection of radon isotopes and their daughter products. It was felt that based on observation of regions overflown by Apollo spacecraft and within the field of view of the alpha-particle spectrometer, a radon map could be constructed, identifying and locating lunar areas of outgassing. The basic theory of radon migration from natural concentrations of uranium and thorium is discussed in terms of radon decay and the production of alpha particles. The preliminary analysis of the results indicates no significant alpha emission.

  17. FPGA based pulsed NQR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemnani, Preeti; Rajarajan, A. K.; Joshi, Gopal; Motiwala, Paresh D.; Ravindranath, S. V. G.

    2014-04-01

    An NQR spectrometer for the frequency range of 1 MHz to 5 MHZ has been designed constructed and tested using an FPGA module. Consisting of four modules viz. Transmitter, Probe, Receiver and computer controlled (FPGA & Software) module containing frequency synthesizer, pulse programmer, mixer, detection and display, the instrument is capable of exciting nuclei with a power of 200W and can detect signal of a few microvolts in strength. 14N signal from NaNO2 has been observed with the expected signal strength.

  18. Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schindler, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Fourier-transform spectrometer provides approximately hundredfold increase in luminosity at detector plane over that achievable with older instruments of this type. Used to analyze such weak sources as pollutants and other low-concentration substances in atmosphere. Interferometer creates fringe patterns on two distinct arrays of light detectors, which observe different wavelength bands. Objective lens focuses scene on image plane, which contains optical chopper. To make instrument less susceptible to variations in scene under observation, field and detector lenses focus entrance aperture, rather that image, onto detector array.

  19. Static Fourier transform infrared spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Schardt, Michael; Murr, Patrik J; Rauscher, Markus S; Tremmel, Anton J; Wiesent, Benjamin R; Koch, Alexander W

    2016-04-01

    Fourier transform spectroscopy has established itself as the standard method for spectral analysis of infrared light. Here we present a robust and compact novel static Fourier transform spectrometer design without any moving parts. The design is well suited for measurements in the infrared as it works with extended light sources independent of their size. The design is experimentally evaluated in the mid-infrared wavelength region between 7.2 μm and 16 μm. Due to its large etendue, its low internal light loss, and its static design it enables high speed spectral analysis in the mid-infrared. PMID:27137061

  20. Automated mass spectrometer grows up

    SciTech Connect

    McInteer, B.B.; Montoya, J.G.; Stark, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980 we reported the development of an automated mass spectrometer for large scale batches of samples enriched in nitrogen-15 as ammonium salts. Since that time significant technical progress has been made in the instrument. Perhaps more significantly, administrative and institutional changes have permitted the entire effort to be transferred to the private sector from its original base at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This has ensured the continuance of a needed service to the international scientific community as revealed by a development project at a national laboratory, and is an excellent example of beneficial technology transfer to private industry.

  1. Wide-range CCD spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Elena A.; Reyes Cortes, Santiago D.

    1996-08-01

    The utilization of wide range spectrometers is a very important feature for the design of optical diagnostics. This paper describes an innovative approach, based on charged coupled device, which allows to analyze different spectral intervals with the same diffraction grating. The spectral interval is varied by changing the position of the entrance slit when the grating is stationary. The optical system can also include a spherical mirror. In this case the geometric position of the mirror is calculated aiming at compensating the first order astigmatism and the meridional coma of the grating. This device is planned to be used in Thomson scattering diagnostic of the TOKAMAK of Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (ISTTOK).

  2. High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, Jeff; Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1990-01-01

    Earth resources observed in greater detail. High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, undergoing development for use in NASA's Earth Observing System, measures reflectance of Earth's surface in visible and near-infrared wavelengths. From an orbit around Earth, instrument scans surface of Earth in 200 wavelength bands simultaneously. Produces images enabling identification of minerals in rocks and soils, important algal pigments in oceans and inland waters, changes in spectra associated with biochemistry of plant canopies, compositions of atmospheric aerosols, sizes of grains in snow, and contamination of snow by impurities that absorb visible light.

  3. Portable neutron spectrometer and dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, D.A.; Erkkila, B.H.; Vasilik, D.G.

    The disclosure relates to a battery operated neutron spectrometer/dosimeter utilizing a microprocessor, a built-in tissue equivalent LET neutron detector, and a 128-channel pulse height analyzer with integral liquid crystal display. The apparatus calculates doses and dose rates from neutrons incident on the detector and displays a spectrum of rad or rem as a function of keV per micron of equivalent tissue and also calculates and displays accumulated dose in millirads and millirem as well as neutron dose rates in millirads per hour and millirem per hour.

  4. Portable neutron spectrometer and dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, David A.; Erkkila, Bruce H.; Vasilik, Dennis G.

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a battery operated neutron spectrometer/dosimeter utilizing a microprocessor, a built-in tissue equivalent LET neutron detector, and a 128-channel pulse height analyzer with integral liquid crystal display. The apparatus calculates doses and dose rates from neutrons incident on the detector and displays a spectrum of rad or rem as a function of keV per micron of equivalent tissue and also calculates and displays accumulated dose in millirads and millirem as well as neutron dose rates in millirads per hour and millirem per hour.

  5. Delta-Doped CCDs as Detector Arrays in Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh; Jones, Todd; Jewell, April; Sinha, Mahadeva

    2007-01-01

    In a conventional mass spectrometer, charged particles (ions) are dispersed through a magnetic sector onto an MCP at an output (focal) plane. In the MCP, the impinging charged particles excite electron cascades that afford signal gain. Electrons leaving the MCP can be read out by any of a variety of means; most commonly, they are post-accelerated onto a solid-state detector array, wherein the electron pulses are converted to photons, which, in turn, are converted to measurable electric-current pulses by photodetectors. Each step in the conversion from the impinging charged particles to the output 26 NASA Tech Briefs, February 2007 current pulses reduces spatial resolution and increases noise, thereby reducing the overall sensitivity and performance of the mass spectrometer. Hence, it would be preferable to make a direct measurement of the spatial distribution of charged particles impinging on the focal plane. The utility of delta-doped CCDs as detectors of charged particles was reported in two articles in NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 7 (July 1998): "Delta-Doped CCDs as Low-Energy-Particle Detectors" (NPO-20178) on page 48 and "Delta- Doped CCDs for Measuring Energies of Positive Ions" (NPO-20253) on page 50. In the present developmental miniature mass spectrometers, the above mentioned miniaturization and performance advantages contributed by the use of delta-doped CCDs are combined with the advantages afforded by the Mattauch-Herzog design. The Mattauch- Herzog design is a double-focusing spectrometer design involving an electric and a magnetic sector, where the ions of different masses are spatially separated along the focal plane of magnetic sector. A delta-doped CCD at the focal plane measures the signals of all the charged-particle species simultaneously at high sensitivity and high resolution, thereby nearly instantaneously providing a complete, high-quality mass spectrum. The simultaneous nature of the measurement of ions stands in contrast to that of a

  6. The EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer: a new, permanent user facility at the LLNL EBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, F S; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Doriese, W; Gygax, J; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; King, J; Irwin, K; Reintsema, C; Ullom, J

    2007-09-07

    The EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) is currently being completed and will be installed at the EBIT facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in October 2007. The ECS will replace the smaller XRS/EBIT microcalorimeter spectrometer that has been in almost continuous operation since 2000. The XRS/EBIT was based on a spare laboratory cryostat and an engineering model detector system from the Suzaku/XRS observatory program. The new ECS spectrometer was built to be a low maintenance, high performance implanted silicon microcalorimeter spectrometer with 4 eV resolution at 6 keV, 32 detector channels, 10 {micro}s event timing, and capable of uninterrupted acquisition sessions of over 60 hours at 50 mK. The XRS/EBIT program has been very successful, producing many results on topics such as laboratory astrophysics, atomic physics, nuclear physics, and calibration of the spectrometers for the National Ignition Facility. The ECS spectrometer will continue this work into the future with improved spectral resolution, integration times, and ease-of-use. We designed the ECS instrument with TES detectors in mind by using the same highly successful magnetic shielding as our laboratory TES cryostats. This design will lead to a future TES instrument at the LLNL EBIT. Here we discuss the legacy of the XRS/EBIT program, the performance of the new ECS spectrometer, and plans for a future TES instrument.

  7. The VESUVIO electron volt neutron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayers, J.; Reiter, G.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the VESUVIO electron volt neutron spectrometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron source and its data analysis routines. VESUVIO is used primarily for the measurement of proton momentum distributions in condensed matter systems, but can also be used to measure the kinetic energies of heavier masses and bulk in-situ sample compositions. A series of VESUVIO runs on the same zirconium hydride sample over the past two years show that (1) kinetic energies of protons can be measured to an absolute accuracy of ˜1%. (2) Measurements of the proton momentum distribution n(p) are highly reproducible from run to run. This shows that small changes in kinetic energy and the detailed shape of n(p) with parameters such as temperature, pressure and sample composition can be reliably extracted from VESUVIO data. (3) The impulse approximation (IA) is well satisfied on VESUVIO. (4) The small deviations from the IA due to the finite momentum transfer of measurement are well understood. (5) There is an anomaly in the magnitude of the inelastic neutron cross-section of the protons in zirconium hydride, with an observed reduction of 10% ± 0.3% from that given in standard tables. This anomaly is independent of energy transfer to within experimental error. Future instrument developments are discussed. These would allow the measurement of n(p) in other light atoms, D, 3He, 4He, Li, C and O and measurement of eV electronic and magnetic excitations.

  8. An acoustic dielectric and mechanical spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruifen; Stevenson, Adrian C; Lowe, Christopher R

    2012-06-21

    In this report, the dielectric constant of glycerol solutions (0-70% (w/w)) and the mechanical transitions of poly(2-hydroxylethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) films (600-800 nm, 1.5-10 mol% cross-linker) have been investigated by the magnetic acoustic resonance sensor (MARS), which is an electrode-free acoustic sensor and operates over a continuous frequency spectrum (6-200 MHz). When a glycerol solution was loaded, the response of the MARS decayed exponentially as the operating frequency was increased. The decay rate against frequency as a function of the glycerol concentration reflects the change of the dielectric property of the glycerol solutions. In addition, mechanical relaxation of the poly(2-hydroxylethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) film has been observed on the MARS and the corresponding viscoelastic transition frequency has been estimated. The viscoelastic transition frequency increased as the polymer was more highly cross-linked. The MARS system behaved as a dielectric and mechanical spectrometer, monitoring the electrical and mechanical properties of viscoelastic materials or on the solid-liquid interfaces simultaneously, which has prospective application in studies of biomaterials, molecular interactions and drug deliveries. PMID:22573065

  9. Imaging spectrometer/camera having convex grating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reininger, Francis M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An imaging spectrometer has fore-optics coupled to a spectral resolving system with an entrance slit extending in a first direction at an imaging location of the fore-optics for receiving the image, a convex diffraction grating for separating the image into a plurality of spectra of predetermined wavelength ranges; a spectrometer array for detecting the spectra; and at least one concave sperical mirror concentric with the diffraction grating for relaying the image from the entrance slit to the diffraction grating and from the diffraction grating to the spectrometer array. In one embodiment, the spectrometer is configured in a lateral mode in which the entrance slit and the spectrometer array are displaced laterally on opposite sides of the diffraction grating in a second direction substantially perpendicular to the first direction. In another embodiment, the spectrometer is combined with a polychromatic imaging camera array disposed adjacent said entrance slit for recording said image.

  10. Automated mass spectrometer analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuppermann, Aron (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor); Giffin, Charles E. (Inventor); Boettger, Heinz G. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An automated mass spectrometer analysis system is disclosed, in which samples are automatically processed in a sample processor and converted into volatilizable samples, or their characteristic volatilizable derivatives. Each volatilizable sample is sequentially volatilized and analyzed in a double focusing mass spectrometer, whose output is in the form of separate ion beams all of which are simultaneously focused in a focal plane. Each ion beam is indicative of a different sample component or different fragments of one or more sample components and the beam intensity is related to the relative abundance of the sample component. The system includes an electro-optical ion detector which automatically and simultaneously converts the ion beams, first into electron beams which in turn produce a related image which is transferred to the target of a vilicon unit. The latter converts the images into electrical signals which are supplied to a data processor, whose output is a list of the components of the analyzed sample and their abundances. The system is under the control of a master control unit, which in addition to monitoring and controlling various power sources, controls the automatic operation of the system under expected and some unexpected conditions and further protects various critical parts of the system from damage due to particularly abnormal conditions.

  11. Automated mass spectrometer analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boettger, Heinz G. (Inventor); Giffin, Charles E. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor); Kuppermann, Aron (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automated mass spectrometer analysis system is disclosed, in which samples are automatically processed in a sample processor and converted into volatilizable samples, or their characteristic volatilizable derivatives. Each volatizable sample is sequentially volatilized and analyzed in a double focusing mass spectrometer, whose output is in the form of separate ion beams all of which are simultaneously focused in a focal plane. Each ion beam is indicative of a different sample component or different fragments of one or more sample components and the beam intensity is related to the relative abundance of the sample component. The system includes an electro-optical ion detector which automatically and simultaneously converts the ion beams, first into electron beams which in turn produce a related image which is transferred to the target of a vidicon unit. The latter converts the images into electrical signals which are supplied to a data processor, whose output is a list of the components of the analyzed sample and their abundances. The system is under the control of a master control unit, which in addition to monitoring and controlling various power sources, controls the automatic operation of the system under expected and some unexpected conditions and further protects various critical parts of the system from damage due to particularly abnormal conditions.

  12. Miniature Ion-Array Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    A figure is shown that depicts a proposed miniature ion-mobility spectrometer that would share many features of design and operation of the instrument described in another article. The main differences between that instrument and this one would lie in the configuration and mode of operation of the filter and detector electrodes. A filter electrode and detector electrodes would be located along the sides of a drift tube downstream from the accelerator electrode. These electrodes would apply a combination of (1) a transverse AC electric field that would effect differential transverse dispersal of ions and (2) a transverse DC electric field that would drive the dispersed ions toward the detector electrodes at different distances along the drift tube. The electric current collected by each detector electrode would be a measure of the current, and thus of the abundance of the species of ions impinging on that electrode. The currents collected by all the detector electrodes could be measured simultaneously to obtain continuous readings of abundances of species. The downstream momentum of accelerated ions would be maintained through neutralization on the electrodes; the momentum of the resulting neutral atoms would serve to expel gases from spectrometer, without need for a pump.

  13. Development of the RAON Recoil Spectrometer (KOBRA) and Its Applications for Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Jun Young; Park, Junesic; Cheoul Yun, Chong; Kwon, Young Kwan; Komatsubara, Tetsuro; Hashimoto, Takashi; Tshoo, Kyoungho; Lee, Kwangbok; Jung, In-IL; Kim, Yong Hak; Kim, Yong-Kyun

    KOBRA (KOrea Broad acceptance Recoil spectrometer and Apparatus), a new generation recoil spectrometer, has been designed at the Korean heavy-ion accelerator facility, so called RAON. It will allow many nuclear scientists to explore so-far hard but very interesting questions relevant to low-energy nuclear physics. Especially, in nuclear astrophysics where the unstable, short-lived nuclei are usually involved and the high background rejection power is required, its high performance will come into significantly important role. As a particular case to see its capability, in this article, calculational results of 12C(α, γ)16O reaction which was studied with the COSY-INFINITY is presented.

  14. Digital Spectrometers for Interplanetary Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarnot, Robert F.; Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Raffanti, Richard; Richards, Brian; Stek, Paul; Werthimer, Dan; Nikolic, Borivoje

    2010-01-01

    A fully digital polyphase spectrometer recently developed by the University of California Berkeley Wireless Research Center in conjunction with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides a low mass, power, and cost implementation of a spectrum channelizer for submillimeter spectrometers for future missions to the Inner and Outer Solar System. The digital polyphase filter bank spectrometer (PFB) offers broad bandwidth with high spectral resolution, minimal channel-to-channel overlap, and high out-of-band rejection.

  15. Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2006-05-09

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

  16. [Hadamard transform spectrometer mixed pixels' unmixing method].

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng; Hu, Bing-Liang; Liu, Xue-Bin; Sun, Wei; Li, Li-Bo; Feng, Yu-Tao; Liu, Yong-Zheng

    2011-10-01

    Hadamard transform imaging spectrometer is a multi-channel digital transform spectrometer detection technology, this paper based on digital micromirror array device (DMD) of the Hadamard transform spectrometer working principle and instrument structure, obtained by the imaging sensor mixed pixel were analyzed, theory derived the solution of pixel aliasing hybrid method, simulation results show that the method is simple and effective to improve the accuracy of mixed pixel spectrum more than 10% recovery. PMID:22250574

  17. Applications of ICP magnetic sector multicollector mass spectrometry to basic energy research. Progress report, December 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Halliday, A.N.; Hall, C.M.

    1994-09-01

    The prototype ICP magnetic sector multicollector mass spectrometer has been installed and commissioned at the University of Michigan. Following performance evaluation and instrument characterization, the absolute abundances of isotopes of tin have been measured with precisions unproved by up to an order of magnitude over those of currently accepted, values. An efficient chemical separation technique for In and Sn in Zn, Cu and Fe sulfides and in silicate matrices has been successfully developed. The predicted {sup 115}Sn anomaly that results from the decay of {sup 115}In, has been measured in sulfides. Precise isotopic measurements of molybdenum, tellurium, hafnium, tungsten and platinum have been made. A new ND-YAG laser ablation microsampling device on line to the mass spectrometer for in situ isotopic analysis at high precision has been commissioned and tested with accurate measurements of Sr, W and Pb on standard silicate materials.

  18. Characteristics and performance of several mass spectrometer residual gas analyzers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultzman, W. W.

    1974-01-01

    The operation and properties of various mass-spectrometer residual gas analyzers for use in vacuum measurements were analyzed in terms of efficiencies of ion extraction, ion separation and transmission, and ion collection. Types of instruments studied were magnetic sector, omegatron, quadrupole, and monopole. Experimental results presented include absolute sensitivity to argon, relative sensitivity to 10 gases, and cracking patterns for these gases. It is shown that the properties are strongly dependent on instrument range, resolution, and the particular voltages, currents, or field intensities used to control the instrument.

  19. The Spin- and Angel-Resolved Photelectron Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Mankey, G J; Morton, S A; Tobin, J G; Yu, S W; Waddill, G D

    2007-05-08

    A spin- and angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectrometer for the study of magnetic materials will be discussed. It consists of a turntable with electron lenses connected to a large hemispherical analyzer. A mini-Mott spin detector is fitted to the output of the hemispherical analyzer. This system, when coupled to a synchrotron radiation source will allow determination of a complete set of quantum numbers of a photoelectron. This instrument will be used to study ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic and nonmagnetic materials. Some prototypical materials systems to be studied with this instrument system will be proposed.

  20. Calibrating the DARHT Electron Spectrometer with Negative Ions

    SciTech Connect

    R. Trainham , A. P. Tipton , and R. R. Bartech

    2005-11-01

    Negative ions of hydrogen and oxygen have been used to calibrate the DARHT electron spectrometer over the momentum range of 2 to 20 MeV/c. The calibration was performed on September 1, 3, and 8, 2004, and it is good to 0.5% absolute, provided that instrument alignment is carefully controlled. The momentum in MeV/c as a function of magnetic field (B in Gauss) and position in the detector plane (X in mm) is: P = (B-6.28)/(108.404-0.1935*X)

  1. Electromagnetic induction moisture measurement system acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.J.

    1996-10-07

    This document presents the results of the acceptance test for the hardware and software that was developed to operate the ElectroMagnetic Induction (EMI) moisture measurement system to be used for in-tank moisture measurements. This document satisfies EP 4.1, ``Design Verification Requirements``.

  2. Simulated performance of the in-beam conversion-electron spectrometer, SPICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketelhut, S.; Evitts, L. J.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Bolton, C.; Ball, G. C.; Churchman, R.; Dunlop, R.; Hackman, G.; Henderson, R.; Moukaddam, M.; Rand, E. T.; Svensson, C. E.; Witmer, J.

    2014-07-01

    The SPICE spectrometer is a new in-beam electron spectrometer designed to operate in conjunction with the TIGRESS HPGe Clover array at TRIUMF-ISAC. The spectrometer consists of a large area, annular, segmented lithium-drifted silicon electron detector shielded from the target by a photon shield. A permanent magnetic lens directs electrons around the photon shield to the detector. Experiments will be performed utilising Coulomb excitation, inelastic-scattering, transfer and fusion-evaporation reactions using stable and radioactive ion beams with suitable heavy-ion detection. Good detection efficiency can be achieved in a large energy range up to 3500 keV electron energy using several magnetic lens designs which are quickly interchangeable. COMSOL and Geant4 simulations have been used to maximise the detection efficiency. In addition, the simulations have guided the design of components to minimise the contributions from various sources of backgrounds.

  3. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  4. L-286 Acceptance Test Record

    SciTech Connect

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-14

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  5. A New Generation TDPAC Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herden, Christian H.; Alves, Mauro A.; Becker, Klaus D.; Gardner, John A.

    2004-12-01

    Time Differential gamma gamma Perturbed Angular Correlation spectroscopy has traditionally been done using scintillation detectors along with constant fraction discriminators, spectroscopy amplifiers, single channel analyzers, and time to amplitude detectors. We describe a new generation spectrometer where these electronics are replaced by high speed digital transient recorders that record the output from each scintillation detector. The energy and time-of-arrival of gamma rays in any detector can be determined accurately. Many experimental difficulties related to electronics are eliminated; the number of detectors can be increased with no increase in complexity of the apparatus; coincidences among any two detectors are measurable; and coincidences separated by as little as a ns are detectable in principle within one detector. All energies are collected, and energy windows are imposed by software filtering, permitting both high energy resolution and high data-gathering power.

  6. Airborne imaging spectrometer development tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolten, John

    The tasks that must be completed to design and build an airborne imaging spectrometer are listed. The manpower and resources required to do these tasks must be estimated by the people responsible for that work. The tasks are broken down by instrument subsystem or discipline. The instrument performance can be assessed at various stages during the development. The initial assessment should be done with the preliminary computer model. The instrument calibration facilities should be designed, but no calibration facilities are needed. The intermediate assessment can be done when the front end has been assembled. The preliminary instrument calibration facility should be available at this stage. The final assessment can only be done when the instrument is complete and ready for flight. For this, the final instrument calibration facility and the flight qualification facilities must be ready. The final assessment is discussed in each discipline under the section on integration and test.

  7. Clementine RRELAX SRAM Particle Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M.; Soli, G.; Blaes, B.; Ratliff, J.; Garrett, H.

    1994-01-01

    The Clementine RRELAX radiation monitor chip consists of a p-FET total dose monitor and a 4-kbit SRAM particle spectrometer. Eight of these chips were included in the RRELAX and used to detect the passage of the Clementine (S/C) and the innerstage adapter (ISA) through the earth's radiation belts and the 21-Feb 1994 solar flare. This is the first space flight for this 1.2 micron rad-soft custom CMOS radiation monitor. This paper emphasizes results from the SRAM particle detector which showed that it a) has a detection range of five orders of magnitude relative to the 21-Feb solar flare, b) is not affected by electrons, and c) detected microflares occurring with a 26.5 day period.

  8. Tamper resistant magnetic stripes

    DOEpatents

    Naylor, Richard Brian; Sharp, Donald J.

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to a magnetic stripe comprising a medium in which magnetized particles are suspended and in which the encoded information is recorded by actual physical rotation or alignment of the previously magnetized particles within the flux reversals of the stripe which are 180.degree. opposed in their magnetic polarity. The magnetized particles are suspended in a medium which is solid, or physically rigid, at ambient temperatures but which at moderately elevated temperatures, such as 40.degree. C., is thinable to a viscosity permissive of rotation of the particles therein under applications of moderate external magnetic field strengths within acceptable time limits.

  9. Fluorescence imaging spectrometer optical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taiti, A.; Coppo, P.; Battistelli, E.

    2015-09-01

    The optical design of the FLuORescence Imaging Spectrometer (FLORIS) studied for the Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) mission is discussed. FLEX is a candidate for the ESA's 8th Earth Explorer opportunity mission. FLORIS is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager foreseen to be embarked on board of a medium size satellite, flying in tandem with Sentinel-3 in a Sun synchronous orbit at a height of about 815 km. FLORIS will observe the vegetation fluorescence and reflectance within a spectral range between 500 and 780 nm. Multi-frames acquisitions on matrix detectors during the satellite movement will allow the production of 2D Earth scene images in two different spectral channels, called HR and LR with spectral resolution of 0.3 and 2 nm respectively. A common fore optics is foreseen to enhance by design the spatial co-registration between the two spectral channels, which have the same ground spatial sampling (300 m) and swath (150 km). An overlapped spectral range between the two channels is also introduced to simplify the spectral coregistration. A compact opto-mechanical solution with all spherical and plane optical elements is proposed, and the most significant design rationales are described. The instrument optical architecture foresees a dual Babinet scrambler, a dioptric telescope and two grating spectrometers (HR and LR), each consisting of a modified Offner configuration. The developed design is robust, stable vs temperature, easy to align, showing very high optical quality along the whole field of view. The system gives also excellent correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortions (keystone and smile).

  10. A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jie; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2015-07-01

    Spectroscopy is carried out in almost every field of science, whenever light interacts with matter. Although sophisticated instruments with impressive performance characteristics are available, much effort continues to be invested in the development of miniaturized, cheap and easy-to-use systems. Current microspectrometer designs mostly use interference filters and interferometric optics that limit their photon efficiency, resolution and spectral range. Here we show that many of these limitations can be overcome by replacing interferometric optics with a two-dimensional absorptive filter array composed of colloidal quantum dots. Instead of measuring different bands of a spectrum individually after introducing temporal or spatial separations with gratings or interference-based narrowband filters, a colloidal quantum dot spectrometer measures a light spectrum based on the wavelength multiplexing principle: multiple spectral bands are encoded and detected simultaneously with one filter and one detector, respectively, with the array format allowing the process to be efficiently repeated many times using different filters with different encoding so that sufficient information is obtained to enable computational reconstruction of the target spectrum. We illustrate the performance of such a quantum dot microspectrometer, made from 195 different types of quantum dots with absorption features that cover a spectral range of 300 nanometres, by measuring shifts in spectral peak positions as small as one nanometre. Given this performance, demonstrable avenues for further improvement, the ease with which quantum dots can be processed and integrated, and their numerous finely tuneable bandgaps that cover a broad spectral range, we expect that quantum dot microspectrometers will be useful in applications where minimizing size, weight, cost and complexity of the spectrometer are critical.

  11. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Miller, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Natra, Vijay; Rider, David; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for an earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. The GeoFTS instrument is a half meter cube size instrument designed to operate in geostationary orbit as a secondary "hosted" payload on a commercial geostationary satellite mission. The advantage of GEO is the ability to continuously stare at a region of the earth, enabling frequent sampling to capture the diurnal variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental scales. The science goal is to obtain a process-based understanding of the carbon cycle from simultaneous high spatial resolution measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) many times per day in the near infrared spectral region to capture their spatial and temporal variations on diurnal, synoptic, seasonal and interannual time scales. The GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design with a number of advanced features incorporated. Two of the most important advanced features are the focal plane arrays and the optical path difference mechanism. A breadboard GeoFTS instrument has demonstrated functionality for simultaneous measurements in the visible and IR in the laboratory and subsequently in the field at the California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) observatory on Mt. Wilson overlooking the Los Angeles basin. A GeoFTS engineering model instrument is being developed which will make simultaneous visible and IR measurements under space flight like environmental conditions (thermal-vacuum at 180 K). This will demonstrate critical instrument capabilities such as optical alignment stability, interferometer modulation efficiency, and high throughput FPA signal processing. This will reduce flight instrument development risk and show that the Geo

  12. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Ken; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (2.7kmx2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

  13. ATS-6 - Synchronous orbit trapped radiation studies with an electron-proton spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. J.; Swanson, R. L.; Winckler, J. R.; Erickson, K. N.

    1975-01-01

    The paper discusses the University of Minnesota experiment on ATS-6 designed to study the origin and dynamics of high-energy electrons and protons in the outer radiation belt and in the near-earth plasma sheet. The experiment consists of two nearly identical detector assemblies, each of which is a magnetic spectrometer containing four gold-silicon surface barrier detectors. The instrument provides a clean separation between protons and electrons by the combination of pulse height analysis and magnetic deflection.

  14. Ion-retarding lens improves the abundance sensitivity of tandem mass spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, K. A.; Stevens, C. M.

    1969-01-01

    Ion-retarding lens which increases the abundance sensitivity of tandem magnetic-analyzer mass spectrometers measures isotopes of low abundance in mass positions adjacent to isotopes of high abundance. The lens increases the abundance sensitivity for isotopes lying farther from high abundance isotopes than the energy cutoff of the lens.

  15. Field spectrometer (S191H) preprocessor tape quality test program design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, H. M.

    1976-01-01

    Program QA191H performs quality assurance tests on field spectrometer data recorded on 9-track magnetic tape. The quality testing involves the comparison of key housekeeping and data parameters with historic and predetermined tolerance limits. Samples of key parameters are processed during the calibration period and wavelength cal period, and the results are printed out and recorded on an historical file tape.

  16. Spin Spectrometer at the ALS and APS

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; University of Missouri-Rolla; Boyd Technologies; Morton, Simon A; Morton, Simon A; Tobin, James G; Yu, Sung Woo; Komesu, Takashi; Waddill, George D; Boyd, Peter

    2007-04-20

    A spin-resolving photoelectron spectrometer, the"Spin Spectrometer," has been designed and built. It has been utilized at both the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, CA, and the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne, IL. Technical details and an example of experimental results are presented here.

  17. A Mass Spectrometer Simulator in Your Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Introduced to study components of ionized gas, the mass spectrometer has evolved into a highly accurate device now used in many undergraduate and research laboratories. Unfortunately, despite their importance in the formation of future scientists, mass spectrometers remain beyond the financial reach of many high schools and colleges. As a result,…

  18. Apodization Control of Line Shape in Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pires, Antonio; Niple, Edward; Evans, Nathan L.

    1987-01-01

    Kaiser-Bessel apodization function reduces unwanted sidebands. Report discusses apodization in Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) for Advanced Moisture and Temperature Sounder (AMTS). Purpose of apodization in instrument to control shape of spectrum in wavenumber space to keep radiation at other wavelengths in passband of spectrometer out of AMTS wavenumber channel.

  19. LIFTIRS, the Livermore imaging FTIR spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.

    1998-06-01

    The imaging FTIR spectrometer was invented 25 years ago. Only recently, however, with the development of infrared focal plane array technology and high speed microprocessors, has the imaging FTIR spectrometer become a practical instrument. Among the class of imaging spectrometer instruments, the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer enjoys a great advantage in terms of calibratibility, sensitivity, broad band coverage and resolution flexibility. Recent experience with the LIFTIRS instrument is summarized. As a concrete example of the acquisition, calibration, and comprehension of the data from an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer, the case history of a geological sample is discussed in great detail. In particular, the importance of principle component analysis to imaging spectroscopy is especially emphasized. It is shown how the various spatial/spectral constituents within a sample can be detected, located, identified and quantified. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Belov, A.S.; Kubalov, S.A.; Kuzik, V.F.; Yakushev, V.P.

    1986-02-01

    This paper describes a time-of-flight mass spectrometer developed for measuring the parameters of a pulsed hydrogen beam. The duration of an electron-beam current pulse in the ionizer of the mass spectrometer can be varied within 2-20 usec, the pulse electron current is 0.6 mA, and the electron energy is 250 eV. The time resolution of the mass spectrometer is determined by the repetition period of the electron-beam current pulses and is 40 usec. The mass spectrometer has 100% transmission in the direction of motion of molecular-beam particles. The dimension of the mass spectrometer is 7 cm in this direction. The mass resolution is sufficient for determination of the composition of the hydrogen beam.

  1. A high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer for planetary spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Sinton, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of a high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) is described for planetary and other astronomical spectroscopy in conjunction with the 88-inch telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The FTS system is designed for a broad range of uses, including double-beam laboratory spectroscopy, infrared gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The data system is well-suited to astronomical applications because of its great speed in acquiring and transforming data, and because of the enormous storage capability of the magnetic tape unit supplied with the system. The basic instrument is outlined 2nd some of the initial results from the first attempted use on the Mauna Kea 88-inch telescope are reported.

  2. Design and operational characteristics of a cast steel mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Blantocas, Gene Q.; Ramos, Henry J.; Wada, Motoi

    2004-09-01

    A cast steel magnetic sector mass analyzer is developed for studies of hydrogen and helium ion beams generated by a gas discharge compact ion source. The optimum induced magnetic flux density of 3500 G made it possible to scan the whole spectrum of hydrogen and helium ion species. Analysis of beam characteristics shows that the mass spectrometer sensitivity, and resolving power are approximately inversely proportional. The resolution is enhanced at higher pressures and lower current discharges. In contrast, the instrument sensitivity increased at higher current discharges and decreased at higher pressures. Calculations of the ultimate resolving power with reference to analyzer dimensions yield a numerical value of 30. System anomaly in the form of spherical aberrations was also analyzed using the paraxial beam envelope equation. Beam divergence is most significant at high discharge conditions where angular spread reaches an upper limit of 8.6 deg.

  3. Miniature Ion-Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure depicts a proposed miniature ion-mobility spectrometer that would be fabricated by micromachining. Unlike prior ion-mobility spectrometers, the proposed instrument would not be based on a time-of-flight principle and, consequently, would not have some of the disadvantageous characteristics of prior time-of-flight ion-mobility spectrometers. For example, one of these characteristics is the need for a bulky carrier-gas-feeding subsystem that includes a shutter gate to provide short pulses of gas in order to generate short pulses of ions. For another example, there is need for a complex device to generate pulses of ions from the pulses of gas and the device is capable of ionizing only a fraction of the incoming gas molecules; these characteristics preclude miniaturization. In contrast, the proposed instrument would not require a carrier-gas-feeding subsystem and would include a simple, highly compact device that would ionize all the molecules passing through it. The ionization device in the proposed instrument would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several megavolts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. Ionization (but not avalanche arcing) would occur because the distance between the ionizing electrodes would be less than the mean free path of gas molecules at the operating pressure of instrument. An accelerating grid would be located inside the instrument, downstream from the ionizing membrane. The electric potential applied to this grid would be negative relative to the potential on the inside electrode of the ionizing membrane and would be of a magnitude sufficient to

  4. Upgrade of the PNNL TEPC and Multisphere Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Scherpelz, Robert I.; Conrady, Matthew M.

    2008-09-10

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used two types of instruments, the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and the multisphere spectrometer for characterizing neutron radiation fields in support of neutron dosimetry at the Hanford site. The US Department of Energy recently issued new requirements for radiation protection standards in 10 CFR 835 which affect the way that neutron dose equivalent rates are evaluated. In response to the new requirements, PNNL has upgraded the analyses used in conjunction with the TEPC and multisphere. The analysis software for the TEPC was modified for this effort, and a new analysis code was selected for the multisphere. These new analysis techniques were implemented and tested with measurement data that had been collected in previous measurements. In order to test the effectiveness of the changes, measurements were taken in PNNL’s Low Scatter Room using 252Cf sources in both unmoderated and D2O-moderated configurations that generate well-characterized neutron fields. The instruments were also used at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in their Neutron Free-in-Air calibration room, also using neutron sources that generate well-characterized neutron fields. The results of the software modifications and the measurements are documented in this report. The TEPC measurements performed at PNNL agreed well with accepted dose equivalent rates using the traditional analysis, agreeing with the accepted value to within 13% for both unmoderated and moderated 252Cf sources. When the new analysis was applied to the TEPC measurement data, the results were high compared to the new accepted value. A similar pattern was seen for TEPC measurements at LANL. Using the traditional analysis method, results for all neutron sources showed good agreement with accepted values, nearly always less than 10%. For the new method of analysis, however, the TEPC responded with higher dose equivalent rates than accepted, by as much as 25

  5. Determining x-ray spectra of radiographic sources with a Compton spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Amanda E.; Espy, Michelle A.; Haines, Todd J.; Hunter, James F.; King, Nick S. P.; Manard, Manuel J.; Merrill, Frank E.; Morgan, George L.; Sedillo, Robert; Trainham, Rusty; Urbaitis, Algis V.; Volegov, Petr

    2014-09-01

    Flash radiography is a diagnostic with many physics applications, and the characterization of the energy spectra of such sources is of interest. A Compton spectrometer has been proposed to conduct these measurements. Our Compton spectrometer is a 300 kg neodymium-iron magnet constructed by Morgan et al1, and it is designed to measure spectra in the <1 MeV to 20 MeV range. In this device, the x-rays from a radiographic source are collimated into a narrow beam directed on a converter foil. The forward-selected Compton electrons that are ejected from the foil enter the magnetic field region of the spectrometer. The electrons are imaged on a focal plane, with their position determined as a function of their energy. The x-ray spectrum is then reconstructed. Challenges in obtaining these measurements include limited dose of x-rays and the short pulse duration (about 50 ns) for time-resolved measurements. Here we present energy calibration measurements of the spectrometer using a negative ion source. The resolution of the spectrometer was measured in previous calibration experiments to be the greater of 1% or 0.1 MeV/c1. The reconstruction of spectra from a bremsstrahlung source and Co-60 source are also presented.

  6. Evaluation of neutron spectrometer techniques for ITER using synthetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson Sundén, E.; Ballabio, L.; Cecconello, M.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Gorini, G.; Hellesen, C.; Ognissanto, F.; Ronchi, E.; Sjöstrand, H.; Tardocchi, M.; Weiszflog, M.

    2013-02-01

    A neutron spectrometer at ITER is expected to provide estimates of plasma parameters such as ion temperature, Ti, fuel ion ratio, nt/nd, and Qthermal/Qtot, with 10-20% precision at a time resolution, Δt, of at least 100 ms. The present paper describes a method for evaluating different neutron spectroscopy techniques based on their instrumental response functions and synthetic measurement data. We include five different neutron spectrometric techniques with realistic response functions, based on simulations and measurements where available. The techniques are magnetic proton recoil, thin-foil proton recoil, gamma discriminating organic scintillator, diamond and time-of-flight. The reference position and line of sight of a high resolution neutron spectrometer on ITER are used in the study. ITER plasma conditions are simulated for realistic operating scenarios. The ITER conditions evaluated are beam and radio frequency heated and thermal deuterium-tritium plasmas. Results are given for each technique in terms of the estimated time resolution at which the parameter determination can be made within the required precision (here 10% for Ti and the relative intensities of NB and RF emission components). It is shown that under the assumptions made, the thin-foil techniques out-perform the other spectroscopy techniques in practically all measurement situations. For thermal conditions, the range of achieved Δt in the determination of Ti varies in time scales from ms (for the magnetic and thin-foil proton recoil) to s (for gamma discriminating organic scintillator).

  7. Acceptance test of a commercially available software for automatic image registration of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain images.

    PubMed

    Loi, Gianfranco; Dominietto, Marco; Manfredda, Irene; Mones, Eleonora; Carriero, Alessandro; Inglese, Eugenio; Krengli, Marco; Brambilla, Marco

    2008-09-01

    This note describes a method to characterize the performances of image fusion software (Syntegra) with respect to accuracy and robustness. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies were acquired from two phantoms and 10 patients. Image registration was performed independently by two couples composed of one radiotherapist and one physicist by means of superposition of anatomic landmarks. Each couple performed jointly and saved the registration. The two solutions were averaged to obtain the gold standard registration. A new set of estimators was defined to identify translation and rotation errors in the coordinate axes, independently from point position in image field of view (FOV). Algorithms evaluated were local correlation (LC) for CT-MRI, normalized mutual information (MI) for CT-MRI, and CT-SPECT registrations. To evaluate accuracy, estimator values were compared to limiting values for the algorithms employed, both in phantoms and in patients. To evaluate robustness, different alignments between images taken from a sample patient were produced and registration errors determined. LC algorithm resulted accurate in CT-MRI registrations in phantoms, but exceeded limiting values in 3 of 10 patients. MI algorithm resulted accurate in CT-MRI and CT-SPECT registrations in phantoms; limiting values were exceeded in one case in CT-MRI and never reached in CT-SPECT registrations. Thus, the evaluation of robustness was restricted to the algorithm of MI both for CT-MRI and CT-SPECT registrations. The algorithm of MI proved to be robust: limiting values were not exceeded with translation perturbations up to 2.5 cm, rotation perturbations up to 10 degrees and roto-translational perturbation up to 3 cm and 5 degrees. PMID:17549564

  8. University of Lodz an electron spectrometer—A new conversion-electron spectrometer for “in-beam” measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Perkowski, J. Andrzejewski, J.; Janiak, Ł.; Samorajczyk, J.; Abraham, T.; Hadyńska-Klęk, K.; Komorowska, M.; Napiorkowski, P.; Srebrny, J.; Stolarz, A.; Droste, Ch.; Grodner, E.; Kisieliński, M.; Kownacki, J.; The National Centre for Nuclear Research, Andrzeja Sołtana 7, 05-400 Otwock, Świerk ; Kowalczyk, M.; Mierzejewski, J.; Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Warsaw 00-681 ; Korman, A.; Zielińska, M.; CEA Saclay, Route Nationale, 91400 Gif-sur-Yvette

    2014-04-15

    The designed and constructed at the University of Lodz an electron spectrometer is devoted to “in-beam” measurements. The apparatus is characterized by high efficiency up to 9%, good energy resolution (FWHM = 5 keV at 482 keV) and, what is very important good suppression of delta electrons, positrons, and photons emitted by the targets. This achievement was obtained using a combination of magnetic field in two different layouts: perpendicular and parallel to the axis of the spectrometer being orthogonal to the beamline. The conversion-electron spectrometer coupled to the EAGLE array was successfully tested in an “in-beam” measurement.

  9. High Resolution Spectrometer in studies of e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation at. sqrt. s = 29 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Derrick, M.

    1985-05-03

    The High Resolution Spectrometer is a general-purpose spectrometer which measures both charged particles and electromagnetic energy over 90% of the solid angle. The detection elements are in a 1.62-T magnetic field. The detector elements consist of a central drift chamber, an outer drift-chamber system, a barrel shower counter, and an end-cap shower-counter system. The goals of the program of research with the High Resolution Spectrometer include measurements of the electroweak coupling of the quarks and leptons, studies of the strong interactions of the quarks, and search for qualitatively new phenomena. 20 refs., 35 figs. (LEW)

  10. Global model of longitude/UT variations in thermospheric composition and temperature based on mass spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedin, A. E.; Reber, C. A.; Spencer, N. W.; Brinton, H. C.; Kayser, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of N2, O, He, and Ar densities from neutral gas mass spectrometers on four satellites and inferred O2 and H densities from an ion mass spectrometer have been combined to produce a model of longitude/UT variations in thermospheric neutral composition and temperature. The longitude/UT model is an extension of the mass spectrometer-incoherent scatter thermospheric model (Hedin et al., 1977) and uses spherical harmonic terms dependent on geographic latitude, longitude, and UT. The combined longitude and UT variations reflect the influence of the geomagnetic field but indicate that the variations may not simply be represented in magnetic coordinates.

  11. Conceptual design of a polarized 3He neutron spin filter for polarized neutron spectrometer POLANO at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ino, T.; Ohoyama, K.; Yokoo, T.; Itoh, S.; Ohkawara, M.; Kira, H.; Hayashida, H.; Sakai, K.; Hiroi, K.; Oku, T.; Kakurai, K.; Chang, L. J.

    2016-04-01

    A 3He neutron spin filter (NSF) has been designed for a new polarized neutron chopper spectrometer called the Polarization Analysis Neutron Spectrometer with Correlation Method (POLANO) at the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. It is designed to fit in a limited space on the spectrometer as an initial neutron beam polarizer and is polarized in situ by spin exchange optical pumping. This will be the first generation 3He NSF on POLANO, and a polarized neutron beam up to 100 meV with a diameter of 50 mm will be available for research on magnetism, hydrogen materials, and strongly correlated electron systems.

  12. Defining acceptable conditions in wilderness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggenbuck, J. W.; Williams, D. R.; Watson, A. E.

    1993-03-01

    The limits of acceptable change (LAC) planning framework recognizes that forest managers must decide what indicators of wilderness conditions best represent resource naturalness and high-quality visitor experiences and how much change from the pristine is acceptable for each indicator. Visitor opinions on the aspects of the wilderness that have great impact on their experience can provide valuable input to selection of indicators. Cohutta, Georgia; Caney Creek, Arkansas; Upland Island, Texas; and Rattlesnake, Montana, wilderness visitors have high shared agreement that littering and damage to trees in campsites, noise, and seeing wildlife are very important influences on wilderness experiences. Camping within sight or sound of other people influences experience quality more than do encounters on the trails. Visitors’ standards of acceptable conditions within wilderness vary considerably, suggesting a potential need to manage different zones within wilderness for different clientele groups and experiences. Standards across wildernesses, however, are remarkably similar.

  13. From requirements to acceptance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Lionel; Pasquier, Helene

    1993-01-01

    From user requirements definition to accepted software system, the software project management wants to be sure that the system will meet the requirements. For the development of a telecommunication satellites Control Centre, C.N.E.S. has used new rules to make the use of tracing matrix easier. From Requirements to Acceptance Tests, each item of a document must have an identifier. A unique matrix traces the system and allows the tracking of the consequences of a change in the requirements. A tool has been developed, to import documents into a relational data base. Each record of the data base corresponds to an item of a document, the access key is the item identifier. Tracing matrix is also processed, providing automatically links between the different documents. It enables the reading on the same screen of traced items. For example one can read simultaneously the User Requirements items, the corresponding Software Requirements items and the Acceptance Tests.

  14. Hydrogen Balmer series measurements and determination of Rydberg's constant using two different spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrani, D.

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the use of two different methods, the optical and the computer-aided diffraction-grating spectrometer, to measure the wavelength of visible lines of Balmer series from the hydrogen atomic spectrum and estimate the value of Rydberg's constant. Analysis and interpretation of data showed that both methods, despite their difference in terms of the type of equipment used, displayed good performance in terms of precision of measurements of wavelengths of spectral lines. A comparison was carried out between the experimental value of Rydberg's constant obtained with both methods and the accepted value. The results of Rydberg's constant obtained with both the optical and computer-aided spectrometers were 1.099 28 × 10-7 m-1 and 1.095 13 × 10-7 m-1 with an error difference of 0.17% and 0.20% compared to the accepted value 1.097 373 × 10-7 m-1, respectively.

  15. Cryogenic Scan Mechanism for Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasunas, John C.; Francis, John L.

    2011-01-01

    A compact and lightweight mechanism has been developed to accurately move a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) scan mirror (a cube corner) in a near-linear fashion with near constant speed at cryogenic temperatures. This innovation includes a slide mechanism to restrict motion to one dimension, an actuator to drive the motion, and a linear velocity transducer (LVT) to measure the speed. The cube corner mirror is double-passed in one arm of the FTS; double-passing is required to compensate for optical beam shear resulting from tilting of the moving cube corner. The slide, actuator, and LVT are off-the-shelf components that are capable of cryogenic vacuum operation. The actuator drives the slide for the required travel of 2.5 cm. The LVT measures translation speed. A proportional feedback loop compares the LVT voltage with the set voltage (speed) to derive an error signal to drive the actuator and achieve near constant speed. When the end of the scan is reached, a personal computer reverses the set voltage. The actuator and LVT have no moving parts in contact, and have magnetic properties consistent with cryogenic operation. The unlubricated slide restricts motion to linear travel, using crossed roller bearings consistent with 100-million- stroke operation. The mechanism tilts several arc seconds during transport of the FTS mirror, which would compromise optical fringe efficiency when using a flat mirror. Consequently, a cube corner mirror is used, which converts a tilt into a shear. The sheared beam strikes (at normal incidence) a flat mirror at the end of the FTS arm with the moving mechanism, thereby returning upon itself and compensating for the shear

  16. A Neutron Spectrometer for Small Satellite Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nolfo, Georgia; Bloser, Peter; Dumonthier, J.; Garcia-Burgos, A.; Ryan, James Michael; Suarez, G.; Winkert, G. E.

    2015-04-01

    The detection of fast neutrons has important implications in such diverse fields as geospace physics, solar physics, and applications within Defense and Security programs. In particular, neutrons provide key observations that complement gamma-ray observations in understanding the magnetic topology and particle acceleration processes at the Sun. Solar neutrons have been observed by space-based missions such as CGRO/COMPTEL and ground-based neutron monitors with energies > 20 MeV. Below 20 MeV, given the neutron half-life of ~15min, the detection of neutrons must take place close to the Sun. The challenge is to build instrumentation that conforms to small satellite platforms making inner heliospheric observations possible as well as Earth-orbiting CubeSats. Scintillator-based technologies have a proven track record for the detection of fast neutrons with high stopping power, good energy resolution, and fast timing. Modern organic scintillators such as stilbene and p-terphenyl, offer improved light output and pulse shape discrimination — the ability to distinguish gamma from neutron-induced signals. Modern readout devices such as silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) offer an ideal alternative to photomultiplier tubes given their inherently compact size and the very low operating voltages required. The combination of modern scintillators and silicon photomultipliers enables new designs for instruments that conform to small satellite platforms such as CubeSats. We discuss the performance of a double scatter neutron spectrometer based on p-terphenyl coupled to arrays of silicon photomultipliers for readout. In addition, we present preliminary results for pulse shape discrimination using advanced waveform digitization techniques.

  17. Axial field spectrometer at the CERN ISR

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, H.; Hogue, R.; Killian, T.

    1981-01-01

    The Axial Field Spectrometer (AFS) was recently brought into operation at the CERN ISR. It is being exploited in a wide-ranging program to study different aspects of those proton-proton or proton-antiproton collisions which are characterized by a large transverse momentum (p/sub T/). Examples include the measurement of inclusive distributions of identified high p/sub T/ hadrons, and the study of event structures characterized by a large transverse energy (E/sub T/) or the production of one or several high-p/sub T/ electrons or photons. The experimental approach to this program emphasizes integration of advanced magnetic spectroscopy with state-of-the-art calorimetry. These techniques are fully exploited to provide maximal information on all particles produced. In addition, information from these detectors is used in new ways for on-line event triggering and filtering; this allows even very rare events to be selected with high efficiency, an essential prerequisite for studies at a high-luminosity hadron collider, such as the ISR. Considerable modularity of the detectors was sought. Apart from clear advantages of construction, debugging, running, and servicing of such components, modularity provides ease for addition or reconfiguration of the system to emphasize the study of specific final states. At present, for example, a 1 sr Cerenkov detector system allows hadron identification up to p approx. = 12 GeV/c; liquid-argon electromagnetic calorimeters and a uranium-scintillator calorimeter (Hexagon) are used for a study of events containing direct photons.

  18. E906 Experiment: Study of Background Rates with a Solid Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinbule, Obiageli

    2008-10-01

    Fermilab (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory) E906 is an experiment to determine the ratio of d-bar to u-bar quarks in the nucleon sea. The experiment measures the di-muon pairs that are produced via the Drell-Yan process, which is when a quark and anti-quark annihilate, creating a di-lepton pair. With a goal of extending the E866/NuSea measurements to higher Bjorken x, it will help reveal the structure of the proton. The results to be presented focus on using GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations to investigate spectrometer acceptance and background rates if a solid iron magnet is used, as opposed to the original plan of an open magnet filled with hadron absorbers. A solid iron magnet would be relatively low cost, since the coils and iron can be taken from parts of the E866/NuSea detector apparatus. Results of these simulations will be shown to demonstrate that the solid iron magnet will give acceptable results. Results will also be shown on ideas to reduce the background from in-flight pion decays from the liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets.

  19. An electron/ion spectrometer with the ability of low energy electron measurement for fast ignition experiments.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, T; Kojima, S; Arikawa, Y; Shiraga, H; Sakagami, H; Fujioka, S; Kato, R

    2014-11-01

    An electron energy spectrometer (ESM) is one of the most fundamental diagnostics in the fast ignition experiment. It is necessary to observe the spectra down to a low energy range in order to obtain the accurate deposition efficiency toward the core. Here, we realize the suitable ESM by using a ferrite magnet with a moderate magnetic field of 0.3 T and a rectangular magnetic circuit covered with a steel plate in the inlet side. PMID:25430292

  20. An electron/ion spectrometer with the ability of low energy electron measurement for fast ignition experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, T.; Sakagami, H.; Kojima, S.; Arikawa, Y.; Shiraga, H.; Fujioka, S.; Kato, R.

    2014-11-15

    An electron energy spectrometer (ESM) is one of the most fundamental diagnostics in the fast ignition experiment. It is necessary to observe the spectra down to a low energy range in order to obtain the accurate deposition efficiency toward the core. Here, we realize the suitable ESM by using a ferrite magnet with a moderate magnetic field of 0.3 T and a rectangular magnetic circuit covered with a steel plate in the inlet side.