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Sample records for acceptance noninvasive laser

  1. Noninvasive laser vasectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher Michael

    Development of a noninvasive vasectomy technique may eliminate male fear of complications (incision, bleeding, infection, and scrotal pain) and result in a more popular procedure. These studies build off previous studies that report the ability to thermally target tissue substructures with near infrared laser radiation while maintaining a healthy superficial layer of tissue through active surface cooling. Initial studies showed the ability to increase the working depth compared to that of common dermatological procedures and the translation into an ex vivo canine model targeting the vas deferens in a noninvasive laser vasectomy. Laser and cooling parameter optimization was required to determine the best possible wavelength for a safe transition to an in vivo canine model. Optical clearing agents were investigated as a mechanism to decrease tissue scattering during in vivo procedures to increase optical penetration depth and reduce the overall power required. Optical and thermal computer models were developed to determine the efficacy for a successful transition into a human model. Common clinical imaging modalities (ultrasound, high frequency ultrasound, and optical coherence tomography) were tested as possible candidates for real-time imaging feedback to determine surgical success. Finally, a noninvasive laser vasectomy prototype clamp incorporating laser, cooling, and control in a single package was designed and tested in vivo. Occlusion of the canine vas deferens able to withstand physiological burst pressures measured postoperative was shown during acute and chronic studies. This procedure is ready for azoospermia and recanalization studies in a clinical setting.

  2. Noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Chen, Jianhong; Ooi, Ean Tat; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2006-02-01

    The non-invasive measurement of blood sugar level was studied by use of near infrared laser diodes. The in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out using six laser diodes having wavelengths range from 1550 nm to 1750nm. Several volunteers were tested for OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) experiment. We took blood from a fingertip and measured its concentration with a glucose meter while taking signal voltage from laser diodes system. The data of signal voltage were processed to do calibration and prediction; in this paper PLS (Partial Least Square) method was used to do modeling. For in vitro experiment, good linear relationship between predicted glucose concentration and real glucose concentration was obtained. For in vivo experiments, we got the blood sugar level distributions in Clarke error grid that is a reference for doctors to do diagnosis and treatment. In the Clarke error grid, 75% of all data was in area A and 25 % was in area B. From the in vitro and in vivo results we know that multiple laser diodes are suitable for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring.

  3. Postgraduate education in noninvasive laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, Leos; Kymplova, Jaroslava; Navratilova, Blanka

    2002-10-01

    Non-invasive lasertherapy became today an appreciated treatment method. To avoid its degradation, it is necessary that every physician, who indicates it, would pass out the basic course in these problems. So the error danger by its application would be reduced. As we have verified, in every country the education process is different; we don't consider this fact as right. In the Czech Republic the Radiobiologic Society of Czech Medical Society J. E. Purkynje in co-operation with the Institute of Further Physician's Education, having wide experiences in postgraduate education, organizes already five years such courses. The basic course has 20 lessons, in which the graduates are acquainted with physical base of laser, hygienic rulings for working with laser and biologic changes induced by low level laser in the tissue in vivo. A considerable attention is dedicated to clinical practice and practical education on clinical departments in the fields of dermatology, physiotherapy, stomatology and gynaecology. This course is completed with a lecture of the recent marketing in health service. Participants document their knowledge's in the closing test. Every physician can perfect his knowledge's in a continuation course. Our experiences proved that the education in phototherapy in Czech Republic is on high level in comparison with number of other countries.

  4. Children acceptance of laser dental treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazea, Andreea; Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the dental anxiety level and the degree of acceptance of laser assisted pedodontic treatments from the children part. Also, we want to underline the advantages of laser use in pediatric dentistry, to make this technology widely used in treating dental problems of our children patients. Methods: Thirty pediatric dental patients presented in the Department of Pedodontics, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babeş", Timişoara were evaluated using the Wong-Baker pain rating scale, wich was administered postoperatory to all patients, to assess their level of laser therapy acceptance. Results: Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (WBFPS) has good validity and high specificity; generally it's easy for children to use, easy to compare and has good feasibility. Laser treatment has been accepted and tolerated by pediatric patients for its ability to reduce or eliminate pain. Around 70% of the total sample showed an excellent acceptance of laser dental treatment. Conclusions: Laser technology is useful and effective in many clinical situations encountered in pediatric dentistry and a good level of pacient acceptance is reported during all laser procedures on hard and soft tissues.

  5. Noninvasive blood glucose measurement using multiple laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, E. T.; Zhang, X. Q.; Chen, J. H.; Soh, P. H.; Ng, K.; Yeo, J. H.

    2007-02-01

    In the event of diabetes clinicians have advocated that frequent monitoring of a diabetic's blood glucose level is the key to avoid future complications (kidney failure, blindness, amputations, premature death, etc.,) associated with the disease. While the test-strip glucose meters available in current consumer markets allow for frequent monitoring, a more convenient technique that is accurate, painless and sample-free is preferable in a diabetic's daily routine. This paper presents a non-invasive blood glucose measurement technique using diffuse reflectance near infrared (NIR) signals. This technique uses a set of laser diodes, each operating at fixed wavelengths in the first overtone region. The NIR signals from the laser diodes are channeled to the measurement site viz., the nail-bed by means of optical fibers. A series of in vivo experiments have been performed on eight normal human subjects using a standard Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) protocol. The reflected NIR signals are inputs to a Partial Least Squares (PLS) algorithm for calibration and future predictions. The calibration models used are developed using in vivo datasets and are unique to a particular individual. The 1218 paired points collected from the eight test subjects plotted on the Clarke Error Grid, revealed that 87.3% of these points fall within the A zone while the remainder, within the B zone, both of which, are clinically accepted. The standard error of prediction was +/-13.14mg/dL for the best calibration model. A Bland-Altman analysis of the 1218 paired points yields a 76.3% confidence level for a measurement accuracy of +/-20mg/dL. These results demonstrate the initial potential of the technique for non-invasive blood glucose measurements in vivo.

  6. Application of optical coherence tomography and high-frequency ultrasound imaging during noninvasive laser vasectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Allaf, Mohamad E.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2012-04-01

    A noninvasive approach to vasectomy may eliminate male fear of complications related to surgery and increase its acceptance. Noninvasive laser thermal occlusion of the canine vas deferens has recently been reported. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) are compared for monitoring laser thermal coagulation of the vas in an acute canine model. Bilateral noninvasive laser coagulation of the vas was performed in six dogs (n=12 vasa) using a Ytterbium fiber laser wavelength of 1075 nm, incident power of 9.0 W, pulse duration of 500 ms, pulse rate of 1 Hz, and 3-mm-diameter spot. Cryogen spray cooling was used to prevent skin burns during the procedure. An OCT system with endoscopic probe and a HFUS system with 20-MHz transducer were used to image the vas immediately before and after the procedure. Vasa were then excised and processed for gross and histologic analysis for comparison with OCT and HFUS images. OCT provided high-resolution, superficial imaging of the compressed vas within the vas ring clamp, while HFUS provided deeper imaging of the vas held manually in the scrotal fold. Both OCT and high HFUS are promising imaging modalities for real-time confirmation of vas occlusion during noninvasive laser vasectomy.

  7. Noninvasive Facial Rejuvenation. Part 3: Physician-Directed-Lasers, Chemical Peels, and Other Noninvasive Modalities.

    PubMed

    Meaike, Jesse D; Agrawal, Nikhil; Chang, Daniel; Lee, Edward I; Nigro, Marjory G

    2016-08-01

    A proper knowledge of noninvasive facial rejuvenation is integral to the practice of a cosmetic surgeon. Noninvasive facial rejuvenation can be divided into patient- versus physician-directed modalities. Patient-directed facial rejuvenation combines the use of facial products such as sunscreen, moisturizers, retinoids, α-hydroxy acids, and various antioxidants to both maintain youthful skin and rejuvenate damaged skin. Physicians may recommend and often prescribe certain products, but patients are in control with this type of facial rejuvenation. On the other hand, physician-directed facial rejuvenation entails modalities that require direct physician involvement, such as neuromodulators, filler injections, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, and chemical peels. With the successful integration of each of these modalities, a complete facial regimen can be established and patient satisfaction can be maximized. This article is the last in a three-part series describing noninvasive facial rejuvenation. Here the authors review the mechanism, indications, and possible complications of lasers, chemical peels, and other commonly used noninvasive modalities. PMID:27478423

  8. Baroreflex regulation measurement using a noninvasive laser Doppler method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hast, Jukka T.; Myllylae, Risto A.; Sorvoja, Hannu; Nissilae, Seppo M.

    2001-05-01

    In this study, a noninvasive laser Doppler measurement method based on the self-mixing effect of a diode laser was used to measure baroreflex regulation, which is manifest in the blood pressure signal as a 0.1 Hz sinusoidal variation. The laser Doppler measurement system was used to measure the movement of the right radial artery of ten volunteers. Variation in blood pressure caused by the baroreflex affects the elastic properties of the arterial wall. When diastolic blood pressure increases, the elasticity of the arterial wall decreases, causing the wall to lose some of its movability. This decreased elasticity reveals itself in the Doppler signal such that when the blood pressure increases, the Doppler frequency decreases and vice versa. The results show, that the laser Doppler method can be used to measure baroreflex regulation. Finally, baroreflex regulation in the Doppler signal is approximately in the inverse phase with respect to variation in diastolic blood pressure.

  9. Laser probes for noninvasive coagulation of subsurface tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chia-Chun; Permpongkosol, Sompol; Varkarakis, Ioannis M.; Lima, Guilherme; Franco, Nicholas; Hayman, Michael H.; Nicol, Theresa; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2006-02-01

    Previous ex vivo tissue studies utilizing deep laser heating combined with contact cooling of the tissue surface produced noninvasive thermal destruction of subsurface tissue structures in skin and liver samples. This study describes the design and preliminary in vivo testing of two integrated laser/cooling probes for simultaneous Nd:YAG laser irradiation and sapphire contact cooling of liver and skin tissues in an in vivo, acute porcine model for potential use in laparoscopic and endoscopic surgery. Nd:YAG laser radiation with a wavelength of 1.06 μm, power of 20 W, 7.5-mm-diameter spot, 500-ms pulse length, and repetition rate of 0.625 Hz, was delivered to the tissue with a total irradiation time of 16 s. The tissue surface was continuously cooled with a sapphire plate maintained at -5 °C, and with pre- and post-ablation cooling times measuring 120 s and 30 s, resulting in a total operation time of 166 s per a lesion. Thermal lesions were created in liver and skin at a 1-mm depth below the tissue surface and with a 3-4 mm diameter. The laser parameters and lesion dimensions were comparable to previous ex vivo tissue studies. Preliminary in vivo animal studies demonstrate noninvasive creation of subsurface thermal lesions in tissue using Nd:YAG laser irradiation in conjunction with sapphire contact cooling. Chronic wound healing studies will be necessary to optimize the laser and cooling parameters. Potential clinical applications include endoscopic laser treatment of female stress urinary incontinence and thermal coagulation of early stage bladder tumors.

  10. Accepting or declining non-invasive ventilation or gastrostomy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: patients' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Greenaway, L P; Martin, N H; Lawrence, V; Janssen, A; Al-Chalabi, A; Leigh, P N; Goldstein, L H

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to identify factors associated with decisions made by patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to accept or decline non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and/or gastrostomy in a prospective population-based study. Twenty-one people with ALS, recruited from the South-East ALS Register who made an intervention decision during the study timeframe underwent a face-to-face in-depth interview, with or without their informal caregiver present. Sixteen had accepted an intervention (11 accepted gastrostomy, four accepted NIV and one accepted both interventions). Five patients had declined gastrostomy. Thematic analysis revealed three main themes: (1) patient-centric factors (including perceptions of control, acceptance and need, and aspects of fear); (2) external factors (including roles played by healthcare professionals, family, and information provision); and (3) the concept of time (including living in the moment and the notion of 'right thing, right time'). Many aspects of these factors were inter-related. Decision-making processes for the patients were found to be complex and multifaceted and reinforce arguments for individualised (rather than 'algorithm-based') approaches to facilitating decision-making by people with ALS who require palliative interventions. PMID:25683760

  11. Optical coherence tomography vs. high-frequency ultrasound during noninvasive laser coagulation of the canine vas deferens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Allaf, Mohamad E.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2012-02-01

    A noninvasive approach to vasectomy may eliminate male fear of complications related to surgery and increase its acceptance. Noninvasive laser thermal occlusion of the canine vas deferens has recently been reported. In this study, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) are compared for monitoring laser thermal coagulation of the vas in an acute canine model. Bilateral noninvasive laser coagulation of the vas was performed in 6 dogs (n=12 vasa) using a Ytterbium fiber laser wavelength of 1075 nm, incident power of 9.0 W, pulse duration of 500 ms, pulse rate of 1 Hz, and 3-mm-diameter spot. Cryogen spray cooling was used to prevent skin burns during the procedure. An OCT system with endoscopic probe and a HFUS system with 20-MHz transducer were used to image the vas immediately before and after the procedure. Vasa were then excised and processed for gross and histologic analysis for comparison with OCT and HFUS images. OCT provided high-resolution, superficial imaging of the compressed vas within the vas ring clamp, while HFUS provided deeper imaging of the vas held manually in the scrotal fold. Both OCT and high HFUS are promising imaging modalities for real-time confirmation of vas occlusion during noninvasive laser vasectomy.

  12. Study of noninvasive detection of latent fingerprints using UV laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-xia; Cao, Jing; Niu, Jie-qing; Huang, Yun-gang; Mao, Lin-jie; Chen, Jing-rong

    2011-06-01

    Latent fingerprints present a considerable challenge in forensics, and noninvasive procedure that captures a digital image of the latent fingerprints is significant in the field of criminal investigation. The capability of photography technologies using 266nm UV Nd:YAG solid state laser as excitation light source to provide detailed images of unprocessed latent fingerprints is demonstrated. Unprocessed latent fingerprints were developed on various non-absorbent and absorbing substrates. According to the special absorption, reflection, scattering and fluorescence characterization of the various residues in fingerprints (fatty acid ester, protein, and carbosylic acid salts etc) to the UV light to weaken or eliminate the background disturbance and increase the brightness contrast of fingerprints with the background, and using 266nm UV laser as excitation light source, fresh and old latent fingerprints on the surface of four types of non-absorbent objects as magazine cover, glass, back of cellphone, wood desktop paintwork and two types of absorbing objects as manila envelope, notebook paper were noninvasive detected and appeared through reflection photography and fluorescence photography technologies, and the results meet the fingerprint identification requirements in forensic science.

  13. Tunable laser diode system for noninvasive blood glucose measurements.

    PubMed

    Olesberg, Jonathon T; Arnold, Mark A; Mermelstein, Carmen; Schmitz, Johannes; Wagner, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    Optical sensing of glucose would allow more frequent monitoring and tighter glucose control for people with diabetes. The key to a successful optical noninvasive measurement of glucose is the collection of an optical spectrum with a very high signal-to-noise ratio in a spectral region with significant glucose absorption. Unfortunately, the optical throughput of skin is low due to absorption and scattering. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed a high-brightness tunable laser system for measurements in the 2.0-2.5 microm wavelength range. The system is based on a 2.3 microm wavelength, strained quantum-well laser diode incorporating GaInAsSb wells and AlGaAsSb barrier and cladding layers. Wavelength control is provided by coupling the laser diode to an external cavity that includes an acousto-optic tunable filter. Tuning ranges of greater than 110 nm have been obtained. Because the tunable filter has no moving parts, scans can be completed very quickly, typically in less than 10 ms. We describe the performance of the present laser system and avenues for extending the tuning range beyond 400 nm. PMID:16390586

  14. Noninvasive low-level laser therapy for thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Dong, Tingting; Li, Peiyu; Wu, Mei X

    2016-07-27

    Thrombocytopenia is a common hematologic disorder that is managed primarily by platelet transfusions. We report here that noninvasive whole-body illumination with a special near-infrared laser cures acute thrombocytopenia triggered by γ-irradiation within 2 weeks in mice, as opposed to a 5-week recovery time required in controls. The low-level laser (LLL) also greatly accelerated platelet regeneration in the presence of anti-CD41 antibody that binds and depletes platelets, and prevented a severe drop in platelet count caused by a common chemotherapeutic drug. Mechanistically, LLL stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis specifically in megakaryocytes owing to polyploidy of the cells. LLL also protected megakaryocytes from mitochondrial injury and apoptosis under stress. The multifaceted effects of LLL on mitochondria bolstered megakaryocyte maturation; facilitated elongation, branching, and formation of proplatelets; and doubled the number of platelets generated from individual megakaryocytes in mice. LLL-mediated platelet biogenesis depended on megakaryopoiesis and was inversely correlated with platelet counts, which kept platelet biogenesis in check and effectively averted thrombosis even after repeated uses, in sharp contrast to all current agents that stimulate the differentiation of megakaryocyte progenitors from hematopoietic stem cells independently of platelet counts. This safe, drug-free, donor-independent modality represents a paradigm shift in the prophylaxis and treatment of thrombocytopenia. PMID:27464749

  15. Arterial compliance measurement using a noninvasive laser Doppler measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hast, Jukka T.; Myllylae, Risto A.; Sorvoja, Hannu; Nissilae, Seppo M.

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to study the elasticity of the arterial wall using a non-invasive laser Doppler measurement system. The elasticity of the arterial wall is described by its compliance factor, which can be determined when both blood pressure and the radial velocity of the arterial wall are known. To measure radical velocity we used a self- mixing interferometer. The compliance factors were measured from six healthy volunteers, whose ages were varied from 21 to 32. Although a single volunteer's compliance factor is presented as an example, this paper treated the volunteers as a group. First, the elastic modulus, which is inversely proportional to the compliance factor, was determined. Then, an exponential curve was fitted into the measured data and a characteristic equation for the elastic modulus of the arterial wall was determined. The elastic modulus was calculated at different pressures and the results were compared to the static incremental modulus of a dog's femoral artery. The results indicate that there is a correlation between human elastic and canine static incremental modulus for blood pressures varying from 60 to 110 mmHg.

  16. The immunological response created by interstitial and non-invasive laser immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahavar, Cody F.; Zhou, Feifan; Hasanjee, Aamr M.; West, Connor L.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Hode, Tomas; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) is an innovative cancer modality that uses laser irradiation and immunological stimulation to treat late-stage, metastatic cancers. LIT can be performed through either interstitial or non-invasive laser irradiation. Although LIT is still in development, recent clinical trials have shown that it can be used to successfully treat patients with late-stage breast cancer and melanoma. The development of LIT has been focused on creating an optimal immune response created by irradiating the tumor. One important factor that could enhance the immune response is the duration of laser irradiation. Irradiating the tumor for a shorter or longer amount of time could weaken the immune response created by LIT. Another factor that could weaken this immune response is the proliferation of regulatory T cells (TRegs) in response to the laser irradiation. However, low dose cyclophosphamide (CY) can help suppress the proliferation of TRegs and help create a more optimal immune response. An additional factor that could weaken the effectiveness of LIT is the selectivity of the laser. If LIT is performed non-invasively, then deeply embedded tumors and highly pigmented skin could cause an uneven temperature distribution inside the tumor. To solve this problem, an immunologically modified carbon nanotube system was created by using an immunoadjuvant known as glycated chitosan (GC) as a surfactant for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to immunologically modify SWNTs. SWNT-GC retains the optical properties of SWNTs and the immunological functions of GC to help increase the selectivity of the laser and create a more optimal immune response. In this preliminary study, tumor-bearing rats were treated with LIT either interstitially by an 805-nm laser with GC and low-dose CY, or non-invasively by a 980-nm laser with SWNT-GC. The goal was to observe the effects of CY on the immune response induced by LIT and to also determine the effect of irradiation duration for

  17. Comparison of four lasers (λ = 650, 808, 980, and 1075 nm) for noninvasive creation of deep subsurface lesions in tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Hung; Wilson, Christopher R.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-07-01

    Lasers have been used in combination with applied cooling methods to preserve superficial skin layers (100's μm's) during cosmetic surgery. Preservation of a thicker tissue surface layer (millimeters) may also allow development of other noninvasive laser procedures. We are exploring noninvasive therapeutic laser applications in urology (e.g. laser vasectomy and laser treatment of female stress urinary incontinence), which require surface tissue preservation on the millimeter scale. In this preliminary study, four lasers were compared for noninvasive creation of deep subsurface thermal lesions. Laser energy from three diode lasers (650, 808, and 980 nm) and a Ytterbium fiber laser (1075 nm) was delivered through a custom built, side-firing, laser probe with integrated cooling. An alcohol-based solution at -5 °C was circulated through a flow cell, cooling a sapphire window, which in turn cooled the tissue surface. The probe was placed in contact with porcine liver tissue, ex vivo, kept hydrated in saline and maintained at ~ 35 °C. Incident laser power was 4.2 W, spot diameter was 5.3 mm, and treatment time was 60 s. The optimal laser wavelength tested for creation of deep subsurface thermal lesions during contact cooling of tissues was 1075 nm, which preserved a surface layer of ~ 2 mm. The Ytterbium fiber laser provides a compact, low maintenance, and high power alternative laser source to the Neodymium:YAG laser for noninvasive thermal therapy.

  18. Noninvasive micromanipulation of live HIV-1 infected cells via laser light

    SciTech Connect

    Mthunzi, Patience

    2015-12-31

    Live mammalian cells from various tissues of origin can be aseptically and noninvasively micromanipulated via lasers of different regimes. Laser-driven techniques are therefore paving a path toward the advancement of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV-1) investigations. Studies aimed at the interaction of laser light, nanomaterials, and biological materials can also lead to an understanding of a wealth of disease conditions and result in photonics-based therapies and diagnostic tools. Thus, in our research, both continuous wave and pulsed lasers operated at varying wavelengths are employed, as they possess special properties that allow classical biomedical applications. This paper discusses photo-translocation of antiretroviral drugs into HIV-1 permissive cells and preliminary results of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in HIV-1 infected cells.

  19. Noninvasive micromanipulation of live HIV-1 infected cells via laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mthunzi, Patience

    2015-12-01

    Live mammalian cells from various tissues of origin can be aseptically and noninvasively micromanipulated via lasers of different regimes. Laser-driven techniques are therefore paving a path toward the advancement of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV-1) investigations. Studies aimed at the interaction of laser light, nanomaterials, and biological materials can also lead to an understanding of a wealth of disease conditions and result in photonics-based therapies and diagnostic tools. Thus, in our research, both continuous wave and pulsed lasers operated at varying wavelengths are employed, as they possess special properties that allow classical biomedical applications. This paper discusses photo-translocation of antiretroviral drugs into HIV-1 permissive cells and preliminary results of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in HIV-1 infected cells.

  20. Optical and thermal simulations of noninvasive laser coagulation of the human vas deferens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweinsberger, Gino R.; Cilip, Christopher M.; Trammell, Susan R.; Cherukuri, Harish; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2011-03-01

    Successful noninvasive laser coagulation of the canine vas deferens, in vivo, has been previously reported. However, there is a significant difference between the optical properties of canine and human skin. In this study, Monte Carlo simulations of light transport through tissue and heat transfer simulations are performed to determine the feasibility of noninvasive laser vasectomy in humans. A laser wavelength of 1064 nm was chosen for deep optical penetration in tissue. Monte Carlo simulations determined the spatial distribution of absorbed photons inside the tissue layers (epidermis, dermis, and vas). The results were convolved with a 3-mm-diameter laser beam, and then used as the spatial heat source for the heat transfer model. A laser pulse duration of 500 ms and pulse rate of 1 Hz, and cryogen spray cooling were incident on the tissue for 60 s. Average laser power (5-9 W), cryogen pulse duration (60-100 ms), cryogen cooling rate (0.5-1.0 Hz), and increase in optical transmission due to optical clearing (0-50 %), were studied. After application of an optical clearing agent to increase skin transmission by 50%, an average laser power of 6 W, cryogen pulse duration of 60 ms, and cryogen cooling rate of 1 Hz resulted in vas temperatures of ~ 60°C, sufficient for thermal coagulation, while 1 mm of the skin surface (epidermis and dermis) remained at a safe temperature of ~ 45 °C. Monte Carlo and heat transfer simulations indicate that it is possible to noninvasively thermally coagulate the human vas without adverse effects (e.g. scrotal skin burns), if an optical clearing agent is applied to the skin prior to the procedure.

  1. Transport and Non-Invasive Position Detection of Electron Beams from Laser-Plasma Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Osterhoff, Jens; Sokollik, Thomas; Nakamura, Kei; Bakeman, Michael; Weingartner, R; Gonsalves, Anthony; Shiraishi, Satomi; Lin, Chen; vanTilborg, Jeroen; Geddes, Cameron; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Toth, Csaba; DeSantis, Stefano; Byrd, John; Gruner, F; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-20

    The controlled imaging and transport of ultra-relativistic electrons from laser-plasma accelerators is of crucial importance to further use of these beams, e.g. in high peak-brightness light sources. We present our plans to realize beam transport with miniature permanent quadrupole magnets from the electron source through our THUNDER undulator. Simulation results demonstrate the importance of beam imaging by investigating the generated XUV-photon flux. In addition, first experimental findings of utilizing cavity-based monitors for non-invasive beam-position measurements in a noisy electromagnetic laser-plasma environment are discussed.

  2. Explosive component acceptance tester using laser interferometer technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickstrom, Richard D.; Tarbell, William W.

    1993-01-01

    Acceptance testing of explosive components requires a reliable and simple to use testing method that can discern less than optimal performance. For hot-wire detonators, traditional techniques use dent blocks or photographic diagnostic methods. More complicated approaches are avoided because of their inherent problems with setup and maintenance. A recently developed tester is based on using a laser interferometer to measure the velocity of flying plates accelerated by explosively actuated detonators. Unlike ordinary interferometers that monitor displacement of the test article, this device measures velocity directly and is commonly used with non-spectral surfaces. Most often referred to as the VISAR technique (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflecting Surface), it has become the most widely-accepted choice for accurate measurement of velocity in the range greater than 1 mm/micro-s. Traditional VISAR devices require extensive setup and adjustment and therefore are unacceptable in a production-testing environment. This paper describes a new VISAR approach which requires virtually no adjustments, yet provides data with accuracy comparable to the more complicated systems. The device, termed the Fixed-Cavity VISAR, is currently being developed to serve as a product verification tool for hot-wire detonators and slappers. An extensive data acquisition and analysis computer code was also created to automate the manipulation of raw data into final results.

  3. Noninvasive optoacoustic temperature determination at the fundus of the eye during laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Schule, Georg; Huttmann, Gereon; Framme, Carsten; Roider, Johann; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2004-01-01

    In all fundus laser treatments of the eye, the temperature increase is not exactly known. In order to optimize treatments, an online temperature determination is preferable. We investigated a noninvasive optoacoustic method to monitor the fundus temperature during pulsed laser irradiation. When laser pulses are applied to the fundus, thermoelastic pressure waves are emitted, due to thermal expansion of the heated tissue. Using a constant pulse energy, the amplitude of the pressure wave increases linearly with an increase in the base temperature of between 30 and 80 degrees C. This method was evaluated in vitro on porcine retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell samples and clinically during selective RPE treatment with repetitive microsecond laser pulses. During the irradiation of porcine RPE with a neodymium-doped yttrium (Nd:YLF) laser (527 nm, 1.7 micros, 500 Hz repetition rate, 160 mJ/cm(2)) an increase in the base temperature of 30+/-4 degrees C after 100 pulses was found. During patient treatments, a temperature increase of 60+/-11 degrees C after 100 pulses with a 500-Hz repetition rate and 7+/-1 degrees C after 30 pulses with 100 Hz at 520 mJ/cm(2) was found. All measured data were in good agreement with heat diffusion calculations. Optoacoustic methods can be used to noninvasively determine retinal temperatures during pulsed laser treatment of the eye. This technique can also be adapted to continuous-wave photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy and transpupillary thermotherapy, or other fields of laser-heated tissue.

  4. Non-invasive determination of port wine stain anatomy and physiology for optimal laser treatment strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Nelson, J. Stuart; Milner, Thomas E.; Smithies, Derek J.; Verkruysse, Wim; de Boer, Johannes F.; Lucassen, Gerald W.; Goodman, Dennis M.; Tanenbaum, B. Samuel; Norvang, Lill T.; Svaasand, Lars O.

    1997-05-01

    The treatment of port wine stains (PWSs) using a flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser is often performed using virtually identical irradiation parameters. Although encouraging clinical results have been reported, we propose that lasers will only reach their full potential provided treatment parameters match individual PWS anatomy and physiology. The purpose of this paper is to review the progress made on the technical development and clinical implementation of (i) infrared tomography (IRT), optical reflectance spectroscopy (ORS) and optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR) to obtain in vivo diagnostic data on individual PWS anatomy and physiology and (ii) models of light and heat propagation, predicting irreversible vascular injury in human skin, to select optimal laser wavelength, pulse duration, spot size and radiant exposure for complete PWS blanching in the fewest possible treatment sessions. Although non-invasive optical sensing techniques may provide significant diagnostic data, development of a realistic model will require a better understanding of relevant mechanisms for irreversible vascular injury.

  5. For your interest? The ethical acceptability of using non-invasive prenatal testing to test 'purely for information'.

    PubMed

    Deans, Zuzana; Clarke, Angus J; Newson, Ainsley J

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is an emerging form of prenatal genetic testing that provides information about the genetic constitution of a foetus without the risk of pregnancy loss as a direct result of the test procedure. As with other prenatal tests, information from NIPT can help to make a decision about termination of pregnancy, plan contingencies for birth or prepare parents to raise a child with a genetic condition. NIPT can also be used by women and couples to test purely 'for information'. Here, no particular action is envisaged following the test; it is motivated entirely by an interest in the result. The fact that NIPT can be performed without posing a risk to the pregnancy could give rise to an increase in such requests. In this paper, we examine the ethical aspects of using NIPT 'purely for information', including the competing interests of the prospective parents and the future child, and the acceptability of testing for 'frivolous' reasons. Drawing on several clinical scenarios, we claim that arguments about testing children for genetic conditions are relevant to this debate. In addition, we raise ethical concerns over the potential for objectification of the child. We conclude that, in most cases, using NIPT to test for adult-onset conditions, carrier status or non-serious traits presenting in childhood would be unacceptable.

  6. Possibilities of current use of noninvasive laser therapy and systemic enzymotherapy in stomatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, Leos; Navratilova, Blanka; Knizek, Jiri; Fikackova, Hana; Erosova, Zuzana; Kymplova, Jaroslava

    2002-10-01

    There are no doubts about benefits of non-invasive laser therapy in treating surgical wounds thanks to its anti-inflammatory, stimulating and analgesic effects. Systemic enzymotherapy is particularly employed due to its thrombolytic, fibrinolytic and antiedema effects. Concurrent use of the two above mentioned treatment modalities exerts synergistic action. Thus, it is possible to reduce the persistence of the pain as well as duration of the post-operation period after surgical interventions in the mouth cavity at a statistically highly significant level. Thus, this approach can be recommended for achieving a favourable course in most post-operation conditions.

  7. Towards novel compact laser sources for non-invasive diagnostics and treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Edik U.; Litvinova, Karina S.; Sokolovski, Sergei G.

    2015-08-01

    An important field of application of lasers is biomedical optics. Here, they offer great utility for diagnosis, therapy and surgery. For the development of novel methods of laser-based biomedical diagnostics careful study of light propagation in biological tissues is necessary to enhance our understanding of the optical measurements undertaken, increase research and development capacity and the diagnostic reliability of optical technologies. Ultimately, fulfilling these requirements will increase uptake in clinical applications of laser based diagnostics and therapeutics. To address these challenges informative biomarkers relevant to the biological and physiological function or disease state of the organism must be selected. These indicators are the results of the analysis of tissues and cells, such as blood. For non-invasive diagnostics peripheral blood, cells and tissue can potentially provide comprehensive information on the condition of the human organism. A detailed study of the light scattering and absorption characteristics can quickly detect physiological and morphological changes in the cells due to thermal, chemical, antibiotic treatments, etc [1-5]. The selection of a laser source to study the structure of biological particles also benefits from the fact that gross pathological changes are not induced and diagnostics make effective use of the monochromatic directional coherence properties of laser radiation.

  8. Ultrasound for noninvasive control of laser-induced tissue heating and coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleffner, Bernhard; Kriegerowski, Martin; Oltrup, Theo; Bende, Thomas; Jean, Benedikt J.

    1996-05-01

    The application of lasers to achieve localized thermal tissue damage is a common technique in minimally invasive surgery. Currently, there is no control during these treatments. In glaucoma therapy the laser energy applied and the beam direction are estimated prior to treatment, according to clinical experience and anatomic norm values. This lack of on-line control may limit success and lead to side effects. Precision and efficiency of treatment could be improved markedly by analysis of spatially resolved, temperature-dependent data obtained by Ultrasound Reflectometry. Thermally induced changes, as well as their localization were detected qualitatively in B-scan. Quantification was achieved by integration of high frequency RF-signals with the following resolution: spatial 50 micrometers , temporal 200 microsecond(s) , temperature 0.5 degree(s). The presented method is suitable for a non-invasive on-line therapy control.

  9. Field-free molecular alignment induced by elliptically polarized laser pulses: Noninvasive three-dimensional characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Hertz, E.; Guerin, S.; Jauslin, H. R.; Lavorel, B.; Faucher, O.; Daems, D.

    2007-10-15

    An investigation of field-free molecular alignment produced by elliptically polarized laser pulses is reported. Experiments are conducted in CO{sub 2} at room temperature. A noninvasive all-optical technique, based on the cross defocusing of a probe pulse, is used to measure the alignment along two orthogonal directions which is sufficient to provide a three-dimensional characterization. The field-free molecular alignment produced by a laser of elliptical polarization is in good agreement in terms of amplitude and shape with theoretical predictions. It turns out to be almost equivalent to the superposition of the effects that one would obtain with two individual cross-polarized pulses. The investigation highlights notably the occurrence of field-free two-direction alignment alternation for a suitably chosen degree of ellipticity. The analogy between this specific ellipticity and the well-known 'magic angle' used in time-resolved spectroscopy to prevent rotational contributions is discussed.

  10. Noninvasive Laser Probing of Ultrashort Single Electron Bunches for Accelerator And Light Source Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, P.R.; /SLAC

    2007-06-11

    Companion development of ultrafast electron beam diagnostics capable of noninvasively resolving single bunch detail is essential for the development of high energy, high brightness accelerator facilities and associated beam-based light source applications. Existing conventional accelerators can exhibit timing-jitter down to the 100 femtosecond level which exceeds their single bunch duration capability. At the other extreme, in relatively jitterless environments, laser-plasma wakefield accelerators (LWFA) can generate single electron bunches of duration estimated to be of order 10 femtoseconds making this setting a valuable testbed for development of broadband electron bunch diagnostics. Characteristics of electro-optic schemes and laser-induced reflectance are discussed with emphasis on temporal resolution.

  11. Early diagnosis of incipient caries based on non-invasive lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velescu, A.; Todea, C.; Vitez, B.

    2016-03-01

    AIM: The aim of this study is to detect incipient caries and enamel demineralization using laser fluorescence.This serves only as an auxilary aid to identify and to monitor the development of these lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 6 patients were involved in this study, three females and three male. Each patient underwent a professional cleaning, visual examination of the oral cavity, and then direct inspection using DiagnoCam and DIAGNOdent. After data recording each patient was submitted to retro-alveolar X-ray on teeth that were detected with enamel lesions. All data was collected and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Of 36 areas considered in clinically healthy, 24 carious surfaces were found using laser fluorescence, a totally non-invasive method for detecting incipient carious lesions compared with the radiographic examination. CONCLUSIONS: This method has good applicability for patients because it improves treatment plan by early detection of caries and involves less fear for anxious patients and children.

  12. Noninvasive diode laser activation of transient receptor potential proteins and nociceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Nan; Cooper, Brian Y.; Nemenov, Michael I.

    2007-02-01

    We investigated diode laser (980 nm) evoked activation of transient receptor potential proteins (TRPV1 and TRPV2). C and A-delta (Aδ) nociceptor families are primarily responsible for pain mediation in the peripheral nervous system. TRPV1 proteins have been associated with heat evoked pain in C fibers while Aδ fibers have been associated with TRPV2. Diode laser stimulation allows a margin of safety between non-invasive activation and damage 19, 22, 34. Laser pulses (20-50 ms, 0.1-10 W, 980 nm) were used to stimulate: A) in vitro: excised patches from HEK293 cells expressing TRPV1; B) in vitro: rat DRG nociceptors expressing either TRPV1 or TRPV2; and C) in vivo: C-fibers of the rat saphenous nerve (SN) trunk. Cell currents were recorded using standard patch clamp methods. The SN was also stimulated electrically with bipolar electrodes. Stimulation (20-50 ms) of HEK and DRG cells expressing TRPV1 was highly reproducible. Activation and peak currents were achieved at estimated peak temperatures of 55°C and 70°C. Threshold activation was also observed in DRG neurons expressing TRPV2. The conduction velocity for laser-activated saphenous nerve afferents was in the C fiber range (0.5-1 m/s). Electrically stimulated nerve contained stimulation artifacts and complex neural components with conduction velocities ranging from 0.3-30 m/s. Diode laser activation of TRPV1 protein is a reproducible and effective means to probe TRP activity in both in vivo and in vitro preparations

  13. Non-invasive diode laser activation of transient receptor potential proteins in nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Cooper, Brian Y; Nemenov, Michael I

    2007-02-21

    We investigated diode laser (980 nm) evoked activation of transient receptor potential proteins (TRPV1 and TRPV2). C and A-delta (Aδ) nociceptor families are primarily responsible for pain mediation in the peripheral nervous system. TRPV1 proteins have been associated with heat evoked pain in C fibers while Aδ fibers have been associated with TRPV2. Diode laser stimulation allows a margin of safety between non-invasive activation and damage (19, 22, 34). Laser pulses (20-50 ms, 0.1-10 W, 980 nm) were used to stimulate: A) in vitro: excised patches from HEK293 cells expressing TRPV1; B) in vitro: rat DRG nociceptors expressing either TRPV1 or TRPV2; and C) in vivo: C-fibers of the rat saphenous nerve (SN) trunk. Cell currents were recorded using standard patch clamp methods. The SN was also stimulated electrically with bipolar electrodes. Stimulation (20-50 ms) of HEK and DRG cells expressing TRPV1 was highly reproducible. Activation and peak currents were achieved at estimated peak temperatures of 55°C and 70°C. Threshold activation was also observed in DRG neurons expressing TRPV2. The conduction velocity for laser-activated saphenous nerve afferents was in the C fiber range (0.5-1 m/s). Electrically stimulated nerve contained stimulation artifacts and complex neural components with conduction velocities ranging from 0.3-30 m/s. Diode laser activation of TRPV1 protein is a reproducible and effective means to probe TRP activity in both in vivo and in vitro preparations.

  14. A Noninvasive In Vivo Glucose Sensor Based on Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Laser Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werth, Alexandra; Liakat, Sabbir; Xu, Laura; Gmachl, Claire

    Diabetes affects over 387 million people worldwide; a number which grows every year. The most common method of measuring blood glucose concentration involves a finger prick which for some can be a harrowing process. Therefore, a portable, accurate, noninvasive glucose sensor can significantly improve the quality of life for many of these diabetics who draw blood multiple times a day to monitor their glucose levels. We have implemented a noninvasive, mobile glucose sensor using a mid-infrared (MIR) quantum cascade laser (QCL), integrating sphere, and thermal electrically (TE) cooled detector. The QCL is scanned from 8 - 10 microns wavelength over which are distinct absorption features of glucose molecules with little competition of absorption from other molecules found in the blood and interstitial fluid. The obtained absorption spectra are analyzed using a neural network algorithm which relates the small changes in absorption to the changing glucose concentration. The integrating sphere has increased the signal-to-noise ratio from a previous design, allowing us to use the TE-cooled detector which increases mobility without loss of accuracy.

  15. Non-invasive detection of laser-induced retinal injury through the vitreous using dynamic light scattering (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Naiman, Melissa; Bouhenni, Rachida; Dunmire, Jeffery; Liu, Ying; Rafiq, Qundeel; Edward, Deepak; Gothard, David

    2016-03-01

    Laser radiation entering the eye has the potential of damaging the retina. As an inflammatory response, the proteins can rush to the lesion site created by laser exposure. We explore the hypothesis if these proteins can be detected non-invasively. In this preliminary study, we developed a new brief-case size dynamic light scattering instrument to detect these proteins in-vivo in the rabbit vitreous. The results were validated with bio-chemical analysis.

  16. Non-invasive fluorescence imaging under ambient light conditions using a modulated ICCD and laser diode

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2014-01-01

    One limitation of fluorescence molecular imaging that can limit clinical implementation and hamper small animal imaging is the inability to eliminate ambient light. Herein, we demonstrate the ability to conduct rapid non-invasive, far-red and near-infrared fluorescence imaging in living animals and a phantom under ambient light conditions using a modulated image intensified CCD (ICCD) and a laser diode operated in homodyne detection. By mapping AC amplitude from three planar images at varying phase delays, we show improvement in target-to-background ratios (TBR) and reasonable signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) over continuous wave measurements. The rapid approach can be used to accurately collect fluorescence in situations where ambient light cannot be spectrally conditioned or controlled, such as in the case of fluorescent molecular image-guided surgery. PMID:24575349

  17. Non-invasive gas monitoring in newborn infants using diode laser absorption spectroscopy: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, Patrik; Svanberg, Emilie K.; Cocola, Lorenzo; Lewander, Märta; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Jahr, John; Fellman, Vineta; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2012-03-01

    Non-invasive diode laser spectroscopy was, for the first time, used to assess gas content in the intestines and the lungs of a new-born, 4 kg, baby. Two gases, water vapor and oxygen, were studied with two low-power tunable diode lasers, illuminating the surface skin tissue and detecting the diffusely emerging light a few centimeters away. The light, having penetrated into the tissue, had experienced absorption by gas located in the lungs and in the intestines. Very distinct water vapor signals were obtained from the intestines while imprint from oxygen was lacking, as expected. Detectable, but minor, signals of water vapor were also obtained from the lungs, illuminating the armpit area and detecting below the collar bone. Water vapor signals were seen but again oxygen signals were lacking, now due to the difficulties of penetration of the oxygen probing light into the lungs of this full-term baby. Ultra-sound images were obtained both from the lungs and from the stomach of the baby. Based on dimensions and our experimental findings, we conclude, that for early pre-term babies, also oxygen should be detectable in the lungs, in addition to intestine and lung detection of water vapor. The present paper focuses on the studies of the intestines while the lung studies will be covered in a forthcoming paper.

  18. A study on new method of noninvasive esophageal venous pressure measurement based on the airflow and laser detection technology.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chenghuan; Huang, Feizhou; Zhang, Rui; Zhu, Shaihong; Nie, Wanpin; Liu, Xunyang; Liu, Yinglong; Li, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Using optics combined with automatic control and computer real-time image detection technology, a novel noninvasive method of noncontact pressure manometry was developed based on the airflow and laser detection technology in this study. The new esophageal venous pressure measurement system was tested in-vitro experiments. A stable and adjustable pulse stream was produced from a self-developed pump and a laser emitting apparatus could generate optical signals which can be captured by image acquisition and analysis system program. A synchronization system simultaneous measured the changes of air pressure and the deformation of the vein wall to capture the vascular deformation while simultaneously record the current pressure value. The results of this study indicated that the pressure values tested by the new method have good correlation with the actual pressure value in animal experiments. The new method of noninvasive pressure measurement based on the airflow and laser detection technology is accurate, feasible, repeatable and has a good application prospects.

  19. Comparison of 808, 980, and 1075nm lasers for noninvasive thermal coagulation of the canine vas deferens, ex vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Schweinsberger, Gino R.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2011-03-01

    Successful noninvasive laser coagulation of the canine vas deferens, in vivo, has been previously reported. However, the therapeutic window for treatment is relatively narrow. This study determines the dependence of vas thermal coagulation on laser wavelength for development of a noninvasive laser vasectomy procedure. Noninvasive laser coagulation of canine vas tissue, ex vivo, was performed using three commonly available near-infrared laser wavelengths: 808, 980, and 1075 nm. Each laser delivered an average power of 9.2 W, 500-ms pulse duration, pulse rate of 1.0-Hz, and 3.2-mm diameter laser spot, synchronized with cryogen spray cooling of the scrotal skin surface for a total treatment time of 60 s. Vas burst pressures were measured to determine strength of vas closure and compared to previously reported ejaculation pressures. Gross inspection of vas and scrotal skin was also performed immediately after the procedure as an indicator of thermal coagulation and skin burns. The 1075 nm laser produced the highest vas burst pressures (288 +/- 28 mmHg), significantly greater than previously reported ejaculation pressures (136 +/- 29 mmHg). The 808 nm wavelength produced insufficient vas burst pressures of 141 +/- 61 mmHg, and minor scrotal skin burns were observed in at least one case. The 980 nm wavelength was unable to produce thermal coagulation of the vas, with low burst pressures (89 +/- 58 mmHg) and severe scrotal skin burns. The 1075 nm wavelength was the only near-IR wavelength that consistently thermally coagulated the vas with a strong degree of closure and without any scrotal skin burns.

  20. Non-invasive technique for assessment of vascular wall stiffness using laser Doppler vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, Adriaan; Segers, Patrick; Heuten, Hilde; Goovaerts, Inge; Ennekens, Guy; Vrints, Christiaan; Baets, Roel; Dirckx, Joris

    2014-06-01

    It has been shown that in cardiovascular risk management, stiffness of large arteries has a very good predictive value for cardiovascular disease and mortality. This parameter is best known when estimated from the pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured between the common carotid artery (CCA) in the neck and femoral artery in the groin, but may also be determined locally from short-distance measurements on a short vessel segment. In this work, we propose a novel, non-invasive, non-contact laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) technique for evaluating PWV locally in an elastic vessel. First, the method was evaluated in a phantom setup using LDV and a reference method. Values correlated significantly between methods (R ≤ 0.973 (p ≤ 0.01)); and a Bland-Altman analysis indicated that the mean bias was reasonably small (mean bias ≤ -2.33 ms). Additionally, PWV was measured locally on the skin surface of the CCA in 14 young healthy volunteers. As a preliminary validation, PWV measured on two locations along the same artery was compared. Local PWV was found to be between 3 and 20 m s-1, which is in line with the literature (PWV = 5-13 m s-1). PWV assessed on two different locations on the same artery correlated significantly (R = 0.684 (p < 0.01)). In summary, we conclude that this new non-contact method is a promising technique to measure local vascular stiffness in a fully non-invasive way, providing new opportunities for clinical diagnosing.

  1. Non-invasive characterization and quality assurance of silicon micro-strip detectors using pulsed infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations consisting of roughly 1300 double sided silicon micro-strip detectors of 3 different dimensions. For the quality assurance of prototype micro-strip detectors a non-invasive detector charaterization is developed. The test system is using a pulsed infrared laser for charge injection and characterization, called Laser Test System (LTS). The system is aimed to develop a set of characterization procedures which are non-invasive (non-destructive) in nature and could be used for quality assurances of several silicon micro-strip detectors in an efficient, reliable and reproducible way. The procedures developed (as reported here) uses the LTS to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The prototype detector modules which are tested with the LTS so far have 1024 strips with a pitch of 58 μm on each side. They are read-out using a self-triggering prototype read-out electronic ASIC called n-XYTER. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infra-red laser light (spot size ≈ 12 μm, wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with a duration of ≈ 10 ns and power ≈ 5 mW of the laser pulse is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensor produces ≈ 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. The laser scans different prototype sensors and various non-invasive techniques to determine characteristics of the detector modules for the quality assurance is reported.

  2. Non-invasive laser Raman detection of lycopene and ž-carotene antioxidants in skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; Gellermann, Werner

    2003-07-01

    The predominant long-chain carotenoids found in the human skin are lycopene and β-carotene. They are powerful antioxidants and thought to act as scavengers for free radicals and single oxygen that are formed by excessive exposure of skin to sunlight. However the role of the particular representatives of the carotenoid antioxidants family in the skin defense mechanism is still unclear and has to be clarified. We demonstrate the opportunity for fast non-invasive selective quantitative detection of β-carotene and lycopene in human skin employing Raman spectroscopy. Analyzing Raman signals originating from the carbon-carbon double bond stretch vibrations of the molecules under blue and green laser excitation we were able to characterize quantitativly the concentrations of each carotenoid in alive human skin. In this method we take an advantage of different Raman cross-section spectral profile for β-carotene and lycopene molecules. This novel technique allows the quantitative assessment of individual carotenoid species in the skin rather then the cumulative level of long-chain carotenoids mixture as we could measure in our previous works. The required laser light exposure levels are well within safety standards. Prelimininary dichoromatic Raman measurements reveal significant differences in the carotenoid composition of different volunteer's skin: even in statistically small group of seven subjects the ratio of β-carotene-to-lycopene in their skin vary from 0.5 to 1.6. This technique holds promise as a method of rapid screening of carotenoids composition of human skin in large populations and suitable in clinical studies for assessing the risk for cutaneous diseases.

  3. Determination of the thermal properties of leaves by non-invasive contact‑free laser probing.

    PubMed

    Buyel, J F; Gruchow, H M; Tödter, N; Wehner, M

    2016-01-10

    The thermal properties of materials provide valuable data for quality monitoring and the rational design of process steps where heating is required. Here we report a rapid, simple and reliable technique that determines the most important thermal properties of leaves, i.e. the specific heat capacity (cp) and thermal conductivity (λ). Such data are useful when leaves are heated during processing, e.g. for the precipitation of host cell proteins during the extraction of high-value products such as recombinant proteins produced by molecular farming. The cp of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Nicotiana benthamiana leaves was determined by infrared measurement of the temperature increase caused by a near-infrared laser pulse of defined length and intensity. We used the sample temperature profiles to calculate λ based on exponential fits of the temperature decline, taking convective heat transfer and thermal radiation into account. We found that the average cp was 3661 ± 323 J kg(-1) K(-1) (n=19) for tobacco and 2253 ± 285 J kg(-1) K(-1) (n=25) for N. benthamiana, whereas the average λ was 0.49 ± 0.13 (n=19) for tobacco and 0.41 ± 0.20 (n=25) Jm(-1) s(-1)K(-1) for N. benthamiana. These values are similar to those established for other plant species by photothermal imaging and other methods. The cp and λ values of leaves can be determined easily using our non-invasive method, which is therefore suitable for the in-line or at-line monitoring of plants, e.g. during the highly regulated production of biopharmaceutical proteins.

  4. Noninvasive laser therapy in the treatment of keloid scar after injury caused by a jellyfish: a case report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kymplova, Jaroslava; Navratil, Leos; Skopek, Jiri

    2001-10-01

    Keloid scars trouble the patients particularly for aesthetical reasons. They also frequency result in various functional disturbances, they are painful and the patient suffers for dysesthesia on touch. Low level laser is able to provide three principal effects: biostimulating, analgesic and antiinflammatory. Particularly thanks to the first two effects we are able, when adhering to the proper therapeutic procedure, to moderate or even remove the above mentioned problems. We complement the low level laser treatment by applications of ointments, cremes or silicone strips. Our communication is aimed at a case report concerning the treatment of keloid scars resulting from an injury by a jellyfish with the aim to familiarize the reader with wide therapeutic possibilities of non-invasive laser, even in indications which are not frequently encountered in central Europe.

  5. Intraluminal occlusion of the seminal duct by laser and Histoacryl: Two non-invasive alternatives for vasectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, B.; Sroka, R.; Koelle, S.; Becker, A. J.; Khoder, W.; Pongratz, T.; Stief, C. G.; Trottmann, M.

    2014-03-01

    Introduction and objective: Vasectomy is a well-established method in family control. Even though it is a safe and low risk operation, this surgery is invasive and difficult to reverse. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate new non-invasive methods for occlusion of the seminal duct. Material and Methods: Seminal duct tissue was obtained from patients (n=30) suffering from prostate cancer and therefore undergoing prostatectomy. In a first set of experiments, the seminal duct was occluded by intraluminal application of Histoacryl® (Braun Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany). In a 2nd set of experiments, endoluminal laser induced occlusion was performed. Four different laser wavelengths (1940nm, 1470nm, 1064nm, 940nm) and different sets of laser parameters (e.g. power, exposure duration, fibre diameter, energy applied) were compared. Effectiveness of occlusion of the seminal duct was proven by post-treatment irrigation flow measurement, as well as by morphological analyses. To evaluate a potential damage of the surrounding tissue, external temperature was measured using a thermometer during laser application. Results: Intraluminal application of Histoacryl® induced an immediate and complete occlusion of the seminal duct. The underlying connective tissue maintained its functional integrity after this treatment. By laser light application to a Histoacryl® block, a hole could be created into the block thus indicating the possibility of recanalization. Treatment with laser energy resulted in shrinkage of the ductal lumen. The laser application generally caused necrosis in the epithelium and induced formation of vacuoles in the underlying connective tissue. As described for endoluminal varicose treatment, this distinct local reaction might result in an intense inflammation leading to a functional occlusion of the vas deferens. Conclusions: Both laser-induced occlusion and application of Histoacryl® are fast and simple techniques which may be able to achieve a

  6. Overview of non-invasive factors (low level laser and low intensity pulsed ultrasound) accelerating tooth movement during orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Mohammed Mahmood; Husein, Adam; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Hassan, Rozita; Shaari, Rumaizi

    2014-01-01

    The need for orthodontic treatment is increasing all the time. As the treatment is time consuming ranging from a year to several years, any method of reducing the period of treatment and increasing the quality of the tissue will be beneficial to patients. The use of non-invasive techniques such as low level laser therapy and low intensity pulsed ultasound in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement are promising. Thus, this overview study will help to generate more understanding about the background information and the possible applications of them in daily orthodontics, depending on previous literature searching for reviews and original research articles.

  7. A pilot study using laser-based technique for non-invasive diagnostics of hypertensive conditions in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinova, Karina S.; Ahmad, Shakil; Wang, Keqing; Rafailov, Ilya E.; Sokolovski, Sergei G.; Zhang, Lin; Rafailov, Edik U.; Ahmed, Asif

    2016-02-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is directly linked to preeclampsia, a maternal hypertensive condition that is life threating for both the mother and the baby. Epidemiological studies show that women with a history of pre-eclampsia have an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. Here we report a new non-invasive diagnostic test for preeclampsia in mice that allows us to non-invasively assess the condition of the animals during the experiment and treatment in established models of preeclampsia. A laser-based multifunctional diagnostics system (LAKK-M) was chosen to carry out non-invasive analysis of multiple parameters. The device was used to simultaneously record the microcirculatory blood flow and oxygen saturation, as well as fluorescence levels of endogenous fluorophores. Preliminary experiments were conducted on adenoviral (Ad-)- mediated overexpression of sFlt-1 (Ad-sFlt-1) to mimic preeclampsialike symptoms in mice. The recorded data displayed the ability of the LAKK-M diagnostics device to detect significant differences in perfusion measurements between the control and Ad-sFlt-1 treatment. Preliminary results provide a potential avenue to employ these diagnostics technology to monitor and aid in maintaining control of live animal conditions throughout the experiment and treatment.

  8. Acute effects of vascular modifying agents in solid tumors assessed by noninvasive laser Doppler flowmetry and near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kragh, Michael; Quistorff, Bjørn; Horsman, Michael R; Kristjansen, Paul E G

    2002-01-01

    The potential of noninvasive laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect acute effects of different vascular-modifying agents on perfusion and blood volume in tumors was evaluated. C3H mouse mammary carcinomas (approximately 200 mm(3)) in the rear foot of CDF1 mice were treated with flavone acetic acid (FAA, 150 mg/kg), 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA, 20 mg/kg), combretastatin A-4 disodium phosphate (CA4DP, 250 mg/kg), hydralazine (HDZ, 5 mg/kg), or nicotinamide (NTA, 500 mg/kg). Tumor perfusion before and after treatment was evaluated by noninvasive LDF, using a 41 degrees C heated custom-built LDF probe with four integrated laser/receiver units, and tumor blood volume was estimated by NIRS, using light guide coupled reflectance measurements at 800+/-10 nm. FAA, DMXAA, CA4DP, and HDZ significantly decreased tumor perfusion by 50%, 47%, 73%, and 78%, respectively. In addition, FAA, DMXAA, and HDZ significantly reduced the blood volume within the tumor, indicating that these compounds to some degree shunted blood from the tumor to adjacent tissue, HDZ being most potent. CA4DP caused no change in the tumor blood volume, indicating that the mechanism of action of CA4DP was vascular shut down with the blood pool trapped in the tumor. NTA caused no change in either tumor perfusion or tumor blood volume. We conclude that noninvasive LDF and NIRS can determine acute effects of vascular modifying agents on tumor perfusion and blood volume.

  9. Design of a portable noninvasive photoacoustic glucose monitoring system integrated laser diode excitation with annular array detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lvming; Liu, Guodong; Yang, Diwu; Ren, Zhong; Huang, Zhen

    2008-12-01

    A near-infrared photoacoustic glucose monitoring system, which is integrated dual-wavelength pulsed laser diode excitation with eight-element planar annular array detection technique, is designed and fabricated during this study. It has the characteristics of nonivasive, inexpensive, portable, accurate location, and high signal-to-noise ratio. In the system, the exciting source is based on two laser diodes with wavelengths of 905 nm and 1550 nm, respectively, with optical pulse energy of 20 μJ and 6 μJ. The laser beam is optically focused and jointly projected to a confocal point with a diameter of 0.7 mm approximately. A 7.5 MHz 8-element annular array transducer with a hollow structure is machined to capture photoacoustic signal in backward mode. The captured signals excitated from blood glucose are processed with a synthetic focusing algorithm to obtain high signal-to-noise ratio and accurate location over a range of axial detection depth. The custom-made transducer with equal area elements is coaxially collimated with the laser source to improve the photoacoustic excite/receive efficiency. In the paper, we introduce the photoacoustic theory, receive/process technique, and design method of the portable noninvasive photoacoustic glucose monitoring system, which can potentially be developed as a powerful diagnosis and treatment tool for diabetes mellitus.

  10. Large-acceptance diamond planar refractive lenses manufactured by laser cutting.

    PubMed

    Polikarpov, Maxim; Snigireva, Irina; Morse, John; Yunkin, Vyacheslav; Kuznetsov, Sergey; Snigirev, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, single-crystal diamond planar refractive lenses have been fabricated by laser micromachining in 300 µm-thick diamond plates which were grown by chemical vapour deposition. Linear lenses with apertures up to 1 mm and parabola apex radii up to 500 µm were manufactured and tested at the ESRF ID06 beamline. The large acceptance of these lenses allows them to be used as beam-conditioning elements. Owing to the unsurpassed thermal properties of single-crystal diamond, these lenses should be suitable to withstand the extreme flux densities expected at the planned fourth-generation X-ray sources.

  11. Development of laser noninvasive on-line diagnostics of oncological diseases based on the absorption method in the 4860-4880 cm-1 spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireev, S. V.; Shnyrev, S. L.; Kondrashov, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for noninvasive on-line diagnostics of gastrointestinal oncological diseases using a diode laser in the 4860-4880 cm-1 frequency range is proposed. The method is based on measuring the concentration of 13C during expiration. The accuracy of the method allows performing early diagnostics of diseases.

  12. Development of laser noninvasive on-line diagnostics of oncological diseases based on the absorption method in the 4860–4880 cm‑1 spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireev, S. V.; Shnyrev, S. L.; Kondrashov, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for noninvasive on-line diagnostics of gastrointestinal oncological diseases using a diode laser in the 4860–4880 cm‑1 frequency range is proposed. The method is based on measuring the concentration of 13С during expiration. The accuracy of the method allows performing early diagnostics of diseases.

  13. [Laser vibrometry. A middle ear and cochlear analyzer for noninvasive studies of middle and inner ear function disorders].

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Jorge, J; Zenner, H P; Hemmert, W; Burkhardt, C; Gummer, A W

    1997-12-01

    A complete battery of audiometric methods is required for the differential diagnosis of different hearing disabilities (including puretone audiometry, impedance, stapes reflex, speech audiometry, brainstam evoked response audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, etc.). In many cases, a comprehensive diagnosis is not possible. Here we describe a new technique based on a laser-Doppler vibrometer that has the potential for non-invasive diagnosis not only middle ear disease but also cochlear pathologies. Disturbance of cochlear function can be ascertained because the input impedance of the cochlea acts as a mechanical load on the middle ear and therefore influences motion of the umbo. In the present study vibration of the umbo and eardrum were measured with a commercially available laser-Doppler vibrometer coupled directly into a standard surgical microscope. The use of the microscope allowed non-invasive measurements of vibrations without having to introduce reflecting material onto the tympanic membrane. Sound pressure was measured with a calibrated probe microphone placed near the tympanic membrane. The displacement response and the specific acoustic impedance of the umbo were calculated from the velocity and sound pressure measured. For normal hearing subjects, the amplitude of the umbo's displacement for frequencies from 0.1 kHz to 1 kHz was 1 nm at 60 dB SPL and decreased with a slope of 6 dB/octave for frequencies between 1 and 5 kHz. A strong correlation was found between the specific acoustic impedance of the umbo and hearing thresholds for hearing-impaired subjects (having otosclerosis or sensorineural hearing losses). The frequency response of the umbo proved to be a means for evaluating the function of both the middle ear and the cochlea under pathological conditions. The measurement technique described is also suitable for intraoperative investigation of the frequency response of the opened middle ear, as well as for the in situ frequency response of partial and

  14. Application of acoustical thermometry to noninvasive monitoring of internal temperature during laser hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotov, Eugene V.; Yakovlev, Ivan V.; Zhadobov, Maxim; Reyman, Alexander M.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2002-06-01

    This work present the results of experimental study of applicability of acoustical brightness thermometry (ABT) in monitoring of internal temperature during laser hyperthermia and interstitial therapy. In these experiments the radiation of pulse repetition Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) and continuous diode laser (800 nm) were used as heating sources. Experiments were performed in vitro by insertion of optical fiber inside the objects - optically transparent gelatin with incorporated light absorbing heterogeneities and samples of biological tissues (e.g. liver). During laser heating, internal temperature in absorbing heterogeneity and at fiber end were monitored by means of multi-channel ABT. The independent temperature control was performed with tiny electronic thermometer incorporated in heated zones. The results of experiments demonstrated reasonable sensitivity and accuracy of ABT for real-time temperature control during different kind of laser thermal therapies. According to preliminary data, ABT allow to measure temperature in depth up to 3-5 cm (depends on tissue properties) with spatial resolution some mm. Obtained data show that ABT is a very promising tool to give quantitative measure for different types of energy deposition (laser, microwave, focused ultrasound etc) at the depth commonly encountered in tumors of vital organs. Besides, ABT could give information about diffusion effects in heated zones or optical absorption. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research and 6th competition-expertise of young scientists of Russian Academy of Sciences.

  15. Laser flare photometry: a noninvasive, objective, and quantitative method to measure intraocular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur; Herbort, Carl P

    2010-10-01

    Aqueous flare and cells are the two inflammatory parameters of anterior chamber inflammation resulting from disruption of the blood-ocular barriers. When examined with the slit lamp, measurement of intraocular inflammation remains subjective with considerable intra- and interobserver variations. Laser flare cell photometry is an objective quantitative method that enables accurate measurement of these parameters with very high reproducibility. Laser flare photometry allows detection of subclinical alterations in the blood-ocular barriers, identifying subtle pathological changes that could not have been recorded otherwise. With the use of this method, it has been possible to compare the effect of different surgical techniques, surgical adjuncts, and anti-inflammatory medications on intraocular inflammation. Clinical studies of uveitis patients have shown that flare measurements by laser flare photometry allowed precise monitoring of well-defined uveitic entities and prediction of disease relapse. Relationships of laser flare photometry values with complications of uveitis and visual loss further indicate that flare measurement by laser flare photometry should be included in the routine follow-up of patients with uveitis.

  16. Noninvasive respiration movement sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser with beat frequency interrogation.

    PubMed

    Wo, Jianghai; Wang, He; Sun, Qizhen; Shum, Perry Ping; Liu, Deming

    2014-01-01

    A distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser-based respiration movement monitoring system has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. To fabricate the sensing element for respiration monitoring, a fixture that consists of a plastic plate, a section of elastic textile is employed to experience and transfer the belly expansion induced pressure onto the cross-section of the laser cavity. By tracing the change of the beat signal that generates between two polarization lasing modes, the information of the respiration movement can be extracted in real time. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the system is able to detect both respiration waveform and rate simultaneously. Moreover, the recorded results show that the different gestures as well as the physiology conditions can be distinguished by monitoring the amplitude and period change of the waveform. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber laser-based sensor would be highly suitable for respiratory monitoring.

  17. Noninvasive optoacoustic online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandulla, Jochen; Elsner, Hanno; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2006-07-01

    The therapeutic effect of most retinal laser treatments is initiated by a transient temperature increase. Although crucial to the effectiveness of the treatment, the temperature course is not exactly known due to individually different tissue properties. We develop an optoacoustic method to determine the retinal temperature increase in real time during continuous-wave (cw) laser irradiation, and perform temperature calculations to interpret the results exemplary for transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT). Porcine globes ex vivo and rabbit eyes in vivo are irradiated with a diode laser (λ=810 nm, P<=3 W, φ=2 mm) for 60 s. Simultaneously, pulses from a N2-laser pumped dye laser (λ=500 nm, τ=3.5 ns, E≍5 µJ) are applied on the retina. Following its absorption, an ultrasonic pressure wave is emitted, which is detected by a transducer embedded in a contact lens. Using the previously measured temperature-dependent Grüneisen coefficient of chorioretinal tissue, a temperature raise in porcine eyes of 5.8 °C/(W/cm2) after 60 s is observed and confirmed by simultaneous measurements with an inserted thermocouple. In a rabbit, we find 1.4 °C/(W/cm2) with, and 2.2 °C/(W/cm2) without perfusion at the same location. Coagulation of the rabbit's retina occurs at ΔT=21 °C after 40 s. In conclusion, this optoacoustic method seems feasible for an in vivo real-time determination of temperature, opening the possibility for feedback control retinal laser treatments.

  18. Noninvasive laser Raman detection of carotenoid antioxidants in living human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellermann, Werner; Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; McClane, Robert W.

    2001-05-01

    We have used resonance Raman scattering as a novel non- invasive optical technology to measure carotenoid antioxidants in human skin of healthy volunteers. Using blue-green laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra are obtained which are superimposed on a large skin autofluorescence background. The Raman spectra are obtained rapidly, i.e. within about 30 seconds, and the required laser light exposure levels are well within safety standards. Our technique can be used for rapid screening of carotenoid antioxidant levels in large populations and may have applications for assessing the risk for cutaneous diseases.

  19. Noninvasive Measure of Microvascular Nitric Oxide Function in Humans Using Very Low-Frequency Cutaneous Laser Doppler Flow Spectra

    PubMed Central

    STEWART, JULIAN M.; TANEJA, INDU; GOLIGORSKY, MICHAEL S.; MEDOW, MARVIN S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective While higher frequency oscillations (0.021–0.6 Hz) in cutaneous blood flow measured by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) relate to oscillations in blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity, very low-frequency oscillations (VLF, 0.0095–0.021 Hz) do not. The authors investigated whether VLF LDF power is nitric oxide (NO) specific. Methods LDF combined with intradermal microdialysis was used in the calves of 22 healthy volunteers aged 19–27 years. LDF power spectral analysis was performed by windowed fast Fourier transform. The authors tested whether the NO synthesis inhibitor nitro-l-arginine (NLA) produced selective decreases in VLF power before and after stimulation with acetylcholine. Results NLA alone did not alter total power but selectively reduced VLF power by approximately 50%. LDF and spectral power increased markedly across all spectra with acetylcholine. This increase was blunted by NLA, which selectively reduced VLF power by approximately 50%. Conclusions The data suggest that VLF oscillations in the laser Doppler signal are NO dependent, increase with cholinergic stimulation, and have potential as a noninvasive marker for NO-dependent microvascular reactivity. PMID:17454670

  20. Noninvasive monitoring of gas in the lungs and intestines of newborn infants using diode lasers: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Patrik; Svanberg, Emilie Krite; Cocola, Lorenzo; Lewander Xu, Märta; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Jahr, John; Fellman, Vineta; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2013-12-01

    Preterm newborn infants have a high morbidity rate. The most frequently affected organs where free gas is involved are the lungs and intestines. In respiratory distress syndrome, both hyperexpanded and atelectatic (collapsed) areas occur, and in necrotizing enterocolitis, intramural gas may appear in the intestine. Today, these conditions are diagnosed with x-ray radiography. A bed-side, rapid, nonintrusive, and gas-specific technique for in vivo gas sensing would improve diagnosis. We report the use of noninvasive laser spectroscopy, for the first time, to assess gas content in the lungs and intestines of three full-term infants. Water vapor and oxygen were studied with two low-power diode lasers, illuminating the skin and detecting light a few centimeters away. Water vapor was easily detected in the intestines and was also observed in the lungs. The relatively thick chest walls of the infants prevented detection of the weaker oxygen signal in this study. However, results from a previous phantom study, together with scaling of the results presented here to the typical chest-wall thickness of preterm infants, suggest that oxygen also should be detectable in their lungs.

  1. Noninvasive monitoring of gas in the lungs and intestines of newborn infants using diode lasers: feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, Patrik; Svanberg, Emilie Krite; Cocola, Lorenzo; Xu, Märta Lewander; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Jahr, John; Fellman, Vineta; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2013-12-01

    Preterm newborn infants have a high morbidity rate. The most frequently affected organs where free gas is involved are the lungs and intestines. In respiratory distress syndrome, both hyperexpanded and atelectatic (collapsed) areas occur, and in necrotizing enterocolitis, intramural gas may appear in the intestine. Today, these conditions are diagnosed with x-ray radiography. A bed-side, rapid, nonintrusive, and gas-specific technique for in vivo gas sensing would improve diagnosis. We report the use of noninvasive laser spectroscopy, for the first time, to assess gas content in the lungs and intestines of three full-term infants. Water vapor and oxygen were studied with two low-power diode lasers, illuminating the skin and detecting light a few centimeters away. Water vapor was easily detected in the intestines and was also observed in the lungs. The relatively thick chest walls of the infants prevented detection of the weaker oxygen signal in this study. However, results from a previous phantom study, together with scaling of the results presented here to the typical chest-wall thickness of preterm infants, suggest that oxygen also should be detectable in their lungs.

  2. A high resolution, broad energy acceptance spectrometer for laser wakefield acceleration experiments.

    PubMed

    Sears, Christopher M S; Cuevas, Sofia Benavides; Schramm, Ulrich; Schmid, Karl; Buck, Alexander; Habs, Dieter; Krausz, Ferenc; Veisz, Laszlo

    2010-07-01

    Laser wakefield experiments present a unique challenge in measuring the resulting electron energy properties due to the large energy range of interest, typically several 100 MeV, and the large electron beam divergence and pointing jitter >1 mrad. In many experiments the energy resolution and accuracy are limited by the convolved transverse spot size and pointing jitter of the beam. In this paper we present an electron energy spectrometer consisting of two magnets designed specifically for laser wakefield experiments. In the primary magnet the field is produced by permanent magnets. A second optional electromagnet can be used to obtain better resolution for electron energies above 75 MeV. The spectrometer has an acceptance of 2.5-400 MeV (E(max)/E(min)>100) with a resolution of better than 1% rms for electron energies above 25 MeV. This high resolution is achieved by refocusing electrons in the energy plane and without any postprocessing image deconvolution. Finally, the spectrometer employs two complimentary detection mechanisms: (1) absolutely calibrated scintillation screens imaged by cameras outside the vacuum chamber and (2) an array of scintillating fibers coupled to a low-noise charge-coupled device.

  3. A high resolution, broad energy acceptance spectrometer for laser wakefield acceleration experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Christopher M. S.; Cuevas, Sofia Benavides; Veisz, Laszlo; Schramm, Ulrich; Schmid, Karl; Buck, Alexander; Habs, Dieter; Krausz, Ferenc

    2010-07-15

    Laser wakefield experiments present a unique challenge in measuring the resulting electron energy properties due to the large energy range of interest, typically several 100 MeV, and the large electron beam divergence and pointing jitter >1 mrad. In many experiments the energy resolution and accuracy are limited by the convolved transverse spot size and pointing jitter of the beam. In this paper we present an electron energy spectrometer consisting of two magnets designed specifically for laser wakefield experiments. In the primary magnet the field is produced by permanent magnets. A second optional electromagnet can be used to obtain better resolution for electron energies above 75 MeV. The spectrometer has an acceptance of 2.5-400 MeV (E{sub max}/E{sub min}>100) with a resolution of better than 1% rms for electron energies above 25 MeV. This high resolution is achieved by refocusing electrons in the energy plane and without any postprocessing image deconvolution. Finally, the spectrometer employs two complimentary detection mechanisms: (1) absolutely calibrated scintillation screens imaged by cameras outside the vacuum chamber and (2) an array of scintillating fibers coupled to a low-noise charge-coupled device.

  4. Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) Instrument: Flight Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) Acceptance Thermal Vacuum Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Charles; Butler, Dan; Ku, Jentung; Grob, Eric; Swanson, Ted; Nikitkin, Michael; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Two loop heat pipes (LHPs) are to be used for tight thermal control of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument, planned for flight in late 2001. The LHPs are charged with Propylene as a working fluid. One LHP will be used to transport 110 W from a laser to a radiator, the other will transport 160 W from electronic boxes to a separate radiator. The application includes a large amount of thermal mass in each LHP system and low initial startup powers. The initial design had some non-ideal flight design compromises, resulted in a less than ideal charge level for this design concept with a symmetrical secondary wick. This less than ideal charge was identified as the source of inadequate performance of the flight LHPs during the flight thermal vacuum test in October of 2000. We modified the compensation chamber design, re-built and charged the LHPs for a final LHP acceptance thermal vacuum test. This test performed March of 2001 was 100% successful. This is the last testing to be performed on the LHPs prior to instrument thermal vacuum test. This sensitivity to charge level was shown through varying the charge on a Development Model Loop Heat Pipe (DM LHP) and evaluating performance at various fill levels. At lower fills similar to the original charge in the flight units, the same poor performance was observed. When the flight units were re-designed and filled to the levels similar to the initial successful DM LHP test, the flight units also successfully fulfilled all requirements. This final flight Acceptance test assessed performance with respect to startup, low power operation, conductance, and control heater power, and steady state control. The results of the testing showed that both LHPs operated within specification. Startup on one of the LHPs was better than the other LHP because of the starter heater placement and a difference in evaporator design. These differences resulted in a variation in the achieved superheat prior to startup. The LHP with

  5. Fundus pulsation measurement by laser interferometry: a noninvasive technique for the assessment of hemodynamic drug effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmetterer, Leopold F.; Wolzt, M.; Lexer, Franz; Unfried, Christian J.; Fassolt, A.; Fercher, Adolf F.; Eichler, Hans-Georg

    1995-05-01

    The pulse-synchronous pulsations of the eye fundus are measured by laser interferometry. The eye is illuminated by the beam of a single mode laser diode. The light is reflected at the front side of the cornea and the retina. The two remitted waves product interference fringes, from which the distance changes between cornea and retina can be determined. The interferometer is coupled to a fundus camera, so that fundus pulsations can be measured at preselected points on the retina with high transversal resolution. This technique was used to study the influence of phenylephrine (a peripherally vasoconstricting drug), isoproterenol (a predominantly positive inotropic drug), sodium nitroprusside (a peripherally vasocilating drug) on fundus pulsations in healthy volunteers. The effect of isoproterenol to increase pulse pressure amplitude was detectable even at low doses. Neither sodium nitroprusside nor phenylephrine had a significant influence on ocular fundus pulsations. These results show that measurement of fundus pulsations in the macula estimates the pressure pulse amplitude in choroidal vessels. Measurements of fundus pulsations at preselected points of the retina, show that fundus pulsations in the macular region are larger than in peripheral parts of the retina but smaller than in the optic disc region under baseline conditions.

  6. Static laser speckle contrast analysis for noninvasive burn diagnosis using a camera-phone imager.

    PubMed

    Ragol, Sigal; Remer, Itay; Shoham, Yaron; Hazan, Sivan; Willenz, Udi; Sinelnikov, Igor; Dronov, Vladimir; Rosenberg, Lior; Bilenca, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) is an established optical technique for accurate widefield visualization of relative blood perfusion when no or minimal scattering from static tissue elements is present, as demonstrated, for example, in LASCA imaging of the exposed cortex. However, when LASCA is applied to diagnosis of burn wounds, light is backscattered from both moving blood and static burn scatterers, and thus the spatial speckle contrast includes both perfusion and nonperfusion components and cannot be straightforwardly associated to blood flow. We extract from speckle contrast images of burn wounds the nonperfusion (static) component and discover that it conveys useful information on the ratio of static-to-dynamic scattering composition of the wound, enabling identification of burns of different depth in a porcine model in vivo within the first 48 h postburn. Our findings suggest that relative changes in the static-to-dynamic scattering composition of burns can dominate relative changes in blood flow for burns of different severity. Unlike conventional LASCA systems that employ scientific or industrial-grade cameras, our LASCA system is realized here using a camera phone, showing the potential to enable LASCA-based burn diagnosis with a simple imager.

  7. Effect of Injector Geometry on Atomization of a Liquid-Liquid Double Swirl Coaxial Injector Using Non-invasive Laser, Optical and X-ray Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radke, C. R.; Meyer, T. R.

    2014-01-01

    The spray characteristics of a liquid-liquid double swirl coaxial injector were studied using non-invasive optical, laser, and X-ray diagnostics. A parametric study of injector exit geometry demonstrated that spray breakup time, breakup type and sheet stability could be controlled with exit geometry. Phase Doppler interferometry was used to characterize droplet statistics and non-dimensional droplet parameters over a range of inlet conditions and for various fluids allowing for a study on the role of specific fluid properties in atomization. Further, X-ray radiography allowed for investigation of sheet thickness and breakup length to be quantified for different recess exit diameters and inlet pressures. Finally, computed tomography scans revealed that the spray cone was distinctively non-uniform and comprised of several pockets of increased mass flux.

  8. Effect of Injector Geometry on Atomization of a Liquid-Liquid Double Swirl Coaxial Injector using Non-Invasive Laser, Optical and X-ray Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radke, C. R.; Meyer, T. R.

    2014-01-01

    The spray characteristics of a Liquid-Liquid Double Swirl Coaxial Injector were studied using noninvasive Optical, Laser, and X-ray diagnostics. A parametric study of injector exit geometry demonstrated that spray breakup time, breakup type and sheet stability could be controlled with exit geometry. Phase Doppler Particle Analysis characterized droplet statistics and non-dimensional droplet parameters over a range of inlet conditions and for various fluids allowing for a study on the role of specific fluid properties in atomization. Further, x-ray radiographs allowed for investigations of sheet thickness and breakup length to be quantified for different recess exits and inlet pressures. Finally Computed Tomography scans revealed that the spray cone was distinctively non-uniform and comprised of several pockets of increased mass flux.

  9. A Noninvasive Miniaturized-Wireless Laser-Doppler Fiber-Optic Sensor for Understanding Distal Fingertip Injuries in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Pollonini, Luca; Rodriquez, Mikael; Opperman, Roedolph; Hochstein, Jason

    2009-01-01

    During extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or spacewalks astronauts over use their fingertips under pressure inside the confined spaces of gloves/space suits. The repetitive hand motion is a probable cause for discomfort and injuries to the fingertips. We describe a new wireless fiber-optic probe that can be integrated inside the astronaut glove for noninvasive blood perfusion measurements in distal fingertips. In this preliminary study, we present blood perfusion measurements while performing hand-grip exercises simulating the use of space tools.

  10. 3D noninvasive, high-resolution imaging using a photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system and rapid wavelength-cycling lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Gross, Daniel; Klosner, Marc; Chan, Gary; Wu, Chunbai; Heller, Donald F.

    2015-05-01

    Globally, cancer is a major health issue as advances in modern medicine continue to extend the human life span. Breast cancer ranks second as a cause of cancer death in women in the United States. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging (PAI) provides high molecular contrast at greater depths in tissue without the use of ionizing radiation. In this work, we describe the development of a PA tomography (PAT) system and a rapid wavelength-cycling Alexandrite laser designed for clinical PAI applications. The laser produces 450 mJ/pulse at 25 Hz to illuminate the entire breast, which eliminates the need to scan the laser source. Wavelength cycling provides a pulse sequence in which the output wavelength repeatedly alternates between 755 nm and 797 nm rapidly within milliseconds. We present imaging results of breast phantoms with inclusions of different sizes at varying depths, obtained with this laser source, a 5-MHz 128-element transducer and a 128-channel Verasonics system. Results include PA images and 3D reconstruction of the breast phantom at 755 and 797 nm, delineating the inclusions that mimic tumors in the breast.

  11. Entropy of corneal nerve fibers distribution observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy: A noninvasive quantitative method to characterize the corneal innervation in Sjogren's syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Bianciardi, Giorgio; Latronico, Maria Eugenia; Traversi, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is a progressive autoimmune condition mainly affecting the salivary and lacrimal glands with an incidence of primary SS between 1/100 and 1/1,000. SS implies an alteration in the epithelium and subepithelium innervation, with consequent reduction of corneal sensitivity. It is necessary to have noninvasive quantitative methods to characterize the status of the corneal nerve fibers of the patients in order to choose and follow the best therapy. Entropy (information dimension) of the nerve corneal fibers distribution observed by confocal microscopy was evaluated in patients with primary SS (n = 30, 6 males, 24 females, 21-81 years), diagnosed by biopsy of salivary gland and blood tests and in sex- age-matched healthy subjects (n = 12). Corneal nerve fiber density, Langerhans cell count, and cell density in the nerve plexus images were also evaluated. In selected patients salivary gland atrophy degree was also evaluated. Nerve corneal distribution observed by confocal microscopy is fractal. Entropy of the corneal nerve distribution statistically distinguishes between SS patients and healthy subjects: patients present a lower value of information dimension of the corneal nerve fibers distribution than healthy individuals (P < 0.001). Percentage of grouped cases classified by entropy according to the subjects (selected patients vs. healthy) showed a 100% sensitivity and 96% specificity, P < 0.0001 with a low value of coefficient of variation among the individuals (6-7 times lower than the other morphometric indexes). Entropy correlated with the severity of the disease (salivary gland atrophy degree, P < 0.01). Evaluation of entropy of the corneal nerve distribution observed by a laser confocal microscopy appears to quantitatively and noninvasively characterize an aspect of the SS patients in relation to the recognition of an impairment of their ocular surface, giving us for the first time a method to objectively and precisely

  12. APPLICATION OF LASERS AND LASER-OPTICAL METHODS IN LIFE SCIENCES Non-invasive, MRI-compatible fibreoptic device for functional near-IR reflectometry of human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorvoja H. S., S.; Myllylä, T. S.; Kirillin, M. Yu; Sergeeva, Ekaterina A.; Myllylä, Risto A.; Elseoud, A. A.; Nikkinen, J.; Tervonen, O.; Kiviniemi, V.

    2011-01-01

    A non-invasive device for measuring blood oxygen variations in human brain is designed, implemented, and tested for MRI compatibility. The device is based on principles of near-IR reflectometry; power LEDs serve as sources of probing radiation delivered to patient skin surface through optical fibres. Numerical Monte Carlo simulations of probing radiation propagation in a multilayer brain model are performed to evaluate signal levels at different source — detector separations at three operation wavelengths and an additional wavelength of 915 nm. It is shown that the device can be applied for brain activity studies using power LEDs operating at 830 and 915 nm, while employment of wavelength of 660 nm requires an increased probing power. Employment of the wavelength of 592 nm in the current configuration is unreasonable.

  13. In Vivo, Non-invasive, Label- Free Detection and Eradication of Circulating Metastatic Melanoma Cells using Two-Color Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry with a Diode Laser

    PubMed Central

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Shashkov, Evgeny V.; Spring, Paul; Suen, James Y.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2009-01-01

    The circulating tumor cell (CTC) count has been demonstrated as a prognostic marker for metastasis development. However, its clinical utility for metastasis prevention remains unclear, because metastases may already be present at the time of initial diagnosis with existing assays. Their sensitivity ex vivo is limited by a small blood sample volume, while in vivo examination of larger blood volumes may be clinically restricted by the toxicity of labels used for targeting of CTCs. We introduce a method for in vivo photoacoustic (PA) blood cancer testing with a high pulse-repetition-rate diode laser that, when applied to melanoma, is free of this limitation. It utilizes the overexpression of melanin clusters as intrinsic, spectrally-specific cancer markers and signal amplifiers, thus providing higher PA contrast of melanoma cells in comparison to a blood background. In tumor-bearing mouse models and melanoma-spiked human blood samples, we demonstrated a sensitivity level of 1 CTC/mL with the potential to improve this sensitivity 103-fold in humans in vivo, which is impossible with existing assays. Additional advances of this platform include decreased background signals from blood through changes in its oxygenation, osmolarity, and hematocrit within physiological norms, assessment of CTCs in deep vessels, in vivo CTC enrichment, and PA-guided photothermal ablation of CTCs in the bloodstream. These advances make feasible the early diagnosis of melanoma during the initial parallel progression of primary tumor and CTCs, and laser blood purging using non-invasive or hemodialysis-like schematics for the prevention of metastasis. PMID:19826056

  14. In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser.

    PubMed

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Shashkov, Evgeny V; Spring, Paul M; Suen, James Y; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2009-10-15

    The circulating tumor cell (CTC) count has been shown as a prognostic marker for metastasis development. However, its clinical utility for metastasis prevention remains unclear, because metastases may already be present at the time of initial diagnosis with existing assays. Their sensitivity ex vivo is limited by a small blood sample volume, whereas in vivo examination of larger blood volumes may be clinically restricted by the toxicity of labels used for targeting of CTCs. We introduce a method for in vivo photoacoustic blood cancer testing with a high-pulse-repetition-rate diode laser that, when applied to melanoma, is free of this limitation. It uses the overexpression of melanin clusters as intrinsic, spectrally-specific cancer markers and signal amplifiers, thus providing higher photoacoustic contrast of melanoma cells compared with a blood background. In tumor-bearing mouse models and melanoma-spiked human blood samples, we showed a sensitivity level of 1 CTC/mL with the potential to improve this sensitivity 10(3)-fold in humans in vivo, which is impossible with existing assays. Additional advances of this platform include decreased background signals from blood through changes in its oxygenation, osmolarity, and hematocrit within physiologic norms, assessment of CTCs in deep vessels, in vivo CTC enrichment, and photoacoustic-guided photothermal ablation of CTCs in the bloodstream. These advances make feasible the early diagnosis of melanoma during the initial parallel progression of primary tumor and CTCs, and laser blood purging using noninvasive or hemodialysis-like schematics for the prevention of metastasis. PMID:19826056

  15. Comparison of Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy and Isothermal Micro-calorimetry for Non-invasive Detection of Microbial Growth in Media Fills

    PubMed Central

    Brueckner, David; Roesti, David; Zuber, Ulrich Georg; Schmidt, Rainer; Kraehenbuehl, Stefan; Bonkat, Gernot; Braissant, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Two methods were investigated for non-invasive microbial growth-detection in intact glass vials as possible techniques for automated inspection of media-filled units. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was used to determine microbially induced changes in O2 and CO2 concentrations within the vial headspaces. Isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) allowed the detection of metabolic heat production. Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus salivarius were chosen as test organisms. Parameters as robustness, sensitivity, comparability and time to detection (TtD) were evaluated to assess method adequacy. Both methods robustly detected growth of the tested microorganisms within less than 76 hours using an initial inoculum of <10CFU. TDLA turned out to be less sensitive than TDLA and IMC, as some false negative results were observed. Compared to the visual media-fill examination of spiked samples, the investigated techniques were slightly slower regarding TtD. Although IMC showed shorter TtD than TDLAS the latter is proposed for automating the media-fill inspection, as larger throughput can be achieved. For routine use either TDLA or a combination of TDLA and TDLA should be considered. IMC may be helpful for replacing the sterility assessment of commercial drug products before release. PMID:27282661

  16. Laser Raman detection of platelet as a non-invasive approach for early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P.; Tian, Q.; Baek, S. J.; Shang, X. L.; Park, A.; Liu, Z. C.; Yao, X. Q.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, X. H.; Cheng, Y.; Peng, J.; Shen, A. G.; Hu, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    Early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a problem that puzzled many doctors. Reliable markers in easy-assembling samples are of considerable clinical diagnostic value. In this work, laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) was developed a new method that potentially allows early and differential diagnosis of AD from the platelet sample. Raman spectra of platelets isolated from different ages of AD transgenic mice and non-transgenic controls were collected and analyzed. Multilayer perceptron networks (MLP) classification method was used to classify spectra and establish the diagnostic models. For differential diagnosis, spectra of platelets isolated from AD, Parkinson's disease (PD) and vascular dementia (VD) mice were also discriminated. Two notable spectral differences at 740 and 1654 cm-1 were revealed in the mean spectrum of platelets isolated from AD transgenic mice and the controls. MLP displayed a powerful ability in the classifying of early, advanced AD and the control group, and in differential diagnosis of PD and advanced AD, as well as VD and advanced AD. The results suggest that platelet detecting by LRS coupled with MLP analysis appears to be an easy and accurate method for early and differential diagnosis of AD. This technique could be rapidly promoted from laboratory to the hospital.

  17. Laser Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  18. Lasers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the nature of laser light. Topics include: (1) production and characteristics of laser light; (2) nine types of lasers; (3) five laser techniques including holography; (4) laser spectroscopy; and (5) laser fusion and other applications. (SK)

  19. Non-invasive in vivo infrared laser spectroscopy to analyse endogenous oxy-haemoglobin, deoxy-haemoglobin, and blood volume in the rat CNS.

    PubMed

    Crespi, Francesco; Bandera, Andrea; Donini, Maurizio; Heidbreder, Christian; Rovati, Luigi

    2005-06-30

    Oxy-haemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-haemoglobin (Hb) are chromophores present in biological tissues. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive methodology based on the low extinction coefficient of tissue in the near infrared region. NIRS can be used to measure changes in the concentration of these chromophores, i.e., haemoglobin, in muscular tissue. In the present work, NIRS has been used for the non-invasive monitoring of HbO2, Hb, and blood volume (V: representing total haemoglobin, i.e., HbO2+Hb) in vivo in the whole rat brain. This has been performed by means of prototype instrumentation based on optic fibre probes placed in contact with the head of anaesthetised rats held in a stereotaxic frame. A preliminary test of the instrument has been performed on human muscle, i.e., lateral gastrocnemius, in order to evaluate the ability of the instrument to detect oxygenation changes. Afterwards, the effects of pharmacological treatments, such as systemic amphetamine and nicotine treatments on the CNS have been detected.

  20. Non-invasive glucose monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A non-invasive method for determining blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam (e.g., at a wavelength of 700 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor in the anterior chamber is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated aqueous humor; and then determining the blood glucose level (or the level of another analyte of interest) for the subject from the Raman spectrum. Preferably, the detecting step is followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing method is also disclosed.

  1. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Sclerotherapy; Laser therapy - varicose veins; Radiofrequency vein ablation; Endovenous thermal ablation; Ambulatory phlebectomy; Transilluminated power phlebotomy; Endovenous laser ablation; Varicose ...

  2. Cryolipolysis for noninvasive body contouring: clinical efficacy and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Nils; Mai, Sophia V; Luebberding, Stefanie; Sadick, Neil S

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a number of modalities have become available for the noninvasive reduction of adipose tissue, including cryolipolysis, radiofrequency, low-level laser, and high-intensity focused ultrasound. Each technology employs a different mechanism of action to cause apoptosis or necrosis of the targeted adipocytes. Among these technologies, cryolipolysis has not only been commercially available for the longest time, but has also been best researched including in vitro and animal models and randomized controlled clinical trials in humans. The principle behind cryolipolysis exploits the premise that adipocytes are more susceptible to cooling than other skin cells. The precise application of cold temperatures triggers apoptosis of the adipocytes, which invokes an inflammatory response and leads to slow digestion by surrounding macrophages. In clinical studies, cryolipolysis was shown to reduce subcutaneous fat at the treatment site by up to 25% after one treatment. Improvements were seen in 86% of treated subjects. At 73%, the patient satisfaction rate is higher than with other technologies used for noninvasive lipolysis. Cryolipolysis has been proven to be a very safe method for body contouring, and is accomplished with only minimal discomfort. Expected side effects are temporary erythema, bruising, and transient numbness that usually resolve within 14 days after treatment. With a prevalence of 0.1%, the most common complaint is late-onset pain, occurring 2 weeks post-procedure, which resolves without intervention. Although no procedure has been accepted as the gold standard for noninvasive body contouring as yet, cryolipolysis is considered to be both safe and efficient with a high patient satisfaction rate.

  3. 13CO2/12CO2 ratio analysis in exhaled air by lead-salt tunable diode lasers for noninvasive diagnostics in gastroenterology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Miliaev, Valerii A.; Selivanov, Yurii G.; Chizhevskii, Eugene G.; Os'kina, Svetlana; Ivashkin, Vladimir T.; Nikitina, Elena I.

    1999-07-01

    An analyzer of 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air based on lead-salt tunable diode lasers is presented. High accuracy of the carbon isotope ratio detection in exhaled carbon dioxide was achieved with help of very simple optical schematics. It was based on the use of MBE laser diodes operating in pulse mode and on recording the resonance CO2 absorption at 4.2 micrometers . Special fast acquisition electronics and software were applied for spectral data collection and processing. Developed laser system was tested in a clinical train aimed to assessment eradication efficiency in therapy of gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Data on the 13C-urea breath test used for P.pylori detection and obtained with tunable diode lasers in the course of the trail was compared with the results of Mass-Spectroscopy analysis and histology observations. The analyzer can be used also for 13CO2/12CO2 ratio detection in exhalation to perform gastroenterology breath test based on using other compounds labeled with stable isotopes.

  4. Noninvasive ventilation in trauma

    PubMed Central

    Karcz, Marcin K; Papadakos, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Trauma patients are a diverse population with heterogeneous needs for ventilatory support. This requirement depends mainly on the severity of their ventilatory dysfunction, degree of deterioration in gaseous exchange, any associated injuries, and the individual feasibility of potentially using a noninvasive ventilation approach. Noninvasive ventilation may reduce the need to intubate patients with trauma-related hypoxemia. It is well-known that these patients are at increased risk to develop hypoxemic respiratory failure which may or may not be associated with hypercapnia. Hypoxemia in these patients is due to ventilation perfusion mismatching and right to left shunt because of lung contusion, atelectasis, an inability to clear secretions as well as pneumothorax and/or hemothorax, all of which are common in trauma patients. Noninvasive ventilation has been tried in these patients in order to avoid the complications related to endotracheal intubation, mainly ventilator-associated pneumonia. The potential usefulness of noninvasive ventilation in the ventilatory management of trauma patients, though reported in various studies, has not been sufficiently investigated on a large scale. According to the British Thoracic Society guidelines, the indications and efficacy of noninvasive ventilation treatment in respiratory distress induced by trauma have thus far been inconsistent and merely received a low grade recommendation. In this review paper, we analyse and compare the results of various studies in which noninvasive ventilation was applied and discuss the role and efficacy of this ventilator modality in trauma. PMID:25685722

  5. Noninvasive Skin Tightening Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive skin tightening has become one of the most common cosmetic aesthetic procedures being performed today. The use of radiofrequency devices for these procedures has been at the forefront of this trend for the past several years. Newer and more sophisticated radiofrequency devices are being brought to the market and presented here are the Venus Freeze and Venus Legacy. PMID:26155322

  6. Non-invasive diagnostic methods in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    The paper, will present the most important non-invasive methods for diagnostic, in different fields of dentistry. Moreover, the laser-based methods will be emphasis. In orthodontics, 3D laser scanners are increasingly being used to establish database for normative population and cross-sectional growth changes but also to asses clinical outcomes in orthognatic surgical and non-surgical treatments. In prevention the main methods for diagnostic of demineralization and caries detection in early stages are represented by laser fluorescence - Quantitative Light Florescence (QLF); DiagnoDent-system-655nm; FOTI-Fiberoptic transillumination; DIFOTI-Digital Imaging Fiberoptic transillumination; and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In odontology, Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive real time method used for determining the tooth vitality by monitoring the pulp microcirculation in traumatized teeth, fractured teeth, and teeth undergoing different conservative treatments. In periodontology, recently study shows the ability of LDF to evaluate the health of gingival tissue in periodontal tissue diseases but also after different periodontal treatments.

  7. Noninvasive Markers to Assess Liver Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Czul, Frank; Bhamidimarri, Kalyan R

    2016-07-01

    Chronic liver disease represents a major public health problem, accounting for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Their prognosis and management greatly depends on the amount and progression of liver fibrosis with time and the risk of development of cirrhosis. Historically, liver biopsy was considered to be the gold standard for the detection of fibrosis. Nevertheless, liver biopsy is an invasive procedure that has limitations in terms of patient acceptance, risk-benefit ratio, cost-effectiveness, and its availability in various geographic regions. Moreover, it is a questionable gold standard due to significant sampling error and intraobserver and interobserver variability. These limitations have led to the development of noninvasive techniques for assessing the presence and the degree of liver fibrosis. This review aims to revise the most recent data from the literature about noninvasive methods useful in the evaluation of liver fibrosis. PMID:27105176

  8. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and epidural anesthesia for an emergency open cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Yurtlu, Bülent Serhan; Köksal, Bengü; Hancı, Volkan; Turan, Işıl Özkoçak

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation is an accepted treatment modality in both acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases and chronic obstructive lung disease. It is commonly utilized in the intensive care units, or for postoperative respiratory support in post-anesthesia care units. This report describes intraoperative support in non-invasive ventilation to neuroaxial anesthesia for an emergency upper abdominal surgery. PMID:27591472

  9. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and epidural anesthesia for an emergency open cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Yurtlu, Bülent Serhan; Köksal, Bengü; Hancı, Volkan; Turan, Işıl Özkoçak

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation is an accepted treatment modality in both acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases and chronic obstructive lung disease. It is commonly utilized in the intensive care units, or for postoperative respiratory support in post-anesthesia care units. This report describes intraoperative support in non-invasive ventilation to neuroaxial anesthesia for an emergency upper abdominal surgery.

  10. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and epidural anesthesia for an emergency open cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Yurtlu, Bülent Serhan; Köksal, Bengü; Hancı, Volkan; Turan, Işıl Özkoçak

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation is an accepted treatment modality in both acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases and chronic obstructive lung disease. It is commonly utilized in the intensive care units, or for postoperative respiratory support in post-anesthesia care units. This report describes intraoperative support in non-invasive ventilation to neuroaxial anesthesia for an emergency upper abdominal surgery.

  11. Noninvasive vital signal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zenan; Chee, Jonny; Chua, Kok Poo; Chen, ZhouDe

    2010-05-01

    Vital signals of patients, such as heart rate, temperature and movement are crucial to monitor patients in hospital. Current heart rate measurement is obtained by using Electrocardiograph, which normally applies electrodes to the patient's body. As electrodes are extremely uncomfortable to ware and hinder patient's movement, a non-invasive vital signal-monitoring device will be a better solution. Similar to Electrocardiograph, the device detects the voltage difference across the heart by using concept of capacitance, which can be obtained by two conductive fiber sewing on the bed sheet. Simultaneous temperature reading can also be detected by using surface mounted temperature sensor. This paper will mainly focus on the heart rate monitoring.

  12. Noninvasive Fetal ECG analysis

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Gari D.; Silva, Ikaro; Behar, Joachim; Moody, George B.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important advances achieved in the field of adult electrocardiography signal processing, the analysis of the non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram (NI-FECG) remains a challenge. Currently no gold standard database exists which provides labelled FECG QRS complexes (and other morphological parameters), and publications rely either on proprietary databases or a very limited set of data recorded from few (or more often, just one) individuals. The PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2013 enables to tackle some of these limitations by releasing a set of NI-FECG data publicly to the scientific community in order to evaluate signal processing techniques for NI-FECG extraction. The Challenge aim was to encourage development of accurate algorithms for locating QRS complexes and estimating the QT interval in noninvasive FECG signals. Using carefully reviewed reference QRS annotations and QT intervals as a gold standard, based on simultaneous direct FECG when possible, the Challenge was designed to measure and compare the performance of participants’ algorithms objectively. Multiple challenge events were designed to test basic FHR estimation accuracy, as well as accuracy in measurement of inter-beat (RR) and QT intervals needed as a basis for derivation of other FECG features. This editorial reviews the background issues, the design of the Challenge, the key achievements, and the follow-up research generated as a result of the Challenge, published in the concurrent special issue of Physiological Measurement. PMID:25071093

  13. [Lasers].

    PubMed

    Passeron, T

    2012-11-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients.

  14. Lasers.

    PubMed

    Passeron, T

    2012-12-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients.

  15. Noninvasive biosensor for hypoglycemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, Karunakaran

    2003-01-01

    Hypoglycemia-abnormal decrease in blood sugar- is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This is especially a concern in early childhood years when the nervous system is still developing. Hypoglycemic unawareness (in which the body"s normal ability to signal low blood sugar doesn"t work and an oncoming low blood sugar episode proceeds undetected) is a particularly frightening problem for many people with diabetes. Researchers have now uncovered evidence that repeated bouts of insulin-induced hypoglycemia can harm the brain over time, causing confusion, abnormal behavior, loss of consciousness, and seizures. Extreme cases have resulted in coma and death. In this paper, a non-invasive biosensor in a wrist watch along with a wireless data downloading system is proposed.

  16. Noninvasive diagnosis of cirrhosis: A review of different imaging modalities

    PubMed Central

    De Robertis, Riccardo; D’Onofrio, Mirko; Demozzi, Emanuele; Crosara, Stefano; Canestrini, Stefano; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Progressive hepatic fibrosis can lead to cirrhosis, so its early detection is fundamental. Staging fibrosis is also critical for prognosis and management. The gold standard for these aims is liver biopsy, but it has several drawbacks, as it is invasive, expensive, has poor acceptance, is prone to inter observer variability and sampling errors, has poor repeatability, and has a risk of complications and mortality. Therefore, non-invasive imaging tests have been developed. This review mainly focuses on the role of transient elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse imaging, and magnetic resonance-based methods for the noninvasive diagnosis of cirrhosis. PMID:24966594

  17. Can the KTP laser change the cementum surface of healthy and diseased teeth providing an acceptable root surface for fibroblast attachment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailhot, Jason M.; Garnick, Jerry J.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of our research is to determine the effects of KTP laser on root cementum and fibroblast attachment. Initial work has been completed in testing the effect of different energy levels on root surfaces. From these studies optimal energy levels were determined. In subsequent studies the working distance and exposure time required to obtain significant fibroblast attachment to healthy cementum surfaces were investigated. Results showed that lased cemental surfaces exhibited changes in surface topography which ranged from a melted surface to an apparent slight fusion of the surface of the covering smear layer. When the optimal energy level was used, fibroblasts demonstrate attachment on the specimens, resulting in the presence of a monolayer of cells on the control surfaces as well as on the surfaces lased with this energy level. The present study investigates the treatment of pathological root surfaces and calculus with a KTP laser utilizing these optimal parameters determine previously. Thirty single rooted teeth with advanced periodontal disease and ten healthy teeth were obtained, crowns were sectioned and roots split longitudinally. Forty test specimens were assigned into 1 of 4 groups; pathologic root--not lased, pathologic root--lased, root planed root and health root planed root. Human gingival fibroblasts were seeded on specimens and cultured for 24 hours. Specimens were processed for SEM. The findings suggest that with the KTP laser using a predetermined energy level applied to pathological root surfaces, the lased surfaces provided an unacceptable surface for fibroblast attachment. However, the procedural control using healthy root planed surfaces did demonstrate fibroblast attachment.

  18. The critical evaluation of laser Doppler imaging in determining burn depth.

    PubMed

    Gill, Parneet

    2013-01-01

    This review article discusses the use of laser Doppler imaging as a clinimetric tool to determine burn depth in patients presenting to hospital. Laser Doppler imaging is a very sensitive and specific tool to measure burn depth, easy to use, reliable and acceptable to the patient due to its quick and non-invasive nature. Improvements in validity, cost and reproducibility would improve its use in clinical practice however it is difficult to satisfy the entire evaluation criterion all the time. It remains a widely accepted tool to assess burn depth, with an ever-increasing body of evidence to support its use, as discussed in this review. Close collaboration between clinicians, statisticians, epidemiologists and psychologists is necessary in order to develop the evidence base for the use of laser Doppler imaging as standard in burn depth assessment and therefore act as an influencing factor in management decisions.

  19. Lasers in diagnostic dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorana, Brij M.

    1996-09-01

    Results of a new noninvasive technique for pulp detection that is based on monitoring the time variations in the laser speckle pattern from a human tooth are presented. The paper also contains preliminary results of experiments and attempts at mathematical modeling of multiple scattering of a laser beam from a solid cylinder.

  20. Non-invasive imaging of microcirculation: a technology review

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Sam; Nilsson, Jan; Sturesson, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Microcirculation plays a crucial role in physiological processes of tissue oxygenation and nutritional exchange. Measurement of microcirculation can be applied on many organs in various pathologies. In this paper we aim to review the technique of non-invasive methods for imaging of the microcirculation. Methods covered are: videomicroscopy techniques, laser Doppler perfusion imaging, and laser speckle contrast imaging. Videomicroscopy techniques, such as orthogonal polarization spectral imaging and sidestream dark-field imaging, provide a plentitude of information and offer direct visualization of the microcirculation but have the major drawback that they may give pressure artifacts. Both laser Doppler perfusion imaging and laser speckle contrast imaging allow non-contact measurements but have the disadvantage of their sensitivity to motion artifacts and that they are confined to relative measurement comparisons. Ideal would be a non-contact videomicroscopy method with fully automatic analysis software. PMID:25525397

  1. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  2. Optoelectronic Apparatus Measures Glucose Noninvasively

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Rovati, Luigi L.

    2003-01-01

    An optoelectronic apparatus has been invented as a noninvasive means of measuring the concentration of glucose in the human body. The apparatus performs polarimetric and interferometric measurements of the human eye to acquire data from which the concentration of glucose in the aqueous humor can be computed. Because of the importance of the concentration of glucose in human health, there could be a large potential market for instruments based on this apparatus.

  3. An optical approach for non-invasive blood clot testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Brill, Alexander; Fine, Ilya; Harmelin, Alon

    2007-02-01

    Physiological blood coagulation is an essential biological process. Current tests for plasma coagulation (clotting) need to be performed ex vivo and require fresh blood sampling for every test. A recently published work describes a new, noninvasive, in vivo approach to assess blood coagulation status during mechanical occlusion1. For this purpose, we have tested this approach and applied a controlled laser beam to blood micro-vessels of the mouse ear during mechanical occlusion. Standard setup for intravital transillumination videomicroscopy and laser based imaging techniques were used for monitoring the blood clotting process. Temporal mechanical occlusion of blood vessels in the observed area was applied to ensure blood flow cessation. Subsequently, laser irradiation was used to induce vascular micro-injury. Changes in the vessel wall, as well as in the pattern of blood flow, predispose the area to vascular thrombosis, according to the paradigm of Virchow's triad. In our experiments, two elements of Virchow's triad were used to induce the process of clotting in vivo, and to assess it optically. We identified several parameters that can serve as markers of the blood clotting process in vivo. These include changes in light absorption in the area of illumination, as well as changes in the pattern of the red blood cells' micro-movement in the vessels where blood flow is completely arrested. Thus, our results indicate that blood coagulation status can be characterized by non-invasive, in vivo methodologies.

  4. Lasers in orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Nalcaci, Ruhi; Cokakoglu, Serpil

    2013-01-01

    Many types of dental lasers are currently available that can be efficiently used for soft and hard tissue applications in the field of orthodontics. For achieving the desired effects in the target tissue, knowledge of laser characteristics such as power, wavelength and timing, is necessary. Laser therapy is advantageous because it often avoids bleeding, can be pain free, is non-invasive and is relatively quick. The high cost is its primary disadvantage. It is very important to take the necessary precautions to prevent possible tissue damage when using laser dental systems. Here, we reviewed the main types and characteristics of laser systems used in dental practice and discuss the applications of lasers in orthodontics, harmful effects and laser system safety. PMID:24966719

  5. Acceptability of BCG vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mande, R

    1977-01-01

    The acceptability of BCG vaccination varies a great deal according to the country and to the period when the vaccine is given. The incidence of complications has not always a direct influence on this acceptability, which depends, for a very large part, on the risk of tuberculosis in a given country at a given time.

  6. ATLAS ACCEPTANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, J. C. , Jr.; Parker, J. V.; Hinckley, W. B.; Hosack, K. W.; Mills, D.; Parsons, W. M.; Scudder, D. W.; Stokes, J. L.; Tabaka, L. J.; Thompson, M. C.; Wysocki, Frederick Joseph; Campbell, T. N.; Lancaster, D. L.; Tom, C. Y.

    2001-01-01

    The acceptance test program for Atlas, a 23 MJ pulsed power facility for use in the Los Alamos High Energy Density Hydrodynamics program, has been completed. Completion of this program officially releases Atlas from the construction phase and readies it for experiments. Details of the acceptance test program results and of machine capabilities for experiments will be presented.

  7. Scabies: Advances in Noninvasive Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Micali, Giuseppe; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Verzì, Anna Elisa; Chosidow, Olivier; Schwartz, Robert A

    2016-06-01

    Scabies is a common, highly contagious skin parasitosis caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. Early identification and prompt treatment of infested subjects is essential, as missed diagnosis may result in outbreaks, considerable morbidity, and significantly increased economic burden. The standard diagnostic technique consists of mites' identification by microscopic examination of scales obtained by skin scraping. This is a time-consuming and risk-associated procedure that is also not suitable to a busy practice. In recent years, some advanced and noninvasive techniques such as videodermatoscopy, dermatoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy, and optical coherence tomography have demonstrated improved efficacy in the diagnosis of scabies. Their advantages include rapid, noninvasive mass screening and post-therapeutic follow-up, with no physical risk. A greater knowledge of these techniques among general practitioners and other specialists involved in the intake care of overcrowded populations vulnerable to scabies infestations is now viewed as urgent and important in the management of outbreaks, as well as in consideration of the recent growing inflow of migrants in Europe from North Africa. PMID:27311065

  8. Noninvasive Test Detects Cardiovascular Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA-developed Video Imaging Communication and Retrieval (VICAR) software laid the groundwork for analyzing images of all kinds. A project seeking to use imaging technology for health care diagnosis began when the imaging team considered using the VICAR software to analyze X-ray images of soft tissue. With marginal success using X-rays, the team applied the same methodology to ultrasound imagery, which was already digitally formatted. The new approach proved successful for assessing amounts of plaque build-up and arterial wall thickness, direct predictors of heart disease, and the result was a noninvasive diagnostic system with the ability to accurately predict heart health. Medical Technologies International Inc. (MTI) further developed and then submitted the technology to a vigorous review process at the FDA, which cleared the software for public use. The software, patented under the name Prowin, is being used in MTI's patented ArterioVision, a carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) test that uses ultrasound image-capturing and analysis software to noninvasively identify the risk for the major cause of heart attack and strokes: atherosclerosis. ArterioVision provides a direct measurement of atherosclerosis by safely and painlessly measuring the thickness of the first two layers of the carotid artery wall using an ultrasound procedure and advanced image-analysis software. The technology is now in use in all 50 states and in many countries throughout the world.

  9. Scabies: Advances in Noninvasive Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lacarrubba, Francesco; Verzì, Anna Elisa; Chosidow, Olivier; Schwartz, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Scabies is a common, highly contagious skin parasitosis caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. Early identification and prompt treatment of infested subjects is essential, as missed diagnosis may result in outbreaks, considerable morbidity, and significantly increased economic burden. The standard diagnostic technique consists of mites’ identification by microscopic examination of scales obtained by skin scraping. This is a time-consuming and risk-associated procedure that is also not suitable to a busy practice. In recent years, some advanced and noninvasive techniques such as videodermatoscopy, dermatoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy, and optical coherence tomography have demonstrated improved efficacy in the diagnosis of scabies. Their advantages include rapid, noninvasive mass screening and post-therapeutic follow-up, with no physical risk. A greater knowledge of these techniques among general practitioners and other specialists involved in the intake care of overcrowded populations vulnerable to scabies infestations is now viewed as urgent and important in the management of outbreaks, as well as in consideration of the recent growing inflow of migrants in Europe from North Africa. PMID:27311065

  10. Noninvasive imaging of immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Rashidian, Mohammad; Keliher, Edmund J.; Bilate, Angelina M.; Duarte, Joao N.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Jacobsen, Johanne Tracey; Cragnolini, Juanjo; Swee, Lee Kim; Victora, Gabriel D.; Weissleder, Ralph; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2015-01-01

    At their margins, tumors often contain neutrophils, dendritic cells, and activated macrophages, which express class II MHC and CD11b products. The interplay between stromal cells, tumor cells, and migratory cells such as lymphocytes creates opportunities for noninvasive imaging of immune responses. We developed alpaca-derived antibody fragments specific for mouse class II MHC and CD11b products, expressed on the surface of a variety of myeloid cells. We validated these reagents by flow cytometry and two-photon microscopy to obtain images at cellular resolution. To enable noninvasive imaging of the targeted cell populations, we developed a method to site-specifically label VHHs [the variable domain (VH) of a camelid heavy-chain only antibody] with 18F or 64Cu. Radiolabeled VHHs rapidly cleared the circulation (t1/2 ≈ 20 min) and clearly visualized lymphoid organs. We used VHHs to explore the possibility of imaging inflammation in both xenogeneic and syngeneic tumor models, which resulted in detection of tumors with remarkable specificity. We also imaged the infiltration of myeloid cells upon injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant. Both anti-class II MHC and anti-CD11b VHHs detected inflammation with excellent specificity. Given the ease of manufacture and labeling of VHHs, we believe that this method could transform the manner in which antitumor responses and/or infectious events may be tracked. PMID:25902531

  11. Noninvasive Facial Rejuvenation. Part 1: Patient-Directed.

    PubMed

    Commander, Sarah Jane; Chang, Daniel; Fakhro, Abdulla; Nigro, Marjory G; Lee, Edward I

    2016-08-01

    A proper knowledge of noninvasive facial rejuvenation is integral to the practice of a cosmetic surgeon. Noninvasive facial rejuvenation can be divided into patient- versus physician-directed modalities. Patient-directed facial rejuvenation combines the use of facial products such as sunscreen, moisturizers, retinoids, α-hydroxy acids, and various antioxidants to both maintain youthful skin and rejuvenate damaged skin. Physicians may recommend and often prescribe certain products, but the patients are in control of this type of facial rejuvenation. On the other hand, physician-directed facial rejuvenation entails modalities that require direct physician involvement, such as neuromodulators, filler injections, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, and chemical peels. With the successful integration of each of these modalities, a complete facial regimen can be established and patient satisfaction can be maximized. This article is the first in a three-part series describing noninvasive facial rejuvenation. The authors focus on patient-directed facial rejuvenation. It is important, however, to emphasize that even in a patient-directed modality, a physician's involvement through education and guidance is integral to its success. PMID:27478421

  12. Non-invasive optical modulation of local vascular permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Choi, Chulhee

    2011-03-01

    For a systemically administered drug to act, it first needs to cross the vascular wall. This step represents a bottleneck for drug development, especially in the brain or retina, where tight junctions between endothelial cells form physiological barriers. Here, we demonstrate that femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation focused on the blood vessel wall induces transient permeabilization of plasma. Nonlinear absorption of the pulsed laser enabled the noninvasive modulation of vascular permeability with high spatial selectivity in three dimensions. By combining this method with systemic injection, we could locally deliver molecular probes in various tissues, such as brain cortex, meninges, ear, striated muscle, and bone. We suggest this method as a novel delivery tool for molecular probes or drugs.

  13. Medical laser application: translation into the clinics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Stepp, Herbert; Hennig, Georg; Brittenham, Gary M.; Rühm, Adrian; Lilge, Lothar

    2015-06-01

    Medical laser applications based on widespread research and development is a very dynamic and increasingly popular field from an ecological as well as an economic point of view. Conferences and personal communication are necessary to identify specific requests and potential unmet needs in this multi- and interdisciplinary discipline. Precise gathering of all information on innovative, new, or renewed techniques is necessary to design medical devices for introduction into clinical applications and finally to become established for routine treatment or diagnosis. Five examples of successfully addressed clinical requests are described to show the long-term endurance in developing light-based innovative clinical concepts and devices. Starting from laboratory medicine, a noninvasive approach to detect signals related to iron deficiency is shown. Based upon photosensitization, fluorescence-guided resection had been discovered, opening the door for photodynamic approaches for the treatment of brain cancer. Thermal laser application in the nasal cavity obtained clinical acceptance by the introduction of new laser wavelengths in clinical consciousness. Varicose veins can be treated by innovative endoluminal treatment methods, thus reducing side effects and saving time. Techniques and developments are presented with potential for diagnosis and treatment to improve the clinical situation for the benefit of the patient.

  14. Noninvasive mapping of subcutaneous vasculature with high resolution photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, Yeqi; Xing, Da; Yang, Sihua

    2007-11-01

    As a novel hybrid imaging modality, photoacoustic (PA) imaging combines the merits of high optical contrast, good ultrasonic resolution and sufficient imaging depth, which may be of great benefit to noninvasively detect and monitor the pathological changes of subcutaneous vasculature, e.g., congenital vascular tumor and vascular malformation. In this paper, we apply a set of photoacoustic imaging system to image a sample of subcutaneous blood vessels, which is used to simulate the location of human's subcutaneous vasculature. Furthermore, an image of subcutaneous vasculature of the abdomen in a mouse is acquired in vivo. Laser pulses at a wavelength of 532 nm from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser are employed as light source to generate PA signals in the experiments, because the optical absorption of whole blood is much stronger than that of other tissues at this wavelength. A needle polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hydrophone with a diameter of 1mm is used to capture PA signals through a circular scan. The experimental results show that detailed structural information of subcutaneous vasculature, such as the shape and position of the blood vessels and the vessel branching, is clearly revealed by the PA imaging system. The spatial resolution of the PA imaging system reaches 80μm. Moreover, the reconstructed image of a mouse's abdomen in vivo demonstrates that this technique is suitable for noninvasive subcutaneous vasculature imaging. All of the results prove that the PA imaging can be used as a helpful tool for monitoring the pathological changes of subcutaneous vasculature.

  15. Critical Review of Noninvasive Optical Technologies for Wound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jayachandran, Maanasa; Rodriguez, Suset; Solis, Elizabeth; Lei, Jiali; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Noninvasive imaging approaches can provide greater information about a wound than visual inspection during the wound healing and treatment process. This review article focuses on various optical imaging techniques developed to image different wound types (more specifically ulcers). Recent Advances: The noninvasive optical imaging approaches in this review include hyperspectral imaging, multispectral imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, laser Doppler imaging, laser speckle imaging, spatial frequency domain imaging, and fluorescence imaging. The various wounds imaged using these techniques include open wounds, chronic wounds, diabetic foot ulcers, decubitus ulcers, venous leg ulcers, and burns. Preliminary work in the development and implementation of a near-infrared optical scanner for wound imaging as a noncontact hand-held device is briefly described. The technology is based on NIRS and has demonstrated its potential to differentiate a healing from nonhealing wound region. Critical Issues: While most of the optical imaging techniques can penetrate few hundred microns to a 1–2 mm from the wound surface, NIRS has the potential to penetrate deeper, demonstrating the potential to image internal wounds. Future Directions: All the technologies are currently at various stages of translational efforts to the clinic, with NIRS holding a greater promise for physiological assessment of the wounds internal, beyond the gold-standard visual assessment. PMID:27602254

  16. Critical Review of Noninvasive Optical Technologies for Wound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jayachandran, Maanasa; Rodriguez, Suset; Solis, Elizabeth; Lei, Jiali; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Noninvasive imaging approaches can provide greater information about a wound than visual inspection during the wound healing and treatment process. This review article focuses on various optical imaging techniques developed to image different wound types (more specifically ulcers). Recent Advances: The noninvasive optical imaging approaches in this review include hyperspectral imaging, multispectral imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, laser Doppler imaging, laser speckle imaging, spatial frequency domain imaging, and fluorescence imaging. The various wounds imaged using these techniques include open wounds, chronic wounds, diabetic foot ulcers, decubitus ulcers, venous leg ulcers, and burns. Preliminary work in the development and implementation of a near-infrared optical scanner for wound imaging as a noncontact hand-held device is briefly described. The technology is based on NIRS and has demonstrated its potential to differentiate a healing from nonhealing wound region. Critical Issues: While most of the optical imaging techniques can penetrate few hundred microns to a 1–2 mm from the wound surface, NIRS has the potential to penetrate deeper, demonstrating the potential to image internal wounds. Future Directions: All the technologies are currently at various stages of translational efforts to the clinic, with NIRS holding a greater promise for physiological assessment of the wounds internal, beyond the gold-standard visual assessment.

  17. Noninvasive imaging of bone microarchitecture

    PubMed Central

    Patsch, Janina M.; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Kazakia, Galateia; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    The noninvasive quantification of peripheral compartment-specific bone microarchitecture is feasible with high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI). In addition to classic morphometric indices, both techniques provide a suitable basis for virtual biomechanical testing using finite element (FE) analyses. Methodical limitations, morphometric parameter definition, and motion artifacts have to be considered to achieve optimal data interpretation from imaging studies. With increasing availability of in vivo high-resolution bone imaging techniques, special emphasis should be put on quality control including multicenter, cross-site validations. Importantly, conclusions from interventional studies investigating the effects of antiosteoporotic drugs on bone microarchitecture should be drawn with care, ideally involving imaging scientists, translational researchers, and clinicians. PMID:22172043

  18. Noninvasive continuous blood pressure monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Armen; Mouradian, Vahram; Hovhannisyan, Levon

    2015-03-01

    We are presenting a novel photoplethysmographic (PPG) optical sensor and device with ambient optical, electrical and electromagnetic noises cancellation, thus allowing only the useful optical signals to be received by the health monitoring device. We are also presenting a new processing technique for canceling the ambient noises contributed by optical, electrical and electromagnetic artifacts in the measured PPG signals. Such a device and method allow the enhancement of the performance of the PPG sensors compared to conventional apparatus and methods. The presented sensor and methodology have been integrated into a prototype standalone device for noninvasive, continuous, wearable, remote and mobile monitoring of blood pressure and other human vital signs, such as heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiration rate, etc This small device allows the user to read, store, process and transmit all the measurements made using the PPG optical sensor and the electronic unit to a remote location.

  19. Advances in noninvasive bone measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Mazess, R.B.; Barden, H.; Vetter, J.; Ettinger, M.

    1989-01-01

    Several noninvasive measurement methods are used for evaluation of metabolic disease. Single-photon (/sup 125/I) scans of the peripheral skeleton are useful in some diseases but are ineffective in osteoporosis (even on the distal radius or os calcis) because they cannot predict spinal or femoral density. Also, peripheral measurements show high percentages of false negatives, that is many patients with fractures have normal peripheral density. Dual-photon (/sup 153/Gd) scans of the spine, femur, and total skeleton are precise and accurate (2% error) and provide direct measurements of bone strength at fracture sites. This gives the best discrimination of abnormality and the most sensitive monitoring. Quantitative computed computed tomography (QCT) allows measurement of the spine but not the critical proximal femur area. QCT has a large accuracy error because (a) the limited area measured (under 5 cm3) fails to represent the total vertebral body, (b) technical errors, and (c) variable fat and osteoid influence the results. 25 references.

  20. Acceptance procedures: Microfilm printer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Acceptance tests were made for a special order automatic additive color microfilm printer. Tests include film capacity, film transport, resolution, illumination uniformity, exposure range checks, and color cuing considerations.

  1. Noninvasive detection of diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppstein, Jonathan A.; Bursell, Sven-Erik

    1992-05-01

    Recent advances in fluorescence spectroscopy of the lens reveal the potential of a non-invasive device and methodology to sensitively measure changes in the lens of the eye associated with diabetes mellitus. The system relies on the detection of the spectrum of fluorescence emitted from a selected volume (approximately 1/10 mm3) of the lens of living human subjects using low power excitation illumination from monochromatic light sources. The sensitivity of this technique is based on the measurement of the fluorescence intensity in a selected region of the fluorescence spectrum and normalization of this fluorescence with respect to attenuation (scattering and absorption) of the incident excitation light. The amplitude of the unshifted Rayleigh line, measured as part of the fluorescence spectrum, is used as a measure of the attenuation of the excitation light in the lens. Using this methodology we have demonstrated that the normalized lens fluorescence provides a more sensitive discrimination between diabetic and non-diabetic lenses than more conventional measurements of fluorescence intensity from the lens. The existing instrumentation will be described as well as the proposed design for a commercial version of the instrument expected to be ready for FDA trials by late 1992. The results from clinical measurements are used to describe a relationship between normalized lens fluorescence and hemoglobin A1c levels in diabetic patients.

  2. Noninvasive vital body chemistry sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Winston; Gasca, Rebecca; Spariosu, Kalin; Low, Peter W.

    2000-08-01

    There is a need for real-time unobtrusive monitoring of the vital body chemistry and general health status of military personnel during training and in hostile battlefield environments. Monitoring the health of a soldier who is an integral part of a military mission is important, because a compromise in his/her ability to act at a certain moment could jeopardize the operation. The most accessible measure of a person's health at any given instant is his/her anaerobic metabolism rate (O2 debt), which is indicative of the changes in skeletal muscle and cerebral oxygenation. Anaerobic metabolism data can be used by paramedics to save lives. Lactate levels are important measure of oxygen debt. Lactate is a weak acid that is produced by cells when they break down glucose to produce energy by anaerobic metabolism (a chemical process that does not require oxygen). In this project we developed, constructed, and tested a compact personal optical sensor for monitoring lactate via sweat metabolite analysis. The sensor quantifies the change of the optical properties caused by lactate chemistry. Our miniaturized noninvasive lactate sensor measures minute changes of the lactate between 0-130 mM in near real time.

  3. Smaller hospitals accept advertising.

    PubMed

    Mackesy, R

    1988-07-01

    Administrators at small- and medium-sized hospitals gradually have accepted the role of marketing in their organizations, albeit at a much slower rate than larger institutions. This update of a 1983 survey tracks the increasing competitiveness, complexity and specialization of providing health care and of advertising a small hospital's services. PMID:10288550

  4. Students Accepted on Probation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorberbaum, Caroline S.

    This report is a justification of the Dalton Junior College admissions policy designed to help students who had had academic and/or social difficulties at other schools. These students were accepted on probation, their problems carefully analyzed, and much effort devoted to those with low academic potential. They received extensive academic and…

  5. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  6. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  7. In vivo non-invasive multiphoton tomography of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten; Riemann, Iris; Ehlers, Alexander; Le Harzic, Ronan

    2005-10-01

    High resolution non-invasive 3D imaging devices are required to detect pathogenic microorganisms such as Anthrax spores, bacteria, viruses, fungi and chemical agents entering biological tissues such as the epidermis. Due to the low light penetration depth and the biodamage potential, ultraviolet light sources can not be employed to realize intratissue imaging of bio- and chemohazards. We report on the novel near infrared laser technology multiphoton tomography and the high resolution 4D imaging tool DermaInspect for non-invasive detection of intratissue agents and their influence on cellular metabolism based on multiphoton autofluorescence imaging (MAI) and second harmonic generation (SHG). Femtosecond laser pulses in the spectral range of 750 nm to 850 nm have been used to image in vivo human skin with subcellular spatial and picosecond temporal resolution. The non-linear induced autofluorescence of both, skin tissues and microorganisms, originates mainly from naturally endogenous fluorophores/protein structures like NAD(P)H, flavins, keratin, collagen, elastin, porphyrins and melanin. Bacteria emit in the blue/green spectral range due to NAD(P)H and flavoproteins and, in certain cases, in the red spectral range due to the biosynthesis of Zn-porphyrins, coproporphyrin and protoporphyrin. Collagen and exogenous non-centrosymmetric molecules can be detected by SHG signals. The system DermaInspect consists of a wavelength-tunable compact 80/90 MHz Ti:sapphire laser, a scan module with galvo scan mirrors, piezo-driven objective, fast photon detector and time-resolved single photon counting unit. It can be used to perform optical sectioning and 3D autofluorescence lifetime imaging (τ-mapping) with 1 μm spatial resolution and 270 ps temporal resolution. The parameter fluorescence lifetime depends on the type of fluorophore and its microenvironment and can be used to distinguish bio- and chemohazards from cellular background and to gain information for pathogen

  8. Noninvasive Polarimetric-Based Glucose Monitoring: An in Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Purvinis, Georgeanne; Cameron, Brent D; Altrogge, Douglas M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Since 1990, there has been significant research devoted toward development of a noninvasive physiological glucose sensor. In this article, we report on the use of optical polarimetry for the noninvasive measurement of physiological glucose concentration in the anterior chamber of the eye of New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. Method: Measurements were acquired using a custom-designed laser-based optical polarimetry system in a total of seven NZW rabbits anesthetized using an isoflurane-only anesthesia protocol. Aqueous humor-based polarimetric measurements were obtained by coupling light through the anterior chamber of the eye. Blood glucose levels were first stabilized and then altered with intravenous dextrose and insulin administration and measured every 3–5 min with a standard glucometer and intermittently with a YSI 2300 glucose analyzer. Acquired polarimetric glucose signals are calibrated to measured blood glucose concentration. Results: Based on a total of 41 data points, Clarke error grid analysis indicated 93% in zone A, 7% in zone B, and 0% in zones C and D, with reference concentrations between 93 and 521 mg/dl. Errors in prediction are shown to be related to gross movement of the rabbit during the procedures, incurring time-varying corneal birefringence effects that directly affect the measured polarimetric signal. These effects can be compensated for with appropriate design modifications. Conclusions: An optical polarimetry technique was used for in vivo physiological glucose monitoring. The technique demonstrated provides a basis for the development of a noninvasive polarimetric glucose monitor for home, personal, or hospital use. PMID:21527109

  9. Non-invasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Yoav; Webb, Muriel; Cytter-Kuint, Ruth; Shteingart, Shimon; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation and follow up of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis have been traditionally performed by liver biopsy. However, during the last 20 years, it has become evident that this “gold-standard” is imperfect; even according to its proponents, it is only “the best” among available methods. Attempts at uncovering non-invasive diagnostic tools have yielded multiple scores, formulae, and imaging modalities. All are better tolerated, safer, more acceptable to the patient, and can be repeated essentially as often as required. Most are much less expensive than liver biopsy. Consequently, their use is growing, and in some countries the number of biopsies performed, at least for routine evaluation of hepatitis B and C, has declined sharply. However, the accuracy and diagnostic value of most, if not all, of these methods remains controversial. In this review for the practicing physician, we analyze established and novel biomarkers and physical techniques. We may be witnessing in recent years the beginning of the end of the first phase for the development of non-invasive markers. Early evidence suggests that they might be at least as good as liver biopsy. Novel experimental markers and imaging techniques could produce a dramatic change in diagnosis in the near future. PMID:26556987

  10. [Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in patients with stable severe COPD].

    PubMed

    Schucher, B; Zerbst, J; Baumann, H J

    2004-06-01

    Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The role of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is well documented in patients with restrictive thoracic diseases like kyphoscoliosis, tuberculosis sequelae or neuromuscular disease. There is also a good evidence for the use of NIPPV in acute respiratory failure in patients with an exacerbation of COPD. The application of NIPPV in patients with chronic respiratory failure is growing, but there is less evidence than in restrictive disorders. NIPPV can unload the respiratory muscles in patients with chronic hypercapnic COPD and so alleviates fatigue of the respiratory pump, but improvement in the maximal inspiratory pressure (Pi (max)) is small or even absent. An improvement of sleep quality has also postulated, there was an increase in total sleep time and sleep effectiveness when using higher inspiratory pressure. An increase of the walking distance was shown in short term studies, only. In most studies, there was an increase in quality of life as a main topic. Mortality was unchanged in the two long-term randomised controlled studies. Current data suggest a possible role of NIPPV in patients with severe hypercapnia. A high effective inspiratory pressure and a ventilator mode with a significant reduction in the work of breathing should be choosen. NIPPV should be started in hospital, a close reassessment must be performed. Patients who accepted NIPPV in the first weeks had a good compliance for long-term use. PMID:15216436

  11. Influence of hemoglobin on non-invasive optical bilirubin sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingying; Gong, Qiliang; Zou, Da; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    Since the abnormal metabolism of bilirubin could lead to diseases in the human body, especially the jaundice which is harmful to neonates. Traditional invasive measurements are difficult to be accepted by people because of pain and infection. Therefore, the real-time and non-invasive measurement of bilirubin is of great significance. However, the accuracy of currently transcutaneous bilirubinometry(TcB) is generally not high enough, and affected by many factors in the human skin, mostly by hemoglobin. In this talk, absorption spectra of hemoglobin and bilirubin have been collected and analyzed, then the Partial Least Squares (PLS) models have been built. By analyzing and comparing the Correlation and Root Mean Square Error of Prediction(RMSEP), the results show that the Correlation of bilirubin solution model is larger than that of the mixture solution added with hemoglobin, and its RMSEP value is smaller than that of mixture solution. Therefore, hemoglobin has influences on the non-invasive optical bilirubin sensing. In next step, it is necessary to investigate how to eliminate the influence.

  12. Non-invasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Yoav; Webb, Muriel; Cytter-Kuint, Ruth; Shteingart, Shimon; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z

    2015-11-01

    The evaluation and follow up of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis have been traditionally performed by liver biopsy. However, during the last 20 years, it has become evident that this "gold-standard" is imperfect; even according to its proponents, it is only "the best" among available methods. Attempts at uncovering non-invasive diagnostic tools have yielded multiple scores, formulae, and imaging modalities. All are better tolerated, safer, more acceptable to the patient, and can be repeated essentially as often as required. Most are much less expensive than liver biopsy. Consequently, their use is growing, and in some countries the number of biopsies performed, at least for routine evaluation of hepatitis B and C, has declined sharply. However, the accuracy and diagnostic value of most, if not all, of these methods remains controversial. In this review for the practicing physician, we analyze established and novel biomarkers and physical techniques. We may be witnessing in recent years the beginning of the end of the first phase for the development of non-invasive markers. Early evidence suggests that they might be at least as good as liver biopsy. Novel experimental markers and imaging techniques could produce a dramatic change in diagnosis in the near future.

  13. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  14. Noninvasive imaging technologies for cutaneous wound assessment: A review.

    PubMed

    Paul, Dereck W; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Prindeze, Nicholas J; Moffatt, Lauren T; Alkhalil, Abdulnaser; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    The ability to phenotype wounds for the purposes of assessing severity, healing potential and treatment is an important function of evidence-based medicine. A variety of optical technologies are currently in development for noninvasive wound assessment. To varying extents, these optical technologies have the potential to supplement traditional clinical wound evaluation and research, by providing detailed information regarding skin components imperceptible to visual inspection. These assessments are achieved through quantitative optical analysis of tissue characteristics including blood flow, collagen remodeling, hemoglobin content, inflammation, temperature, vascular structure, and water content. Technologies that have, to this date, been applied to wound assessment include: near infrared imaging, thermal imaging, optical coherence tomography, orthogonal polarization spectral imaging, fluorescence imaging, laser Doppler imaging, microscopy, spatial frequency domain imaging, photoacoustic detection, and spectral/hyperspectral imaging. We present a review of the technologies in use or development for these purposes with three aims: (1) providing basic explanations of imaging technology concepts, (2) reviewing the wound imaging literature, and (3) providing insight into areas for further application and exploration. Noninvasive imaging is a promising advancement in wound assessment and all technologies require further validation.

  15. Electro-optic sensors dedicated to noninvasive electric field characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warzecha, A.; Bernier, M.; Gaborit, G.; Duvillaret, L.; Lasserre, J.-L.

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes non-invasive electro-optic sensors devoted to simultaneous electric field and temperature measurements. Based on Poeckel's effect, these sensors consist in non-centrosymmetric crystals for which an electricfield induces a modification of their refractive indices [1]. Such modification can also be induced by a drift of the crystal temperature [2]. After explanation of the principle, we will illustrate some applications (high power microwave characterization, bioelectromagnetism, electric field mapping of high voltage devices) for which electro-optic sensors give excellent performances. These sensors perform vectorial E-field measurement (modulus and phase of each E-field components) with both high spatial and temporal resolutions. As they are pigtailed, long distance remote sensing is then allowed. They are also non-invasive due to their fully dielectric design. However, their sensitivity remains quite low for electromagnetic compatibility and their size remains too important for bioelectromagnetism studies in Petry dishes for example. So, two ways of improvement are pursued. The first one consists in using Fabry-Perot microcavities based on LiNbO3 optical waveguide to dramatically reduce sensors size. The second one consists in an optical processing (optical carrier rejection) of the laser probe beam to increase the sensor sensitivity for high frequency measurements. We will present first results concerning these improvements and also results that have been performed in free space with a fully automated setup in both frequency and time domains.

  16. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  17. Anesthesia Methods in Laser Resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    Gaitan, Sergio; Markus, Ramsey

    2012-01-01

    Laser resurfacing technology offers the ability to treat skin changes that are the result of the aging process. One of the major drawbacks of laser resurfacing technologies is the pain associated with the procedure. The methods of anesthesia used in laser resurfacing to help minimize the pain include both noninvasive and invasive procedures. The noninvasive procedures can be divided into topical, cryoanesthesia, and a combination of both. The invasive methods of anesthesia include injected forms (infiltrative, nerve blocks, and tumescent anesthesia) and supervised anesthesia (monitored anesthesia care and general anesthesia). In this review, the authors summarize the types of anesthesia used in laser resurfacing to aid the provider in offering the most appropriate method for the patient to have as painless a procedure as possible. PMID:23904819

  18. A novel effective method for the assessment of microvascular function in male patients with coronary artery disease: a pilot study using laser speckle contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Borges, J P; Lopes, G O; Verri, V; Coelho, M P; Nascimento, P M C; Kopiler, D A; Tibirica, E

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of microvascular endothelial function is essential for investigating the pathophysiology and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Although laser speckle contrast imaging technology is well accepted as a noninvasive methodology for assessing microvascular endothelial function, it has never been used to compare male patients with coronary artery disease with male age-matched healthy controls. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether laser speckle contrast imaging could be used to detect differences in the systemic microvascular functions of patients with established cardiovascular disease (n=61) and healthy age-matched subjects (n=24). Cutaneous blood flow was assessed in the skin of the forearm using laser speckle contrast imaging coupled with the transdermal iontophoretic delivery of acetylcholine and post-occlusive reactive hyperemia. The maximum increase in skin blood flow induced by acetylcholine was significantly reduced in the cardiovascular disease patients compared with the control subjects (74 vs 116%; P<0.01). With regard to post-occlusive reactive hyperemia-induced vasodilation, the patients also presented reduced responses compared to the controls (0.42±0.15 vs 0.50±0.13 APU/mmHg; P=0.04). In conclusion, laser speckle contrast imaging can identify endothelial and microvascular dysfunctions in male individuals with cardiovascular disease. Thus, this technology appears to be an efficient non-invasive technique for evaluating systemic microvascular and endothelial functions, which could be valuable as a peripheral marker of atherothrombotic diseases in men. PMID:27599202

  19. A novel effective method for the assessment of microvascular function in male patients with coronary artery disease: a pilot study using laser speckle contrast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Borges, J.P.; Lopes, G.O.; Verri, V.; Coelho, M.P.; Nascimento, P.M.C.; Kopiler, D.A.; Tibirica, E.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of microvascular endothelial function is essential for investigating the pathophysiology and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Although laser speckle contrast imaging technology is well accepted as a noninvasive methodology for assessing microvascular endothelial function, it has never been used to compare male patients with coronary artery disease with male age-matched healthy controls. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether laser speckle contrast imaging could be used to detect differences in the systemic microvascular functions of patients with established cardiovascular disease (n=61) and healthy age-matched subjects (n=24). Cutaneous blood flow was assessed in the skin of the forearm using laser speckle contrast imaging coupled with the transdermal iontophoretic delivery of acetylcholine and post-occlusive reactive hyperemia. The maximum increase in skin blood flow induced by acetylcholine was significantly reduced in the cardiovascular disease patients compared with the control subjects (74 vs 116%; P<0.01). With regard to post-occlusive reactive hyperemia-induced vasodilation, the patients also presented reduced responses compared to the controls (0.42±0.15 vs 0.50±0.13 APU/mmHg; P=0.04). In conclusion, laser speckle contrast imaging can identify endothelial and microvascular dysfunctions in male individuals with cardiovascular disease. Thus, this technology appears to be an efficient non-invasive technique for evaluating systemic microvascular and endothelial functions, which could be valuable as a peripheral marker of atherothrombotic diseases in men. PMID:27599202

  20. A novel effective method for the assessment of microvascular function in male patients with coronary artery disease: a pilot study using laser speckle contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Borges, J P; Lopes, G O; Verri, V; Coelho, M P; Nascimento, P M C; Kopiler, D A; Tibirica, E

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation of microvascular endothelial function is essential for investigating the pathophysiology and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Although laser speckle contrast imaging technology is well accepted as a noninvasive methodology for assessing microvascular endothelial function, it has never been used to compare male patients with coronary artery disease with male age-matched healthy controls. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether laser speckle contrast imaging could be used to detect differences in the systemic microvascular functions of patients with established cardiovascular disease (n=61) and healthy age-matched subjects (n=24). Cutaneous blood flow was assessed in the skin of the forearm using laser speckle contrast imaging coupled with the transdermal iontophoretic delivery of acetylcholine and post-occlusive reactive hyperemia. The maximum increase in skin blood flow induced by acetylcholine was significantly reduced in the cardiovascular disease patients compared with the control subjects (74 vs 116%; P<0.01). With regard to post-occlusive reactive hyperemia-induced vasodilation, the patients also presented reduced responses compared to the controls (0.42±0.15 vs 0.50±0.13 APU/mmHg; P=0.04). In conclusion, laser speckle contrast imaging can identify endothelial and microvascular dysfunctions in male individuals with cardiovascular disease. Thus, this technology appears to be an efficient non-invasive technique for evaluating systemic microvascular and endothelial functions, which could be valuable as a peripheral marker of atherothrombotic diseases in men.

  1. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  2. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  3. Non-invasive sensing for food reassurance.

    PubMed

    Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Povey, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Consumers and governments are increasingly interested in the safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities. This has driven attention towards non-invasive sensing techniques used for rapid analyzing these commodities. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in, and available alternatives for, food assurance based on non-invasive sensing techniques. The main food quality traits of interest using non-invasive sensing techniques are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of non-invasive sensing techniques, from optical, acoustical, electrical, to nuclear magnetic, X-ray, biosensor, microwave and terahertz, are organized according to physical principle. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. With continued innovation and attention to key challenges, such non-invasive sensors and biosensors are expected to open up new exciting avenues in the field of portable and wearable wireless sensing devices and connecting with mobile networks, thus finding considerable use in a wide range of food assurance applications. The need for an appropriate regulatory framework is emphasized which acts to exclude unwanted components in foods and includes needed components, with sensors as part of a reassurance framework supporting regulation and food chain management. The integration of these sensor modalities into a single technological and commercial platform offers an opportunity for a paradigm shift in food reassurance.

  4. Non-invasive sensing for food reassurance.

    PubMed

    Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Povey, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Consumers and governments are increasingly interested in the safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities. This has driven attention towards non-invasive sensing techniques used for rapid analyzing these commodities. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in, and available alternatives for, food assurance based on non-invasive sensing techniques. The main food quality traits of interest using non-invasive sensing techniques are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of non-invasive sensing techniques, from optical, acoustical, electrical, to nuclear magnetic, X-ray, biosensor, microwave and terahertz, are organized according to physical principle. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. With continued innovation and attention to key challenges, such non-invasive sensors and biosensors are expected to open up new exciting avenues in the field of portable and wearable wireless sensing devices and connecting with mobile networks, thus finding considerable use in a wide range of food assurance applications. The need for an appropriate regulatory framework is emphasized which acts to exclude unwanted components in foods and includes needed components, with sensors as part of a reassurance framework supporting regulation and food chain management. The integration of these sensor modalities into a single technological and commercial platform offers an opportunity for a paradigm shift in food reassurance. PMID:26835653

  5. Targeted, noninvasive blockade of cortical neuronal activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDannold, Nathan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Power, Chanikarn; Arvanitis, Costas D.; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Livingstone, Margaret

    2015-11-01

    Here we describe a novel method to noninvasively modulate targeted brain areas through the temporary disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via focused ultrasound, enabling focal delivery of a neuroactive substance. Ultrasound was used to locally disrupt the BBB in rat somatosensory cortex, and intravenous administration of GABA then produced a dose-dependent suppression of somatosensory-evoked potentials in response to electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve. No suppression was observed 1-5 days afterwards or in control animals where the BBB was not disrupted. This method has several advantages over existing techniques: it is noninvasive; it is repeatable via additional GABA injections; multiple brain regions can be affected simultaneously; suppression magnitude can be titrated by GABA dose; and the method can be used with freely behaving subjects. We anticipate that the application of neuroactive substances in this way will be a useful tool for noninvasively mapping brain function, and potentially for surgical planning or novel therapies.

  6. Noninvasive imaging modalities to visualize atherosclerotic plaques

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is becoming a major cause of death in the world due to global epidemic of diabetes and obesity. For the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, it is necessary to detect high-risk atherosclerotic plaques prior to events. Recent technological advances enable to visualize atherosclerotic plaques noninvasively. This ability of noninvasive imaging helps to refine cardiovascular risk assessment in various individuals, select optimal therapeutic strategy and evaluate the efficacy of medical therapies. In this review, we discuss the role of the currently available imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography. Advantages and disadvantages of each noninvasive imaging modality will be also summarized. PMID:27500092

  7. Noninvasive imaging for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Giavedoni, Priscila; Puig, Susana; Carrera, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    The development of noninvasive optical technologies is revolutionizing the diagnosis of skin tumors. Nonmelanoma skin cancer, the most frequent neoplasm, has become an important health and economic issue, and proper management can avoid unnecessary morbidity and mutilating treatment or relapses. Noninvasive treatment modalities and the recently approved systemic therapies for advanced basal cell carcinoma cases make noninvasive monitoring techniques necessary. Current knowledge, applications, and limitations of the tools most clinically implemented, such as dermoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy, high frequency ultrasonography, and optical coherence tomography will be reviewed in this article. In addition to the improvement of diagnostic accuracy of skin cancer, using these tools individually or in combination facilitates better management of certain patients and tumors. PMID:26963115

  8. Photobiomodulation and Lasers.

    PubMed

    Chiari, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Photobiomodulation is discussed to be a noninvasive method to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement. The stimulatory effect of low-level laser therapy is well known and includes enhancement in tissue growth and tissue regeneration, resolvement of inflammation and pain. In recent research projects, the effect of laser therapy was tested regarding the stimulatory effect on bone remodeling with the potential to influence the tooth movement rate. The results are divers. The effect of laser regarding the reduction of the postadjustment pain could be proved, but not all authors describe the acceleration of tooth movement. Depending on the protocol, low-level laser therapy with low dosage increases the amount of tooth movement while high dosage seems to result in inhibitory effects. In conclusion, future studies are necessary to find the right protocol delivering beneficial results regarding the influence on bone remodeling and tooth movement to implement this therapy in daily orthodontic routine. PMID:26599125

  9. Advances in noninvasive detection of CAD

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, J.K. )

    1991-04-01

    Advances in the noninvasive detection of myocardial ischemia are increasing our ability to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD). Tomographic (SPECT) thallium imaging provides better identification of coronary arteries with atherosclerotic narrowing. Increased lung thallium uptake and transient ischemic dilatation of the heart are additional markers of severe CAD. Late thallium imaging, as well as reinjection imaging, provides more accurate identification of myocardial ischemia. Finally, new myocardial imaging agents, such as technetium Tc 99m sestamibi (Cardiolite), should improve detection of CAD by noninvasive methods.10 references.

  10. Non-invasive, non-radiological quantification of anteroposterior knee joint ligamentous laxity

    PubMed Central

    Russell, D. F.; Deakin, A. H.; Fogg, Q. A.; Picard, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We performed in vitro validation of a non-invasive skin-mounted system that could allow quantification of anteroposterior (AP) laxity in the outpatient setting. Methods A total of 12 cadaveric lower limbs were tested with a commercial image-free navigation system using trackers secured by bone screws. We then tested a non-invasive fabric-strap system. The lower limb was secured at 10° intervals from 0° to 60° of knee flexion and 100 N of force was applied perpendicular to the tibia. Acceptable coefficient of repeatability (CR) and limits of agreement (LOA) of 3 mm were set based on diagnostic criteria for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency. Results Reliability and precision within the individual invasive and non-invasive systems was acceptable throughout the range of flexion tested (intra-class correlation coefficient 0.88, CR 1.6 mm). Agreement between the two systems was acceptable measuring AP laxity between full extension and 40° knee flexion (LOA 2.9 mm). Beyond 40° of flexion, agreement between the systems was unacceptable (LOA > 3 mm). Conclusions These results indicate that from full knee extension to 40° flexion, non-invasive navigation-based quantification of AP tibial translation is as accurate as the standard validated commercial system, particularly in the clinically and functionally important range of 20° to 30° knee flexion. This could be useful in diagnosis and post-operative evaluation of ACL pathology. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:233–7. PMID:24184443

  11. [Lasers and aesthetic dermatology].

    PubMed

    Stratigos, A J; Dover, J S; Arndt, K A

    2003-07-01

    The improved understanding of laser-tissue interaction along with the latest advances of laser technology have led to the development of sophisticated, safe, and user-friendly laser systems that provide effective treatment for a variety of aesthetic skin conditions. The use of lasers and their tissue-specific capabilities in the treatment of pigmented and vascular lesions has been greatly expanded to include rhytides, photoaged skin, atrophic scars, and unwanted hair. In addition, laser techniques have been employed in traditional "rejuvenating" procedures of aged skin, e.g., face-lifting, blepharoplasty, and hair transplantation, decreasing the intra-operative time and limiting the recovery period. These advances have led to a wide acceptance of cutaneous laser surgery by the dermatologic community and have created an increasing popularity among the public. The purpose of this article is to review the applications of lasers in aesthetic dermatology and discuss their limitations and potential side effects. PMID:12835862

  12. Laser Prostatectomy: Holmium Laser Enucleation and Photoselective Laser Vaporization of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Bostanci, Yakup; Kazzazi, Amir; Djavan, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Historically, transurethral resection of the prostate has been the gold standard for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Laser technology has been used to treat BPH for > 15 years. Over the past decade, it has gained wide acceptance by experienced urologists. This review provides an evidence-based update on laser surgery for BPH with a focus on photoselective laser vaporization and holmium laser enucleation of the prostate surgeries and assesses the safety, efficacy, and durability of these techniques. PMID:23671400

  13. Biophysical basis for noninvasive skin cancer detection using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xu; Moy, Austin J.; Markey, Mia K.; Fox, Matthew C.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) is proving to be a valuable tool for real time noninvasive skin cancer detection via optical fiber probe. However, current methods utilizing RS for skin cancer diagnosis rely on statistically based algorithms to provide tissue classification and do not elucidate the underlying biophysical changes of skin tissue. Therefore, we aim to use RS to explore skin biochemical and structural characteristics and then correlate the Raman spectrum of skin tissue with its disease state. We have built a custom confocal micro-Raman spectrometer system with an 830nm laser light. The high resolution capability of the system allows us to measure spectroscopic features from individual tissue components in situ. Raman images were collected from human skin samples from Mohs surgical biopsy, which were then compared with confocal laser scanning, two-photon fluorescence and hematoxylin and eosin-stained images to develop a linear model of skin tissue Raman spectra. In this model, macroscopic tissue spectra obtained from RS fiber probe were fit into a linear combination of individual basis spectra of primary skin constituents. The fit coefficient of the model explains the biophysical changes spanning a range of normal and various disease states. The model allows for determining parameters similar to that a pathologist is familiar reading and will be a significant guidance in developing RS diagnostic decision schemes.

  14. An experimental model for minimizing errors in laser speckle contrast imaging for microcirculation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujatha, N.; Banerjee, Arnab

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the changes in microcirculatory flow and its measurements are very important for assessing the progress of various vascular malfunctions and their subsequent treatment effectiveness. Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) has been evolved as a whole-field, non-invasive and non-contact technique which has inherent advantages for microcirculation assessment in an in vivo environment compared to its noninvasive counterparts such as laser Doppler technique and video capillaroscopy. However, representation of flow velocity values in absolute units is still challenging and yet to be completely explored. In this paper, we propose an experimental model for estimating the flow velocity based for optimum camera exposure time. The LSCI experiments were conducted on a custom made phantom flow channel with induced flow in the microcirculation range using a syringe pump. The speckle image contrast was estimated temporally and is used to calculate velocity values. The relative error in the flow values is estimated to be a function of the calculated contrast. The estimated error has been incorporated as a correction factor in the obtained velocity term using LSCI and final velocity estimation was found to be within an acceptable error range independent of the flow velocity and scatterer concentration of the sample for optimum camera exposure duration.

  15. Improving non-invasive ventilation documentation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew; Elkheir, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Record keeping for patients on non-invasive ventilation (NIV) at St. Georges Hospital is poor. The initial NIV prescription is often not recorded, and changes to the NIV prescription or the rationale for the changes (ABG results) are also poorly documented. This leads to confusion for nurses/doctors as to what the correct settings are, meaning patients could receive ineffective ventilation. The use of NIV is also poorly recorded by nursing staff meaning that doctors are unsure if the prescribed NIV is being achieved. This can lead to treatment being escalated unnecessarily in the event of treatment failure. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is the provision of ventilatory support in the form of positive pressure via the patient's upper airway using a mask or similar device. NIV is indicated for treatment of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure, of which there are many causes, though COPD is the indication in up to 70% of cases.[1] British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines for NIV suggest that the rationale for commencing a patient on NIV and the proposed settings should be clearly documented.[2] Clinicians cannot effectively tailor changes to the patients NIV settings if this information is not clearly recorded, which could lead to increased time requiring NIV or NIV failure. Three main areas were considered important to measure for this project. The initial prescription of the NIV, changes to the NIV settings, and nursing documentation surrounding NIV. A baseline measurement of NIV documentation for two weeks found NIV documentation to globally very poor. NIV was formally prescribed 29% of the time, full detail of intended settings were documented 57% of the time, the decision to commence NIV was discussed with the respiratory consultant/SpR just 29% of the time and on no occasion was a decision regarding escalation of treatment recorded. Eighteen changes were made to the NIV settings. These were formally prescribed 22% of the time and detail of the intended

  16. The evidence behind noninvasive body contouring devices.

    PubMed

    Nassab, Reza

    2015-03-01

    The demand for body contouring is rapidly increasing, and interest in noninvasive approaches has also grown. The author reviewed the evidence base behind the currently available devices and methods for nonsurgical body contouring. There is little high-level evidence in the present literature to support the effectiveness of any of these devices.

  17. Reliable noninvasive measurement of blood gases

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Edward V.; Robinson, Mark R.; Haaland, David M.; Alam, Mary K.

    1997-05-20

    This invention relates to methods and apparatus for, preferably, determining non-invasively and in vivo at least two of the five blood gas parameters (i.e., pH, [HCO.sub.3.sup.- ], PCO.sub.2, PO.sub.2, and O.sub.2 sat.) in a human.

  18. Noninvasive Imaging of Experimental Lung Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaping; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Liu, Gang; Antony, Veena B.; Ding, Qiang; Nath, Hrudaya; Eary, Janet F.; Thannickal, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    Small animal models of lung fibrosis are essential for unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying human fibrotic lung diseases; additionally, they are useful for preclinical testing of candidate antifibrotic agents. The current end-point measures of experimental lung fibrosis involve labor-intensive histological and biochemical analyses. These measures fail to account for dynamic changes in the disease process in individual animals and are limited by the need for large numbers of animals for longitudinal studies. The emergence of noninvasive imaging technologies provides exciting opportunities to image lung fibrosis in live animals as often as needed and to longitudinally track the efficacy of novel antifibrotic compounds. Data obtained by noninvasive imaging provide complementary information to histological and biochemical measurements. In addition, the use of noninvasive imaging in animal studies reduces animal usage, thus satisfying animal welfare concerns. In this article, we review these new imaging modalities with the potential for evaluation of lung fibrosis in small animal models. Such techniques include micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and multimodal imaging systems including PET/CT and SPECT/CT. It is anticipated that noninvasive imaging will be increasingly used in animal models of fibrosis to gain insights into disease pathogenesis and as preclinical tools to assess drug efficacy. PMID:25679265

  19. Non-invasive monitoring of spreading depression.

    PubMed

    Bastany, Zoya J R; Askari, Shahbaz; Dumont, Guy A; Speckmann, Erwin-Josef; Gorji, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Spreading depression (SD), a slow propagating depolarization wave, plays an important role in pathophysiology of different neurological disorders. Yet, research into SD-related disorders has been hampered by the lack of non-invasive recording techniques of SD. Here we compared the manifestations of SD in continuous non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings to invasive electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings in order to obtain further insights into generator structures and electrogenic mechanisms of surface recording of SD. SD was induced by KCl application and simultaneous SD recordings were performed by scalp EEG as well as ECoG electrodes of somatosensory neocortex of rats using a novel homemade EEG amplifier, AgCl recording electrodes, and high chloride conductive gel. Different methods were used to analyze the data; including the spectrogram, bi-spectrogram, pattern distribution, relative spectrum power, and multivariable Gaussian fit analysis. The negative direct current (DC) shifts recorded by scalp electrodes exhibited a high homogeneity to those recorded by ECoG electrodes. Furthermore, this novel method of recording and analysis was able to separate SD recorded by scalp electrodes from non-neuronal DC shifts induced by other potential generators, such as the skin, muscles, arteries, dura, etc. These data suggest a novel application for continuous non-invasive monitoring of DC potential changes, such as SD. Non-invasive monitoring of SD would allow early intervention and improve outcome in SD-related neurological disorders. PMID:27397413

  20. Noninvasive Test for Tuberculosis Detection among Primates

    PubMed Central

    Mugisha, Lawrence; Shoyama, Fernanda Miyagaki; O’Malley, Melanie J.; Flynn, JoAnne L.; Asiimwe, Benon; Travis, Dominic A.; Singer, Randall S.; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2015-01-01

    Traditional testing methods have limited epidemiologic studies of tuberculosis among free-living primates. PCR amplification of insertion element IS6110 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from fecal samples was evaluated as a noninvasive screening test for tuberculosis in primates. Active tuberculosis was detected among inoculated macaques and naturally exposed chimpanzees, demonstrating the utility of this test. PMID:25695329

  1.  Noninvasive markers of fibrosis: key concepts for improving accuracy in daily clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Rojo, Andrés; Altamirano, José Trinidad; Feld, Jordan J

    2012-01-01

    Noninvasive markers of fibrosis have emerged as an alternative to the staging of fibrosis by means of liver biopsy. Apart from being noninvasive and thus lacking the adverse effects of liver biopsy, they offer some advantages such as reduced risk of sampling error, objectiveness in the interpretation of the result, appropriateness for repeated measurements and lower cost. Many studies have validated different panels of blood markers and imaging/transient elastography for the estimation of fibrosis with acceptable accuracy. Clinical scenarios leading to inacurate or failed estimation must be acknowledged, as well as the fact that performance of blood markers and transient elastography, and their diagnostic cut-off values vary among specific liver diseases. The combination of two blood markers or of a blood marker and transient elastography has been shown to increase accuracy of the estimation. Further, unlike liver biopsy the noninvasive markers of fibrosis are not associated with a ceiling effect after cirrhosis is identified, but can discriminate early from advanced stages of cirrhosis. Longitudinal studies have shown their utility as predictors of complications from portal hypertension and mortality, outperforming liver biopsy. In conclusion, noninvasive markers of fibrosis provide major advantages over liver biopsy. The reported performance of some of the available tests particularly when used in combination make them a reliable tool, very attractive for daily clinical practice.

  2. Factors affecting the clinical use of non-invasive prenatal testing: a mixed methods systematic review.

    PubMed

    Skirton, Heather; Patch, Christine

    2013-06-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing has been in clinical use for a decade; however, there is evidence that this technology will be more widely applied within the next few years. Guidance is therefore required to ensure that the procedure is offered in a way that is evidence based and ethically and clinically acceptable. We conducted a systematic review of the current relevant literature to ascertain the factors that should be considered when offering non-invasive prenatal testing in a clinical setting. We undertook a systematic search of relevant databases, journals and reference lists, and from an initial list of 298 potential papers, identified 11 that were directly relevant to the study. Original data were extracted and presented in a table, and the content of all papers was analysed and presented in narrative form. Four main themes emerged: perceived attributes of the test, regulation and ethical issues, non-invasive prenatal testing in practice and economic considerations. However, there was a basic difference in the approach of actual or potential service users, who were very positive about the benefits of the technology, compared with other research participants, who were concerned with the potential moral and ethical outcomes of using this testing method. Recommendations for the appropriate use of non-invasive prenatal testing are made.

  3. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; McCurdy, David A.

    1992-04-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  4. Sonic boom acceptability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Leatherwood, Jack D.; Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The determination of the magnitude of sonic boom exposure which would be acceptable to the general population requires, as a starting point, a method to assess and compare individual sonic booms. There is no consensus within the scientific and regulatory communities regarding an appropriate sonic boom assessment metric. Loudness, being a fundamental and well-understood attribute of human hearing was chosen as a means of comparing sonic booms of differing shapes and amplitudes. The figure illustrates the basic steps which yield a calculated value of loudness. Based upon the aircraft configuration and its operating conditions, the sonic boom pressure signature which reaches the ground is calculated. This pressure-time history is transformed to the frequency domain and converted into a one-third octave band spectrum. The essence of the loudness method is to account for the frequency response and integration characteristics of the auditory system. The result of the calculation procedure is a numerical description (perceived level, dB) which represents the loudness of the sonic boom waveform.

  5. Noninvasive prenatal screening or advanced diagnostic testing: caveat emptor.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark I; Wapner, Ronald J; Berkowitz, Richard L

    2016-09-01

    The past few years have seen extraordinary advances in prenatal genetic practice led by 2 major technological advances; next-generation sequencing of cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma to noninvasively identify fetal chromosome abnormalities, and microarray analysis of chorionic villus sampling and amniotic fluid samples, resulting in increased cytogenetic resolution. Noninvasive prenatal screening of cell-free DNA has demonstrated sensitivity and specificity for trisomy 21 superior to all previous screening approaches with slightly lower performance for other common aneuploidies. These tests have rapidly captured an increasing market share, with substantial reductions in the number of chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis performed suggesting that physicians and patients regard such screening approaches as an equivalent replacement for diagnostic testing. Simultaneously, many clinical programs have noted significant decreases in patient counseling. In 2012 the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development funded a blinded comparison of karyotype with the emerging technology of array comparative genomic hybridization showing that in patients with a normal karyotype, 2.5% had a clinically relevant microdeletion or duplication identified. In pregnancies with an ultrasound-detected structural anomaly, 6% had an incremental finding, and of those with a normal scan, 1.6% had a copy number variant. For patients of any age with a normal ultrasound and karyotype, the chance of a pathogenic copy number variant is greater than 1%, similar to the age-related risk of aneuploidy in the fetus of a 38 year old. This risk is 4-fold higher than the risk of trisomy 21 in a woman younger than 30 years and 5- to 10-fold higher than the present accepted risk of a diagnostic procedure. Based on this, we contend that every patient, regardless of her age, be educated about these risks and offered the opportunity to have a diagnostic procedure with

  6. Non-invasive glucose determination in the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Wolfgang; Meuer, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Kiefer, Wolfgang; Menzebach, Johannes-Ulrich; Schrader, Bernhard

    2005-02-01

    For non-invasive in vivo glucose determinations by means of near-infrared spectroscopy, the anterior chamber of the human eye is a promising site. An optical set-up for the non-invasive glucose determination in the human eye precisely in the anterior chamber with a beam reflected from the surface of the eye lens is presented here. As the anterior chamber has a depth of 3.13±0.50 mm, the beam follows an optical path of 5.3-7.3 mm depending on the angle of incidence, which is individually constant. We will show that it is possible to acquire good concentration predictions for physiological glucose concentrations with such a long optical path. A chemometric study of NIR glucose spectra with concentrations of glucose in water of 10-350 mg/dL (0.56-1.94 mmol/L) resulted in a calibration model which was able to predict physiological glucose concentrations with a root mean square error of prediction RMSEPTest=15.41 mg/dL. The Clarke error grid diagram shows that the model performs well according to medical impact. Using a first in vivo set-up, the precision is not sufficient for a reliable prediction of glucose concentration, especially due to the flickering of the patient's eye and the low reflectivity of the eye lens. Therefore, we have designed a new in vivo set-up: a prototype for a self-monitoring device with controlled geometry and laser radiation at several distinct wavelengths instead of the halogen lamp as light source. This allows a far higher signal/noise ratio under much better reproducible geometrical conditions and at the same time a much smaller necessary light flux.

  7. 21 CFR 870.1130 - Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. 870... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1130 Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. (a) Identification. A noninvasive blood pressure...

  8. 21 CFR 870.1130 - Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. 870.1130 Section 870.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. (a) Identification. A noninvasive blood pressure...

  9. 21 CFR 870.1130 - Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. 870.1130 Section 870.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. (a) Identification. A noninvasive blood pressure...

  10. 21 CFR 870.1130 - Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. 870.1130 Section 870.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. (a) Identification. A noninvasive blood pressure...

  11. 21 CFR 870.1130 - Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. 870.1130 Section 870.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. (a) Identification. A noninvasive blood pressure...

  12. LASERS IN MEDICINE: Laser diagnostics of biofractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, A. G.

    1999-12-01

    An optical approach to the problem of modelling and diagnostics of the structures of biofractal formations was considered in relation to human bone tissue. A model was proposed for the optical properties of this tissue, including three levels of fractal organisation: microcrystalline, macrocrystalline, and architectural. The studies were based on laser coherent polarimetry ensuring the retrieval of the fullest information about the optical and polarisation properties of bone tissue. A method was developed for contactless noninvasive diagnostics of the orientational and mineralogical structure of bone tissue considered as a biofractal.

  13. Non-invasive Glucose Measurements Using Wavelength Modulated Differential Photothermal Radiometry (WM-DPTR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X.; Mandelis, A.; Zinman, B.

    2012-11-01

    Wavelength-modulated differential laser photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is introduced for potential development of clinically viable non-invasive glucose biosensors. WM-DPTR features unprecedented glucose-specificity and sensitivity by combining laser excitation by two out-of-phase modulated beams at wavelengths near the peak and the baseline of a prominent and isolated mid-IR glucose absorption band. Measurements on water-glucose phantoms (0 to 300 mg/dl glucose concentration) demonstrate high sensitivity to meet wide clinical detection requirements ranging from hypoglycemia to hyperglycemia. The measurement results have been validated by simulations based on fully developed WM-DPTR theory. For sensitive and accurate glucose measurements, the key is the selection and tight control of the intensity ratio and the phase shift of the two laser beams.

  14. Lasers in otorhinolaryngology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pais Clemente, Manuel P.

    1992-03-01

    Lasers are now commonly accepted and widely used surgical instruments in otorhinolaryngology. There have been a great number of technological advances with lasers that have contributed to the expansion of this new surgical modality with an increased number of medical applications. Surgical strategies have also changed and are more favorable toward conservative surgery in which less tissues is removed than with more radical resections. This combination of improving technology and medical attitudes has changed the field of otorhinolaryngology, and resulted in an expanding use of laser surgery. Since 1973 we have been using the carbon dioxide laser in the treatment of diseases of the upper aero digestive systems, learning this new surgical technique from the pioneer work of Strong, Jako, and Vaughan. It is our conviction that a laser surgeon must have a thorough knowledge of laser biophysics, instrumentation, safety protocols, and surgical indications, and have the technical skills to perform laser surgery. Laser technology continues to improve at an increased speed, and it is imperative to update knowledge of current and potential applications of lasers in our specialty. It is the purpose of this article to present our clinical experience of 18 years with the use of lasers in surgery of ORL, emphasizing the carbon dioxide laser.

  15. Magnetic fields in noninvasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira; Scaff, Milberto; Guilhoto, Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2014-04-01

    The idea that magnetic fields could be used therapeutically arose 2000 years ago. These therapeutic possibilities were expanded after the discovery of electromagnetic induction by the Englishman Michael Faraday and the American Joseph Henry. In 1896, Arsène d'Arsonval reported his experience with noninvasive brain magnetic stimulation to the scientific French community. In the second half of the 20th century, changing magnetic fields emerged as a noninvasive tool to study the nervous system and to modulate neural function. In 1985, Barker, Jalinous, and Freeston presented transcranial magnetic stimulation, a relatively focal and painless technique. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been proposed as a clinical neurophysiology tool and as a potential adjuvant treatment for psychiatric and neurologic conditions. This article aims to contextualize the progress of use of magnetic fields in the history of neuroscience and medical sciences, until 1985. PMID:23787954

  16. Non-invasive Mapping of Cardiac Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ashok; Hocini, Meleze; Haissaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Since more than 100 years, 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) is the standard-of-care tool, which involves measuring electrical potentials from limited sites on the body surface to diagnose cardiac disorder, its possible mechanism, and the likely site of origin. Several decades of research has led to the development of a 252-lead ECG and computed tomography (CT) scan-based three-dimensional electro-imaging modality to non-invasively map abnormal cardiac rhythms including fibrillation. These maps provide guidance towards ablative therapy and thereby help advance the management of complex heart rhythm disorders. Here, we describe the clinical experience obtained using non-invasive technique in mapping the electrical disorder and guide the catheter ablation of atrial arrhythmias (premature atrial beat, atrial tachycardia, atrial fibrillation), ventricular arrhythmias (premature ventricular beats), and ventricular pre-excitation (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome).

  17. Magnetic fields in noninvasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira; Scaff, Milberto; Guilhoto, Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2014-04-01

    The idea that magnetic fields could be used therapeutically arose 2000 years ago. These therapeutic possibilities were expanded after the discovery of electromagnetic induction by the Englishman Michael Faraday and the American Joseph Henry. In 1896, Arsène d'Arsonval reported his experience with noninvasive brain magnetic stimulation to the scientific French community. In the second half of the 20th century, changing magnetic fields emerged as a noninvasive tool to study the nervous system and to modulate neural function. In 1985, Barker, Jalinous, and Freeston presented transcranial magnetic stimulation, a relatively focal and painless technique. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been proposed as a clinical neurophysiology tool and as a potential adjuvant treatment for psychiatric and neurologic conditions. This article aims to contextualize the progress of use of magnetic fields in the history of neuroscience and medical sciences, until 1985.

  18. Noninvasive methods of measuring bone blood perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Dyke, J.P.; Aaron, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of bone blood flow and perfusion characteristics in a noninvasive and serial manner would be advantageous in assessing revascularization after trauma and the possible risk of avascular necrosis. Many disease states, including osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and bone neoplasms, result in disturbed bone perfusion. A causal link between bone perfusion and remodeling has shown its importance in sustained healing and regrowth following injury. Measurement of perfusion and permeability within the bone was performed with small and macromolecular contrast media, using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in models of osteoarthritis and the femoral head. Bone blood flow and remodeling was estimated using 18F-Fluoride positron emission tomography in fracture healing and osteoarthritis. Multimodality assessment of bone blood flow, permeability, and remodeling by using noninvasive imaging techniques may provide information essential in monitoring subsequent rates of healing and response to treatment as well as identifying candidates for additional therapeutic or surgical interventions. PMID:20392223

  19. Noninvasive real-time imaging of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Laxman, Bharathi; Hall, Daniel E; Bhojani, Mahaveer Swaroop; Hamstra, Daniel A; Chenevert, Thomas L; Ross, Brian D; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2002-12-24

    Strict coordination of proliferation and programmed cell death (apoptosis) is essential for normal physiology. An imbalance in these two opposing processes results in various diseases including AIDS, neurodegenerative disorders, myelodysplastic syndromes, ischemiareperfusion injury, cancer, autoimmune disease, among others. Objective and quantitative noninvasive imaging of apoptosis would be a significant advance for rapid and dynamic screening as well as validation of experimental therapeutic agents. Here, we report the development of a recombinant luciferase reporter molecule that when expressed in mammalian cells has attenuated levels of reporter activity. In cells undergoing apoptosis, a caspase-3-specific cleavage of the recombinant product occurs, resulting in the restoration of luciferase activity that can be detected in living animals with bioluminescence imaging. The ability to image apoptosis noninvasively and dynamically over time provides an opportunity for high-throughput screening of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic compounds and for target validation in vivo in both cell lines and transgenic animals. PMID:12475931

  20. Advances in noninvasive imaging of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Menge, Tyler D; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer and its incidence has risen sharply in recent decades. Early detection of disease is critical for improving patient outcomes. Any pigmented lesion that is clinically concerning must be removed by biopsy for morphologic investigation on histology. However, biopsies are invasive and can cause significant morbidity, and their accuracy in detecting melanoma may be limited by sampling error. The advent of noninvasive imaging devices has allowed for assessment of intact skin, thereby minimizing the need for biopsy; and these technologies are increasingly being used in the diagnosis and management of melanoma. Reflectance confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, ultrasonography, and multispectral imaging are noninvasive imaging techniques that have emerged as diagnostic aids to physical exam and/or conventional dermoscopy. This review summarizes the current knowledge about these techniques and discusses their practical applications and limitations. PMID:26963113

  1. Noninvasive prenatal testing: limitations and unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Lutgendorf, Monica A; Stoll, Katie A; Knutzen, Dana M; Foglia, Lisa M

    2014-04-01

    The clinical use of noninvasive prenatal testing to screen high-risk patients for fetal aneuploidy is becoming increasingly common. Initial studies have demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity, and there is hope that these tests will result in a reduction of invasive diagnostic procedures as well as their associated risks. Guidelines on the use of this testing in clinical practice have been published; however, data on actual test performance in a clinical setting are lacking, and there are no guidelines on quality control and assurance. The different noninvasive prenatal tests employ complex methodologies, which may be challenging for health-care providers to understand and utilize in counseling patients, particularly as the field continues to evolve. How these new tests should be integrated into current screening programs and their effect on health-care costs remain uncertain. PMID:24009001

  2. Noninvasive dentistry: a dream or reality?

    PubMed

    Clarkson, B H; Exterkate, R A M

    2015-01-01

    Various caries prevention and repair strategies are reviewed in this article ranging from the use of fluoride to nanohydroxyapatite particles. Several of the strategies which combine fluoride and calcium and phosphate treatments have both in vitro and in vivo data showing them to be efficacious if the surface integrity of the lesion is not breached. Once this has occurred, the rationale for cutting off the nutrient supplies to the pathogenic bacteria without the removal of the infected dentine, a noninvasive restorative technique, is discussed using existing clinical studies as examples. Finally two novel noninvasive restorative techniques using fluorohydroxyapatite crystals are described. The need for clinical data in support of emerging caries-preventive and restorative strategies is emphasized. PMID:25871414

  3. Noninvasive monitoring in the pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Yemen, T A

    1992-01-01

    Substantial technological improvements have been made in the field of noninvasive monitoring. Additionally, our understanding of what these monitors will and will not do has changed the practice of pediatric anesthesia. In the 1990s it has become apparent that many cardiorespiratory parameters can be easily and safely monitored noninvasively. It is also apparent that no single monitor is capable of providing all the information necessary to provide safe anesthetic care. Those of us who provide anesthesia for children on a regular basis have come to appreciate these monitors not as an annoyance required for medicolegal protection but as tools that help improve the quality and safety of the anesthesia care our children receive. Use of these monitors represents the leading edge of an effort to reduce anesthesia morbidity and mortality to zero.

  4. Noninvasive Quality Control of Cryopreserved Samples.

    PubMed

    Dörr, Daniel; Stracke, Frank; Zimmermann, Heiko

    2012-12-01

    We present a novel noninvasive technology for quality control in biobanking. We implemented a contactless optical in situ method with a remote detection unit. The method detects physical and chemical changes by emission spectroscopy. In the present study, ice formation in a vitrified sample is revealed by Raman scattering. The technology allows us to monitor sample quality during cold storage and to assess the sample state after preservation, storage, or transport without the need for thawing. PMID:23840924

  5. [Non-invasive assessment of fatty liver].

    PubMed

    Egresi, Anna; Lengyel, Gabriella; Hagymási, Krisztina

    2015-04-01

    As the result of various harmful effects (infectious agents, metabolic diseases, unhealthy diet, obesity, toxic agents, autoimmune processes) hepatic damage may develop, which can progress towards liver steatosis, and fibrosis as well. The most common etiological factors of liver damages are hepatitis B and C infection, alcohol consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver biopsy is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic liver diseases. Due to the dangers and complications of liver biopsy, studies are focused on non-invasive markers and radiological imaging for liver steatosis, progression of fatty liver, activity of the necroinflammation and the severity of the fibrosis. Authors review the possibilities of non-invasive assessment of liver steatosis. The statistical features of the probes (positive, negative predictive values, sensitivity, specificity) are reviewed. The role of radiological imaging is also discussed. Although the non-invasive methods discussed in this article are useful to assess liver steatosis, further studies are needed to validate to follow progression of the diseases and to control therapeutic response.

  6. Noninvasive prenatal testing/noninvasive prenatal diagnosis: the position of the National Society of Genetic Counselors.

    PubMed

    Devers, Patricia L; Cronister, Amy; Ormond, Kelly E; Facio, Flavia; Brasington, Campbell K; Flodman, Pamela

    2013-06-01

    The 1997 discovery of free fetal DNA in maternal plasma launched clinical researchers' efforts to establish a reliable method for non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal genetic conditions. Various methods, including, but not limited to, massively parallel sequencing (MPS) and selective analysis of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma, have recently been developed as highly sensitive and specific noninvasive screening tools for common fetal chromosome aneuploidies. Incorporating these new noninvasive technologies into clinical practice will impact the current prenatal screening paradigm for fetal aneuploidy, in which genetic counseling plays an integral role. The National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) currently supports Noninvasive Prenatal Testing/Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis (NIPT/NIPD) as an option for patients whose pregnancies are considered to be at an increased risk for certain chromosome abnormalities. NSGC urges that NIPT/NIPD only be offered in the context of informed consent, education, and counseling by a qualified provider, such as a certified genetic counselor. Patients whose NIPT/NIPD results are abnormal, or who have other factors suggestive of a chromosome abnormality, should receive genetic counseling and be given the option of standard confirmatory diagnostic testing.

  7. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  8. Dissolution test acceptance sampling plans.

    PubMed

    Tsong, Y; Hammerstrom, T; Lin, K; Ong, T E

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) general monograph provides a standard for dissolution compliance with the requirements as stated in the individual USP monograph for a tablet or capsule dosage form. The acceptance rules recommended by USP have important roles in the quality control process. The USP rules and their modifications are often used as an industrial lot release sampling plan, where a lot is accepted when the tablets or capsules sampled are accepted as proof of compliance with the requirement. In this paper, the operating characteristics of the USP acceptance rules are reviewed and compared to a selected modification. The operating characteristics curves show that the USP acceptance rules are sensitive to the true mean dissolution and do not reject a lot or batch that has a large percentage of tablets that dissolve with less than the dissolution specification.

  9. Non-invasive optical detection of glucose in cell culture nutrient medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cote, Gerald L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research was to begin the development of a non-invasive optical sensor for measuring glucose concentration in the output medium of cell cultures grown in a unique NASA bioreactor referred to as an integrated rotating-wall vessel (IRWV). The input, a bovine serum based nutrient media, has a known glucose concentration. The cells within the bioreactor digest a portion of the glucose. Thus, the non-invasive optical sensor is needed to monitor the decrease in glucose due to cellular consumption since the critical parameters for sustained cellular productivity are glucose and pH. Previous glucose sensing techniques have used chemical reactions to quantify the glucose concentration. Chemical reactions, however, cannot provide for continuous, real time, non-invasive measurement as is required in this application. Our effort while in the fellowship program was focused on the design, optical setup, and testing of one bench top prototype non-invasive optical sensor using a mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy technique. Glucose has a fundamental vibrational absorption peak in the mid-infrared wavelength range at 9.6 micron. Preliminary absorption data using a CO2 laser were collected at this wavelength for water based glucose solutions at different concentrations and one bovine serum based nutrient medium (GTSF) with added glucose. The results showed near linear absorption responses for the glucose-in-water data with resolutions as high at 108 mg/dl and as low as 10 mg/dl. The nutrient medium had a resolution of 291 mg/dl. The variability of the results was due mainly to thermal and polarization drifts of the laser while the decrease in sensitivity to glucose in the nutrient medium was expected due to the increase in the number of confounders present in the nutrient medium. A multispectral approach needs to be used to compensate for these confounders. The CO2 laser used for these studies was wavelength tunable (9.2 to 10.8 micrometers), however

  10. Non-invasive prenatal testing: ethical issues explored.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Antina; Dondorp, Wybo J; de Die-Smulders, Christine E M; Frints, Suzanne G M; de Wert, Guido M W R

    2010-03-01

    This paper explores the ethical implications of introducing non-invasive prenatal diagnostic tests (NIPD tests) in prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities. NIPD tests are easy and safe and can be performed early in pregnancy. Precisely because of these features, it is feared that informed consent may become more difficult, that both testing and selective abortion will become 'normalized', and that there will be a trend towards accepting testing for minor abnormalities and non-medical traits as well. In our view, however, the real moral challenge of NIPD testing consists in the possibility of linking up a technique with these features (easy, safe and early) with new genomic technologies that allow prenatal diagnostic testing for a much broader range of abnormalities than is the case in current procedures. An increase in uptake and more selective abortions need not in itself be taken to signal a thoughtless acceptance of these procedures. However, combining this with considerably enlarging the scope of NIPD testing will indeed make informed consent more difficult and challenge the notion of prenatal screening as serving reproductive autonomy. If broad NIPD testing includes later-onset diseases, the 'right not to know' of the future child will become a new issue in the debate about prenatal screening. With regard to the controversial issue of selective abortion, it may make a morally relevant difference that after NIPD testing, abortion can be done early. A lower moral status may be attributed to the foetus at that moment, given the dominant opinion that the moral status of the foetus progressively increases with its development. PMID:19953123

  11. Non-Invasive In Vivo Ultrasound Temperature Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayat, Mahdi

    New emerging technologies in thermal therapy require precise monitoring and control of the delivered thermal dose in a variety of situations. The therapeutic temperature changes in target tissues range from few degrees for releasing chemotherapy drugs encapsulated in the thermosensitive liposomes to boiling temperatures in complete ablation of tumors via cell necrosis. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has emerged as a promising modality for noninvasive surgery due to its ability to create precise mechanical and thermal effects at the target without affecting surrounding tissues. An essential element in all these procedures, however, is accurate estimation of the target tissue temperature during the procedure to ensure its safety and efficacy. The advent of diagnostic imaging tools for guidance of thermal therapy was a key factor in the clinical acceptance of these minimally invasive or noninvasive methods. More recently, ultrasound and magnetic resonance (MR) thermography techniques have been proposed for guidance, monitoring, and control of noninvasive thermal therapies. MR thermography has shown acceptable sensitivity and accuracy in imaging temperature change and it is currently FDA-approved on clinical HIFU units. However, it suffers from limitations like cost of integration with ultrasound therapy system and slow rate of imaging for real time guidance. Ultrasound, on the other hand, has the advantage of real time imaging and ease of integration with the therapy system. An infinitesimal model for imaging temperature change using pulse-echo ultrasound has been demonstrated, including in vivo small-animal imaging. However, this model suffers from limitations that prevent demonstration in more clinically-relevant settings. One limitation stems from the infinitesimal nature of the model, which results in spatial inconsistencies of the estimated temperature field. Another limitation is the sensitivity to tissue motion and deformation during in vivo, which

  12. A rapid, reproducible, noninvasive predictor of liver graft survival

    PubMed Central

    Zarrinpar, Ali; Lee, Coney; Noguchi, Emily; Yersiz, Hasan; Agopian, Vatche G.; Kaldas, Fady M.; Farmer, Douglas G.; Busuttil, Ronald W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical and laboratory criteria are not reliable predictors of deceased donor liver graft quality. Intraoperative assessment of experienced surgeons is the gold standard. Standardizing and quantifying this assessment is especially needed now that regional sharing is the rule. We prospectively evaluated a novel, simple, rapid, noninvasive, quantitative measure of liver function performed before graft procurement. Materials and methods Using a portable, finger-probe–based device, indocyanine green plasma disappearance rates (ICG-PDR) were measured in adult brain-dead donors in the local donor service area before organ procurement. Results were compared with graft function and outcomes. Both donor and recipient teams were blinded to ICG-PDR measurements. Results Measurements were performed on 53 consecutive donors. Eleven liver grafts were declined by all centers because of quality; the other 42 grafts were transplanted. Logistic regression analysis showed ICG-PDR to be the only donor variable to be significantly associated with 7-d graft survival. Donor risk index, donor age, and transaminase levels at peak or procurement were not significantly associated with 7-d graft survival. Conclusions We report the successful use of a portable quantitative means of measuring liver function and its association with graft survival. These data warrant further exploration in a variety of settings to evaluate acceptable values for donated liver grafts. PMID:25940156

  13. Non-invasive methods of assessing the tear film.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Norihiko; Komuro, Aoi

    2004-03-01

    The interaction between the tear film and the ocular surface epithelium is crucial for the maintenance of ocular surface health; interference with this relationship may cause dry eye. Several diagnostic techniques have been developed to assess the tear film and diagnose dry eye but many of these tests are invasive and modify the parameter which they are designed to measure. Non-invasive or minimally invasive tests may overcome this problem and provide more reproducible and objective data. One test of this kind is meniscometry, which is particularly useful in assessing tear volume indirectly by measuring tear meniscus radius. The newly developed video-meniscometer, which enables calculation of the meniscus radius digitally, is useful for the diagnosis of tear-deficient dry eye. Video-meniscometry also has other applications, to the study of tear and eye drop turnover, determining the indication for punctal plugs and in demonstrating dysfunction of the tear meniscus. Interferometry of the tear film lipid layer is useful in screening and evaluating dry eye severity and in selecting dry eye candidates for punctal occlusion. It is also useful for analysing tear lipid layer pathophysiology more clearly, especially in combination with meniscometry. Meibometry is a minimally invasive technique to quantify the amount of meibomian lipid on the lid margin. Lipid is blotted onto a plastic tape and the change in optical density is used to calculate lipid uptake. Laser meibometry has increased the scope of this technique for the assessment of meibomian gland dysfunction; also, the delivery of lipids from the lid reservoir to the preocular tear film can be analysed using interferometry and laser meibometry. The present report reviews the application of these techniques to the study of tear film physiology and dry eye.

  14. Laser double Doppler flowmeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poffo, L.; Goujon, J.-M.; Le Page, R.; Lemaitre, J.; Guendouz, M.; Lorrain, N.; Bosc, D.

    2014-05-01

    The Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a non-invasive method for estimating the tissular blood flow and speed at a microscopic scale (microcirculation). It is used for medical research as well as for the diagnosis of diseases related to circulatory system tissues and organs including the issues of microvascular flow (perfusion). It is based on the Doppler effect, created by the interaction between the laser light and tissues. LDF measures the mean blood flow in a volume formed by the single laser beam, that penetrate into the skin. The size of this measurement volume is crucial and depends on skin absorption, and is not directly reachable. Therefore, current developments of the LDF are focused on the use of always more complex and sophisticated signal processing methods. On the other hand, laser Double Doppler Flowmeter (FL2D) proposes to use two laser beams to generate the measurement volume. This volume would be perfectly stable and localized at the intersection of the two laser beams. With FL2D we will be able to determine the absolute blood flow of a specific artery. One aimed application would be to help clinical physicians in health care units.

  15. Non-invasive biosensor and wilreless interrogating system for hypoglycemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Saukesi, K.

    2002-11-01

    Hypoglycemia - abnormal decrease in blood sugar - is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This paper presents the development of a non-invasive sensor with miniaturized telemetry device in a wrist-watch for monitoring glucose concentration in blood. The sensor concept is based on optical chiralit of glucose level in the interstitial fluid. The wrist watch consists of a laser power source of the wavelength compatible with the glucose. A nanofilm with specific chirality is placed at the bottom of the watch. The light then passes through the film and illuminates a small area on the skin.It has been documented that there is certain concentration of sugar level is taken by the intertitial fluid from the blood stream and deposit a portion of it at the dead skin. The wrist-watch when in contact with the outer skin of the human will thus monitor the glucose concentration. A wireless monitoring system in the watch then downloads the data from the watch to a Palm or laptop computer.

  16. Noninvasive biosensor and wireless interrogating system for glucose in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, K.

    2003-07-01

    Hypoglycemia-abnormal decrease in blood sugar-is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This paper presents the development of a non-invasive sensor with miniaturized telemetry device in a wrist-watch for monitoring glucose concentration in blood. The sensor concept is based on optical chirality of glucose level in the interstitial fluid. The wrist watch consists of a laser power source of the wavelength compatible with the glucose. A nanofilm with specific chirality is placed at the bottom of the watch. The light then passes through the film and illuminates a small area on the skin. It has been documented that there is certain concentration of sugar level is taken by the intertitial fluid from the blood stream and deposit a portion of it at the dead skin. The wrist-watch when in contact with the outer skin of the human will thus monitor the glucose concentration. A wireless monitoring system in the watch then downloads the data from the watch to a Palm or a laptop computer.

  17. Noninvasive emittance and energy spread monitor using optical synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorito, R.; Shkvarunets, A.; Castronovo, D.; Cornacchia, M.; Di Mitri, S.; Kishek, R.; Tschalaer, C.; Veronese, M.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a design for a minimally perturbing diagnostic minichicane, which utilizes optical synchrotron radiation (OSR) generated from magnetic bends in the chicane, to measure the rms horizontal and vertical beam sizes, divergences, emittances, Twiss parameters and energy spread of a relativistic electron beam. The beam is externally focused to a waist at the first bend and the OSR generated there can be used to measure the rms beam size. Subsequent pairs of bends produce far field OSR interferences (OSRI) whose visibility depends on the beam energy spread and the angular divergence. Under proper conditions, one of these two effects will dominate the OSRI visibility from a particular pair of bends and can be used to diagnose the dominant effect. The properties of different configuration of bends in the chicane have been analyzed to provide an optimum diagnostic design for a given set of beam parameters to: (1) provide a sufficient number of OSR interferences to allow a measurement of the fringe visibility; (2) minimize the effect of coherent synchrotron radiation and space charge forces on the particles motion; and (3) minimize the effect of compression on the bunch length as the beam passes through the chicane. A design for the chicane has been produced for application to the FERMI free electron laser facility and by extension to similar high brightness linear accelerators. Such a diagnostic promises to greatly improve control of the electron beam optics with a noninvasive measurement of beam parameters and allow on-line optics matching and feedback.

  18. Using sandpaper for noninvasive transepidermal optical skin clearing agent delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpp, O.; Chen, Bo; Welch, Ashley J.

    2006-07-01

    We present a gentle mechanical method for the noninvasive transepidermal delivery of topically applied optical skin clearing agents. Optical skin clearing reduces light scattering in highly turbid skin with the aid of hyperosmotic chemicals such as glycerol, polyethylene glycol, and solutions of dextrose. Transepidermal delivery of such agents is believed to be most patient compliant and most likely to be used in a clinical environment. Optical skin clearing has the potential to expand the current limited use of laser light in medicine for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Light scattering limits the penetration depth of collimated light into skin. In order to increase the diffusion of topically applied optical skin clearing agents into skin, we present a gentle mechanical delivery method involving glycerol and dextrose as optical skin clearing agents and fine 220-grit sandpaper to rub the clearing agent into the tissue. Gentle rubbing causes abrasion of the superficial skin layer including the stratum corneum, which otherwise prevents these optical skin clearing agents from freely diffusing into skin. Results indicate very fast optical skin clearing rates. In vivo hamster skin turned transparent within 2 min. The 1/e light penetration depth increased by 36+/-3.75% for dextrose and 43+/-8.24% for glycerol. Optical skin clearing was reversed using phosphate buffered saline solution. Skin viability was observed 70 h post-treatment and showed scabbing and erythema on a few percent of the total optically cleared skin surface.

  19. Using sandpaper for noninvasive transepidermal optical skin clearing agent delivery.

    PubMed

    Stumpp, O; Chen, B; Welch, A J

    2006-01-01

    We present a gentle mechanical method for the noninvasive transepidermal delivery of topically applied optical skin clearing agents. Optical skin clearing reduces light scattering in highly turbid skin with the aid of hyperosmotic chemicals such as glycerol, polyethylene glycol, and solutions of dextrose. Transepidermal delivery of such agents is believed to be most patient compliant and most likely to be used in a clinical environment. Optical skin clearing has the potential to expand the current limited use of laser light in medicine for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Light scattering limits the penetration depth of collimated light into skin. In order to increase the diffusion of topically applied optical skin clearing agents into skin, we present a gentle mechanical delivery method involving glycerol and dextrose as optical skin clearing agents and fine 220-grit sandpaper to rub the clearing agent into the tissue. Gentle rubbing causes abrasion of the superficial skin layer including the stratum corneum, which otherwise prevents these optical skin clearing agents from freely diffusing into skin. Results indicate very fast optical skin clearing rates. In vivo hamster skin turned transparent within 2 min. The 1e light penetration depth increased by 36+/-3.75% for dextrose and 43+/-8.24% for glycerol. Optical skin clearing was reversed using phosphate buffered saline solution. Skin viability was observed 70 h post-treatment and showed scabbing and erythema on a few percent of the total optically cleared skin surface.

  20. Application of optical non-invasive methods in skin physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Patzelt, A.; Darvin, M.; Richter, H.; Antoniou, C.; Sterry, W.; Koch, S.

    2008-05-01

    In the present paper the application of optical non-invasive methods in dermatology and cosmetology is discussed. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and optical coherent tomography (OCT) are the most promising methods for this application. Using these methods, the analysis of different skin parameters like dryness and oiliness of the skin, the barrier function and the structure of furrows and wrinkles are discussed. Additionally the homogeneity of distribution of topically applied creams, as well as their penetration into the skin were investigated. It is shown that these methods are highly valuable in dermatology for diagnostic and therapy control and for basic research, for instance in the field of structure analysis of hair follicles and sweat glands. The vertical images of the tissue produced by OCT can be easily compared with histological sections. Unfortunately, the resolution of the OCT technique is not high enough to carry out measurements on a cellular level, as is possible by LSM. LSM has the advantage that it can be used for the investigation of penetration and storage processes of topically applied substances, if these substances have fluorescent properties or if they are fluorescent-labelled.

  1. Extending the Technology Acceptance Model: Policy Acceptance Model (PAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Tamra

    There has been extensive research on how new ideas and technologies are accepted in society. This has resulted in the creation of many models that are used to discover and assess the contributing factors. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is one that is a widely accepted model. This model examines people's acceptance of new technologies based on variables that directly correlate to how the end user views the product. This paper introduces the Policy Acceptance Model (PAM), an expansion of TAM, which is designed for the analysis and evaluation of acceptance of new policy implementation. PAM includes the traditional constructs of TAM and adds the variables of age, ethnicity, and family. The model is demonstrated using a survey of people's attitude toward the upcoming healthcare reform in the United States (US) from 72 survey respondents. The aim is that the theory behind this model can be used as a framework that will be applicable to studies looking at the introduction of any new or modified policies.

  2. Magnetic resonance based noninvasive RF nerve stimulator.

    PubMed

    Ganesh Bharadwaj, C V; Yuanjin, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    A noninvasive method of stimulating the nerve by applying radiofrequency has been presented. The design is based on the concept of magnetic resonance based power transfer. A comparison between electric field on the nerve at the frequency of 450-550 KHz with vacuum placed under a human tissue and the case where it is replaced with a resonant and non-resonant structure was analysed. Calculations were performed by using Ansoft HFSS. Power savings of 7.15% was observed when resonant structures were used, compared to vacuum. Theoretical calculation and simulation of fields were presented.

  3. [Laser technology in dentistry].

    PubMed

    Frentzen, M; Koort, H J

    1991-07-01

    Although dental laser treatment is receiving great attention in basic and clinical research, only very few clinical applications have emerged as accepted standard methods. The most promising range of possible applications includes diagnostics and surgery. Most laser systems developed for therapeutic use are heat-producing units, i.e. they convert electromagnetic energy into thermal energy. These systems are employed above all in oral surgery for vaporization, cutting or coagulation of soft tissues and in prosthodontics for welding. More recently, new types of lasers have been developed allowing non-thermal modes of tissue interaction. A great number of technical and biological problems will have to be solved, however, before these laser systems will be practically applicable in such clinical fields as, for instance, caries therapy. In the near future, laser systems are expected to complete and supplement conventional methods in diagnosis and treatment, but not to replace them.

  4. L-286 Acceptance Test Record

    SciTech Connect

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-14

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  5. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  6. Non-invasive pressure difference estimation from PC-MRI using the work-energy equation.

    PubMed

    Donati, Fabrizio; Figueroa, C Alberto; Smith, Nicolas P; Lamata, Pablo; Nordsletten, David A

    2015-12-01

    Pressure difference is an accepted clinical biomarker for cardiovascular disease conditions such as aortic coarctation. Currently, measurements of pressure differences in the clinic rely on invasive techniques (catheterization), prompting development of non-invasive estimates based on blood flow. In this work, we propose a non-invasive estimation procedure deriving pressure difference from the work-energy equation for a Newtonian fluid. Spatial and temporal convergence is demonstrated on in silico Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Image (PC-MRI) phantoms with steady and transient flow fields. The method is also tested on an image dataset generated in silico from a 3D patient-specific Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation and finally evaluated on a cohort of 9 subjects. The performance is compared to existing approaches based on steady and unsteady Bernoulli formulations as well as the pressure Poisson equation. The new technique shows good accuracy, robustness to noise, and robustness to the image segmentation process, illustrating the potential of this approach for non-invasive pressure difference estimation. PMID:26409245

  7. Non-invasive pressure difference estimation from PC-MRI using the work-energy equation

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Fabrizio; Figueroa, C. Alberto; Smith, Nicolas P.; Lamata, Pablo; Nordsletten, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Pressure difference is an accepted clinical biomarker for cardiovascular disease conditions such as aortic coarctation. Currently, measurements of pressure differences in the clinic rely on invasive techniques (catheterization), prompting development of non-invasive estimates based on blood flow. In this work, we propose a non-invasive estimation procedure deriving pressure difference from the work-energy equation for a Newtonian fluid. Spatial and temporal convergence is demonstrated on in silico Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Image (PC-MRI) phantoms with steady and transient flow fields. The method is also tested on an image dataset generated in silico from a 3D patient-specific Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation and finally evaluated on a cohort of 9 subjects. The performance is compared to existing approaches based on steady and unsteady Bernoulli formulations as well as the pressure Poisson equation. The new technique shows good accuracy, robustness to noise, and robustness to the image segmentation process, illustrating the potential of this approach for non-invasive pressure difference estimation. PMID:26409245

  8. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Branchi, Federica; Conti, Clara Benedetta; Baccarin, Alessandra; Lampertico, Pietro; Conte, Dario; Fraquelli, Mirella

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive picture of the role, clinical applications and future perspectives of the most widely used non-invasive techniques for the evaluation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. During the past decade many non-invasive methods have been developed to reduce the need for liver biopsy in staging fibrosis and to overcome whenever possible its limitations, mainly: invasiveness, costs, low reproducibility, poor acceptance by patients. Elastographic techniques conceived to assess liver stiffness, in particular transient elastography, and the most commonly used biological markers will be assessed against their respective role and limitations in staging hepatic fibrosis. Recent evidence highlights that both liver stiffness and some bio-chemical markers correlate with survival and major clinical end-points such as liver decompensation, development of hepatocellular carcinoma and portal hypertension. Thus the non-invasive techniques here discussed can play a major role in the management of patients with chronic HBV-related hepatitis. Given their prognostic value, transient elastography and some bio-chemical markers can be used to better categorize patients with advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis and assign them to different classes of risk for clinically relevant outcomes. Very recent data indicates that the combined measurements of liver and spleen stiffness enable the reliable prediction of portal hypertension and esophageal varices development. PMID:25356021

  9. Cell-free nucleic acids as noninvasive biomarkers for colorectal cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Hicham

    2014-01-01

    Cell-free nucleic acids (CFNA) have been reported by several authors in blood, stool, and urine of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). These genetic biomarkers can be an indication of neoplastic colorectal epithelial cells, and can thus potentially be used as noninvasive tests for the detection of the disease in CRC patients and monitor their staging, without the need to use heavier and invasive tools. In a number of test-trials, these genetic tests have shown the advantage of non-invasiveness, making them well accepted by most of the patients, without major side effects. They have also shown a promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of malignant and premalignant neoplasms. Moreover, costs for performing such tests are very low. Several studies reported and confirmed the proof of the principle for these genetic tests for screening, diagnosis, and prognosis; the main challenge of translating this approach from research to clinical laboratory is the validation from large and long-term randomized trials to prove sustainable high sensitivity and specificity. In this paper, we present a review on the noninvasive genetics biomarkers for CRC detection described in the literature and the challenges that can be encountered for validation processes. PMID:25221563

  10. Non-invasive Markers of Liver Fibrosis: Adjuncts or Alternatives to Liver Biopsy?

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Jun L.; Pavlides, Michael; Moolla, Ahmad; Ryan, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis reflects sustained liver injury often from multiple, simultaneous factors. Whilst the presence of mild fibrosis on biopsy can be a reassuring finding, the identification of advanced fibrosis is critical to the management of patients with chronic liver disease. This necessity has lead to a reliance on liver biopsy which itself is an imperfect test and poorly accepted by patients. The development of robust tools to non-invasively assess liver fibrosis has dramatically enhanced clinical decision making in patients with chronic liver disease, allowing a rapid and informed judgment of disease stage and prognosis. Should a liver biopsy be required, the appropriateness is clearer and the diagnostic yield is greater with the use of these adjuncts. While a number of non-invasive liver fibrosis markers are now used in routine practice, a steady stream of innovative approaches exists. With improvement in the reliability, reproducibility and feasibility of these markers, their potential role in disease management is increasing. Moreover, their adoption into clinical trials as outcome measures reflects their validity and dynamic nature. This review will summarize and appraise the current and novel non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis, both blood and imaging based, and look at their prospective application in everyday clinical care. PMID:27378924

  11. See the brain at work: intraoperative laser Doppler functional brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Williams, E. J.; Raabe, A.; Van De Ville, D.; Leutenegger, M.; Szelényi, A.; Hattingen, E.; Gerlach, R.; Seifert, V.; Hauger, C.; Lopez, A.; Leitgeb, R.; Unser, M.; Lasser, T.

    2009-07-01

    During open brain surgery we acquire perfusion images non-invasively using laser Doppler imaging. The regions of brain activity show a distinct signal in response to stimulation providing intraoperative functional brain maps of remarkably strong contrast.

  12. The Use of Fetal Noninvasive Electrocardiography

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the severe complications of pregnancy that leads to fetal deterioration. The aim was to survey the validity of fetal distress diagnostics in case of Doppler ultrasonic umbilical vein and arteries blood flow velocity investigation and ECG parameters analysis obtained from maternal abdominal signal before labor in preeclamptic patients. Fetal noninvasive ECG and umbilical arterial and venous Doppler investigation were performed in 120 patients at 34–40 weeks of gestation. And 30 of them had physiological gestation and were involved in Group I. In Group II 52 pregnant women with mild-moderate PE were observed. 38 patients with severe PE were monitored in Group III. The most considerable negative correlation was determined in pair Apgar score 1 versus T/QRS (R = −0.50; p < 0.05). So the increased T/QRS ratio was the most evident marker of fetal distress. Fetal noninvasive ECG showed sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 98.4% and, therefore, was determined as more accurate method for fetal monitoring. PMID:27006859

  13. The Use of Fetal Noninvasive Electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Lakhno, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the severe complications of pregnancy that leads to fetal deterioration. The aim was to survey the validity of fetal distress diagnostics in case of Doppler ultrasonic umbilical vein and arteries blood flow velocity investigation and ECG parameters analysis obtained from maternal abdominal signal before labor in preeclamptic patients. Fetal noninvasive ECG and umbilical arterial and venous Doppler investigation were performed in 120 patients at 34-40 weeks of gestation. And 30 of them had physiological gestation and were involved in Group I. In Group II 52 pregnant women with mild-moderate PE were observed. 38 patients with severe PE were monitored in Group III. The most considerable negative correlation was determined in pair Apgar score 1 versus T/QRS (R = -0.50; p < 0.05). So the increased T/QRS ratio was the most evident marker of fetal distress. Fetal noninvasive ECG showed sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 98.4% and, therefore, was determined as more accurate method for fetal monitoring.

  14. Reliable noninvasive measurement of blood gases

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Edward V.; Robinson, Mark R.; Haaland, David M.; Alam, Mary K.

    1994-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for, preferably, determining noninvasively and in vivo at least two of the five blood gas parameters (i.e., pH, PCO.sub.2, [HCO.sub.3.sup.- ], PO.sub.2, and O.sub.2 sat.) in a human. The non-invasive method includes the steps of: generating light at three or more different wavelengths in the range of 500 nm to 2500 nm; irradiating blood containing tissue; measuring the intensities of the wavelengths emerging from the blood containing tissue to obtain a set of at least three spectral intensities v. wavelengths; and determining the unknown values of at least two of pH, [HCO.sub.3.sup.- ], PCO.sub.2 and a measure of oxygen concentration. The determined values are within the physiological ranges observed in blood containing tissue. The method also includes the steps of providing calibration samples, determining if the spectral intensities v. wavelengths from the tissue represents an outlier, and determining if any of the calibration samples represents an outlier. The determination of the unknown values is performed by at least one multivariate algorithm using two or more variables and at least one calibration model. Preferably, there is a separate calibration for each blood gas parameter being determined. The method can be utilized in a pulse mode and can also be used invasively. The apparatus includes a tissue positioning device, a source, at least one detector, electronics, a microprocessor, memory, and apparatus for indicating the determined values.

  15. Innovative approaches to noninvasive bone densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D. )

    1990-01-01

    In conclusion, this review has endeavored to familiarize the practicing radiologist with some of the newer approaches to noninvasive bone densitometry that are currently being explored as potential improvements over existing techniques. Three-dimensional volumetric CT is a practical means of measuring bone density in the proximal femur, owing to the widespread availability of the necessary scanning equipment, and affords enhanced prediction of biomechanical parameters in the spine and hip, but suffers from limitations similar to those of conventional quantitative CT. Dual-energy projection radiography offers significant potential advantages over dual-photon absorptiometry from the standpoint of precision, radiation dose, image quality, and examination time, but remains to be thoroughly tested. Compton scattering appears to be a viable alternative to single-photon absorptiometry for bone density determinations in the peripheral skeleton. Neutron and proton activation analysis are unlikely to achieve widespread application, owing to their cyclotron-dependent nature, although the former will probably remain the optimal means for determining total body calcium. Experience with scanning-slit fluorography and magnetic resonance as applied to noninvasive bone densitometry is currently too limited to permit prediction of their ultimate role in this respect. As a final point, it should be noted that major incentives for mobilization of bone densitometric equipment currently exist: on Earth, as a means of facilitating patient access and saving money via joint ventures, and in space for monitoring the adverse effects of weightlessness on skeletal mass and the ability to function following return to a gravity environment.25 references.

  16. Recent advances in noninvasive glucose monitoring

    PubMed Central

    So, Chi-Fuk; Choi, Kup-Sze; Wong, Thomas KS; Chung, Joanne WY

    2012-01-01

    The race for the next generation of painless and reliable glucose monitoring for diabetes mellitus is on. As technology advances, both diagnostic techniques and equipment improve. This review describes the main technologies currently being explored for noninvasive glucose monitoring. The principle of each technology is mentioned; its advantages and limitations are then discussed. The general description and the corresponding results for each device are illustrated, as well as the current status of the device and the manufacturer; internet references for the devices are listed where appropriate. Ten technologies and eleven potential devices are included in this review. Near infrared spectroscopy has become a promising technology, among others, for blood glucose monitoring. Although some reviews have been published already, the rapid development of technologies and information makes constant updating mandatory. While advances have been made, the reliability and the calibration of noninvasive instruments could still be improved, and more studies carried out under different physiological conditions of metabolism, bodily fluid circulation, and blood components are needed. PMID:23166457

  17. Noninvasive glucose sensing by transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Wei-Chuan; Bechtel, Kate L.; Rebec, Mihailo V.

    2015-05-01

    We present the development of a transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy system and analysis algorithm for noninvasive glucose sensing. The instrument and algorithm were tested in a preclinical study in which a dog model was used. To achieve a robust glucose test system, the blood levels were clamped for periods of up to 45 min. Glucose clamping and rise/fall patterns have been achieved by injecting glucose and insulin into the ear veins of the dog. Venous blood samples were drawn every 5 min and a plasma glucose concentration was obtained and used to maintain the clamps, to build the calibration model, and to evaluate the performance of the system. We evaluated the utility of the simultaneously acquired Raman spectra to be used to determine the plasma glucose values during the 8-h experiment. We obtained prediction errors in the range of ˜1.5-2 mM. These were in-line with a best-case theoretical estimate considering the limitations of the signal-to-noise ratio estimates. As expected, the transition regions of the clamp study produced larger predictive errors than the stable regions. This is related to the divergence of the interstitial fluid (ISF) and plasma glucose values during those periods. Two key contributors to error beside the ISF/plasma difference were photobleaching and detector drift. The study demonstrated the potential of Raman spectroscopy in noninvasive applications and provides areas where the technology can be improved in future studies.

  18. Non-invasive Evaluation for Epilepsy Surgery

    PubMed Central

    IWASAKI, Masaki; JIN, Kazutaka; NAKASATO, Nobukazu; TOMINAGA, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery is aimed to remove the brain tissues that are indispensable for generating patient’s epileptic seizures. There are two purposes in the pre-operative evaluation: localization of the epileptogenic zone and localization of function. Surgery is planned to remove possible epileptogenic zone while preserving functional area. Since no single diagnostic modality is superior to others in identifying and localizing the epileptogenic zone, multiple non-invasive evaluations are performed to estimate the location of the epileptogenic zone after concordance between evaluations. Essential components of non-invasive pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy include detailed clinical history, long-term video-electroencephalography monitoring, epilepsy-protocol magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and neuropsychological testing. However, a significant portion of drug-resistant epilepsy is associated with no or subtle MRI lesions or with ambiguous electro-clinical signs. Additional evaluations including fluoro-deoxy glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), magnetoencephalography and ictal single photon emission computed tomography can play critical roles in planning surgery. FDG-PET should be registered on three-dimensional MRI for better detection of focal cortical dysplasia. All diagnostic tools are complementary to each other in defining the epileptogenic zone, so that it is always important to reassess the data based on other results to pick up or confirm subtle abnormalities. PMID:27627857

  19. Noninvasive glucose sensing by transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Wei-Chuan; Bechtel, Kate L.; Rebec, Mihailo V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We present the development of a transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy system and analysis algorithm for noninvasive glucose sensing. The instrument and algorithm were tested in a preclinical study in which a dog model was used. To achieve a robust glucose test system, the blood levels were clamped for periods of up to 45 min. Glucose clamping and rise/fall patterns have been achieved by injecting glucose and insulin into the ear veins of the dog. Venous blood samples were drawn every 5 min and a plasma glucose concentration was obtained and used to maintain the clamps, to build the calibration model, and to evaluate the performance of the system. We evaluated the utility of the simultaneously acquired Raman spectra to be used to determine the plasma glucose values during the 8-h experiment. We obtained prediction errors in the range of ∼1.5−2  mM. These were in-line with a best-case theoretical estimate considering the limitations of the signal-to-noise ratio estimates. As expected, the transition regions of the clamp study produced larger predictive errors than the stable regions. This is related to the divergence of the interstitial fluid (ISF) and plasma glucose values during those periods. Two key contributors to error beside the ISF/plasma difference were photobleaching and detector drift. The study demonstrated the potential of Raman spectroscopy in noninvasive applications and provides areas where the technology can be improved in future studies. PMID:25688542

  20. Noninvasive Electromagnetic Detection of Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cormio, Luigi; Vedruccio, Clarbruno; Leucci, Giorgio; Massenio, Paolo; Di Fino, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Vincenzo; Carrieri, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Normal and neoplastic human tissues have different electromagnetic properties. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of noninvasive electromagnetic detection of bladder cancer (BC) by the tissue-resonance interaction method (TRIM-prob). Patients and Methods. Consecutive patients were referred for cystoscopy because of (i) microscopic or gross hematuria and/or irritative voiding symptoms and (ii) bladder ultrasounds and urinary cytology findings negative or just suspicious of malignancy. Patients were first submitted to TRIM-prob bladder scanning by a single investigator and then to cystoscopy by another investigator blind to TRIM-prob data. Results. In 125 evaluated patients cystoscopy was positive for BC in 47 and negative in the remaining 78; conversely, TRIM-prob bladder scanning was positive for BC in 53 and negative in 72. In particular, TRIM-prob scanning yielded 7 false positives and only one false negative; therefore, its overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were 97.9%, 89.9%, 86.8%, 98.6%, and 93.6%, respectively. Conclusions. TRIM-prob bladder scanning was a simple and quite accurate method for non-invasive electromagnetic detection of BC. If the elevated positive and negative predictive values will be replicated in further well-designed studies, it could be used to screen asymptomatic patients at high risk of BC. PMID:24563795

  1. [Role of noninvasive imaging in cardiology].

    PubMed

    Gaemperli, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The technological advances of recent decades have produced a large armamentarium of cardiac noninvasive imaging tools for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD), including stress echocardiography, myocardial perfusion radionuclide imaging, cardiac computed tomography (cardiac CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The high diagnostic accuracy of these techniques has been documented by single center and occasionally larger multicentric studies. Hence, the choice of the appropriate technique in a given patient is based upon the particular clinical scenario, the patient's clinical characteristics, local availability and expertise, and upon other factors such as costs, radiation and potential contrast agent toxicity. Cardiac CT is by nature an anatomical technique (much like invasive angiography) with a high negative predictive value, therefore it has established itself as a useful tool to rule out CAD in patients with low to intermediate pretest likelihood of CAD. The remaining techniques, on the other hand, are functional tests for the detection of myocardial ischemia and are suitable to improve risk stratification in patients with known CAD or at higher cardiovascular risk. By this means, non-invasive cardiac imaging is an accurate and established tool in the diagnostic algorithm for CAD, and a cost-effective gatekeeper of invasive angiography.

  2. Facial pressure zones of an oronasal interface for noninvasive ventilation: a computer model analysis* **

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Luana Souto; Talaia, Pedro; Drummond, Marta; Natal-Jorge, Renato

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of an oronasal interface (OI) for noninvasive ventilation, using a three-dimensional (3D) computational model with the ability to simulate and evaluate the main pressure zones (PZs) of the OI on the human face. METHODS: We used a 3D digital model of the human face, based on a pre-established geometric model. The model simulated soft tissues, skull, and nasal cartilage. The geometric model was obtained by 3D laser scanning and post-processed for use in the model created, with the objective of separating the cushion from the frame. A computer simulation was performed to determine the pressure required in order to create the facial PZs. We obtained descriptive graphical images of the PZs and their intensity. RESULTS: For the graphical analyses of each face-OI model pair and their respective evaluations, we ran 21 simulations. The computer model identified several high-impact PZs in the nasal bridge and paranasal regions. The variation in soft tissue depth had a direct impact on the amount of pressure applied (438-724 cmH2O). CONCLUSIONS: The computer simulation results indicate that, in patients submitted to noninvasive ventilation with an OI, the probability of skin lesion is higher in the nasal bridge and paranasal regions. This methodology could increase the applicability of biomechanical research on noninvasive ventilation interfaces, providing the information needed in order to choose the interface that best minimizes the risk of skin lesion. PMID:25610506

  3. Noninvasive Facial Rejuvenation. Part 2: Physician-Directed-Neuromodulators and Fillers.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Ryan M; Louis, Matthew R; Cox, Joshua A; Mohan, Kriti; Lee, Edward I; Nigro, Marjory G

    2016-08-01

    A proper knowledge of noninvasive facial rejuvenation is integral to the practice of a cosmetic surgeon. Noninvasive facial rejuvenation can be divided into patient- versus physician-directed modalities. Patient-directed facial rejuvenation combines the use of facial products such as sunscreen, moisturizers, retinoids, α-hydroxy acids, and various antioxidants to both maintain youthful skin as well as rejuvenate damaged skin. Physicians may recommend and often prescribe certain products, but patients are in control with this type of facial rejuvenation. On the other hand, physician-directed facial rejuvenation entails modalities that require direct physician involvement, such as neuromodulators, filler injections, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, and chemical peels. With the successful integration of each of these modalities, a complete facial regimen can be established and patient satisfaction can be maximized. This article is the second in a three-part series describing noninvasive facial rejuvenation. Here the authors discuss neuromodulators and fillers in detail, focusing on indications for use, techniques, and common side effects. PMID:27478422

  4. Noninvasive sensors for in-situ process monitoring and control in advanced microelectronics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moslehi, Mehrdad M.

    1991-04-01

    The combination of noninvasive in-situ monitoring sensors single-wafer processing modules vacuum-integrated cluster tools and computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) can provide a suitable fabrication environment for flexible and high-yield advanced semiconductor device manufacturing. The use of in-situ sensors for monitoring of equipment process and wafer parameters results in increased equipment/process up-time reduced process and device parameter spread improved cluster tool reliability and functionality and reduced overall device manufacturing cycle time. This paper will present an overview of the main features and impact of noninvasive in-situ monitoring sensors for semiconductor device manufacturing applications. Specific examples will be presented for the use of critical sensors in conjunction with cluster tools for advanced CMOS device processing. A noninvasive temperature sensor will be presented which can monitor true wafer temperature via infrared (5. 35 jtm) pyrometery and laser-assisted real-time spectral wafer emissivity measurements. This sensor design eliminates any. temperature measurement errors caused by the heating lamp radiation and wafer emissivity variations. 1. SENSORS: MOTIVATIONS AND IMPACT Semiconductor chip manufacturing factories usually employ well-established statistical process control (SPC) techniques to minimize the process parameter deviations and to increase the device fabrication yield. The conventional fabrication environments rely on controlling a limited set of critical equipment and process parameters (e. g. process pressure gas flow rates substrate temperature RF power etc. ) however most of the significant wafer process and equipment parameters of interest are not monitored in real

  5. Decision Making About Gastrostomy and Noninvasive Ventilation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Naomi H; Lawrence, Vanessa; Murray, Joanna; Janssen, Anna; Higginson, Irene; Lyall, Rebecca; Burman, Rachel; Leigh, P Nigel; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Goldstein, Laura H

    2016-08-01

    We used thematic analysis to investigate factors affecting decision making about gastrostomy and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) by people with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) from the viewpoint of the health care professionals (HCPs) supporting them. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with 19 HCPs nominated by people with ALS who had made a decision to accept or decline NIV or gastrostomy. We found the main themes influencing decision making were patient-centric, caregiver-related or related to HCPs' own beliefs, perspectives, and actions. HCPs felt patients should be, and were, in control of decision making, although caregivers and HCPs played a role. The patient's evaluation of quality of life, the desirability of prolonging life, and acceptance of the disease and its progression by both patient and caregiver were the most important factors identified by HCPs. HCPs should be aware of the importance of multiprofessional discussions, and the potential influences (identified above) that might require discussion with patients and caregivers.

  6. In vitro glucose measurement using tunable mid-infrared laser spectroscopy combined with fiber-optic sensor

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Songlin; Li, Dachao; Chong, Hao; Sun, Changyue; Yu, Haixia; Xu, Kexin

    2013-01-01

    Because mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy is not a promising method to noninvasively measure glucose in vivo, a method for minimally invasive high-precision glucose determination in vivo by mid-IR laser spectroscopy combined with a tunable laser source and small fiber-optic attenuated total reflection (ATR) sensor is introduced. The potential of this method was evaluated in vitro. This research presents a mid-infrared tunable laser with a broad emission spectrum band of 9.19 to 9.77μm(1024~1088 cm−1) and proposes a method to control and stabilize the laser emission wavelength and power. Moreover, several fiber-optic ATR sensors were fabricated and investigated to determine glucose in combination with the tunable laser source, and the effective sensing optical length of these sensors was determined for the first time. In addition, the sensitivity of this system was four times that of a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. The noise-equivalent concentration (NEC) of this laser measurement system was as low as 3.8 mg/dL, which is among the most precise glucose measurements using mid-infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, a partial least-squares regression and Clarke error grid were used to quantify the predictability and evaluate the prediction accuracy of glucose concentration in the range of 5 to 500 mg/dL (physiologically relevant range: 30~400 mg/dL). The experimental results were clinically acceptable. The high sensitivity, tunable laser source, low NEC and small fiber-optic ATR sensor demonstrate an encouraging step in the work towards precisely monitoring glucose levels in vivo. PMID:24466493

  7. Laser Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  8. Information biology of laser acupuncture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Jian-Ling; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Liu, Song-Hao

    2003-12-01

    Laser acupuncture as an alternative, noninvasive, painless and cost-effective therapy is widely used for acute and chronic pain, nausea, circulatory functions, and mood-related behavioral disorders. It was suggested one of the pathways mediated laser acupuncture was from laser biomodulation on acupuncture point cells to autonomic nervous subsystems through meridian. As laser irradiation used for acupuncture is red or infra red, we put forward the following model: at dose 1(100-3 J/m2), the irradiation activates parasympathetic nervous subsystem (PSN); at dose 2(103-5 J/m2), the irradiation activates sympathetic nervous subsystem (SN); at dose 3(105-6 J/m2), the irradiation activates PSN; and at dose 4(106-7 J/m2), the irradiation activates SN. This model was verified by its successful applications.

  9. Noninvasive NIR measurement of tissue pH to assess hemorrhagic shock in swine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soller, Babs R.; Zhang, Songbiao; Micheels, Ronald H.; Puyana, Juan C.

    1999-07-01

    Body-worn noninvasive physilogical sensors are needed to continuously monitor soldiers for hemorrhage and to provide real-time information for minimally skilled medics to treat the injured. In the hospital intramucosal pHi of the gut is used to monitor shock and its treatment. We hypothesize that abdominal wall muscle (AWM) pH can be measured noninvasively using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and partial least squares analysis (PLS) and will correlate with pHi. METHODS: AWM pH was measured with microelectrodes and gastric pHi was measured with a tonometric catheter simultaneously while NIR spectra were collected using prototype LED spectrometers placed on the pig's flanks. Animals were subject to hemorrhagic shock at 45 mm Hg for 45 minutes, then resuscitated with blood and lactated ringers. Relationships between electrode pH, pHi and NIR spectra were developed using PLS with cross validation. RESULTS: NIR spectral changes noninvasively acquired through the skin were shown to be from the muscle, not from changes in skin blood flow. Trending ability (R2) model accuracy (RMSD), and relative error were calculated for individual pigs. Using electrode pH as the reference, average R2 was 0.88 with a predicted accuracy of 0.17 pH units, a 9.3% relative error. Slightly degraded results were observed when pHi was used as a reference. CONCLUSIONS: NIR measurement of tissue pH can be used to noninvasively monitor for shock and guide its treatment in a swine model. These measurements correlate with gastric pHi, a clinically accepted measure of shock, providing an approach to develop similar methodology for humans.

  10. Production excimer laser equipment overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sercel, Jeffrey P.

    1993-04-01

    Excimer lasers were commercialized in the late 1970's. The laser community thought that by the early 1980's these UV lasers would enjoy a fruitful industrial market position. CO2 and solid state lasers required almost two decades to be fully accepted as industrial machine while the excimer laser was expected to be a fast learner benefiting from the learning curve of its big brothers. In retrospect, early excimer lasers had a bad reputation for being complicated, expensive and frequently out of commission. By the late 1980's a few excimer laser manufacturers had engineered the problems to acceptable levels for successful pilot lines and small scale manufacturing to begin. At this time, the real industrial learning curves began as engineers worked to refine many subsystems and support technologies. Today, excimer lasers are being used as true industrial lasers. They have a bright future with numerous and diverse market opportunities. This paper is an overview of the technologies proven to be successful in adapting modern excimer lasers to successful full production situations.

  11. Noninvasive imaging of oral premalignancy and malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra; Krasieva, T.; Jung, W.; You, J. S.; Chen, Z.; Osann, K.; Tromberg, B.

    2005-04-01

    Objectives: Early detection of cancer and its curable precursors remains the best way to ensure patient survival and quality of life. Despite significant advances in treatment, oral cancer still results in 10,000 U.S. deaths annually, mainly due to the late detection of most oral lesions. Specific aim was to use a combination of non-invasive optical in vivo technologies to test a multi-modality approach to non-invasive diagnostics of oral premalignancy and malignancy. Methods: In the hamster cheek pouch model (120 hamsters), in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical Doppler tomography (ODT) mapped epithelial, subepithelial and vascular change throughout carcinogenesis in specific, marked sites. In vivo multi-wavelength multi-photon (MPM) and second harmonic generated (SHG) fluorescence techniques provided parallel data on surface and subsurface tissue structure, specifically collagen presence and structure, cellular presence, and vasculature. Images were diagnosed by 2 blinded, pre-standardized investigators using a standardized scale from 0-6 for all modalities. After sacrifice, histopathological sections were prepared and pathology evaluated on a scale of 0-6. ANOVA techniques compared imaging diagnostics with histopathology. 95% confidence limits of the sensitivity and specificity were established for the diagnostic capability of OCT/ODT+ MPM/SHG using ROC curves and kappa statistics. Results: Imaging data were reproducibly obtained with good accuracy. Carcinogenesis-related structural and vascular changes were clearly visible to tissue depths of 2mm. Sensitivity (OCT/ODT alone: 71-88%; OCT+MPM/SHG: 79-91%) and specificity (OCT alone: 62-83%;OCT+MPM/SHG: 67-90%) compared well with conventional techniques. Conclusions: OCT/ODT and MPM/SHG are promising non-invasive in vivo diagnostic modalities for oral dysplasia and malignancy. Supported by CRFA 30003, CCRP 00-01391V-20235, NIH (LAMMP) RR01192, DOE DE903-91ER 61227, NIH EB-00293 CA91717, NSF BES

  12. A simple approach to industrial laser safety.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Michael A; Hinz, Michael W

    2005-02-01

    Industrial applications of lasers include marking, welding, cutting, and other material processing. Lasers used in these ways have significant power output but are generally designed to limit operator exposure to direct or scattered laser radiation to harmless levels in order to meet the Federal Laser Product Performance Standard (21CFR1040) for Class 1 laser products. Interesting challenges occur when companies integrate high power lasers into manufacturing or process control equipment. A significant part of the integration process is developing engineering and administrative controls to produce an acceptable level of laser safety while balancing production, maintenance, and service requirements. 3M Company uses a large number of high power lasers in numerous manufacturing processes. Whether the laser is purchased as a Class 1 laser product or whether it is purchased as a Class 4 laser and then integrated into a manufacturing application, 3M Company has developed an industrial laser safety program that maintains a high degree of laser safety while facilitating the rapid and economical integration of laser technology into the manufacturing workplace. This laser safety program is based on the requirements and recommendations contained in the American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1. The fundamental components of the 3M program include hazard evaluation, engineering, administrative, and procedural controls, protective equipment, signs and labels, training, and re-evaluation upon change. This program is implemented in manufacturing facilities and has resulted in an excellent history of laser safety and an effective and efficient use of laser safety resources.

  13. From requirements to acceptance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Lionel; Pasquier, Helene

    1993-01-01

    From user requirements definition to accepted software system, the software project management wants to be sure that the system will meet the requirements. For the development of a telecommunication satellites Control Centre, C.N.E.S. has used new rules to make the use of tracing matrix easier. From Requirements to Acceptance Tests, each item of a document must have an identifier. A unique matrix traces the system and allows the tracking of the consequences of a change in the requirements. A tool has been developed, to import documents into a relational data base. Each record of the data base corresponds to an item of a document, the access key is the item identifier. Tracing matrix is also processed, providing automatically links between the different documents. It enables the reading on the same screen of traced items. For example one can read simultaneously the User Requirements items, the corresponding Software Requirements items and the Acceptance Tests.

  14. Validation of noninvasive MOEMS-assisted measurement system based on CCD sensor for radial pulse analysis.

    PubMed

    Malinauskas, Karolis; Palevicius, Paulius; Ragulskis, Minvydas; Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Dauksevicius, Rolanas

    2013-01-01

    Examination of wrist radial pulse is a noninvasive diagnostic method, which occupies a very important position in Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is based on manual palpation and therefore relies largely on the practitioner's subjective technical skills and judgment. Consequently, it lacks reliability and consistency, which limits practical applications in clinical medicine. Thus, quantifiable characterization of the wrist pulse diagnosis method is a prerequisite for its further development and widespread use. This paper reports application of a noninvasive CCD sensor-based hybrid measurement system for radial pulse signal analysis. First, artery wall deformations caused by the blood flow are calibrated with a laser triangulation displacement sensor, following by the measurement of the deformations with projection moiré method. Different input pressures and fluids of various viscosities are used in the assembled artificial blood flow system in order to test the performance of laser triangulation technique with detection sensitivity enhancement through microfabricated retroreflective optical element placed on a synthetic vascular graft. Subsequently, the applicability of double-exposure whole-field projection moiré technique for registration of blood flow pulses is considered: a computational model and representative example are provided, followed by in vitro experiment performed on a vascular graft with artificial skin atop, which validates the suitability of the technique for characterization of skin surface deformations caused by the radial pulsation. PMID:23609803

  15. Noninvasive measurement of internal jugular venous oxygen saturation by photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Erpelding, Todd N.; Ke, Haixin; Reddy, Kavya; Sharma, Anshuman; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    The metabolic rate and oxygen consumption of the brain is reflected in jugular venous oxygen saturation. In many clinical conditions, such as head trauma, stroke, and low cardiac output states, the brain is at risk for hypoxic-ischemic injury. The current gold standard for monitoring brain oxygenation is invasive and requires jugular vein catheterization under fluoroscopic guidance; and therefore it is rarely used. Photo-acoustic tomography in combination with ultrasound can be used to estimate oxygen saturation of the internal jugular vein in real-time. This noninvasive method will enable earlier detection and prevention of impending hypoxic brain injury. A wavelength-tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser delivers light through an optical fiber bundle, and a modified commercial ultrasound imaging system (Philips iU22) detects both the pulse-echo ultrasound (US) and photoacoustic (PA) signals. A custom-built multichannel data acquisition system renders co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic images at 5 frames per second. After the jugular vein was localized in healthy volunteers, dualwavelength PA images were used to calculate the blood hemoglobin oxygen saturation from the internal jugular vein in vivo. The preliminary results raise confidence that this emerging technology can be used clinically as an accurate, noninvasive indicator of cerebral oxygenation.

  16. Noninvasive corneal stromal collagen imaging using two-photon-generated second-harmonic signals

    PubMed Central

    Morishige, Naoyuki; Petroll, W. Matthew; Nishida, Teruo; Kenney, M. Cristina; Jester, James V.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE To investigate the feasibility of using femtosecond-pulse lasers to produce second-harmonic generated (SHG) signals to noninvasively assess corneal stromal collagen organization. SETTING The Eye Institute, University of California, Irvine, California, USA. METHODS Mouse, rabbit, and human corneas were examined by two-photon confocal microscopy using a variable-wavelength femtosecond lasers to produce SHG signals. Two types were detected: forward scattered and backward scattered. Wavelength dependence of the SHG signal was confirmed by spectral separation using the 510 Meta (Zeiss). To verify the spatial relation between SHG signals and corneal cells, staining of cytoskeletons and nuclei was performed. RESULTS Second-harmonic-generated signal intensity was strongest with an excitation wavelength of 800 nm for all 3 species. Second-harmonic-generated forward signals showed a distinct fibrillar pattern organized into bands suggesting lamellae, while backscattered SHG signals appeared more diffuse and indistinct. Reconstruction of SHG signals showed two patterns of lamellar organization: highly interwoven in the anterior stroma and orthogonally arranged in the posterior stroma. Unique to the human cornea was the presence of transverse, sutural lamellae that inserted into Bowman’s layer, suggesting an anchoring function. CONCLUSIONS Using two-photon confocal microscopy to generate SHG signals from the corneal collagen provides a powerful new approach to noninvasively study corneal structure. Human corneas had a unique organizational pattern with sutural lamellae to provide important biomechanical support that was not present in mouse or rabbit corneas. PMID:17081858

  17. Noninvasive detection of concealed explosives: depth profiling through opaque plastics by time-resolved Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Petterson, Ingeborg E Iping; López-López, María; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Gooijer, Cees; Buijs, Joost B; Ariese, Freek

    2011-11-15

    The detection of explosives concealed behind opaque, diffusely scattering materials is a challenge that requires noninvasive analytical techniques for identification without having to manipulate the package. In this context, this study focuses on the application of time-resolved Raman spectroscopy (TRRS) with a picosecond pulsed laser and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) detector for the noninvasive identification of explosive materials through several millimeters of opaque polymers or plastic packaging materials. By means of a short (250 ps) gate which can be delayed several hundred picoseconds after the laser pulse, the ICCD detector allows for the temporal discrimination between photons from the surface of a sample and those from deeper layers. TRRS was applied for the detection of the two main isomers of dinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 2,6-dinitrotoluene as well as for various other components of explosive mixtures, including akardite II, diphenylamine, and ethyl centralite. Spectra were obtained through different diffuse scattering white polymer materials: polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyoxymethylene (POM), and polyethylene (PE). Common packaging materials of various thicknesses were also selected, including polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). With the demonstration of the ability to detect concealed, explosives-related compounds through an opaque first layer, this study may have important applications in the security and forensic fields.

  18. Noninvasive diagnosis of vulnerable coronary plaque

    PubMed Central

    Pozo, Eduardo; Agudo-Quilez, Pilar; Rojas-González, Antonio; Alvarado, Teresa; Olivera, María José; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis Jesús; Alfonso, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death are frequently the first manifestation of coronary artery disease. For this reason, screening of asymptomatic coronary atherosclerosis has become an attractive field of research in cardiovascular medicine. Necropsy studies have described histopathological changes associated with the development of acute coronary events. In this regard, thin-cap fibroatheroma has been identified as the main vulnerable coronary plaque feature. Hence, many imaging techniques, such as coronary computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance or positron emission tomography, have tried to detect noninvasively these histomorphological characteristics with different approaches. In this article, we review the role of these diagnostic tools in the detection of vulnerable coronary plaque with particular interest in their advantages and limitations as well as the clinical implications of the derived findings. PMID:27721935

  19. Noninvasive evaluation of peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Barnes, R W

    1978-08-01

    Doppler ultrasound is the most simple, inexpensive, accurate and versatile of the available noninvasive screening techniques to assess peripheral vascular diseases. The four fundamental components of peripheral arterial evaluation with this technique are assessment of blood velocity signal, measurement of resting ankle pressure, determination of segmental leg blood pressures, and measurement of ankle pressure response to exercise or reactive hyperemia. Plethysmography permits graphic recording of pulse-wave morphology, determination of digit blood pressure, and pulsatile responses to compression maneuvers. These techniques are useful in objectively quantifying peripheral arterial occlusive disease, predicting the results of operative therapy, monitoring the success of arterial reconstruction during surgery, and following the physiologic status of the patient after surgery.

  20. Development and application of noninvasive optical topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Maki, Atsushi; Yamashita, Yuichi; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi; Iwata, Makoto; Watanabe, Eiju; Tanikawa, Yukari; Yamada, Yukio; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2000-07-01

    Optical tomography (OT) is a method for visualizing brain functions noninvasively. In an OT measurement system, near- infrared light, to which living tissue is highly permeable, is irradiated from the scale of the subject, and the scattered light reflected from the cerebral cortex is detected elsewhere on the scalp. The spatio-temporal blood volume change in the cortex is visualized based on the signal detected using two-dimensionally arranged optodes. The measurement imposes few constraints on the subject, either physically or mentally, thus the subject is in a natural and relaxed condition during measurement. Here we describe our OT system, then report on an experiment to evaluate the system using a phantom. We found that OT can accurately locate the activated region in the cortex. Also, as an example of a clinical application of OT, we used our system to measure the language function, demonstrating the system's ability to measure the activity of Broca's area.

  1. Method for noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2000-01-01

    An ultrasonic-based method for continuous, noninvasive intracranial pressure (ICP) measurement and monitoring is described. The stress level in the skull bone is affected by pressure. This also changes the interfacial conditions between the dura matter and the skull bone. Standing waves may be set up in the skull bone and the layers in contact with the bone. At specific frequencies, there are resonance peaks in the response of the skull which can be readily detected by sweeping the excitation frequency on an excitation transducer in contact with a subject's head, while monitoring the standing wave characteristics from the signal received on a second, receiving transducer similarly in contact with the subject's head. At a chosen frequency, the phase difference between the excitation signal and the received signal can be determined. This difference can be related to the intracranial pressure and changes therein.

  2. Advanced noninvasive imaging of spinal vascular malformations

    PubMed Central

    Eddleman, Christopher S.; Jeong, Hyun; Cashen, Ty A.; Walker, Matthew; Bendok, Bernard R.; Batjer, H. Hunt; Carroll, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Spinal vascular malformations (SVMs) are an uncommon, heterogeneous group of vascular anomalies that can render devastating neurological consequences if they are not diagnosed and treated in a timely fashion. Imaging SVMs has always presented a formidable challenge because their clinical and imaging presentations resemble those of neoplasms, demyelination diseases, and infection. Advancements in noninvasive imaging modalities (MR and CT angiography) have increased during the last decade and have improved the ability to accurately diagnose spinal vascular anomalies. In addition, intraoperative imaging techniques have been developed that aid in the intraoperative assessment before, during, and after resection of these lesions with minimal and/or optimal use of spinal digital subtraction angiography. In this report, the authors review recent advancements in the imaging of SVMs that will likely lead to more timely diagnoses and treatment while reducing procedural risk exposure to the patients who harbor these uncommon spinal lesions. PMID:19119895

  3. Simple noninvasive measurement of skin autofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Links, Thera; Graaff, Reindert; Thorpe, Suzannne R; Baynes, John W; Hartog, Jasper; Gans, Reinold; Smit, Andries

    2005-06-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic complications of diabetes mellitus and renal failure. Several studies indicate that AGE accumulation in tissue may reflect the cumulative effect of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress over many years. Simple quantitation of AGE accumulation in tissue could provide a tool for assessing the risk of long-term complications. Because several AGEs exhibit autofluorescence, we developed a noninvasive autofluorescence reader (AFR). Skin autofluorescence measured with the AFR correlates with collagen-linked fluorescence and specific skin AGE levels from skin biopsy samples. Furthermore, skin autofluorescence correlates with long-term glycemic control and renal function, and preliminary results show correlations with the presence of long-term complications in diabetes. The AFR may be useful as a clinical tool for rapid assessment of risk for AGE-related long-term complications in diabetes and in other conditions associated with AGE accumulation.

  4. Simple noninvasive measurement of skin autofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Links, Thera; Graaff, Reindert; Thorpe, Suzannne R; Baynes, John W; Hartog, Jasper; Gans, Reinold; Smit, Andries

    2005-06-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic complications of diabetes mellitus and renal failure. Several studies indicate that AGE accumulation in tissue may reflect the cumulative effect of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress over many years. Simple quantitation of AGE accumulation in tissue could provide a tool for assessing the risk of long-term complications. Because several AGEs exhibit autofluorescence, we developed a noninvasive autofluorescence reader (AFR). Skin autofluorescence measured with the AFR correlates with collagen-linked fluorescence and specific skin AGE levels from skin biopsy samples. Furthermore, skin autofluorescence correlates with long-term glycemic control and renal function, and preliminary results show correlations with the presence of long-term complications in diabetes. The AFR may be useful as a clinical tool for rapid assessment of risk for AGE-related long-term complications in diabetes and in other conditions associated with AGE accumulation. PMID:16037251

  5. Noninvasive measurement of central venous pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, J. G.; Mastenbrook, S. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A technique for the noninvasive measurement of CVP in man was developed. The method involves monitoring venous velocity at a point in the periphery with a transcutaneous Doppler ultrasonic velocity meter while the patient performs a forced expiratory maneuver. The idea is the CVP is related to the value of pressure measured at the mouth which just stops the flow in the vein. Two improvements were made over the original procedure. First, the site of venous velocity measurement was shifted from a vein at the antecubital fossa (elbow) to the right external jugular vein in the neck. This allows for sensing more readily events occurring in the central veins. Secondly, and perhaps most significantly, a procedure for obtaining a curve of relative mean venous velocity vs mouth pressure was developed.

  6. [Intermediate care units and noninvasive ventilation].

    PubMed

    Becker, Heinrich F; Schönhofer, Bernd; Vogelmeier, Claus

    2006-04-15

    Intermediate care units (IMC) have been introduced to provide optimal patient management according to disease severity and to bridge the gap between intensive care (ICU) and general wards. Most patients that are referred to an IMC need monitoring and intensive analgetic treatment. Over the past years noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and weaning have emerged as important new forms of active treatment in the IMC. Most studies that have been published so far demonstrate that an IMC improves patient outcome and lowers costs, although randomized controlled trials are missing. NIV reduces mortality, the need for intubation as well as ICU and hospital length of stay in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other disorders that cause respiratory failure. In many cases NIV can be performed in the IMC, a fact that reduces the number of ICU admissions, lowers costs and improves patient care. The high prevalence of pulmonary diseases and NIV emphasizes the importance of pneumologists as directors of both ICU and IMC.

  7. Non-invasive measurements of tissue hemodynamics with hybrid diffuse optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durduran, Turgut

    Diffuse optical techniques were used to measure hemodynamics of tissues non-invasively. Spectroscopy and tomography of the brain, muscle and implanted tumors were carried out in animal models and humans. Two qualitatively different methods, diffuse optical tomography and diffuse correlation tomography, were hybridized permitting simultaneous measurement of total hemoglobin concentration, blood oxygen saturation and blood flow. This combination of information was processed further to derive estimates of oxygen metabolism (e.g. CMRO 2) in tissue. The diffuse correlation measurements of blood flow were demonstrated in human tissues, for the first time, demonstrating continous, non-invasive imaging of oxygen metabolism in large tissue volumes several centimeters below the tissue surface. The bulk of these investigations focussed on cerebral hemodynamics. Extensive validation of this methodology was carried out in in vivo rat brain models. Three dimensional images of deep tissue hemodynamics in middle cerebral artery occlusion and cortical spreading depression (CSD) were obtained. CSD hemodynamics were found to depend strongly on partial pressure of carbon dioxide. The technique was then adapted for measurement of human brain. All optical spectroscopic measurements of CMRO2 during functional activation were obtained through intact human skull non-invasively. Finally, a high spatio-temporal resolution measurement of cerebral blood flow due to somatosensory cortex activation following electrical forepaw stimulation in rats was carried out with laser speckle flowmetry. New analysis methods were introduced for laser speckle flowmetry. In other organs, deep tissue hemodynamics were measured on human calf muscle during exercise and cuff-ischemia and were shown to have some clinical utility for peripheral vascular disease. In mice tumor models, the measured hemodynamics were shown to be predictive of photodynamic therapy efficacy, again suggesting promise of clinical utility

  8. Noninvasive ventilation: Are we overdoing it?

    PubMed Central

    Purwar, Sankalp; Venkataraman, Ramesh; Senthilkumar, R.; Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan; Abraham, Babu K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) outside guideline recommendations is common. We audited use of NIV in our tertiary care critical care unit (CCU) to evaluate appropriateness of use and patient outcomes when used outside level I recommendations. Materials and Methods: Prospective observational study of all patients requiring NIV. Clinical parameters and arterial blood gases were recorded at initiation of NIV and 2 h later (or earlier if clinically warranted). NIV titration and decision to intubate were left to the discretion of treating intensivist. Patients were categorized into two groups: Group 1: Those with level I indications for use of NIV and group 2: All other levels of indications. Patients were followed until hospital discharge. Results: From January 2010 to June 2010, 1120 patients were admitted to the CCU. Of these 106 patients required NIV support with 40.6% (n = 43/106) being in group 1 and 59.4% (n = 63/106) in group 2. Of these 35.8% patients (38/106) failed NIV and required endotracheal intubation. NIV failure rates (41.27% vs. 27.91%; P = 0.02) and mortality (30.6% vs. 18.6%; P = 0.03) were significantly higher in group 2 patients. In a logistic regression analysis Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score (P = 0.02), time on NIV before intubation (P = 0.001) and baseline PaCO2 levels (P = 0.01) were strongly associated with mortality. Conclusion: Noninvasive ventilation failure and mortality rates were significantly higher when used outside level I recommendations. APACHE II score, baseline PaCO2 and duration on NIV prior to intubation were predictors of increased mortality. PMID:25136188

  9. Lasers: The Magic Wand in Esthetic Dentistry!!

    PubMed Central

    Shajahan, P A; Kumar, P Ranjith; Hariprasad, A; Mathew, Jyothis; Shaji, A P; Ahammed, M Fazeel

    2015-01-01

    In this era of fast developing technologies and innovative ideas, the need for faster treatment has become a necessity. Treatment with lasers that is much less time-consuming and painless is accepted and appreciated by the patient. Use of Lasers is not new; they have been in use for decades since their development by Maiman in 1960. Lasers have travelled a long way from ruby lasers to erbium lasers and are being fondly used in every aspect of dental treatment. This article aims at elaborate the use and applications of lasers in the field of esthetic dentistry. PMID:26124614

  10. Colorectal cancer screening: The role of the noninvasive options.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Lisa; Varcak, Susan Combs

    2016-09-01

    Recommended screening options for colorectal cancer are divided into noninvasive stool-based options, and invasive procedure-based options. Because multiple screening strategies are effective, efforts to reduce deaths from colorectal cancer should focus on maximizing the number of patients who are screened. This article reviews noninvasive stool-based screening options. PMID:27575898

  11. 21 CFR 870.5550 - External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker... § 870.5550 External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive). (a) Identification. An external transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive) is a device used to supply a periodic electrical pulse intended...

  12. 21 CFR 870.5550 - External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker... § 870.5550 External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive). (a) Identification. An external transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive) is a device used to supply a periodic electrical pulse intended...

  13. 21 CFR 870.5550 - External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker... § 870.5550 External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive). (a) Identification. An external transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive) is a device used to supply a periodic electrical pulse intended...

  14. 21 CFR 870.5550 - External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker... § 870.5550 External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive). (a) Identification. An external transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive) is a device used to supply a periodic electrical pulse intended...

  15. 21 CFR 870.5550 - External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive). 870.5550 Section 870.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive) is a device used to supply a periodic electrical pulse intended...

  16. [The study of noninvasive ventilator impeller based on ANSYS].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhaoyan; Lu, Pan; Xie, Haiming; Zhou, Yaxu

    2011-06-01

    An impeller plays a significant role in the non-invasive ventilator. This paper shows a model of impeller for noninvasive ventilator established with the software Solidworks. The model was studied for feasibility based on ANSYS. Then stress and strain of the impeller were discussed under the external loads. The results of the analysis provided verification for the reliable design of impellers.

  17. Understanding lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Gibilisco, S.

    1989-01-01

    Covering all different types of laser applications-Gibilisco offers an overview of this fascinating phenomenon of light. Here he describes what lasers are and how they work and examines in detail the different kinds of lasers in use today. Topics of particular interest include: the way lasers work; the different kinds of lasers; infrared, ultraviolet and x-ray lasers; use of lasers in industry and manufacturing; use of lasers for long-distance communications; fiberoptic communications; the way laser shows work; the reality of Star Wars; lasers in surgical and medical applications; and holography and the future of laser technology.

  18. Imaginary Companions and Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Tracy R.

    2004-01-01

    Early research on imaginary companions suggests that children who create them do so to compensate for poor social relationships. Consequently, the peer acceptance of children with imaginary companions was compared to that of their peers. Sociometrics were conducted on 88 preschool-aged children; 11 had invisible companions, 16 had personified…

  19. Acceptance of Others (Number Form).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, James R.; Laverty, Grace E.

    As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SWF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Acceptance of Others (Number Form) was prepared to determine pupil's attitudes toward classmates. Given a list of all class members, pupils are asked to circle a number from 1…

  20. W-025, acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Roscha, V.

    1994-10-04

    This acceptance test report (ATR) has been prepared to establish the results of the field testing conducted on W-025 to demonstrate that the electrical/instrumentation systems functioned as intended by design. This is part of the RMW Land Disposal Facility.

  1. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  2. Helping Our Children Accept Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Mae

    1984-01-01

    Parents of a child with muscular dystrophy recount their reactions to learning of the diagnosis, their gradual acceptance, and their son's resistance, which was gradually lessened when he was provided with more information and treated more normally as a member of the family. (CL)

  3. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This is the introductory article to a special series in Cognitive and Behavioral Practice on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Instead of each article herein reviewing the basics of ACT, this article contains that review. This article provides a description of where ACT fits within the larger category of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT):…

  4. Who accepts first aid training?

    PubMed

    Pearn, J; Dawson, B; Leditschke, F; Petrie, G; Nixon, J

    1980-09-01

    The percentage of individuals trained in first aid skills in the general community is inadequate. We report here a study to investigate factors which influence motivation to accept voluntary training in first aid. A group of 700 randomly selected owners of inground swimming pools (a parental high-risk group) was offered a course of formal first aid instruction. Nine per cent attended the offered training course. The time commitment involved in traditional courses (eight training nights spread over four weeks) is not a deterrent, the same percentage accepting such courses as that who accept a course of one night's instruction. Cost is an important deterrent factor, consumer resistance rising over 15 cost units (one cost unit = the price of a loaf of bread). The level of competent first aid training within the community can be raised by (a) keeping to traditional course content, but (b) by ensuring a higher acceptance rate of first aid courses by a new approach to publicity campaigns, to convince prospective students of the real worth of first aid training. Questions concerning who should be taught first aid, and factors influencing motivation, are discussed.

  5. In-line non-invasive turbidimetry as a tool to ensure content uniformity in the betamethasone filling process.

    PubMed

    Muzzio, Cristian R; Tomé, Martín A; Díaz, Rodolfo J; Otero, Germán C Fernández; Campiutti, Pablo C; Cuevas, Héctor L; Dini, Nicolás G

    2015-09-30

    The filling process of liquid suspensions is a difficult operation,mainly due to drug settling. Small variations during the process may lead to serious deviations in the API content uniformity of the finished product, particularly if the drug settles fast. Real-time non-invasive monitoring of liquid suspensions is a useful approach to ensure an acceptable API content in the finished product. The aim of this study was to develop a method based on non-invasive turbidity measurements for in-line determinations of betamethasone content uniformity during the filling process of injections. Owing to the constructive features of the developed system, the determinations were performed in a non-destructive and non-invasive way, thus allowing the analysis of the whole batch and minimizing the risk of contaminating the product. The results obtained by the method proposed in this study demonstrated that non-invasive turbidimetry is a powerful tool for continuous monitoring of the filling process of betamethasone injections, within the Quality by Design framework (FDA, 2009).

  6. In-line non-invasive turbidimetry as a tool to ensure content uniformity in the betamethasone filling process.

    PubMed

    Muzzio, Cristian R; Tomé, Martín A; Díaz, Rodolfo J; Otero, Germán C Fernández; Campiutti, Pablo C; Cuevas, Héctor L; Dini, Nicolás G

    2015-09-30

    The filling process of liquid suspensions is a difficult operation,mainly due to drug settling. Small variations during the process may lead to serious deviations in the API content uniformity of the finished product, particularly if the drug settles fast. Real-time non-invasive monitoring of liquid suspensions is a useful approach to ensure an acceptable API content in the finished product. The aim of this study was to develop a method based on non-invasive turbidity measurements for in-line determinations of betamethasone content uniformity during the filling process of injections. Owing to the constructive features of the developed system, the determinations were performed in a non-destructive and non-invasive way, thus allowing the analysis of the whole batch and minimizing the risk of contaminating the product. The results obtained by the method proposed in this study demonstrated that non-invasive turbidimetry is a powerful tool for continuous monitoring of the filling process of betamethasone injections, within the Quality by Design framework (FDA, 2009). PMID:26200747

  7. Noninvasive skin cancer diagnosis using multimodal optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, Austin J.; Feng, Xu; Markey, Mia K.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-02-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States and is a recognized public health issue. Diagnosis of skin cancer involves biopsy of the suspicious lesion followed by histopathology. Biopsies, which involve excision of the lesion, are invasive, at times unnecessary, and are costly procedures ( $2.8B/year in the US). An unmet critical need exists to develop a non-invasive and inexpensive screening method that can eliminate the need for unnecessary biopsies. To address this need, our group has reported on the continued development of a multimodal spectroscopy (MMS) system towards the goal of a spectral biopsy of skin. Our approach combines Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to collect comprehensive optical property information from suspicious skin lesions. We describe our present efforts to develop an updated MMS system composed of OEM components that will be smaller, less expensive, and more clinic-friendly than the previous system. Key system design choices include the selection of miniature spectrometers, a fiber-coupled broadband light source, a fiber coupled diode laser, and a revised optical probe. Selection of these components results in a 50% reduction in system footprint, resulting in a more clinic-friendly system. We also present preliminary characterization data from the updated MMS system, showing similar performance with our revised optical probe design. Finally, we present in vivo skin measurements taken with the updated MMS system. Future work includes the initiation of a clinical study (n = 250) of the MMS system to characterize its performance in identifying skin cancers.

  8. Ultrasonic detection of photothermal interaction of lasers with tissue using a pulsed Doppler system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Hao; Azeemi, Aamer; Hartley, Craig J.; Motamedi, Massoud; Bell, Brent A.; Rastegar, Sohi; Sheppard, L. C.

    1995-05-01

    Thermal therapy using various heating sources such as lasers or microwaves to destroy benign and malignant lesions has recently gained widespread acceptance. However, the accurate prediction of thermal damage in tissue according to theoretical or computer modeling is difficult and unreliable due to target variability with respect to physical properties, geometry, and blood perfusion. Thus, one of the major obstacles to application of thermal therapies has been the lack of a noninvasive, real-time method that could determine the extent and geometry of treated tissue. To evaluate the effects of laser heating on tissue, we have developed an analog-digital hybrid Doppler ultrasound system to measure the phase and amplitude of ultrasonic echoes returned from the heated tissue. The system consists of an eight-gate pulsed Doppler detector, a 16-channel 12-bit A/D converter, and a signal analysis and visualization software package. In vitro studies using canine liver showed two distinct types of modulation of the echoes along the ultrasound beam path during laser irradiation using an 810 nm diode laser. Type 1 signals showed a small and slow variation in amplitude and phase, and were attributed to tissue coagulation. Type 1 signals showed a small and slow variation in amplitude and phase, and were attributed to tissue coagulation. Type 2 signals showed large and rapid variations in amplitude and phase which usually appeared after tissue surface explosion and were indicative of tissue ablation. We hypothesize that the observed phase changes in type 1 signals are due to thermal effects within the tissue consistent with tissue expansion and contraction while the phase changes in type 2 signals are likely due to formation and motion of gas bubbles in the tissue. A further development of the Doppler ultrasound technique could lead to the generation of feedback information needed for monitoring and automatic control of thermal treatment using various heating modalities such as

  9. Laser machining of ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Laudel, A.

    1980-01-01

    The Kansas City Division of The Bendix Corporation manufactures hybrid microcircuits (HMCs) using both thin film and thick film technologies. Laser machining is used to contour the ceramic substrates and to drill holes in the ceramic for frontside-backside interconnections (vias) and holes for mounting components. A 1000 W CO/sub 2/ type laser is used. The laser machining process, and methods used for removing protruding debris and debris from holes, for cleaning the machined surfaces, and for refiring are described. The laser machining process described consistently produces vias, component holes and contours with acceptable surface quality, hole locations, diameter, flatness and metallization adhesion. There are no cracks indicated by dipping in fluorescent dye penetrant and the substances are resistant to repeated thermal shock.

  10. Estimation of coronary wave intensity analysis using non-invasive techniques and its application to exercise physiology

    PubMed Central

    Broyd, Christopher J.; Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Sen, Sayan; Petraco, Ricardo; Jones, Siana; Al-Lamee, Rasha; Foin, Nicolas; Al-Bustami, Mahmud; Sethi, Amarjit; Kaprielian, Raffi; Ramrakha, Punit; Khan, Masood; Malik, Iqbal S; Francis, Darrel P.; Parker, Kim; Hughes, Alun D.; Mikhail, Ghada W.; Mayet, Jamil; Davies, Justin E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Wave intensity analysis (WIA) has found particular applicability in the coronary circulation where it can quantify travelling waves that accelerate and decelerate blood flow. The most important wave for the regulation of flow is the backward-travelling decompression wave (BDW). Coronary WIA has hitherto always been calculated from invasive measures of pressure and flow. However, recently it has become feasible to obtain estimates of these waveforms non-invasively. In this study we set out to assess the agreement between invasive and non-invasive coronary WIA at rest and measure the effect of exercise. Method and Results 22 patients (mean age 60) with unobstructed coronaries underwent invasive WIA in the Left Anterior Descending artery (LAD). Immediately afterwards, non-invasive LAD flow and pressure were recorded and WIA calculated from pulsed-wave Doppler coronary flow velocity and central blood pressure waveforms measured using a cuff-based technique. Nine of these patients underwent non-invasive coronary WIA assessment during exercise. A pattern of 6 waves were observed in both modalities. The BDW was similar between invasive and non-invasive measures (peak: 14.9±7.8 vs −13.8±7.1×104 Wm−2s−2, concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) 0.73, p<0.01; cumulative −64.4±32.8 vs −59.4±34.2×102 Wm−2s−1, CCC 0.66, p<0.01), but smaller waves were underestimated non-invasively. Increased left ventricular mass correlated with a decreased non-invasive BDW fraction (r=−0.48, p=0.02). Exercise increased the BDW: at maximum exercise peak BDW was −47.0±29.5×104Wm−2s−2 (p<0.01 vs rest) and cumulative BDW −19.2±12.6×103 Wm−2s−1 (p<0.01 vs rest). Conclusion The BDW can be measured non-invasively with acceptable reliably potentially simplifying assessments and increasing the applicability of coronary WIA. PMID:26683900

  11. Accepting the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  12. Sweeteners: consumer acceptance in tea.

    PubMed

    Sprowl, D J; Ehrcke, L A

    1984-09-01

    Sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin were compared for consumer preference, aftertaste, and cost to determine acceptability of the sweeteners. A 23-member taste panel evaluated tea samples for preference and aftertaste. Mean retail cost of the sweeteners were calculated and adjusted to take sweetening power into consideration. Sucrose was the least expensive and most preferred sweetener. No significant difference in preference for fructose and aspartame was found, but both sweeteners were rated significantly lower than sucrose. Saccharin was the most disliked sweetener. Fructose was the most expensive sweetener and aspartame the next most expensive. Scores for aftertaste followed the same pattern as those for preference. Thus, a strong, unpleasant aftertaste seems to be associated with a dislike for a sweetener. From the results of this study, it seems that there is no completely acceptable low-calorie substitute for sucrose available to consumers.

  13. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  14. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  15. A new approach for noninvasive transdermal determination of blood uric acid levels

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Congo Tak-Shing; Yong, Kok-Khun; Yao, Yan-Dong; Shen, Huan-Ting; Hsieh, Shiu-Man; Jheng, Deng-Yun; Sun, Tai-Ping; Shieh, Hsiu-Li

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the most effective combination of physical forces from laser, electroporation, and reverse iontophoresis for noninvasive transdermal extraction of uric acid, and to develop a highly sensitive uric acid biosensor (UAB) for quantifying the uric acid extracted. It is believed that the combination of these physical forces has additional benefits for extraction of molecules other than uric acid from human skin. A diffusion cell with porcine skin was used to investigate the most effective combination of these physical forces. UABs coated with ZnO2 nanoparticles and constructed in an array configuration were developed in this study. The results showed that a combination of laser (0.7 W), electroporation (100 V/cm2), and reverse iontophoresis (0.5 mA/cm2) was the most effective and significantly enhanced transdermal extraction of uric acid. A custom-designed UAB coated with ZnO2 nanoparticles and constructed in a 1×3 array configuration (UAB-1×3-ZnO2) demonstrated enough sensitivity (9.4 μA/mM) for quantifying uric acid extracted by the combined physical forces of laser, electroporation, and RI. A good linear relationship (R2=0.894) was demonstrated to exist between the concentration of uric acid (0.2–0.8 mM) inside the diffusion cell and the current response of the UAB-1×3-ZnO2. In conclusion, a new approach to noninvasive transdermal extraction and quantification of uric acid has been established. PMID:25061289

  16. A new approach for noninvasive transdermal determination of blood uric acid levels.

    PubMed

    Ching, Congo Tak-Shing; Yong, Kok-Khun; Yao, Yan-Dong; Shen, Huan-Ting; Hsieh, Shiu-Man; Jheng, Deng-Yun; Sun, Tai-Ping; Shieh, Hsiu-Li

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the most effective combination of physical forces from laser, electroporation, and reverse iontophoresis for noninvasive transdermal extraction of uric acid, and to develop a highly sensitive uric acid biosensor (UAB) for quantifying the uric acid extracted. It is believed that the combination of these physical forces has additional benefits for extraction of molecules other than uric acid from human skin. A diffusion cell with porcine skin was used to investigate the most effective combination of these physical forces. UABs coated with ZnO₂ nanoparticles and constructed in an array configuration were developed in this study. The results showed that a combination of laser (0.7 W), electroporation (100 V/cm(2)), and reverse iontophoresis (0.5 mA/cm(2)) was the most effective and significantly enhanced transdermal extraction of uric acid. A custom-designed UAB coated with ZnO₂ nanoparticles and constructed in a 1×3 array configuration (UAB-1×3-ZnO₂) demonstrated enough sensitivity (9.4 μA/mM) for quantifying uric acid extracted by the combined physical forces of laser, electroporation, and RI. A good linear relationship (R(2)=0.894) was demonstrated to exist between the concentration of uric acid (0.2-0.8 mM) inside the diffusion cell and the current response of the UAB-1×3-ZnO₂. In conclusion, a new approach to noninvasive transdermal extraction and quantification of uric acid has been established.

  17. Noninvasive intraocular pressure monitoring: current insights

    PubMed Central

    De Smedt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide and intraocular pressure (IOP) is currently its only modifiable risk factor. Peak IOP has for a long time been considered as a major contributor to glaucoma progression, but its effects may depend not only on its magnitude, but also on its time course. The IOP is nowadays considered to be a dynamic parameter with a circadian rhythm and spontaneous changes. The current practice of punctual measuring the IOP during office hours is therefore a suboptimal approach, which does not take into account the natural fluctuation of IOP. Because of its static nature a single IOP measurement in sitting position fails to document the true range of an individual’s IOP, peak IOP, or variation throughout the day. Phasing means monitoring a patient’s IOP during the daytime or over a 24-hour period. This can provide additional information in the management of glaucoma patients. This review focuses on the current insight of non-invasive IOP monitoring as a method of obtaining more complete IOP profiles. Invasive techniques using an implantable sensor are beyond the scope of this review. PMID:26257509

  18. Noninvasive testing of asymptomatic bilateral hilar adenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, P.L.; Singer, D.E.; Goldenheim, P.; Bernardo, J.; Mulley, A.G. )

    1990-03-01

    The diagnostic strategy for asymptomatic patients with persistent bilateral bilar adenopathy often involves invasive procedures. The authors used Bayesian analysis to: (1) estimate the relative prevalences of diseases causing bilateral bilar adenopathy; (2) assess changes in the prevalence of disease by race, the presence of other clinical symptoms, and geography; and (3) determine the value of relevant noninvasive tests, including the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) assay, gallium scan, and purified protein derivative (PPD), in order to assess when a strategy of watchful waiting is appropriate. The analysis indicated that the ACE assay, particularly when paired with the PPD, can identify many patients who might safely be managed without immediate invasive biopsy. Patients who are ACE+ and PPD- have an estimated probability of sarcoidosis of 0.95 or greater; patients who are ACE- and PPD+ have a probability of tuberculosis of 0.86 if black, 0.79 if white. In contrast, gallium scanning has no diagnostic role in this clinical situation. Bronchoscopic or mediastinoscopic biopsy has a limited role for patients who are ACE+ PPD- or ACE- PPD+ because of limited sensitivity. Patients who are both ACE- and PPD-, particularly if white, may have a high enough risk of lymphoma to consider invasive biopsy.

  19. Noninvasive ambulatory measurement system of cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    Pino, Esteban J; Chavez, Javier A P; Aqueveque, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    This work implements a noninvasive system that measures the movements caused by cardiac activity. It uses unobtrusive Electro-Mechanical Films (EMFi) on the seat and on the backrest of a regular chair. The system detects ballistocardiogram (BCG) and respiration movements. Real data was obtained from 54 volunteers. 19 of them were measured in the laboratory and 35 in a hospital waiting room. Using a BIOPAC acquisition system, the ECG was measured simultaneously to the BCG for comparison. Wavelet Transform (WT) is a better option than Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) for signal extraction and produces higher effective measurement time. In the laboratory, the best results are obtained on the seat. The correlation index was 0.9800 and the Bland-Altman limits of agreement were 0.7136 ± 4.3673 [BPM]. In the hospital waiting room, the best results are also from the seat sensor. The correlation index was 0.9840, and the limits of agreement were 0.4386 ± 3.5884 [BPM]. The system is able to measure BCG in an unobtrusive way and determine the cardiac frequency with high precision. It is simple to use, which means the system can easily be used in non-standard settings: resting in a chair or couch, at the gym, schools or in a hospital waiting room, as shown. PMID:26738057

  20. Numerical simulation of noninvasive blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Satoru; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Atsushi; Maruyama, Masaru

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, a simulation model based on the partially pressurized collapsible tube model for reproducing noninvasive blood pressure measurement is presented. The model consists of a collapsible tube, which models the pressurized part of the artery, rigid pipes connected to the collapsible tube, which model proximal and distal region far from the pressurized part, and the Windkessel model, which represents the capacitance and the resistance of the distal part of the circulation. The blood flow is simplified to a one-dimensional system. Collapse and expansion of the tube is represented by the change in the cross-sectional area of the tube considering the force balance acting on the tube membrane in the direction normal to the tube axis. They are solved using the Runge-Kutta method. This simple model can easily reproduce the oscillation of inner fluid and corresponding tube collapse typical for the Korotkoff sounds generated by the cuff pressure. The numerical result is compared with the experiment and shows good agreement. PMID:16995754

  1. "Zero-Mass" Noninvasive Pressure Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2009-01-01

    Extremely lightweight, compact, noninvasive, rugged, relatively inexpensive strain-gauge transducers have been developed for use in measuring pressures of fluids in tubes. These gauges were originally intended for measuring pressures of spacecraft-propulsion fluids, but they are also attractive for use in numerous terrestrial applications especially those involving fluids that are extremely chemically reactive, fluids that must be isolated for hygienic purposes, fluids that must be allowed to flow without obstruction, and fluid-containing tubes exposed to severe environments. A basic pressure transducer of this type comprises one or more pair(s) of thin-film strain gauges integral with a tube that contains the fluid of interest. Following established strain-gauge practice, the gauges in each pair are connected into opposite arms of a Wheatstone bridge (see figure). Typically, each pressure transducer includes one pair (the active pair) of strain gauges for measuring the hoop stress proportional to the pressure of the fluid in the tube and another pair (the dummy pair) of strain gauges that are nominally unstrained: The dummy gauges are mounted on a substrate that is made of the same material as that of the tube. The substrate is welded to the tube at only one spot so that stresses and strains are not coupled from the tube into the substrate. The dummy strain gauges measure neutral strains (basically, strains associated with thermal expansion), so that the neutral-strain contribution can be subtracted out of the final gauge reading.

  2. Mesenteric venous thrombosis: diagnosis and noninvasive imaging.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Michelle S; Kavanagh, Peter V; Bechtold, Robert E; Chen, Michael Y; Ott, David J; Regan, John D; Weber, Therese M

    2002-01-01

    Mesenteric venous thrombosis is an uncommon but potentially lethal cause of bowel ischemia. Several imaging methods are available for diagnosis, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. Doppler ultrasonography allows direct evaluation of the mesenteric and portal veins, provides semiquantitative flow information, and allows Doppler waveform analysis of the visceral vessels; however, it is operator dependent and is often limited by overlying bowel gas. Conventional contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT) allows sensitive detection of venous thrombosis within the central large vessels of the portomesenteric circulation and any associated secondary findings; however, it is limited by respiratory misregistration, motion artifact, and substantially decreased longitudinal spatial resolution. Helical CT and CT angiography, especially when performed with multi-detector row scanners, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, particularly gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography, enable volumetric acquisitions in a single breath hold, eliminating motion artifact and suppressing respiratory misregistration. Helical CT angiography and three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography should be considered the primary diagnostic modalities for patients with a high clinical suspicion of mesenteric ischemia. Conventional angiography is reserved for equivocal cases at noninvasive imaging and is also used in conjunction with transcatheter therapeutic techniques in management of symptomatic portal and mesenteric venous thrombosis.

  3. [Noncontact and noninvasive microwave biological measurements].

    PubMed

    Misawa, T; Kutsumi, Y; Tada, H; Kim, S S; Nakai, T; Miyabo, S; Hamada, T; Arai, I; Suzuki, T

    1990-01-01

    Without contact probes, the signals of small human body surface movements were obtained with microwave Doppler sensors using a two-phase interferometric method. The signals were then compared with mechanocardiographic records routinely obtained by contact transducers. Furthermore, this system was applied to patients wearing clothes. The study subjects consisted of 20 cardiac patients and 10 normal controls. 1. The microwave signals obtained in the cervical and precordial regions were similar to those of the mechanocardiographic recordings, such as the carotid pulse and jugular venous pulse tracings and the apexcardiogram. There was a significant correlation between left ventricular ejection time (LVET) obtained by microwave Doppler sensors and that by the carotid pulse tracing (r = 0.95). 2. The signals of the microwave Doppler sensor were obtained from the patients wearing clothes. The heart beat components were distinguished from respiratory motion and patients' movements using band-pass filters. These results suggest that this method is capable of evaluating cardiac function noninvasively and thus has a distinct advantage in the field of non-contact measurements.

  4. Noninvasive Assessment of Carotid Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bandyk, Dennis F.; Thiele, Brain L.

    1983-01-01

    Noninvasive methods of detecting carotid disease were developed to avoid the morbidity and occasional mortality associated with cerebral angiography. The tests developed are of the following two types: direct, which uses imaging or the detection of flow disturbances to identify disease at the bifurcation, and indirect, which infers the presence of bifurcation disease by detecting changes at a remote site. The initial goal of only detecting disease has now been broadened, with this technology being used to address important clinical and epidemiologic questions such as the natural history of carotid bifurcation disease. The recognition of these important contributions has been compounded, however, by the large number of tests that are available, producing the problem of deciding which test or tests should be used for a particular patient. The use of multiple tests avoids the deficiencies of single tests but compounds medical costs. For a cost-effective single form of testing for all circumstances, duplex scanning methods offer the greatest possibility of detecting all degrees of disease. Images PMID:6649597

  5. Stroke rehabilitation using noninvasive cortical stimulation: aphasia.

    PubMed

    Mylius, Veit; Zouari, Hela G; Ayache, Samar S; Farhat, Wassim H; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2012-08-01

    Poststroke aphasia results from the lesion of cortical areas involved in the motor production of speech (Broca's aphasia) or in the semantic aspects of language comprehension (Wernicke's aphasia). Such lesions produce an important reorganization of speech/language-specific brain networks due to an imbalance between cortical facilitation and inhibition. In fact, functional recovery is associated with changes in the excitability of the damaged neural structures and their connections. Two main mechanisms are involved in poststroke aphasia recovery: the recruitment of perilesional regions of the left hemisphere in case of small lesion and the acquisition of language processing ability in homotopic areas of the nondominant right hemisphere when left hemispheric language abilities are permanently lost. There is some evidence that noninvasive cortical stimulation, especially when combined with language therapy or other therapeutic approaches, can promote aphasia recovery. Cortical stimulation was mainly used to either increase perilesional excitability or reduce contralesional activity based on the concept of reciprocal inhibition and maladaptive plasticity. However, recent studies also showed some positive effects of the reinforcement of neural activities in the contralateral right hemisphere, based on the potential compensatory role of the nondominant hemisphere in stroke recovery. PMID:23002940

  6. Noninvasive measurement of human ascending colon volume.

    PubMed

    Badley, A D; Camilleri, M; O'Connor, M K

    1993-06-01

    The capacitance and motor functions of the colon are important determinants of its overall function. A simple, noninvasive method to quantify regional colonic volume is required for further physiologic and pharmacologic studies. Our aim was to determine whether measurements of human ascending colon (AC) volume using two-dimensional (2-D) images are as accurate as estimates using three-dimensional (3-D) images. Five healthy male volunteers each ingested a methacrylate-coated capsule containing 99Tcm-labelled Amberlite pellets. Two-and 3-D images were obtained using a gamma camera with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) capability. Ascending colon volume was estimated by a variable region of interest (VROI) program and by full-width half-maximum (FWHM) analysis, and results were compared to the volume estimates by SPECT. Full-width half-maximum analysis yielded volume estimates that were not significantly different from SPECT (slope = 1.093; t = 0.51; P > 0.5), whereas VROI estimates were significantly different from volume measurements by SPECT and, hence, considered less accurate (slope = 0.438; t = 4.93; P < 0.02). Thus, the less expensive and more easily available planar imaging technique with analysis by FWHM estimates AC volume as accurately as SPECT.

  7. 48 CFR 12.402 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 12.402 Section... Acceptance. (a) The acceptance paragraph in 52.212-4 is based upon the assumption that the Government will rely on the contractor's assurances that the commercial item tendered for acceptance conforms to...

  8. Possibilities of Laser Processing of Paper Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Alexander; Saukkonen, Esa; Piili, Heidi

    Nowadays, lasers are applied in many industrial processes: the most developed technologies include such processes as laser welding, hybrid welding, laser cutting of steel, etc. In addition to laser processing of metallic materials, there are also many industrial applications of laser processing of non-metallic materials, like laser welding of polymers, laser marking of glass and laser cutting of wood-based materials. It is commonly known that laser beam is suitable for cutting of paper materials as well as all natural wood-fiber based materials. This study reveals the potential and gives overview of laser application in processing of paper materials. In 1990's laser technology increased its volume in papermaking industry; lasers at paper industry gained acceptance for different perforating and scoring applications. Nowadays, with reduction in the cost of equipment and development of laser technology (especially development of CO2 technology), laser processing of paper material has started to become more widely used and more efficient. However, there exists quite little published research results and reviews about laser processing of paper materials. In addition, forest industry products with pulp and paper products in particular are among major contributors for the Finnish economy with 20% share of total exports in the year 2013. This has been the standpoint of view and motivation for writing this literature review article: when there exists more published research work, knowledge of laser technology can be increased to apply it for processing of paper materials.

  9. [Non-invasive explorations of the carotid arteries (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Persson, A V; Dyer, V E

    1981-01-01

    For the non-invasive evaluation of patients suspected of having extracranial carotid artery disease, the non-invasive vascular laboratory at the Lahey Clinic, Boston, Massachusetts uses three tests. Carotid phonoangiography (C.P.A.) by itself is 60% accurate, the Kartchner-McRae Oculoplethysmograph (O.P.G.) by itself 80% accurate, and the Echoflow doppler arterial imager, by itself 90% accurate. These examinations are used for surveillance of high-risk patients and to determine the need for carotid arteriography. In a series of 94 patients, the combination of these non-invasive methods yielded one false negative and 2 false positive studies, for an overall accuracy of 95%.

  10. Noninvasive high-resolution in vivo imaging of cell biology in the anterior chamber of the mouse eye

    PubMed Central

    Speier, Stephan; Nyqvist, Daniel; Köhler, Martin; Caicedo, Alejandro; Leibiger, Ingo B; Berggren, Per-Olof

    2012-01-01

    There is clearly a demand for an experimental platform that enables cell biology to be studied in intact vascularized and innervated tissue in vivo. This platform should allow observations of cells noninvasively and longitudinally at single-cell resolution. For this purpose, we use the anterior chamber of the mouse eye in combination with laser scanning microscopy (LSM). Tissue transplanted to the anterior chamber of the eye is rapidly vascularized, innervated and regains function. After transplantation, LSM through the cornea allows repetitive and noninvasive in vivo imaging at cellular resolution. Morphology, vascularization, cell function and cell survival are monitored longitudinally using fluorescent proteins and dyes. We have used this system to study pancreatic islets, but the platform can easily be adapted for studying a variety of tissues and additional biological parameters. Transplantation to the anterior chamber of the eye takes 25 min, and in vivo imaging 1–5 h, depending on the features monitored. PMID:18714296

  11. Noninvasive device readouts validated by immunohistochemical analysis enable objective quantitative assessment of acute wound healing in human skin.

    PubMed

    Ud-Din, Sara; Greaves, Nicholas S; Sebastian, Anil; Baguneid, Mohamed; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Objective evaluation of cutaneous wounds through use of noninvasive devices has important implications for diagnosis, monitoring treatment efficacy, progression and may lead to development of improved theranostic treatment strategies. However, there is a lack of validation in the use of certain devices in wound repair, where objective measurements taken by noninvasive devices have been corroborated by immunohistochemical analysis. Thus, data from three acute wound-healing studies in healthy volunteers using three noninvasive objective devices were further evaluated by immunohistochemistry. One hundred ten participants had 5-mm diameter skin biopsies to their arms. Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis (SIAscopy), full-field laser perfusion imaging, and three-dimensional imaging provided quantitative measurements of melanin, hemoglobin, collagen, blood flow, and wound size; all of which were validated by immunohistochemistry. Full-field laser perfusion imaging showed blood flow increased to D7 and decreased by 40% to D14. SIAscopy showed that hemoglobin increased to D7 and reduced to D14. CD31 analysis corroborated this by showing a 76% increase in blood vessel density to D7 and a reduction by 14% to D14. Three-dimensional imaging showed that wound surface area reduced by 50% from day 7 to day 14. Alpha-smooth muscle Actin (Alpha-SMA) staining supported these trends by showing increased levels by 72% from D0 to D14 (corresponding to wound contraction). Collagen, measured by SIAscopy, decreased to D7 and increased to D14, which was validated by collagen III analysis. Additionally, collagen I increased by 14% from D0 to D14. SIAscopy measurements for melanin showed an increase at D7 and a slight reduction to D14, while melanogenesis increased by 46.7% from D0 to D14. These findings show the utility of noninvasive objective devices in the quantitative evaluation of wound-healing parameters in human skin as corroborated by immunohistochemistry. This may contribute

  12. Noninvasive studies of human visual cortex using neuromagnetic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Aine, C.J.; George, J.S.; Supek, S. ); Maclin, E.L. . Center for Magnetoencephalography)

    1990-01-01

    The major goals of noninvasive studies of the human visual cortex are: to increase knowledge of the functional organization of cortical visual pathways; and to develop noninvasive clinical tests for the assessment of cortical function. Noninvasive techniques suitable for studies of the structure and function of human visual cortex include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), scalp recorded event-related potentials (ERPs), and event-related magnetic fields (ERFs). The primary challenge faced by noninvasive functional measures is to optimize the spatial and temporal resolution of the measurement and analytic techniques in order to effectively characterize the spatial and temporal variations in patterns of neuronal activity. In this paper we review the use of neuromagnetic techniques for this purpose. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Modern non-invasive mechanical ventilation turns 25.

    PubMed

    Díaz Lobato, Salvador; Mayoralas Alises, Sagrario

    2013-11-01

    The history of non-invasive mechanical ventilation goes back more than 100 years, but it was not until 1987 when what we could call "modern" non-invasive mechanical ventilation was developed. The description of Delaubier and Rideau of a patient with Duchenne's disease who had been effectively ventilated through a nasal mask marked the start of a new era in the history of non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Over these last 25years, we have witnessed exponential growth in its use, field of activity and technological advances on an exciting fast-paced track. We believe that it is time to review the main milestones that have marked the development of non-invasive mechanical ventilation to date, while paying homage to this therapeutic method that has contributed so much to the advancement of respiratory medicine in the last 25years.

  14. Robust Accurate Non-Invasive Analyte Monitor

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Mark R.

    1998-11-03

    An improved method and apparatus for determining noninvasively and in vivo one or more unknown values of a known characteristic, particularly the concentration of an analyte in human tissue. The method includes: (1) irradiating the tissue with infrared energy (400 nm-2400 nm) having at least several wavelengths in a given range of wavelengths so that there is differential absorption of at least some of the wavelengths by the tissue as a function of the wavelengths and the known characteristic, the differential absorption causeing intensity variations of the wavelengths incident from the tissue; (2) providing a first path through the tissue; (3) optimizing the first path for a first sub-region of the range of wavelengths to maximize the differential absorption by at least some of the wavelengths in the first sub-region; (4) providing a second path through the tissue; and (5) optimizing the second path for a second sub-region of the range, to maximize the differential absorption by at least some of the wavelengths in the second sub-region. In the preferred embodiment a third path through the tissue is provided for, which path is optimized for a third sub-region of the range. With this arrangement, spectral variations which are the result of tissue differences (e.g., melanin and temperature) can be reduced. At least one of the paths represents a partial transmission path through the tissue. This partial transmission path may pass through the nail of a finger once and, preferably, twice. Also included are apparatus for: (1) reducing the arterial pulsations within the tissue; and (2) maximizing the blood content i the tissue.

  15. Noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure

    PubMed Central

    Mas, Arantxa; Masip, Josep

    2014-01-01

    After the institution of positive-pressure ventilation, the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) through an interface substantially increased. The first technique was continuous positive airway pressure; but, after the introduction of pressure support ventilation at the end of the 20th century, this became the main modality. Both techniques, and some others that have been recently introduced and which integrate some technological innovations, have extensively demonstrated a faster improvement of acute respiratory failure in different patient populations, avoiding endotracheal intubation and facilitating the release of conventional invasive mechanical ventilation. In acute settings, NIV is currently the first-line treatment for moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation as well as for acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and should be considered in immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory insufficiency, in difficult weaning, and in the prevention of postextubation failure. Alternatively, it can also be used in the postoperative period and in cases of pneumonia and asthma or as a palliative treatment. NIV is currently used in a wide range of acute settings, such as critical care and emergency departments, hospital wards, palliative or pediatric units, and in pre-hospital care. It is also used as a home care therapy in patients with chronic pulmonary or sleep disorders. The appropriate selection of patients and the adaptation to the technique are the keys to success. This review essentially analyzes the evidence of benefits of NIV in different populations with acute respiratory failure and describes the main modalities, new devices, and some practical aspects of the use of this technique. PMID:25143721

  16. NIRS-based noninvasive cerebrovascular regulation assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S.; Richmond, I.; Borgos, J.; Mitra, K.

    2016-03-01

    Alterations to cerebral blood flow (CBF) have been implicated in diverse neurological conditions, including mild traumatic brain injury, microgravity induced intracranial pressure (ICP) increases, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-measured regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) provides an estimate of oxygenation of the interrogated cerebral volume that is useful in identifying trends and changes in oxygen supply to cerebral tissue and has been used to monitor cerebrovascular function during surgery and ventilation. In this study, CO2-inhalation-based hypercapnic breathing challenges were used as a tool to simulate CBF dysregulation, and NIRS was used to monitor the CBF autoregulatory response. A breathing circuit for the selective administration of CO2-compressed air mixtures was designed and used to assess CBF regulatory responses to hypercapnia in 26 healthy young adults using non-invasive methods and real-time sensors. After a 5 or 10 minute baseline period, 1 to 3 hypercapnic challenges of 5 or 10 minutes duration were delivered to each subject while rSO2, partial pressure of end tidal CO2 (PETCO2), and vital signs were continuously monitored. Change in rSO2 measurements from pre- to intrachallenge (ΔrSO2) detected periods of hypercapnic challenges. Subjects were grouped into three exercise factor levels (hr/wk), 1: 0, 2:>0 and <10, and 3:>10. Exercise factor level 3 subjects showed significantly greater ΔrSO2 responses to CO2 challenges than level 2 and 1 subjects. No significant difference in ΔPETCO2 existed between these factor levels. Establishing baseline values of rSO2 in clinical practice may be useful in early detection of CBF changes.

  17. Can we obtain a noninvasive and continuous estimation of cardiac output? Comparison between three noninvasive methods.

    PubMed

    Raissuni, Zainab; Zores, Florian; Henriet, Odile; Dallest, Stephanie; Roul, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac output (CO) is often desirable for assessing the hemodynamic condition of a patient, especially in critically ill cardiac patients. Various noninvasive methods are available for this purpose. Inert gas rebreathing (IGR) and 2D-Doppler echocardiography methods have been validated. Based on the relationship between pulse wave transit time and stroke volume, the VISMO® provides an estimated continuous cardiac output (esCCO) measurement using only an electrocardiogram, pulse oximeter wave, and cuff arterial blood pressure. Doppler echocardiography is being currently used in every day practice in this setting and IGR is a validated method, thus we wanted to assess the agreement between these 3 methods for noninvasive CO calculation and reproducibility of esCCO. Patients followed in our cardiology department received on the same day a CO analysis by esCCO, Doppler echocardiography and IGR. Thirty-four patients were included (16 women, mean age 65 ± 15 years). Bland and Altman plots showed a good agreement between IGR and 2D-Doppler echocardiography (bias = 0.31 L/minute). Though there was also an agreement between esCCO and the other 2, the bias was rather large: 1.18 L/minute with IGR and 1.51 L/min with 2D-Doppler echo. The intraclass correlation coefficient was poor whatever the methods. However, esCCO had a satisfactory reproducibility and accuracy compared rather well with the other 2. This method could be suitable for patient screening and monitoring. PMID:24309450

  18. Noninvasive and minimally invasive techniques in body contouring.

    PubMed

    Afrooz, Paul N; Pozner, Jason N; DiBernardo, Barry E

    2014-10-01

    Major surgical body contouring procedures have several inherent drawbacks, including hospitalization, anesthetic use, pain, swelling, and prolonged recovery. It is for these reasons that body contouring through noninvasive and minimally invasive methods has become one of the most alluring areas in aesthetic surgery. Patient expectations and demands have driven the field toward safer, less-invasive procedures with less discomfort, fewer complications, and a shorter recovery. In this article, the current minimally invasive and noninvasive modalities for body contouring are reviewed.

  19. Non-invasive, investigative methods in skin aging.

    PubMed

    Longo, C; Ciardo, S; Pellacani, G

    2015-12-01

    A precise and noninvasive quantification of aging is of outmost importance for in vivo assessment of the skin aging "stage", and thus acts to minimize it. Several bioengineering methods have been proposed to objectively, precisely, and non-invasively measure skin aging, and to detect early skin damage, that is sub-clinically observable. In this review we have described the most relevant methods that have emerged from recently introduced technologies, aiming at quantitatively assessing the effects of aging on the skin.

  20. Raman beam combining for laser brightness enhancement

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, Jay W.; Allen, Graham S.; Pax, Paul H.; Heebner, John E.; Sridharan, Arun K.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Barty, Chrisopher B. J.

    2015-10-27

    An optical source capable of enhanced scaling of pulse energy and brightness utilizes an ensemble of single-aperture fiber lasers as pump sources, with each such fiber laser operating at acceptable pulse energy levels. Beam combining involves stimulated Raman scattering using a Stokes' shifted seed beam, the latter of which is optimized in terms of its temporal and spectral properties. Beams from fiber lasers can thus be combined to attain pulses with peak energies in excess of the fiber laser self-focusing limit of 4 MW while retaining the advantages of a fiber laser system of high average power with good beam quality.

  1. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Noninvasive Keratograph 5M Measurements in Patients with Dry Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lei; Qu, Jing-hao; zhang, Xiao-yu; Sun, Xu-guang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the intraexaminer repeatability and interexaminer reproducibility of tear meniscus height (TMH) and noninvasive Keratograph tear breakup time (NIKBUT) measurements obtained with the Keratograph 5M (K5M) in a sample of healthy and dry eye populations. Methods. Forty-two patients with dry eye disease (DED group) and 42 healthy subjects (healthy group) were recruited in this prospective study. In all subjects, each eye received 3 consecutive measurements using the K5M for the TMH and NIKBUTs (NIKBUT-first and NIKBUT-average). And then a different examiner repeated the measurements. The repeatability and reproducibility of measurements were assessed by the coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results. The repeatability and reproducibility of TMH and NIKBUTs were good in both DED and healthy groups (CV% ≤ 26.1% and ICC ≥ 0.75 for all measurements). Patients with DED showed better intraexaminer repeatability for NIKBUTs, but worse for TMH than healthy subjects. Average TMH, NIKBUT-first, and NIKBUT-average were significantly lower in DED group than in healthy group (all P values < 0.05). Conclusions. Measurements of TMH and NIKBUTs obtained with the K5M may provide a simple, noninvasive screening test for dry eye with acceptable repeatability and reproducibility. The NIKBUTs were more reliable, but TMH was less reliable in patients with DED. PMID:27190639

  2. The quest for non-invasive delivery of bioactive macromolecules: A focus on heparins

    PubMed Central

    Motlekar, Nusrat A.; Youan, Bi-Botti C.

    2006-01-01

    The development of a non-invasive drug delivery system for unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) has been the elusive goal of several research groups since the initial discovery of this glycosaminogylcan by McLean in 1916. After a brief update on current parenteral formulations of UFH and LMWHs, this review revisits past and current strategies intended to identify alternative routes of administration (e.g. oral, sublingual, rectal, nasal, pulmonary and transdermal). The following strategies have been used to improve the bioavailability of this bioactive macromolecule by various routes: (i) enhancement in cell-membrane permeabilization, (ii) modification of the tight-junctions, (iii) increase in lipophilicity and (iv) protection against acidic pH of the stomach. Regardless of the route of administration, a simplified unifying principle for successful non-invasive macromolecular drug delivery may be: “to reversibly overcome the biological, biophysical and biochemical barriers and to safely and efficiently improve the in vivo spatial and temporal control of the drug in order to achieve a clinically acceptable therapeutic advantage”. Future macromolecular drug delivery research should embrace a more systemic approach taking into account recent advances in genomics/proteomics and nanotechnology. PMID:16777255

  3. Electro-resistive bands for non-invasive cardiac and respiration monitoring, a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, Gaetano D; O'Loughlin, Aiden; Breen, Paul P

    2015-02-01

    Continuous unobtrusive monitoring of tidal volume, particularly for critical care patients (i.e. neonates and patients in intensive care) during sleep studies and during daily activities, is still an unresolved monitoring need. Also a successful monitoring solution is yet to be proposed for continuous non-invasive cardiac stroke volume monitoring that is a novel clinical need.In this paper we present the feasibility study for a wearable, non-invasive, non-contact and unobtrusive sensor (embedded in a standard T-shirt) based on four electro-resistive bands that simultaneously monitors tidal volume and cardiac stroke volume changes. This low power sensor system (requires only 100 mW and accepts a wide power supply range up to ±18 V); thus the sensor can be easily embedded in existing wearable solutions (i.e. Holter monitors). Moreover, being contactless, it can be worn over bandages or electrodes, and as it does not rely over the integrity of the garment to work, it allows practitioners to perform procedures during monitoring. For this preliminary evaluation, one subject has worn the sensor over the period of 24 h (removing it only to shower); the accuracy of the tidal volume tested against a portable spirometer reported a precision of ±10% also during physical activity; accuracy tests for cardiac output (as it may require invasive procedure) have not been carried out in this preliminary trial.

  4. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Noninvasive Keratograph 5M Measurements in Patients with Dry Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lei; Qu, Jing-Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Sun, Xu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the intraexaminer repeatability and interexaminer reproducibility of tear meniscus height (TMH) and noninvasive Keratograph tear breakup time (NIKBUT) measurements obtained with the Keratograph 5M (K5M) in a sample of healthy and dry eye populations. Methods. Forty-two patients with dry eye disease (DED group) and 42 healthy subjects (healthy group) were recruited in this prospective study. In all subjects, each eye received 3 consecutive measurements using the K5M for the TMH and NIKBUTs (NIKBUT-first and NIKBUT-average). And then a different examiner repeated the measurements. The repeatability and reproducibility of measurements were assessed by the coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results. The repeatability and reproducibility of TMH and NIKBUTs were good in both DED and healthy groups (CV% ≤ 26.1% and ICC ≥ 0.75 for all measurements). Patients with DED showed better intraexaminer repeatability for NIKBUTs, but worse for TMH than healthy subjects. Average TMH, NIKBUT-first, and NIKBUT-average were significantly lower in DED group than in healthy group (all P values < 0.05). Conclusions. Measurements of TMH and NIKBUTs obtained with the K5M may provide a simple, noninvasive screening test for dry eye with acceptable repeatability and reproducibility. The NIKBUTs were more reliable, but TMH was less reliable in patients with DED. PMID:27190639

  5. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Rosa; Buzzetti, Elena; Roccarina, Davide; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel A

    2015-10-21

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) consists of a broad spectrum of disorders, ranging from simple steatosis to alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Fatty liver develops in more than 90% of heavy drinkers, however only 30%-35% of them develop more advanced forms of ALD. Therefore, even if the current "gold standard" for the assessment of the stage of alcohol-related liver injury is histology, liver biopsy is not reasonable in all patients who present with ALD. Currently, although several non-invasive fibrosis markers have been suggested as alternatives to liver biopsy in patients with ALD, none has been sufficiently validated. As described in other liver disease, the diagnostic accuracy of such tests in ALD is acceptable for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis or cirrhosis but not for lesser fibrosis stages. Existing data suggest that the use of non-invasive tests could be tailored to first tier screening of patients at risk, in order to diagnose early patients with progressive liver disease and offer targeted interventions for the prevention of decompensation. We review these tests and critically appraise the existing evidence.

  6. Laser applications in neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerullo, Leonard J.

    1985-09-01

    The "false start" of the laser in neurosurgery should not be misconstrued as a denial of the inherent advantages of precision and gentleness in dealing with neural tissue. Rather, early investigators were frustrated by unrealistic expectations, cumbersome equipment, and a general ignorance of microtechnique. By the early 70s, microneurosurgery was well established, surgical laser equipment for free hand and microlinked application had been developed, and a more realistic view of the limitations of the laser had been established. Consequently, the late 70s really heralded the renaissance of the laser in neurosurgery. Since then, there has been an overwhelming acceptance of the tool in a variety of clinical situations, broadly categorized in five groups. 1)|Perhaps the most generally accepted area is in the removal of extra-axial tumors of the brain and spinal cord. These tumors, benign by histology but treacherous by location, do not present until a significant amount of neurological compensation has already occurred. The application of additional trauma to the neural tissue, whether by further tumor growth or surgical manipulation, frequently results in irreversible damage. Here, the ability of the laser to vaporize tissue, in a fairly hemostatic fashion, without mechanical or thermal damage to sensitive surrounding tissues, is essential. 2)|The ability to incise delicate neural tissue with minimal spread of thermal destruction to adjacent functioning tissue makes the laser the ideal instrument when tumors deep under the surface are encountered in the brain or spinal cord. Thus, the second group of applications is in the transgression of normal neural structures to arrive at deeper pathological tissue. 3)|The third area of benefit for the laser in neurosurgery has been in the performance of neuroablative procedures, calling for deliberate destruction of functioning neural tissue in a controlled fashion. Again, the precision and shape confinement of the destructive

  7. Noninvasive ergonovine maleate provocative testing for coronary artery spasm: the need for routine thallium-201 imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Shanes, J.G.; Krone, R.J.; Fisher, K.; Shah, B.; Eisenkramer, G.; Humphrey, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    We administered ergonovine and used both electrocardiographic monitoring and thallium-/sup 201/ (/sup 201/Tl) imaging to detect reversible ischemia in 100 patients. Patients already established as having coronary artery spasm and those with nonbypassed, proximal, high-grade coronary artery stenosis were excluded. No complication occurred in any patient. The use of thallium imaging in addition to electrocardiographic monitoring resulted in a higher degree of sensitivity than did ECG monitoring alone. Fourteen patients demonstrated evidence of coronary artery spasm as documented by /sup 201/Tl imaging but of the 14, significant ECG changes occurred in only 50%, and classic ST segment elevation in 21%. Thus, in carefully selected patients the noninvasive provocation of coronary spasm can be accomplished safely, but ECG monitoring must be combined with thallium-/sup 201/ imaging to achieve an acceptable degree of sensitivity.

  8. Noninvasive measurement of postocclusive parameters in human forearm blood by near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. Prahlad; Radhakrishnan, S.; Reddy, M. Ramasubba

    2005-04-01

    Near infrared (NIR) light in the wavelength range from 700 to 900 nm can pass through skin, bone and other tissues relatively easily. As a result, NIR techniques allow a noninvasive assessment of hemoglobin saturation for a wide range of applications, such as in the study of muscle metabolism, the diagnosis of vascular disorders, brain imaging, and breast cancer detection. Near infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is an effective tool to measure the hemoglobin concentration in the tissues, which can discriminate optically the oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin species because of their different near-infrared absorption spectra. We have developed an NIRS probe consisting of a laser diode of 830 nm wavelength and a PIN photodiode in reflectance mode. We have selected a set of healthy volunteers (mean age 30, range 26-40 years) for the study. The probe is placed on forearm of each subject and the backscattered light intensity is measured by occluding the blood flow at 210, 110 and 85 mmHg pressures. Recovery time, peak time and time after 50% release of the cuff pressure are determined from the optical densities during the post occlusive state of forearm. These parameters are useful for determining the transient increase in blood flow after the release of blood occlusion. Clinically, the functional aspects of blood flow in the limbs could be evaluated noninvasively by NIRS.

  9. Non-Invasive Health Diagnostics using Eye as a 'Window to the Body'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.

    2002-01-01

    As a 'window to the body', the eye offers the opportunity to use light in various forms to detect ocular and systemic abnormalities long before clinical symptoms appear and help develop preventative/therapeutic countermeasures early. The effects of space travel on human body are similar to those of normal aging. For example, radiation exposure in space could lead to formation of cataracts and cancer by damaging the DNA and causing gene mutation. Additionally, the zero-gravity environment causes fluid shifts in the upper extremities of the body and changes the way blood flows and organ system performs. Here on Earth, cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), and glaucoma are major eye diseases and are expected to double in next two decades. To detect, prevent, and treat untoward effects of prolonged space travel in real-time requires the development of non-invasive diagnostic technologies that are compact and powerful. We are developing fiber-optic sensors to evaluate the ocular tissues in health, aging, and disease employing the techniques of dynamic light scattering (cataract, uveitis, Alzheimer's, glaucoma, DR, radiation damage, refractive surgery outcomes), auto-fluorescence (aging, DR), laser-Doppler flowmetry (choroidal blood flow), Raman spectroscopy (AMD), polarimetry (diabetes), and retinal oximetry (occult blood loss). The non-invasive feature of these technologies integrated in a head-mounted/goggles-like device permits frequent repetition of tests, enabling evaluation of the results to therapy that may ultimately be useful in various telemedicine applications on Earth and in space.

  10. Long-term in vivo study of vertebrate embryonic development using noninvasive harmonics optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Szu-Yu; Hsieh, C.-S.; Chu, S.-W.; Lin, Cheng-Yung; Ko, C.-Y.; Chen, Y.-C.; Tsai, Huai-Jen; Hu, C.-H.; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2005-03-01

    Harmonics optical microscopy (HOM) provides a truly "noninvasive" tool for in vivo and long-term study of vertebrate embryonic development. Based on the nonlinear natures, it provides sub-micrometer 3D spatial resolution and high 3D optical-sectioning power (~1μm axial resolution) without using invasive and toxic fluorophores. Since only virtual-level-transition is involved, HOM is known to leave no energy deposition and no photodamages. Combined with second harmonic generation, which is sensitive to specific structure such as nerve and muscle fibers, HOM can be used to do functional studies of early developmental dynamics of many vertebrate physiological systems. Recently, zebrafish has become a standard model for many biological and medical studies of vertebrates, due to the similarity between embryonic development of zebrafish and human being. Zebrafish embryos now have been used to study many vertebrate physiological systems. We have demonstrated an in vivo HOM study of developmental dynamics of several embryonic physiological systems in live zebrafish embryos, with focuses on the developments of brains, eyes, ears, and hearts. Based on a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser, which provides the deepest penetration (~1.5mm) and least photodamage in the zebrafish embryo, complete developing processes of different physiological systems within a period of time longer than 20 hours can be non-invasively observed inside the same embryo.

  11. New potentialities for noninvasive optical investigation of microcirculation in extended space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurfinkel, Youri I.; Mikhailov, Valery M.

    2002-05-01

    Goals of the investigation were to analyze the spectrum of microcirculation parameters and collection of baseline data healthy subjects during extended isolation and relative hypokinesia as a model of mission to the International space station. There were investigated four healthy volunteers at the age of 37, 40, 41 and 48 during the baseline 240-d isolation period starting from July 3, 1999. With the regularity of 3 times a week each subject made records at the same time between 1 and 2 pm. Optical computerized capillaroscope for noninvasive measurement of the capillary diameters, blood flow velocity as well as the size of the perivascular zone and the number of the blood aggregates was used. About 1500 episodes were recorded on laser disks and analyzed. Parameters of microcirculation were compared with other physiological parameters monitored in the experiment. All subjects had wave-like variations in the microcirculation parameters within the minute, week, and month ranges. Mean blood flow velocity in the baseline period was lower than in the period of isolation. Results of the daily body mass measurement were found to correlate with the perivascular zone size, that could be explained as retention of body fluids in tissues. Computerized capillaroscopy is easy to perform, noninvasive, highly sensitive and informative. It enables analysis of the character of rhythmic processes, adaptability of organism to long-term experiments and, therefore, can be proposed for use in extended space missions.

  12. Noninvasive methods for determining lesion depth from vesicant exposure.

    PubMed

    Braue, Ernest H; Graham, John S; Doxzon, Bryce F; Hanssen, Kelly A; Lumpkin, Horace L; Stevenson, Robert S; Deckert, Robin R; Dalal, Stephen J; Mitcheltree, Larry W

    2007-01-01

    Before sulfur mustard (HD) injuries can be effectively treated, assessment of lesion depth must occur. Accurate depth assessment is important because it dictates how aggressive treatment needs to be to minimize or prevent cosmetic and functional deficits. Depth of injury typically is assessed by physical examination. Diagnosing very superficial and very deep lesions is relatively easy for the experienced burn surgeon. Lesions of intermediate depth, however, are often problematic in determining the need for grafting. This study was a preliminary evaluation of two noninvasive bioengineering methodologies, laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) and indocyanine green fluorescence imaging (ICGFI), to determine their ability to accurately diagnose depth of sulfur mustard lesions in a weanling swine model. Histological evaluation was used to assess the accuracy of the imaging techniques in determining burn depth. Six female weanling swine (8-12 kg) were exposed to 400 microl of neat sulfur mustard on six ventral sites for 2, 8, 30, or 60 minutes. This exposure regimen produced lesions of varying depths from superficial to deep dermal. Evaluations of lesion depth using the bioengineering techniques were conducted at 24, 48, and 72 hours after exposure. After euthanasia at 72 hours after exposure, skin biopsies were taken from each site and processed for routine hematoxylin and eosin histological evaluation to determine the true depth of the lesion. Results demonstrated that LDPI and ICGFI were useful tools to characterize skin perfusion and provided a good estimate of HD lesion depth. Traditional LDPI and the novel prototype ICGFI instrumentation used in this study produced images of blood flow through skin lesions, which provided a useful assessment of burn depth. LDPI and ICGFI accurately predicted the need for aggressive treatment (30- and 60-minute HD lesions) and nonaggressive treatment (2- and 8-minute HD lesions) for the lesions generated in this study. Histological

  13. Noninvasive analysis of human neck muscle function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, M. S.; Meyer, R. A.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Feeback, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. Muscle use evoked by exercise was determined by quantifying shifts in signal relaxation times of T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Images were collected at rest and after exercise at each of two intensities (moderate and intense) for each of four head movements: 1) extension, 2) flexion, 3) rotation, and 4) lateral flexion. OBJECTIVE. This study examined the intensity and pattern of neck muscle use evoked by various movements of the head. The results will help elucidate the pathophysiology, and thus methods for treating disorders of the cervical musculoskeletal system. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Exercise-induced contrast shifts in T2 has been shown to indicate muscle use during the activity. The noninvasive nature of magnetic resonance imaging appears to make it an ideal approach for studying the function of the complex neuromuscular system of the neck. METHODS. The extent of T2 increase was examined to gauge how intensely nine different neck muscles or muscle pairs were used in seven subjects. The absolute and relative cross-sectional area of muscle showing a shift in signal relaxation was assessed to infer the pattern of use among and within individual neck muscles or muscle pairs. RESULTS. Signal relaxation increased with exercise intensity for each head movement. The absolute and relative cross-sectional area of muscle showing a shift in signal relaxation also increased with exercise load. Neck muscles or muscle pairs extensively used to perform each head movement were: extension--semispinalis capitis and cervicis and splenius capitis; flexion--sternocleidomastoid and longus capitis and colli; rotation--splenius capitis, levator scapulae, scalenus, semispinalis capitis ipsilateral to the rotation, and sternocleidomastoid contralateral; and lateral flexion--sternocleidomastoid CONCLUSION. The results of this study, in part, agree with the purported functions of neck muscles derived from anatomic location. This also was true for the few

  14. Compact and highly efficient laser pump cavity

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.; Bass, Isaac L.; Zapata, Luis E.

    1999-01-01

    A new, compact, side-pumped laser pump cavity design which uses non-conventional optics for injection of laser-diode light into a laser pump chamber includes a plurality of elongated light concentration channels. In one embodiment, the light concentration channels are compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) which have very small exit apertures so that light will not escape from the pumping chamber and will be multiply reflected through the laser rod. This new design effectively traps the pump radiation inside the pump chamber that encloses the laser rod. It enables more uniform laser pumping and highly effective recycle of pump radiation, leading to significantly improved laser performance. This new design also effectively widens the acceptable radiation wavelength of the diodes, resulting in a more reliable laser performance with lower cost.

  15. Deep Raman spectroscopy for the non-invasive standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents.

    PubMed

    Izake, Emad L; Cletus, Biju; Olds, William; Sundarajoo, Shankaran; Fredericks, Peter M; Jaatinen, Esa

    2012-05-30

    Deep Raman spectroscopy has been utilized for the standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents from a distance of 15 m under real life background illumination conditions. By using combined time and space resolved measurements, various explosive precursors hidden in opaque plastic containers were identified non-invasively. Our results confirm that combined time and space resolved Raman spectroscopy leads to higher selectivity towards the sub-layer over the surface layer as well as enhanced rejection of fluorescence from the container surface when compared to standoff spatially offset Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra that have minimal interference from the packaging material and good signal-to-noise ratio were acquired within 5 s of measurement time. A new combined time and space resolved Raman spectrometer has been designed with nanosecond laser excitation and gated detection, making it of lower cost and complexity than picosecond-based laboratory systems. PMID:22608458

  16. Dynamic tissue phantoms and their use in assessment of a noninvasive optical plethysmography imaging device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatcher, Jeffrey E.; Plant, Kevin D.; King, Darlene R.; Block, Kenneth L.; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J. Michael

    2014-05-01

    Non-contact photoplethysmography (PPG) has been studied as a method to provide low-cost and non-invasive medical imaging for a variety of near-surface pathologies and two dimensional blood oxygenation measurements. Dynamic tissue phantoms were developed to evaluate this technology in a laboratory setting. The purpose of these phantoms was to generate a tissue model with tunable parameters including: blood vessel volume change; pulse wave frequency; and optical scattering and absorption parameters. A non-contact PPG imaging system was evaluated on this model and compared against laser Doppler imaging (LDI) and a traditional pulse oximeter. Results indicate non-contact PPG accurately identifies pulse frequency and appears to identify signals from optically dense phantoms with significantly higher detection thresholds than LDI.

  17. Noninvasive monitoring of peripheral microcirculatory hemodynamics under varying degrees of hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Ovadia-Blechman, Zehava; Meilin, Aviram; Rabin, Neta; Eldar, Michael; Castel, David

    2015-09-15

    The effect of hypoxia on skin blood flow was examined in anesthetized rabbits during induction of various levels of hypoxia. Peripheral perfusion and oxygenation were monitoring using a combined system (LPT) composed of a laser Doppler flowmeter (LDF), a photoplatysmograph (PPG), and a transcutaneous oxygen tension monitor (tc-PO2). Central blood parameters (PaO2, HCO3(-), SaO2, pH, and lactate) were measured concomitantly throughout the experiment. A continuous decline was found in both peripheral and central values, depending on the severity of the hypoxia. The results clearly indicate that monitoring peripheral indices with the LPT system enables monitoring changes of vital blood parameters during hypoxia. The system has clinical potential for sensitive and noninvasive monitoring of vital variables during medical procedures in clinics, as well as for homecare for patients with respiratory diseases. Minimizing the system may be useful in various conditions of exposure to low oxygen levels, such as during mountain climbing.

  18. Deep Raman spectroscopy for the non-invasive standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents.

    PubMed

    Izake, Emad L; Cletus, Biju; Olds, William; Sundarajoo, Shankaran; Fredericks, Peter M; Jaatinen, Esa

    2012-05-30

    Deep Raman spectroscopy has been utilized for the standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents from a distance of 15 m under real life background illumination conditions. By using combined time and space resolved measurements, various explosive precursors hidden in opaque plastic containers were identified non-invasively. Our results confirm that combined time and space resolved Raman spectroscopy leads to higher selectivity towards the sub-layer over the surface layer as well as enhanced rejection of fluorescence from the container surface when compared to standoff spatially offset Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra that have minimal interference from the packaging material and good signal-to-noise ratio were acquired within 5 s of measurement time. A new combined time and space resolved Raman spectrometer has been designed with nanosecond laser excitation and gated detection, making it of lower cost and complexity than picosecond-based laboratory systems.

  19. Laser detection of sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignola, Joseph F.

    1991-05-01

    A prototype laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system has been constructed to detect and measure underwater sound. The technique is based on measuring the Doppler shift of laser light scattered from small particles in colloidal suspension in water. These particles move with the sound wave and thus a measure of their velocity is a measure of the acoustic particle velocity. Experiments have been conducted using this system to measure the acoustic particle displacements in a standing wave tube. A study has been made from both theoretical and experimental perspectives of the performance characteristics and practical limitations of making such measurements. A computer simulation was used to study the effects of physical parameters of the prototype system such as laser power, system geometry, and particle size. Because several authors have suggested that Brownian motion of the scattering particle might limit the system's ability to make such measurements, particular interest has been focused on this question. It has been shown both experimentally and theoretically that Brownian motion does not limit the ability to measure acoustic particle velocity. The emphasis on practical consideration will lead to the development of a laboratory tool that can be used to make non-invasive measurements that can not be made with conventional types of pressure sensors such as a conventional microscope or hydroplane. Examples of such situations are the sound field in the vicinity of a radiating body where there is no simple relationship between acoustic pressure and acoustic particle velocity and sound velocity measurements near an air-water interface.

  20. Laser Detection of Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignola, Joseph F.

    1991-02-01

    A prototype laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system has been constructed to detect and measure underwater sound. The technique is based on measuring the Doppler shift of laser light scattered from small particles in colloidal suspension in water. These particles move with the sound wave and thus a measure of their velocity is a measure of the acoustic particle velocity. Experiments have been conducted using this system to measure acoustic particle displacements in a standing wave tube. A study has been made from both theoretical and experimental perspectives of the performance characteristics and practical limitations of making such measurements. A computer simulation was used to study the effects of physical parameters of the prototype system such as the laser power, system geometry and particle size. Because several authors have suggested that Brownian motion of the scattering particle might limit the system's ability to make such measurements, particular interest has been focused on this question. It has been shown both experimentally and theoretically that Brownian motion does not limit the ability to measure acoustic particle velocity. The emphasis on practical consideration will lead to the development of a laboratory tool that can be used to make non-invasive measurements that can not be made with conventional types of pressure sensors such as a conventional microscope or hydroplane. Examples of such situations are the sound field in the vicinity of a radiating body where there is no simple relationship between acoustic pressure and acoustic particle velocity and sound velocity measurements near an air-water interface.

  1. Computer acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer.

  2. Noninvasive Electrocardiographic Imaging (ECGI): Comparison to intraoperative mapping in patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghanem, Raja N.; Jia, Ping; Ramanathan, Charulatha; Ryu, Kyungmoo; Markowitz, Alan; Rudy, Yoram

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND Cardiac arrhythmias are a leading cause of death and disability. Electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) is a noninvasive imaging modality that reconstructs potentials, electrograms, and isochrones on the epicardial surface from body surface measurements. We previously demonstrated in animal experiments through comparison with simultaneously measured epicardial data the high accuracy of ECGI in imaging cardiac electrical events. Here, images obtained by noninvasive ECGI are compared to invasive direct epicardial mapping in open heart surgery patients. METHODS Three patients were studied during sinus rhythm and right ventricular endocardial and epicardial pacing (total of five datasets). Body surface potentials were acquired preoperatively or postoperatively using a 224-electrode vest. Heart-torso geometry was determined preoperatively using computed tomography. Intraoperative mapping was performed with two 100-electrode epicardial patches. RESULTS Noninvasive potential maps captured epicardial breakthrough sites and reflected general activation and repolarization patterns, localized pacing sites to ∼1 cm and distinguished between epicardial and endocardial origin of activation. Noninvasively reconstructed electrogram morphologies correlated moderately with their invasive counterparts (cross correlation = 0.72 ± 0.25 [sinus rhythm], 0.67 ± 0.23 [endocardial pacing], 0.71 ± 0.21 [epicardial pacing]). Noninvasive isochrones captured the sites of earliest activation, areas of slow conduction, and the general excitation pattern. CONCLUSIONS Despite limitations due to nonsimultaneous acquisition of the surgical and noninvasive data under different conditions, the study demonstrates that ECGI can capture important features of cardiac electrical excitation in humans noninvasively during a single beat. It also shows that general excitation patterns and electrogram morphologies are largely preserved in open chest conditions. PMID:15851333

  3. Apparatus Translates Crossed-Laser-Beam Probe Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Gregory C.; South, Bruce W.; Exton, Reginald J.

    1994-01-01

    Optomechanical apparatus translates probe volume of crossed-beam laser velocimeter or similar instrument while maintaining optical alignment of beams. Measures velocity, pressure, and temperature of flowing gas at several locations. Repeated tedious realignments no longer necessary. Designed to accommodate stimulated-Raman-gain spectrometer for noninvasive measurement of local conditions in flowing gas in supersonic wind tunnel. Applicable to other techniques like coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy involving use of laser beams crossed at small angles (10 degrees or less).

  4. Study of UV imaging technology for noninvasive detection of latent fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-xia; Cao, Jing; Niu, Jie-qing; Huang, Yun-gang

    2013-09-01

    Using UV imaging technology, according to the special absorption 、reflection 、scattering and fluorescence characterization of the various residues in fingerprints (fatty acid ester, protein, and carboxylic acid salts etc) to the UV light, weaken or eliminate the background disturbance to increase the brightness contrast of fingerprints with the background, and design、setup the illumination optical system and UV imaging system, the noninvasive detection of latent fingerprints remaining on various object surface are studied. In the illumination optical system, using the 266nm UV Nd:YAG solid state laser as illumination light source, by calculating the best coupling conditions of the laser beam with UV liquid core fiber and analyzing the beam transforming characterizations, we designed and setup the optical system to realize the UV imaging uniform illumination. In the UV imaging system, the UV lens is selected as the fingerprint imaging element, and the UV intensified CCD (ICCD) which consists of a second-generation UV image intensifier and a CCD coupled by fiber plate and taper directly are used as the imaging sensing element. The best imaging conditions of the UV lens with ICCD were analyzed and the imaging system was designed and setup. In this study, by analyzing the factors which influence the detection effect, optimal design and setup the illumination system and imaging system, latent fingerprints on the surface of the paint tin box、plastic、smooth paper、notebook paper and print paper were noninvasive detected and appeared, and the result meet the fingerprint identification requirements in forensic science.

  5. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an agency... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance....

  6. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a) Section... either— (i) Achieved commercial market acceptance; or (ii) Been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  7. 48 CFR 2911.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 2911... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting And Developing Requirements Documents 2911.103 Market acceptance. The... offered have either achieved commercial market acceptance or been satisfactorily supplied to an...

  8. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  9. Apollo experience report environmental acceptance testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, C. H. M.

    1976-01-01

    Environmental acceptance testing was used extensively to screen selected spacecraft hardware for workmanship defects and manufacturing flaws. The minimum acceptance levels and durations and methods for their establishment are described. Component selection and test monitoring, as well as test implementation requirements, are included. Apollo spacecraft environmental acceptance test results are summarized, and recommendations for future programs are presented.

  10. 48 CFR 245.606-3 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance. 245.606-3..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 245.606-3 Acceptance. (a) If the schedules are acceptable, the plant clearance...

  11. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  12. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  13. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  14. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  15. 46 CFR 28.73 - Accepted organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accepted organizations. 28.73 Section 28.73 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.73 Accepted organizations. An organization desiring to be designated by the Commandant as an accepted organization must request such designation in writing. As...

  16. Second generation laser manufacturing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Rocca, Aldo V.

    1996-03-01

    Laser processing can show its full capacity in laser multiprocessing systems applications in which the laser is not hindered by the constraints imposed when the laser is inserted in conventional systems without reassessing the overall system design. In these cases the laser process performance up to now was kept at very low levels because conventional systems would not need or accept higher ones. Instead now said performance must be brought to the upper limits inasmuch as the lasers will be the pacesetter for the performance of the new systems freed from all the old design bondage. Hence the importance to get the maximum performance from each process singly and from their combinations. Better understanding and control of the fluidynamic effects becomes mandatory because of their paramount role on process energy efficiency and thus process productivity and more important yet quality, repeatability and transferability. At present one of the dedicated laser multiprocessing systems of greatest interest is the laser cut-weld of which several have made appearance on the market. Next to come are the 'augmented' laser multiprocessing obtained by combining the laser with conventional processes in a manner which takes advantages of unexpected synergies permitted by the laser. In this manner, the system is allowed to outperform, in all aspects from productivity to quality, the already much higher performance of dedicated all laser multi- processing system. One of the most important 'augmented' laser multiprocessing is the cut- bend-weld. It should be clear that these flexible multiprocessing machines tend to grow naturally in multistation cells and their aggregation in isles and complete manufacturing centers; i.e., the first viable realizations of computer integrated manufacturing.

  17. Review of methodological developments in laser Doppler flowmetry.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Varghese, Babu; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2009-03-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry is a non-invasive method of measuring microcirculatory blood flow in tissue. In this review the technique is discussed in detail. The theoretical and experimental developments to improve the technique are reviewed. The limitations of the method are elaborated upon, and the research done so far to overcome these limitations is critically assessed.

  18. Noninvasive Imaging of Administered Progenitor Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R Bergmann, M.D., Ph.D.

    2012-12-03

    The objective of this research grant was to develop an approach for labeling progenitor cells, specifically those that we had identified as being able to replace ischemic heart cells, so that the distribution could be followed non-invasively. In addition, the research was aimed at determining whether administration of progenitor cells resulted in improved myocardial perfusion and function. The efficiency and toxicity of radiolabeling of progenitor cells was to be evaluated. For the proposed clinical protocol, subjects with end-stage ischemic coronary artery disease were to undergo a screening cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) scan using N-13 ammonia to delineate myocardial perfusion and function. If they qualified based on their PET scan, they would undergo an in-hospital protocol whereby CD34+ cells were stimulated by the administration of granulocytes-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). CD34+ cells would then be isolated by apharesis, and labeled with indium-111 oxine. Cells were to be re-infused and subjects were to undergo single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning to evaluate uptake and distribution of labeled progenitor cells. Three months after administration of progenitor cells, a cardiac PET scan was to be repeated to evaluate changes in myocardial perfusion and/or function. Indium oxine is a radiopharmaceutical for labeling of autologous lymphocytes. Indium-111 (In-111) decays by electron capture with a t{sub ½} of 67.2 hours (2.8 days). Indium forms a saturated complex that is neutral, lipid soluble, and permeates the cell membrane. Within the cell, the indium-oxyquinolone complex labels via indium intracellular chelation. Following leukocyte labeling, ~77% of the In-111 is incorporated in the cell pellet. The presence of red cells and /or plasma reduces the labeling efficacy. Therefore, the product needed to be washed to eliminate plasma proteins. This repeated washing can damage cells. The CD34 selected product was a 90

  19. Noninvasive external cardiac pacing for thallium-201 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, M.D.; Warren, S.E.; Gervino, E.V.; Aroesty, J.M.; Royal, H.D.; Parker, J.A.; Silverman, K.J.; Kolodny, G.M.; Zoll, P.M.; McKay, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Improvements in noninvasive external cardiac pacing have led to a technique with reliable electrical capture and tolerable patient discomfort. To assess the use of this modality of pacing in combination with thallium scintigraphy as a noninvasive pacing stress test, we applied simultaneous noninvasive cardiac pacing, hemodynamic monitoring, and thallium-201 scintigraphy in 14 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization for chest pain syndromes. Two patients had normal coronary arteries, while the remaining 12 had significant coronary artery disease. Thallium scintigraphic responses to pacing were compared to routine exercise thallium stress testing in nine of these 14 patients. All patients were noninvasively paced to more than 85% of the age-predicted maximum heart rate. Twelve patients demonstrated reversible thallium defects, which corresponded in 11 cases to significant lesions seen on coronary angiography. Of nine patients who underwent both pacing and exercise thallium stress tests, comparable maximal rate-pressure products were achieved. Moreover, thallium imaging at peak pacing and during delayed views did not differ significantly from exercise thallium scintigraphy. A limiting factor associated with the technique was local patient discomfort, which occurred to some degree in all patients. We conclude that noninvasive external cardiac pacing together with thallium scintigraphy is capable of detecting significant coronary artery disease and may be comparable to routine exercise thallium stress testing. This new modality of stress testing could be useful in patients unable to undergo the exercise required for standard exercise tolerance testing, particularly if improvements in the technology can be found to reduce further the local discomfort.

  20. Laser immunotherapy of canine and feline neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, J. P.; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Davidson, Ellen B.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Lehenbauer, Terry W.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    1998-07-01

    The major cause of treatment failure in human and veterinary cancer patients is tumor invasion and metastasis. The inability of local therapy (surgery, radiation, photodynamic therapy) to eradicate a metastatic cancer presents a challenge in the therapy of residual or micrometastatic disease. Because of its local therapy limitations, chromophore-enhanced selective photothermal laser treatment has been augmented with a superimposed laser-induced systemic photobiological reaction, laser immunotherapy. Laser immunotherapy is a novel cancer treatment consisting of: (1) a laser in the infrared wavelength range (i.e. 805 nm solid state laser); (2) a photosensitizer of the corresponding absorption peak [i.e. indocyanine green (ICG)]; and (3) an immunoadjuvant [i.e. glycated chitosan gel (GCG)]. The intratumor injection of the photosensitizer (ICG) and immunoadjuvant (GCG) solution is followed by noninvasive laser irradiation. The laser energy causes tumor cell destruction by photothermal interaction to reduce the tumor burden and at the same time exposes tumor antigens. The immunoadjuvant concomitantly stimulates the host to mount a systemic anti-tumor immune response against the remaining cells of the tumor and to induce a long-term, tumor-specific immunity. This study investigates the feasibility of utilizing laser immunotherapy as an adjunctive therapy for the control of feline fibrosarcoma in future.

  1. In vivo noninvasive monitoring of glucose concentration in human epidermis by mid-infrared pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pleitez, Miguel A; Lieblein, Tobias; Bauer, Alexander; Hertzberg, Otto; von Lilienfeld-Toal, Hermann; Mäntele, Werner

    2013-01-15

    The noninvasive determination of glucose in the interstitial layer of the human skin by mid-infrared spectroscopy is reported. The sensitivity for this measurement was obtained by combining the high pulse energy from an external cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) tunable in the infrared glucose fingerprint region (1000-1220 cm(-1)) focused on the skin, with a detection of the absorbance process by photoacoustic spectroscopy in the ultrasound region performed by a gas cell coupled to the skin. This combination facilitates a quantitative measurement for concentrations of skin glucose in the range from <50 mg/dL to >300 mg/dL, which is the relevant range for the glucose monitoring in diabetes patients. Since the interstitial fluid glucose level is representative of the blood glucose level and follows it without significant delay (<10 min), this method could be applied to establish a noninvasive, painless glucose measurement procedure that is urgently awaited by diabetes patients. We report here the design of the photoacoustic experiments, the spectroscopy of glucose in vivo, and the calibration method for the quantitative determination of glucose in skin. Finally, a preliminary test with healthy volunteers and volunteers suffering from diabetes mellitus demonstrates the viability of a noninvasive glucose monitoring for patients based on the combination of infrared QCL and photoacoustic detection.

  2. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers.

  3. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers. PMID:27494790

  4. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Badr Eldin; El Sharnoubi, Mohammed M K; El-Sersy, Hesham A A; Mahmoud, Mohammed S M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners. PMID:27274885

  5. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Badr Eldin; El Sharnoubi, Mohammed M K; El-Sersy, Hesham A A; Mahmoud, Mohammed S M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners.

  6. Non-invasive blood pressure measurement in mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Minjie; DiPetrillo, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is a leading cause of heart attack, stroke, and kidney failure and represents a serious medical issue worldwide. The genetic basis of hypertension is well-established, but few causal genes have been identified thus far. Non-invasive blood pressure measurements are a critical component of high-throughput genetic studies to identify genes controlling blood pressure. Whereas this technique is fairly routine for blood pressure measurements in rats, non-invasive blood pressure measurement in mice has proven to be more challenging. This chapter describes an experimental protocol measuring blood pressure in mice using a CODA non-invasive blood pressure monitoring system. This method enables accurate blood pressure phenotyping in mice for linkage or mutagenesis studies, as well as for other experiments requiring high-throughput blood pressure measurement.

  7. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Badr Eldin; El Sharnoubi, Mohammed M. K.; El-Sersy, Hesham A. A.; Mahmoud, Mohammed S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners. PMID:27274885

  8. Non-invasive wearable electrochemical sensors: a review.

    PubMed

    Bandodkar, Amay J; Wang, Joseph

    2014-07-01

    Wearable sensors have garnered considerable recent interest owing to their tremendous promise for a plethora of applications. Yet the absence of reliable non-invasive chemical sensors has greatly hindered progress in the area of on-body sensing. Electrochemical sensors offer considerable promise as wearable chemical sensors that are suitable for diverse applications owing to their high performance, inherent miniaturization, and low cost. A wide range of wearable electrochemical sensors and biosensors has been developed for real-time non-invasive monitoring of electrolytes and metabolites in sweat, tears, or saliva as indicators of a wearer's health status. With continued innovation and attention to key challenges, such non-invasive electrochemical sensors and biosensors are expected to open up new exciting avenues in the field of wearable wireless sensing devices and body-sensor networks, and thus find considerable use in a wide range of personal health-care monitoring applications, as well as in sport and military applications.

  9. [The research status and development of noninvasive glucose optical measurements].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Zhou, Mei; Wu, Hong-jie; Lin, Ling

    2010-10-01

    Diabetes threatens the health of human beings. Because of the disadvantages of invasive glucose detection, Noninvasive glucose measurement which diabetics press for becomes the hotspot in both domestic and overseas academic circles. But up to now none of the available devices offers enough precision to clinical application. The principle, method, characteristics of optical spectrum measurements and current development at home and abroad are reviewed in the present paper, such as photoacoustic spectroscopy method, Raman spectrometry, fluorescence method, polarimetry, optical coherence tomography and near infrared spectroscopy. Then the problems and technical analysis of noninvasive glucose measurements as well as the development direction are discussed, and the dynamic spectrum is pointed out to be one of the most application prospect methods for noninvasive glucose measurement.

  10. Technology for noninvasive mechanical ventilation: looking into the black box

    PubMed Central

    Navajas, Daniel; Montserrat, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Current devices for providing noninvasive respiratory support contain sensors and built-in intelligence for automatically modifying ventilation according to the patient's needs. These devices, including automatic continuous positive airway pressure devices and noninvasive ventilators, are technologically complex and offer a considerable number of different modes of ventilation and setting options, the details of which are sometimes difficult to capture by the user. Therefore, better predicting and interpreting the actual performance of these ventilation devices in clinical application requires understanding their functioning principles and assessing their performance under well controlled bench test conditions with simulated patients. This concise review presents an updated perspective of the theoretical basis of intelligent continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive ventilation devices, and of the tools available for assessing how these devices respond under specific ventilation phenotypes in patients requiring breathing support. PMID:27730162

  11. Non-invasive Assessments of Adipose Tissue Metabolism In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Borowsky, Francis E; Quinn, Kyle P; Bernstein, David L; Georgakoudi, Irene; Kaplan, David L

    2016-03-01

    Adipose tissue engineering is a diverse area of research where the developed tissues can be used to study normal adipose tissue functions, create disease models in vitro, and replace soft tissue defects in vivo. Increasing attention has been focused on the highly specialized metabolic pathways that regulate energy storage and release in adipose tissues which affect local and systemic outcomes. Non-invasive, dynamic measurement systems are useful to track these metabolic pathways in the same tissue model over time to evaluate long term cell growth, differentiation, and development within tissue engineering constructs. This approach reduces costs and time in comparison to more traditional destructive methods such as biochemical and immunochemistry assays and proteomics assessments. Towards this goal, this review will focus on important metabolic functions of adipose tissues and strategies to evaluate them with non-invasive in vitro methods. Current non-invasive methods, such as measuring key metabolic markers and endogenous contrast imaging will be explored.

  12. Non-invasive molecular imaging for preclinical cancer therapeutic development

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, AC; Shnyder, SD; Marston, G; Coletta, PL; Gill, JH

    2013-01-01

    Molecular and non-invasive imaging are rapidly emerging fields in preclinical cancer drug discovery. This is driven by the need to develop more efficacious and safer treatments, the advent of molecular-targeted therapeutics, and the requirements to reduce and refine current preclinical in vivo models. Such bioimaging strategies include MRI, PET, single positron emission computed tomography, ultrasound, and optical approaches such as bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging. These molecular imaging modalities have several advantages over traditional screening methods, not least the ability to quantitatively monitor pharmacodynamic changes at the cellular and molecular level in living animals non-invasively in real time. This review aims to provide an overview of non-invasive molecular imaging techniques, highlighting the strengths, limitations and versatility of these approaches in preclinical cancer drug discovery and development. PMID:23488622

  13. Non-invasive, MRI-compatible fibreoptic device for functional near-IR reflectometry of human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Sorvoja, H.S.S.; Myllylae, T S; Myllylae, Risto A; Kirillin, M Yu; Sergeeva, Ekaterina A; Elseoud, A A; Nikkinen, J; Tervonen, O; Kiviniemi, V

    2011-01-24

    A non-invasive device for measuring blood oxygen variations in human brain is designed, implemented, and tested for MRI compatibility. The device is based on principles of near-IR reflectometry; power LEDs serve as sources of probing radiation delivered to patient skin surface through optical fibres. Numerical Monte Carlo simulations of probing radiation propagation in a multilayer brain model are performed to evaluate signal levels at different source - detector separations at three operation wavelengths and an additional wavelength of 915 nm. It is shown that the device can be applied for brain activity studies using power LEDs operating at 830 and 915 nm, while employment of wavelength of 660 nm requires an increased probing power. Employment of the wavelength of 592 nm in the current configuration is unreasonable. (application of lasers and laser-optical methods in life sciences)

  14. Acceptance in Romantic Relationships: The Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, Brian D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Despite the recent emphasis on acceptance in romantic relationships, no validated measure of relationship acceptance presently exists. To fill this gap, the 20-item Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory (FAPBI; A. Christensen & N. S. Jacobson, 1997) was created to assess separately the acceptability and frequency of both…

  15. Blood sugar monitoring with laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Chen, Jianhong; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, the non-invasive measurement of blood sugar level was studied by use of near infrared laser diode. The in-vivo experiments were carried out using laser diodes with wavelength 1625nm and 1650nm. Several volunteers were tested before and after drinking glucose solution. We took blood from a fingertip and measured its concentration with a glucose meter while taking signal voltage from laser diode system. The signal voltage was processed by using a computer and blood absorption was obtained. The results show that blood sugar level and blood absorption have similar trends before and after drinking glucose solution. We also compared the trends of drinking glucose solution and pure water and the results show that the difference of blood absorption is obvious. From the results we can see that laser diode is suitable for blood glucose monitoring.

  16. Laser soft-palate stiffening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi; McMillan, Kathleen; Perrault, Donald F., Jr.; Nemati, Babak; Carkner, Eric; Rebeiz, Elie E.; Shapshay, Stanley M.

    1998-07-01

    Preliminary animal model experiments have been performed to test the feasibility of a new treatment for snoring. Current surgical treatments for snoring at the palatal level involve either excision of tissue to shorten the palate, or interstitial ablation of the palate to induce fibrosis and stiffening. Both shortening and stiffening of the palate are believed to be effective in reducing snoring. Mucosal surface damage and delayed tissue sloughing are the cause of considerable pain for the patient. In the new treatment proposed here, palatal stiffening with mucosal preservation is accomplished by combining evaporative cooling at the tissue surface with laser irradiation to heat subsurface tissue layers. The surface is cooled using a timed spray of tetrafluoroethane immediately prior to each pulse from a 1.54 micrometer erbium glass laser. In vivo experiments demonstrate that the technique causes significant shrinkage and decreased elasticity in hamster skin, with no tissue sloughing. In vitro experiments with canine soft palates show that laser-induced thermal damage zones ranged from approximately 0.75 to 1.75 mm below the surface, depending on laser parameters. These results suggest that the noninvasive laser technique may produce palatal stiffening with protection of the mucosal surface, for treatment of snoring with minimal morbidity.

  17. Development of magnetic resonance technology for noninvasive boron quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, K.M.

    1990-11-01

    Boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) were developed in support of the noninvasive boron quantification task of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) program. The hardware and software described in this report are modifications specific to a GE Signa{trademark} MRI system, release 3.X and are necessary for boron magnetic resonance operation. The technology developed in this task has been applied to obtaining animal pharmacokinetic data of boron compounds (drug time response) and the in-vivo localization of boron in animal tissue noninvasively. 9 refs., 21 figs.

  18. Noninvasive brain stimulation: from physiology to network dynamics and back

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Eran; Censor, Nitzan; Buch, Ethan R; Sandrini, Marco; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation techniques have been widely used for studying the physiology of the CNS, identifying the functional role of specific brain structures and, more recently, exploring large-scale network dynamics. Here we review key findings that contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the physiological and behavioral effects of these techniques. We highlight recent innovations using noninvasive stimulation to investigate global brain network dynamics and organization. New combinations of these techniques, in conjunction with neuroimaging, will further advance the utility of their application. PMID:23799477

  19. Systematic experimental exploration of bifurcations with noninvasive control.

    PubMed

    Barton, D A W; Sieber, J

    2013-05-01

    We present a general method for systematically investigating the dynamics and bifurcations of a physical nonlinear experiment. In particular, we show how the odd-number limitation inherent in popular noninvasive control schemes, such as (Pyragas) time-delayed or washout-filtered feedback control, can be overcome for tracking equilibria or forced periodic orbits in experiments. To demonstrate the use of our noninvasive control, we trace out experimentally the resonance surface of a periodically forced mechanical nonlinear oscillator near the onset of instability, around two saddle-node bifurcations (folds) and a cusp bifurcation.

  20. Noninvasive Testing for Mucosal Inflammation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Iborra, Marisa; Beltrán, Belén; Nos, Pilar

    2016-10-01

    Biomarkers have gained increasing attention for the diagnosis and follow-up of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Endoscopy remains the gold standard for assessing disease activity. Biomarkers are rapid, inexpensive, and noninvasive, and can be used in different stages of the disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Calprotectin and tests for C-reactive protein are used to assess the disease activity, predict relapse, and monitor treatment response. New noninvasive tests are being studied. This review discusses current evidence for these surrogate markers, their potential clinical applications, and limitations in disease management. We highlight recent advances in IBD biomarkers and future uses. PMID:27633593

  1. Noninvasive Testing for Mucosal Inflammation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Iborra, Marisa; Beltrán, Belén; Nos, Pilar

    2016-10-01

    Biomarkers have gained increasing attention for the diagnosis and follow-up of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Endoscopy remains the gold standard for assessing disease activity. Biomarkers are rapid, inexpensive, and noninvasive, and can be used in different stages of the disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Calprotectin and tests for C-reactive protein are used to assess the disease activity, predict relapse, and monitor treatment response. New noninvasive tests are being studied. This review discusses current evidence for these surrogate markers, their potential clinical applications, and limitations in disease management. We highlight recent advances in IBD biomarkers and future uses.

  2. A practical approach to interpreting lower extremity noninvasive physiologic studies.

    PubMed

    McCann, Thomas E; Scoutt, Leslie M; Gunabushanam, Gowthaman

    2014-11-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an important manifestation of atherosclerosis, with an estimated age-adjusted prevalence of approximately 13% in people older than 50 years. Noninvasive vascular laboratory physiologic studies are indispensable tools in the initial evaluation and workup and postintervention follow-up. In this review, we describe a practical approach to the technique, interpretation, pitfalls, and limitations of these physiologic studies. We also provide an algorithmic approach for using these studies in the initial workup of patients with suspected PAD. Noninvasive techniques that primarily provide anatomic information have not been included in this review. PMID:25444110

  3. Utility of Noninvasive Markers of Fibrosis in Cholestatic Liver Diseases.

    PubMed

    Corpechot, Christophe

    2016-02-01

    Methods of liver fibrosis assessment have changed considerably in the last 20 years, and noninvasive markers now have been recognized as major first-line tools in the management of patients with chronic viral hepatitis infection. But what about the efficiency and utility of these surrogate indices for the more uncommon chronic cholestatic liver diseases, namely primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis? This article provides clinicians with a global overview of what is currently known in the field. Both diagnostic and prognostic aspects of noninvasive markers of fibrosis in cholestatic liver diseases are presented and discussed.

  4. Laser anemometry techniques for turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Oberle, Lawrence G.

    1987-01-01

    Laser anemometry offers a nonintrusive means for obtaining flow field information. Current research at NASA Lewis Research Center is focused on instrumenting a warm turbine facility with a laser anemometer system. In an effort to determine the laser anemometer system best qualified for the warm turbine environment, the performance of a conventional laser fringe anemometer and a two spot time of flight system were compared with a new, modified time of flight system, called a Four Spot laser anemometer. The comparison measurements were made in highly turbulent flows near walls. The Four Spot anemometer uses elliptical spots to increase the flow acceptance angle to be comparable to that of a Laser Fringe Anemometer. Also, the Four Spot uses an optical code that vastly simplifies the pulse detection processor. The results of the comparison measurements will exemplify which laser anemometer system is best suited to the hostile environment typically encountered in warm rotating turbomachinery.

  5. Laser Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Dopant level analysis is important to the laser system designer because it allows him to model the laser's performance. It also allows the end user to determine what went wrong when a laser fails to perform as expected. Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Scientific Materials Corporation has developed a process for producing uniform laser rods in which the amount of water trapped in the crystal during growth is reduced. This research led to the formation of a subsidiary company, Montana Analytical Services, which conducts analysis of laser rods for dopant ion concentrations. This is a significant advance in laser technology.

  6. Treatment acceptability among mexican american parents.

    PubMed

    Borrego, Joaquin; Ibanez, Elizabeth S; Spendlove, Stuart J; Pemberton, Joy R

    2007-09-01

    There is a void in the literature with regard to Hispanic parents' views about common interventions for children with behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment acceptability of child management techniques in a Mexican American sample. Parents' acculturation was also examined to determine if it would account for differences in treatment acceptability. Mexican American parents found response cost, a punishment-based technique, more acceptable than positive reinforcement-based techniques (e.g., differential attention). Results suggest that Mexican American parents' acculturation has little impact on acceptability of child management interventions. No association was found between mothers' acculturation and treatment acceptability. However, more acculturated Mexican American fathers viewed token economy as more acceptable than less acculturated fathers. Results are discussed in the context of clinical work and research with Mexican Americans.

  7. Optical polarimetry applied to the development of a noninvasive in-vivo glucose monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Brent D.; Baba, Justin S.; Cote, Gerard L.

    2000-05-01

    The application of optical polarimetry, using the anterior chamber of the eye as the sensing site, is being investigated as a potential method to develop a noninvasive physiological glucose monitor. First, we present results characterizing the optical rotatory dispersion of the main optically active analytes found within the aqueous humor of the eye including, glucose, albumin, and ascorbic acid. This information is used in conjunction with multiple linear regression to demonstrate how multispectral polarimetry can be used to minimize glucose prediction error in samples containing varying physiological concentrations of glucose and albumin. For this multispectral study, a novel dual wavelength (532 nm and 635 nm) polarimeter was designed and constructed. This sensor is novel in that it provides simultaneous measurements using a 532 nm laser in an open- loop configuration and a 635 nm laser in a closed-loop configuration. In addition, we present in vivo results using New Zealand White rabbits that indicate the time delay between blood and aqueous human glucose levels is below ten minutes. Lastly, we provide preliminary in vivo polarimetric results and discuss the main issues currently hindering the measurement of glucose.

  8. Noninvasive glucose sensing in scattering media using OCT, PAS, and TOF techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarousu, Erkki; Hast, Jukka T.; Kinnunen, Matti T.; Kirillin, Mikhail Y.; Myllyla, Risto A.; Plucinski, Jerzy; Popov, Alexey P.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Prykari, Tuukka; Saarela, Juha; Zhao, Zuomin

    2004-08-01

    In this paper, optical measurement techniques, which enable non-invasive measurement, are superimposed to glucose sensing in scattering media. Used measurement techniques are Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and laser pulse Time-of-Flight (TOF) measurement using a streak camera. In parallel with measurements, a Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation models have been developed. Experimental in vitro measurements were performed using Intralipid fat emulsion as a tissue simulating phantom for OCT and TOF measurements. In PAS measurements, a pork meat was used as a subject but also preliminary in vivo measurements were done. OCT measurement results show that the slope of the OCT signal's envelope changes as a function of glucose content in the scattering media. TOF measurements show that the laser pulse full width of half maximum (FWHM) changes a little as function of glucose content. An agreement with MC-simulations and measurements with Intralipid was also found. Measurement results of PAS technique show that changes in glucose content in the pork meat tissue can be measured. In vivo measurements with a human volunteer show that other factors such as physiological change, blood circulation and body temperature drift may interfere the PA response of glucose.

  9. Non-invasive detection of osteoporotic bone loss using photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Chi-Hang; Matvienko, Anna; Mandelis, Andreas

    2008-02-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by a compromised bone strength predisposing a person to an increased risk of fracture. The early detection of osteoporosis is important to a successful treatment. Current prominent bone densitometry techniques include, among others, Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) and Mechanical Response Tissue Analysis (MRTA). However, DEXA uses ionizing radiation and MRTA results are often unreliable. Simultaneous Photothermal Radiometry (PTR) and Modulated Luminescence (LUM) measurements can be a non-ionizing, noninvasive and reliable alternative to the aforementioned diagnostics techniques. Controlled mineral loss was simulated with sequential etching of a human skull bone. During the experiments, a low-power modulated laser illuminated the sample surface. The absorbed incident optical energy was then re-emitted either non-radiatively, in the form of thermal waves (PTR), or radiatively as lumimescence light emission (LUM). The experimental setup consisted of a semiconductor laser (635 nm, 20 mW), two lock-in amplifiers, a mercury-cadmium-telluride IR detector for PTR, a photodiode for LUM and a computer. A one-dimensional, one-layer theoretical model for LUM and PTR was developed to analyze the experimental data and extract optical and thermal properties of the sample.

  10. Lasers of All Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcou, Philippe; Forget, Sébastien Robert-Philip, Isabelle

    2015-10-01

    * Introduction * The Laser in All Its Forms * Gas lasers * Dye lasers * Solid-state lasers * Lasers for Every Taste * The rise of lasers * Lasers of all sizes * The colors of the rainbow... and beyond * Shorter and shorter lasers * Increasingly powerful lasers * Lasers: A Universal Tool? * Cutting, welding, and cleaning * Communicating * Treating illnesses * Measuring * Supplying energy? * Entertaining * Understanding * Conclusion

  11. Acceptability of blood and blood substitutes.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, E; Prowse, C; Townsend, E; Spence, A; Hilten, J A van; Lowe, K

    2008-03-01

    Alternatives to donor blood have been developed in part to meet increasing demand. However, new biotechnologies are often associated with increased perceptions of risk and low acceptance. This paper reviews developments of alternatives and presents data, from a field-based experiment in the UK and Holland, on the risks and acceptance of donor blood and alternatives (chemical, genetically modified and bovine). UK groups perceived all substitutes as riskier than the Dutch. There is a negative association between perceived risk and acceptability. Solutions to increasing acceptance are discussed in terms of implicit attitudes, product naming and emotional responses.

  12. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  13. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  14. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  15. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  16. 7 CFR 932.32 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Olive Administrative Committee § 932.32 Acceptance. Any person selected by the...

  17. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  18. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  19. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  20. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  1. 7 CFR 1207.323 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.323 Acceptance. Each...

  2. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  3. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  4. Digynic triploidy: utility and challenges of noninvasive prenatal testing

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Julie; Shenoy, Archana; Goetzinger, Katherine; Cottrell, Catherine E; Baldridge, Dustin; White, Frances V; Shinawi, Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Low fraction fetal DNA in noninvasive prenatal testing in the context of fetal growth restriction and multiple congenital anomalies should alert medical professionals to the possibility of digynic triploidy. Single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray can detect the parental origin of triploidy and explain its mechanism. PMID:26185638

  5. Advantages of the Quadruple Screen over noninvasive prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Keller, Nathan A; Rijshinghani, Asha

    2016-03-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is becoming increasingly popular with some offering it as a primary screen option in all patients in place of serum screening. Serum screening offers insight into placental function, which NIPT does not. Abnormal levels of analytes in the serum screen have been associated with pregnancy complications. PMID:27014443

  6. Eyeblink Conditioning: A Non-Invasive Biomarker for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a classical conditioning paradigm typically used to study the underlying neural processes of learning and memory. EBC has a well-defined neural circuitry, is non-invasive, and can be employed in human infants shortly after birth making it an ideal tool to use in both developing and special populations. In addition,…

  7. Non-invasive treatment options for focal cortical dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    WANG, TING-TING; ZHOU, DONG

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) presents a strong clinical challenge especially for the treatment of the associated epilepsy. Epilepsy in FCD is often treatment-resistant and constitutes 50% of treatment-resistant cases. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been widely used in the treatment of FCD. However, evidence to suggest their specific effect on the treatment of FCD remains to be established. In view of this resistance, several alternative treatments have been suggested. Although treatment currently involves surgical management, non-invasive treatments have been identified. The aim of the present review, was to assess non-invasive management strategies including, i) mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, ii) ketogenic diet (KD), and iii) vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). In addition, we discussed the literature available regarding the use of AEDs in FCD. Experiments conducted with mammals detailing rapamycin gene mutations in FCD have produced vital information for exploring treatment options using mTOR inhibitors. Of note is the importance of KD in children with FCD. This diet has been shown to modify disease progression by attenuating chromatin modification, a master regulator for gene expression and functional adaptation of the cell. FCD has also been studied widely with neurostimulation techniques. The outcomes of these techniques have been found to be variable. For widespread dysplasias, VNS has been shown to produce responder rates of >50%. Nevertheless, non-invasive cranial nerve stimulation techniques such as transcutaneous VNS and non-invasive VNS are gaining better patient compatibility, albeit their efficacy remains to be established. PMID:27168769

  8. The role of noninvasive techniques in stroke therapy.

    PubMed

    Bernad, Daniel Maxwell; Doyon, Julien

    2008-01-01

    Noninvasive techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have provided insight into understanding how neural connections are altered in consequence to cerebrovascular injury. The first part of this review will briefly survey some of the methodological issues and limitations related to noninvasive poststroke motor recovery studies. The second section will investigate some of the different neural mechanisms that underlie neurorehabilitation in stroke patients. The third part will explore our current understanding of motor memory processing, describe the neural structures that subserve motor memory consolidation, and discuss the current literature related to memory reconsolidation in healthy adults. Lastly, this paper will suggest the potential therapeutic applications of integrating noninvasive tools with memory consolidation and reconsolidation theories to enhance motor recovery. The overall objective of this work is to demonstrate how noninvasive technologies have been utilized in the multidisciplinary field of clinical behavioral neuroscience and to highlight their potential to be employed as clinical tools to promote individualized motor recovery in stroke patients.

  9. Noninvasive ventilation in status asthmaticus in children: levels of evidence

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Paula de Souza; Barreto, Sérgio Saldanha Menna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the quality of available evidence to establish guidelines for the use of noninvasive ventilation for the management of status asthmaticus in children unresponsive to standard treatment. Methods Search, selection and analysis of all original articles on asthma and noninvasive ventilation in children, published until September 1, 2014 in all languages in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus and SciELO, located using the search terms: "asthma", "status asthmaticus", "noninvasive ventilation", "Bronchospasm", "continuous positive airway pressure", "child", "infant", "pediatrics", "hypercapnia", "respiratory failure" and the keywords "BIPAP", "CPAP", "Bilevel", "acute asthma" and "near fatal asthma". The articles were assessed based on the levels of evidence of the GRADE system. Results Only nine original articles were located; two (22%) articles had level of evidence A, one (11%) had level of evidence B and six (67%) had level of evidence C. Conclusion The results suggest that noninvasive ventilation is applicable for the treatment of status asthmaticus in most pediatric patients unresponsive to standard treatment. However, the available evidence cannot be considered as conclusive, as further high-quality research is likely to have an impact on and change the estimate of the effect. PMID:26761478

  10. Non-invasive Prediction of Pork Loin Tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to develop a non-invasive method to predict tenderness of pork loins. Boneless pork loins (n = 901) were evaluated either on line on the loin boning and trimming line of large-scale commercial plants (n = 465) or at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center abattoir ...

  11. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation interface adapted for postextubation continuous noninvasive ventilatory support.

    PubMed

    Bach, John R; Saporito, Louis Ralph

    2015-09-01

    The authors report that a new oral interface designed for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use during anesthesia permitted the successful extubation of an "unweanable" 27-yr-old woman with nemaline rod myopathy to continuous noninvasive ventilatory support. She had failed two previous extubation attempts. Tracheotomy and institutional care were avoided as a result. PMID:26135377

  12. Non-invasive in vivo measurement of macular carotenoids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A non-invasive in vivo method for assessing macular carotenoids includes performing Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) on a retina of a subject. A spatial representation of carotenoid levels in the macula based on data from the OCT of the retina can be generated.

  13. Noninvasive real time tomographic imaging of epileptic foci and networks.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Liangzhong; Ji, Lijun; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Bo; Yang, Jianjun; Zhang, Qizhi; Jiang, Max S; Zhou, Junli; Carney, Paul R; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-02-01

    While brain imaging and electrophysiology play a central role in neuroscience research and in the evaluation of neurological disorders, a single noninvasive modality that offers both high spatial and temporal resolution is currently not available. Here we show in an acute epilepsy rat model that photoacoustic tomography (PAT) can noninvasively track seizure brain dynamics with both high spatial and temporal resolution, and at a depth that is clinically relevant. The noninvasive yet whole surface and depth capabilities of the PAT system allowed us to actually see what is happening during ictogenesis in terms of seizure onset and spread. Both seizure onset and propagation were tomographically detected at a spatial resolution of 150μm and a temporal resolution of 300ms, respectively. The current study lends support to the theory that seizure onset and spread involves a rich interplay between multiple cortical and subcortical brain areas during the onset and spread of epileptic seizures. Dynamical changes of vasculature during epileptiform events were also detected with high spatiotemporal resolution. Together, these findings suggest that PAT represents a powerful tool for noninvasively mapping seizure onset and propagation patterns, and the 'functional' connectivity within epileptic brain networks. PMID:23128072

  14. Non-invasive method of measuring cerebral spinal fluid pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor); Lambert, James L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides a method of non-invasively determining intracranial pressure from measurements of an eye. A parameter of an optic nerve of the eye is determined, along with an intraocular pressure of the eye. The intracranial pressure may be determined from the intraocular pressure and the parameter.

  15. Evaluation of noninvasive cardiac output methods during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Alan D.; Barrows, Linda H.; Rashid, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Noninvasive techniques to estimate cardiac output (Qc) will be used during future space flight. This retrospective literature survey compared the Qc techniques of carbon dioxide rebreathing (CO2-R), CO2 single breath (CO2-S), Doppler (DOP), impedance (IM), and inert gas (IG: acetylene or nitrous oxide) to direct (DIR) assessments measured at rest and during exercise.

  16. Noninvasive genetic sampling reveals intrasex territoriality in wolverines.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Richard; Gregersen, Espen R; Brøseth, Henrik; Ellegren, Hans; Flagstad, Øystein

    2016-03-01

    Due to its conspicuous manifestations and its capacity to shape the configuration and dynamics of wild populations, territorial behavior has long intrigued ecologists. Territoriality and other animal interactions in situ have traditionally been studied via direct observations and telemetry. Here, we explore whether noninvasive genetic sampling, which is increasingly supplementing traditional field methods in ecological research, can reveal territorial behavior in an elusive carnivore, the wolverine (Gulo gulo). Using the locations of genotyped wolverine scat samples collected annually over a period of 12 years in central Norway, we test three predictions: (1) male home ranges constructed from noninvasive genetic sampling data are larger than those of females, (2) individuals avoid areas used by other conspecifics of the same sex (intrasexual territoriality), and (3) avoidance of same-sex territories diminishes or disappears after the territory owner's death. Each of these predictions is substantiated by our results: sex-specific differences in home range size and intrasexual territoriality in wolverine are patently reflected in the spatial and temporal configuration of noninvasively collected genetic samples. Our study confirms that wildlife monitoring programs can utilize the spatial information in noninvasive genetic sampling data to detect and quantify home ranges and social organization. PMID:27087927

  17. Method for non-invasive detection of ocular melanoma

    DOEpatents

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Packer, S.

    1984-10-30

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for diagnosing ocular cancer that is both non-invasive and accurate. The apparatus comprises two radiation detectors positioned before each of the patient's eyes which will measure the radiation level produced in each eye after the administration of a tumor-localizing radiopharmaceutical such as gallium-67. 2 figs.

  18. Method for non-invasive detection of ocular melanoma

    DOEpatents

    Lambrecht, Richard M.; Packer, Samuel

    1984-01-01

    There is described an apparatus and method for diagnosing ocular cancer that is both non-invasive and accurate which comprises two radiation detectors positioned before each of the patient's eyes which will measure the radiation level produced in each eye after the administration of a tumor-localizing radiopharmaceutical such as gallium-67.

  19. In acceptance we trust? Conceptualising acceptance as a viable approach to NGO security management.

    PubMed

    Fast, Larissa A; Freeman, C Faith; O'Neill, Michael; Rowley, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    This paper documents current understanding of acceptance as a security management approach and explores issues and challenges non-governmental organisations (NGOs) confront when implementing an acceptance approach to security management. It argues that the failure of organisations to systematise and clearly articulate acceptance as a distinct security management approach and a lack of organisational policies and procedures concerning acceptance hinder its efficacy as a security management approach. The paper identifies key and cross-cutting components of acceptance that are critical to its effective implementation in order to advance a comprehensive and systematic concept of acceptance. The key components of acceptance illustrate how organisational and staff functions affect positively or negatively an organisation's acceptance, and include: an organisation's principles and mission, communications, negotiation, programming, relationships and networks, stakeholder and context analysis, staffing, and image. The paper contends that acceptance is linked not only to good programming, but also to overall organisational management and structures. PMID:23278470

  20. Picosecond laser ablation system with process control by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Targowski, Piotr; Ostrowski, Roman; Marczak, Jan; Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Kwiatkowska, Ewa A.

    2009-07-01

    In this contribution we describe an apparatus for precise laser ablation of delicate layers, like varnish on pictures. This specific case is very demanding. First of all any changes in colour of remaining varnish layer as well as underneath paint layers are unacceptable. This effect may be induced photochemically or thermically. In the first case strong absorption of the radiation used will eliminate its influence on underlying strata. The thermal effect is limited to so called heat affected zone (HAZ). In addition to colour change, a mechanical damage caused by overheating of the structure adjacent to ablated region should be considered also. All kinds of treads must be carefully eliminated in order to make laser ablation of varnish commonly accepted alternative to chemical and/or mechanical treatments [1]. Since the varnish ablation process is obviously irreversible its effective monitoring is very important to make it safe and trusted. As we showed previously [2-6] optical coherence tomography (OCT) originated from medicine diagnostic method for examination and imaging of cross-sections of weakly absorbing objects can be used for this task. OCT utilises infrared light for non-invasive structure examination and has been under consideration for the examining of objects of art since 2004 [7-10]. In this case the in-depth (axial) resolution is obtained by means of interference of light of high spatial (to ensure sensitivity) and very low temporal coherence (to ensure high axial resolution). In practice, IR sources of bandwidths from 25 to 150 nm are utilised. Resolutions obtained range from 15 down to 2 μm in the media of refracting index equal 1.5. In this contribution we expand application of OCT to space resolved determination of ablation rates, separately for every point of examined area. Such data help in better understanding of the ablation process, fine tuning the laser and finally permit increase of the safety of the ablation process.

  1. Laser microphone

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2000-11-14

    A microphone for detecting sound pressure waves includes a laser resonator having a laser gain material aligned coaxially between a pair of first and second mirrors for producing a laser beam. A reference cell is disposed between the laser material and one of the mirrors for transmitting a reference portion of the laser beam between the mirrors. A sensing cell is disposed between the laser material and one of the mirrors, and is laterally displaced from the reference cell for transmitting a signal portion of the laser beam, with the sensing cell being open for receiving the sound waves. A photodetector is disposed in optical communication with the first mirror for receiving the laser beam, and produces an acoustic signal therefrom for the sound waves.

  2. Non-invasive mouse models of post-traumatic osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, B A; Guilak, F; Lockwood, K A; Olson, S A; Pitsillides, A A; Sandell, L J; Silva, M J; van der Meulen, M C H; Haudenschild, D R

    2015-10-01

    Animal models of osteoarthritis (OA) are essential tools for investigating the development of the disease on a more rapid timeline than human OA. Mice are particularly useful due to the plethora of genetically modified or inbred mouse strains available. The majority of available mouse models of OA use a joint injury or other acute insult to initiate joint degeneration, representing post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). However, no consensus exists on which injury methods are most translatable to human OA. Currently, surgical injury methods are most commonly used for studies of OA in mice; however, these methods may have confounding effects due to the surgical/invasive injury procedure itself, rather than the targeted joint injury. Non-invasive injury methods avoid this complication by mechanically inducing a joint injury externally, without breaking the skin or disrupting the joint. In this regard, non-invasive injury models may be crucial for investigating early adaptive processes initiated at the time of injury, and may be more representative of human OA in which injury is induced mechanically. A small number of non-invasive mouse models of PTOA have been described within the last few years, including intra-articular fracture of tibial subchondral bone, cyclic tibial compression loading of articular cartilage, and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture via tibial compression overload. This review describes the methods used to induce joint injury in each of these non-invasive models, and presents the findings of studies utilizing these models. Altogether, these non-invasive mouse models represent a unique and important spectrum of animal models for studying different aspects of PTOA. PMID:26003950

  3. Non-invasive quantification of lower limb mechanical alignment in flexion

    PubMed Central

    Deakin, Angela; Fogg, Quentin A.; Picard, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Objective Non-invasive navigation techniques have recently been developed to determine mechanical femorotibial alignment (MFTA) in extension. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the precision and accuracy of an image-free navigation system with new software designed to provide multiple kinematic measurements of the knee. The secondary aim was to test two types of strap material used to attach optical trackers to the lower limb. Methods Seventy-two registrations were carried out on 6 intact embalmed cadaveric specimens (mean age: 77.8 ± 12 years). A validated fabric strap, bone screws and novel rubber strap were used to secure the passive tracker baseplate for four full experiments with each knee. The MFTA angle was measured under the conditions of no applied stress, valgus stress, and varus stress. These measurements were carried out at full extension and at 30°, 40°, 50° and 60° of flexion. Intraclass correlation coefficients, repeatability coefficients, and limits of agreement (LOA) were used to convey precision and agreement in measuring MFTA with respect to each of the independent variables, i.e., degree of flexion, applied coronal stress, and method of tracker fixation. Based on the current literature, a repeatability coefficient and LOA of ≤3° were deemed acceptable. Results The mean fixed flexion for the 6 specimens was 12.8° (range: 6–20°). The mean repeatability coefficient measuring MFTA in extension with screws or fabric strapping of the baseplate was ≤2°, compared to 2.3° using rubber strapping. When flexing the knee, MFTA measurements taken using screws or fabric straps remained precise (repeatability coefficient ≤3°) throughout the tested range of flexion (12.8–60°); however, using rubber straps, the repeatability coefficient was >3° beyond 50° flexion. In general, applying a varus/valgus stress while measuring MFTA decreased precision beyond 40° flexion. Using fabric strapping, excellent repeatability

  4. Laser ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2004-01-13

    Sequenced pulses of light from an excitation laser with at least two resonator cavities with separate output couplers are directed through a light modulator and a first polarzing analyzer. A portion of the light not rejected by the first polarizing analyzer is transported through a first optical fiber into a first ignitor laser rod in an ignitor laser. Another portion of the light is rejected by the first polarizing analyzer and directed through a halfwave plate into a second polarization analyzer. A first portion of the output of the second polarization analyzer passes through the second polarization analyzer to a second, oscillator, laser rod in the ignitor laser. A second portion of the output of the second polarization analyzer is redirected by the second polarization analyzer to a second optical fiber which delays the beam before the beam is combined with output of the first ignitor laser rod. Output of the second laser rod in the ignitor laser is directed into the first ignitor laser rod which was energized by light passing through the first polarizing analyzer. Combined output of the first ignitor laser rod and output of the second optical fiber is focused into a combustible fuel where the first short duration, high peak power pulse from the ignitor laser ignites the fuel and the second long duration, low peak power pulse directly from the excitation laser sustains the combustion.

  5. Monitoring the healing process of laser-induced microvascular lesions using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-02-01

    Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) possesses optical resolution and reveals endogenous optical absorption contrast, promising to be a valuable tool for in vivo microvascular imaging. In laser dermatology, OR-PAM can provide fruitful structural and functional information about the targeted microvascular lesions, such as their threedimensional (3D) morphology, precise location inside the tissue, and blood oxygenation within single vessels, which will facilitate accurate diagnosis and proper treatment. More importantly, the advantages of noninvasiveness and measurement consistency also permit OR-PAM to monitor the healing process of the laser-surgical wound noninvasively. In this work, we employed OR-PAM to monitor the healing process of microvascular lesions induced by nanosecond-pulsed laser. Our results indicate that OR-PAM could be a very useful tool in laser dermatology and laser microsurgery.

  6. Robert Feulgen Prize Lecture. Laser tweezers and multiphoton microscopes in life sciences.

    PubMed

    König, K

    2000-08-01

    Near infrared (NIR) laser microscopy enables optical micromanipulation, piconewton force determination, and sensitive fluorescence studies by laser tweezers. Otherwise, fluorescence images with high spatial and temporal resolution of living cells and tissues can be obtained via non-resonant fluorophore excitation with multiphoton NIR laser scanning microscopes. Furthermore, NIR femtosecond laser pulses at TW/cm2 intensities can be used to realize non-invasive contact-free surgery of nanometer-sized structures within living cells and tissues. Applications of these novel versatile NIR laser-based tools for the determination of motility forces, coenzyme and chlorophyll imaging, three-dimensional multigene detection, non-invasive optical sectioning of tissues ("optical biopsy"), functional protein imaging, and nanosurgery of chromosomes are described.

  7. Robert Feulgen Prize Lecture. Laser tweezers and multiphoton microscopes in life sciences.

    PubMed

    König, K

    2000-08-01

    Near infrared (NIR) laser microscopy enables optical micromanipulation, piconewton force determination, and sensitive fluorescence studies by laser tweezers. Otherwise, fluorescence images with high spatial and temporal resolution of living cells and tissues can be obtained via non-resonant fluorophore excitation with multiphoton NIR laser scanning microscopes. Furthermore, NIR femtosecond laser pulses at TW/cm2 intensities can be used to realize non-invasive contact-free surgery of nanometer-sized structures within living cells and tissues. Applications of these novel versatile NIR laser-based tools for the determination of motility forces, coenzyme and chlorophyll imaging, three-dimensional multigene detection, non-invasive optical sectioning of tissues ("optical biopsy"), functional protein imaging, and nanosurgery of chromosomes are described. PMID:11052257

  8. Accuracy of a Novel Noninvasive Multisensor Technology to Estimate Glucose in Diabetic Subjects During Dynamic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, Sandra I.; Chomentowski, Peter J.; Vyas, Nisarg; Andre, David

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an approach of multisensor technology with integrated data analysis in an armband system (SenseWear® Pro Armband, SWA) can provide estimates of plasma glucose concentration in diabetes. In all, 41 subjects with diabetes participated. On day 1 subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and on day 2 a 60-minute treadmill test (TT). SWA plasma glucose estimates were compared against reference peripheral venous glucose concentrations. A continuous glucose monitoring device (CGM) was also placed on each subject to serve as a reference for clinical comparison. Pearson coefficient, Clarke error grid (CEG), and mean absolute relative difference (MARD) analyses were used to compare the performance of plasma glucose estimation. There were significant correlations between plasma glucose concentrations estimated by the SWA and the reference plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT (r = .65, P < .05) and the TT (r = .91, P < .05). CEG analysis revealed that during the OGTT, 93% of plasma glucose concentration readings were in the clinically acceptable zone A+B for the SWA and 95% for the CGM. During the TT, the SWA had 96% of readings in zone A+B, compared to 97% for the CGM. During OGTTs, MARDs for the SWA and CGM were 26% and 18%, respectively. During TTs, MARDs were 16% and 12%, respectively. Plasma glucose concentration estimation by the SWA’s noninvasive multisensor approach appears to be feasible and its performance in estimating glucose approaches that of a CGM. The success of this pilot study suggests that multisensor technology holds promising potential for the development of a wearable, noninvasive, painless glucose monitor. PMID:24876538

  9. 12 CFR 250.164 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 250.164 Section 250.164 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MISCELLANEOUS INTERPRETATIONS Interpretations § 250.164 Bankers' acceptances. (a) Section 207 of the Bank...

  10. 48 CFR 3011.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 3011.103 Section 3011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Developing Requirements Documents 3011.103 Market acceptance. (a) Contracting officers may act on behalf...

  11. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market acceptance. 411.103... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.103 Market... accordance with FAR 11.103(a), the market acceptability of their items to be offered. (b) The...

  12. 48 CFR 3011.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 3011.103 Section 3011.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Developing Requirements Documents 3011.103 Market acceptance. (a) Contracting officers may act on behalf...

  13. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 411.103... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.103 Market... accordance with FAR 11.103(a), the market acceptability of their items to be offered. (b) The...

  14. 12 CFR 615.5550 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Bankers' Acceptances § 615.5550 Bankers' acceptances. Banks... cooperatives' board of directors, under established policies, may delegate this authority to management....

  15. Mindfulness, Acceptance and Catastrophizing in Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Maaike J.; Steinhagen, Hannemike E.; Versteegen, Gerbrig J.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Sanderman, Robbert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Catastrophizing is often the primary target of the cognitive-behavioral treatment of chronic pain. Recent literature on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) suggests an important role in the pain experience for the concepts mindfulness and acceptance. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of mindfulness and general psychological acceptance on pain-related catastrophizing in patients with chronic pain. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted, including 87 chronic pain patients from an academic outpatient pain center. Results The results show that general psychological acceptance (measured with the AAQ-II) is a strong predictor of pain-related catastrophizing, independent of gender, age and pain intensity. Mindfulness (measured with the MAAS) did not predict levels of pain-related catastrophizing. Discussion Acceptance of psychological experiences outside of pain itself is related to catastrophizing. Thus, acceptance seems to play a role in the pain experience and should be part of the treatment of chronic pain. The focus of the ACT treatment of chronic pain does not necessarily have to be on acceptance of pain per se, but may be aimed at acceptance of unwanted experiences in general. Mindfulness in the sense of “acting with awareness” is however not related to catastrophizing. Based on our research findings in comparisons with those of other authors, we recommend a broader conceptualization of mindfulness and the use of a multifaceted questionnaire for mindfulness instead of the unidimensional MAAS. PMID:24489915

  16. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development.

  17. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become effective... extended by the authorized officer. Refusal of an applicant to sign and accept a special use...

  18. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become effective... extended by the authorized officer. Refusal of an applicant to sign and accept a special use...

  19. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become effective... extended by the authorized officer. Refusal of an applicant to sign and accept a special use...

  20. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become effective... extended by the authorized officer. Refusal of an applicant to sign and accept a special use...

  1. 36 CFR 251.62 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 251.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.62 Acceptance. Except for an easement, a special use authorization shall become effective... extended by the authorized officer. Refusal of an applicant to sign and accept a special use...

  2. Improving Acceptance of Automated Counseling Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James H.; And Others

    This paper discusses factors that may influence the acceptance of automated counseling procedures by the military. A consensual model of the change process is presented which structures organizational readiness, the change strategy, and acceptance as integrated variables to be considered in a successful installation. A basic introduction to the…

  3. 48 CFR 11.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... supported by market research; (4) Include consideration of items supplied satisfactorily under recent or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market acceptance. 11.103... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 11.103 Market acceptance. (a)...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2303 - Construction acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2303 Construction acceptance. No person may place in...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance. 1205.326 Section 1205.326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance. 1205.326 Section 1205.326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  7. 12 CFR 250.164 - Bankers' acceptances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bankers' acceptances. 250.164 Section 250.164... reserve requirements under section 7 of the International Banking Act of 1978 (12 U.S.C. 3105). The Board..., Form FR Y-7, are also to be used in the calculation of the acceptance limits applicable to...

  8. 16 CFR 1110.5 - Acceptable certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptable certificates. 1110.5 Section 1110.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CERTIFICATES OF COMPLIANCE § 1110.5 Acceptable certificates. A certificate that is in hard copy or...

  9. Enzyme Reactions and Acceptability of Plant Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, James K.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an overview of enzyme reactions which contribute to the character and acceptability of plant foods. A detailed discussion of polyphenoloxidase is also provided as an example of an enzyme which can markedly affect the character and acceptability of such foods. (JN)

  10. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development. PMID:22416723

  11. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  12. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  13. Who accepts responsibility for their transgressions?

    PubMed

    Schumann, Karina; Dweck, Carol S

    2014-12-01

    After committing an offense, transgressors can optimize their chances of reconciling with the victim by accepting responsibility. However, transgressors may be motivated to avoid admitting fault because it can feel threatening to accept blame for harmful behavior. Who, then, is likely to accept responsibility for a transgression? We examined how implicit theories of personality--whether people see personality as malleable (incremental theory) or fixed (entity theory)--influence transgressors' likelihood of accepting responsibility. We argue that incremental theorists may feel less threatened by accepting responsibility because they are more likely to view the situation as an opportunity for them to grow as a person and develop their relationship with the victim. We found support for our predictions across four studies using a combination of real-world and hypothetical offenses, and correlational and experimental methods. These studies therefore identify an important individual difference factor that can lead to more effective responses from transgressors. PMID:25252938

  14. Understanding diversity: the importance of social acceptance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jacqueline M; Hamilton, David L

    2015-04-01

    Two studies investigated how people define and perceive diversity in the historically majority-group dominated contexts of business and academia. We hypothesized that individuals construe diversity as both the numeric representation of racial minorities and the social acceptance of racial minorities within a group. In Study 1, undergraduates' (especially minorities') perceptions of campus diversity were predicted by perceived social acceptance on a college campus, above and beyond perceived minority representation. Study 2 showed that increases in a company's representation and social acceptance independently led to increases in perceived diversity of the company among Whites. Among non-Whites, representation and social acceptance only increased perceived diversity of the company when both qualities were high. Together these findings demonstrate the importance of both representation and social acceptance to the achievement of diversity in groups and that perceiver race influences the relative importance of these two components of diversity.

  15. Comparison of Two Methods for Noninvasive Determination of Stroke Volume During Orthostatic Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerr, Donald F.; Ratliff, Duane A.; Sithole, Joseph; Convertino, Victor A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The real time, beat-by-beat, non-invasive determination of stroke volume (SV) is an important parameter in many aerospace related physiologic protocols. In this study, we compared simultaneous estimates of SV calculated from peripheral pulse waveforms with a more conventional non-invasive technique. Methods: Using a prospective, randomized blinded protocol, ten males and nine females completed 12-mm tilt table protocols. The relative change (%(Delta)) in beat-to-beat SV was estimated non-invasively from changes in pulse waveforms measured by application of infrared finger photoplethysmography (IFP) with a Portapres(Registered TradeMark) blood pressure monitoring device and by thoracic impedance cardiography (TIC). The %(Delta) SV values were calculated from continuous SV measurements in the supine posture and over the first 10 s (T1), second 10 s (T2), and 3.5 minutes (T3) of 80deg head-up tilt (HUT). Results: The average %(Delta) SV measured by IFP at T1 (-11.7 +/- 3.7 %) was statistically less (P <0.02) than the average %(Delta) SV measured by TIC at T1 (-21.7 +/- 3.1 %), while the average %(Delta) SV measured by 1FF at T2 (-16.2 +/- 3.9 %) and T3 (-19.1 +/- 3.8 %) were not statistically distinguishable (P > or = 0.322) than the average %(Delta) SV measured by TIC at T2 (-21.8 +/- 2.5 %), and T3 (-22.6 +/- 2.9 %). Correlation coefficients (r(sup 2)) between IFP and TIC were 0.117 (T1), 0.387 (T2), and 0.7 18 (T3). Conclusion: IFP provides beat-to-beat (real time) assessment of %(Delta) SV after 20 sec of transition to an orthostatic challenge that is comparable to the commonly accepted TIC. Our data support the notion that IFP technology which has flown during space missions can be used to accurately assess physiological status and countermeasure effectiveness for orth static problems that may arise in astronauts after space flight. While the peripherally measured IFP response is slightly delayed, the ease of implementing this monitor in the field is

  16. Noninvasive measurement of burn wound depth applying infrared thermal imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaspers, Mariëlle E.; Maltha, Ilse M.; Klaessens, John H.; Vet, Henrica C.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Zuijlen, Paul P.

    2016-02-01

    In burn wounds early discrimination between the different depths plays an important role in the treatment strategy. The remaining vasculature in the wound determines its healing potential. Non-invasive measurement tools that can identify the vascularization are therefore considered to be of high diagnostic importance. Thermography is a non-invasive technique that can accurately measure the temperature distribution over a large skin or tissue area, the temperature is a measure of the perfusion of that area. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinimetric properties (i.e. reliability and validity) of thermography for measuring burn wound depth. In a cross-sectional study with 50 burn wounds of 35 patients, the inter-observer reliability and the validity between thermography and Laser Doppler Imaging were studied. With ROC curve analyses the ΔT cut-off point for different burn wound depths were determined. The inter-observer reliability, expressed by an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.99, was found to be excellent. In terms of validity, a ΔT cut-off point of 0.96°C (sensitivity 71%; specificity 79%) differentiates between a superficial partial-thickness and deep partial-thickness burn. A ΔT cut-off point of -0.80°C (sensitivity 70%; specificity 74%) could differentiate between a deep partial-thickness and a full-thickness burn wound. This study demonstrates that thermography is a reliable method in the assessment of burn wound depths. In addition, thermography was reasonably able to discriminate among different burn wound depths, indicating its potential use as a diagnostic tool in clinical burn practice.

  17. High-Resolution, Noninvasive, Two-Photon Fluorescence Measurement of Molecular Concentrations in Corneal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liping; Huxlin, Krystel R.; Xu, Lisen; MacRae, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To perform high-resolution, noninvasive, calibrated measurements of the concentrations and diffusion profiles of fluorescent molecules in the live cornea after topical application to the ocular surface. Methods. An 800-nm femtosecond laser was used to perform two-photon fluorescence (TPF) axial scanning measurements. Calibration solutions consisting of sodium fluorescein (Na-Fl; concentration range, 0.01%–2.5%) and riboflavin (concentration range, 0.0125%–0.1%) were tested in well slides, and TPF signals were assessed. Excised feline eyeballs preserved in corneal storage medium and with either intact or removed corneal epithelia were then treated with Na-Fl, riboflavin, or fluorescein dextran (Fl-d) of different molecular weight (MW) for 30 minutes. Calibrated TPF was then used immediately to measure the concentration of these molecules across the central corneal depth. Results. The axial resolution of our TPF system was 6 μm, and a linear relationship was observed between TPF signal and low concentrations of most fluorophores. Intact corneas treated with Na-Fl or riboflavin exhibited a detectable penetration depth of only approximately 20 μm, compared with approximately 400 to 600 μm when the epithelium was removed before fluorophore application. Peak concentrations for intact corneas were half those attained with epithelial removal. Debrided corneas treated with 2,000,000 MW Fl-d showed a half-maximum penetration depth of 156.7 μm compared with 384 μm for the 3,000 MW dextran. The peak concentration of the high MW dextran was one quarter that of the lower MW dextran. Conclusions. TPF is an effective, high-resolution, noninvasive method of quantifying the diffusion and concentration of fluorescent molecules across the cornea. PMID:21228379

  18. Continuous, Noninvasive Monitoring of Total Hemoglobin Concentration by an Optoacoustic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Petrov, Yuriy Y.; Hartrumpf, Olaf; Deyo, Donald J.; Prough, Donald S.

    2004-06-01

    Measurement of total hemoglobin concentration [Hgb] is a blood test that is widely used to evaluate outpatients, hospital inpatients, and surgical patients, especially those undergoing surgery associated with extensive blood loss, rapid fluid administration, and transfusion of packed red blood cells. Current techniques for measurement of [Hgb] are invasive (requiring blood sampling) and cannot provide real-time, continuous monitoring. We propose to use an optoacoustic technique for noninvasive and continuous monitoring of [Hgb]. The high resolution of the optoacoustic technique may provide accurate measurement of [Hgb] by detection and analysis of optoacoustic signals induced by short optical pulses in blood circulating in arteries or veins. We designed, built, and tested in vitro (in both tissue phantoms and in preliminary in vivo experiments) a portable optoacoustic system for the monitoring of [Hgb] in the radial artery. The system includes a nanosecond laser operating in the near-infrared spectral range and a sensitive optoacoustic probe designed to irradiate the radial artery through the skin and detect optoacoustic signals induced in blood. Results of our studies demonstrated that (1) the slope of optoacoustic waves induced in blood in the transmission mode is linearly dependent on [Hgb] in the range from 6.2 to 12.4 g/dl, (2) optoacoustic signals can be detected despite optical attenuation in turbid tissue phantoms with a thickness of 1 cm, and (3) the optoacoustic system detects signals induced in blood circulating in the radial artery. These data suggest that the optoacoustic system can be used for accurate, noninvasive, real-time, and continuous monitoring of [Hgb].

  19. CW laser pumped emerald laser

    SciTech Connect

    Shand, M.L.; Lai, S.T.

    1984-02-01

    A CW laser-pumped emerald laser is reported. A 34 percent output power slope efficiency is observed with longitudinal pumping by a krypton laser in a nearly concentric cavity. The laser has been tuned from 728.8 to 809.0 nm. Losses in emerald are larger than those of alexandrite determined in a similar cavity. The present data also indicate that the excited state absorption minimum is shifted from that of alexandrite. 13 references.

  20. Cutaneous lasers.

    PubMed

    Fedok, Fred G; Garritano, Frank; Portela, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    There has been a remarkable development and evolution of laser technology, leading to adaptation of lasers for medical use and the treatment of skin problems and disorders. Many treatments that required incisional surgery and other invasive methods are now preferentially treated with a laser. Although laser advances have resulted in the availability of some amazing tools, they require the clinical skill and judgment of the clinician for their optimal use. This article provides a clinically oriented overview of many of the lasers valuable in facial plastic surgery. Basic science, clinical adaptations, and patient management topics are covered.

  1. Time division multiplexed laser Doppler anemometry using pulsed laser diodes and optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Lockey, R.A.; Tatam, R.P.

    1995-12-31

    Laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) is a well established technique for non-invasive measurement of fluid flow, by measuring the frequency shift of light scattered by particles entrained in the flow. A time division multiplexed laser Doppler anemometer is reported, using a single high frequency pulsed laser diode as a source. Time division multiplexing requires a single detector channel, removing the need for multiple detectors and wavelength separation optics found in conventional CW laser Doppler systems. By incorporating optical fibers into the system to distribute the pulses into each channel and impose a delay between channels, the electronic requirements of such an instrument are reduced. Results for a two-dimensional system are presented, measured on a water-seeded air jet. Individual velocity components of up to 16 ms{sup {minus}1} and overall velocities of up to 20 ms{sup {minus}1} have been detected, but the potential range of the instrument is very much greater.

  2. Laser device

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2004-11-23

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  3. Laser device

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2007-07-10

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  4. Laser ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2003-01-01

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones. In a third embodiment, alternating short and long pulses of light from the excitation light source are directed into the ignitor laser. Each of the embodiments of the invention can be multiplexed so as to provide laser light energy sequentially to more than one ignitor laser.

  5. Test performance of the PARSEC laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabien, Sebastian; Davies, Richard I.; Ott, Thomas; Li, Jianlang; Abuter, Roberto; Kellner, Stefan; Neumann, Udo

    2004-10-01

    The PARSEC laser system is designed for the VLT Laser Guide Star Facility to deliver a high power cw laser beam at 589nm, in order to create an artificial guide star in the mesospheric Sodium layer. The laser consists of a resonant, dye based power amplifier which is injection seeded with 589nm, single frequency radiation from a master oscillator. We report on the performance of the system both during the European Acceptance tests, and that which has been achieved in the laboratory. The maximum power we have obtained amounts to 20W cw laser light in a single mode and a single frequency at 589nm. With a beam quality of M2 of 1.05-1.15 and a long term stability without manual intervention, the laser suits all the demands for operation at the VLT.

  6. Consumer Acceptance of Dry Dog Food Variations

    PubMed Central

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri; Swaney-Stueve, Marianne; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Pet owners evaluated dry dog food samples available in the US market. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Abstract The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Eight dry dog food samples available in the US market were evaluated by pet owners. In this study, consumers evaluated overall liking, aroma, and appearance liking of the products. Consumers were also asked to predict their purchase intent, their dog’s liking, and cost of the samples. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Overall liking clusters were not related to income, age, gender, or education, indicating that general consumer demographics do not appear to play a main role in individual consumer acceptance of dog food products. PMID:26480043

  7. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-07-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal.

  8. Approaches to acceptable risk: a critical guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fischhoff, B.; Lichtenstein, S.; Slovic, P.; Keeney, R.; Derby, S.

    1980-12-01

    Acceptable-risk decisions are an essential step in the management of technological hazards. In many situations, they constitute the weak (or missing) link in the management process. The absence of an adequate decision-making methodology often produces indecision, inconsistency, and dissatisfaction. The result is neither good for hazard management nor good for society. This report offers a critical analysis of the viability of various approaches as guides to acceptable-risk decisions. This report seeks to define acceptable-risk decisions and to examine some frequently proposed, but inappropriate, solutions. 255 refs., 22 figs., 25 tabs.

  9. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  10. Tenrec phylogeny and the noninvasive extraction of nuclear DNA.

    PubMed

    Asher, Robert J; Hofreiter, Michael

    2006-04-01

    Due in part to scarcity of material, no published study has yet cladistically addressed the systematics of living and fossil Tenrecidae (Mammalia, Afrotheria). Using a noninvasive technique for sampling nuclear DNA from museum specimens, we investigate the evolution of the Tenrecidae and assess the extent to which tenrecids fit patterns of relationships proposed for other terrestrial mammals on Madagascar. Application of several tree-reconstruction techniques on sequences of the nuclear growth hormone receptor gene and morphological data for all recognized tenrecid genera supports monophyly of Malagasy tenrecids to the exclusion of the two living African genera. However, both parsimony and Bayesian methods favor a close relationship between fossil African tenrecs and the Malagasy Geogale, supporting the hypothesis of island paraphyly, but not polyphyly. More generally, the noninvasive extraction technique can be applied with minimal risk to rare/unique specimens and, by better utilizing museum collections for genetic work, can greatly mitigate field expenses and disturbance of natural populations.

  11. Reflectance spectroscopy for noninvasive evaluation of hair follicle stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhong, Xiewei; Liu, Xiuli; Zhu, Dan

    2015-05-01

    Hair follicle offers an excellent model for systems biology and regenerative medicine. So far, the stages of hair follicle growth have been evaluated by histological examination. In this work, a noninvasive spectroscopy was proposed by measuring the diffuse reflectance of mouse skin and analyzing the melanin value. Results show that the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high when hair follicles were at the telogen stage and at the beginning of the anagen stage, and decreased with the progression of the anagen stage. When the hair follicle entered into the catagen stage, the diffuse reflectance gradually increased. The changes in the melanin content of skin had contrary dynamics. Substages of the hair follicle cycle could be distinguished by comparing the changes in melanin value with the histological examination. This study provided a new method for noninvasive evaluation of the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

  12. Reflectance spectroscopy for noninvasive evaluation of hair follicle stage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhong, Xiewei; Liu, Xiuli; Zhu, Dan

    2015-05-01

    Hair follicle offers an excellent model for systems biology and regenerative medicine. So far, the stages of hair follicle growth have been evaluated by histological examination. In this work, a noninvasive spectroscopy was proposed by measuring the diffuse reflectance of mouse skin and analyzing the melanin value. Results show that the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high when hair follicles were at the telogen stage and at the beginning of the anagen stage, and decreased with the progression of the anagen stage. When the hair follicle entered into the catagen stage, the diffuse reflectance gradually increased. The changes in the melanin content of skin had contrary dynamics. Substages of the hair follicle cycle could be distinguished by comparing the changes in melanin value with the histological examination. This study provided a new method for noninvasive evaluation of the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration. PMID:25428579

  13. Noninvasive cineangiography by magnetic resonance global coherent free precession.

    PubMed

    Rehwald, Wolfgang G; Chen, Enn-Ling; Kim, Raymond J; Judd, Robert M

    2004-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is primarily diagnosed using invasive X-ray cineangiography. Here we introduce a new concept in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that, for the first time, produces similar images noninvasively and without a contrast agent. Protons in moving blood are 'tagged' every few milliseconds as they travel through an arbitrary region in space. Simultaneous with ongoing tagging of new blood, previously tagged blood is maintained in a state of global coherent free precession (GCFP), which allows acquisition of consecutive movie frames as the heart pushes blood through the vascular bed. Body tissue surrounding the moving blood is never excited and therefore remains invisible. In 18 subjects, pulsating blood could be seen flowing through three-dimensional (3D) space for distances of up to 16 cm outside the stationary excitation region. These data underscore that our approach noninvasively characterizes both anatomy and blood flow in a manner directly analogous to invasive procedures.

  14. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm Jr., Martin C.; Austen Jr., William G.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases. PMID:25965851

  15. Noninvasive optical inhibition with a red-shifted microbial rhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Chuong, Amy S; Miri, Mitra L; Busskamp, Volker; Matthews, Gillian A C; Acker, Leah C; Sørensen, Andreas T; Young, Andrew; Klapoetke, Nathan C; Henninger, Mike A; Kodandaramaiah, Suhasa B; Ogawa, Masaaki; Ramanlal, Shreshtha B; Bandler, Rachel C; Allen, Brian D; Forest, Craig R; Chow, Brian Y; Han, Xue; Lin, Yingxi; Tye, Kay M; Roska, Botond; Cardin, Jessica A; Boyden, Edward S

    2014-01-01

    Optogenetic inhibition of the electrical activity of neurons enables the causal assessment of their contributions to brain functions. Red light penetrates deeper into tissue than other visible wavelengths. We present a red-shifted cruxhalorhodopsin, Jaws, derived from Haloarcula (Halobacterium) salinarum (strain Shark) and engineered to result in red light–induced photocurrents three times those of earlier silencers. Jaws exhibits robust inhibition of sensory-evoked neural activity in the cortex and results in strong light responses when used in retinas of retinitis pigmentosa model mice. We also demonstrate that Jaws can noninvasively mediate transcranial optical inhibition of neurons deep in the brains of awake mice. The noninvasive optogenetic inhibition opened up by Jaws enables a variety of important neuroscience experiments and offers a powerful general-use chloride pump for basic and applied neuroscience. PMID:24997763

  16. Noninvasive Intracranial Volume and Pressure Measurements Using Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    Prevention of secondary brain injuries following head can be accomplished most easily when intracranial pressure (ICP) is monitored. However, current measurement techniques are invasive and thus not practical in the combat environment. The Pulsed Phase Lock Loop (PPLL) devise, which was developed and patented, uses a unique, noninvasive ultrasonic phase comparison method to measure slight changes in cranial volume which occur with changes in ICP. Year one studies involved instrument improvements and measurement of altered intracranial distance with altered ICP in fresh cadavera. Our software was improved to facilitate future studies of normal subjects and trauma patients. Our bench studies proved that PPLL output correlated highly with changes in path length across a model cranium. Cadaveric studies demonstrated excellent compact, noninvasive devise for monitoring changes in intracranial distance may aid in the early detection of elevated ICP, decreasing risk of secondary brain injury and infection, and returning head-injured patients to duty.

  17. Invasive and noninvasive methods for studying pulmonary function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Glaab, Thomas; Taube, Christian; Braun, Armin; Mitzner, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    The widespread use of genetically altered mouse models of experimental asthma has stimulated the development of lung function techniques in vivo to characterize the functional results of genetic manipulations. Here, we describe various classical and recent methods of measuring airway responsiveness in vivo including both invasive methodologies in anesthetized, intubated mice (repetitive/non-repetitive assessment of pulmonary resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn); measurement of low-frequency forced oscillations (LFOT)) and noninvasive technologies in conscious animals (head-out body plethysmography; barometric whole-body plethysmography). Outlined are the technical principles, validation and applications as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each methodology. Reviewed is the current set of invasive and noninvasive methods of measuring murine pulmonary function, with particular emphasis on practical considerations that should be considered when applying them for phenotyping in the laboratory mouse. PMID:17868442

  18. Non-invasive diagnosis of internal carotid artery dissections.

    PubMed Central

    Müllges, W; Ringelstein, E B; Leibold, M

    1992-01-01

    Arteriography is thought to be mandatory for the diagnosis of internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection. With the introduction of transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, this is no longer the case. In 13 consecutive patients with ICA dissections the diagnosis was made by means of non-invasive tests including extracranial and transcranial Doppler sonography, contrast enhanced computed tomography (ceCT), and, in five patients, MRI. Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography used as the gold standard in all cases was confirmative. Extracranial and transcranial ultrasound findings indicative of the diagnosis could be identified. MRI directly demonstrated the intramural haematoma and the false lumen of the dissected artery. These non-invasive techniques also allowed for repetitive follow up examinations. They were, however, unable to demonstrate false aneurysms in the chronic state. Results show that the diagnosis of carotid dissection can be made by means of cerebrovascular ultrasound and MRI. Images PMID:1538235

  19. Commercial Landscape of noninvasive prenatal testing in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashwin; Sayres, Lauren C.; Cho, Mildred K.; Cook-Deegan, Robert; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini

    2014-01-01

    Cell-free fetal DNA-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) could significantly change the paradigm of prenatal testing and screening. Intellectual property (IP) and commercialization promise to be important components of the emerging debate about clinical implementation of these technologies. We have assembled information about types of testing, prices, turnaround times and reimbursement of recently launched commercial tests in the United States from the trade press, news articles, and scientific, legal, and business publications. We also describe the patenting and licensing landscape of technologies underlying these tests and ongoing patent litigation in the United States. Finally, we discuss how IP issues may affect clinical translation of NIPT and their potential implications for stakeholders. Fetal medicine professionals (clinicians and researchers), genetic counselors, insurers, regulators, test developers and patients may be able to use this information to make informed decisions about clinical implementation of current and emerging noninvasive prenatal tests. PMID:23686656

  20. Non-invasive microsensors for studying cell/tissue physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanegas, D. C.; Taguchi, M.; Chaturvedi, P.; Burrs, S.; McLamore, E. S.

    2013-05-01

    Non-invasive tools that allow real-time quantification of molecules relevant to metabolism, homeostasis, and cell signaling in cells and tissue are of great importance for studying physiology. Several microsensor technologies have been developed to monitor concentration of molecules such as ions, oxygen, electroactive molecules (e.g., nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide), and biomolecules (e.g., sugars, hormones). The major challenges for microsensors are overcoming relatively low sensitivity and low signal-to-noise ratio. Modern approaches for enhancing microsensor performance focus on the incorporation of catalytic nanomaterials to increase sensitivity, reduce response time, and increase operating range. To improve signal-to-noise ratio, a non-invasive microsensor modality called self-referencing (SR) is being applied. The SR technique allows measurement of temporal and spatial transport dynamics at the cell, tissue, organ, and organismal level.

  1. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm, Martin C., Jr.; Austen, William G., Jr.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-05-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases.

  2. Non-invasive Respiratory Support and Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Raghu, Rahul; Fisher, Marilyn; Cerone, Jennifer; Barry, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe two premature infants who developed stage 3, zone I retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with plus disease in both eyes, despite limited exposure to supra-ambient oxygen. Both infants received noninvasive respiratory support for several weeks. Both cases are notable because the ROP was more posterior and aggressive than is typical for the gestational ages or birth weights. These cases are insufficient to make definitive conclusions regarding the factors that cause ROP. Further investigation is required to determine if there is an association between the use of non-invasive respiratory support, even in the absence of supra-ambient oxygen, and severe ROP development. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53:e47-e50.]. PMID:27537495

  3. Commercial landscape of noninvasive prenatal testing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashwin; Sayres, Lauren C; Cho, Mildred K; Cook-Deegan, Robert; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini

    2013-06-01

    Cell-free fetal DNA-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) could significantly change the paradigm of prenatal testing and screening. Intellectual property (IP) and commercialization promise to be important components of the emerging debate about clinical implementation of these technologies. We have assembled information about types of testing, prices, turnaround times, and reimbursement of recently launched commercial tests in the United States from the trade press, news articles, and scientific, legal, and business publications. We also describe the patenting and licensing landscape of technologies underlying these tests and ongoing patent litigation in the United States. Finally, we discuss how IP issues may affect clinical translation of NIPT and their potential implications for stakeholders. Fetal medicine professionals (clinicians and researchers), genetic counselors, insurers, regulators, test developers, and patients may be able to use this information to make informed decisions about clinical implementation of current and emerging noninvasive prenatal tests.

  4. Noninvasive particle sizing using camera-based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Viggo; Parker, Alan; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Larsen, Rasmus

    2016-05-10

    Diffuse reflectance measurements are useful for noninvasive inspection of optical properties such as reduced scattering and absorption coefficients. Spectroscopic analysis of these optical properties can be used for particle sizing. Systems based on optical fiber probes are commonly employed, but their low spatial resolution limits their validity ranges for the coefficients. To cover a wider range of coefficients, we use camera-based spectroscopic oblique incidence reflectometry. We develop a noninvasive technique for acquisition of apparent particle size distributions based on this approach. Our technique is validated using stable oil-in-water emulsions with a wide range of known particle size distributions. We also measure the apparent particle size distributions of complex dairy products. These results show that our tool, in contrast to those based on fiber probes, can deal with a range of optical properties wide enough to track apparent particle size distributions in a typical industrial process. PMID:27168301

  5. High-Speed Noninvasive Eye-Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talukder, Ashit; LaBaw, Clayton; Michael-Morookian, John; Monacos, Steve; Serviss, Orin

    2007-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts a system of electronic hardware and software that noninvasively tracks the direction of a person s gaze in real time. Like prior commercial noninvasive eye-tracking systems, this system is based on (1) illumination of an eye by a low-power infrared light-emitting diode (LED); (2) acquisition of video images of the pupil, iris, and cornea in the reflected infrared light; (3) digitization of the images; and (4) processing the digital image data to determine the direction of gaze from the centroids of the pupil and cornea in the images. Relative to the prior commercial systems, the present system operates at much higher speed and thereby offers enhanced capability for applications that involve human-computer interactions, including typing and computer command and control by handicapped individuals,and eye-based diagnosis of physiological disorders that affect gaze responses.

  6. Development of Noninvasive Blood Glucose Sensor Using the Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Keiichi; Tamura, Kazuto; Kaneko, Wataru; Ishizawa, Hiroaki; Toba, Eiji

    Recently, diabetics have been steadily increasing, because change of diet, lack of exercise, increase an alcoholic intake, and increase a stress. It is a very serious problem for us. About 23.6 millions of people in Japan approach the danger of diabetes. Therefore, it is necessary to get insulin injection. And they have to measure blood glucose again and again a day. So, they are burden too heavy. This paper describes a new noninvasive measurement of blood glucose based on optical sensing. This uses Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of attenuated total reflection. Non-invasive measurement was carried out by using 3 methods. And standard error of prediction is about ±20mg/dl by 3 method. This paper also describes practical application of this method.

  7. Towards a Wearable Non-invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Joseph Thomas; Solanki, J.; Choudhary, Om P.; Chouksey, S.; Malvia, N.; Chaturvedi, P.; Sen, P.

    2012-05-01

    Every day, about 150 Million people worldwide face the problem of diabetic metabolic control. Both the hypo- and hyper- glycaemic conditions of patients have fatal consequences and warrant blood glucose monitoring at regular interval. Existing blood glucose monitors can be widely classified into three classes viz., invasive, minimally invasive, and noninvasive. Invasive monitoring requires small volume of blood and are inappropriate for continuous monitoring of blood glucose. Minimally invasive monitors analyze tissue fluid or extract few micro litre of blood only. Also the skin injury is minimal. On the other hand, noninvasive devices are painless and void of any skin injury. We use an indigenously developed polarization sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography to measure the blood glucose levels. Current trends and recent results with the device are discussed.

  8. Chinese Nurses' Acceptance of PDA: A Cross-Sectional Survey Using a Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanling; Xiao, Qian; Sun, Liu; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study explores Chinese nurses' acceptance of PDA, using a questionnaire based on the framework of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). 357 nurses were involved in the study. The results reveal the scores of the nurses' acceptance of PDA were means 3.18~3.36 in four dimensions. The younger of nurses, the higher nurses' title, the longer previous usage time, the more experienced using PDA, and the more acceptance of PDA. Therefore, the hospital administrators may change strategies to enhance nurses' acceptance of PDA, and promote the wide application of PDA.

  9. Non-invasive fluid density and viscosity measurement

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2012-05-01

    The noninvasively measurement of the density and viscosity of static or flowing fluids in a section of pipe such that the pipe performs as the sensing apparatus, is described. Measurement of a suitable structural vibration resonance frequency of the pipe and the width of this resonance permits the density and viscosity to be determined, respectively. The viscosity may also be measured by monitoring the decay in time of a vibration resonance in the pipe.

  10. Near-Infrared Optical Imaging Noninvasively Detects Acutely Damaged Muscle.

    PubMed

    Chrzanowski, Stephen M; Batra, Abhinandan; Lee-McMullen, Brittany; Vohra, Ravneet S; Forbes, Sean C; Jiang, Huabei; Vandenborne, Krista; Walter, Glenn A

    2016-10-01

    Muscle damage is currently assessed through methods such as muscle biopsy, serum biomarkers, functional testing, and imaging procedures, each with its own inherent limitations, and a pressing need for a safe, repeatable, inexpensive, and noninvasive modality to assess the state of muscle health remains. Our aim was to develop and assess near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging as a novel noninvasive method of detecting and quantifying muscle damage. An immobilization-reambulation model was used for inducing muscle damage and recovery in the lower hindlimbs in mice. Confirmation of muscle damage was obtained using in vivo indocyanine green-enhanced NIR optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and ex vivo tissue analysis. The soleus of the immobilized-reambulated hindlimb was found to have a greater amount of muscle damage compared to that in the contralateral nonimmobilized limb, confirmed by in vivo indocyanine green-enhanced NIR optical imaging (3.86-fold increase in radiant efficiency), magnetic resonance imaging (1.41-fold increase in T2), and an ex vivo spectrophotometric assay of indocyanine green uptake (1.87-fold increase in normalized absorbance). Contrast-enhanced NIR optical imaging provides a sensitive, rapid, and noninvasive screening method that can be used for imaging and quantifying muscle damage and recovery in vivo. PMID:27565039

  11. Humidification during invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilation: 2012.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Ruben D; Walsh, Brian K

    2012-05-01

    We searched the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases for articles published between January 1990 and December 2011. The update of this clinical practice guideline is based on 184 clinical trials and systematic reviews, and 10 articles investigating humidification during invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilation. The following recommendations are made following the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) scoring system: 1. Humidification is recommended on every patient receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. 2. Active humidification is suggested for noninvasive mechanical ventilation, as it may improve adherence and comfort. 3. When providing active humidification to patients who are invasively ventilated, it is suggested that the device provide a humidity level between 33 mg H(2)O/L and 44 mg H(2)O/L and gas temperature between 34°C and 41°C at the circuit Y-piece, with a relative humidity of 100%. 4. When providing passive humidification to patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation, it is suggested that the HME provide a minimum of 30 mg H(2)O/L. 5. Passive humidification is not recommended for noninvasive mechanical ventilation. 6. When providing humidification to patients with low tidal volumes, such as when lung-protective ventilation strategies are used, HMEs are not recommended because they contribute additional dead space, which can increase the ventilation requirement and P(aCO(2)). 7. It is suggested that HMEs are not used as a prevention strategy for ventilator-associated pneumonia.

  12. Estimation of Tumor Interstitial Fluid Pressure (TIFP) Noninvasively

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long Jian; Brown, Stephen L.; Ewing, James R.; Ala, Brigitte D.; Schneider, Kenneth M.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP), is a physiological parameter with demonstrated predictive value for a tumor’s aggressiveness, drug delivery, as well as response to treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Despite its utility, measurement of TIFP has been limited by the need for invasive procedures. In this work, the theoretical basis for approaching the absolute value of TIFP and the experimental method for noninvasively measuring TIFP are presented. Given specific boundary and continuity conditions, we convert theoretical variables into measurable variables by applying MRI technology. The work shows that TIFP in the central region of the tumor can be estimated by an analysis of the variation of tissue fluid motion in the tumor rim and surrounding tissue. It is determined from three noninvasive measurable parameters: i) an estimate of the velocity of the tumor interstitial fluid at the tumor surface, which is maximal, ii) a measurement of the distance from the tumor surface to where the tumor exudates are absorbed (or normalized), and iii) an estimate of the hydraulic conductivity of the interstitium through which the tumor exudate travels. We experimentally show that the fluid flow within the tumor rim is not uniform, even for a round shaped tumor, and demonstrate the procedures for the noninvasive measurement of TIFP. PMID:27467886

  13. Estimation of Tumor Interstitial Fluid Pressure (TIFP) Noninvasively.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long Jian; Brown, Stephen L; Ewing, James R; Ala, Brigitte D; Schneider, Kenneth M; Schlesinger, Mordechay

    2016-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP), is a physiological parameter with demonstrated predictive value for a tumor's aggressiveness, drug delivery, as well as response to treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Despite its utility, measurement of TIFP has been limited by the need for invasive procedures. In this work, the theoretical basis for approaching the absolute value of TIFP and the experimental method for noninvasively measuring TIFP are presented. Given specific boundary and continuity conditions, we convert theoretical variables into measurable variables by applying MRI technology. The work shows that TIFP in the central region of the tumor can be estimated by an analysis of the variation of tissue fluid motion in the tumor rim and surrounding tissue. It is determined from three noninvasive measurable parameters: i) an estimate of the velocity of the tumor interstitial fluid at the tumor surface, which is maximal, ii) a measurement of the distance from the tumor surface to where the tumor exudates are absorbed (or normalized), and iii) an estimate of the hydraulic conductivity of the interstitium through which the tumor exudate travels. We experimentally show that the fluid flow within the tumor rim is not uniform, even for a round shaped tumor, and demonstrate the procedures for the noninvasive measurement of TIFP. PMID:27467886

  14. Microarray Noninvasive Neuronal Seizure Recordings from Intact Larval Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Michaela; Dhamne, Sameer C; LaCoursiere, Christopher M; Tambunan, Dimira; Poduri, Annapurna; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish epilepsy models are emerging tools in experimental epilepsy. Zebrafish larvae, in particular, are advantageous because they can be easily genetically altered and used for developmental and drug studies since agents applied to the bath penetrate the organism easily. Methods for electrophysiological recordings in zebrafish are new and evolving. We present a novel multi-electrode array method to non-invasively record electrical activity from up to 61 locations of an intact larval zebrafish head. This method enables transcranial noninvasive recording of extracellular field potentials (which include multi-unit activity and EEG) to identify epileptic seizures. To record from the brains of zebrafish larvae, the dorsum of the head of an intact larva was secured onto a multi-electrode array. We recorded from individual electrodes for at least three hours and quantified neuronal firing frequency, spike patterns (continuous or bursting), and synchrony of neuronal firing. Following 15 mM potassium chloride- or pentylenetetrazole-infusion into the bath, spike and burst rate increased significantly. Additionally, synchrony of neuronal firing across channels, a hallmark of epileptic seizures, also increased. Notably, the fish survived the experiment. This non-invasive method complements present invasive zebrafish neurophysiological techniques: it affords the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution, a capacity to measure multiregional activity and neuronal synchrony in seizures, and fish survival for future experiments, such as studies of epileptogenesis and development. PMID:27281339

  15. Microarray Noninvasive Neuronal Seizure Recordings from Intact Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Michaela; Dhamne, Sameer C.; LaCoursiere, Christopher M.; Tambunan, Dimira; Poduri, Annapurna; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish epilepsy models are emerging tools in experimental epilepsy. Zebrafish larvae, in particular, are advantageous because they can be easily genetically altered and used for developmental and drug studies since agents applied to the bath penetrate the organism easily. Methods for electrophysiological recordings in zebrafish are new and evolving. We present a novel multi-electrode array method to non-invasively record electrical activity from up to 61 locations of an intact larval zebrafish head. This method enables transcranial noninvasive recording of extracellular field potentials (which include multi-unit activity and EEG) to identify epileptic seizures. To record from the brains of zebrafish larvae, the dorsum of the head of an intact larva was secured onto a multi-electrode array. We recorded from individual electrodes for at least three hours and quantified neuronal firing frequency, spike patterns (continuous or bursting), and synchrony of neuronal firing. Following 15 mM potassium chloride- or pentylenetetrazole-infusion into the bath, spike and burst rate increased significantly. Additionally, synchrony of neuronal firing across channels, a hallmark of epileptic seizures, also increased. Notably, the fish survived the experiment. This non-invasive method complements present invasive zebrafish neurophysiological techniques: it affords the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution, a capacity to measure multiregional activity and neuronal synchrony in seizures, and fish survival for future experiments, such as studies of epileptogenesis and development. PMID:27281339

  16. Bioelectrical Impedance Methods for Noninvasive Health Monitoring: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Tushar Kanti

    2014-01-01

    Under the alternating electrical excitation, biological tissues produce a complex electrical impedance which depends on tissue composition, structures, health status, and applied signal frequency, and hence the bioelectrical impedance methods can be utilized for noninvasive tissue characterization. As the impedance responses of these tissue parameters vary with frequencies of the applied signal, the impedance analysis conducted over a wide frequency band provides more information about the tissue interiors which help us to better understand the biological tissues anatomy, physiology, and pathology. Over past few decades, a number of impedance based noninvasive tissue characterization techniques such as bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical impedance plethysmography (IPG), impedance cardiography (ICG), and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) have been proposed and a lot of research works have been conducted on these methods for noninvasive tissue characterization and disease diagnosis. In this paper BIA, EIS, IPG, ICG, and EIT techniques and their applications in different fields have been reviewed and technical perspective of these impedance methods has been presented. The working principles, applications, merits, and demerits of these methods has been discussed in detail along with their other technical issues followed by present status and future trends. PMID:27006932

  17. Autotitrating versus standard noninvasive ventilation: a randomised crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Jaye, J; Chatwin, M; Dayer, M; Morrell, M J; Simonds, A K

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of automatic titration of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with conventional NIV in stable neuromuscular and chest wall disorder patients established on long-term ventilatory support. In total, 20 neuromuscular and chest wall disease patients with nocturnal hypoventilation treated with long-term NIV completed a randomised crossover trial comparing two noninvasive pressure support ventilators: a standard bilevel ventilator (VPAP III) and a novel autotitrating bilevel ventilator (AutoVPAP). Baseline physiological measurements, overnight polysomnography and Holter monitoring were repeated at the end of each 1-month treatment period. Nocturnal oxygenation was comparable between the autotitrating device and standard ventilator, as were sleep efficiency, arousals and heart rate variability. However, there was a small significant increase in mean overnight transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (median (interquartile range) 7.2 (6.7-7.7) versus 6.7 (6.1-7.0) kPa) and a decrease in percentage stage 1 sleep (mean+/-sd 16+/-9 versus 19+/-10%) on autotitrating NIV compared with conventional NIV. Autotitrating noninvasive ventilation using AutoVPAP produced comparable control of nocturnal oxygenation to standard nonivasive ventilation, without compromising sleep quality in stable neuromuscular and chest wall disease patients requiring long-term ventilatory support for nocturnal hypoventilation. PMID:19251798

  18. Cellular Phone Enabled Non-Invasive Tissue Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Laufer, Shlomi; Rubinsky, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Cellular phone technology is emerging as an important tool in the effort to provide advanced medical care to the majority of the world population currently without access to such care. In this study, we show that non-invasive electrical measurements and the use of classifier software can be combined with cellular phone technology to produce inexpensive tissue characterization. This concept was demonstrated by the use of a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to distinguish through the cellular phone between heart and kidney tissue via the non-invasive multi-frequency electrical measurements acquired around the tissues. After the measurements were performed at a remote site, the raw data were transmitted through the cellular phone to a central computational site and the classifier was applied to the raw data. The results of the tissue analysis were returned to the remote data measurement site. The classifiers correctly determined the tissue type with a specificity of over 90%. When used for the detection of malignant tumors, classifiers can be designed to produce false positives in order to ensure that no tumors will be missed. This mode of operation has applications in remote non-invasive tissue diagnostics in situ in the body, in combination with medical imaging, as well as in remote diagnostics of biopsy samples in vitro. PMID:19365554

  19. Non-invasive diagnosis of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suraj; Khalili, Korosh; Nguyen, Geoffrey Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a common and growing public health problem globally. The diagnosis of cirrhosis portends an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for diagnosis of cirrhosis and staging of fibrosis. However, despite its universal use, liver biopsy is an invasive and inaccurate gold standard with numerous drawbacks. In order to overcome the limitations of liver biopsy, a number of non-invasive techniques have been investigated for the assessment of cirrhosis. This review will focus on currently available non-invasive markers of cirrhosis. The evidence behind the use of these markers will be highlighted, along with an assessment of diagnostic accuracy and performance characteristics of each test. Non-invasive markers of cirrhosis can be radiologic or serum-based. Radiologic techniques based on ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and elastography have been used to assess liver fibrosis. Serum-based biomarkers of cirrhosis have also been developed. These are broadly classified into indirect and direct markers. Indirect biomarkers reflect liver function, which may decline with the onset of cirrhosis. Direct biomarkers, reflect extracellular matrix turnover, and include molecules involved in hepatic fibrogenesis. On the whole, radiologic and serum markers of fibrosis correlate well with biopsy scores, especially when excluding cirrhosis or excluding fibrosis. This feature is certainly clinically useful, and avoids liver biopsy in many cases.

  20. Noninvasive determination of cell nucleoplasmic viscosity by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Lifang; Wang, Xichao; Xing, Da; Chen, Tongsheng; Chen, Wei R.

    2009-03-01

    Noninvasive and reliable quantification of rheological characteristics in the nucleus is extremely useful for fundamental research and practical applications in medicine and biology. This study examines the use of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to noninvasively determine nucleoplasmic viscosity (ɛnu), an important parameter of nucleoplasmic rheology. Our FCS analyses show that ɛnu of lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) and HeLa cells are 1.77+/-0.42 cP and 1.40+/-0.27 cP, respectively, about three to four times larger than the water viscosity at 37 °C. ɛnu was reduced by 31 to 36% upon hypotonic exposure and increased by 28 to 52% from 37 to 24 °C. In addition, we found that ɛnu of HeLa cells reached the lowest value in the S phase and that there was no significant difference of ɛnu between in the G1 and G2 phases. Last, nucleoplasmic viscosity was found to be larger than cytoplasmic viscosity in both HeLa and ASTC-a-1 cells. These results indicate that FCS can be used as a noninvasive tool to investigate the microenvironment of living cells. This is the first report on the measurement of ɛnu in living cells synchronized in the G1, S, and G2 phases.

  1. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... acceptance. (a) The head of the contracting activity (HCA) may determine that offerors must demonstrate, in... officer shall place a copy of this determination, signed by the HCA, in the solicitation file....

  2. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... acceptance. (a) The head of the contracting activity (HCA) may determine that offerors must demonstrate, in... officer shall place a copy of this determination, signed by the HCA, in the solicitation file....

  3. 48 CFR 411.103 - Market acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... acceptance. (a) The head of the contracting activity (HCA) may determine that offerors must demonstrate, in... officer shall place a copy of this determination, signed by the HCA, in the solicitation file....

  4. Gas characterization system software acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, C.V.

    1996-02-27

    This document details the Software Acceptance Testing of gas characterization systems. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases.

  5. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1999-05-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the Nevada Test Site.

  6. Behavioral genetics: scientific and social acceptance.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, David R

    2003-01-01

    Human behavioral genetics can be broadly defined as the attempt to characterize and define the genetic or hereditary basis for human behavior. Examination of the history of these scientific enterprises reveals episodes of controversy, and an apparent distinction between scientific and social acceptance of the genetic nature of such complex behaviors. This essay will review the history and methodology of behavioral genetics research, including a more detailed look at case histories involving behavioral genetic research for aggressive behavior and alcoholism. It includes a discussion of the scientific versus social qualities of the acceptance of behavioral genetics research, as well as the development of a general model for scientific acceptance involving the researchers, the scientific literature, the scientific peer group, the mainstream media, and the public at large. From this model follows a discussion of the means and complications by which behavioral genetics research may be accepted by society, and an analysis of how future studies might be conducted.

  7. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.326 - Acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.326 Acceptance. Any person selected by the Secretary as...

  10. What Are Acceptable Limits of Radiation?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Brad Gersey, lead research scientist at the Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration, or CRESSE, at Prairie View A&M University, describes the legal and acceptable limits ...

  11. 78 FR 8189 - Acceptance of Concurrent Jurisdiction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... accepted concurrent legislative jurisdiction from the State of Washington over lands and waters administered by the National Park Service within the boundaries of Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area. DATES: Effective Date: Concurrent legislative jurisdiction within Lake Roosevelt National...

  12. Integrated Model for E-Learning Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadiani; Rodziah, A.; Hasan, S. M.; Rusli, A.; Noraini, C.

    2016-01-01

    E-learning is not going to work if the system is not used in accordance with user needs. User Interface is very important to encourage using the application. Many theories had discuss about user interface usability evaluation and technology acceptance separately, actually why we do not make it correlation between interface usability evaluation and user acceptance to enhance e-learning process. Therefore, the evaluation model for e-learning interface acceptance is considered important to investigate. The aim of this study is to propose the integrated e-learning user interface acceptance evaluation model. This model was combined some theories of e-learning interface measurement such as, user learning style, usability evaluation, and the user benefit. We formulated in constructive questionnaires which were shared at 125 English Language School (ELS) students. This research statistics used Structural Equation Model using LISREL v8.80 and MANOVA analysis.

  13. Acceptance Test Plan for ANSYS Software

    SciTech Connect

    CREA, B.A.

    2000-10-25

    This plan governs the acceptance testing of the ANSYS software (Full Mechanical Release 5.5) for use on Project Word Management Contract (PHMC) computer systems (either UNIX or Microsoft Windows/NT). There are two phases to the acceptance testing covered by this test plan: program execution in accordance with the guidance provided in installation manuals; and ensuring results of the execution are consistent with the expected physical behavior of the system being modeled.

  14. Generalized group chain acceptance sampling plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Zakiyah; Mughal, Abdur Razzaque; Aziz, Nazrina

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we proposed an acceptance sampling plan based on generalized group chain truncated life test. The decision on acceptance of a submitted lot can be made by using the cumulative information of the immediately preceding samples. The design parameters of the proposed plan such as the minimum number of groups are found to satisfy the desired quality standard. The benefits of this plan include smaller sample size and reduced overall costs.

  15. Laser Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Tunable diode lasers are employed as radiation sources in high resolution infrared spectroscopy to determine spectral characteristics of gaseous compounds. With other laser systems, they are produced by Spectra-Physics, and used to monitor chemical processes, monitor production of quantity halogen lamps, etc. The Laser Analytics Division of Spectra-Physics credits the system's reliability to a program funded by Langley in the 1970s. Company no longer U.S.-owned. 5/22/97

  16. Reproducibility of transcutaneous oximetry and laser Doppler flowmetry in facial skin and gingival tissue.

    PubMed

    Svalestad, J; Hellem, S; Vaagbø, G; Irgens, A; Thorsen, E

    2010-01-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and transcutaneous oximetry (TcPO(2)) are non-invasive techniques, widely used in the clinical setting, for assessing microvascular blood flow and tissue oxygen tension, e.g. recording vascular changes after radiotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. With standardized procedures and improved reproducibility, these methods might also be applicable in longitudinal studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of facial skin and gingival LDF and facial skin TcPO(2). The subjects comprised ten healthy volunteers, 5 men, aged 31-68 years. Gingival perfusion was recorded with the LDF probe fixed to a custom made, tooth-supported acrylic splint. Skin perfusion was recorded on the cheek. TcPO(2) was recorded on the forehead and cheek and in the second intercostal space. The reproducibility of LDF measurements taken after vasodilation by heat provocation was greater than for basal flow in both facial skin and mandibular gingiva. Pronounced intraday variations were observed. Interweek reproducibility assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.74 to 0.96 for LDF and from 0.44 to 0.75 for TcPO(2). The results confirm acceptable reproducibility of LDF and TcPO(2) in longitudinal studies in a vascular laboratory where subjects serve as their own controls. The use of thermoprobes is recommended. Repeat measurements should be taken at the same time of day.

  17. Biocavity Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Gourley, P.L.; Gourley, M.F.

    2000-10-05

    Laser technology has advanced dramatically and is an integral part of today's healthcare delivery system. Lasers are used in the laboratory analysis of human blood samples and serve as surgical tools that kill, burn or cut tissue. Recent semiconductor microtechnology has reduced the size o f a laser to the size of a biological cell or even a virus particle. By integrating these ultra small lasers with biological systems, it is possible to create micro-electrical mechanical systems that may revolutionize health care delivery.

  18. Laser ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2002-01-01

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source capable of producing alternating beams of light having different wavelengths is used in tandem with one or more ignitor lasers to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using the single remote excitation light source for pumping one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones with alternating wavelengths of light.

  19. Laser apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Owen; Stogran, Edmund M.

    1980-01-01

    Laser apparatus is described wherein an active laser element, such as the disc of a face-pumped laser, is mounted in a housing such that the weight of the element is supported by glass spheres which fill a chamber defined in the housing between the walls of the housing and the edges of the laser element. The uniform support provided by the spheres enable the chamber and the pump side of the laser element to be sealed without affecting the alignment or other optical properties of the laser element. Cooling fluid may be circulated through the sealed region by way of the interstices between the spheres. The spheres, and if desired also the cooling fluid may contain material which absorbs radiation at the wavelength of parasitic emissions from the laser element. These parasitic emissions enter the spheres through the interface along the edge surface of the laser element and it is desirable that the index of refraction of the spheres and cooling fluid be near the index of refraction of the laser element. Thus support, cooling, and parasitic suppression functions are all accomplished through the use of the arrangement.

  20. Use of Simulation to Study Nurses Acceptance and Non-Acceptance of Clinical Decision Support Suggestions

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Vanessa E. C.; Lopez, Karen Dunn; Febretti, Alessandro; Stifter, Janet; Yao, Yingwei; Johnson, Andrew; Wilkie, Diana J.; Keenan, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Our long term goal is to ensure nurse clinical decision support (CDS) works as intended before full deployment in clinical practice. As part of a broader effort, this pilot explores factors influencing acceptance/non-acceptance of 8 CDS suggestions displayed through selecting a blinking red button in an electronic health record (EHR) based nursing plan of care software prototype. A diverse sample of 21 nurses participated in this high fidelity clinical simulation experience and completed a questionnaire to assess reasons for accepting/not accepting the CDS suggestions. Of 168 total suggestions displayed during the experiment (8 for each of the 21 nurses), 123 (73.2%) were accepted and 45 (26.8%) were not accepted. The mode number of acceptances by nurses was 7 of 8 with only 2 of 21 nurses accepting all. The main reason for CDS acceptance was the nurse’s belief that the suggestions were good for the patient (n=100%) with other features being secondarily reinforcing. Reasons for non-acceptance were less clear, with under half of the subjects indicating low confidence in the evidence. This study provides preliminary evidence that high quality simulation and targeted questionnaires about specific CDS selections offers a cost effective means for testing before full deployment in clinical practice. PMID:26361268