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Sample records for acceptance-based behavior therapy

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Therapy for Test Anxiety: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lily A.; Forman, Evan M.; Herbert, James D.; Hoffman, Kimberly L.; Yuen, Erica K.; Goetter, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Many university students suffer from test anxiety that is severe enough to impair performance. Given mixed efficacy results of previous cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) trials and a theoretically driven rationale, an acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) approach was compared to traditional CBT (i.e., Beckian cognitive therapy; CT) for the…

  2. An Open Trial of an Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that experiential avoidance may play an important role in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; see Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S.M. (2002). "Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: Integrating mindfulness/acceptance-based approaches with existing cognitive-behavioral models." "Clinical…

  3. Being Mindful about the Assessment of Culture: A Cultural Analysis of Culturally Adapted Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…

  4. An investigation of the efficacy of acceptance-based behavioral therapy for academic procrastination.

    PubMed

    Glick, Debra M; Orsillo, Susan M

    2015-04-01

    Procrastination among college students is both prevalent and troublesome, harming both academic performance and physical health. Unfortunately, no "gold standard" intervention exists. Research suggests that psychological inflexibility may drive procrastination. Accordingly, interventions using acceptance and mindfulness methods to increase psychological flexibility may decrease procrastination. This study compared time management and acceptance-based behavioral interventions. College students' predictions of how much assigned reading they should complete were compared to what they did complete. Procrastination, anxiety, psychological flexibility, and academic values were also measured. Although a trend suggested that time management intervention participants completed more reading, no group differences in procrastination were revealed. The acceptance-based behavioral intervention was most effective for participants who highly valued academics. Clinical implications and future research are discussed. PMID:25688905

  5. Efficacy of an Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Evaluation in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.; Salters-Pedneault, Kristalyn

    2008-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic anxiety disorder, associated with comorbidity and impairment in quality of life, for which improved psychosocial treatments are needed. GAD is also associated with reactivity to and avoidance of internal experiences. The current study examined the efficacy of an acceptance-based behavioral therapy…

  6. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-based Behavior Therapy vs. Traditional Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: Differential Effects on Performance and Verbal Working Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassman, Lisa Hayley

    Individuals with public speaking phobia experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for public speaking phobia focus on the reduction of anxiety and avoidance, but neglect performance. Additionally, very little is known about the relationship between verbal working memory and social performance under conditions of high anxiety. The current study compared the efficacy of two cognitive behavioral treatments, traditional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (tCBT) and acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT), in enhancing public speaking performance via coping with anxiety. Verbal working memory performance, as measured by the backwards digit span (BDS), was measured to explore the relationships between treatment type, anxiety, performance, and verbal working memory. We randomized 30 individuals with high public speaking anxiety to a 90-minute ABBT or tCBT intervention. As this pilot study was underpowered, results are examined in terms of effect sizes as well as statistical significance. Assessments took place at pre and post-intervention and included self-rated and objective anxiety measurements, a behavioral assessment, ABBT and tCBT process measures, and backwards digit span verbal working memory tests. In order to examine verbal working memory during different levels of anxiety and performance pressure, we gave each participant a backwards digit span task three times during each assessment: once under calm conditions, then again while experiencing anticipatory anxiety, and finally under conditions of acute social performance anxiety in front of an audience. Participants were asked to give a video-recorded speech in front of the audience at pre- and post-intervention to examine speech performance. Results indicated that all participants experienced a very large and statistically significant decrease in anxiety (both during the speech and BDS

  7. The Mindful Way Through the Semester: An Investigation of the Effectiveness of an Acceptance-Based Behavioral Therapy Program on Psychological Wellness in First-Year Students.

    PubMed

    Danitz, Sara B; Orsillo, Susan M

    2014-07-01

    First-year students in higher education deal with an increasing number of mental health issues. Cost-effective and time-efficient programs that ease transitions and reduce risk of depression are needed. To date, programs informed by both cognitive-behavioral and acceptance-based-behavioral therapy (ABBT) approaches have produced some positive outcomes, but methodological limitations limit their utility. The aim of the present study was to address some of these limitations, by developing and preliminary testing the efficacy of a one-session ABBT intervention with first-year undergraduates and first-year law students. Ninety-eight first-year students were randomly assigned to receive either a single-session 90-min ABBT workshop within their first month of school or to a waitlist control condition. Students who received the intervention reported significantly less depression and more acceptance. Moreover, increase in acceptance over the course of the semester was associated with reductions in depression. Implications of these findings for future interventions are discussed. PMID:24452372

  8. A Pilot Study Examining the Initial Effectiveness of a Brief Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy for Modifying Diet and Physical Activity among Cardiac Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Christina L.; Forman, Evan M.; Herbert, James D.; Butryn, Meghan L.; Ledley, Gary S.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 90% of cardiac events are attributable to a small number of modifiable behavioral risk factors that, if changed, can greatly decrease morbidity and mortality. However, few at-risk individuals make recommended behavioral changes, including those who receive formal interventions designed to facilitate healthy behavior. Given evidence…

  9. Acceptance-Based Exposure Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Linde, Johanna; Rück, Christian; Bjureberg, Johan; Ivanov, Volen Z; Djurfeldt, Diana Radu; Ramnerö, Jonas

    2015-07-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is an often severe, chronic, and disabling disorder, and although some controlled trials of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) have shown efficacy, the body of evidence is still limited. The condition is generally considered difficult to treat, and further research to determine the effectiveness of psychological treatments for BDD is needed. The present study is the first to evaluate an acceptance-based therapy for BDD. In total, 21 patients received a 12-week group treatment consisting of weekly sessions of psychoeducation, acceptance and defusion practice, and exposure exercises to foster acceptance of internal discomfort and to strengthen the patients' committed purposeful actions. The primary outcome was BDD symptomatology (measured on the BDD-YBOCS) assessed by a psychiatrist before and after treatment and at 6months follow-up. The secondary outcomes were self-rated BDD symptoms, psychological flexibility, depressive symptoms, quality of life, and disability. Reductions in BDD symptomatology from pre- to posttreatment were significant and showed a large effect size, d=1.93 (95% CI 0.82-3.04). At posttreatment, 68% of the participants showed clinically significant improvement in the primary outcome variable. Treatment gains were maintained at 6months follow-up. The treatment also resulted in significant improvements in all secondary outcomes. The dropout rate was low; 90.5% of the participants completed treatment. This study suggests that acceptance-based exposure therapy may be an efficacious and acceptable treatment for BDD that warrants further investigation in larger controlled trials. PMID:26163707

  10. Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: An Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocovski, Nancy L.; Fleming, Jan E.; Rector, Neil A.

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Group Therapy (MAGT) for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is based largely on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes et al., 1999), with enhanced mindfulness mostly from Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT; Segal et al., 2002). The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and initial…

  11. Internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Mats; Andersson, Gerhard; Magnusson, Kristoffer; Johansson, Tomas; Sjögren, Johan; Håkansson, Andreas; Pettersson, Magnus; Kadowaki, Åsa; Cuijpers, Pim; Carlbring, Per

    2016-02-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a disabling condition which can be treated with cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The present study tested the effects of therapist-guided internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy on symptoms of GAD and quality of life. An audio CD with acceptance and mindfulness exercises and a separate workbook were also included in the treatment. Participants diagnosed with GAD (N = 103) were randomly allocated to immediate therapist-guided internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy or to a waiting-list control condition. A six month follow-up was also included. Results using hierarchical linear modelling showed moderate to large effects on symptoms of GAD (Cohen's d = 0.70 to 0.98), moderate effects on depressive symptoms (Cohen's d = 0.51 to 0.56), and no effect on quality of life. Follow-up data showed maintained effects. While there was a 20% dropout rate, sensitivity analyses showed that dropouts did not differ in their degree of change during treatment. To conclude, our study suggests that internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy can be effective in reducing the symptoms of GAD. PMID:26731173

  12. A behavior-analytic account of depression and a case report using acceptance-based procedures

    PubMed Central

    Dougher, Michael J.; Hackbert, Lucianne

    1994-01-01

    Although roughly 6% of the general population is affected by depression at some time during their lifetime, the disorder has been relatively neglected by behavior analysts. The preponderance of research on the etiology and treatment of depression has been conducted by cognitive behavior theorists and biological psychiatrists and psychopharmacologists interested in the biological substrates of depression. These approaches have certainly been useful, but their reliance on cognitive and biological processes and their lack of attention to environment—behavior relations render them unsatisfactory from a behavior-analytic perspective. The purpose of this paper is to provide a behavior-analytic account of depression and to derive from this account several possible treatment interventions. In addition, case material is presented to illustrate an acceptance-based approach with a depressed client. PMID:22478195

  13. An open trial of a new acceptance-based behavioral treatment for major depression with psychotic features.

    PubMed

    Gaudiano, Brandon A; Nowlan, Kathryn; Brown, Lily A; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Miller, Ivan W

    2013-05-01

    Research suggests that cognitive and behavioral therapies produce significant benefits over medications alone in the treatment of severe, nonpsychotic major depression or primary psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. However, previous research has not demonstrated the efficacy of psychotherapy for major depression with psychotic features. In this initial treatment development study, we conducted an open trial of a new behavioral intervention that combines elements of behavioral activation and acceptance and commitment therapy for depression and psychosis. Fourteen patients with major depressive disorder with psychotic features were provided with up to 6 months of Acceptance-Based Depression and Psychosis Therapy (ADAPT) in combination with pharmacotherapy. Patients reported a high degree of treatment credibility and acceptability. Results showed that patients achieved clinically significant and sustained improvements through posttreatment follow-up in depressive and psychotic symptoms, as well as psychosocial functioning. In addition, the processes targeted by the intervention (e.g., acceptance, mindfulness, values) improved significantly over the course of treatment, and changes in processes were correlated with changes in symptoms. Results suggest that ADAPT combined with pharmacotherapy is a promising treatment approach for psychotic depression that should be tested in a future randomized trial. PMID:23223385

  14. An Open Trial of an Acceptance-Based Behavioral Intervention for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Evan M.; Butryn, Meghan L.; Hoffman, Kimberly L.; Herbert, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Innovative approaches are urgently needed to improve behavioral treatment for weight loss. The weight regain that is so common after treatment may be a result of an environment that makes it challenging to adhere, long-term, to a dietary and physical activity regimen. This study was designed to test, via a 12-week open trial, the preliminary…

  15. An Open Trial of a New Acceptance-Based Behavioral Treatment for Major Depression with Psychotic Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Nowlan, Kathryn; Brown, Lily A.; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Miller, Ivan W.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that cognitive and behavioral therapies produce significant benefits over medications alone in the treatment of severe, nonpsychotic major depression or primary psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. However, previous research has not demonstrated the efficacy of psychotherapy for major depression with psychotic features. In…

  16. Behavior Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and consequences. Give your child a specified reward (positive reinforcement) every time she shows the desired behavior. Give your child a consequence (unwanted result or punishment) consistently when she has ... in a positive way. Most experts recommend using both medication and ...

  17. Behavior therapy: an overview.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, G W; Gardner, R

    1983-08-01

    The authors examine the broad field of behavior therapy, the theories underlying its development, and the techniques that are used to change behavior. They review recent developments in behavior therapy as they relate to behavioral medicine and to treatment of psychiatric disorders, and briefly describe the use of cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of depression and other problems. They discuss methods of behavioral assessment and the application of behavior therapy in large populations, as well as new uses of behavioral techniques in business and industry, gerontology, and marital therapy. PMID:6137450

  18. Behavior Therapy of Impotence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dengrove, Edward

    1971-01-01

    Behavior therapy approaches to the treatment of male sexual impotence, specifically premature ejaculation and erective impotence, are discussed. Included in the behavioral therapies are systematic desensitization, active graded therapy, assertive techniques, sexual responses, operant approaches and others. Often marriage counseling is also…

  19. Research in Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.; And Others

    This series of papers was presented in a symposium on behavior therapy. Each paper represents a separate study focusing on one aspect of behavior modification. The issue of reinforcement is prominant with regard to its type and source. Methods of self-reinforcement and older-peer modeling are studied. The suggestion that subjects who reinforce…

  20. Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) versus Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for Mixed Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arch, Joanna J.; Eifert, Georg H.; Davies, Carolyn; Vilardaga, Jennifer C. Plumb; Rose, Raphael D.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Randomized comparisons of acceptance-based treatments with traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders are lacking. To address this gap, we compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) to CBT for heterogeneous anxiety disorders. Method: One hundred twenty-eight individuals (52% female, mean age = 38, 33%…

  1. Cosmetic Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, W. Paul

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the theoretical and practical applications of cosmetic behavior therapy in a private practice. Enhancement of physical appearance will frequently result in an enhancement of self-concept, and the client's attainment of physical attractiveness contributes to the probability of success in current culture. (Author/JAC)

  2. The Mindful Way Through the Semester: Evaluating the Impact of Integrating an Acceptance-Based Behavioral Program Into a First-Year Experience Course for Undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Danitz, Sara B; Suvak, Michael K; Orsillo, Susan M

    2016-07-01

    Preventing and reducing depression in first-year college students are crucial areas in need of attention and resources. Programs that are cost-effective and time-efficient, that have replicable benefits across samples, are sorely needed. This study aims to examine whether a previously studied acceptance-based behavioral (ABBT) program, the Mindful Way Through the Semester (MWTS), is effective in comparison to a control condition at decreasing levels of depression and enhancing acceptance and academic values when integrated into a first-year undergraduate experience course. The current study also sought to examine the association between change in acceptance, mindfulness practice, and values practice on outcomes. Two hundred thirteen students were assigned to either the MWTS workshop condition or the control condition (in which the first-year experience curriculum as usual was received). Results revealed that the workshop condition produced larger decreases in depression over the course of the semester relative to the control condition, but only for participants endorsing higher levels of depression at baseline. Further, for participants in the workshop condition, changes in depression were negatively associated with changes in acceptance (i.e., larger increases in acceptance associated with larger decreases in depression), an association that was not statistically significant in the control group. Lastly, for participants in the workshop condition who endorsed higher levels of depression at baseline, mindfulness and values practice was associated with greater reductions in depression. Implications of these findings for future interventions are discussed. PMID:27423165

  3. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-Based Behavioral Treatment Versus Traditional Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Public Speaking Anxiety: An Exploratory Trial Examining Differential Effects on Performance and Neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Lisa H; Forman, Evan M; Herbert, James D; Bradley, Lauren E; Foster, Elizabeth E; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Ruocco, Anthony C

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with public speaking anxiety (PSA) experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for PSA emphasize anxiety reduction rather than enhancing behavioral performance. We compared the efficacy of two brief cognitive-behavioral interventions, a traditional cognitive-behavior treatment (tCBT) and an acceptance-based behavior treatment (ABBT), on public speaking performance and anxiety in a clinical sample of persons with PSA. The effects of treatment on prefrontal brain activation were also examined. Participants (n = 21) were randomized to 90 min of an ABBT or a tCBT intervention. Assessments took place at pre- and post-treatment and included self-rated anxiety and observer-rated performance measures, a behavioral assessment, and prefrontal cortical activity measurements using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Exploratory results indicated that participants in the ABBT condition experienced greater improvements in observer-rated performance relative to those in the tCBT condition, while those in the tCBT condition experienced greater reductions in subjective anxiety levels. Individuals in the ABBT condition also exhibited a trend toward greater treatment-related reductions in blood volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to those who received tCBT. Overall, these findings preliminarily suggest that acceptance-based treatments may free more cognitive resources in comparison with tCBT, possibly resulting in greater improvements in objectively rated behavioral performances for ABBT interventions. PMID:26872958

  4. The future of behavior therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gelder, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Although behavior therapy is designed to modify observable behaviors, it also brings about cognitive change. To achieve the best results with behavior therapy, it is sometimes necessary to combine it with cognitive procedures. The author gives examples of the uses of behavior therapy on its own and as combined cognitive-behavior therapy. These treatments have been tested extensively in clinical trials, and they are brief and highly suitable for use in managed care. Future developments are likely to include closer integration with pharmacotherapy and further extension into the field of behavioral medicine. PMID:9292442

  5. Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a comprehensive, evidence-based treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD). The patient populations for which DBT has the most empirical support include parasuicidal women with borderline personality disorder (BPD), but there have been promising findings for patients with BPD and substance use disorders (SUDs), persons who meet criteria for binge-eating disorder, and depressed elderly patients. Although DBT has many similarities with other cognitive-behavioral approaches, several critical and unique elements must be in place for the treatment to constitute DBT. Some of these elements include (a) serving the five functions of treatment, (b) the biosocial theory and focusing on emotions in treatment, (c) a consistent dialectical philosophy, and (d) mindfulness and acceptance-oriented interventions. PMID:20975829

  6. Indian contribution to behavior therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, K.

    2010-01-01

    Publication of papers related to psycho-social interventions in general and Behavior Therapy, in particular, in Indian Journal of Psychiatry has been limited. Though the first paper related to Behavior Therapy was published in 1952, a manual search of all available issues of the journal from 1949 showed that only 42 papers related to Behavior Therapy have been published till 2009. Among them 10 are case reports. Methodological limitations abound even in the papers on larger groups of patients. Studies using operant conditioning have been very few. Aversion therapy and progressive muscle relaxation have been very frequently used. The published articles are reviewed under the various diagnostic categories. Publications in the recent years have been mostly on Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Even after 57 years of co-existence, the relationship between Behavior Therapy and Indian Psychiatry remains a tenuous one. PMID:21836708

  7. Behaviorism and Cognitivism in Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levis, Donald J.

    The movement within behavior therapy to introduce cognitive terms, constructs, and techniques reflects and involves an extension of the pervasive cognitive movement within the experimental field and the long-standing cognitive approach of many clinicians. Modern day attacks on behaviorism by cognitivists have been almost exclusively geared to the…

  8. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Enhancement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sarah S; Schoenfelder, Erin; Hsiao, Ray Chih-Jui

    2016-10-01

    Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is widely recognized as the preferred treatment of psychiatric disorders, less is known about the application of CBT to substance use disorders, particularly in adolescence. This article discusses how CBT conceptualizes substance use and how it is implemented as a treatment of adolescent substance abuse. The article draws on several manuals for CBT that implement it as a standalone treatment or in combination with motivational enhancement therapies. Also reviewed are several studies that examined the efficacy of CBT. Finally, the implications are discussed. Numerous starting resources are provided to help a clinician implement CBT. PMID:27613342

  9. Pavlov and the foundation of behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Plaud, Joseph J

    2003-11-01

    The foundation, achievements, and proliferation of behavior therapy have largely been fueled by the movement's foundation in behavioral principles and theories. Although behavioral accounts of the genesis and treatment of psychopathology differ in the extent to which they emphasize classical or operant conditioning, the mediation of cognitive factors, and the role of biological variables, Pavlov's discovery of conditioning principles was essential to the founding of behavior therapy in the 1950s, and continues to be central to modern behavior therapy. Pavlov's reliance on a physiological model of the nervous system, sensible in the context of an early science of neurology, has had an implication for behavior therapists interested in the study of personality types. However, Pavlov's major legacy to behavior therapy was his discovery of "experimental neuroses," shown by his students Eroféeva and Shenger-Krestovnikova, to be produced and eliminated through the principles of conditioning and counter-conditioning. This discovery laid the foundation for the first empirically-validated behavior therapy procedure, systematic desensitization, pioneered by Wolpe. The Pavlovian origins of behavior therapy are analyzed in this paper, and the relevance of conditioning principles to modern behavior therapy is demonstrated. It is shown that Pavlovian conditioning represents far more than a systematic basic learning paradigm. It is also an essential theoretical foundation for the theory and practice of behavior therapy. PMID:14628701

  10. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program that combines motivational incentives with cognitive-behavioral ...

  11. [Systematic family therapy in school refusal behavior].

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Jochen; Ochs, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with systemic-family therapeutic implications of differential diagnostics of school refusal behavior. Systemic therapy elements, that are useful in treatment of school phobia/school anxiety, and family interaction types, in which school refusal behavior occurs, are introduced. Finally two case studies of systemic family therapy are presented. PMID:12951914

  12. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... that people who are trying to end their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program ...

  13. Dialectical Behavior Therapy with Suicidal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alec L.; Rathus, Jill H.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2006-01-01

    Filling a tremendous need, this highly practical book adapts the proven techniques of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) to treatment of multiproblem adolescents at highest risk for suicidal behavior and self-injury. The authors are master clinicians who take the reader step by step through understanding and assessing severe emotional…

  14. Strategic Family Therapy of Avoidant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Thomas A.; Hinkle, J. Scott

    1993-01-01

    Notes that Millon's biopsychosocial model asserts that socioenvironmental factors of parental or peer rejection may shape development of avoidant behavior but does not elaborate on how family system may perpetuate its existence once disorder has evolved. Presents brief overview of avoidant behavior and strategic family therapy case study.…

  15. Skinner and the rise of behavior modification and behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Labrador, Francisco Javier

    2004-11-01

    Skinner is, without a doubt, one of the most predominant figures in the development of Behavior Modification and Behavior Therapy. Skinners' work is essential to the development of Behavior Modification and Behavior Therapy. Beginning with the social need for efficient psychotherapy, and after having generated a solid theoretical body of behavioral laws, Skinner indicated and also developed the appropriate path towards efficient interventions for unadaptive behavior. He developed a new theory regarding abnormal behavior (psychopathology), as well as a procedural model for evaluation (diagnosis) and intervention: "The functional analysis of behavior". His applications for this kind of work are pioneering and at the same time, he is the agglutinant figure of what we today call "Behavior Modification and/or Therapy". It is remarkable that a scientist could change the theories and practices of a discipline as radically as Skinner and his work did. His work, however, still has its limitations. The best way to acknowledge and pay tribute to Skinners' work is to overcome these limitations. PMID:15581239

  16. Comparison of Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy in the Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Gillian; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Assigned 57 subjects meeting criteria for generalized anxiety disorder to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior therapy (BT), or a waiting-list control group. Made assessments before treatment, after treatment, and six months later. Results showed a consistent pattern of change favoring CBT in measures of anxiety, depression, and cognition.…

  17. Cognitive behavioral therapy for suicidal behaviors: improving patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mewton, Louise; Andrews, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing suicidal cognitions and behavior in the adult population. We identified 15 randomized controlled trials of CBT for adults (aged 18 years and older) that included suicide-related cognitions or behaviors as an outcome measure. The studies were identified from PsycINFO searches, reference lists, and a publicly available database of psychosocial interventions for suicidal behaviors. This review identified some evidence of the use of CBT in the reduction of both suicidal cognitions and behaviors. There was not enough evidence from clinical trials to suggest that CBT focusing on mental illness reduces suicidal cognitions and behaviors. On the other hand, CBT focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors was found to be effective. Given the current evidence, clinicians should be trained in CBT techniques focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors that are independent of the treatment of mental illness. PMID:27042148

  18. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia: Comparison of Individual Therapy, Group Therapy, and Telephone Consultations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastien, Celyne H.; Morin, Charles M.; Ouellet, Marie-Christine; Blais, France C.; Bouchard, Sebastien

    2004-01-01

    Forty-five adults with primary insomnia received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) implemented in a group therapy format, in individual face-to-face therapy or through brief individual telephone consultations. The results indicate that CBT was effective in improving sleep parameters with all 3 methods of treatment implementation, and there was no…

  19. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Ammerman, Yola; Bohl, Jaime; Doersch, Anne; Gay, Heather; Kadden, Ronald; Molina, Cheryl; Steinberg, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated efficacy of psychotherapies for pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (N = 231) were randomly assigned to (a) referral to Gamblers Anonymous (GA), (b) GA referral plus a cognitive-behavioral (CB) workbook, or (c) GA referral plus 8 sessions of individual CB therapy. Gambling and related problems were assessed…

  20. Treatment Failure in Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Shireen L.

    2011-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has become a widely used treatment model for individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and other individuals with significant emotion dysregulation problems. Despite its strong empirical support, DBT obviously does not have positive outcomes for all individuals. It is critical that cases of DBT…

  1. Some Contemporary Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Richard E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents several new rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) songs. Claims that the songs may be used in both academic and therapeutic settings as a humorous way to address cognitive distortions or irrational beliefs. Reports that students and clients have responded favorably to these songs. (RJM)

  2. [Practice of Behavioral Activation in Cognitive-behavioral Therapy].

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Nobuki

    2015-01-01

    An approach focusing on behavioral activation (BA) was adopted in the cognitive therapy of A. T. Beck, and it came to be considered that BA can play an important role in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Therefore, in recent years, BA based on clinical behavior analysis has been developed as a new treatment (Martell, et al.). The core characteristics are as follows: 1) focusing attention on context in daily life to promote the behavior control of patients and avoidance of a hatred experience ; 2) breaking the vicious circle; 3) promoting the behavior according to the purpose that the patients originally expect; 4) recognizing a relationship between behavior and the situation (contingency), thereby recovering self-efficacy tied to the long-term results that one originally expects. This does not increase pleasant activity at random when the patient is inactive, or give a sense of accomplishment. We know that depression is maintained by conducting functional analysis of detailed life behavior, and encourage the patients to have healthy behavior according to individual values. We help them to complete schedules regardless of mood and reflect on the results patiently. It is considered that those processes are important. BA may be easy to apply in clinical practice and effective for the chronic cases, or the patients in a convalescent stage. Also, in principle in the CBT for major depression, it may be effective that behavioral activation is provided in an early stage, and cognitive reconstruction in a latter stage. However, an approach to carry out functional analysis by small steps with careful activity monitoring is essential when the symptoms are severe. Furthermore, it should be considered that the way of psychoeducation requires caution because we encourage rest in the treatment of depression in our country. In particular, we must be careful not to take an attitude that an inactive behavior pattern is unproductive only based model cases. PMID

  3. The operant side of behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Skinner, B F

    1988-09-01

    For more than twenty-four hundred years, people were seen to behave in given ways because of what they were feeling or thinking, and feelings and thoughts were therefore the things to study. However, it has always been difficult to do very much with feelings and thoughts because of their inaccessibility to outside observers. Further, important distinctions are obscured when behavior is attributed to a state of mind. As more and more of the variables of which behavior is a function are identified and their role analysed, less remains to be explained in mentalistic ways. The operant side of behavior therapy is illustrated by considering a few characteristic problems. Discussion includes the analysis of contingencies outside and inside the clinic, and the relationship between behavioral health and medical health. PMID:3069874

  4. [Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia].

    PubMed

    Yamadera, Wataru

    2015-06-01

    Insomnia is very common in older adults, but is generally related to medical and psychiatric illness, medication, circadian rhythm change. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia(CBT-I) is a brief, sleep-focused, multimodal intervention by psychological and behavioral procedures. The most common approach includes a behavioral (sleep restriction, stimulus control, relaxation) component combined cognitive and educational (cognitive strategies, sleep hygiene education) component. CBT-I has adequate evidence from clinical trials to support the management of insomnia. CBT-I has proved successful for older adults with primary and comorbid insomnia and for those with dependency on hypnotics. Proper treatment of insomnia is effective and can improve overall physical and mental health and quality of life in the elderly patient. PMID:26065131

  5. Cognitive behavior therapy of binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Varsha

    2006-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent episodes of uncontrollable eating, even when not hungry, until uncomfortably full, occurring at least twice a week for a 6-month period. This is differentiated from bulimia nervosa (BN) by the lack of compensatory mechanisms such as purging/laxative abuse. There are significantly higher levels of psychiatric symptoms in patients with BED as compared to those without BED. Furthermore, depressive symptomatology may increase the patient's vulnerability to binge eating as well as to relapse after treatment. Grazing is defined as eating small amounts of food continuously. BED in the pre-bariatric patient can manifest as 'grazing' about 2 years post-bariatric surgery. Treatment should be directed at eating behavior, associated psychopathology, weight and psychiatric symptoms. Cognitive behavior therapy is based on changing the patient's erroneous ways of thinking about themselves, the world and how others perceive them. This includes a focus on normalizing food intake as well as challenging dysfunctional thinking, identifying feelings, and developing non-food coping skills. It increases a sense of control and therefore helps the patient adhere to behavior change strategy, as well as improving mood and reducing associated psychopathology. Interpersonal therapy is based on the relationship between negative mood low self-esteem traumatic life events, interpersonal functioning and the patient's eating behavior. The rationale being that eating represents maladaptive coping with underlying difficulties. While psychotherapy either CBT or IPT leads to decrease in disordered eating behaviors and improved psychiatric symptoms, it has little effect on weight hence; its benefit is optimal when used in conjunction with bariatric surgery. PMID:16418545

  6. Inpatient Applications of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    STUART, SCOTT; THASE, MICHAEL E.

    1994-01-01

    The authors review empirical research of the past decade on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of depressed inpatients and offer suggestions for future investigations. CBT appears to offer additive benefits in combination with pharmacotherapy, particularly after the transition from inpatient to outpatient treatment. CBT also holds promise as a primary treatment for inpatients but has not been clearly shown to be as effective as antidepressants. There is as yet no evidence that inpatient CBT is superior to other psychotherapies of comparable intensity or that short-term inpatient CBT has enduring value if not followed by outpatient therapy. Further research is needed to clarify the specific effects of CBT for inpatients and to establish its cost-effectiveness. PMID:22700196

  7. Augmentation of cognitive behavioral therapy with pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ganasen, K A; Ipser, J C; Stein, D J

    2010-09-01

    There has long been interest in combining pharmacotherapy with psychotherapy, including cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). More recently, basic research on fear extinction has led to interest in augmentation of CBT with the N-methyl Daspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) for anxiety disorders. In this article, the literature on clinical trials that have combined pharmacotherapy and CBT is briefly reviewed, focusing particularly on the anxiety disorders. The literature on CBT and DCS is then systematically reviewed. A series of randomized placebo-controlled trials on panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia suggest that low dose DCS before therapy sessions may be more effective compared with CBT alone in certain anxiety disorders. The strong translational foundation of this work is compelling, and the positive preliminary data gathered so far encourage further work. Issues for future research include delineating optimal dosing, and demonstrating effectiveness in real-world settings. PMID:20599140

  8. The Behavior-Analytic Origins of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: An Example of Behavioral Neurorehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Constraint-induced (CI) therapy is a term given to a family of efficacious neurorehabilitation treatments including to date: upper extremity CI movement therapy, lower extremity CI movement therapy, pediatric CI therapy, and CI aphasia therapy. The purpose of this article is to outline the behavior analysis origins of CI therapy and the ways in…

  9. Cognitive behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Glasofer, Deborah R; Devlin, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a first-line psychotherapeutic treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN). This article outlines three specific interventions--introducing and using the CBT model of BN, self-monitoring of eating and related experiences, and psychoeducation regarding various aspects of BN--representative of CBT overall but unique in their application to individuals with BN. The theoretical basis and supporting research relevant to each technique are highlighted. Clinical vignettes are provided to illustrate how these interventions might be integrated into the psychotherapy. PMID:24295463

  10. Cognitive behavioral therapy for sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Babson, Kimberly A; Feldner, Matthew T; Badour, Christal L

    2010-09-01

    More than 70 million people in the United States experience primary insomnia (PI) at some point in their life, resulting in an estimated $65 billion in health care costs and lost productivity. PI is therefore one of the most common health care problems in the United States. To mollify the negative effects of PI, scholars have sought to evaluate and improve treatments of this costly health care problem. A breadth of research has demonstrated that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective intervention for PI. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of CBT for PI, including evidence regarding treatment efficacy, effectiveness, and practitioner considerations. PMID:20599137

  11. Cognitive - Behavioral Therapy in Central Sensitivity Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Williams, David A

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a formal therapeutic approach that encourages selfmanagement of illnesses in accordance with the BioPsychoSocial model. CBT is composed of numerous skills grounded in known principles of behavioral and cognitive change. Each skill is designed to influence one of the facets associated with the perception of pain (i.e., sensory factors, emotional factors, or cognitive factors). Across the various Central Sensitivity Syndromes (CSS), CBT is thought to be beneficial to at least a portion of individuals afflicted. This paper provides a description of CBT, some recommendations for integrating CBT into clinical practice, and a brief review of the evidence supporting the use of CBT with various forms of CSS. PMID:26717953

  12. Behavioral and pharmacologic therapies for obesity

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, Marion L.; Faulconbridge, Lucy F.; Webb, Victoria L.; Wadden, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews novel developments in the behavioral and pharmacologic treatment of obesity and explores the potential contribution of genomics research to weight control. A comprehensive program of lifestyle modification, comprised of diet, physical activity and behavior therapy, induces a mean loss of 7–10% of initial weight in individuals with obesity. Two trials demonstrated that weight loss of this magnitude, combined with increased physical activity, substantially reduced the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. A third trial is now investigating whether a lifestyle intervention will reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in overweight individuals who already have diabetes mellitus. Pharmacotherapy is recommended, in some patients, as an adjunct to lifestyle modification. Two medications—orlistat and sibutramine—are currently approved in the US for long-term weight loss. Both are efficacious when combined with lifestyle modification, although health concerns have been raised about the use of sibutramine. Several novel combination therapies, which target multiple hypothalamic pathways that regulate appetite and body weight, are currently under investigation. Genomic studies provide further evidence for the role of these pathways in the regulation of body weight. Identification of new genes controlling satiety and energy expenditure may yield valuable clues for the development of novel pharmacologic treatments. PMID:20680034

  13. The Humanism of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Other Cognitive Behavior Therapies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Albert

    1996-01-01

    Describes aspects of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT). REBT shows how people can both create and uncreate many of their emotional disturbances. It is a theory of personality which avoids devotion to any kind of magic and supernaturalism and emphasizes unconditional self-acceptance, antiabsolutism, uncertainty, and human fallibility. (RJM)

  14. Observation and Recording Effects on Group Therapy Client Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Alan L.; Decker, Robert E.

    This study assesses the effect of visual versus audio observation/recording on both client and therapist verbal and non-verbal behavior in ongoing therapy. Three co-led, therapy groups were studied over six weekly sessions under counterbalanced observation conditions. Measures of verbal behavior, verbal productivity, and non-verbal behavior were…

  15. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for HIV Medication Adherence and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safren, Steven A.; Hendriksen, Ellen S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Pickard, Robert; Otto, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    For patients with HIV, depression is a common, distressing condition that can interfere with a critical self-care behavior--adherence to antiretroviral therapy. The present study describes a cognitive-behavioral treatment designed to integrate cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression with our previously tested approach to improving adherence to…

  16. Pathway to Efficacy: Recognizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as an Underlying Theory for Adventure Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Mark C.

    2003-01-01

    Adventure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy share elements, including transformation of distorted thinking patterns, a focus on current and future functioning, consideration of the counselor-client relationship, and the use of stress in the change process. Recognizing cognitive behavioral therapy as an empirically sound theory underlying…

  17. Transitional Probability Analysis of Two Child Behavior Analytic Therapy Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xavier, Rodrigo Nunes; Kanter, Jonathan William; Meyer, Sonia Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to highlight the process of therapist direct contingent responding to shape client behavior in two Child Behavior Analytic Therapy (CBAT) cases using transitional probabilities. The Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Rating Scale (FAPRS) was used to code client behaviors and the Multidimensional System for Coding Behaviors in…

  18. Teaching Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Undergraduate Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Tracey Ellen; Blau, Shawn; Grozeva, Dima

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an experimental undergraduate psychology course that ran for two semesters during the 2009 academic year at a private, urban university in the United States. Students learned the techniques and strategies of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) with a focus on the practical elements…

  19. SYMLOG and Behavior Therapy: Pathway to Expanding Horizons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kressel, Neil J.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests sociological method of group study, SYMLOG (Systematic Multiple Level Observation of Groups), as means for bringing elements of psychoanalytic and humanistic techniques into behavior therapy. Discusses numerous applications of SYMLOG. Sees SYMLOG as useful for both individual and group behavior therapy and as a way to facilitate social…

  20. Alcohol-Focused Behavioral Couple Therapy.

    PubMed

    McCrady, Barbara S; Wilson, Adam D; Muñoz, Rosa E; Fink, Brandi C; Fokas, Kathryn; Borders, Adrienne

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy (ABCT) has emerged over the last 30 years as a highly efficacious treatment for those with alcohol use disorders. This review highlights the historical and conceptual underpinnings of ABCT, as well as the specific treatment elements and structure. Proposed active ingredients, moderators, and mediators of treatment outcome are discussed. Efficacy is evaluated for reductions in identified patient drinking, improved relationship functioning, and reductions in intimate partner violence. Adaptations of ABCT for substances other than alcohol are described. Other adaptations, including brief interventions, interventions addressing PTSD and TBI along with alcohol use, and interventions deliverable via technology platforms are described. Additional cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness findings supporting the economic value of ABCT are noted. Future directions for research in this area include possible adaptations for female identified patients, nontraditional couples, LGBT partners and dyads involving nonintimate partner relationships. The development of more flexible models and enhanced dissemination strategies may improve clinical uptake and utility as well as increasing the feasibility of this treatment for integrated healthcare settings. PMID:27369809

  1. Mediators of transdiagnostic group cognitive behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Talkovsky, Alexander M; Norton, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety is well established. Investigations into the mechanisms of change in CBT report changes in cognitive vulnerabilities mediating improvements over the course of treatment. As anxiety disorders share certain risk factors, there is a trend toward CBT emphasizing these vulnerabilities, including negative affectivity (NA) and also more specific constructs such as anxiety sensitivity (AS) and intolerance of uncertainty (IU). The purpose of this investigation was to analyze potential mediators of anxiety reduction over the course of transdiagnostic group CBT. NA, AS, and IU all decreased over the course of treatment. Among the potential mediators, change in NA had a significant relationship with change in anxiety but change in AS and change in IU did not. Neither the main effect of primary diagnosis nor the interactions between potential mediators and primary diagnoses were significant, indicating that there were no differential changes in anxiety or the potential mediators across primary diagnoses. Results strongly point toward NA as an overarching mediator of anxiety reduction during transdiagnostic group CBT. PMID:25445082

  2. The Missing Psychological Behaviorism Chapter in "A History of the Behavioral Therapies."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staats, Arthur W.

    2003-01-01

    "A History of the Behavioral Therapies" (O'Donohue, et al., 2001) contains no description of psychological behaviorism (PB) and the role it played as one of the foundations of behavior therapy. This article indicates some of the contributions made by PB that make the missing chapter and related phenomena a major aberration in science. (Contains 39…

  3. Behavioral disorders, learning disabilities and megavitamin therapy.

    PubMed

    LaPerchia, P

    1987-01-01

    During the 1970s, vitamins and vitamin therapy became household words. Vitamin therapy, better known as "orthomolecular psychiatry," is both appealing and very popular. The question that must be asked is: Does this popularity and appeal validate this form of therapy? This paper presents findings from various sources that give results of research in megavitamin nutritional therapy. The following categories are examined: learning disabilities in general, schizophrenia, autism, mental retardation and Down's syndrome, and hyperkinesis. PMID:2963502

  4. Behavioral Disorders, Learning Disabilities and Megavitamin Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPerchia, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Presents findings from several sources that give results of research in megavitamin nutritional therapy. Examines vitamin therapy in learning disabilities in general, schizophrenia, autism, mental retardation and Down's syndrome, and hyperkinesis. Concludes that holistic approach to treatment is needed and that vitamin therapy, if proven…

  5. Comparative Efficacy of Behavior Therapy, Cognitive Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Chronic Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Bélanger, Lynda; Talbot, Lisa; Eidelman, Polina; Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon; Fortier-Brochu, Émilie; Ivers, Hans; Lamy, Manon; Hein, Kerrie; Soehner, Adriane M.; Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the unique contribution of behavior therapy (BT) and cognitive therapy (CT) relative to the full cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for persistent insomnia. Method Participants were 188 adults (117 women; M age = 47.4 years old, SD=12.6) with persistent insomnia (average of 14.5 years duration). They were randomized to eight, weekly, individual sessions consisting of BT (n = 63), CT (n = 65), or CBT (n = 60). Results Full CBT was associated with greatest improvements, the improvements associated with BT were faster but not as sustained and the improvements associated with CT were slower and sustained. The proportion of treatment responders was significantly higher in the CBT (67.3%) and BT (67.4%) relative to CT (42.4%) groups at post treatment, while 6-months later CT made significant further gains (62.3%), BT had significant loss (44.4%) and CBT retained its initial response (67.6%). Remission rates followed a similar trajectory, with higher remission rates at post treatment in CBT (57.3%) relative to CT (30.8%), with BT falling in between (39.4%); CT made further gains from post treatment to follow up (30.9% to 51.6%). All three therapies produced improvements of daytime functioning at both post treatment and follow up, with few differential changes across groups. Conclusions Full CBT is the treatment of choice. Both BT and CT are effective, with a more rapid effect for BT and a delayed action for CT. These different trajectories of changes provide unique insights into the process of behavior change via behavioral versus cognitive routes. PMID:24865869

  6. Cognitive behavioral therapy for back pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... chronic - cognitive behavioral; Pain - back - chronic - cognitive behavioral; Chronic back pain - low - cognitive behavioral ... about their experience with using CBT to manage chronic back pain. If you do not like the first therapist ...

  7. Structured dyadic behavior therapy processes for ADHD intervention.

    PubMed

    Curtis, David F

    2014-03-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) present significant problems with behavioral disinhibition that often negatively affect their peer relationships. Although behavior therapies for ADHD have traditionally aimed to help parents and teachers better manage children's ADHD-related behaviors, therapy processes seldom use peer relationships to implement evidence-based behavioral principles. This article introduces Structured Dyadic Behavior Therapy as a milieu for introducing effective behavioral techniques within a socially meaningful context. Establishing collaborative behavioral goals, benchmarking, and redirection strategies are discussed to highlight how in-session dyadic processes can be used to promote more meaningful reinforcement and change for children with ADHD. Implications for improving patient care, access to care, and therapist training are also discussed. PMID:24377401

  8. Emerging Approaches to Counseling Intervention: Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neacsiu, Andrada D.; Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2012-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is a comprehensive, multimodal cognitive behavioral treatment originally developed for individuals who met criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) who displayed suicidal tendencies. DBT is based on behavioral theory but also includes principles of acceptance, mindfulness, and validation. Since its…

  9. [Clinical perfectionism and cognitive behavioral therapy].

    PubMed

    Papadomarkaki, E; Portinou, S

    2012-01-01

    The present study constitutes a brief literature overview, in which the term of clinical perfectionism, its etiopathology, its assessment and its relation to psychopathology, as well as the therapeutic interventions based on the Cognitive Behavioral Model are discussed. According to Frost, perfectionism is associated with one's desire to achieve the greatest degree of performance and it is accompanied by an extremely strict evaluation of that particular performance. The relationship with oneself as well as the relationship with others are both characterised by high standards and demands which tend to exhaust one individual and dramatically toughen the development of proximity with the others. Perfectionism, as a personality trait, presents functional and dysfunctional elements for a person. Dysfunctional, clinical perfectionism -a term recently coined by researchers- has been linked to a number of disorders, such as social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders -anorexia and bulimia nervosa- depression and personality disorders. From a perfectionist's point of view, perfection exists and its attaintment is feasible. The existence of a particularly high and often unrealistic goal can lead the person to severe disappointment when this specific goal is not finally reached. A person with functional perfectionism is possible to set another, more achievable, goal next time, while a person with clinical perfectionism will interpret this failure as a sign of personal inadequacy and will either make another attempt to reach the same goal or will abandon the effort altogether. A sense of weakness and subsequent negative automatic thoughts are the aftermath of both the first and the second choice. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy focuses on the realisation that clinical perfectionism is undesirable, on the dispute of negative automatic thoughts and on the replacement of unfunctional cognitive schemas with other, more functional ones. In the therapeutic process

  10. Jogging the Cogs: Trauma-Focused Art Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Sexually Abused Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifalo, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Art therapy in conjunction with cognitive behavioral therapy reduces symptoms and enhances the potential for positive outcomes for sexually abused children in trauma-focused treatment. This article presents a treatment model that utilizes specific art therapy interventions to facilitate treatment, based on research on the effectiveness of combined…

  11. [Cognitive behavior therapy in eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Tölgyes, Tamás; Unoka, Zsolt

    2009-01-01

    Author's aim is to give a comprehensive review of the behavioural and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapeutic development in the treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, on the base of the literature as well as on own clinical experiences. Behavioural therapies, currently applied as part of integrative therapies mainly, will be shown, and theoretical background and techniques of classical cognitive behavioural therapy of anorexia and bulimia nervosa will be shortly summarized. Theory and therapeutic techniques of the schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, applied in the treatment of eating disorders more frequently in the last few years, will be made acquainted in details. Indications and contraindications of classic cognitive behavioural therapy and schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy in eating disorders will be discussed. Stress will be laid on the fact, that schema-focused cognitive behaviour therapy is to be chosen mostly in the cases where comorbid dissociation, personality disorder, very low self-esteem or traumatic history diminishes the applicability of traditional cognitive behavioural therapy. Authors emphasize the importance of further controlled efficacy studies in the field of schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, to define the indication fields regarding different subgroups of eating disorders. PMID:20450144

  12. [Cognitive behavior therapy in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Tölgyes, Tamás; Unoka, Zsolt

    2009-01-01

    Author's aim is to give a comprehensive review of the behavioural and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapeutic development in the treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, on the base of the literature as well as on own clinical experiences. Behavioural therapies, currently applied as part of integrative therapies mainly, will be shown, and theoretical background and techniques of classical cognitive behavioural therapy of anorexia and bulimia nervosa will be shortly summarized. Theory and therapeutic techniques of the schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, applied in the treatment of eating disorders more frequently in the last few years, will be made acquainted in details. Indications and contraindications of classic cognitive behavioural therapy and schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy in eating disorders will be discussed. Stress will be laid on the fact, that schema-focused cognitive behaviour therapy is to be chosen mostly in the cases where comorbid dissociation, personality disorder, very low self-esteem or traumatic history diminishes the applicability of traditional cognitive behavioural therapy. Authors emphasize the importance of further controlled efficacy studies in the field of schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, to define the indication fields regarding different subgroups of eating disorders. PMID:20057003

  13. Improving Mealtime Behaviors of a Multihandicapped Child Using Behavior Therapy Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, L. A.; Dixon, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Inappropriate mealtime behaviors of a blind, mentally retarded, behaviorally disordered 10-year-old were modified via behavior therapy techniques, including audiotape of favorite stories turned off during inappropriate behavior and praise (plus access to food) for appropriate napkin and utensil use, once desired sitting posture had been…

  14. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Bulimia: An Initial Outcome Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordman, Arnold M.; Kirschenbaum, Daniel S.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia. Assigned 20 bulimic women to full- or brief-intervention therapy programs. Results indicated that full-intervention clients, relative to brief-intervention clients, substantially reduced the frequency of their bingeing-vomiting; improved their psychological adjustment; and…

  15. [How I treat... chronic insomnia by cognitive and behavioral therapy].

    PubMed

    Dethier, M; Blairy, S; Poirrier, R

    2016-04-01

    Today, insomnia is predominantly treated by pharmacotherapy. Yet, cognitive-behavioral therapy has better long-term outcomes. In this paper, we describe the basic principles of this short-term psychotherapeutic treatment. It combines methods of sleep restriction and stimulus control, the learning of relaxation techniques, advices on sleep hygiene and cognitive therapy techniques applied to cognitions that overwhelm insomniac moments. PMID:27295894

  16. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy after Ellis: Predictions for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinrach, Stephen G.; Ellis, Albert; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Bernard, Michael E.; Dryden, Windy; Kassinove, Howard; Morris, G. Barry; Vernon, Ann; Wolfe, Janet

    1995-01-01

    Nine members of the institute for Rational-Emotive Therapy's (REBT) International Training Standards and Review Committee predicted the status of REBT 25 to 50 years after the death of Albert Ellis. Will REBT continue to exist in its own right or be incorporated into newer forms of cognitive behavior therapy? (EMK)

  17. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Origins, Constructs, and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joshua C.

    In 1956, Dr. Albert Ellis presented his seminal work on Rational Therapy, subsequently renamed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) in 1993. This paper explores the origins, theoretical foundations, applications, and implications of REBT and provides a look at the empirical research available in support of the approach's efficacy. REBT is…

  18. Cognitive-Behavioral Body Image Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, James C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Randomly assigned 54 body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) subjects to cognitive behavior therapy or no treatment. BDD symptoms were significantly decreased in therapy subjects and the disorder was eliminated in 82 percent of cases at posttreatment and 77 percent at follow-up. Subjects' overall psychological symptoms and self-esteem also improved. (RJM)

  19. The Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supplement: 7 Sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Charles; Scudder, Meleney; Kaminer, Yifrah; Kaden, Ron

    This manual, a supplement to "Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1", presents a seven-session cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT7) approach designed especially for adolescent cannabis users. It addresses the implementation and…

  20. Behavior Therapy and the Elderly: A Conceptual and Ethical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donohue, William T.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examines several dimensions of the conceptual framework of the behavioral approach to treatment of the elderly's problems in living that require emphasis. Concludes that behavior therapy, in which the involvement of the elderly in the determination of treatment goals is maximized and in which the ability of the elderly to influence and design…

  1. Tending the garden and harvesting the fruits of behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Fresco, David M

    2013-06-01

    For the past half century, behavior therapy has served as the theoretical basis for successful inquiries into the nature and treatment of many emotional disorders. Although there are core principles shared by all behavior therapies, two primary approaches, traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), have emerged as the most viable treatment approaches, even though they achieve their success through different methods and are predicated in different assumptions, principles, questions, and scientific strategies. In this special series, theorists and therapists with allegiances to one of these two approaches articulate the philosophical and theoretical underpinnings of their approach, summarize the evidence to date, point out current gaps or inconsistencies, and map out future directions with predictions informed by theory. The series concludes with a capstone paper that seeks to find common ground within the family of behavior therapies while also positing ways for behavior therapy to remain relevant in a world that increasingly emphasizes neuroscience and biobehavioral approaches to understand and reduce human suffering. PMID:23611067

  2. Tending the garden and harvesting the fruits of behavior therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fresco, David M.

    2016-01-01

    For the past half century, behavior therapy has served as the theoretical basis for successful inquiries into the nature and treatment of many emotional disorders. Even though there are core principles shared by all behavior therapies, two primary approaches, traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) have emerged as the most viable treatment approaches, even though they achieve their success through different methods and are predicated in different assumptions, principles, questions, and scientific strategies. In this special series, theorists and therapists with allegiances to one of these two approaches articulate the philosophical and theoretical underpinnings of their approach, summarize the evidence to date, point out current gaps or inconsistencies, and map out future directions with predictions informed by theory. The series concludes with a capstone paper which sought to find common ground within the family of behavior therapies while also positing ways for behavior therapy to remain relevant in a world that increasingly emphasizes neuroscience and biobehavioral approaches to understand and reduce human suffering. PMID:23611067

  3. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy with Troubled Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zionts, Paul; Zionts, Laura

    1997-01-01

    Based on the early work of Albert Ellis, seeks to identify and challenge irrational beliefs that underlie behavior problems. Outlines concepts and methods of Rational Emotive Behavior Theory and describes the application both in counseling and as a mental health curriculum for troubled children and youth. Offers classroom techniques. (RJM)

  4. Pharmacological enhancement of behavioral therapy: focus on posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dennis C; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Gerardi, Maryrose; Ressler, Kerry J

    2010-01-01

    Improved efficacy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other anxiety disorders is urgently needed. Traditional anxiety treatments of hypnosis and psychodynamic therapy may be of some help, but uncontrolled studies lead to inconclusive results on the efficacy of these treatment techniques. There is a larger literature supporting the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral procedures with PTSD, including prolonged exposure therapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and anxiety management techniques. The cutting-edge technology of virtual reality-based exposure therapy for PTSD is particularly exciting. To further build on effective psychosocial treatments, current pharmacological augmentation approaches to emotional learning are being combined with psychotherapy. In particular, D-cycloserine, a partial NMDA agonist, has shown to be effective in facilitating the exposure/extinction therapy to improve the efficacy of treating anxiety disorders, and may guide the way for new pharmacological enhancements of behavioral therapy. PMID:21309114

  5. Designing a Control for a Behavioral Group Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Debra L.; Hugo, Emily M.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate whether the specific techniques of a newly developed behavioral therapy exceed the effects of its common factors (e.g. therapeutic alliance), an ideal comparison control must omit the unique ingredients of the active treatment while possessing the common factors in equal measure. Reviews of the controlled-trial psychotherapy research literature show that such systematic matching is not a common practice. Addressing this gap between theory and practice, we delineate seven steps for designing a credible control for a recently developed behavioral therapy adapted for Binge Eating Disorder—Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). Our detailed description of matching the common factors to the extent possible and specifically measuring these offers a useful research design template for investigators of controlled behavioral treatment trials. PMID:16823465

  6. Modifying Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Deaf Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hearn, Amanda; Pollard, Robert Q., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Therapies that rely on written materials, information, or procedures involving familiarity with the dominant culture (e.g., colloquialisms, history) often pose barriers to people who use another language, have low English literacy, or are less familiar with the dominant culture. All this applies deaf individuals. One of the most well-validated…

  7. The behavior-analytic origins of constraint-induced movement therapy: an example of behavioral neurorehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Taub, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Constraint-induced (CI) therapy is a term given to a family of efficacious neurorehabilitation treatments including to date: upper extremity CI movement therapy, lower extremity CI movement therapy, pediatric CI therapy, and CI aphasia therapy. The purpose of this article is to outline the behavior analysis origins of CI therapy and the ways in which its procedures incorporate behavior analysis methods and principles. The intervention is founded on the concept of learned nonuse, a mechanism now empirically demonstrated to exist, which occurs after many different types of damage to the central nervous system (CNS). It results from the dramatic alteration of the contingencies of reinforcement that results from substantial CNS damage and leads to a greater deficit than is warranted by the actual damage sustained. CI therapy produces a countervailing alteration in the contingencies of reinforcement. The intervention has been used successfully to substantially improve motor deficits after stroke, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, with cerebral palsy in a pediatric population, and for language impairment in poststroke aphasia. The protocol of CI therapy consists primarily of standard behavior-analytic methods. It produces a marked plastic brain change that is correlated with its therapeutic effect, and therefore provides an example of the way in which behavior change can contribute to a profound remodeling of the brain. CI therapy may be viewed as an example of behavioral neurorehabilitation. PMID:23449867

  8. The Behavior-Analytic Origins of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: An Example of Behavioral Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Taub, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Constraint-induced (CI) therapy is a term given to a family of efficacious neurorehabilitation treatments including to date: upper extremity CI movement therapy, lower extremity CI movement therapy, pediatric CI therapy, and CI aphasia therapy. The purpose of this article is to outline the behavior analysis origins of CI therapy and the ways in which its procedures incorporate behavior analysis methods and principles. The intervention is founded on the concept of learned nonuse, a mechanism now empirically demonstrated to exist, which occurs after many different types of damage to the central nervous system (CNS). It results from the dramatic alteration of the contingencies of reinforcement that results from substantial CNS damage and leads to a greater deficit than is warranted by the actual damage sustained. CI therapy produces a countervailing alteration in the contingencies of reinforcement. The intervention has been used successfully to substantially improve motor deficits after stroke, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, with cerebral palsy in a pediatric population, and for language impairment in poststroke aphasia. The protocol of CI therapy consists primarily of standard behavior-analytic methods. It produces a marked plastic brain change that is correlated with its therapeutic effect, and therefore provides an example of the way in which behavior change can contribute to a profound remodeling of the brain. CI therapy may be viewed as an example of behavioral neurorehabilitation. PMID:23449867

  9. Effectively Utilizing the "Behavioral" in Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy of Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Deming, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is touted as the predominant approach in sex offender-specific group treatment, a review of the field shows that the "behavioral" part of CBT has become minimal in relation to that which is cognitive. The authors show how a revitalized "behavioral sensibility" may help to enhance…

  10. Comparison of Behavioral Intervention and Sensory-Integration Therapy in the Treatment of Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Sarah; Healy, Olive; Leader, Geraldine; Hughes, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of sensory-integration therapy (SIT) and a behavioral intervention on rates of challenging behavior (including self-injurious behavior) in four children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. For each of the participants a functional assessment was conducted to identify the variables…

  11. A Comparative Outcome Study of Behavioral Marital Therapy and Communication Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, K. Daniel; Turkewitz, Hillary

    1981-01-01

    Distressed couples were assigned to behavioral marital therapy, communication therapy, or a wait-list. Treated couples demonstrated more change than controls in marital problems and general communication patterns, but not in feelings toward spouse or communication during conflict resolution discussions. No overall differences were reported between…

  12. Comparing Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Problem Solving Therapy, and Treatment as Usual in a High Risk Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Carment D.; Quinn, Andrea; Plever, Sally; Emmerson, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), problem-solving therapy (PST), or treatment as usual (TAU) were compared in the management of suicide attempters. Participants completed the Beck Hopelessness Scale, Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation, Social Problem-Solving Inventory, and Client Satisfaction Questionnaire at pre- and posttreatment. Both CBT and PST…

  13. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Susan Crump

    2011-08-01

    Sleep-wake disturbances, particularly insomnia, are among the most prevalent and distressing symptoms experienced by patients with cancer. As a result of extensive interdisciplinary research conducted since 2000, cognitive-behavioral therapy now is considered the standard of care for the treatment of insomnia in the general population and also has been upgraded to "likely to be effective" in the Oncology Nursing Society Putting Evidence Into Practice weight of evidence category. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a multicomponent psychological and behavioral treatment designed to eliminate the perpetuating factors of insomnia. The most frequently used strategies are stimulus control, sleep restriction and relaxation therapies, paradoxical intention, sleep hygiene, and cognitive restructuring. Although this insomnia treatment recommendation has been well publicized, the nursing literature has not effectively translated the theories and principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy into practical guidelines or considerations for use by oncology staff nurses and advanced practitioners. This article attempts to demystify cognitive-behavioral therapy and provide nurses at different levels of practice a foundation from which to evaluate and potentially deliver this promising insomnia intervention. PMID:21810565

  14. Behavioral Therapies for Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Katy; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Dickinson, Kath; Cantrell, Anna; Wylie, Kevan; Frodsham, Leila; Hood, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is defined by short ejaculatory latency and inability to delay ejaculation causing distress. Management may involve behavioral and/or pharmacological approaches. Aim To systematically review the randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence for behavioral therapies in the management of PE. Methods Nine databases including MEDLINE were searched up to August 2014. Included RCTs compared behavioral therapy against waitlist control or another therapy, or behavioral plus drug therapy against drug treatment alone. [Correction added on 10 September 2015, after first online publication: Search period has been amended from August 2013 to August 2014.] Main Outcome Measure Intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), sexual satisfaction, ejaculatory control, and anxiety and adverse effects. Results Ten RCTs (521 participants) were included. Overall risk of bias was unclear. All studies assessed physical techniques, including squeeze and stop-start, sensate focus, stimulation device, and pelvic floor rehabilitation. Only one RCT included a psychotherapeutic approach (combined with stop-start and drug treatment). Four trials compared behavioral therapies against waitlist control, of which two (involving squeeze, stop-start, and sensate focus) reported IELT differences of 7–9 minutes, whereas two (web-based sensate focus, stimulation device) reported no difference in ejaculatory latency posttreatment. For other outcomes (sexual satisfaction, desire, and self-confidence), some waitlist comparisons significantly favored behavioral therapy, whereas others were not significant. Three trials favored combined behavioral and drug treatment over drug treatment alone, with small but significant differences in IELT (0.5–1 minute) and significantly better results on other outcomes (sexual satisfaction, ejaculatory control, and anxiety). Direct comparisons of behavioral therapy vs. drug treatment gave mixed results, mostly either favoring drug

  15. Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior Change Applied to Voice Therapy

    PubMed Central

    van Leer, Eva; Hapner, Edie R.; Connor, Nadine P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Studies of patient adherence to health behavior programs, such as physical exercise, smoking cessation, and diet, have resulted in the formulation and validation of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change. Although widely accepted as a guide for the development of health behavior interventions, this model has not been applied to vocal rehabilitation. Because resolution of vocal difficulties frequently depends on a patient’s ability to make changes in vocal and health behaviors, the TTM may be a useful way to conceptualize voice behavior change processes, including the patient’s readiness for change. The purpose of this paper is to apply the TTM to the voice therapy process to: (1) provide an organizing framework for understanding of behavior change in voice therapy, (2) explain how treatment adherence problems can arise, and (3) provide broad strategies to improve treatment adherence. Given the significant role of treatment adherence in treatment outcome, considering readiness for behavior change should be taken into account when planning treatment. Principles of health behavior change can aid speech pathologists in such understanding and estimating readiness for voice therapy. PMID:18082367

  16. Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Treat Distressed Couples: A Case Study With Two Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Brennan D.; Eifert, Georg H.; Feingold, Tal; Davidson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Although the field of couple therapy has made significant strides in recent years, there continues to be a need for theoretically sound and empirically supported treatments. The current case study examines whether Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), an experiential acceptance-based behavior therapy, can be effective in treating distressed…

  17. The Course and Evolution of Dialectical Behavior Therapy.

    PubMed

    Linehan, Marsha M; Wilks, Chelsey R

    2015-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy was originally developed from early efforts to apply standard behavior therapy to treat individuals who were highly suicidal. Its development was a trial and error effort driven primarily from clinical experience. Dialectical behavior therapy is a modular and hierarchical treatment consisting of a combination of individual psychotherapy, group skills, training, telephone coaching, and a therapist consultation team. The inherent modularity and hierarchical structure of DBT has allowed for relative ease in adapting and applying the treatment to other populations and settings. New skills have been developed and/or modified due to clinical need and/or advancement in research such as treatment outcomes or mechanisms. There has been an effort to implement DBT skills as a standalone treatment. More research is needed to assess how DBT skills work and for whom. As DBT broadens its reach, the treatment will continue to grow and adapt to meet demands of an evolving clinical landscape. PMID:26160617

  18. Cognitive and Behavioral Predictors of Light Therapy Use

    PubMed Central

    Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Miller, Megan A.; Ernecoff, Natalie C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although light therapy is effective in the treatment of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and other mood disorders, only 53–79% of individuals with SAD meet remission criteria after light therapy. Perhaps more importantly, only 12–41% of individuals with SAD continue to use the treatment even after a previous winter of successful treatment. Method Participants completed surveys regarding (1) social, cognitive, and behavioral variables used to evaluate treatment adherence for other health-related issues, expectations and credibility of light therapy, (2) a depression symptoms scale, and (3) self-reported light therapy use. Results Individuals age 18 or older responded (n = 40), all reporting having been diagnosed with a mood disorder for which light therapy is indicated. Social support and self-efficacy scores were predictive of light therapy use (p's<.05). Conclusion The findings suggest that testing social support and self-efficacy in a diagnosed patient population may identify factors related to the decision to use light therapy. Treatments that impact social support and self-efficacy may improve treatment response to light therapy in SAD. PMID:22720089

  19. Unifying the field: developing an integrative paradigm for behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Eifert, G H; Forsyth, J P; Schauss, S L

    1993-06-01

    The limitations of early conditioning models and treatments have led many behavior therapists to abandon conditioning principles and replace them with loosely defined cognitive theories and treatments. Systematic theory extensions to human behavior, using new concepts and processes derived from and built upon the basic principles, could have prevented the divisive debates over whether psychological dysfunctions are the results of conditioning or cognition and whether they should be treated with conditioning or cognitive techniques. Behavior therapy could also benefit from recent advances in experimental cognitive psychology that provide objective behavioral methods of studying dysfunctional processes. We suggest a unifying paradigm for explaining abnormal behavior that links and integrates different fields of study and processes that are frequently believed to be incompatible or antithetical such as biological vulnerability variables, learned behavioral repertoires, and that also links historical and current antecedents of the problem. An integrative paradigmatic behavioral approach may serve a unifying function in behavior therapy (a) by promoting an understanding of the dysfunctional processes involved in different disorders and (b) by helping clinicians conduct functional analyses that lead to theory-based, individualized, and effective treatments. PMID:8263219

  20. Optimizing Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piacentini, John

    2008-01-01

    Reports that expand the understanding of the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder by using exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy in the age group of 5 to 8-year-olds are presented. A model for collecting the common core elements of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for childhood disorders is also presented.

  1. Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Cohen, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    Schools are ideal settings for identifying children and adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic events. They are also ideal for providing evidence-based mental health services, such as trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, to students affected by childhood posttraumatic stress disorder and co-occurring mental health and behavioral…

  2. Acceptance-Enhanced Behavior Therapy for Trichotillomania in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Kathi M.; Walther, Michael R.; Joseph, Jessica M.; Robinson, Jordan; Ricketts, Emily J.; Bowe, William E.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the efficacy of Acceptance Enhanced Behavior Therapy (AEBT) for the treatment of trichotillomania (TTM) in adults, data are limited with respect to the treatment of adolescents. Our case series illustrates the use of AEBT for TTM in the treatment of two adolescents. The AEBT protocol (Woods & Twohig, 2008) is…

  3. Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Child Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Piacentini, John C.; Southam-Gerow, Michael; Chu, Brian C.; Sigman, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study compared family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT: the Building Confidence Program) with traditional child-focused CBT with minimal family involvement for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Forty clinically anxious youth (6-13 years old) were randomly assigned to a family- or child-focused cognitive-behavioral…

  4. Counseling Children and Adolescents: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Humanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Describes specific parallels between rational emotive behavior therapy and humanism. Places specific emphasis on the application of these principles with children and adolescents. Concepts are illustrated with case studies and a description of the similarities between rational emotive and humanistic, or affective, education. Highlights emotional…

  5. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Has a Humanistic Orientation-Definitely.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Paul J.

    1996-01-01

    Challenges criticisms that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) is not humanistic. Responds to misconceptions regarding the term "rational" and concludes that, although REBT is closely identified with secular humanism, REBT can also be seen as a set of analytical and therapeutic skills that religious humanists can use. (RJM)

  6. Evaluation of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramham, Jessica; Young, Susan; Bickerdike, Alison; Spain, Deborah; McCartan, Denise; Xenitidis, Kiriakos

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A brief cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention was designed to treat comorbid anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem and self-efficacy in adults with ADHD. It was hypothesised that participants would gain knowledge about ADHD, experience a reduction in comorbid symptoms, and benefit from the supportive aspect of group…

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Markowitz, Sarah; Petronko, Michael R.; Taylor, Caitlin E.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Wilson, G. Terence

    2010-01-01

    The onset of appearance-related concerns associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) typically occurs in adolescence, and these concerns are often severe enough to interfere with normal development and psychosocial functioning. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for adults with BDD. However, no treatment studies…

  8. Helping Individuals with Sleep Disturbances: Some Behavior Therapy Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, Patricia M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a range of behavior therapy techniques for treating sleep disturbances, including physical activity, relaxation training, biofeedback, autogenic training, and cognitive techniques. The importance of understanding the client's background is emphasized. Restoring the client's self-control and positive psychological growth are stressed.…

  9. Development and Clinical Outcomes of a Dialectical Behavior Therapy Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lajoie, Travis; Sonkiss, Joshua; Rich, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the first 6 months of a dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) clinic operated by trainees in a general adult psychiatry residency program. The purpose of this report is to provide a model for the creation and maintenance of a formalized resident DBT clinic. Methods: Residents participated in the DBT clinic, attended a…

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Knauz, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Between 10% and 24% of bipolar patients experience a rapid cycling course, with 4 or more mood episodes occurring per year. Characterized by nonresponse to standard mood-stabilizing medications, rapid cyclers are…

  11. Behavior Therapy for Pediatric Trichotillomania: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Martin E.; Edson, Aubrey L.; Ledley, Deborah A.; Cahill, Shawn P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy and durability of a behavioral therapy (BT) protocol for pediatric TTM compared with a minimal attention control (MAC) condition. It was hypothesized that the BT condition would be superior to MAC at the end of acute treatment, and would also demonstrate durability of gains through the maintenance treatment…

  12. Modular Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Phillips, Katharine A.; Fama, Jeanne M.; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Steketee, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This study pilot tested a newly developed modular cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment manual for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome in a sample of 12 adults with primary BDD. Treatment was delivered in weekly individual sessions over 18 or 22 weeks. Standardized clinician ratings…

  13. Feasibility of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Adolescent Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Laurence Y.; Cox, Brian J.; Gunasekara, Shiny; Miller, Alec L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) implementation in a general child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit and to provide preliminary effectiveness data on DBT versus treatment as usual (TAU). Method: Sixty-two adolescents with suicide attempts or suicidal ideation were admitted to one of two…

  14. How Has Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Therapy Changed?: An Historical Analysis of Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donohue, William; Fryling, Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied…

  15. Treating Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors with Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in…

  16. Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Depressive Mothers of Children with Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hye Ha, Eun

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBT) for depressed mothers of children between 5-12 years old, with behavior problems and to examine the effectiveness of the program. The CBT group met 8 times in total (2-hour weekly sessions for 8 weeks), followed by a booster session 3 months after the program was…

  17. Individualized behavior management program for Alzheimer's/dementia residents using behavior-based ergonomic therapies.

    PubMed

    Bharwani, Govind; Parikh, Pratik J; Lawhorne, Larry W; VanVlymen, Eric; Bharwani, Meena

    2012-05-01

    Person-centered, nonpharmacological interventions for managing Alzheimer's/dementia-related behavioral disturbances have received significant attention. However, such interventions are quite often of a single type limiting their benefits. We develop a comprehensive nonpharmacological intervention, the Behavior-Based Ergonomic Therapy (BBET), which consists of multiple therapies. This low-cost, 24/7 program uses learning, personality, and behavioral profiles and cognitive function of each resident to develop a set of individualized therapies. These therapies are made available through an accessible resource library of music and video items, games and puzzles, and memory props to provide comfort or stimulation depending on an individual resident's assessment. The quantitative and qualitative benefits of the BBET were evaluated at the dementia care unit in a not-for-profit continuing care retirement community in west central Ohio. The 6-month pilot study reduced falls by 32.5% and markedly reduced agitation through increased resident engagement. PMID:22517891

  18. United we stand: emphasizing commonalities across cognitive-behavioral therapies.

    PubMed

    Mennin, Douglas S; Ellard, Kristen K; Fresco, David M; Gross, James J

    2013-06-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has a rich history of alleviating the suffering associated with mental disorders. Recently, there have been exciting new developments, including multicomponent approaches, incorporated alternative therapies (e.g., meditation), targeted and cost-effective technologies, and integrated biological and behavioral frameworks. These field-wide changes have led some to emphasize the differences among variants of CBT. Here, we draw attention to commonalities across cognitive-behavioral therapies, including shared goals, change principles, and therapeutic processes. Specifically, we offer a framework for examining common CBT characteristics that emphasizes behavioral adaptation as a unifying goal and three core change principles, namely (a) context engagement to promote adaptive imagining and enacting of new experiences; (b) attention change to promote adaptive sustaining, shifting, and broadening of attention; and (c) cognitive change to promote adaptive perspective taking on events so as to alter verbal meanings. Further, we argue that specific intervention components, including behavioral exposure/activation, attention training, acceptance/tolerance, decentering/defusion, and cognitive reframing, may be emphasized to a greater or lesser degree by different treatment packages but are still fundamentally common therapeutic processes that are present across approaches and are best understood by their relationships to these core CBT change principles. We conclude by arguing for shared methodological and design frameworks for investigating unique and common characteristics to advance a unified and strong voice for CBT in a widening, increasingly multimodal and interdisciplinary, intervention science. PMID:23611074

  19. Cognitive behavioral group therapy for anxiety: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Wolgensinger, Laure

    2015-09-01

    Anxiety disorders occur frequently, and can have a negative impact on the quality of people's lives. They often begin at an early age and can have some serious consequences. This article is an overview of the recent studies concerning group cognitive-behavioral interventions for anxiety disorders. In the last few years, anxiety disorder prevention for children and adolescents has become an important focus of research work. Group prevention programs are based on standard cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) strategies and are aimed at preventing anxiety disorders as early as possible. Numerous cognitive behavioral group therapies for children as well as adults have been well studied. There are many CBT protocols that have been developed for treating specific anxiety disorders. Now, specialized CBT programs are available for individuals who suffer from different anxiety disorders, enabling them to be treated together in groups. PMID:26487815

  20. Irritable bowel syndrome treatment: cognitive behavioral therapy versus medical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mahvi-Shirazi, Majid; Rasoolzade-Tabatabaei, Sayed-Kazem; Amini, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The study aims to investigate two kinds of treatment in patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and consequently compares its efficacy on improving the symptoms and mental health of patients; one with just medical treatment and another through a combination of psychotherapy and medical treatment. Material and methods Applying general sampling, 50 IBS patients were selected from among those who used to refer to a Gastroenterology Clinic. After physical and mental evaluations based on ROME-II scale and SCL-90-R questionnaires, the subjects were randomly superseded into: the control group with medical treatment and, the case group with a combination of medical and psychological treatments. The acquired data were then analyzed through t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Results The findings show that the mental health of patients receiving cognitive behavioral therapy along with the medical treatment was higher than those of the control group at post-test level. It was observed that the therapy reduces the disability caused by IBS. Comparatively, while the cognitive therapy and medical treatments cured 80% of the patients, those receiving cognitive therapy alone showed an extensive reduction of symptoms. Conclusions Considering the role of cognitive behavioral therapy, it is therefore recommend that such patients be managed by a combined team of gastroenterologists and psychologists. PMID:22457686

  1. How not to learn cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).

    PubMed

    Trinidad, Antolin C

    2007-01-01

    Would-be learners of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) may be hampered by learning traps that impede effective acquisition of the skills necessary to provide this type of therapy to clients. Among these pitfalls are the possibility of isolation, therapeutic fanaticism, lack of seriousness, therapeutic drift, and thinking CBT is antipsychodynamic or antipsychoanalytic. The author advocates immersion learning of CBT, arguing that theoretical learning must be supplemented by supervision and active use of the method in one's patients. Presented are two case vignettes demonstrating therapeutic drift and therapeutic fanaticism to highlight potential therapeutic impasses that may ensue from these pitfalls. PMID:18251384

  2. [Ancient mental healing and cognitive behavior therapy in comparison].

    PubMed

    Hoellen, B; Laux, J

    1988-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is a relatively new psychotherapeutic approach, the theoretical antecedents actually date back two thousand years, to the period of the hellenistic philosophers. The Stoic Epictetus is often acknowledged as the main philosophical father of CBT and especially of rational-emotive therapy (RET). Beck and Ellis frequently noted that they have drawn upon the writings of the ancient philosophers in developing their psychotherapeutic techniques. This paper reviews some implications of hellenistic philosophy for CBT. We like to show that the teachings of the ancient 'healer of souls' are remarkably consistent with the current theoretical framework and techniques of CBT. PMID:3073604

  3. Nutritional and behavioral modification therapies of obesity: facts and fiction.

    PubMed

    Vranešić Bender, Darija; Krznarić, Zeljko

    2012-01-01

    Current practice guidelines for management of overweight and obesity recommend a tripartite treatment - lifestyle modification program of diet, exercise, and behavior therapy for all persons with a body mass index of at least 30 (and those with body mass index 25 plus two weight-related comorbidities). Behavior therapy provides the structure that facilitates meeting goals for energy intake and expenditure. Lately, there has been a shift in focus from behavior change to cognitive change because it improves long-term results of lifestyle modification programs. Weight loss diets based on the amounts of individual macronutrients (high-protein diets, low-fat diets and low-carbohydrate diets, etc.) in the diet are not more effective than 'classical' low-calorie and balanced diets. An exception has been detected only in short-term diets with a low glycemic load. Also, epidemiological studies show that there is an inversely proportional relationship between body weight and Mediterranean diet. Cognitive behavioral therapy based on the Mediterranean diet has proven to be effective in clinical practice with regard to weight loss, body fat distribution, biochemical parameters, blood pressure and simplicity of following the diet. PMID:22722432

  4. Associations between therapy skills and patient experiences of change processes in cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Wittorf, Andreas; Jakobi-Malterre, Ute E; Beulen, Silke; Bechdolf, Andreas; Müller, Bernhard W; Sartory, Gudrun; Wagner, Michael; Wiedemann, Georg; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Herrlich, Jutta; Klingberg, Stefan

    2013-12-30

    Despite the promising findings in relation to the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp), little attention has been paid to the therapy skills necessary to deliver CBTp and to the influence of such skills on processes underlying therapeutic change. Our study investigated the associations between general and technical therapy skills and patient experiences of change processes in CBTp. The study sample consisted of 79 patients with psychotic disorders who had undergone CBTp. We randomly selected one tape-recorded therapy session from each of the cases. General and technical therapy skills were assessed by the Cognitive Therapy Scale for Psychosis. The Bern Post Session Report for Patients was applied to measure patient experiences of general change processes in the sense of Grawe's psychological therapy. General skills, such as feedback and understanding, explained 23% of the variance of patients' self-esteem experience, but up to 10% of the variance of mastery, clarification, and contentment experiences. The technical skill of guided discovery consistently showed negative associations with patients' alliance, contentment, and control experiences. The study points to the importance of general therapy skills for patient experiences of change processes in CBTp. Some technical skills, however, could detrimentally affect the therapeutic relationship. PMID:23992793

  5. Art Therapy for Individuals with Borderline Personality: Using a Dialectical Behavior Therapy Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drass, Jessica Masino

    2015-01-01

    Art therapy has shown benefits for people with borderline personality disorder and borderline personality traits by alleviating interpersonal difficulties such as affect regulation, an unstable sense of self, self-injurious behaviors, and suicidal ideation. Borderline personality disorder is currently viewed as a trauma spectrum disorder, because…

  6. Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy for Hand and Arm Pain

    PubMed Central

    Vranceanu, Ana-Maria; Safren, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psychological treatment that emphasizes the interrelation among thoughts, behaviors, feelings, and sensations. CBT has been proved effective not only for treatment of psychological illness but also for teaching adaptive coping strategies in the context of chronic illnesses, including chronic pain. The present article provides general information on CBT, specific information on CBT for pain, as well as guidelines and strategies for using CBT for hand and arm pain patients, as part of multidisciplinary care models. PMID:21051204

  7. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa: an illustration.

    PubMed

    Spangler, D L

    1999-06-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (BN) is a well-developed, theoretically grounded treatment for BN with the strongest empirical support for its efficacy of any form of treatment for BN. The treatment package comprises three distinct phases typically delivered over 20 weeks. Incorporating a variety of specific interventions, these three phases of treatment focus systematically on (i) dietary restraint, (ii) dysfunctional beliefs about body weight and shape, and (iii) reactions to recurrence of symptoms, which are thought to be the primary operative mechanisms that cause and maintain BN symptoms. Case material is presented to illustrate cognitive-behavioral treatment principles. PMID:10445861

  8. Cognitive behavior therapy for eating disorders: progress and problems.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G T

    1999-07-01

    Beginning with the application of operant conditioning principles as part of inpatient treatment, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anorexia nervosa (AN) has been insufficiently studied. Its efficacy remains in question. By contrast, manual-based CBT is the first-line treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa (BN) although its effects are limited. More effective methods are needed for non-responders to current therapy. Despite its well-established efficacy, CBT for BN is relatively rarely used in the US. Research on dissemination is a priority. Modified CBT and behavioral weight control programs seem comparably effective in reducing binge eating in Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Long-term maintenance of weight loss in these obese patients, however, remains a challenge. Self-help and other brief, cost-effective methods work for subsets of both BN and BED patients, demonstrating that treatment be administered within a stepped-care framework. PMID:10402697

  9. Environmental-scanning behavior among private practice physical therapy firms.

    PubMed

    Schafer, D S

    1991-06-01

    This study examined the extent to which private practice physical therapy firms focused on specific environmental sectors in the process of making business decisions. Furthermore, the relationship between scanning behavior and both entrepreneurship level (high, middle, low) and direct-access status (complete, partial, none) were analyzed. The sample consisted of 450 randomly selected private practice decision makers (eg, owners, chief executive officers) from throughout the United States. Data were gathered using a mailed, structured questionnaire. Physical therapy private practices were found to differentially attend to environmental sectors with the customer sector ranked the highest followed, in descending order, by the technological, regulatory, socio-cultural-political, competitive, and economic sectors. In addition, firms in the high-level entrepreneurship group scanned the technological and marketing (customer, competitive) environments to a significantly greater degree than did the middle- and low-level groups. Direct-access status had no effect on scanning behavior. PMID:2034711

  10. [Obesity psychological treatment: beyond cognitive and behavioral therapy].

    PubMed

    Volery, M; Bonnemain, A; Latino, A; Ourrad, N; Perroud, A

    2015-03-25

    The psychological assessment of the patient with obesity aims to identify the factors of maintenance of excess weight, such as eating disorders or anxio-depressive disorders. Psychotherapy helps a better weight management. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown its effectiveness in the treatment of obesity. New psychotherapeutic approaches are explored. The hypnosis and mindfulness are proposed for the management of emotions and stress. A targeted approach on the body image disorder decreases body dissatisfaction. When post-traumatic stress syndrome is involved, EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization & Reprocessing) is better than other types of therapies. Family therapy is indicated when the entourage is impacted. Psychological difficulties should be the subject of specific care. PMID:26111421

  11. Effectiveness of Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Component Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Judith A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated effects of group behavioral therapy including aerobic exercise, behavioral therapy alone, and aerobic exercise alone on pain and physical and psychological disability among mildly disabled chronic low-back-pain patients (n=96). The combined behavioral therapy and exercise group improved significantly more pretreatment to posttreatment…

  12. Pavlov's contributions to behavior therapy. The obvious and not so obvious.

    PubMed

    Wolpe, J; Plaud, J J

    1997-09-01

    The foundation, accomplishments, and proliferation of behavior therapy have been fueled largely by the movement's grounding in behavioral principles and theories. Ivan P. Pavlov's discovery of conditioning principles was essential to the founding of behavior therapy in the 1950s and continues to be central to modern behavior therapy. Pavlov's major legacy to behavior therapy was his discovery of "experimental neuroses", shown by his students M.N. Eroféeva and N.R. Shenger-Krestovnikova to be produced and eliminated through the principles of conditioning and counterconditioning. In this article, the Pavlovian origins of behavior therapy are assessed, and the relevance of conditioning principles to modern behavior therapy are analyzed. It is shown that Pavlovian conditioning represents far more than a systematic basic learning paradigm. It is also an essential theoretical foundation for the theory and practice of behavior therapy. PMID:9382243

  13. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalrymple, Kristy L.; Herbert, James D.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the demonstrated efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD), many individuals do not respond to treatment or demonstrate residual symptoms and impairment posttreatment. Preliminary evidence indicates that acceptance-based approaches (e.g., acceptance and commitment therapy; ACT) can be helpful for a…

  14. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy integrated with systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy combined with virtual reality exposure therapy methods in the treatment of flight anxiety: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Triscari, Maria Teresa; Faraci, Palmira; Catalisano, Dario; D’Angelo, Valerio; Urso, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare the effectiveness of the following treatment methods for fear of flying: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) integrated with systematic desensitization, CBT combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and CBT combined with virtual reality exposure therapy. Overall, our findings have proven the efficacy of all interventions in reducing fear of flying in a pre- to post-treatment comparison. All groups showed a decrease in flight anxiety, suggesting the efficiency of all three treatments in reducing self-report measures of fear of flying. In particular, our results indicated significant improvements for the treated patients using all the treatment programs, as shown not only by test scores but also by participation in the post-treatment flight. Nevertheless, outcome measures maintained a significant effect at a 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, combining CBT with both the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment and the virtual stimuli used to expose patients with aerophobia seemed as efficient as traditional cognitive behavioral treatments integrated with systematic desensitization. PMID:26504391

  15. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy integrated with systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy combined with virtual reality exposure therapy methods in the treatment of flight anxiety: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Triscari, Maria Teresa; Faraci, Palmira; Catalisano, Dario; D'Angelo, Valerio; Urso, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare the effectiveness of the following treatment methods for fear of flying: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) integrated with systematic desensitization, CBT combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and CBT combined with virtual reality exposure therapy. Overall, our findings have proven the efficacy of all interventions in reducing fear of flying in a pre- to post-treatment comparison. All groups showed a decrease in flight anxiety, suggesting the efficiency of all three treatments in reducing self-report measures of fear of flying. In particular, our results indicated significant improvements for the treated patients using all the treatment programs, as shown not only by test scores but also by participation in the post-treatment flight. Nevertheless, outcome measures maintained a significant effect at a 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, combining CBT with both the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment and the virtual stimuli used to expose patients with aerophobia seemed as efficient as traditional cognitive behavioral treatments integrated with systematic desensitization. PMID:26504391

  16. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Contextual Behavioral Science: Examining the Progress of a Distinctive Model of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Steven C.; Levin, Michael E.; Plumb-Vilardaga, Jennifer; Villatte, Jennifer L.; Pistorello, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    A number of recent authors have compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The present article describes ACT as a distinct and unified model of behavior change, linked to a specific strategy of scientific development, which we term “contextual behavioral science.” We outline the empirical progress of ACT and describe its distinctive development strategy. A contextual behavioral science approach is an inductive attempt to build more adequate psychological systems based on philosophical clarity; the development of basic principles and theories; the development of applied theories linked to basic ones; techniques and components linked to these processes and principles; measurement of theoretically key processes; an emphasis on mediation and moderation in the analysis of applied impact; an interest in effectiveness, dissemination, and training; empirical testing of the research program across a broad range of areas and levels of analysis; and the creation of a more effective scientific and clinical community. We argue that this is a reasonable approach, focused on long-term progress, and that in broad terms it seems to be working. ACT is not hostile to traditional CBT, and is not directly buoyed by whatever weaknesses traditional CBT may have. ACT should be measured at least in part against its own goals as specified by its own developmental strategy. PMID:23611068

  17. [Behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive-analytic methods in treatment of anorexia].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, U

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the current state of behavioural, cognitive-behavioural and cognitive-analytical treatments of anorexia nervosa and the underlying theoretical models. Purely behavioural treatment methods have been evaluated in a number of single case studies. Although effective in terms of increasing body weight, these methods are obsolete in view of their unpleasant side-effects. Cognitive-behavioural and cognitive-analytical therapies are much more appropriate for these patients given their complex symptomatology and frequently ambivalent attitude to treatment. However, so far evaluations of these treatments are rare. The reasons for this are discussed. PMID:9411461

  18. Winter depression recurrence one year after cognitive-behavioral therapy, light therapy, or combination treatment.

    PubMed

    Rohan, Kelly J; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Lacy, Timothy J; Vacek, Pamela M

    2009-09-01

    The central public health challenge in the management of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is prevention of depression recurrence each fall/winter season. The need for time-limited treatments with enduring effects is underscored by questionable long-term compliance with clinical practice guidelines recommending daily light therapy during the symptomatic months each year. We previously developed a SAD-tailored group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and tested its acute efficacy in 2 pilot studies. Here, we report an intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis of outcomes during the subsequent winter season (i.e., approximately 1 year after acute treatment) using participants randomized to CBT, light therapy, and combination treatment across our pilot studies (N=69). We used multiple imputation to estimate next winter outcomes for the 17 individuals who dropped out during treatment, were withdrawn from protocol, or were lost to follow-up. The CBT (7.0%) and combination treatment (5.5%) groups had significantly smaller proportions of winter depression recurrences than the light therapy group (36.7%). CBT alone, but not combination treatment, was also associated with significantly lower interviewer- and patient-rated depression severity at 1 year as compared to light therapy alone. Among completers who provided 1-year data, all statistically significant differences between the CBT and light therapy groups persisted after adjustment for ongoing treatment with light therapy, antidepressants, and psychotherapy. If these findings are replicated, CBT could represent a more effective, practical, and palatable approach to long-term SAD management than light therapy. PMID:19647524

  19. Summary of Mode Deactivation Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Social Skills Training with Two Year Post Treatment Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2006-01-01

    This study summarized two treatment research studies and included recidivism data for two years post discharge for group therapy. The study compared Mode deactivation Therapy (MDT), Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), and Social Skills training (SST), results of the MDT series of studies and the two year post-study recidivism data. The data from the…

  20. Cognitive Behavioral and Psychodynamic Therapies: Points of Intersection and Divergence.

    PubMed

    Pilecki, Brian; Thoma, Nathan; McKay, Dean

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic therapy (PDT) are two major paradigms in the mental health care field. The present article reviews broad similarities and differences between each tradition while acknowledging that such generalizations may overlook heterogeneity within each. However, it is believed that a comparison between CBT and PDT is beneficial in dispelling myths about each tradition, fostering dialogue, encouraging further scholarship and research. While not an exhaustive account, this article will examine how CBT and PDT differ in how they view several topics such as the unconscious, the therapeutic alliance, the role of homework, symptom reduction, and therapeutic heuristics. Commentary is also offered on how research may be more effectively and collaboratively integrated with clinical work from both traditions. Future directions for partnership and improving mental health treatments are also discussed. PMID:26301762

  1. Using behavior analysis to examine the outcomes of unproven therapies: an evaluation of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for children with autism.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Dorothea C; Sansbury, Tesa; Hovanetz, Alyson; Wolever, Erin; Garcia, Amber; O'Brien, Erin; Adedipe, Hellen

    2008-01-01

    It has become increasingly common for parents of children with autism to supplement behavior analytic interventions with therapies that have not yet been subjected to adequate scientific scrutiny. When caregivers elect to use unproven therapies despite advice to the contrary, practitioners should employ the methods of applied behavior analysis to experimentally evaluate the outcomes. Controlled evaluations of unproven therapies can be challenging, however, particularly when ongoing behavioral services are supplemented with biomedical interventions. This paper describes the methods and results of a behavior analytic evaluation of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, an unproven intervention that has been growing in popularity over the past several years. Three young children with autism participated. No benefits of the therapy were evident beyond those obtained through the behavioral intervention alone. Considerations for conducting this type of research are highlighted, along with suggestions for practitioners. PMID:22477688

  2. Using Behavior Analysis to Examine the Outcomes of Unproven Therapies: An Evaluation of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Dorothea C; Sansbury, Tesa; Hovanetz, Alyson; Wolever, Erin; Garcia, Amber; O'Brien, Erin; Adedipe, Hellen

    2008-01-01

    It has become increasingly common for parents of children with autism to supplement behavior analytic interventions with therapies that have not yet been subjected to adequate scientific scrutiny. When caregivers elect to use unproven therapies despite advice to the contrary, practitioners should employ the methods of applied behavior analysis to experimentally evaluate the outcomes. Controlled evaluations of unproven therapies can be challenging, however, particularly when ongoing behavioral services are supplemented with biomedical interventions. This paper describes the methods and results of a behavior analytic evaluation of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, an unproven intervention that has been growing in popularity over the past several years. Three young children with autism participated. No benefits of the therapy were evident beyond those obtained through the behavioral intervention alone. Considerations for conducting this type of research are highlighted, along with suggestions for practitioners. PMID:22477688

  3. Common Questions About Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Scott F; Banducci, Anne N; Vinci, Christine

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a time-limited, goal-oriented psychotherapy that has been extensively researched and has benefits in a number of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, and insomnia. CBT uses targeted strategies to help patients adopt more adaptive patterns of thinking and behaving, which leads to positive changes in emotions and decreased functional impairments. Strategies include identifying and challenging problematic thoughts and beliefs, scheduling pleasant activities to increase environmental reinforcement, and extended exposure to unpleasant thoughts, situations, or physiologic sensations to decrease avoidance and arousal associated with anxiety-eliciting stimuli. CBT can be helpful in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by emphasizing safety, trust, control, esteem, and intimacy. Prolonged exposure therapy is a CBT technique that includes a variety of strategies, such as repeated recounting of the trauma and exposure to feared real-world situations. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, CBT focuses on establishing structures and routines, and clear rules and expectations within the home and classroom. Early intensive behavioral interventions should be initiated in children with autism before three years of age; therapy consists of 12 to 40 hours of intensive treatment per week, for at least one year. In many disorders, CBT can be used alone or in combination with medications. However, CBT requires a significant commitment from patients. Family physicians are well suited to provide collaborative care for patients with psychiatric disorders, in concert with cognitive behavior therapists. PMID:26554473

  4. Behavioral, cognitive, and family therapy for obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Neziroglu, F; Hsia, C; Yaryura-Tobias, J A

    2000-09-01

    Behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy, individually and combined, are a solid base in any therapy, the goal of which is to decrease the maladaptive behaviors associated with obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. Future research into this area involves two branches: (1) better resolution in what components of current treatments are effective and (2) a better understanding of the cause of OCD. The therapies of choice are behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy, but often what is described as behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy varies. Further refinement of the specific components of behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy that directly apply to OCD is needed. The specific components likely include the use of ERP and rational emotive behavioral therapy but often even these therapies can be parceled into smaller discrete parts. Many facets still have not been explored thoroughly (e.g., the extent of exposure to adverse situations needed, ideal length of therapy, time needed for exposure, and the use of virtual reality versus traditional exposures). A better understanding of the biological basis for OCD also would further the field. A better understanding of the basis of this disorder also would help clinicians to treat it with medication and behavioral therapy. Research into how behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy makes neurophysiologic changes would show the effectiveness of the treatment and a biological basis. Such studies could include the use of MR imaging during different stages in behavioral therapy and the use of functional during therapy to observe changes in the brain. Although OCD still is not fully understood, researchers are now beginning to understand how to treat it, and a solid base of empiric data now exists. The authors hope that investigators will continue research toward a better understanding of this disorder so that clinicians can better help their patients. PMID:10986734

  5. Implementing cognitive behavioral therapy in specialty medical settings

    PubMed Central

    Magidson, Jessica F.; Weisberg, Risa B.

    2016-01-01

    This article is an introduction to the second issue of a two-part Special Series on integrating cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) into medical settings. The first issue focused on integrating CBT into primary care, and this issue focuses on implementing CBT in other specialty medical settings, including cancer treatment, HIV care, and specialized pediatric medical clinics. Models for treatment delivery to improve ease of implementation are also discussed, including telehealth and home-delivered treatment. The six articles in this series provide examples of how to transport CBT techniques that are largely designed for implementation in outpatient mental health settings to specialized medical settings, and discuss unique considerations and recommendations for implementation.

  6. Multisurface Interpersonal Assessment in a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Context.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Sindes; Pincus, Aaron L

    2016-01-01

    The interpersonal paradigm of personality assessment provides a rich nomological net for describing and assessing constructs of interpersonal functioning. The aim of this article is to demonstrate for clinicians how the use of a multisurface interpersonal assessment (MSIA) battery can augment psychotherapy (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy). We present 2 clinical case examples and specify interpretative guidelines for MSIA that integrate multiple circumplex profiles (e.g., problems, traits, sensitivities, strengths, values, and efficacies) for each patient. Subsequently, we demonstrate how this approach provides a context to better understand patient symptoms and difficulties, and discuss how it can inform case conceptualization, treatment planning, and intervention. PMID:27070943

  7. NMDA receptors and fear extinction: implications for cognitive behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Based primarily on studies that employ Pavlovian fear conditioning, extinction of conditioned fear has been found to be mediated by N-methyi-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex. This led to the discovery that an NMDA partial agonist, D-cycloserine, could facilitate fear extinction when given systemically or locally into the amygdala. Because many forms of cognitive behavioral therapy depend on fear extinction, this led to the successful use of D-cycloserine as an adjunct to psychotherapy in patients with so-called simple phobias (fear of heights), social phobia, obsessive-compulsive behavior, and panic disorder. Data in support of these conclusions are reviewed, along with some of the possible limitations of D-cycloserine as an adjunct to psychotherapy. PMID:22275851

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy of Panic Disorder with Secondary Major Depression: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laberge, Benoit; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigated extent to which cognitive-behavioral therapy can be used successfully in treatment of secondary depressed panic patients. Findings from eight panic patients with major depression and seven panic patients without major depression showed that cognitive-behavioral therapy was significantly superior to information-based therapy in…

  9. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: A 1-Year Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe an adapted version of dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents with bipolar disorder. Method: The dialectical behavior therapy intervention is delivered over 1 year and consists of two modalities: family skills training (conducted with individual family units) and individual therapy. The acute treatment period (6 months)…

  10. Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Assessing the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez de Arellano, Michael A.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; George, Preethy; Dougherty, Richard H.; Daniels, Allen S.; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Huang, Larke; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a conjoint parent-child treatment developed by Cohen, Mannarino, and Deblinger that uses cognitive-behavioral principles and exposure techniques to prevent and treat posttraumatic stress, depression, and behavioral problems. This review defined TF-CBT, differentiated it from other models, and assessed the evidence base. Methods Authors reviewed meta-analyses, reviews, and individual studies (1995 to 2013). Databases surveyed were PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, PILOTS, the ERIC, and the CINAHL. They chose from three levels of research evidence (high, moderate, and low) on the basis of benchmarks for number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of effectiveness. Results The level of evidence for TF-CBT was rated as high on the basis of ten RCTs, three of which were conducted independently (not by TF-CBT developers). TF-CBT has demonstrated positive outcomes in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, although it is less clear whether TF-CBT is effective in reducing behavior problems or symptoms of depression. Limitations of the studies include concerns about investigator bias and exclusion of vulnerable populations. Conclusions TF-CBT is a viable treatment for reducing trauma-related symptoms among some children who have experienced trauma and their nonoffending caregivers. Based on this evidence, TF-CBT should be available as a covered service in health plans. Ongoing research is needed to further identify best practices for TF-CBT in various settings and with individuals from various racial and ethnic backgrounds and with varied trauma histories, symptoms, and stages of intellectual, social, and emotional development. PMID:24638076

  11. Cognitive behavioral therapy: current status and future research directions.

    PubMed

    McMain, Shelley; Newman, Michelle G; Segal, Zindel V; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), an umbrella term that includes a diverse group of treatments, is defined by a strong commitment to empiricism. While CBT has a robust empirical base, areas for improvement remain. This article reviews the status of the current empirical base and its limitations, and presents future directions for advancement of the field. Ultimately, studies are needed that will identify the predictors, mediators, and moderators of treatment response in order to increase knowledge on how to personalize interventions for each client and to strengthen the impact of CBT. Efforts to advance the dissemination and implementation of CBT, innovative approaches such as practice-oriented research, and the advantages of incorporating new and existing technologies, are discussed as well. PMID:25689506

  12. Treatment of Adult Insomnia With Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pigeon, Wilfred R.

    2015-01-01

    Insomnia is a highly prevalent disorder that occurs frequently in its acute form and at a rate of approximately 10% in its chronic form. There is a high prevalence of insomnia in a variety of medical and psychiatric conditions. Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) may be employed for chronic insomnia as well as for insomnia in the context of other conditions such as chronic pain conditions. In such cases, some simple adaptations to standard CBT for insomnia are useful. This article reviews the typical assessment and CBT for adult insomnia, which have substantial empirical support for its efficacy. A case illustrates the core treatment processes and demonstrates that improving sleep in the context of conditions like chronic pain can lead to better management of such conditions. PMID:20853442

  13. Chronic Pain and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Knoerl, Robert; Lavoie Smith, Ellen M; Weisberg, James

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is often used to treat chronic pain; however, more information is needed about what are the most efficacious dose and delivery methods. The aims of this review were to determine (a) which CBT doses, delivery methods, strategies, and follow-up periods have been explored in recent intervention studies of individuals with chronic pain and (b) whether the outcomes described in the selected studies were consistent with recommendations by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials. The CINAHL, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS databases were searched for randomized controlled trials published from 2009 to 2015 testing CBT for adults with chronic pain. Thirty-five studies were included in this review. Results revealed that CBT reduced pain intensity in 43% of trials, the efficacy of online and in-person formats were comparable, and military veterans and individuals with cancer-related chronic pain were understudied. PMID:26604219

  14. Moderators of effects of motivational enhancements to cognitive behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Andrew; Foote, Jeffrey; Cleland, Charles; Magura, Stephen; Mahmood, Daneyal; Kosanke, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Patient treatment matching hypotheses were tested for substance users randomly assigned to a group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT; n= 114) or a group motivational intervention (GMI; n= 116). Treatment was scheduled twice weekly for 10 weeks. Using a patient attribute by treatment interaction design with a 15-week follow-up, the study predicted that alexithymia, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and network support for alcohol and drug use would be associated with less substance use for CBT subjects and that hostility and lower treatment motivation would be associated with less substance use for GMI subjects. Three of the hypothesized moderators were empirically supported: alexithymia, network support for alcohol, and ASPD. Results indicate the use of assessing specific patient attributes to better inform treatment recommendations. PMID:15768570

  15. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anorexia Nervosa: An Update.

    PubMed

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; El Ghoch, Marwan; Sartirana, Massimiliano; Calugi, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anorexia nervosa (AN), based on Beck's cognitive theory, was developed in a "generic" form in the early eighties. In recent years, however, improved knowledge of the mechanisms involved in maintaining eating disorder psychopathology has led to the development of a "specific" form of CBT, termed CBT-E (E = enhanced), designed to treat all forms of eating disorders, including AN, from outpatient to inpatient settings. Although more studies are required to assess the relative effectiveness of CBT-E with respect to other available treatments, the data indicate that in outpatient settings it is both viable and promising for adults and adolescents with AN. Encouraging results are also emerging from inpatient CBT-E, particularly in adolescents, and clinical services offering CBT-E at different levels of care are now offered in several countries around the world. However, CBT-E requires dissemination in order to become widely available to patients. PMID:26689208

  16. Sleep Quality Improvement During Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramsawh, Holly J; Bomyea, Jessica; Stein, Murray B; Cissell, Shadha H; Lang, Ariel J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of sleep complaints among individuals with anxiety disorders, few prior studies have examined whether sleep quality improves during anxiety treatment. The current study examined pre- to posttreatment sleep quality improvement during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder (PD; n = 26) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 24). Among sleep quality indices, only global sleep quality and sleep latency improved significantly (but modestly) during CBT. Sleep quality improvement was greater for treatment responders, but did not vary by diagnosis. Additionally, poor baseline sleep quality was independently associated with worse anxiety treatment outcome, as measured by higher intolerance of uncertainty. Additional intervention targeting sleep prior to or during CBT for anxiety may be beneficial for poor sleepers. PMID:26244485

  17. Comparison of Behavioral Intervention and Sensory-Integration Therapy in the Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Sarah; Leader, Geraldine; Healy, Olive

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigates the comparative effects of sensory-integration therapy and behavioral interventions on rates of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in a 9-year-old boy with diagnosis of autism. A functional analysis was conducted to identify the variables maintaining the self-injurious behavior. This analysis demonstrated that SIB was…

  18. Differential Effectiveness of Behavioral Parent-Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Antisocial Youth: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCart, Michael R.; Priester, Paul E.; Davies, W. Hobard; Azen, Razia

    2006-01-01

    Extended the findings from previous meta-analytic work by comparing the effectiveness of behavioral parent-training (BPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth with antisocial behavior problems. Youth demographic variables were also examined as potential moderators of the effectiveness of these 2 types of interventions. Thirty BPT…

  19. Does Interpersonal Therapy Help Patients with Binge Eating Disorder Who Fail to Respond to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agras, W. Stewart; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of group interpersonal therapy (IPT) in treating overweight, binge-eating patients. Participants were randomly allocated to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or to an assessment-only group. After 12 weeks, those who did not respond to CBT were assigned 12 weeks of IPT. IPT led to no further improvement. (JPS)

  20. Cognitive behavior therapy for stuttering: a case series.

    PubMed

    Reddy, R P; Sharma, M P; Shivashankar, N

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed at studying the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in reducing the symptoms of stuttering and dysfunctional cognitions and in enhancing assertiveness and quality of life in clients with stuttering. Five clients with stuttering who met the inclusion criteria (male clients with diagnosis of stuttering) and exclusion criteria (clients with brian damage), substance abuse or mental retardation were enrolled for the study. A single-case design was adopted. The pre-, mid- and post-assessment were carried out using Stuttering Severity Scale (SSI), Perception of Stuttering Inventory (PSI), Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Dysfunctional Attitude (DAS), Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE), Assertiveness Scale (AS), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and World Health Organization - Quality of Life Scale (WHO-QOL). Five clients received cognitive behavioral intervention comprising of psycho-education, relaxation, deep breathing, humming, prolongation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving strategies and assertiveness. At post-treatment assessment, there was improvement. The findings of the study are discussed in the light of available research work, implications, limitations of the study and suggestions for future research. PMID:21799560

  1. Treating Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors With Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in other emotionally dysregulated populations. This longitudinal single-group pilot study examined whether individuals with impaired intellectual functioning would show reductions in CBs while receiving standard DBT individual therapy used in conjunction with the Skills System (DBT-SS), a DBT emotion regulation skills curriculum adapted for individuals with cognitive impairment. Forty adults with developmental disabilities (most of whom also had intellectual disabilities) and CBs, including histories of aggression, self-injury, sexual offending, or other CBs, participated in this study. Changes in their behaviors were monitored over 4 years while in DBT-SS. Large reductions in CBs were observed during the 4 years. These findings suggest that modified DBT holds promise for effectively treating individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:23914278

  2. Better versus Worse Family Therapy Sessions as Reflected in Clients' Alliance-Related Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; Bernardi, Shaina; Lee, Hsin-Hua

    2010-01-01

    To be responsive to clients' evaluations of the unfolding therapy process, therapists must first accurately "read" client behavior, a particularly challenging task in conjoint family therapy. In this study, the authors compared client behavior in 28 sessions that one family member and the therapist concurred, on the Session Evaluation…

  3. Gender Differences in the Maintenance of Response to Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felmingham, Kim L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential differential responses in men and women to cognitive behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Fifty-two men and 56 women diagnosed with PTSD participated in randomized controlled trials of cognitive behavior therapy for PTSD. Participants were randomly allocated to either (a) exposure-only…

  4. Description of an Intensive Dialectical Behavior Therapy Program for Multidiagnostic Clients with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federici, Anita; Wisniewski, Lucene; Ben-Porath, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe an intensive outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for multidiagnostic clients with eating disorders who had not responded adequately to standard, empirically supported treatments for eating disorders. The program integrates DBT with empirically supported cognitive behavior therapy approaches that are well…

  5. Case Study: Successful Medication Withdrawal Using Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for a Preadolescent with OCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallinen, Bethany J.; Nangle, Douglas W.; O'Grady, April C.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy to a medication regimen of clomipramine and fluoxetine and the withdrawal of medication during cognitive-behavioral therapy. The participant was an 11-year-old girl with symptoms of obsessive thoughts about germs and illness and…

  6. Treatment Adherence, Competence, and Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake,…

  7. Clients' Emotional Processing in Psychotherapy: A Comparison between Cognitive-Behavioral and Process-Experiential Therapies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jeanne C.; Bedard, Danielle L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors compared clients' emotional processing in good and bad outcome cases in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and process-experiential therapy (PET) and investigated whether clients' emotional processing increases over the course of therapy. Twenty minutes from each of 3 sessions from 40 clients were rated on the Experiencing Scale. A 2 *…

  8. Dialectical Behavior Therapy of Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa among Adolescents: A Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Bohnekamp, Inga; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Miller, Alec L.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a case series of adolescents (mean age = 16.5 years, SD = 1.0) with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) who received dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Twelve outpatients with AN and BN took part in 25 weeks of twice weekly therapy consisting of individual therapy and a skills training group.…

  9. Early Therapeutic Alliance and Treatment Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Cecero, John J.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of early therapeutic alliance was examined in 100 clients receiving either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Observational ratings of adolescent alliance in CBT and adolescent and parent alliance in family therapy were used to predict treatment retention (in CBT only) and…

  10. The Use of Homework in Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Working with Complex Anxiety and Insomnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Homework, or self-help, is an essential and required part of cognitive behavioral treatment. It offers several opportunities for the therapist to extend and increase therapy contact by having the patient "live" the therapy outside of the consulting room. It can also serve as a measure of the patient's motivation for therapy or for change. Homework…

  11. Facilitating Behavioral Change in Voice Therapy: The Relevance of Motivational Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Alison

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present an exploration of some of the issues surrounding adherence to vocal behavioral change in voice therapy within the context of Motivational Interviewing (MI) and to explore MI's potential for integration into voice therapy (MI-adapted voice therapy). MI is a style of interpersonal communication in…

  12. Group Play Therapy with Sexually Abused Preschool Children: Group Behaviors and Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Karyn Dayle

    2002-01-01

    Group play therapy is a common treatment modality for children who have been sexually abused. Sexually abused preschoolers exhibit different group play therapy behaviors than do nonabused children. Group workers need to be aware of these differences and know the appropriate group interventions. This article describes group play therapy with…

  13. Understanding occupational therapy students' attitudes, intentions, and behaviors regarding community service.

    PubMed

    Hoppes, Steve; Hellman, Chan M

    2007-01-01

    Community-based practice has always been a central domain of occupational therapy, and evidence supporting its increasing importance is growing. Preparing occupational therapy students for community practice has received considerable attention in professional literature, but students' voices have seldom been heard concerning this issue. This study sought to investigate attitudes, intentions, and behaviors regarding community service among occupational therapy students enrolled in one professional program using the Community Service Attitudes Survey. We present the Theory of Planned Behavior as a conceptual framework linking students' attitudes and intentions with behaviors. Results indicate that these occupational therapy students' attitudes and intentions regarding community service tended to be more strongly positive than those of their counterparts in other allied health disciplines; however, the community service behaviors of occupational therapy students were not significantly different from those of other allied health students, possibly because occupational therapy students perceived high costs to community service. PMID:17944290

  14. Cognitive behavioral therapy in pharmacoresistant obsessive–compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Vyskocilova, Jana; Prasko, Jan; Sipek, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to determine whether patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) resistant to drug therapy may improve their condition using intensive, systematic cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) lasting for 6 weeks, and whether it is possible to predict the therapeutic effect using demographic, clinical, and selected psychological characteristics at baseline. Methods Sixty-six OCD patients were included in the study, of which 57 completed the program. The diagnosis was confirmed using the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Patients were rated using the objective and subjective forms of the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, objective and subjective forms of the Clinical Global Impression, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Dissociative Experiences Scale, 20-item Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire, and the Sheehan Disability Scale before their treatment, and with subjective Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory at the end of the treatment. Patients were treated with antidepressants and daily intensive group CBT for the 6-week period. Results During the 6-week intensive CBT program in combination with pharmacotherapy, there was a significant improvement in patients suffering from OCD resistant to drug treatment. There were statistically significantly decrease in the scores assessing the severity of OCD symptoms, anxiety, and depressive feelings. A lower treatment effect was achieved specifically in patients who 1) showed fewer OCD themes in symptomatology, 2) showed a higher level of somatoform dissociation, 3) had poor insight, and 4) had a higher initial level of overall severity of the disorder. Remission of the disorder was more likely in patients who had 1) good insight, 2) a lower initial level of anxiety, and 3) no comorbid depressive disorder. PMID:27042074

  15. Using a digital game for training desirable behavior in cognitive-behavioral therapy of burnout syndrome: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Zielhorst, Thomas; van den Brule, Daphne; Visch, Valentijn; Melles, Marijke; van Tienhoven, Sam; Sinkbaek, Helle; Schrieken, Bart; Tan, Eduard S-H; Lange, Alfred

    2015-02-01

    Burnout is a globally increasing illness, and as a result, many forms of burnout therapy have arisen. The use of digital games can be psychotherapeutically effective because they can transform exercises that are by themselves unattractive into intrinsically motivated action. This pilot study aims to test whether a specially designed game contributes to patients learning desired behavior and achieving other specific therapeutic goals in an online cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-based burnout treatment context. In total, 101 participants took part in the experiment, under four conditions: (a) Game+Therapy, (b) Therapy Only, (c) Game Only, and (d) No Game+No Therapy. Pre- and postmeasures were taken online. Results showed that the two therapy conditions (Game+Therapy and Therapy Only) showed a greater decrease in complaints and disengagement, and a stronger increase in coping skills than the nontherapy conditions (Game Only and No Game+No Therapy). As expected, the Game+Therapy condition outperformed the Therapy Only condition on combined improvement measures of burnout symptoms. However, analyses of individual measures showed no effects. It can be cautiously concluded that the therapeutic digital game may be a useful tool when embedded in a therapeutic burnout treatment program and is probably more efficient than CBT, as it is used in current practice. PMID:25684611

  16. Cognitive-behavioral, behavioral, and mindfulness-based therapies for menopausal depression: a review.

    PubMed

    Green, Sheryl M; Key, Brenda L; McCabe, Randi E

    2015-01-01

    Menopause is a natural transition that all women go through in their lives that is often accompanied by a number of physical and emotional symptoms. Upwards of 40% of women report depression symptoms associated with menopause (Timur & Sahin, 2010) [1]. Treatments for menopausal depression include pharmacological agents such as antidepressants and hormone therapy (HT) as well as psychological approaches. This paper provides a review of cognitive-behavioral, behavioral, and mindfulness based (CBBMB) therapies in treating depression during the menopausal transition. After conducting an electronic database search, only two studies specifically using CBBMB methods were found, both had positive results. Since so few studies existed that specifically evaluated CBBMB treatments for menopausal depression (n=2), a larger net was cast. Studies that assessed depression symptoms as an outcome measure in an evaluation of CBBMB treatments for hot flashes or menopausal symptoms more broadly, were included. The review revealed that interventions targeting hot flashes or menopausal symptoms using CBBMB methods mostly proved to have had a positive impact on depression symptoms in the mild range of severity. Directions for future research are discussed including the need for more CBBMB interventions targeting depression during the menopausal transition to establish their efficacy. PMID:25458709

  17. Brief Exposure to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Reduces Side-Effect Symptoms in Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Doerfler, R Eric; Goodfellow, Linda

    2016-01-01

    No study has tested the effectiveness of individualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions to reduce persistent nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to determine if CBT could reduce nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients with HIV on ART. Men ages 40 to 56 years on ART (n = 18) at a suburban HIV clinic were randomly assigned to a control group or the CBT intervention. Usual adherence education and side-effect management were provided to both groups. Symptoms, health perception, medication adherence, and side-effect-reducing medication use were measured at four time points over 3 months. Participants in the intervention group rated usual fatigue and worst fatigue at 60 days, and nausea duration at 90 days significantly lower than controls (p < .05). Brief CBT training may reduce fatigue and nausea in patients with HIV undergoing ART. PMID:26996984

  18. [Application of music therapy for managing agitated behavior in older people with dementia].

    PubMed

    Sung, Huei-Chuan; Chang, Anne M; Abbey, Jennifer

    2006-10-01

    Older people with dementia may display negative emotions, memory problems, sleep disturbance, and agitated behavior. Among these symptoms, agitated behavior has been identified by families and nursing staff as the care problem that presents the greatest challenge. Several studies have found that music therapy reduced agitated behaviors in those with dementia and recommended use of music as an effective strategy in managing this behavioral problem. Music therapy represents a lower cost, effective care approach that nursing staff can easily learn and apply to those with dementia. Furthermore, reductions in agitated behavior in dementia patients that result from music therapy can also alleviate caregiver stress and burden of care, leading to improvements in the health and quality of life of both dementia patients and their caregivers. This paper aims to introduce the principles and application of music therapy in the management of agitated behavior in those with dementia. PMID:17004208

  19. Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Subtypes of Voice-Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Smailes, David; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Dodgson, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for voice-hearing (i.e., auditory verbal hallucinations; AVH) has, at best, small to moderate effects. One possible reason for this limited efficacy is that current CBT approaches tend to conceptualize voice-hearing as a homogenous experience in terms of the cognitive processes involved in AVH. However, the highly heterogeneous nature of voice-hearing suggests that many different cognitive processes may be involved in the etiology of AVH. These heterogeneous voice-hearing experiences do, however, appear to cluster into a set of subtypes, opening up the possibility of tailoring treatment to the subtype of AVH that a voice-hearer reports. In this paper, we (a) outline our rationale for tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing, (b) describe CBT for three putative subtypes of AVH (inner speech-based AVH, memory-based AVH, and hypervigilance AVH), and (c) discuss potential limitations and problems with such an approach. We conclude by arguing that tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing could prove to be a valuable therapeutic development, which may be especially effective when used in early intervention in psychosis services. PMID:26733919

  20. Cognitive behavior therapy for night eating syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Lundgren, Jennifer D; Moore, Reneé H; O'Reardon, John P; Stunkard, Albert J

    2010-01-01

    Because no studies of psychotherapy treatments for night eating syndrome (NES) have been published, we conducted a pilot study of a 10-session cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for NES. Twenty-five patients (19 female, 6 male) were screened and comprehensively assessed before being enrolled. At each visit, patients completed the Night Eating Symptom Scale (NESS), were weighed, and number of awakenings and the number of nocturnal ingestions and daily caloric intake were calculated from weekly food and sleep records. Mixed model regression analyses [of the data] showed significant decreases in caloric intake after dinner (35.0% to 24.9%); number of nocturnal ingestions (8.7 to 2.6 per week); weight (82.5 to 79.4 kg); and NESS score (28.7 to 16.3; all p values <0.0001). Number of awakenings per week, depressed mood, and quality of life also improved significantly (p values <.02). This first clinical trial of CBT for NES shows significant improvements in the core aspects of NES and weight reduction, suggesting the need for a controlled treatment trial. PMID:20405767

  1. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Psychiatric Nursing in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinaga, Naoki; Nosaki, Akiko; Hayashi, Yuta; Tanoue, Hiroki; Shimizu, Eiji; Kunikata, Hiroko; Okada, Yoshie; Shiraishi, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric nurses have played a significant role in disseminating cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in Western countries; however, in Japan, the application, practice, efficiency, and quality control of CBT in the psychiatric nursing field are unclear. This study conducted a literature review to assess the current status of CBT practice and research in psychiatric nursing in Japan. Three English databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) and two Japanese databases (Ichushi-Web and CiNii) were searched with predetermined keywords. Fifty-five articles met eligibility criteria: 46 case studies and 9 comparative studies. It was found that CBT took place primarily in inpatient settings and targeted schizophrenia and mood disorders. Although there were only a few comparative studies, each concluded that CBT was effective. However, CBT recipients and outcome measures were diverse, and nurses were not the only CBT practitioners in most reports. Only a few articles included the description of CBT training and supervision. This literature review clarified the current status of CBT in psychiatric nursing in Japan and identified important implications for future practice and research: performing CBT in a variety of settings and for a wide range of psychiatric disorders, conducting randomized controlled trials, and establishing pre- and postqualification training system. PMID:26798512

  2. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder by Proxy.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jennifer L; Mothi, Suraj Sarvode; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2016-07-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a distressing or impairing preoccupation with a perceived defect in physical appearance. BDD by proxy (BDDBP) is a significant but understudied variant of BDD in which the primary preoccupation involves perceived imperfections of another person. Like BDD, individuals with BDDBP engage in time-consuming rituals to "fix" the other person's appearance or alleviate distress. Avoidance is common and the impact of BDDBP on social functioning is profound. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best-studied and most promising psychological treatment for BDD, but no studies have examined its generalizability to the BDDBP variant. We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome of CBT modified for BDDBP in a sample of 6 adults with primary BDDBP. Treatment was delivered in weekly individual sessions over 12-20weeks. Mean symptom severity (BDDBP-YBOCS) dropped from the moderately severe range at pretreatment to the subclinical range at posttreatment, t(6)=10.7, p<.001, d=3.3. One hundred percent of treatment completers were responders (≥30% reduction in BDDBP-YBOCS). Insight also improved. Treatment gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. To our knowledge, this represents the first treatment study for BDDBP. PMID:27423167

  3. [Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Treatment of ADHD in Adults].

    PubMed

    Auclair, Vickie; Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background The international prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated at 2.5%. ADHD is associated with serious impairment in academic, occupational, social and emotional functioning. Despite the debilitating nature of this disorder, few individuals with ADHD receive appropriate help. Further, although psychopharmacology is considered the first-line treatment of adults with ADHD, it is now recognized that medication alone may be insufficient. Thus, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a promising approach.Objectives This study aimed to review literature and investigate the efficacy of CBT, in reducing ADHD symptoms and comorbid conditions such anxiety and depression for adults with ADHD, by several studies through a meta-analysis.Methods We searched the literature from 1946 through 2015 using especially MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO. We used a random-effects model, Odds Ratios (OR) and Hedge's g.Results Data from 12 randomized controlled studies were included, totaling 575 subjects. The results showed a significant reduction in ADHD symptoms (Hedge's g = 0.95) and comorbid anxiety (Hedge's g = 0.39) and depression (Hedge's g = 0.30) for the CBT group in comparison with controls. Following the end of treatment, ADHD symptoms continue to improve, but not the comorbid conditions.Conclusion In summary, in adults with ADHD, CBT appears to be a promising treatment. PMID:27570962

  4. Neural correlates of behavior therapy for Tourette's disorder.

    PubMed

    Deckersbach, Thilo; Chou, Tina; Britton, Jennifer C; Carlson, Lindsay E; Reese, Hannah E; Siev, Jedidiah; Scahill, Lawrence; Piacentini, John C; Woods, Douglas W; Walkup, John T; Peterson, Alan L; Dougherty, Darin D; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2014-12-30

    Tourette's disorder, also called Tourette syndrome (TS), is characterized by motor and vocal tics that can cause significant impairment in daily functioning. Tics are believed to be due to failed inhibition of both associative and motor cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical pathways. Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT), which is an extension of Habit Reversal Therapy (HRT), teaches patients to become more aware of sensations that reliably precede tics (premonitory urges) and to initiate competing movements that inhibit the occurrence of tics. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural changes associated with CBIT treatment in subjects with TS. Eight subjects with TS were matched with eight healthy controls in gender, education, age, and handedness. Subjects completed the Visuospatial Priming (VSP) task, a measure of response inhibition, during fMRI scanning before and after CBIT treatment (or waiting period for controls). For TS subjects, we found a significant decrease in striatal (putamen) activation from pre- to post-treatment. Change in VSP task-related activation from pre- to post-treatment in Brodmann's area 47 (the inferior frontal gyrus) was negatively correlated with changes in tic severity. CBIT may promote normalization of aberrant cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical associative and motor pathways in individuals with TS. PMID:25444535

  5. Neural correlates of behavior therapy for Tourette’s disorder

    PubMed Central

    Deckersbach, Thilo; Chou, Tina; Britton, Jennifer C.; Carlson, Lindsay E.; Reese, Hannah E.; Siev, Jedidiah; Scahill, Lawrence; Piacentini, John C.; Woods, Douglas W.; Walkup, John T.; Peterson, Alan L.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Tourette’s disorder, also called Tourette syndrome (TS), is characterized by motor and vocal tics that can cause significant impairment in daily functioning. Tics are believed to be due to failed inhibition of both associative and motor cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical pathways. Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT), which is an extension of Habit Reversal Therapy (HRT), teaches patients to become more aware of sensations that reliably precede tics (premonitory urges) and to initiate competing movements that inhibit the occurrence of tics. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural changes associated with CBIT treatment in subjects with TS. Eight subjects with TS were matched with eight healthy controls in gender, education, age, and handedness. Subjects completed the Visuospatial Priming (VSP) task, a measure of response inhibition, during fMRI scanning before and after CBIT treatment (or waiting period for controls). For TS subjects, we found a significant decrease in striatal (putamen) activation from pre- to post-treatment. Change in VSP task-related activation from pre- to post-treatment in Brodmann’s area 47 (the inferior frontal gyrus) was negatively correlated with changes in tic severity. CBIT may promote normalization of aberrant cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical associative and motor pathways in individuals with TS. PMID:25444535

  6. Dialectical behavior therapy deployed: an aggressive alternative to traditional mental health on the noncontiguous battlefield.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Brian D

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a description of the Witmer Wellness Center, the first successful military application of dialectical behavior therapy in a theater of war. Dialectical behavior therapy is a dynamic and provocative evidenced-based modification of cognitive behavioral treatment developed by Dr Marsha Linehan for patients with severe emotional dysregulation. One of the primary concepts of dialectical behavior therapy is that self-harming behaviors are learned, and provide evidence of maladaptive coping that is reinforced in an invalidating environment. Dialectical behavior therapy recommends a hierarchy of goals to effectively address the behaviors associated with dysregulation. Chief among these goals is reducing risk of violence to self or others. Dialectical behavior therapy is especially well-suited for the complex and dynamic environment of the noncontiguous battlefield with its chronic threat of ultraviolence, strain of nonresponse, shifting rules of engagement, and extended duration and frequency of combat deployments. The Witmer Wellness Center program uses an intensive outpatient organizational structure and minimal, but innovative, modifications to standard dialectical behavior therapy designed to meet the special requirements of Warriors in a combat zone. The Wellness Center program was designed and implemented during Operation Iraqi Freedom 07-09, at a time during the troop surge when suicide rates among US forces had reached an unprecedented level. PMID:20088061

  7. Introduction to "The Behavior-Analytic Origins of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: An Example of Behavioral Neurorehabilitation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaal, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to "The Behavior-Analytic Origins of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: An Example of Behavioral Neurorehabilitation," by Edward Taub and his colleagues (Taub, 2012). Based on extensive experimentation with animal models of peripheral nerve injury, Taub and colleagues have created an approach to overcoming…

  8. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Weight Management and Eating Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wilfley, Denise E.; Kolko, Rachel P.; Kass, Andrea E.

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis Eating disorders and obesity in children and adolescents involve harmful behavior and attitude patterns that infiltrate daily functioning. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is well-suited to treat these conditions, given the emphasis on breaking negative behavior cycles. This article reviews the current empirically-supported treatments and the considerations for youth with weight control issues. New therapeutic modalities (i.e., Enhanced CBT and the socio-ecological model) are discussed. Rationale is provided for extending therapy beyond the individual treatment milieu to include the family, peer network, and community domains to promote behavior change, minimize relapse, and support healthy long-term behavior maintenance. PMID:21440855

  9. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents: Theory, Treatment Adaptations, and Empirical Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Heather A.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.; Fristad, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed for chronically suicidal adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and emotion dysregulation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate DBT is associated with improvements in problem behaviors, including suicide ideation and behavior, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), attrition,…

  10. Some Generalization and Follow-Up Measures on Autistic Children in Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovaas, O. Ivar; And Others

    Reported was a behavior therapy program emphasizing language training for 20 autistic children who variously exhibited apparent sensory deficit, severe affect isolation, self stimulatory behavior, mutism, echolalic speech, absence of receptive speech and social and self help behaviors, and self destructive tendencies. The treatment emphasized…

  11. Skills Practice in Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Women Meeting Criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindenboim, Noam; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2007-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based practice for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and suicidal behavior that has been replicated with a variety of populations. Patients' practice of behavioral skills taught in the group skills training component of DBT may be partly responsible for the positive treatment outcomes according…

  12. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Women with Lifelong Vaginismus: A Randomized Waiting-List Controlled Trial of Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lankveld, Jacques J. D. M.; ter Kuile, Moniek M.; de Groot, H. Ellen; Melles, Reinhilde; Nefs, Janneke; Zandbergen, Maartje

    2006-01-01

    Women with lifelong vaginismus (N = 117) were randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral group therapy, cognitive-behavioral bibliotherapy, or a waiting list. Manualized treatment comprised sexual education, relaxation exercises, gradual exposure, cognitive therapy, and sensate focus therapy. Group therapy consisted of ten 2-hr sessions with 6 to 9…

  13. Application of the theory of planned behavior to oral anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed

    Burns, Sharita

    2009-03-01

    Anticoagulation control is imperative for individuals who are prescribed long-term oral anticoagulation therapy. Therapeutic international normalized ratios decrease the risk of the thromboembolic complications that are associated with oral anticoagulation therapy. Individuals on oral anticoagulation therapy are often asked to make lifestyle modifications that can become barriers to medication adherence. The application of the theory of planned behavior to oral anticoagulation therapy can be used to assist advanced practice nurses in assessing individuals for the perceived barriers or obstacles that might interfere with the behavioral changes necessary to successfully comply with the recommended treatment plan. PMID:19298315

  14. Controlled Trial of Very Low Calorie Diet, Behavior Therapy, and Their Combination in the Treatment of Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadden, Thomas A; Stunkard, Albert J.

    1986-01-01

    Assessed the effectiveness of a combined program of very low calorie diet and behavior therapy in treating obesity. Combined treatment and behavior therapy alone subjects maintained weight losses; none of the diet alone subjects met the criterion used to define maintenance. Only those receiving behavior therapy alone and combined treatment showed…

  15. A Review and Empirical Comparison of Three Treatments for Adolescent Males with Conduct and Personality Disorder: Mode Deactivation Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Social Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2005-01-01

    This treatment research study extended the results of Apsche, Bass, Jennings, Murphy, Hunter, and Siv (2005), from behavioral data to standard measures of psychological distress. In Apsche, et. al. (2005) results suggest that Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) was more effective than Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Social Skills Therapy (SST) in…

  16. Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents with Self-injurious Thoughts and Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Darren B; Flament, Martine F

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore clinical changes observed in suicidal adolescents treated with an adapted form of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for adolescents (A-DBT-A) in a tertiary care setting. We conducted an open-label naturalistic study including 61 adolescents with self-injurious thoughts and behaviors and associated features of borderline personality disorder, who underwent a 15-week course of A-DBT-A. Pre- and post-treatment measures were administered, the primary outcome being the total score on the Suicidal Ideas Questionnaire. Self-harm, symptoms of borderline personality disorder, resiliency measures, predictors of response, and predictors of attrition were also explored. Among participants who completed post-treatment measures, we found a significant reduction in suicidal ideation (n = 31, p < 0.001). Secondary outcomes also suggested improvement. Baseline substance use predicted attrition (HR 2.51; 95% CI 1.03-6.14; p < 0.05), as did baseline impulsivity score on the Life Problems Inventory (HR 1.03; 95% CI 1.004-1.06; p < 0.05). Overall, we observed clinical improvements in adolescents receiving A-DBT-A. PMID:26075841

  17. Contemporary Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Review of Theory, History, and Evidence.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Nathan; Pilecki, Brian; McKay, Dean

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has come to be a widely practiced psychotherapy throughout the world. The present article reviews theory, history, and evidence for CBT. It is meant as an effort to summarize the forms and scope of CBT to date for the uninitiated. Elements of CBT such as cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, and so-called "third wave" CBT, such as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) are covered. The evidence for the efficacy of CBT for various disorders is reviewed, including depression, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, substance abuse, schizophrenia, chronic pain, insomnia, and child/adolescent disorders. The relative efficacy of medication and CBT, or their combination, is also briefly considered. Future directions for research and treatment development are proposed. PMID:26301761

  18. Principles of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, David M.; Davis, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a cognitive-behavioral approach to treating bulimia, focusing on the client's eating behavior, physical condition, and dysfunctional attitudes responsible for deficiencies in self-concept. (Author/ABB)

  19. A systematic review comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy and contingency management for cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Farronato, Nadine S; Dürsteler-Macfarland, Kenneth M; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Petitjean, Sylvie A

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and contingency management for cocaine dependence. Contingency management alone reliably reduced cocaine use during active treatment in all cited trials, whereas the positive effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy emerged after treatment in 3 of 5 trials. Synergistic effects of the combination of contingency management plus cognitive-behavioral therapy are shown in 2 trials, but another 3 trials found no additive effects. Positive, rapid, and enduring effects on cocaine use are reliably seen with contingency management interventions, whereas measurable effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy emerge after treatment and are not as reliable as effects with contingency management. PMID:24074193

  20. Exercise, Behavioral Therapy Reduce Menopausal Symptoms Caused by Breast Cancer Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    Women with breast cancer who were suffering from treatment-related menopausal symptoms experienced symptom relief with cognitive behavioral therapy, physical exercise, or both, according to a Dutch study.

  1. An Empirical Examination of Symptom Substitution Associated With Behavior Therapy for Tourette's Disorder.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Alan L; McGuire, Joseph F; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W; Walkup, John T; Hatch, John P; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Over the past six decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a long-standing concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt motor and vocal tics associated with Tourette's disorder, it presents an excellent opportunity to empirically evaluate the potential risk for symptom substitution associated with behavior therapy. The present study examined the possible presence of symptom substitution using four methods: (a) the onset of new tic symptoms, (b) the occurrence of adverse events, (c) change in tic medications, and (d) worsening of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. Two hundred twenty-eight participants with Tourette's disorder or persistent motor or vocal tic disorders were randomly assigned to receive behavioral therapy or supportive therapy for tics. Both therapies consisted of eight sessions over 10 weeks. Results indicated that participants treated with behavior therapy were not more likely to have an onset of new tic symptoms, experience adverse events, increase tic medications, or have an exacerbation in co-occurring psychiatric symptoms relative to participants treated with supportive therapy. Further analysis suggested that the emergence of new tics was attributed with the normal waxing and waning nature of Tourette's disorder. Findings provide empirical support to counter the long-standing concern of symptom substitution in response to behavior therapy for individuals with Tourette's disorder. PMID:26763495

  2. [Therapist self-disclosure in cognitive-behavioral therapy].

    PubMed

    Panagiotidou, K; Zervas, I

    2014-01-01

    Social changes and developments in medical science prompted mental health professionals to adopt new roles in relation to their self-disclosure practices. The physician-patient relationship has balanced on a different level, promoting the equity and the autonomy of the second. The contemporary patient is better informed, asks more questions and requires more answers. The boundaries between "professional" and "personal" are less strict and patients believe that they have a right to know whether the personal experiences (educational, clinical, research) of their therapists enable them to understand and help them. Although the latest version of the American Psychological Association's Ethics Code (APA, 2002) offers no explicit guidance on therapist self-disclosure, it incorporates an implicit message that therapists can no longer choose non-disclosure without having considered the issue carefully. Non-disclosure is no longer the easy answer, as it may affect adversely the therapeutic relationship and the therapeutic effect. These new circumstances prompted representatives of all psychotherapeutic orientations to reconsider traditional positions on therapist self-disclosure, to adapt to the diverse needs of the patients and the modern requirements of the therapeutic process and to define the framework within which its conduct is not only safe but also effective. This review attempts to describe the concept of therapist self-disclosure and its use and its functions in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, following a history of the term in other major therapeutic schools (psychoanalytic, client-centered and systemic). As the focus of any psychotherapy is the patient himself, we added reports of patients' experiences by their therapists' disclosures. Those descriptions reveal clearly not only the benefits of therapist self-disclosure but also the dangers posed by improper use. Finally, we attempt to set a framework in the form of proposals, as these result from existing

  3. Benzodiazepine Discontinuation among Adults with GAD: A Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Patrick; Ladouceur, Robert; Morin, Charles M.; Dugas, Michel J.; Baillargeon, Lucie

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the specific effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) combined with medication tapering for benzodiazepine discontinuation among generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients by using a nonspecific therapy control group. Sixty-one patients who had used benzodiazepines for more than 12 months were randomly assigned to…

  4. Child-Therapist Alliance and Clinical Outcomes in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Child Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Angela W.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Har, Kim; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the link between child-therapist alliance and outcome in manual-guided cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for children diagnosed with anxiety disorders. This study sought to clarify the nature and strength of this relation. Methods: The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child…

  5. Mediated Moderation in Combined Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Component Treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michelle G.; Fisher, Aaron J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined (a) duration of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as a moderator of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus its components (cognitive therapy and self-control desensitization) and (b) increases in dynamic flexibility of anxious symptoms during the course of psychotherapy as a mediator of this moderation. Degree of…

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Subsyndromal Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szigethy, Eva; Kenney, Elyse; Carpenter, Johanna; Hardy, Diana M.; Fairclough, Diane; Bousvaros, Athos; Keljo, David; Weisz, John; Beardslee, William R.; Noll, Robert; DeMaso, David Ray

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the feasibility and efficacy of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing depressive symptomatology in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Therapy-Physical Illness(PASCET-PI) modified for youths with IBD was compared to treatment as usual (TAU), plus…

  7. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  8. Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions. Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampl, Susan; Kadden, Ronald

    This manual is designed to help train substance abuse treatment counselors to conduct a brief five-session treatment intervention for adolescents with cannabis use disorders presenting for outpatient treatment. It combines two sessions of motivational enhancement therapy provided individually and three sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy…

  9. Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Treat Insomnia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Seyffert, Michael; Lagisetty, Pooja; Landgraf, Jessica; Chopra, Vineet; Pfeiffer, Paul N.; Conte, Marisa L.; Rogers, Mary A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Insomnia is of major public health importance. While cognitive behavioral therapy is beneficial, in-person treatment is often unavailable. We assessed the effectiveness of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. Objectives The primary objectives were to determine whether online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia could improve sleep efficiency and reduce the severity of insomnia in adults. Secondary outcomes included sleep quality, total sleep time, time in bed, sleep onset latency, wake time after sleep onset, and number of nocturnal awakenings. Data Sources We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Embase, and the Web of Science for randomized trials. Methods Studies were eligible if they were randomized controlled trials in adults that reported application of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia via internet delivery. Mean differences in improvement in sleep measures were calculated using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random effects meta-analysis. Results We found 15 trials, all utilizing a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. Sleep efficiency was 72% at baseline and improved by 7.2% (95% CI: 5.1%, 9.3%; p<0.001) with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy versus control. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy resulted in a decrease in the insomnia severity index by 4.3 points (95% CI: -7.1, -1.5; p = 0.017) compared to control. Total sleep time averaged 5.7 hours at baseline and increased by 20 minutes with internet-delivered therapy versus control (95% CI: 9, 31; p = 0.004). The severity of depression decreased by 2.3 points (95% CI: -2.9, -1.7; p = 0.013) in individuals who received internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy compared to control. Improvements in sleep efficiency, the insomnia severity index and depression scores with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy were

  10. Behavioral Marital Therapy (BMT) for Alcoholics and Wives: Review of Literature and a Proposed Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Cutter, Henry S. G.

    After describing a social learning formulation of the male alcoholic's marriage, this paper reviews the few studies of behavioral marital therapy (BMT) for alcoholics and their wives. Although none of these studies are as rigorous as one might wish and many of them are merely case studies, a review of the literature shows that behavioral marital…

  11. Brief Report: Improvements in the Behavior of Children with Autism Following Massage Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escalona, Angelica; Field, Tiffany; Singer-Strunck, Ruth; Cullen, Christy; Hartshorn, Kristen

    2001-01-01

    Twenty children with autism, ages 3 to 6 years, received either massage therapy or reading attention by their parents for 15 minutes daily for one month. Evaluation suggested that children in the massage group exhibited less stereotypic behavior and showed more on-task and social relatedness behavior during play observations at school, and they…

  12. Successful Treatment of Olfactory Reference Syndrome with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Pichora, Andrea L.; Antony, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) is characterized by a preoccupation with the belief that one's body emits a foul odor. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was used to treat a woman in her 50s who presented in our outpatient anxiety disorders specialty clinic with ORS, accompanied by embarrassment, shame, distress, avoidance behavior, and social…

  13. The Role of the Team in Managing Telephone Consultation in Dialectical Behavior Therapy: Three Case Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koons, Cedar R.

    2011-01-01

    Standard, outpatient Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) includes the provision of intersession telephone contact between the therapist and the client to reduce suicidal crisis behaviors, enhance skills generalization, and reduce alienation and conflict in the therapeutic relationship. Therapists providing telephone consultation need the help of…

  14. Appetite-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Binge Eating with Purging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicker, Stacy L.; Craighead, Linda Wilcoxon

    2004-01-01

    The first-line treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), uses food-based self-monitoring. Six young women presenting with BN or significant purging behavior were treated with a modification, Appetite-Focused CBT (CBT-AF), in which self-monitoring is based on appetite cues and food monitoring is proscribed. This change…

  15. The Evolution of "Enhanced" Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Eating Disorders: Learning from Treatment Nonresponse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been widespread acceptance that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa. The cognitive behavioral treatment of bulimia nervosa (CBT-BN) was first described in 1981. Over the past decades the theory and treatment have evolved in response to a variety of challenges. The treatment has…

  16. Predictors of the Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Insomnia Comorbid with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Valerie; Savard, Josee; Ivers, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies have supported the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia comorbid with cancer. This article reports secondary analyses that were performed on one of these studies to investigate the predictive role of changes in dysfunctional beliefs about sleep, adherence to behavioral strategies, and some nonspecific factors…

  17. Coping Strategies in Bulimia Nervosa Treatment: Impact on Outcome in Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binford, Roslyn B.; Mussell, Melissa Pederson; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Mitchell, James E.

    2005-01-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the extent to which participants (N = 143) receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (BN) reported implementing therapeutic strategies to abstain from BN behaviors, and to assess whether use of specific strategies predicts outcome at treatment end and 1-and 6-month follow-up. Frequency of…

  18. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Behavioral Activation for the Treatment of Depression: Description and Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Baruch, David E.; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2006-01-01

    The field of clinical behavior analysis is growing rapidly and has the potential to affect and transform mainstream cognitive behavior therapy. To have such an impact, the field must provide a formulation of and intervention strategies for clinical depression, the "common cold" of outpatient populations. Two treatments for depression have emerged:…

  19. The Rationality of Alcoholics Anonymous and the Spirituality of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velten, Emmett

    1996-01-01

    Argues that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) share important rational objectives and numerous cognitive-behavioral methods. Both emphasize a philosophical shift as a principal ingredient for change. Provides definitions of rationality and spirituality and explains how REBT and smart recovery are spiritual…

  20. Therapist Strategies for Building Involvement in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungbluth, Nathaniel J.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between 9 therapist behaviors and client involvement in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Analyses included 42 adolescents who met criteria for a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or adjustment disorder with depressed mood) and who were…

  1. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Self-Determination Theory with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Peter C.; Patrick, Heather; Wenzel, Amy; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in preventing suicide-related behavior. However, it is often difficult to engage patients who are at-risk in treatment. Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been shown to increase treatment engagement and improve treatment outcomes when it is used to complement other treatments. As a…

  2. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Adapted for the Vocational Rehabilitation of Significantly Disabled Mentally Ill Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koons, Cedar R.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Betts, Bette B.; O'Rourke, Beth; Morse, Nesha; Robins, Clive J.

    2006-01-01

    Twelve vocational rehabilitation clients with severe mental illness received a comprehensive adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) delivered in a group format. Treatment consisted of 2 hours of standard DBT skills training per week and 90 minutes of diary card review, chain analysis, and behavioral rehearsal. Participants were selected…

  3. Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Body Image Exposure for Bulimia Nervosa: A Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delinsky, Sherrie S.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN). However, among patients with BN, symptom improvement is more pronounced for behavioral eating symptoms (i.e., bingeing and purging) than for body image disturbance, and the persistence of body image disturbance is associated with relapse. The need for more…

  4. The Use of Massage Therapy in the Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvoy, Christopher; And Others

    The report documents the theoretical basis and application of massage therapy, with six students who exhibited self-injurious behaviors (SIB), in two studies. The first study investigated the relationship between physical and/or emotional stress and self-abusive behavior in five severely mentally impaired students. Subjects received two to three…

  5. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP): Treatment Model, Feasibility, and Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David A.; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary F.; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the elements of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method: The CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction and relapse prevention approach and…

  6. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) ‎

    PubMed Central

    Maddineshat, Maryam; Keyvanloo, Sodabe; Lashkardoost, Hossein; Arki, Mina; Tabatabaeichehr, Mahbubeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Standards of care and treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) vary. Non-drug ‎psychosocial intervention therapy is recommended for women with any kind of ‎discomfort or distress caused by PMS. The current study examined the effectiveness of ‎group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the symptoms of PMS at a girls’ dormitory of ‎North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences. Method: In this quasi-experimental study, 32 female students with PMS who were majoring in ‎nursing and midwifery and residing in the dormitory were selected using the ‎convenience sampling method and were assigned to experimental and control groups. ‎The Standardized Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool was used as the research ‎tool. Eight sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy were held for the students Results: There was a significant difference in psychological symptoms before and after ‎cognitive-behavioral therapy (p=0.012). Furthermore, cognitive-behavioral therapy was ‎effective on social interferences caused by PMS symptoms (p=0.012).‎ Conclusion: Group cognitive-behavioral therapy effectively alleviates PMS symptoms in female ‎college students.‎ PMID:27252766

  7. Efficacy of telephone-administered behavioral therapy for panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    PubMed

    Swinson, R P; Fergus, K D; Cox, B J; Wickwire, K

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a structured exposure-based behavior therapy program delivered by telephone to agoraphobic individuals who were isolated from specialized treatment centres. Forty-two individuals with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of panic disorder with agoraphobia who were living in rural areas of Ontario were assigned to either an eight-session telephone behavior therapy program or wait-list control condition. There were significant treatment x time interaction effects on several outcome variables. Patients originally in the wait-list group then received the same type of therapy and they also significantly improved. All treatment gains were maintained at three-month and six-month follow-up. Telephone behavior therapy appears to be a cost-effective and efficacious treatment for agoraphobics living in remote regions where specialized anxiety disorder services are not readily available. PMID:7755536

  8. The New Therapies and Psychopathology: The Behavioral Viewpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, P. E.

    Behavior therapists view psychopathology differently from dynamically oriented therapists, in that behaviorists are taught to regard symptoms primarily as sets of learned behaviors rather than cues to underlying psychological disorders. Even though there is a split among behaviorists as to which procedure is best to follow, there are some special…

  9. Social Phobia: A Comparison of Behavior Therapy and Atenolol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Samuel M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Randomly assigned 72 social phobics to behavioral (flooding) or drug treatment with atenolol or placebo. Found that flooding consistently was superior to placebo, whereas atenolol was not. Flooding also was superior to atenolol on behavioral measures and composite indexes. Subjects who improved during treatment maintained gains at six-month…

  10. Preschool Children's Sleep and Wake Behavior: Effects of Massage Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Preschool children received twice-weekly massages for five weeks. Compared to control children, the massaged children had better behavior ratings on mood state, vocalization, activity, and cooperation following massage on day one and throughout the study. Teachers rated their behavior more optimally, and their parents rated them as having less…

  11. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for deliberate self-harm.

    PubMed

    Slee, Nadja; Arensman, Ella; Garnefski, Nadia; Spinhoven, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Patients who engage in deliberate self-harm (DSH) form a heterogeneous population. There is a need for psychotherapeutic interventions that give therapists the flexibility to tailor the treatment plan to the needs of an individual patient. To detect essential ingredients for treatment, three different cognitive-behavioral theories of DSH will be reviewed: (1) the cognitive-behavioral theory of Linehan (1993a), (2) the cognitive theory of Berk, Henriques, Warman, Brown, and Beck (2004), and (3) the cognitive-behavioral theory of Rudd, Joiner, and Rajab (2001). A review of these theories makes it possible to compare the different approaches to the essential aspects in the treatment of DSH: a trusting patient-therapist relationship, building emotion regulation skills, cognitive restructuring, and behavioral pattern breaking. An overview will be given of therapeutic techniques that can be used to address the cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems associated with DSH. PMID:18265737

  12. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy--theoretic premises and practical strategies.

    PubMed

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity. PMID:25054888

  13. Behaviors of Providers of Traditional Korean Medicine Therapy and Complementary and Alternative Medicine Therapy for the Treatment of Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jun-Sang; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Ki-Kyong; Lee, Ji-Eun; Kim, Min-Young

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In Korea, cancer is one of the most important causes of death. Cancer patients have sought alternative methods, like complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) together with Western medicine, to treat cancer. Also, there are many kinds of providers of CAM therapy, including providers of Korean oriental medicine therapy. The purpose of this study is to identify the behaviors of Korean oriental medicine therapy and CAM therapy providers who treat cancer patients and to provide background knowledge for establishing a new policy with the management and quality control of CAM. Methods: Structured and well organized questionnaires were made, and 350 persons were surveyed concerning the providers of CAM or Korean oriental medicine. The questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Results: The questionnaires (182) were collected. The questionnaires identified a total of 73 known providers, such as medicinal professionals or other providers of CAM suppliers, 35.6% of whom had had experience with treating cancer patients (52.6% vs. 29.6%). The treatment methods were a little different: alternative therapy and nutritional therapy being preferred by medicinal professionals and mind body modulation therapy and alternative therapy being preferred by other CAM providers. Four patients (7.4%) experienced side effects, and 6 patients (12.5%) experienced legal problems. As the method for managing the therapy, CAM providers, medicinal professionals, and other CAM providers had different viewpoints. For example, some CAM providers stated that both legislation and an official education on CAM or a national examination were needed as a first step to establish the provider’s qualifications and that as a second step, a license test was needed for quality control. To the contrary, medicinal professionals stated that a license test was needed before legislation. Conclusion: Adequate management and quality control of CAM providers is thought to involve both education and

  14. What Cognitive Behavioral Techniques Do Therapists Report Using when Delivering Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for the Eating Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Glenn; Stringer, Hannah; Meyer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Clinicians commonly "drift" away from using proven therapeutic techniques. This study examined the degree to which such drift occurs among cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) clinicians working with a specific clinical population--adults with eating disorders. Method: The study used a correlational design. The participants were 80…

  15. Interdisciplinary Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as Part of Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Lindgreen, Pil; Rolving, Nanna; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients receiving lumbar spinal fusion surgery often have persisting postoperative pain negatively affecting their daily life. These patients may be helped by interdisciplinary cognitive-behavioral therapy which is recognized as an effective intervention for improving beneficial pain coping behavior, thereby facilitating the rehabilitation process of patients with chronic pain. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experience of patients recovering from lumbar spinal fusion surgery and to explore potential similarities and disparities in pain coping behavior between receivers and nonreceivers of interdisciplinary cognitive-behavioral group therapy. METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews with 10 patients; 5 receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy in connection with their lumbar spinal fusion surgery and 5 receiving usual care. We conducted a phenomenological analysis to reach our first aim and then conducted a comparative content analysis to reach our second aim. RESULTS: Patients' postoperative experience was characterized by the need to adapt to the limitations imposed by back discomfort (coexisting with the back), need for recognition and support from others regarding their pain, a relatively long rehabilitation period during which they “awaited the result of surgery”, and ambivalence toward analgesics. The patients in both groups had similar negative perception of analgesics and tended to abstain from them to avoid addiction. Coping behavior apparently differed among receivers and nonreceivers of interdisciplinary cognitive-behavioral group therapy. Receivers prevented or minimized pain by resting before pain onset, whereas nonreceivers awaited pain onset before resting. CONCLUSION: The postoperative experience entailed ambivalence, causing uncertainty, worry and insecurity. This ambivalence was relieved when others recognized the patient's pain and offered support. Cognitive-behavioral therapy as part of

  16. Impact of a Dialectic Behavior Therapy - Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) Upon Behaviorally Challenged Incarcerated Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Deborah; Kesten, Karen; Zhang, Wanli; Trestman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This article reports the findings of a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy- Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) intervention upon difficult to manage, impulsive and/or aggressive incarcerated male adolescents. Methods A secondary analysis of a sub-sample of 38 male adolescents who participated in the study was conducted. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used; descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted. Results Significant changes were found in physical aggression, distancing coping methods and number of disciplinary tickets for behavior. Conclusion The study supports the value of DBT-CM for management of incarcerated male adolescents with difficult to manage aggressive behaviors. PMID:21501287

  17. Use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Token Economy to Alleviate Dysfunctional Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Luzia Flavia; Barbosa, Deise Lima Fernandes; Rizzutti, Sueli; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Miranda, Monica Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with the Token-Economy (TE) technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11) on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior), a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in seven categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children’s inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication. PMID:26635642

  18. Use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Token Economy to Alleviate Dysfunctional Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luzia Flavia; Barbosa, Deise Lima Fernandes; Rizzutti, Sueli; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Miranda, Monica Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with the Token-Economy (TE) technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11) on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior), a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in seven categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children's inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication. PMID:26635642

  19. Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Internet Therapy, Group Therapy and A Waiting List Condition

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Eduard J.; Bögels, Susan M.; Oort, Frans J.; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) in adolescents. Design: A randomized controlled trial of CBTI in group therapy (GT), guided internet therapy (IT), and a waiting list (WL), with assessments at baseline, directly after treatment (post-test), and at 2 months follow-up. Setting: Diagnostic interviews were held at the laboratory of the Research Institute of Child Development and Education at the University of Amsterdam. Treatment for GT occurred at the mental health care center UvAMinds in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants: One hundred sixteen adolescents (mean age = 15.6 y, SD = 1.6 y, 25% males) meeting DSM-IV criteria for insomnia, were randomized to IT, GT, or WL. Interventions: CBTI of 6 weekly sessions, consisted of psychoeducation, sleep hygiene, restriction of time in bed, stimulus control, cognitive therapy, and relaxation techniques. GT was conducted in groups of 6 to 8 adolescents, guided by 2 trained sleep therapists. IT was applied through an online guided self-help website with programmed instructions and written feedback from a trained sleep therapist. Measurements and Results: Sleep was measured with actigraphy and sleep logs for 7 consecutive days. Symptoms of insomnia and chronic sleep reduction were measured with questionnaires. Results showed that adolescents in both IT and GT, compared to WL, improved significantly on sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, and total sleep time at post-test, and improvements were maintained at follow-up. Most of these improvements were found in both objective and subjective measures. Furthermore, insomnia complaints and symptoms of chronic sleep reduction also decreased significantly in both treatment conditions compared to WL. Effect sizes for improvements ranged from medium to large. A greater proportion of participants from the treatment conditions showed high end-state functioning and clinically significant

  20. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Individuals with Disabilities: A Behavior Analytic Strategy for Addressing Private Events in Challenging Behavior.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Audrey N; Contreras, Bethany P; Clay, Casey J; Twohig, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Applied behavior analysts work with many populations including individuals with developmental and intellectual disabilities. Although behavior analysts have a variety of empirically supported treatments to implement when working with individuals with disabilities, sometimes, other variables may adversely impact treatment effectiveness. The degree to which problematic thoughts and feelings (private events) influence behavior may be a variable that contributes to treatment efficacy. Traditional behavior analytic services are not always equipped to successfully address the private events influencing client behavior. In such cases, it may be beneficial for behavior analysts to consider additional philosophically aligned treatments for private events. One such treatment, acceptance and commitment therapy, may be a useful tool for behavior analysts to incorporate into their toolbox in order to help clients. The purpose of this paper is to introduce behavior analysts to a potential solution to the problem of effectively addressing private events in behavior analytic services. We then propose a model for thinking about private events in relation to clients with disabilities and present a guide for taking steps to address private events in the clinical setting. We conclude this paper with a call for research and present a possible research agenda for behavior analysts. PMID:27606236

  1. D-Cycloserine Augmentation of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Directions for Pilot Research in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; McKay, Dean; Reid, Jeannette M.; Geller, Daniel A.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses a recent translational success in combining behavioral psychotherapy with a novel medication, d-cycloserine (DCS), to augment cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. The literature on behavioral theory of exposure-based therapies is provided, followed by a discussion of the role of DCS in enhancing extinction…

  2. Enhancing the Efficacy of Behavior Therapy for Obesity: Effects of Aerobic Exercise and a Multicomponent Maintenance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, Michael G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Moderately obese volunteers were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions (behavior therapy or behavior therapy plus aerobic exercise) and two posttreatment conditions (no further contact or a multicomponent maintenance program). Clients in the aerobic exercise condition lost significantly more weight than those who received behavior therapy…

  3. Effectiveness of Group Dialectical Behavior Therapy (Based on Core Distress Tolerance and Emotion Regulation Components) on Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Jamilian, H. R.; Malekirad, A. A.; Farhadi, M.; Habibi, M.; Zamani, N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to measure Effectiveness of group dialectical behavior therapy (basedon core distress tolerance and emotion regulation components) on Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors. Materials & Methods: Research method is a semi experimental socio-statistic approach consisting of experimental group (dialectical behavior therapy) and control group. Participants were patients referred to Amir Kabir Hospital in Arak who suffered from Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors. Based on stratified random sampling, 16 patients (women) were placed in each group. Research tools included the structured diagnosis interview according to DSM-IV-TR (2000), Barrat impulsivity scale (1994) Distress Tolerance Scale (2005) Difficulties of Emotion Regulation Scale (2004) and dialectical behavior therapy were done for two months,8 group-sessions). Findings: Dialectical behavior therapy was effective on Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors. Discussion & Conclusion: Distress tolerance and emotion regulation components were effective on Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors. PMID:25363188

  4. Computer-assisted cognitive-behavior therapy for depression.

    PubMed

    Eells, Tracy D; Barrett, Marna S; Wright, Jesse H; Thase, Michael

    2014-06-01

    This article reviews the use of computer technology in treating depression as a substitute or adjunct for standard therapy. It discusses advantages and disadvantages of introducing computer technology as a treatment option, problems and barriers to expanded use, the varieties of computer-assisted psychotherapy for major depression, and relevant research. Three specific Internet-based programs are described, assessed and compared: Good Days Ahead, Beating the Blues, and MoodGYM. The authors conclude that these and similar programs are promising. Preliminary outcome studies suggest that these programs produce outcome similar to standard therapy, although methodological shortcomings limit confidence in these findings. Suggestions are offered for practitioners considering the addition of computer assistance to their treatment of depression. PMID:24059735

  5. Mindfulness- and Acceptance-based Interventions for Psychosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lauche, Romy; Haller, Heidemarie; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions are increasingly studied as a potential treatment for a variety of mental conditions. Objective: To assess the effects of mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions on psychotic symptoms and hospitalization in patients with psychosis Methods: MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO were screened from inception through April 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were analyzed when they assessed psychotic symptoms or hospitalization in patients with psychosis; affect, acceptance, mindfulness, and safety were defined as secondary outcomes. Results: Eight RCTs with a total of 434 patients comparing mindfulness-based (4 RCTs) or acceptance-based interventions (4 RCTs) to treatment as usual or attention control were included. Six RCTs had low risk of bias. Moderate evidence was found for short-term effects on total psychotic symptoms, positive symptoms, hospitalization rates, duration of hospitalization, and mindfulness and for long-term effects on total psychotic symptoms and duration of hospitalization. No evidence was found for effects on negative symptoms, affect, or acceptance. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions can be recommended as an additional treatment for patients with psychosis. PMID:26937312

  6. The Impact of Acceptance-Based Versus Avoidance-Based Protocols on Discomfort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luciano, Carmen; Molina, Francisco; Gutierrez-Martinez, Olga; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Valdivia-Salas, Sonsoles; Cabello, Francisco; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Rodriguez-Valverde, Miguel; Wilson, Kelly G.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate the conditions under which aversive stimulation is experienced as more or less discomforting/unpleasant. Discomfort was induced by playing loud noises through headphones while participants performed computer tasks. We employed 4 main conditions. Condition 1: the acceptance-based protocol (ACT), intended to integrate…

  7. Child and Adolescent Therapy: Cognitive-Behavioral Procedures. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Widely regarded as the definitive clinical reference and text in the field, this authoritative volume presents effective cognitive-behavioral approaches for treating frequently encountered child and adolescent disorders. The editor and contributors are leading experts who provide hands-on, how-to-do-it descriptions illustrated with clinical…

  8. Broad-Spectrum Behavior Therapy with Children: A Case Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keat, Donald B.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the case study was to report how a therapist can adapt a variety of behavioral techniques (both classical and operant conditioning) to meet the needs of emotionally disturbed elementary school aged children in one-to-one relationships. (Atuhor)

  9. The Targeted Dysfunctional Behavior Cycle Applied to Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carich, Mark S.; Stone, Mark H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a method for examining the Targeted Dysfunctional Behavior (TDB) cycle to help therapists and clients identify many possibilities for bringing about change, especially in the beginning of treatment. Theoretical rationale, stages of the cycle, and model are described with examples. The TDB cycle is outlined. (Author/EMK)

  10. Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Late-Life Insomnia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Charles M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Assigned 24 older adults with persistent psychophysiological insomnia to immediate or delayed cognitive-behavioral intervention in waiting-list control group design. Treatment was effective in reducing sleep latency, wake after sleep onset, and early morning awakening, and in increasing sleep efficiency. Sleep improvements obtained by…

  11. Retaining Pathological Gamblers in Cognitive Behavior Therapy through Motivational Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfert, Edelgard; Blanchard, Edward B.; Freidenberg, Brian M.; Martell, Rebecca S.

    2006-01-01

    Treatment for pathological gambling is in its infancy. Several cognitive and behavioral interventions have shown promise, but high attrition and relapse rates suggest that gamblers requesting treatment are not uniformly committed to change. This article describes an exploratory study with 9 severe pathological gamblers--in their majority horse…

  12. Effect of Cognitive Behavior Group Therapy on Parenting Stress in Mothers of Children With Autism

    PubMed Central

    Izadi- Mazidi, Maryam; Riahi, Frough; Khajeddin, Niloufar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Due to the various problems of children with autism, their families and especially their mothers become exposed to stress. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cognitive behavior group therapy on parenting stress of mothers of children with autism. Materials and Methods: The sample of this research consisted of sixteen mothers of children with autism. The measurement tools were the Abidin Parenting Stress questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire. The samples participated in seven sessions of cognitive behavior group therapy. The data were analyzed using the repeated measures test. Results: The findings indicated significant differences between scores of pretest and posttest considering parenting stress (P = 0.03) and subscales of parenting distress (P = 0.01), yet there weren’t significant differences in the other subscales (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Cognitive behavior group therapy could be an important part of interventions used to decrease parenting stress of mothers of children with autism. PMID:26576170

  13. D-Cycloserine as an augmentation strategy for cognitive behavioral therapy of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Wu, Jade Q; Boettcher, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this review is to examine the clinical studies on d-cycloserine, a partial glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist, as an augmentation strategy for exposure procedures during cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. Although cognitive behavioral therapy and anxiolytic medications are more effective than placebo for treating anxiety disorders, there is still considerable room for further improvement. Traditional combination strategies typically yield disappointing results. However, recent studies based on translational research have shown promise to augment the neural circuitry underlying fear extinction with pharmacological means. We discuss the current state of the literature, including inconsistencies of findings and issues concerning the drug mechanism, dosing, and dose timing. D-cycloserine is a promising combination strategy for cognitive behavioral therapy of anxiety disorders by augmenting extinction learning. However, there is also evidence to suggest that d-cycloserine can facilitate reconsolidation of fear memory when exposure procedures are unsuccessful. PMID:23768232

  14. D-Cycloserine as an augmentation strategy for cognitive behavioral therapy of anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this review is to examine the clinical studies on d-cycloserine, a partial glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist, as an augmentation strategy for exposure procedures during cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. Although cognitive behavioral therapy and anxiolytic medications are more effective than placebo for treating anxiety disorders, there is still considerable room for further improvement. Traditional combination strategies typically yield disappointing results. However, recent studies based on translational research have shown promise to augment the neural circuitry underlying fear extinction with pharmacological means. We discuss the current state of the literature, including inconsistencies of findings and issues concerning the drug mechanism, dosing, and dose timing. D-cycloserine is a promising combination strategy for cognitive behavioral therapy of anxiety disorders by augmenting extinction learning. However, there is also evidence to suggest that d-cycloserine can facilitate reconsolidation of fear memory when exposure procedures are unsuccessful. PMID:23768232

  15. [FUNCTIONAL ANALYTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY: APPROACHES AND SCOPE OF BEHAVIOR THERAPY BASED ON CHANGES IN THE THERAPEUTIC CONTEXT].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Martínez, Amanda M; Coletti, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a therapeutic approach developed in therapies> context. FAP is characterized by use therapeutic relationship and the behaviors emit into it to improve clients daily life functioning. This therapeutic model is supported in behavior analysis principles and contextual functionalism philosophy. FAP proposes that clients behavior in session are functional equivalent with those out of session; therefore, when therapists respond to clients behaviors in session contingently, they promote and increase improvements in the natural setting. This article poses main features of FAP, its philosophical roots, achievements and research challenges to establish FAP as an independent treatment based on the evidence. PMID:26323113

  16. Evaluating outpatient behavior therapy of sex offenders. A pretest-posttest study.

    PubMed

    Crolley, J; Roys, D; Thyer, B A; Bordnick, P S

    1998-10-01

    This study compared the entrance and exit scores of 16 patients completing treatment at the Highland Institute for Behavioral Change (HIBC), an outpatient program specializing in the behavioral treatment of sex offenders. Outcome measures included the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), the Multiphasic Sexual Inventory, and recidivism (rearrest record) posttreatment. Statistically significant and clinical improvements were obtained on a number of these measures. One of the 16 graduates reoffended during the average follow-up period of 26 months (he is now incarcerated). These data are supportive of the contention that outpatient behavior therapy can be effective in reducing deviant sexual arousal and in enhancing appropriate consensual sexual behavior. PMID:9755648

  17. [Is pain therapy just an ethical-behavioral problem?].

    PubMed

    Finco, G; Polati, E; Pinaroli, A M; Gottin, L; Ischia, S

    1994-01-01

    Pain is a subjective sensation caused not only by pathological events which trigger signals perceived as algogenic (sensory component), but also by emotional mechanisms and critical assessments which modify its perception, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Therefore pain is an unique and unrepeatable experience resulting from the interaction of these three components. When faced with a patient suffering pain, it is fundamental to establish the respective quantitative incidences of these three components, in order to define the correct therapy of the pain in its totality. Whereas there are numerous therapies for dealing with the sensory component, the same cannot be said of the emotional and critical elements. We therefore suggest a number of guidelines for tackling the problem and for developing therapeutic strategies. In the literature there are few perspective and randomized studies that may evaluate the real effectiveness of the different treatments; it follows that the tested and accepted by scientific community therapeutical protocols are very few. Only recently some studies that intend to evaluate the different therapeutical strategies in connection with the different algesic syndromes are being published in the most important scientific journals. PMID:8184182

  18. Dietary Adherence and Mealtime Behaviors in Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes on Intensive Insulin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Susana R.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Chen, Ming; Powers, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Diet is an important component of diabetes treatment and integral to successful management. While intensive insulin therapy can allow patients to eat more freely, it is not known how the rapid uptake of intensive therapy in young children with type 1 diabetes has impacted their diet and if diet and healthful eating in young children correlates with mealtime behaviors and glycemic control. This study examined diet, mealtime behaviors, and glucose control in a sample of 39 young children on intensive therapy. This was a one-sample, cross-sectional study. Children had a mean age of 5.1±1.1 years. Children’s 3-day diet diaries were assessed using a deviation scale (measure of adherence) and a healthy eating index. Mealtime behaviors were assessed using the Behavioral Pediatric Feeding Assessment Scale. Children’s glucose control was measured using continuous glucose monitoring. Children’s mean carbohydrate intake was 72%±24% of the recommended levels based on their age, sex, size, and activity level, and children exceeded national guidelines for percentage of calories from fat and saturated fat. A more healthful diet correlated with fewer child mealtime behavior problems, but better dietary adherence correlated with more parent mealtime behavior problems. Even in the context of intensive management, diet can be problematic for young children with type 1 diabetes. Parent-reported problems with mealtime behaviors seem to correlate with healthy eating and dietary adherence. PMID:23351629

  19. Some generalization and follow-up measures on autistic children in behavior therapy1

    PubMed Central

    Lovaas, O. Ivar; Koegel, Robert; Simmons, James Q.; Long, Judith Stevens

    1973-01-01

    We have treated 20 autistic children with behavior therapy. At intake, most of the children were severely disturbed, having symptoms indicating an extremely poor prognosis. The children were treated in separate groups, and some were treated more than once, allowing for within- and between-subject replications of treatment effects. We have employed reliable measures of generalization across situations and behaviors as well as across time (follow-up). The findings can be summarized as follows: (1) Inappropriate behaviors (self-stimulation and echolalia) decreased during treatment, and appropriate behaviors (appropriate speech, appropriate play, and social non-verbal behaviors) increased. (2) Spontaneous social interactions and the spontaneous use of language occurred about eight months into treatment for some of the children. (3) IQs and social quotients reflected improvement during treatment. (4) There were no exceptions to the improvement, however, some of the children improved more than others. (5) Follow-up measures recorded 1 to 4 yr after treatment showed that large differences between groups of children depended upon the post-treatment environment (those groups whose parents were trained to carry out behavior therapy continued to improve, while children who were institutionalized regressed). (6) A brief reinstatement of behavior therapy could temporarily re-establish some of the original therapeutic gains made by the children who were subsequently institutionalized. PMID:16795385

  20. [MINDFULNESS-BASED COGNITIVE THERAPY (MBCT) AND THE "THIRD WAVE" OF COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL THERAPIES (CBT)].

    PubMed

    Garay, Cristian Javier; Korman, Guido Pablo; Keegan, Eduardo Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the reasons that led to the incorporation of mindfulness as part of a cognitive therapy approach to the prevention of relapse of recurrent depressive disorders. It describes the context in which models focused on the contents of cognition gave way to models focused on cognitive processes. We highlight the problems encountered by the standard cognitive model when trying to account for the cognitive vulnerability of individuals who, having experienced a depressive episode, are in remission. We briefly describe the theoretical foundations of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and its therapeutic approach. PMID:26323114

  1. Problems and solutions: two concepts of mankind in cognitive-behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Rudolph Friedrich; Reinecker, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Scientific theories that are concerned with experience and behavior of human beings always include anthropological core assumptions. This applies in particular to psychotherapeutic theories. These anthropological core assumptions (i.e., concepts of mankind) affect techniques that are derived from these theories but they also have a great influence on acceptance and spreading of psychotherapeutic methods. This article examines the concept of mankind in cognitive-behavior therapy. In this connection two highly differing conceptions of the human being are identified: the early behavioristic black-box model and the conception of the human being as an actively performing subject ("man the scientist") in the framework of the self-management approach and in cognitive therapy. The image problem of today's behavior therapy, the lack of application of efficient methods of behavior therapy and problems in finding a professional identity as a behavior therapist can be seen as stemming from the differing concepts of mankind. To solve these problems we propose: an integrative concept of mankind, an increased emphasis of a cooperative therapist-patient relationship, and the taking into account of unconscious processes. PMID:12961823

  2. Dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder: theoretical and empirical foundations.

    PubMed

    Shearin, E N; Linehan, M M

    1994-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy developed by Linehan for parasuicidal patients with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD). DBT is based on a biosocial theory that views BPD as primarily a dysfunction of the emotion regulation system. The treatment is organized around a hierarchy of behavioral goals that vary in different modes of therapy. In two randomized trials, DBT has shown superiority in reducing parasuicide, medical risk of parasuicides, number of hospital days, dropout from treatment and anger while improving social adjustment. Most gains were maintained through a 1-year follow-up. In one process study testing DBT theory, dialectical techniques balancing acceptance and change were more effective than pure change or acceptance techniques in reducing suicidal behavior. PMID:8010153

  3. [Treating bulimia nervosa: a nurse's experience using cognitive behavior therapy].

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiu-Min; Hsieh, Chia-Jung

    2010-04-01

    This paper focused on the experience of the authors in providing nursing care to a patient with bulimia nervosa who sought psychiatric assistance upon her first episode. The nursing period spanned a period from April 21, 2008 to June 16, 2008. After primary diagnosis, relevant data was collected by observation, interview, and a review of medical records. The patient's disease was assessed from five dimensions. Care problems faced for this patient included: altered nutrition profile, abnormal eating patterns, ineffective individual coping, and body image disturbance. The authors adopted a three-stage nursing intervention based on cognitive behavior theory (CBT). First, a caring attitude was employed to establish a good nurse-patient relationship, after which the patient was instructed to maintain a diet diary, which could be used to help identify the underlying causes of her bulimia nervosa condition. Secondly, we assisted the patient to express her emotions and feelings in order to help her disentangle herself from unhealthy perceptions regarding body image and weight. Thirdly, we assisted the patient to develop critical problem-solving abilities and coping skills that would help avoid symptom recurrence. We followed up on patient progress by telephone for one month after treatment. The treatment had successfully stabilized her emotions and bulimia nervosa did not recur. Her body weight was kept within a satisfactory range. Furthermore, she applied cognitive behavior skills in daily life continuously, and she did exercise and kept company with an individual who helped reinforce appropriate behavior. It is hoped that this report can help nurses better understand bulimia nervosa and be used as a reference in clinical care. PMID:20405392

  4. Psychosocial treatment for methamphetamine use disorders: a preliminary randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavior therapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.

    PubMed

    Smout, Matthew F; Longo, Marie; Harrison, Sonia; Minniti, Rinaldo; Wickes, Wendy; White, Jason M

    2010-04-01

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) incorporates developments in behavior therapy, holds promise but has not been evaluated for methamphetamine use disorders. The objective of this study was to test whether ACT would increase treatment attendance and reduce methamphetamine use and related harms compared to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). One hundred and four treatment-seeking adults with methamphetamine abuse or dependence were randomly assigned to receive 12 weekly 60-minute individual sessions of ACT or CBT. Attrition was 70% at 12 weeks and 86% at 24 weeks postentry. Per intention-to-treat analysis, there were no significant differences between the treatment groups in treatment attendance (median 3 sessions), and methamphetamine-related outcomes; however, methamphetamine use (toxicology-assessed and self-reported), negative consequences, and dependence severity significantly improved over time in both groups. Although ACT did not improve treatment outcomes or attendance compared to CBT, it may be a viable alternative to CBT for methamphetamine use disorders. Future rigorous research in this area seems warranted. PMID:20408061

  5. Efficacy of a behaviorally based voice therapy protocol for vocal nodules.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, E B; Hillman, R E; Hammarberg, B; Södersten, M; Doyle, P

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects on vocal function of voice therapy for vocal nodules. Perceptual and physiological progressive changes were examined during a strictly structured, behaviorally based voice therapy protocol in which 11 women with vocal nodules participated. Randomized audio recordings from pretherapy and from each of the therapy approaches (vocal hygiene, respiration, direct facilitation, carryover) were used for perceptual evaluations. Six speech-language pathologists rated ten voice quality parameters. Two evaluation procedures were performed and compared. Interlistener reliability was sufficiently high in both tests. Significant effects of therapy were found for decreased overall dysphonia, press, instability, gratings, roughness, vocal fry, and "scrape." Nonsignificant group effects were found for breathiness, aphonic instances, and lack of sonority. No significant parameter changes occurred between baseline assessment and the completion of the initial (vocal hygiene) phase of therapy. Significant changes were found following the direct facilitation and respiration phases of therapy. Videostroboscopic evaluations made by two laryngologists showed that in no case were the nodules completely resolved. However, the nodules had decreased in size and edema was reduced after therapy for all clients, but one. Combined results suggest: (1) Alterations in vocal function were reflected in perceptual parameters, and (2) the voice therapy had a positive effect on voice quality, vocal status, and vocal function for the majority of the vocal nodule clients. PMID:11575636

  6. Effects of acceptance-based coping on task performance and subjective stress.

    PubMed

    Kishita, Naoko; Shimada, Hironori

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines the interactive effects of acceptance-based coping and job control on task performance, subjective stress, and perceived control. Forty-eight undergraduate and graduate students first participated in brief educational programs based on either acceptance or control coping strategies. They then participated in a 30-min high workload task under either high or low job control conditions. The results demonstrated a significant interactive effect of acceptance-based coping and job control on perceived control and task performance. No such effect was found for subjective stress. We conclude that to improve employees' perceived control and job performance, there should be an increase not only in job control through work redesign, but also in psychological acceptance. PMID:21074000

  7. The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Plus Media on the Reduction of Bullying and Victimization and the Increase of Empathy and Bystander Response in a Bully Prevention Program for Urban Sixth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Laura Pierce

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy plus media on the reduction of bullying and victimization and the increase in empathy and bystander response in a bully prevention program for urban sixth-graders. Sixty-eight students participated. Because one of the…

  8. The evolution of cognitive–behavioral therapy for psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mander, Helen; Kingdon, David

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive therapy for psychosis has developed over the past 30 years from initial case studies, treatment manuals, pilot randomized controlled studies to fully powered and methodologically rigorous efficacy and, subsequently, effectiveness trials. Reviews and meta-analyses have confirmed the benefits of the interventions. Considered appraisal by government and professional organizations has now led to its inclusion in international treatment guidelines for schizophrenia. Patients consistently ask for access to psychotherapeutic interventions, and it is slowly becoming available in many European countries and other parts of the world, eg, US and the People’s Republic of China. However, it remains unacceptably difficult to access for the vast majority of people with psychosis who could benefit from it. Psychosis affects people in the prime of their lives and leads to major effects on their levels of distress, well-being, and functioning, and also results in major costs to society. Providing effective interventions at an early stage has the potential to reduce the high relapse rates that occur after recovery from first episode and the ensuing morbidity and premature mortality associated with psychosis. PMID:25733937

  9. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Anxious Adolescents: Developmental Influences on Treatment Design and Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauter, Floor M.; Heyne, David; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety disorders in adolescence are common and disruptive, pointing to a need for effective treatments for this age group. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is one of the most popular interventions for adolescent anxiety, and there is empirical support for its application. However, a significant proportion of adolescent clients continue to report…

  10. School-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: A Benchmarking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Kaplinski, Heather; Gudmundsen, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression delivered in health clinics and counseling centers in four high schools. Outcomes were benchmarked to results from prior efficacy trials. Fifty adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorders were treated by eight doctoral-level psychologists who followed a…

  11. Alliance and Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Kaplinski, Heather Crisp; McMakin, Dana L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcomes in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Fifty-four adolescents met criteria for a depressive disorder and were treated in school-based clinics. Alliance was measured after the third session from both therapist and…

  12. A Placebo-Controlled Test of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Insomnia in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybarczyk, Bruce; Stepanski, Edward; Fogg, Louis; Lopez, Martita; Barry, Paulette; Davis, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia in older adults with osteoarthritis, coronary artery disease, or pulmonary disease. Ninety-two participants (mean age = 69 years) were randomly assigned to classroom CBT or stress management and wellness (SMW) training, which served as a placebo condition. Compared with SMW,…

  13. Impact of Comorbidity on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Larson, Michael J.; Geffken, Gary R.; Lehmkuh, Heather D.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2008-01-01

    A chronic psychiatric condition among children and adolescents of concern is obsessive-compulsive disorder, which involves comorbid conditions. The impact of a range of comorbid illnesses on cognitive-behavioral therapy response and remission rates was conducted, with results revealing a negative impact on treatment response.

  14. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy versus Temporal Pulse Amplitude Biofeedback Training for Recurrent Headache

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Paul R.; Forsyth, Michael R.; Reece, John

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-four headache sufferers were allocated randomly to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), temporal pulse amplitude (TPA) biofeedback training, or waiting-list control. Fifty-one participants (14M/37F) completed the study, 30 with migraine and 21 with tension-type headache. Treatment consisted of 8, 1-hour sessions. CBT was highly effective,…

  15. Cognitive behavioral therapy and exercise minimally help Gulf War veterans' illnesses.

    PubMed

    Luttermoser, Gary

    2003-06-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy and aerobic exercise provide only modest relief from symptoms of Gulf War veterans' illnesses. Unfortunately, over 80% of the patients showed no improvement of symptoms after 1 year of either or both treatments. With the Iraqi war ending, the outcomes of veterans of this previous conflict may prove significant. PMID:12791222

  16. Predictors of Treatment Response to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobkin, Roseanne D.; Rubino, Jade Tiu; Allen, Lesley A.; Friedman, Jill; Gara, Michael A.; Mark, Margery H.; Menza, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of treatment response to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression in Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The sample comprised 80 depressed ("DSM-IV" criteria) adults with PD (60% male) and their caregivers who participated in an National Institutes of Health-sponsored…

  17. Virtual Reality Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: One-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safir, Marilyn P.; Wallach, Helene S.; Bar-Zvi, Margalit

    2012-01-01

    Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common social phobia. Although cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice, difficulties arise with both in vivo and in vitro exposure (lack of therapist control, patient's inability to imagine, self-flooding, and a lack of confidentiality resulting from public exposure). Virtual reality CBT…

  18. An Examination of the Mechanisms of Action in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Diane L.; Baldwin, Scott A.; Agras, W. Stewart

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa (BN) has received considerable empirical support for its efficacy. However, few investigators have examined the mechanisms proposed to account for the reduction of BN symptoms during CBT. The current study examined the associations between therapist interventions, client mechanisms, and…

  19. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Drahota, Amy; Sze, Karen; Har, Kim; Chiu, Angela; Langer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children with autism spectrum disorders often present with comorbid anxiety disorders that cause significant functional impairment. This study tested a modular cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program for children with this profile. A standard CBT program was augmented with multiple treatment components designed to accommodate or…

  20. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy with Chinese Americans: Research, Theory, and Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Wei-Chin; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Lin, Keh-Ming; Cheung, Freda

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how to conduct cognitive-behavioral therapy with Chinese Americans. We present an integration of theory, research, and clinical practice to help mental health practitioners understand how Chinese culture may potentially influence the CBT treatment process for Chinese immigrants. Several recommendations are provided as…

  1. The Impact of Motivational Interviewing on Client Experiences of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertes, Angela; Westra, Henny A.; Angus, Lynne; Marcus, Madalyn

    2011-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) has recently been applied to the treatment of anxiety disorders in an effort to bolster engagement with and response rates to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). In a recent randomized control trial, the addition of MI as a pretreatment compared to no pretreatment was found to significantly improve response to CBT…

  2. Changes in Emotion Regulation Following Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suveg, Cynthia; Sood, Erica; Comer, Jonathan S.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined emotion-related functioning following cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with 37 youth with anxiety disorders (22 boys, 15 girls) ranging in age from 7 to 15 with a principal diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (n = 27), separation anxiety disorder (n = 12), and/or social phobia (n = 13). Treated youth exhibited a…

  3. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth: Feasibility and Initial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Sarah A.; Kendall, Philip C.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Wei, Chiaying; Beidas, Rinad S.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Mauro, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a brief (8-session) version of cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxiety disorders in youth ages 6 to 13. This report describes the design and development of the BCBT program and intervention materials (therapist treatment manual and child treatment workbook) and an initial evaluation of child treatment outcomes.…

  4. Faith-based cognitive behavioral therapy: easing depression in the elderly with cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Ceramidas, Dagmar M

    2012-01-01

    Minimizing depression in residential aged care facilities is a formidable challenge but doing so may improve quality of life and protect against dementia. A pilot project with residents with cognitive decline and concurrent depression tested the suitability of a faith-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention in reducing participant levels of depression, offering promising results. PMID:22359836

  5. Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders on Quality of Life: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Wu, Jade Q.; Boettcher, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective for treating anxiety disorders, little is known about its effect on quality of life. To conduct a meta-analysis of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders on quality of life, we searched for relevant studies in PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library, and conducted manual searches. METHOD The search identified 44 studies that included 59 CBT trials, totaling 3,326 participants receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. We estimated the controlled and within-group random effects of the treatment changes on quality of life. RESULTS The pre-post within-group and controlled effect sizes were moderately strong, Hedges’ g = 0.54 and Hedges’ g = 0.56, respectively. Improvements were greater for physical and psychological domains of quality of life than for environmental and social domains. The overall effect sizes decreased with publication year and increased with treatment duration. Face-to-face treatments delivered individually and in groups produced significantly higher effect sizes than internet-delivered treatments. CONCLUSION Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders is moderately effective for improving quality of life, especially in physical and psychological domains. Internet-delivered treatments are less effective in improving quality of life than face-to-face treatments. PMID:24447006

  6. Evaluating a Web-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Maladaptive Perfectionism in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhu, Natasha; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Arpin-Cribbie, Chantal A.; Irvine, Jane; Ritvo, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed a Web-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for maladaptive perfectionism, investigating perfectionism, anxiety, depression, negative automatic thoughts, and perceived stress. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students defined as maladaptive perfectionists through a screening questionnaire at an urban…

  7. Impact Evaluation of a Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy Model in Brazilian Sexually Abused Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habigzang, Luisa Fernanda; Damasio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Silvia Helena

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral group therapy model in Brazilian girls who had experienced sexual abuse. The effect of the waiting period before treatment and the enduring effectiveness of the treatment after six and 12 months were also evaluated. Forty-nine female sexual abuse victims between the ages of 9 and 16…

  8. The Role of Homework in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cocaine Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Vivian M.; Schmitz, Joy M.; DeLaune, Katherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effect of homework compliance on treatment outcome in 123 participants receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for cocaine dependence. Regression analyses revealed a significant relationship between homework compliance and cocaine use that was moderated by readiness to change. Homework compliance predicted less cocaine…

  9. A Pilot Study of Modified Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Traumatic Grief (CBT-CTG)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Staron, Virginia R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study evaluated outcomes for a modified 12-session protocol of cognitive-behavioral therapy for childhood traumatic grief (CBT-CTG) conducted between March 2004 and October 2005. CTG is an emerging condition characterized by a combination of posttraumatic stress and unresolved grief symptoms. This two-module treatment model…

  10. Training in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Psychiatry Residency: An Overview for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudak, Donna M.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2001, Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education accredited general psychiatry training programs were charged with the requirement to train residents in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to a level of competence. Programs were given the responsibility to delineate standards for trainees, to determine measures of competence,…

  11. Exploring the Effectiveness of a Mixed-Diagnosis Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Intervention Across Diverse Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kate E.; Wershler, Julie L.; Macrodimitris, Sophie D.; Backs-Dermott, Barb J.; Ching, Laurie E.; Mothersill, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are the most common mental health disorders seen in clinical practice and they are highly comorbid. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been demonstrated as an effective treatment for both depression and anxiety but is often not available to all individuals who could benefit from it. This paper investigates the…

  12. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Relatively Active and for Passive Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazelmans, Ellen; Prins, Judith; Bleijenberg, Gijs

    2006-01-01

    In chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), facilitating, initiating, and perpetuating factors are distinguished. Although somatic factors might have initiated symptoms in CFS, they do not explain the persistence of fatigue. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for CFS focuses on factors that perpetuate and prolong symptoms. Recently it has been shown that,…

  13. Children with Anxiety Disorders: Use of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Model within a Social Milieu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearny, Regina; Pawlukewicz, Justine; Guardino, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Because anxiety is the most common mental health disorder diagnosed in children, early intervention is crucial for fundamental coping. Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the preferred treatment method for this affective disorder, instruction for children needs to be specific for them to successfully acquire and implement essential CBT…

  14. Treating Internet Addiction with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: A Thematic Analysis of the Experiences of Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rooij, Antonius J.; Zinn, Mieke F.; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; van de Mheen, Dike

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, one of the major Dutch addiction care organizations initiated a pilot program to explore the possibility of using an existing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Interviewing based treatment program ("Lifestyle Training") to treat internet addiction. The current study evaluates this pilot treatment program by providing a…

  15. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth: The Inner Workings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of the clinical application of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxious youth. A rationale for the development of BCBT is presented, followed by a description and discussion of the 8 sessions of the treatment. Mike, a 7-year-old youth with anxiety disorders, is used to illustrate the inner workings of…

  16. Piloting a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) Infused Skills Group in a Disciplinary Alternative Education Program (DAEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricard, Richard J.; Lerma, Eunice; Heard, Courtney C. C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the impact of a 4-week skills group intervention based on the principles of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) with a sample of adolescents attending a Disciplinary Alternative Education Program. This article provides a session-by-session overview of activities adapted from DBT-specified training modules of mindfulness,…

  17. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for PTSD in Children and Adolescents: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Patrick; Yule, William; Perrin, Sean; Tranah, Troy; Dagleish, Tim; Clark, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of individual trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and young people. Method: Following a 4-week symptom-monitoring baseline period, 24 children and young people (8-18 years old) who met full "DSM-IV" PTSD diagnostic criteria after…

  18. Brief Behavioral Activation and Problem-Solving Therapy for Depressed Breast Cancer Patients: Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopko, Derek R.; Armento, Maria E. A.; Robertson, Sarah M. C.; Ryba, Marlena M.; Carvalho, John P.; Colman, Lindsey K.; Mullane, Christen; Gawrysiak, Michael; Bell, John L.; McNulty, James K.; Lejuez, Carl W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Major depression is the most common psychiatric disorder among breast cancer patients and is associated with substantial impairment. Although some research has explored the utility of psychotherapy with breast cancer patients, only 2 small trials have investigated the potential benefits of behavior therapy among patients with…

  19. Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrecque, Joane; Marchand, Andre; Dugas, Michel J.; Letarte, Andree

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for comorbid panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by combining treatment strategies for both disorders. A single-case, multiple-baseline design across participants was used. Three participants with primary PDA and secondary…

  20. Preliminary Evidence for Cognitive Mediation during Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy of Panic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Meuret, Alicia E.; Rosenfield, David; Suvak, Michael K.; Barlow, David H.; Gorman, Jack M.; Shear, M. Katherine; Woods, Scott W.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy are similarly effective for treating panic disorder with mild or no agoraphobia, but little is known about the mechanism through which these treatments work. The present study examined some of the criteria for cognitive mediation of treatment change in CBT alone, imipramine alone, CBT plus…

  1. Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budney, Alan J.; Moore, Brent A.; Rocha, Heath L.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2006-01-01

    Ninety cannabis-dependent adults seeking treatment were randomly assigned to receive cognitive-behavioral therapy, abstinence-based voucher incentives, or their combination. Treatment duration was 14 weeks, and outcomes were assessed for 12 months post treatment. Findings suggest that (a) abstinence-based vouchers were effective for engendering…

  2. Social Skills Training Augments the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, James D.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Myers, Valerie H.; Dalrymple, Kristy; Nolan, Elizabeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) is the most widely researched intervention program for social anxiety disorder (SAD, also known as social phobia), with a number of studies demonstrating its effectiveness. Another common treatment, social skills training (SST), has also been shown to be efficacious for SAD. The present study compared the…

  3. Predicting Outcome in Computerized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Primary Care: A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaf, L. Esther; Hollon, Steven D.; Huibers, Marcus J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore pretreatment and short-term improvement variables as potential moderators and predictors of 12-month follow-up outcome of unsupported online computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT), usual care, and CCBT combined with usual care for depression. Method: Three hundred and three depressed patients were randomly allocated…

  4. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) Applied to College Students: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistorello, Jacqueline; Fruzzetti, Alan E.; MacLane, Chelsea; Gallop, Robert; Iverson, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: College counseling centers (CCCs) are increasingly being called upon to treat highly distressed students with complex clinical presentations. This study compared the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for suicidal college students with an optimized control condition and analyzed baseline global functioning as a…

  5. Implementing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in a Mental Health Center: A Benchmarking Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheeres, Korine; Wensing, Michel; Knoop, Hans; Bleijenberg, Gijs

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the success of implementing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in a representative clinical practice setting and compared the patient outcomes with those of previously published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CBT for CFS. Method: The implementation interventions were the…

  6. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy across the Stages of Psychosis: Prodromal, First Episode, and Chronic Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valmaggia, Lucia R.; Tabraham, Paul; Morris, Eric; Bouman, Theo K.

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been increasingly used as an adjunctive treatment for psychotic disorders. This paper describes the CBT of three cases, each at a different stage of psychotic disorder: at-risk mental state, first-episode psychosis, and chronic psychotic disorder. For the at-risk mental state, treatment…

  7. Considerations for Culturally Competent Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression with Hispanic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interian, Alejandro; Diaz-Martinez, Angelica M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline considerations for adapting cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to Hispanic patients who have recently immigrated, particularly those presenting with depressive symptoms. Culturally competent CBT is framed within a model originally proposed by Rogler and his colleagues (1987). The considerations outlined by…

  8. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Diagnostically Heterogeneous Groups: A Benchmarking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvoy, Peter M.; Nathan, Paula

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have recently suggested that the commonalities across the emotional disorders outweigh the differences, and thus similar treatment principles could be applied in unified interventions. In this study, the authors used a benchmarking strategy to investigate the transportability of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety and…

  9. A Self-Help Handout for Benzodiazepine Discontinuation Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Mariyam; Westra, Henry A.; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2008-01-01

    Although prescription rates may be declining, benzodiazepines (BZs) are still very commonly prescribed for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Because many anxiety patients require assistance in successfully discontinuing BZs, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approaches have been specifically developed to target this issue, and an evidence base…

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Relapse in Pediatric Responders to Pharmacotherapy for Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jones, Jessica M.; Tao, Rongrong; Stewart, Sunita M.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2008-01-01

    The outcome of a sequential treatment strategy that included cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the prevention of major depressive disorder relapse among 46 youths is examined. Results show that youths under the antidepressant medication management plus relapse prevention CBT treatment was at lower risk for relapse than those under the…

  11. A Comparison of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Sertraline, and Their Combination for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Glenn A.; Tonge, Bruce J.; King, Neville J.; Heyne, David; Gordon, Michael S.; Klimkeit, Ester

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate cognitive-behavioral therapy, antidepressant medication alone, and combined CBT and antidepressant medication in the treatment of depressive disorders in adolescents. Method: Seventy-three adolescents (ages 12-18 years) with a primary diagnosis of DSM-IV major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or depressive disorder…

  12. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Practice: Treatment Delivered by Trainees at an Outpatient Clinic Is Clinically Effective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forand, Nicholas R.; Evans, Susan; Haglin, Dean; Fishman, Baruch

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is known to be effective for a number of disorders, and can be delivered effectively by trainees in controlled settings. However, the effectiveness of trainee therapists in general practice compared to that of more experienced therapists is unknown. In this study, the authors used a benchmarking strategy to…

  13. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Modified for Adolescent Binge Eating Disorder: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safer, Debra L.; Couturier, Jennifer L.; Lock, James

    2007-01-01

    Given the lack of empirically supported treatments available for adolescents with eating disorders, it is important to investigate the clinical utility of extending treatments for adults with eating disorders to younger populations. Dialectical behavior therapy for binge eating disorder, based on the affect-regulation model, conceptualizes binge…

  14. Counseling College Women Experiencing Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: A Cognitive Behavior Therapy Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura H.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is, by far, the most common eating disorder that college counseling professionals encounter among their female clients. Empirical evidence and best practice guidelines support use of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with women experiencing EDNOS. This article…

  15. An Experimental Clinical Trial of a Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Package for Chronic Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menzies, Ross G.; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; St Clare, Tamsen; Block, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of the present study were to (a) examine the rate of social phobia among adults who stutter, (b) study the effects of speech restructuring treatment on social anxiety, and (c) study the effects on anxiety and stuttering of a cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) package for social anxiety. Method: Thirty-two adults with chronic…

  16. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Where Counseling and Neuroscience Meet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makinson, Ryan A.; Young, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to support the biological basis of mental disorders. Subsequently, understanding the neurobiological context from which mental distress arises can help counselors appropriately apply cognitive behavioral therapy and other well-researched cognitive interventions. The purpose of this article is to describe the…

  17. A Comparison of Alprazolam and Behavior Therapy in Treatment of Panic Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klosko, Janet S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared panic control treatment (PCT), behavior therapy for panic disorders, with alprazolam medication, placebo, and waiting-list control groups. Percentage of clients (N=57) completing study who were free of panic attacks following PCT was 87 percent, compared with 50 percent for alprazolam, 36 percent for placebo, and 33 percent for…

  18. Two-Day, Intensive Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Brett

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a highly effective treatment for panic disorder. However, few patients have access to this treatment, particularly those living in rural areas. In a pilot study, the author previously described the efficacy of a 2-day, intensive, exposure-based CBT intervention that was developed for the purpose of delivering…

  19. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Meta-Analysis Using Mixed-Effects Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliem, Soren; Kroger, Christoph; Kosfelder, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Objective: At present, the most frequently investigated psychosocial intervention for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy and long-term effectiveness of DBT. Method: Systematic bibliographic research was undertaken to find relevant literature from online…

  20. Dialectical Behavior Therapy in College Counseling Centers: Current Literature and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chugani, Carla D.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the topic of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) applied in college counseling centers. Trends in mental health issues on college campuses are briefly reviewed in support of the increased need for evidence-based treatment of severe mental health issues. The article next presents an overview of the standard DBT model and…

  1. Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Mood Management in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghafoori, Bita; Ratanasiripong, Paul; Holladay, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) often display mental health symptoms that may benefit from psychotherapy. In this pilot study, a newly designed cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group treatment targeting mood difficulties was provided to 8 adults with mild-borderline ID. Assessment occurred at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 4…

  2. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in an Older Gay Man: A Clinical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, Jason M.; Crabb, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Although strong evidence supports cognitive-behavioral therapy for late-life depression and depression in racial and ethnic minorities, there are no empirical studies on the treatment of depression in older sexual minorities. Three distinct literatures were tapped to create a depression treatment protocol for an older gay male. Interventions were…

  3. Effective Components of TORDIA Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Clarke, Greg N.; Weersing, V. Robin; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Shamseddeen, Wael; Porta, Giovanna; Berk, Michele; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham J.; Keller, Martin B.; Wagner, Karen D.; Brent, David A.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we conducted a secondary analysis of the Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) study to explore the impact of specific cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment components on outcome. In TORDIA, 334 youths (ages 12 to 18 years) with major depressive disorder who had failed to respond to an adequate…

  4. The Additive Benefit of Hypnosis and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Treating Acute Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachel M.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2005-01-01

    This research represents the first controlled treatment study of hypnosis and cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) of acute stress disorder (ASD). Civilian trauma survivors (N = 87) who met criteria for ASD were randomly allocated to 6 sessions of CBT, CBT combined with hypnosis (CBT-hypnosis), or supportive counseling (SC). CBT comprised exposure,…

  5. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Intermittent Explosive Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Michael S.; Noblett, Kurtis L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Gollan, Jackie K.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2008-01-01

    No randomized clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of psychotherapy for intermittent explosive disorder (IED). In the present study, the authors tested the efficacy of 12-week group and individual cognitive-behavioral therapies (adapted from J. L. Deffenbacher & M. McKay, 2000) by comparing them with a wait-list control in a randomized…

  6. The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) on Depression: The Role of Problem-Solving Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Szu-Yu; Jordan, Catheleen; Thompson, Sanna

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Many studies have confirmed the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as a treatment for depression. However, the mechanism of CBT for depression reduction is still not well understood. This study explored the mechanism of CBT from the perspective of individuals' problem-solving appraisal. Method: A one-group pretest-posttest…

  7. Application of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschell, Amy D.; Kolko, David J.; Baumann, Barbara L.; Brown, Elissa J.

    2012-01-01

    Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) is an evidence-based treatment for families with children aged 5 to 15 years who have been affected by verbal and physical aggression in the family. AF-CBT was designed to address risks for exposure to emotional and physical aggression as well as common clinical consequences of…

  8. The "RAPID" Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Program for Inattentive Children: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of the current study were to ascertain feasibility and acceptability of directly delivering a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention for inattentive children in a school setting, to examine the reliability of the RATE-C Questionnaires that accompany the program, and to determine whether they can be used to…

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Modification Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moree, Brittany N.; Davis, Thompson E., III

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety disorders have been found to be highly comorbid with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Even so, the identification and dissemination of empirically supported treatments for anxiety in adults or children who have ASD has lagged behind the larger evidence-based trend. This review examines the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a…

  10. Group Outpatient Physical and Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Low Back Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Michael J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared the effectiveness of behavioral (BT) or physical therapy (PT) for treating chronic low back pain (CLBP), for 13 BT patients and 12 PT patients. Treatments were conducted in a group outpatient setting. Posttreatment results showed general improvement for patients in both groups, but few treatment-specific differences in outcome measures.…

  11. Use of Dialectical Behavior Therapy in Borderline Personality Disorder: A View from Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Binali; Dunlop, Boadie W.; Ninan, Philip T.; Bradley, Rebekah

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the use of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) in treating borderline personality disorder during psychiatry residency, and assess the status of DBT education within psychiatry residencies in the United States. Method: The authors present a patient with borderline personality disorder treated by a resident using DBT,…

  12. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Reduces Suicidal Ideation in Schizophrenia: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Katy; Hansen, Lars; Turkington, Douglas; Kingdon, David

    2007-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are at high risk of suicide. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to reduce symptoms in schizophrenia. This study examines whether CBT also changes the level of suicidal ideation in patients with schizophrenia compared to a control group. Ninety ambulatory patients with symptoms of schizophrenia resistant to…

  13. Responder Status Criterion for Stepped Care Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salloum, Alison; Scheeringa, Michael S.; Cohen, Judith A.; Storch, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to develop Stepped Care trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), a definition of early response/non-response is needed to guide decisions about the need for subsequent treatment. Objective: The purpose of this article is to (1) establish criterion for defining an early indicator of response/non-response to the…

  14. Training Head Start Teachers in Behavior Management Using Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiano, Jennifer D.; McNeil, Cheryl B.

    2006-01-01

    The current project evaluated the use of behavior management techniques utilized in Parent- Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in head start classrooms. The sample included seven Head Start classrooms; four classrooms receiving treatment and three classrooms receiving no treatment. Evaluation of the progress included observation of teacher and…

  15. Internet-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Complicated Grief: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Birgit; Knaevelsrud, Christine; Maercker, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the efficacy of an Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy program for bereaved people suffering complicated grief. The program combines established methods of psychotherapy with new technology--therapists and patients communicated exclusively by e-mail. Bereaved individuals diagnosed with complicated grief (n =…

  16. Collaborating with Parents to Establish Behavioral Goals in Child-Centered Play Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Phyllis B.; Ceballos, Peggy L.; Penn, Saundra L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide specific guidelines for child-centered play therapists to set behavioral outcome goals to effectively work with families and to meet the demands for accountability in the managed care environment. The child-centered play therapy orientation is the most widely practiced approach among play therapists who…

  17. Treatment of Complicated Grief: A Comparison between Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Supportive Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boelen, Paul A.; de Keijser, Jos; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van den Bout, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined treatments for complicated grief--a debilitating condition that can develop after the loss of a loved one. This study compared the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy with a nonspecific treatment with supportive counseling (SC). Using a minimization method, 54 mourners with clinically significant levels of…

  18. A Randomized Effectiveness Trial of Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adolescents Receiving Antidepressant Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Gregory; DeBar, Lynn; Lynch, Frances; Powell, James; Gale, John; O'Connor, Elizabeth; Ludman, Evette; Bush, Terry; Lin, Elizabeth H. B.; Von Korff, Michael; Hertert, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To test a collaborative-care, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program adjunctive to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment in HMO pediatric primary care. Method: A randomized effectiveness trial comparing a treatment-as-usual (TAU) control condition consisting primarily of SSRI medication delivered outside the…

  19. The Effect of Therapy Balls on the Classroom Behavior and Learning of Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodmon, Leilani B.; Leverett, Raven; Royer, Amanda; Hillard, Gracia; Tedder, Tracey; Rakes, Lori

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the behavioral and learning benefit found from the use of therapy balls as classroom seats in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (e.g., Schilling, Washington, Billingsley, & Deitz, 2003) generalizes to children with dyslexia who suffer from similar attention problems…

  20. Telephone-Administered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Veterans Served by Community-Based Outpatient Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, David C.; Carmody, Timothy; Erickson, Lauren; Jin, Ling; Leader, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Multiple trials have found telephone-administered cognitive behavioral therapy (T-CBT) to be effective for the treatment of depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate T-CBT for the treatment of depression among veterans served by community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) outside of major urban areas. Method: Eighty-five veterans…

  1. Development and Validation of the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Skills Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Karen L.; Christopher, Michael S.; Neuhaus, Edmund C.

    2011-01-01

    Although several theories exist to describe why patients improve in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), in only a limited number of studies has CBT skill acquisition been examined, particularly among patients with complex clinical profiles. Thus, the overarching aim of this research was to develop a tool to measure patients' use of CBT skills,…

  2. Semantic Behavior Therapy and Psychosocial Variables in the Treatment of Chronic Pain in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Coralie; And Others

    This study explored the efficacy of semantic behavior therapy in the management of chronic osteoarthritis pain in elderly patients as well as the relationships among pain, physical health, personality, and social characteristics in this population. The sample consisted of 8 elderly persons who had osteoarthritis of the knee, and 11 healthy elderly…

  3. Adapted Behavior Therapy for Persistently Depressed Primary Care Patients: An Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care…

  4. Evaluation of an Occupational Therapy Mentorship Program: Effects on Therapists' Skills and Family-Centered Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gillian; Tam, Cynthia; Fay, Linda; Pilkington, Martha; Servais, Michelle; Petrosian, Hasmik

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in understanding the usefulness of mentorship programs for children's rehabilitation service providers. This evaluation study examined the effects of an occupational therapy mentorship program on the skills and behaviors of 8 new and 17 experienced occupational therapists practicing at a regional children's rehabilitation…

  5. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in a VA Mental Health Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Lawrence M.; Arnedt, J. Todd; Earnheart, Kristie L.; Gorman, Ashley A.; Shirley, Katherine G.

    2008-01-01

    Effective cognitive-behavioral therapies for insomnia have been developed over the past 2 decades, but they have not been systematically evaluated in some clinical settings. While insomnia is common among veterans with mental health problems, the availability of effective treatments is limited. We report on the group application of a…

  6. Dialectical Behavior Therapy in College Counseling Centers: Current Trends and Barriers to Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chugani, Carla D.; Landes, Sara J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine trends and barriers in implementation of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) programs in college counseling centers (CCCs). Participants were 107 CCC employees who participated in an electronic survey. One third of respondents endorsed use or planned use of DBT at their centers. The most prevalent primary…

  7. It's about Me Solving My Problems: Clients' Assessments of Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Kiran; Wolbert, Randall; Lillie, Becky

    2004-01-01

    While the existing research consistently points to the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) in treating borderline personality disorder, little qualitative research has been conducted to ascertain the reasons for its success, especially from the perspective of those undergoing the treatment. Our qualitative investigation was…

  8. Effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy in a Community Mental Health Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comtois, Katherine Anne; Elwood, Lynn; Holdcraft, Laura C.; Smith, Wayne R.; Simpson, Tracy L.

    2007-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has been shown to be effective in randomized controlled trials with women with borderline personality disorder and histories of chronic self-inflicted injury including suicide attempts. The present study is a pre-post replication of a comprehensive DBT program in a community mental health center for individuals…

  9. Implementing Dialectical Behavior Therapy with Adolescents and Their Families in a Community Outpatient Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodberry, Kristen A.; Popenoe, Ellen J.

    2008-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), an empirically supported treatment for adult women diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), has been increasingly adapted for use with adolescents across a variety of settings. This article describes a community-based application of DBT principles and strategies for adolescents and their families.…

  10. Computer-Assisted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Child Anxiety: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Muniya S.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of Camp Cope-A-Lot (CCAL), a computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety in youth. Method: Children (49; 33 males) ages 7-13 (M = 10.1 [plus or minus] 1.6; 83.7% Caucasian, 14.2% African American, 2% Hispanic) with a principal anxiety disorder were…

  11. Virtual Reality Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Helene S.; Safir, Marilyn P.; Bar-Zvi, Margalit

    2009-01-01

    Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common phobia. Although cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is preferred, difficulties arise with the exposure component (lack of therapist control, patient's inability to imagine, self-flooding, loss of confidentiality resulting from public exposure). Virtual reality CBT (VRCBT) enables a high degree of therapist…

  12. Therapist Adherence and Competence with Manualized Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for PTSD Delivered via Videoconferencing Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, B. Christopher; Monnier, Jeannine; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Elhai, Jon D.; Yim, Eunsil; Knapp, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Using secondary analyses from a randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder, we compared ratings of therapist competency and adherence between two service delivery modes: telepsychiatry (TP) and same room (SR). Patients were 38 male treatment-seeking veterans recruited…

  13. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Unified Model of Behavior Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Levin, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The present article summarizes the assumptions, model, techniques, evidence, and diversity/social justice commitments of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). ACT focused on six processes (acceptance, defusion, self, now, values, and action) that bear on a single overall target (psychological flexibility). The ACT model of behavior change has…

  14. Moving from Efficacy to Effectiveness in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Psychosis: A Randomized Clinical Practice Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Tania M.; Ziegler, Michael; Mehl, Stephanie; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Lullmann, Eva; Westermann, Stefan; Rief, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Randomized controlled trials have attested the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing psychotic symptoms. Now, studies are needed to investigate its effectiveness in routine clinical practice settings. Method: Eighty patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who were seeking outpatient treatment were randomized…

  15. Beyond Borderline Personality Disorder: Dialectical Behavior Therapy in a College Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panepinto, Amberly R.; Uschold, Carissa C.; Olandese, Michelle; Linn, Braden K.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the efficacy of a dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program with a general college counseling center population, not limited to students diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. A review of records of 64 students found that obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, paranoia,…

  16. Alcohol Treatment and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Enhancing Effectiveness by Incorporating Spirituality and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective modality for the treatment of alcoholism. Given widespread interest in incorporating spirituality into professional treatment, this article orients practitioners to spiritually modified CBT, an approach that may enhance outcomes with some spiritually motivated clients. More specifically, by…

  17. Behavior Problems of Children in Regular Classes and Those Diagnosed as Requiring Speech Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindholm, Byron W.; Touliatos, John

    1979-01-01

    White elementary grade children in regular classes (N=2,991) and White elementary grade children requiring speech therapy (N=106) were compared on Quay's Behavior Problem Checklist. The former had fewer problems checked in areas such as personality disorders and inadequacy-immaturity than did the latter, as expected, although the amount of…

  18. The Impact of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy on Teacher Efficacy and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    This literature review explores the potential impact of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) on teacher efficacy and student achievement. Research conducted to date, focusing on increasing teacher efficacy and student achievement, has produced mixed results. Teachers continue to think, emote, and behave in unhelpful ways. REBT appears to…

  19. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Promote Smoking Cessation among African American Smokers: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Monica S.; de Ybarra, Denise Rodriguez; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Reis, Isildinha M.; Carey, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The health consequences of tobacco smoking disproportionately affect African Americans, but research on whether efficacious interventions can be generalized to this population is limited. This study examined the efficacy of group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation among African Americans. Method: Participants…

  20. Assessing Outcome in Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Child Depression: An Illustrative Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2009-01-01

    Recent meta-analytic data suggest a need for ongoing evaluation of treatments for youth depression. The present article calls attention to a number of issues relevant to the empirical evaluation of if and how cognitive behavior therapy for child depression works. A case series of 6 children and a primary caregiver received treatment--individual…

  1. A Comparison of Sensory Integrative and Behavioral Therapies as Treatment for Pediatric Feeding Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Laura R.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Patel, Meeta R.; Bachmeyer, Melanie H.; Rivas, Kristi M.; Milnes, Suzanne M.; Oddo, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of escape extinction (EE) plus noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with sensory integration therapy as treatment for the feeding problems of 2 children. Results indicated that EE plus NCR was more effective in increasing acceptance, decreasing inappropriate behavior, and increasing amount consumed relative to sensory…

  2. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: A Benchmarking Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weersing, V. Robin; Iyengar, Satish; Kolko, David J.; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression. Outcomes of 80 youth treated with CBT in an outpatient depression specialty clinic, the Services for Teens at Risk Center (STAR), were compared to a "gold standard" CBT research benchmark. On average, youths treated with CBT in STAR…

  3. 12-Month Follow-Up of Fluoxetine and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.…

  4. Two Year Study of the Effect of Group Therapy on Teacher Perceived Classroom Behavior of Hyperactive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Harold; And Others

    A 2-year study was done on the effect of group therapy on the teacher-perceived classroom behavior of 82 hyperactive minority boys (ages 10-16 years) in a day school for disruptive children. By the end of the study, there were a minimum of four behaviors which indicated that the group therapy was accomplishing a statistically significant change in…

  5. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Youth with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selles, Robert R.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Phares, Vicky; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in youth with an autism spectrum disorder appears efficacious; however, maintenance of treatment gains has not yet been studied. Using a sample of 32 youth who had benefited at least minimally from a past trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in autism spectrum disorder, this study assessed…

  6. Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonagh, Annmarie; Friedman, Matthew; McHugo, Gregory; Ford, Julian; Sengupta, Anjana; Mueser, Kim; Demment, Christine Carney; Fournier, Debra; Schnurr, Paula P.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted a randomized clinical trial of individual psychotherapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (n = 74), comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with a problem-solving therapy (present-centered therapy; PCT) and to a wait-list (WL). The authors hypothesized that CBT would be…

  7. Investigating the Similarities and Differences between Practitioners of Second- and Third-Wave Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lily A.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Miller, Ivan W.

    2011-01-01

    There has been much discussion in the literature recently regarding the conceptual and technical differences between so-called second- (e.g., Beckian cognitive therapy) and third-wave (e.g., acceptance and commitment therapy) behavioral therapies. Previous research has not addressed the potential similarities and differences among the…

  8. Applied Behavior Analysis, Autism, and Occupational Therapy: A Search for Understanding.

    PubMed

    Welch, Christie D; Polatajko, H J

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapists strive to be mindful, competent practitioners and continuously look for ways to improve practice. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has strong evidence of effectiveness in helping people with autism achieve goals, yet it does not seem to be implemented in occupational therapy practice. To better understand whether ABA could be an evidence-based option to expand occupational therapy practice, the authors conducted an iterative, multiphase investigation of relevant literature. Findings suggest that occupational therapists apply developmental and sensory approaches to autism treatment. The occupational therapy literature does not reflect any use of ABA despite its strong evidence base. Occupational therapists may currently avoid using ABA principles because of a perception that ABA is not client centered. ABA principles and occupational therapy are compatible, and the two could work synergistically. PMID:27295000

  9. Melatonin therapy for REM sleep behavior disorder: a critical review of evidence.

    PubMed

    McGrane, Ian R; Leung, Jonathan G; St Louis, Erik K; Boeve, Bradley F

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia associated with dream enactment often involving violent or potentially injurious behaviors during REM sleep that is strongly associated with synucleinopathy neurodegeneration. Clonazepam has long been suggested as the first-line treatment option for RBD. However, evidence supporting melatonin therapy is expanding. Melatonin appears to be beneficial for the management of RBD with reductions in clinical behavioral outcomes and decrease in muscle tonicity during REM sleep. Melatonin also has a favorable safety and tolerability profile over clonazepam with limited potential for drug-drug interactions, an important consideration especially in elderly individuals with RBD receiving polypharmacy. Prospective clinical trials are necessary to establish the evidence basis for melatonin and clonazepam as RBD therapies. PMID:25454845

  10. Melatonin Therapy for REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A Critical Review of Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jonathan G.; St Louis, Erik K.; Boeve, Bradley F.

    2014-01-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia associated with dream enactment often involving violent or potentially injurious behaviors during REM sleep that is strongly associated with synucleinopathy neurodegeneration. Clonazepam has long been suggested as the first-line treatment option for RBD. However, evidence supporting melatonin therapy is expanding. Melatonin appears to be beneficial for the management of RBD with reductions in clinical behavioral outcomes and decrease in muscle tonicity during REM sleep. Melatonin also has a favorable safety and tolerability profile over clonazepam with limited potential for drug-drug interactions, an important consideration especially in elderly individuals with RBD receiving polypharmacy. Prospective clinical trials are necessary to establish evidence-basis for melatonin and clonazepam as RBD therapies. PMID:25454845

  11. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Latina Adolescents: Supplemental Dialectical Corollaries and Treatment Targets.

    PubMed

    Germán, Miguelina; Smith, Heather L; Rivera-Morales, Camila; González, Garnetta; Haliczer, Lauren A; Haaz, Chloe; Miller, Alec L

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to describe extreme behavioral patterns that the authors have observed in treating Latina adolescents who are suicidal and their parents within the framework of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). These extreme patterns, called dialectical corollaries, serve to supplement the adolescent/family dialectical dilemmas described by Rathus and Miller (2002) as part of dialectical behavior therapy for suicidal adolescents with borderline personality features. The dialectical corollaries proposed are "old school versus new school" and "overprotecting" versus "underprotecting," and they are described in-depth. We also identify specific treatment targets for each corollary and discuss therapeutic techniques aimed at achieving a synthesis between the polarities that characterize each corollary. Lastly, we suggest clinical strategies to use when therapists reach a therapeutic impasse with the parent-adolescent dyad (i.e., dialectical failures). PMID:26160622

  12. Ambivalence and alliance ruptures in cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jennifer A; Button, Melissa L; Westra, Henny A

    2014-01-01

    Client ambivalence about change (or motivation) is regarded as central to outcomes in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, little research has been conducted to examine the impact of client ambivalence about change on therapy process variables such as the therapeutic alliance. Given the demonstrated limitations of self-report measures of key constructs such as ambivalence and motivation, the present study instead employed a newly adapted observational measure of client ambivalence. Client statements regarding change (change talk (CT) and counter-change talk (CCT)) were coded in early (session 1 or 2) therapy sessions of CBT for generalized anxiety disorder. The frequency of CT and CCT was then compared between clients who later experienced an alliance rupture with their therapist, and clients who did not. The results showed that clients in dyads who later experienced an alliance rupture expressed significantly more CCT at the outset of therapy than clients who did not later experience an alliance rupture. However, CT utterances did not significantly differ between alliance rupture and no-rupture groups. CCT may strain the alliance because clients expressing higher levels of CCT early in therapy may be less receptive to therapist direction in CBT. Consequently, it is recommended that clients and therapists work together to carefully address these key moments in therapy so as to prevent alliance rupture and preserve client engagement in therapy. PMID:24655131

  13. Therapist behavior as a predictor of black and white caregiver responsiveness in multisystemic therapy.

    PubMed

    Foster, Sharon L; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Warner, Sarah E; McCoy, Deborah Moyer; Barr, Tiffany S; Henggeler, Scott W

    2009-10-01

    This study examined whether (a) therapist behaviors thought to enhance family treatment predicted caregiver in-session responses, and (b) caregiver race, racial match between caregiver and therapist, and family financial hardship moderated the relationships between therapist and caregiver behavior. Observers coded caregiver and therapist behavior during one session of multisystemic therapy for substance abusing adolescents. Therapist teaching, focusing on strengths, making reinforcing statements, problem solving, and dealing with practical family needs predicted caregiver engagement and/or positive response, regardless of race, racial match, or financial hardship. Caregiver race, financial hardship, and therapist-caregiver racial match occasionally moderated the relationship between other therapist and caregiver behaviors. Findings suggest both commonalities and differences in how therapist behavior may function to engage caregivers in family treatment, depending on diversity-related factors. PMID:19803599

  14. Randomized Trial of Behavior Therapy for Adults with Tourette’s Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Peterson, Alan L.; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Chang, Susanna; Liu, Haibei; Dziura, James; Walkup, John T.; Scahill, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Context Tics in Tourette syndrome begin in childhood, peak in early adolescence, and often decline by early adulthood. However, some adult patients continue to have impairing tics. Medications for tics are often effective but can cause adverse effects. Behavior therapy may offer an alternative but has not been examined in a large-scale controlled trial in adults. Objective To test the efficacy of a comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics in adults with Tourette syndrome of at least moderate severity. Design A randomized, controlled trial with posttreatment evaluations at 3 and 6 months for positive responders. Setting Three outpatient research clinics. Subjects Subjects (N = 122; 78 males, age 16 to 69 years) with Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorder. Interventions Eight sessions of Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics or 8 sessions of supportive treatment delivered over 10 weeks. Subjects showing a positive response were given 3 monthly booster sessions. Main Outcome Measures Total Tic score of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale and the Improvement scale of the Clinical Global Impression rated by a clinician blind to treatment assignment. Results Behavior therapy was associated with a significantly greater decrease on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (24.0 ± 6.47 to 17.8 ± 7.32) from baseline to endpoint compared to the control treatment (21.8 ± 6.59 to 19.3 ± 7.40) (P < .001; effect size = 0.57). Twenty-four of 63 subjects (38.1%) in CBIT were rated as Much Improved or Very Much Improved on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale compared to 6.8% (4 of 63) in the control group (P < .0001). Attrition was 13.9% with no difference across groups. Subjects in behavior therapy available for assessment at 6 months posttreatment showed continued benefit. Conclusions Comprehensive behavior therapy is a safe and effective intervention for adults with Tourette syndrome. PMID:22868933

  15. Lost in translation? Moving contingency management and cognitive behavioral therapy into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Kathleen M

    2014-10-01

    In the treatment of addictions, the gap between the availability of evidence-based therapies and their limited implementation in practice has not yet been bridged. Two empirically validated behavioral therapies, contingency management (CM) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), exemplify this challenge. Both have a relatively strong level of empirical support but each has weak and uneven adoption in clinical practice. This review highlights examples of how barriers to their implementation in practice have been addressed systematically, using the Stage Model of Behavioral Therapies Development as an organizing framework. For CM, barriers such as cost and ideology have been addressed through the development of lower-cost and other adaptations to make it more community friendly. For CBT, barriers such as relative complexity, lack of trained providers, and need for supervision have been addressed via conversion to standardized computer-assisted versions that can serve as clinician extenders. Although these and other modifications have rendered both interventions more disseminable, diffusion of innovation remains a complex, often unpredictable process. The existing specialty addiction-treatment system may require significant reforms to fully implement CBT and CM, particularly greater focus on definable treatment goals and performance-based outcomes. PMID:25204847

  16. Lost in translation? Moving contingency management and cognitive behavioral therapy into clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    In the treatment of addictions, the gap between the availability of evidence-based therapies and their limited implementation in practice has not yet been bridged. Two empirically validated behavioral therapies, contingency management (CM) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), exemplify this challenge. Both have a relatively strong level of empirical support but each has weak and uneven adoption in clinical practice. This review highlights examples of how barriers to their implementation in practice have been addressed systematically, using the Stage Model of Behavioral Therapies Development as an organizing framework. For CM, barriers such as cost and ideology have been addressed through the development of lower-cost and other adaptations to make it more community-friendly. For CBT, barriers such as relative complexity, lack of trained providers and need for supervision have been addressed via conversion to standardized computer-assisted versions that can serve as clinician extenders. Although these and other modifications have rendered both interventions more disseminable, diffusion of innovation remains a complex, often unpredictable process. The existing specialty addiction treatment system may require significant reforms to fully implement CBT and CM, particularly greater focus on definable treatment goals and performance-based outcomes. PMID:25204847

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Tinnitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesser, Hugo; Gustafsson, Tore; Lunden, Charlotte; Henrikson, Oskar; Fattahi, Kidjan; Johnsson, Erik; Westin, Vendela Zetterqvist; Carlbring, Per; Maki-Torkko, Elina; Kaldo, Viktor; Andersson, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Our aim in this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effects on global tinnitus severity of 2 Internet-delivered psychological treatments, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), in guided self-help format. Method: Ninety-nine participants (mean age = 48.5 years; 43% female) who were…

  18. Empirical Comparison of Three Treatments for Adolescent Males with Physical and Sexual Aggression: Mode Deactivation Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Social Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Jennings, Jerry L.; Murphy, Christopher J.; Hunter, Linda A.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2005-01-01

    This research study compared the efficacy of three treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment with conduct disorders and/or personality dysfunctions and documented problems with physical and sexual aggression. The results showed that Mode Deactivation Therapy, an advanced form of cognitive behavioral therapy based on…

  19. Failure to replicate the deleterious effects of safety behaviors in exposure therapy.

    PubMed

    Sy, Jennifer T; Dixon, Laura J; Lickel, James J; Nelson, Elizabeth A; Deacon, Brett J

    2011-05-01

    The current study attempted to replicate the finding obtained by Powers, Smits, and Telch (2004; Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 448-545) that both the availability and utilization of safety behaviors interfere with the efficacy of exposure therapy. An additional goal of the study was to evaluate which explanatory theories about the detrimental effects of safety behaviors best account for this phenomenon. Undergraduate students (N=58) with high claustrophobic fear were assigned to one of three treatment conditions: (a) exposure only, (b) exposure with safety behavior availability, and (c) exposure with safety behavior utilization. Participants in each condition improved substantially, and there were no significant between-group differences in fear reduction. Unexpectedly, exposure with safety behavior utilization led to significantly greater improvement in self-efficacy and claustrophobic cognitions than exposure only. The extent to which participants inferred danger from the presence of safety aids during treatment was associated with significantly less improvement on all outcome measures. The findings call into question the hypothesized deleterious effects of safety behaviors on the outcome of exposure therapy and highlight a possible mechanism through which the mere presence of safety cues during exposure trials might affect treatment outcomes depending on participants' perceptions of the dangerousness of exposure stimuli. PMID:21397895

  20. Cognitive-behavioral therapy with simultaneous nutritional and physical activity education in obese patients with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Fossati, M; Amati, F; Painot, D; Reiner, M; Haenni, C; Golay, A

    2004-06-01

    An important problem with obese patients suffering from binge eating disorders (BED) is to treat their dysfunctional eating patterns while initiating a weight loss. We propose to assess a cognitive-behavioral therapy combined with a nutritional and a physical activity program. Our purpose is to verify that the addition of a nutritional and a physical program leads to a significant weight loss and enables psychological improvement. The patients (n=61) participated in a 12 weekly sessions group treatment of either a purely cognitive-behavioral therapy, or a cognitive-behavioral therapy associated to a nutritional approach mainly focused on fat restriction, or to a cognitive-behavioral therapy combined with a nutritional and a physical activity approach. The mean weight loss is significant (p<0.01) after the association of the cognitive-behavioral therapy and the nutritional education, but is even more significant (p<0.001) after the combination of a cognitive-behavioral therapy with a nutritional education and a physical activity program. Depression scores decrease in the three approaches, anxiety (p<0.05) results improve only in the combined nutritional, physical activity and cognitive-behavioral approach. Eating disorders improved significantly in all three approaches even if improvements in subscales seem more important in the combined approach. Finally, exercise seems to be a positive addition to the nutritional cognitive-behavioral therapy since it decreases negative mood, improves eating disorders and leads to an effective body weight loss. PMID:15330081

  1. Experimental neurotrophic factor therapy leads to cortical synaptic remodeling and compensates for behavioral deficits.

    PubMed Central

    Cuello, A C

    1997-01-01

    This brief review discusses experimental therapy with neurotrophic factors in a model of central nervous system (CNS) neural atrophy and synaptic loss resulting from unilateral cortical infarctions. It discusses the trophic factor protection of the cholinergic phenotype of neurons belonging to the forebrain-to-neocortex projection, as well as the capacity of trophic therapy to elicit synaptogenesis in the cerebral cortex of adult animals. Finally, it addresses the behavioral consequences of trophic factor-induced synaptic remodeling of the neocortex in this model. Images Figure 3 PMID:9002392

  2. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP): Treatment Model, Feasibility and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the elements of a manualized cognitive behavior psychotherapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction, relapse prevention approach and theoretically grounded in principles of cognitive behavior therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy and targeted therapies for suicidal, depressed youth. CBT-SP consists of acute and continuation phases, each lasting about 12 sessions, and includes a chain analysis of the suicidal event, safety plan development, skill building, psychoeducation, family intervention, and relapse prevention. Results CBT-SP was administered to 110 depressed, recent suicide attempters aged 13–19 years (mean 15.8±1.6) across five academic sites. Twelve or more sessions were completed by 72.4% of the sample. Conclusions A specific intervention for adolescents at high risk for repeated suicide attempts has been developed and manualized, and further testing of its efficacy appears feasible. PMID:19730273

  3. Classroom changes in ADHD symptoms following clinic-based behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Curtis, David F; Chapman, Stephanie; Dempsey, Jack; Mire, Sarah

    2013-03-01

    This study examined classroom behavioral outcomes for children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) following their participation in a manualized, 10-week intervention called Family Skills Training for ADHD-Related Symptoms (Family STARS). Family STARS combined behavioral parent training (BPT) and child-focused behavioral activation therapy (CBAT). Participants were children ages 7-10 diagnosed with ADHD-Combined Type. Pre- and post-treatment teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms were compared using a single group, within-subjects research design. Intervention effectiveness was analyzed using paired-samples t-tests. Results indicated statistically significant classroom improvements for externalizing behaviors and attention problems with medium and large main effects (respectively) for the intervention. Possible implications for combining CBAT with BPT for the treatment of ADHD are discussed as well as the relevance of these results for improving the effectiveness and portability of empirically supported interventions. PMID:22678107

  4. Cognitive-behavioral therapy and nutritional counseling in the treatment of bulimia nervosa and binge eating.

    PubMed

    Latner, J D; Wilson, G T

    2000-09-01

    The goals of manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and nutritional counseling for eating disorders are similar, namely, eliminating dysfunctional patterns of eating. Modifying these behaviors requires specific therapeutic expertise in the principles and procedures of behavior change that is not typically part of the training of nutritionists and dieticians or mental health professionals without specific expertise. We discuss ways in which principles of behavior change can be applied to eating disorders by non-CBT experts. Specific nutritional rehabilitation programs have the potential to augment CBT in addressing the array of appetitive abnormalities present in eating disorder patients. The dysfunctional appetitive, hedonic, and metabolic characteristics of patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder are reviewed. These abnormalities constitute potential target areas that might be more fully addressed by nutritional interventions designed to restore normal appetitive function. PMID:15001063

  5. Emotional and Behavioral Functioning After Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Ependymoma

    PubMed Central

    Willard, Victoria W.; Conklin, Heather M.; Boop, Frederick A.; Wu, Shengjie; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives The standard of care for pediatric patients with ependymoma involves post-operative radiation therapy. Prior research suggests that conformal radiation therapy (CRT) is associated with relative sparing of cognitive and academic functioning, but little is known about CRT’s effect on emotional and behavioral functioning. Methods and Materials A total of 113 patients with pediatric ependymoma underwent CRT using photons as part of their enrollment on an institutional trial. Patients completed annual evaluations of neurocognitive functioning during the first five years after CRT. Emotional and behavioral functioning was assessed via the Child Behavior Checklist. Results Prior to CRT, emotional and behavioral functioning was commensurate with that of the normative population and within normal limits. After 5-years, means remained within normal limits but were significantly below the normative mean. Linear mixed models revealed a significant increase in attention problems over time. These problems were associated with age at diagnosis/CRT, tumor location, and extent of resection. A higher-than-expected incidence of school problems was present at all assessment points after baseline. Conclusions The use of photon CRT for ependymoma is associated with relatively stable emotional and behavioral functioning during the first five years after treatment. The exception is an increase in attention problems. Results suggest that intervening earlier in the survivorship period – during the first year post-treatment – may be beneficial. PMID:24462384

  6. Treatment Adherence, Competence, and Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake, discharge, and 6-month follow-up. Observational ratings of adherence and competence were collected on early and later phases of treatment (192 CBT sessions, 245 MDFT sessions) by using a contextual measure of treatment fidelity. Adherence and competence effects were tested after controlling for therapeutic alliance. In CBT only, stronger adherence predicted greater declines in drug use (linear effect). In CBT and MDFT, (a) stronger adherence predicted greater reductions in externalizing behaviors (linear effect) and (b) intermediate levels of adherence predicted the largest declines in internalizing behaviors, with high and low adherence predicting smaller improvements (curvilinear effect). Therapist competence did not predict outcome and did not moderate adherence–outcome relations; however, competence findings are tentative due to relatively low interrater reliability for the competence ratings. Clinical and research implications for attending to both linear and curvilinear adherence effects in manualized treatments for behavior disorders are discussed. PMID:18665684

  7. Emotional and Behavioral Functioning After Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, Victoria W.; Conklin, Heather M.; Boop, Frederick A.; Wu, Shengjie; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The standard of care for pediatric patients with ependymoma involves postoperative radiation therapy. Prior research suggests that conformal radiation therapy (CRT) is associated with relative sparing of cognitive and academic functioning, but little is known about the effect of CRT on emotional and behavioral functioning. Methods and Materials: A total of 113 patients with pediatric ependymoma underwent CRT using photons as part of their enrollment on an institutional trial. Patients completed annual evaluations of neurocognitive functioning during the first 5 years after CRT. Emotional and behavioral functioning was assessed via the Child Behavior Checklist. Results: Before CRT, emotional and behavioral functioning were commensurate with those of the normative population and within normal limits. After 5 years, means remained within normal limits but were significantly below the normative mean. Linear mixed models revealed a significant increase in attention problems over time. These problems were associated with age at diagnosis/CRT, tumor location, and extent of resection. A higher-than-expected incidence of school problems was present at all assessment points after baseline. Conclusions: The use of photon CRT for ependymoma is associated with relatively stable emotional and behavioral functioning during the first 5 years after treatment. The exception is an increase in attention problems. Results suggest that intervening earlier in the survivorship period—during the first year posttreatment—may be beneficial.

  8. Principles and Practice of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Working with Parents of Young Children with Behavior Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavuluri, Mani; Smith, Marita

    1996-01-01

    Describes a pragmatic approach using cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) to help correct parents' dysfunctional cognitions and strengthen confidence in parenting. Details three components of CBT: (1) focusing on positive behavior; (2) ignoring negative behavior if not dangerous; and (3) using special time. Notes that positive reinforcement is key to…

  9. Brief Strategic Family Therapy: Engaging Drug Using/Problem Behavior Adolescents and their Families into Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Szapocznik, José; Zarate, Monica; Duff, Johnathan; Muir, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Despite the efficacy of family-based interventions for improving outcomes for adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, engaging and retaining whole families in treatment is one of the greatest challenges therapists confront. This article illustrates how the Brief Strategic Family Therapy® (BSFT®) model, a family-based, empirically validated intervention designed to treat children and adolescents’ problem behaviors, can be used to increase engagement, improve retention, and bring about positive outcomes for families. Research evidence for efficacy and effectiveness is also presented. PMID:23731415

  10. Effects of cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD on partners' psychological functioning.

    PubMed

    Shnaider, Philippe; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D; Fredman, Steffany J; Macdonald, Alexandra; Monson, Candice M

    2014-04-01

    A number of studies have documented that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in "one" partner are negatively associated with their intimate partner's psychological functioning. The present study investigated intimate partners' mental health outcomes (i.e., depression, anxiety, and anger) in a sample of 40 partners of individuals with PTSD within a randomized waitlist controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD (Monson & Fredman, 2012). There were no significant differences between active treatment and waitlist in intimate partners' psychological functioning at posttreatment. Subgroup analyses, however, of partners exhibiting clinical levels of distress at pretreatment on several measures showed reliable and clinically significant improvements in their psychological functioning at posttreatment and no evidence of worsening. Results suggest that cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD may have additional benefits for partners presenting with psychological distress. PMID:24706354

  11. Yoga-Enhanced Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Y-CBT) for Anxiety Management: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Khalsa, Manjit K.; Greiner-Ferris, Julie M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy is an effective treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but there is still room for improvement. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential benefit of enriching cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with Kundalini Yoga (Y-CBT). Participants consisted of treatment resistant clients at a community mental health clinic. A total of 32 participants enrolled in the study and 22 completed the program. After the Y-CBT intervention, pre-post comparisons showed statistically significant improvements in state and trait anxiety, depression, panic, sleep, and quality of life. Results from this preliminary study suggest that Y-CBT may have potential as a promising treatment for those suffering from GAD. PMID:24804619

  12. Efficacy of Brief Strategic Family Therapy in Modifying Hispanic Adolescent Behavior Problems and Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Santisteban, Daniel A.; Perez-Vidal, Angel; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Kurtines, William M.; Schwartz, Seth J.; LaPerriere, Arthur; Szapocznik, José

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of brief strategic family therapy (BSFT) with Hispanic behavior problem and drug using youth, an underrepresented population in the family therapy research literature. One hundred twenty-six Hispanic families with a behavior problem adolescent were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: BSFT or group treatment control (GC). Results showed that, compared to GC cases, BSFT cases showed significantly greater pre- to post-intervention improvement in parent reports of adolescent conduct problems and delinquency, adolescent reports of marijuana use, and observer ratings and self reports of family functioning. These results extend prior findings on the efficacy of family interventions to a difficult to treat Hispanic adolescent sample. PMID:12666468

  13. Initial Sleep Time Predicts Success in Manual-Guided Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Bothelius, Kristoffer; Kyhle, Kicki; Broman, Jan-Erik; Gordh, Torsten; Fredrikson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy produces significant and long-lasting improvement for individuals with insomnia, but treatment resources are scarce. A "stepped care" approach has therefore been proposed, but knowledge is limited on how to best allocate patients to different treatment steps. In this study, 66 primary-care patients with insomnia attended a low-end treatment step: manual-guided cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary-care personnel. Based on clinically significant treatment effects, subjects were grouped into treatment responders or nonresponders. Baseline data were analyzed to identify predictors for treatment success. Long total sleep time at baseline assessment was the only statistically significant predictor for becoming a responder, and sleep time may thus be important to consider before enrolling patients in low-end treatments. PMID:26323054

  14. Effects of Cognitive–Behavioral Conjoint Therapy for PTSD on Partners’ Psychological Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Shnaider, Philippe; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D.; Fredman, Steffany J.; Macdonald, Alexandra; Monson, Candice M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have documented that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in “one” partner are negatively associated with their intimate partner’s psychological functioning. The present study investigated intimate partners’ mental health outcomes (i.e., depression, anxiety, and anger) in a sample of 40 partners of individuals with PTSD within a randomized waitlist controlled trial of cognitive–behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD (Monson & Fredman, 2012). There were no significant differences between active treatment and waitlist in intimate partners’ psychological functioning at posttreatment. Subgroup analyses, however, of partners exhibiting clinical levels of distress at pretreatment on several measures showed reliable and clinically significant improvements in their psychological functioning at posttreatment and no evidence of worsening. Results suggest that cognitive–behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD may have additional benefits for partners presenting with psychological distress. PMID:24706354

  15. Evaluation of manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa in a service setting.

    PubMed

    Tuschen-Caffier, B; Pook, M; Frank, M

    2001-03-01

    In the present study manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa was evaluated on an unselected sample of an out-patient service facility. A total of 73 female patients who asked for treatment received the primary diagnosis of bulimia nervosa. Of these, 67 took up treatment. Treatment was completed by 66 patients. Outcome variables were the number of binge episodes along with questionnaire scores for restraint eating, emotional eating, body dissatisfaction and depressiveness. At the end of treatment and 1 year after the end of treatment significant improvements were found in all outcome variables. Effect sizes for outcome variables were within the range of those of controlled research. Therefore, the present study delivered empirical evidence that manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy is an effective treatment for bulimia nervosa not only within the restricted area of research. PMID:11227811

  16. Intensive sleep deprivation and cognitive behavioral therapy for pharmacotherapy refractory insomnia in a hospitalized patient.

    PubMed

    Breitstein, Joshua; Penix, Brandon; Roth, Bernard J; Baxter, Tristin; Mysliwiec, Vincent

    2014-06-15

    The case of a 59-year-old woman psychiatrically hospitalized with comorbid insomnia, suicidal ideation, and generalized anxiety disorder is presented. Pharmacologic therapies were unsuccessful for treating insomnia prior to and during hospitalization. Intensive sleep deprivation was initiated for 40 consecutive hours followed by a recovery sleep period of 8 hours. Traditional components of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi), sleep restriction, and stimulus control therapies, were initiated on the ward. After two consecutive nights with improved sleep, anxiety, and absence of suicidal ideation, the patient was discharged. She was followed in the sleep clinic for two months engaging in CBTi. Treatment resulted in substantial improvement in her insomnia, daytime sleepiness, and anxiety about sleep. Sleep deprivation regimens followed by a restricted sleep recovery period have shown antidepressant effects in depressed patients. Similar treatment protocols have not been investigated in patients with pharmacotherapy refractory insomnia and generalized anxiety disorder. PMID:24932151

  17. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: Effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Natalie V.; Haas, Sarah M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Willoughby, Michael T.; Helseth, Sarah A.; Crum, Kathleen I.; Coles, Erika K.; Pelham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional traits (i.e., lack of empathy, guilt/lack of caring behaviors) (CU) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), however reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (condition C), compared to a standard behavioral intervention (condition A). Interventions were delivered through a Summer Treatment Program over seven weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of eleven children (7–11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the seven weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed. PMID:25022772

  18. Defining the Role of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Treating Chronic Low Back Pain: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Hanscom, David A; Brox, Jens Ivar; Bunnage, Ray

    2015-12-01

    Study Design Narrative review of the literature. Objectives Determine if the term cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is useful in clinical care and research. What literature supports these variables being relevant to the experience of chronic pain? What effects of CBT in treating these factors have been documented? What methods and platforms are available to administer CBT? Methods Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a complex neurologic disorder with many components. CBT refers to a broad family of therapies that address both maladaptive thoughts and behaviors. There are several ways to deliver it. CLBP was broken into five categories that affect the perception of pain, and the literature was reviewed to see the effects of CBT on these variables. Results The term cognitive behavioral therapy has little use in future research because it covers such a wide range of therapies. CBT should always be defined by the problem it is intended to solve. The format and method of delivery should be defined because they have implications for outcomes. They are readily available even at the primary care level. The effectiveness of CBT is unquestioned regarding its effectiveness in treating each of the variables that affect CLBP. It is unclear why it is not more widely implemented. Conclusions CBT represents a family of therapies that are effective for a wide range of problems, many of which coexist with and influence CLBP. Each of the variables can be improved with focused CBT. Early, widespread adoption of CBT in treating and preventing CLBP is recommended. Future research and clinical care should focus on strategies to operationalize these well-documented treatments utilizing a public health approach. PMID:26682100

  19. Defining the Role of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Treating Chronic Low Back Pain: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Hanscom, David A.; Brox, Jens Ivar; Bunnage, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Narrative review of the literature. Objectives Determine if the term cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is useful in clinical care and research. What literature supports these variables being relevant to the experience of chronic pain? What effects of CBT in treating these factors have been documented? What methods and platforms are available to administer CBT? Methods Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a complex neurologic disorder with many components. CBT refers to a broad family of therapies that address both maladaptive thoughts and behaviors. There are several ways to deliver it. CLBP was broken into five categories that affect the perception of pain, and the literature was reviewed to see the effects of CBT on these variables. Results The term cognitive behavioral therapy has little use in future research because it covers such a wide range of therapies. CBT should always be defined by the problem it is intended to solve. The format and method of delivery should be defined because they have implications for outcomes. They are readily available even at the primary care level. The effectiveness of CBT is unquestioned regarding its effectiveness in treating each of the variables that affect CLBP. It is unclear why it is not more widely implemented. Conclusions CBT represents a family of therapies that are effective for a wide range of problems, many of which coexist with and influence CLBP. Each of the variables can be improved with focused CBT. Early, widespread adoption of CBT in treating and preventing CLBP is recommended. Future research and clinical care should focus on strategies to operationalize these well-documented treatments utilizing a public health approach. PMID:26682100

  20. Differential effectiveness of behavioral parent-training and cognitive-behavioral therapy for antisocial youth: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    McCart, Michael R; Priester, Paul E; Davies, W Hobart; Azen, Razia

    2006-08-01

    Extended the findings from previous meta-analytic work by comparing the effectiveness of behavioral parent-training (BPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth with antisocial behavior problems. Youth demographic variables were also examined as potential moderators of the effectiveness of these 2 types of interventions. Thirty BPT studies and 41 CBT studies met inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. The weighted mean effect size (ES) for all interventions was 0.40. Youth age was found to moderate the outcome of the 2 interventions, with BPT having a stronger effect for preschool and school-aged youth and CBT having a stronger effect for adolescents. The results also indicate that there may be systematic differences in the outcomes associated with BPT and CBT when the setting of the intervention is considered, suggesting the need to carefully consider the effect of setting in future research. This study also highlights the need for outcome research dealing with more diverse populations and the better classification of research participants on different developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior. PMID:16838122

  1. A pilot study of an exercise & cognitive behavioral therapy intervention for epithelial ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate of all gynaecologic cancers. Faced with poor prognoses, stressful treatment effects and a high likelihood of recurrence, survivors must confront significant physical and psychological morbidities that negatively impact health-related quality of life. Frequently reported side effects include cancer-related fatigue, peripheral neuropathy, and psychological distress. Exercise and cognitive behavioral therapy interventions have counteracted such adverse effects in other cancer populations. Objective To investigate the feasibility and benefits of a 24-week home-based exercise intervention, coordinated with 12 weeks of cognitive behavioral therapy (two sessions per month), developed for two types of patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer: 1) those undergoing primary treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy after primary surgery; 2) those on surveillance after completing treatment within the last 2 years. Methods Participants were recruited from the Gynaecologic Oncology Clinic. Eligible participants completed baseline assessments and were provided with home-based exercise equipment. Cognitive behavioral therapy was provided every other week for patients via telephone. Assessments were completed at baseline (T1), 3 months (T2) and 6 months (T3). Results 19 of the 46 eligible patients approached were enrolled, with 7 patients in the treatment group and 12 in the surveillance group. There was a significant within group increase in peak VO2 from baseline to 6 months: F(2,16) = 5.531, p = 0.015, partial η2 = 0.409. Conclusion The combined 6-month exercise-cognitive behavioral therapy intervention was associated with significant increases in aerobic fitness in epithelial ovarian cancer patients assessed. These improvements were similar regardless of whether the patient was receiving chemotherapy or under surveillance. PMID:23557323

  2. Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia on Suicidal Ideation in Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Trockel, Mickey; Karlin, Bradley E.; Taylor, C. Barr; Brown, Gregory K.; Manber, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) on suicidal ideation among Veterans with insomnia. Design: Longitudinal data collected in the course of an uncontrolled evaluation of a large-scale CBT-I training program. Setting: Outpatient and residential treatment facilities. Participants: Four hundred five Veterans presenting for treatment of insomnia. Interventions: Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. Measurement and Results: At baseline, 32% of patients, compared with 21% at final assessment, endorsed some level of suicidal ideation [χ2(df = 1) = 125; P < 0.001]. After adjusting for demographic variables and baseline insomnia severity, each 7-point decrease in Insomnia Severity Index score achieved during CBT-I treatment was associated with a 65% (odds ratio = 0.35; 95% confidence intervals = 0.24 to 0.52) reduction in odds of suicidal ideation. The effect of change in insomnia severity on change in depression severity was also significant. After controlling for change in depression severity and other variables in the model, the effect of change in insomnia severity on change in suicidal ideation remained significant. Conclusion: This evaluation of the largest dissemination of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in the United States found a clinically meaningful reduction in suicidal ideation among Veterans receiving CBT-I. The mechanisms by which effective treatment of insomnia with CBT-I reduces suicide risk are unknown and warrant investigation. The current results may have significant public health implications for preventing suicide among Veterans. Citation: Trockel M, Karlin BE, Taylor CB, Brown GK, Manber R. Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia on suicidal ideation in veterans. SLEEP 2015;38(2):259–265. PMID:25515115

  3. Cognitive behavioral therapy to reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Li, Chun; Wang, Hong; Ou, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Song; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This 9-week study was designed to determine whether a commercial cognitive-behavioral training program could effectively reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders. Sixty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive routine intervention alone (control group) or routine intervention plus Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST group) in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was change scores on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) from baseline to one week following end of training. Secondary outcomes were change scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). There were significant between-group differences in change of MOAS total score (P < .001) and all sub-scores (Ps < .01) except aggression against property. Between-group differences were also observed in change of BIS-11 and CMHS total score (Ps < 0.05). All results favored the WLST group. These findings suggest WLST has the potential to be an effective intervention to reduce overt aggressive behavior in young male violent offenders. PMID:24375428

  4. Treatment of complicated grief: a comparison between cognitive-behavioral therapy and supportive counseling.

    PubMed

    Boelen, Paul A; de Keijser, Jos; van den Hout, Marcel A; van den Bout, Jan

    2007-04-01

    Few studies have examined treatments for complicated grief--a debilitating condition that can develop after the loss of a loved one. This study compared the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy with a nonspecific treatment with supportive counseling (SC). Using a minimization method, 54 mourners with clinically significant levels of complicated grief were allocated to 1 of 3 treatment conditions: (a) a condition of 6 sessions of cognitive restructuring (CR) and 6 sessions of exposure therapy (ET; CR + ET), (b) a condition in which these interventions were applied in reversed order (ET + CR), and (c) 12 sessions of SC. Outcomes showed that the 2 cognitive-behavioral therapy conditions produced more improvement in complicated grief and general psychopathology than SC in the completers and intention-to-treat groups. Comparison of the cognitive-behavioral conditions showed that "pure" exposure was more effective than "pure" cognitive restructuring, that adding ET to CR led to more additional improvement than adding CR to ET, and that ET + CR was more efficacious than CR + ET. Effect sizes of ET + CR were encouraging and compare favorably with those found in earlier bereavement intervention studies. PMID:17469885

  5. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Sigan L; Esbensen, Anna J; Shalev, Rebecca; Vincent, Lori B; Mihaila, Iulia; Bussanich, Paige

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of research on psychosocial treatments for depression in adults with intellectual disability (ID). In this pilot study, we explored the efficacy of a group CBT treatment that involved a caregiver component in adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder. Method Sixteen adults with mild ID and a depressive disorder participated in a 10-week group CBT treatment and 8 adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder served as a treatment as usual (TAU) control group. Adults with mild ID and caregivers completed measures of depressive symptoms, behavior problems, and social skills at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and a 3-month follow-up. Adults with mild ID also completed a series of tasks to measure their understanding of the principles of cognitive therapy pre- and post-treatment. Results The CBT group demonstrated significant decreases in depressive symptoms and behavior problems from pre-treatment to post-treatment and these effects were maintained at a 3-month follow-up. The CBT group demonstrated significant improvements in their ability to infer emotions and thoughts based on various situation-thought-emotion pairings from pre-treatment to post-treatment. Conclusions Findings indicate that adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder benefitted from a group CBT treatment with a caregiver component. Moreover, adults with mild ID appeared to benefit, at least in part, from the cognitive therapy components of the treatment, in addition to the behavior therapy components. PMID:26925187

  6. The Promise of Third-Wave Behavioral Therapies in the Treatment of Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stotts, Angela L.; Northrup, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Substance use disorders are common and frequently complex, with overlapping medical, legal, social and psychiatric problems. Innovative treatment models to address the full range of problems in new ways using common principles are needed. Third wave behavior therapies such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) comprise novel approaches and methods that have great potential to address complex substance abuse cases. These treatment models derive from contextual and behavioral science and have a common emphasis on developing empirical, principle-driven methods for approaching unwanted or distressing psychological and physical experiences common to substance use and other disorders. Randomized controlled trials targeting substance use with ACT and DBT have been conducted across varying populations, including various target substances (opiates, methamphetamine, polysubstance) and settings (prisons, methadone clinics, residential treatment, and outpatient). Despite methodological heterogeneity, ACT and DBT have compared favorably to passive and active control conditions. Further research is needed, however, with larger samples and active control conditions, along with studies of treatment mechanisms, to inform and shape theoretical models and substance abuse treatment protocols for enhanced efficacy. PMID:26693170

  7. Training community therapists to deliver cognitive behavioral therapy in the aftermath of disaster.

    PubMed

    Hamblen, Jessica L; Norris, Fran H; Gibson, Laura; Lee, Linda

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effectiveness of disseminating Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Postdisaster Distress (CBT-PD) to community therapists in Baton Rouge, Louisiana following Hurricane Katrina. One hundred four therapists attended a two-day training in CBT-PD with on-going case consultation. Pre- and post-training, therapists rated eight core cognitive behavioral therapy elements on their importance, how well they understood how to deliver the element, and how confident they were in their ability to deliver the element. Post-training they completed a CBT-PD knowledge questionnaire and session fidelity forms. Seventy-seven clients completed satisfaction questionnaires and reported on how often they utilized the skills taught in CBT-PD. Therapists showed significant improvements in their ratings of the importance of various elements of cognitive behavioral therapy, their knowledge and understanding of those elements, and their confidence that they could use them effectively. Immediately following the training 90% of therapists demonstrated excellent retention of CBT-PD. Self-report measures from both therapists and clients indicated that critical session elements were delivered. This work suggests that CBT-PD can be applied in a real-world setting and that community therapists can be trained in relatively short time spans with on-going support. This finding is especially important in the disaster field given that communities are likely to find themselves in emergency situations in which a number of non-expert trauma therapists will need to deliver trauma services. PMID:20828088

  8. Cognitive remediation therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy with an older adult with anorexia nervosa: A brief case report.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Alison M; Fitzpatrick, Kara K; Lock, James

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive remediation therapy represents a new approach to the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN) emerging from research, suggesting that adults with chronic AN have specific neurocognitive inefficiencies. Specifically, adults with AN demonstrate an overly detailed cognitive processing bias (Roberts, Tchanturia, & Treasure, 2013) and difficulties shifting set quickly and efficiently (Roberts, Tchanturia, Stahl, Southgate, & Treasure, 2007). These characteristics manifest as rigid, rule-bound, and detail-focused cognitions, beliefs, and behaviors. Versions of these problems appear to persist after weight restoration (Tchanturia et al., 2004) and are observable in patient's healthy sisters (Roberts et al., 2013). Thus, central coherence difficulties and set-shifting problems have been proposed as endophenotypes and maintaining factors of AN (Roberts et al., 2013). (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27267509

  9. The interpersonal context of client motivational language in cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Sijercic, Iris; Button, Melissa L; Westra, Henny A; Hara, Kimberley M

    2016-03-01

    Previous research has found that client motivational language (especially arguments against change or counterchange talk; CCT) in early therapy sessions is a reliable predictor of therapy process and outcomes across a broad range of treatments including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Existing studies have considered the general occurrence of CCT, but the present study differentiated 2 types of CCT in early CBT sessions for 37 clients with generalized anxiety disorder: (a) statements that are uttered to express ambivalence regarding change versus (b) statements that are intended to oppose the therapist or therapy. Two process coding systems were used to accomplish this differentiation. Findings indicated that a higher number of CCT statements that occurred in the presence of resistance (opposition to the therapist or therapy) were a substantive and consistent predictor of lower homework compliance and poorer outcomes, up to 1 year posttreatment. Moreover, when both types of CCT were considered together, only opposition CCT was related to outcomes, and ambivalent CCT was not significantly predictive of proximal and distal outcomes. These findings suggest that the interpersonal context in which CCT statements occur may be critically important to their predictive capacity. More broadly, the findings of this study have implications for the future study of client motivational language and underscore the clinical importance of detecting opposition CCT. PMID:26011747

  10. Mediated Moderation in Combined Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Versus Component Treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Michelle G.; Fisher, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined (a) duration of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as a moderator of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus its components (cognitive therapy and self-control desensitization) and (b) increases in dynamic flexibility of anxious symptoms during the course of psychotherapy as a mediator of this moderation. Degree of dynamic flexibility in daily symptoms was quantified as the inverse of spectral power due to daily to intradaily oscillations in four-times-daily diary data (Fisher, Newman, & Molenaar, 2011). Method This was a secondary analysis of the data of Borkovec, Newman, Pincus, and Lytle (2002). Seventy-six participants with a principle diagnosis of GAD were assigned randomly to combined CBT (n = 24), cognitive therapy (n = 25), or self-control desensitization (n = 27). Results Duration of GAD moderated outcome such that those with longer duration showed greater reliable change from component treatments than they showed from CBT, whereas those with shorter duration fared better in response to CBT. Decreasing predictability in daily and intradaily oscillations of anxiety symptoms during therapy reflected less rigidity and more flexible responding. Increases in flexibility over the course of therapy fully mediated the moderating effect of GAD duration on condition, indicating a mediated moderation process. Conclusions Individuals with longer duration of GAD may respond better to more focused treatments, whereas those with shorter duration of GAD may respond better to a treatment that offers more coping strategies. Importantly, the mechanism by which this moderation occurs appears to be the establishment of flexible responding during treatment. PMID:23398493

  11. A vision of the next generation of behavioral therapies research in the addictions*

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    2007-01-01

    Whither, or wither, empirically supported therapies? Increasingly rigorous research in behavioral therapies has yielded a large number of effective therapies, but comparatively little work, demonstrating that integrating empirically supported therapies (ESTs) into standard practice results in meaningful improvements in patient outcomes. Methodology and strategies for evaluating ESTs and their effectiveness in clinical practice is a fairly recent innovation, and a host of unanswered questions remain regarding issues such as selection among different ESTs and what type of ESTs should be emphasized in dissemination efforts, what type of clinicians should be trained in what type of ESTs, the most effective training strategies for various types of clinicians, the need for ongoing supervision to maintain minimum levels of treatment fidelity and skill. In this review, we call for broader use of new research strategies and methods relevant to dissemination of ESTs; these may include adaptive designs, identification of mechanisms of action to foster greater emphasis on effective change principles, training and adoption trials, as well as novel implementation strategies including computer-assisted therapy and computer-assisted training. PMID:17523974

  12. Costs of a Motivational Enhancement Therapy Coupled with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Brief Advice for Pregnant Substance Users

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao; Yonkers, Kimberly A.; Ruger, Jennifer P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine and compare costs of a nurse-administered behavioral intervention for pregnant substance users that integrated motivational enhancement therapy with cognitive behavioral therapy (MET-CBT) to brief advice (BA) administered by an obstetrical provider. Both interventions were provided concurrent with prenatal care. Methods We conducted a micro-costing study that prospectively collected detailed resource utilization and unit cost data for each of the two intervention arms (MET-CBT and BA) within the context of a randomized controlled trial. A three-step approach for identifying, measuring and valuing resource utilization was used. All cost estimates were inflation adjusted to 2011 U.S. dollars. Results A total of 82 participants received the MET-CBT intervention and 86 participants received BA. From the societal perspective, the total cost (including participants’ time cost) of the MET-CBT intervention was $120,483 or $1,469 per participant. In contrast, the total cost of the BA intervention was $27,199 or $316 per participant. Personnel costs (nurse therapists and obstetric providers) for delivering the intervention sessions and supervising the program composed the largest share of the MET-CBT intervention costs. Program set up costs, especially intervention material design and training costs, also contributed substantially to the overall cost. Conclusions Implementation of an MET-CBT program to promote drug abstinence in pregnant women is associated with modest costs. Future cost effectiveness and cost benefit analyses integrating costs with outcomes and benefits data will enable a more comprehensive understanding of the intervention in improving the care of substance abusing pregnant women. PMID:24760017

  13. Randomized Trial of Telephone-Delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Smoking Cessation: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Terry; Zbikowski, Susan M.; Mercer, Laina D.; Heffner, Jaimee L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a pilot randomized trial of telephone-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) versus cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation. Method: Participants were 121 uninsured South Carolina State Quitline callers who were adult smokers (at least 10 cigarettes/day) and who wanted to quit within the next 30 days. Participants were randomized to 5 sessions of either ACT or CBT telephone counseling and were offered 2 weeks of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Results: ACT participants completed more calls than CBT participants (M = 3.25 in ACT vs. 2.23 in CBT; p = .001). Regarding satisfaction, 100% of ACT participants reported their treatment was useful for quitting smoking (vs. 87% for CBT; p = .03), and 97% of ACT participants would recommend their treatment to a friend (vs. 83% for CBT; p = .06). On the primary outcome of intent-to-treat 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 6 months postrandomization, the quit rates were 31% in ACT versus 22% in CBT (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.7–3.4). Among participants depressed at baseline (n = 47), the quit rates were 33% in ACT versus 13% in CBT (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0–1.6). Consistent with ACT’s theory, among participants scoring low on acceptance of cravings at baseline (n = 57), the quit rates were 37% in ACT versus 10% in CBT (OR = 5.3, 95% CI = 1.3–22.0). Conclusions: ACT is feasible to deliver by phone, is highly acceptable to quitline callers, and shows highly promising quit rates compared with standard CBT quitline counseling. As results were limited by the pilot design (e.g., small sample), a full-scale efficacy trial is now needed. PMID:24935757

  14. Cognitive predictors and moderators of winter depression treatment outcomes in cognitive-behavioral therapy vs. light therapy.

    PubMed

    Sitnikov, Lilya; Rohan, Kelly J; Evans, Maggie; Mahon, Jennifer N; Nillni, Yael I

    2013-12-01

    There is no empirical basis for determining which seasonal affective disorder (SAD) patients are best suited for what type of treatment. Using data from a parent clinical trial comparing light therapy (LT), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and their combination (CBT + LT) for SAD, we constructed hierarchical linear regression models to explore baseline cognitive vulnerability constructs (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes, negative automatic thoughts, response styles) as prognostic and prescriptive factors of acute and next winter depression outcomes. Cognitive constructs did not predict or moderate acute treatment outcomes. Baseline dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts were prescriptive of next winter treatment outcomes. Participants with higher baseline levels of dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts had less severe depression the next winter if treated with CBT than if treated with LT. In addition, participants randomized to solo LT who scored at or above the sample mean on these cognitive measures at baseline had more severe depressive symptoms the next winter relative to those who scored below the mean. Baseline dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts did not predict treatment outcomes in participants assigned to solo CBT or CBT + LT. Therefore, SAD patients with extremely rigid cognitions did not fare as well in the subsequent winter if treated initially with solo LT. Such patients may be better suited for initial treatment with CBT, which directly targets cognitive vulnerability processes. PMID:24211338

  15. [Clinical effects of theophylline in the therapy of intractable asthmatic children. II. Theophylline therapy and behavior problems in children with asthma].

    PubMed

    Segawa, H; Iikura, Y

    1990-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between long-term theophylline therapy and behavior problems in 14 asthmatic children that includes 5 intractable cases and 24 non-asthmatic children. Asthmatic children have received theophylline therapy and cromolyn inhalation for 3.6 +/- 3.8 years. Subjects were tested on neuropsychologic batteries; behavior problems and personality of children questionnaire, child behavior checklist, caffeine-like side effects questionnaire, manifest anxiety scale, visual attention test, Uchida-Kraepelin test and soft neurological signs. These tests were repeated with an interval of 1 to 12 weeks. Parents noted caffeine-like side effects, stomach ache and difficulty in sleeping, in their child during the theophylline therapy. The caffeine-like side effects decreased after stopping theophylline therapy. The rate of mistake in Uchida-Kraepelin test for the asthmatic group and for the intractable cases was significantly higher than that of the control group. Time of the sequential finger thumb opposition of the soft neurological signs was significantly prolonged in asthmatic group. There was no significant change in the other tests between asthmatic and non-asthmatic children and before and after stopping theophylline therapy. It seems that behavior problems and learning disability observed in the asthmatic children are due to the pathogenesis or symptoms of asthma rather than the effect of long-term theophylline therapy. PMID:2124479

  16. Outcome expectancy as a predictor of treatment response in cognitive behavioral therapy for public speaking fears within social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L

    2012-06-01

    Outcome expectancy, the extent that clients anticipate benefiting from therapy, is theorized to be an important predictor of treatment response for cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, there is a relatively small body of empirical research on outcome expectancy and the treatment of social anxiety disorder. This literature, which has examined the association mostly in group-based interventions, has yielded mixed findings. The current study sought to further evaluate the effect of outcome expectancy as a predictor of treatment response for public-speaking fears across both individual virtual reality and group-based cognitive-behavioral therapies. The findings supported outcome expectancy as a predictor of the rate of change in public-speaking anxiety during both individual virtual reality exposure therapy and group cognitive-behavioral therapy. Furthermore, there was no evidence to suggest that the impact of outcome expectancy differed across virtual reality or group treatments. PMID:21967073

  17. The impact of cognitive behavioral therapy on post event processing among those with social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L

    2011-02-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are prone to engage in post event processing (PEP), a post mortem review of a social interaction that focuses on negative elements. The extent that PEP is impacted by cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and the relation between PEP and change during treatment has yet to be evaluated in a controlled study. The current study used multilevel modeling to determine if PEP decreased as a result of treatment and if PEP limits treatment response for two types of cognitive behavioral treatments, a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention and individually based virtual reality exposure. These hypotheses were evaluated using 91 participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. The findings suggested that PEP decreased as a result of treatment, and that social anxiety symptoms for individuals reporting greater levels of PEP improved at a slower rate than those with lower levels of PEP. Further research is needed to understand why PEP attenuates response to treatment. PMID:21159328

  18. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Behavioral Weight Loss, and Sequential Treatment for Obese Patients with Binge-Eating Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, G. Terence; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; White, Marney A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best established treatment for binge-eating disorder (BED) but does not produce weight loss. The efficacy of behavioral weight loss (BWL) in obese patients with BED is uncertain. This study compared CBT, BWL, and a sequential approach in which CBT is delivered first, followed by BWL (CBT + BWL).…

  19. A Systematic Review of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Behavioral Activation Apps for Depression

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Patrick J.; Wozney, Lori; Wheaton, Mike; Conrod, Jill; Rozario, Sharlene

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common mental health condition for which many mobile apps aim to provide support. This review aims to identify self-help apps available exclusively for people with depression and evaluate those that offer cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or behavioural activation (BA). One hundred and seventeen apps have been identified after searching both the scientific literature and the commercial market. 10.26% (n = 12) of these apps identified through our search offer support that seems to be consistent with evidence-based principles of CBT or BA. Taking into account the non existence of effectiveness/efficacy studies, and the low level of adherence to the core ingredients of the CBT/BA models, the utility of these CBT/BA apps are questionable. The usability of reviewed apps is highly variable and they rarely are accompanied by explicit privacy or safety policies. Despite the growing public demand, there is a concerning lack of appropiate CBT or BA apps, especially from a clinical and legal point of view. The application of superior scientific, technological, and legal knowledge is needed to improve the development, testing, and accessibility of apps for people with depression. PMID:27135410

  20. A Systematic Review of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Behavioral Activation Apps for Depression.

    PubMed

    Huguet, Anna; Rao, Sanjay; McGrath, Patrick J; Wozney, Lori; Wheaton, Mike; Conrod, Jill; Rozario, Sharlene

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common mental health condition for which many mobile apps aim to provide support. This review aims to identify self-help apps available exclusively for people with depression and evaluate those that offer cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or behavioural activation (BA). One hundred and seventeen apps have been identified after searching both the scientific literature and the commercial market. 10.26% (n = 12) of these apps identified through our search offer support that seems to be consistent with evidence-based principles of CBT or BA. Taking into account the non existence of effectiveness/efficacy studies, and the low level of adherence to the core ingredients of the CBT/BA models, the utility of these CBT/BA apps are questionable. The usability of reviewed apps is highly variable and they rarely are accompanied by explicit privacy or safety policies. Despite the growing public demand, there is a concerning lack of appropiate CBT or BA apps, especially from a clinical and legal point of view. The application of superior scientific, technological, and legal knowledge is needed to improve the development, testing, and accessibility of apps for people with depression. PMID:27135410

  1. Culturally-Competent Treatments for Asian Americans: The Relevance of Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Psychotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Nagayama Hall, Gordon C.; Hong, Janie J.; Zane, Nolan W. S.; Meyer, Oanh L.

    2011-01-01

    The development of effective treatments for Asian Americans is important because treatment disparities continue to exist for this population. Because of their theoretical grounding in East Asian philosophies, mindfulness and acceptance-based psychotherapies appear to constitute promising ways to provide culturally responsive mental health care to Asian Americans. However, in practice these approaches often reflect conceptions of mental health that are more consistent with Western world views. We review points of intersection and divergence between Western-based mindfulness and acceptance psychotherapies and Asian American cultural values. We then propose a culturally syntonic approach that accentuates certain components of mindfulness and acceptance psychotherapies and adapts other components of these approaches to be more consistent with Asian American cultural values. PMID:22065893

  2. Reinforcement Behavior Therapy by Kindergarten Teachers on Preschool Children’s Aggression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yektatalab, Shahrzad; Alipour, Abdolrasool; Edraki, Mitra; Tavakoli, Pouran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aggression is a kind of behavior that causes damage or harm to others. The prevalence of aggression is 8–20% in 3–6 years old children. The present study aimed to assess the effect of training kindergarten teachers regarding reinforcement behavior therapy on preschoolers’ aggression. Methods: In this cluster randomized control trial, 14 out of 35 kindergarten and preschool centers of Mohr city, Iran, were chosen using random cluster sampling and then randomly assigned to an intervention and a control group. All 370 kindergarten and preschool children in 14 kindergarten were assessed by preschoolers’ aggression questionnaire and 60 children who obtained a minimum aggression score of 117.48 for girls and 125.77 for boys were randomly selected. The teachers in the intervention group participated in 4 educational sessions on behavior therapy and then practiced this technique under the supervision of the researcher for two months. Preschoolers’ aggression questionnaire was computed in both intervention and control groups before and after a two-month period. Results: The results demonstrated a significant statistical difference in the total aggression score (P=0.01), verbal (P=0.02) and physical (P=0.01) aggression subscales scores in the intervention group in comparison to the control group after the intervention. But the scores of relational aggression (P=0.09) and impulsive anger (P=0.08) subscales were not statistically different in the intervention group compared to the controls. Conclusion: This study highlighted the importance of teaching reinforcement behavior therapy by kindergarten teachers in decreasing verbal and physical aggression in preschoolers. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2014042617436N1 PMID:26793733

  3. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviors in Autistic Children: A Randomized Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized…

  4. Directions in Specialized Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Theory and Practice of Two Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sookman, Debbie; Steketee, Gail

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses specialized approaches developed for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who are resistant to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Following a review of theoretical and outcome research, two approaches developed to resolve persistent OCD are described and illustrated. Cognitive therapy (CT) designed to address…

  5. Child- And Family-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Development and Preliminary Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Graczyk, Patricia A.; Henry, David B.; Carbray, Julie A.; Heidenreich, Jodi; Miklowitz, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CFF-CBT), a new developmentally sensitive psychosocial intervention for pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) that is intended for use along with medication. CFF-CBT integrates principles of family-focused therapy with those of CBT. The theoretical framework is based on (1)…

  6. Integrating Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Prolonged Exposure to Treat Co-Occurring Borderline Personality Disorder and PTSD: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harned, Melanie S.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the high rate of trauma and PTSD among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), no studies have specifically evaluated the treatment of PTSD in a BPD population. These case studies illustrate the use of a protocol based on prolonged exposure therapy that can be integrated into standard dialectical behavior therapy to treat…

  7. How to Supervise the Use of Homework in Cognitive Behavior Therapy: The Role of Trainee Therapist Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haarhoff, Beverly A.; Kazantzis, Nikolaos

    2007-01-01

    Encouraging and facilitating homework completion is a core cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) skill. Consequently, it represents an important part of training practitioners. Oftentimes the process of integrating homework into therapy is rushed, poorly executed, or forgotten, and trainees are surprised to find that some patients do not complete…

  8. Selection of physiological parameters for optoelectronic system supporting behavioral therapy of autistic children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landowska, A.; Karpienko, K.; Wróbel, M.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.

    2014-11-01

    In this article the procedure of selection of physiological parameters for optoelectronic system supporting behavioral therapy of autistic children is proposed. Authors designed and conducted an experiment in which a group of 30 health volunteers (16 females and 14 males) were examined. Under controlled conditions people were exposed to a stressful situation caused by the picture or sound (1kHz constant sound, which was gradually silenced and finished with a shot sound). For each of volunteers, a set of physiological parameters were recorded, including: skin conductance, heart rate, peripheral temperature, respiration rate and electromyography. The selected characteristics were measured in different locations in order to choose the most suitable one for the designed therapy supporting system. The bio-statistical analysis allowed us to discern the proper physiological parameters that are most associated to changes due to emotional state of a patient, such as: skin conductance, temperatures and respiration rate. This allowed us to design optoelectronic sensors network for supporting behavioral therapy of children with autism.

  9. Translation of Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy to a web-based intervention.

    PubMed

    Doss, Brian D; Benson, Lisa A; Georgia, Emily J; Christensen, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Couple therapy-across a number of different theoretical approaches-has been shown to be an effective treatment for a variety of individual and relationship difficulties. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that the effects of several approaches last at least 2-5 years after the end of treatment. However, couple therapy has a critical limitation: most distressed couples--including those who eventually divorce--do not seek couple therapy. Thus, although we recognize there are notable advances in the treatment approaches described in this special section, we argue that traditional approaches to couple therapy need to be supplemented by alternative interventions before we can make a profound, population-level impact on relationship distress and divorce. To this end, we translated Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy into a self-help, web-based program-www.OurRelationship.com. Through a combination of tailored feedback, filmed examples, and interactive education, the online program first helps couples identify a core problem in their relationship. The program then assists partners in coming to a new and more accurate understanding of the problem they jointly identified and subsequently brings them together in a structured conversation to share their new understandings with each other. Finally, based on this shared conceptualization, the program supports couples in making concrete changes in their relationship. In this article, we discuss the rationale for the program, describe the core components of the website, and illustrate these components with a case example. Relative advantages and disadvantages compared with traditional couple therapy are presented. PMID:25408094

  10. Translation of Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy to a web-based intervention

    PubMed Central

    Doss, Brian D.; Benson, Lisa A.; Georgia, Emily J.; Christensen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Couple therapy – across a number of different theoretical approaches – has been shown to be an effective treatment for a variety of individual and relationship difficulties. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that the effects of several approaches last at least two to five years after the end of treatment. However, couple therapy has a critical limitation: most distressed couples – including those that eventually divorce – do not seek couple therapy. Thus, while we recognize there are notable advances in the treatment approaches described in this special section, we argue that traditional approaches to couple therapy need to be supplemented by alternative interventions before we can make a profound, population-level impact on relationship distress and divorce. To this end, we translated Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy into a self-help, web-based program - www.OurRelationship.com. Through a combination of tailored feedback, filmed illustrations, and interactive education, the online program first helps couples identify a core problem in their relationship. The program then assists partners in coming to a new and more accurate understanding of the problem they jointly identified and subsequently brings them together in a structured conversation to share their new understandings with each other. Finally, based on this shared conceptualization, the program supports couples in making concrete changes in their relationship. In this article, we discuss the rationale for the program, describe the core components of the website, and illustrate these components with a case example. Relative advantages and disadvantages compared to traditional couple therapy are presented. PMID:25408094

  11. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Young, Brittany M; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A; Grogan, Scott W; Tyler, Mitchell E; Edwards, Dorothy F; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A; Williams, Justin C; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI) values during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy, but not in the absence of therapy, to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere) as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions. PMID:25076886

  12. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brittany M.; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M.; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A.; Grogan, Scott W.; Tyler, Mitchell E.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A.; Williams, Justin C.; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI) values during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy, but not in the absence of therapy, to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere) as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions. PMID:25076886

  13. Combined pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Gelder, M G

    1998-12-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been combined with pharmacotherapy in the treatment of panic disorder in three ways: (1) to treat agoraphobic symptoms in the condition of panic with agoraphobia; (2) to reduce withdrawal effects during drug taper; and (3) to treat panic attacks. Exposure treatment and pharmacotherapy have a modest additive effect, although more patients drop out of exposure therapy combined with imipramine treatment compared with exposure therapy alone. CBT reduces symptoms of withdrawal from alprazolam and other benzodiazepines and improves the outcome of drug treatment. At present, sufficient data are not available to determine whether the effects of CBT combined with drug therapy are additive in treating panic disorder. The results of a large trial are awaited. Current CBT consists of 12 sessions and is not widely offered to patients because of cost considerations. Efforts are being made to decrease the number of sessions necessary by improving cognitive techniques. One of these models is the subject of an ongoing trial. Finally, efforts to educate and counsel patients in the clinical setting regarding the psychopathology of panic attacks may improve the outcome of pharmacotherapy. PMID:9872706

  14. Assessing treatment integrity in cognitive-behavioral therapy: comparing session segments with entire sessions.

    PubMed

    Weck, Florian; Grikscheit, Florian; Höfling, Volkmar; Stangier, Ulrich

    2014-07-01

    The evaluation of treatment integrity (therapist adherence and competence) is a necessary condition to ensure the internal and external validity of psychotherapy research. However, the evaluation process is associated with high costs, because therapy sessions must be rated by experienced clinicians. It is debatable whether rating session segments is an adequate alternative to rating entire sessions. Four judges evaluated treatment integrity (i.e., therapist adherence and competence) in 84 randomly selected videotapes of cognitive-behavioral therapy for major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and hypochondriasis (from three different treatment outcome studies). In each case, two judges provided ratings based on entire therapy sessions and two on session segments only (i.e., the middle third of the entire sessions). Interrater reliability of adherence and competence evaluations proved satisfactory for ratings based on segments and the level of reliability did not differ from ratings based on entire sessions. Ratings of treatment integrity that were based on entire sessions and session segments were strongly correlated (r=.62 for adherence and r=.73 for competence). The relationship between treatment integrity and outcome was comparable for ratings based on session segments and those based on entire sessions. However, significant relationships between therapist competence and therapy outcome were only found in the treatment of social anxiety disorder. Ratings based on segments proved to be adequate for the evaluation of treatment integrity. The findings demonstrate that session segments are an adequate and cost-effective alternative to entire sessions for the evaluation of therapist adherence and competence. PMID:24912466

  15. Dialectical behavior therapy for adolescent binge eating, purging, suicidal behavior, and non-suicidal self-injury: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sarah; Peterson, Claire

    2015-03-01

    There are few published randomized controlled trials examining treatment for symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) in adolescents. Additionally, many adolescents presenting for treatment for BN symptoms endorse co-occurring mood disturbances, suicidality, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and may not meet full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for BN. In addition to the limited number of randomized controlled trials, published treatment studies of BN symptoms in adolescence do not specifically address the multiple comorbid symptoms that these adolescents often report. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of an outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for adolescents with symptoms of BN, suicide attempts, and NSSI. Ten eligible participants enrolled in the study; 3 dropped within 4 weeks of initiating treatment. In addition to binge eating and suicidal behavior, participants also endorsed a number of other comorbid mood disorders and substance abuse. Seven participants completed 6 months of treatment and 6-month follow-up assessments. Treatment included access to a crisis management system, individual therapy, skills training, and a therapist consultation team. At posttreatment, participants had significantly reduced self-harm; (Cohen's d = 1.35), frequency of objective binge episodes (Cohen's d = .46), frequency of purging (Cohen's d = .66), and Global Eating Disorder Examination scores (Cohen's d = .64). At follow-up, 6 participants were abstinent of NSSI; 3 participants were abstinent from binge eating. At follow-up, treatment gains were maintained and enhanced. Results indicate that it is feasible to address multiple forms of psychopathology during the treatment of BN symptoms in this age-group. PMID:24773094

  16. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: Results from a Pilot Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fersch-Podrat, Rachael K.; Rivera, Maribel; Axelson, David A.; Merranko, John; Yu, Haifeng; Brent, David A.; Birmaher, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot randomized trial of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) versus psychosocial treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BP). Methods: We recruited participants 12–18 years of age with a primary BP diagnosis (I, II, or operationalized not otherwise specified [NOS] criteria) from a pediatric specialty clinic. Eligible patients were assigned using a 2:1 randomization structure to either DBT (n=14) or psychosocial TAU (n=6). All patients received medication management from a study-affiliated psychiatrist. DBT included 36 sessions (18 individual, 18 family skills training) over 1 year. TAU was an eclectic psychotherapy approach consisting of psychoeducational, supportive, and cognitive behavioral techniques. An independent evaluator, blind to treatment condition, assessed outcomes including affective symptoms, suicidal ideation and behavior, nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, and emotional dysregulation, quarterly over 1 year. Results: Adolescents receiving DBT attended significantly more therapy sessions over 1 year than did adolescents receiving TAU, possibly reflecting greater engagement and retention; both treatments were rated as highly acceptable by adolescents and parents. As compared with adolescents receiving TAU, adolescents receiving DBT demonstrated significantly less severe depressive symptoms over follow-up, and were nearly three times more likely to demonstrate improvement in suicidal ideation. Models indicate a large effect size, for more weeks being euthymic, over follow-up among adolescents receiving DBT. Although there were no between-group differences in manic symptoms or emotional dysregulation with treatment, adolescents receiving DBT, but not those receiving TAU, evidenced improvement from pre- to posttreatment in both manic symptoms and emotional dysregulation. Conclusions: DBT may offer promise as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in the treatment

  17. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: an update on the empirical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kaczkurkin, Antonia N.; Foa, Edna B.

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of research has accumulated on the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. The purpose of the current article is to provide an overview of two of the most commonly used CBT methods used to treat anxiety disorders (exposure and cognitive therapy) and to summarize and discuss the current empirical research regarding the usefulness of these techniques for each anxiety disorder. Additionally, we discuss the difficulties that arise when comparing active CBT treatments, and we suggest directions for future research. Overall, CBT appears to be both efficacious and effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, but dismantling studies are needed to determine which specific treatment components lead to beneficial outcomes and which patients are most likely to benefit from these treatment components. PMID:26487814

  18. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: an update on the empirical evidence.

    PubMed

    Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Foa, Edna B

    2015-09-01

    A large amount of research has accumulated on the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. The purpose of the current article is to provide an overview of two of the most commonly used CBT methods used to treat anxiety disorders (exposure and cognitive therapy) and to summarize and discuss the current empirical research regarding the usefulness of these techniques for each anxiety disorder. Additionally, we discuss the difficulties that arise when comparing active CBT treatments, and we suggest directions for future research. Overall, CBT appears to be both efficacious and effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, but dismantling studies are needed to determine which specific treatment components lead to beneficial outcomes and which patients are most likely to benefit from these treatment components. PMID:26487814

  19. Enhanced Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for an Adolescent with Purging Disorder: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sysko, Robyn; Hildebrandt, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Objective To present a case report detailing the use of an enhanced form of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The treatment was provided to an adolescent with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) diagnosis, and included a focus on the additional maintaining mechanisms of mood intolerance and interpersonal problems. Case This case began as an unsuccessful attempt at family therapy, where the underlying dysfunction exacerbated symptoms and demoralized the family. The therapist subsequently chose to utilize an enhanced version of CBT to simultaneously address the patient's symptoms and try to effect change across multiple domains. A description of the patient's eating disorder pathology, the 29-session treatment, and outcome, are provided. Conclusion This case study illustrates that it is possible to successfully use enhanced CBT with developmentally appropriate adaptations in the treatment of a young patient with an EDNOS diagnosis, as suggested by Cooper and Stewart (2008). PMID:20859990

  20. Time course of treatment dropout in cognitive-behavioral therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Gutner, Cassidy A; Gallagher, Matthew W; Baker, Aaron S; Sloan, Denise M; Resick, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    A substantial minority of people drop out of cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There has been considerable research investigating who drops out of PTSD treatment; however, the question of when dropout occurs has received far less attention. The purpose of the current study was to examine when individuals drop out of CBT for PTSD. Women participants (N = 321) were randomized to 1 of several PTSD treatment conditions. The conditions included prolonged exposure (PE), cognitive processing therapy (CPT), CPT-cognitive only (CPT-C), and written accounts (WA). Survival analysis was used to examine temporal pattern of treatment dropout. Thirty-nine percent of participants dropped out of treatment, and those who dropped out tended to do so by midtreatment. Moreover, the pattern of treatment dropout was consistent across CBT conditions. Additional research is needed to examine if treatment dropout patterns are consistent across treatment modalities and settings. PMID:26098737

  1. Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy for social phobia: outcomes and moderators

    PubMed Central

    Craske, Michelle G; Niles, Andrea N.; Burklund, Lisa J.; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Vilardaga, Jennifer C. Plumb; Arch, Joanna J.; Saxbe, Darby E.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an empirically supported treatment for social phobia. However, not all individuals respond to treatment and many who show improvement do not maintain their gains over the long-term. Thus, alternative treatments are needed. Method The current study (N=87) was a 3-arm randomized clinical trial comparing CBT, Acceptance and Commitment therapy (ACT), and a waitlist control group (WL) in participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of social phobia. Participants completed 12 sessions of CBT or ACT or a 12-week waiting period. All participants completed assessments at baseline and post-treatment, and participants assigned to CBT and ACT also completed assessments at 6 and 12 months following baseline. Assessments consisted of self-report measures, a public speaking task, and clinician ratings. Results Multilevel modeling was used to examine between-group differences on outcomes measures. Both treatment groups outperformed WL, with no differences observed between CBT and ACT on self-report, independent clinician, or public speaking outcomes. Lower self-reported psychological flexibility at baseline was associated with greater improvement by the 12-mo follow-up in CBT compared to ACT. Self-reported fear of negative evaluation significantly moderated outcomes as well, with trends for both extremes to be associated with superior outcomes from CBT and inferior outcomes from ACT. Across treatment groups, higher perceived control, and extraversion were associated with greater improvement, whereas comorbid depression was associated with poorer outcomes. Conclusions Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:24999670

  2. Cognitive-behavioral therapy vs. light therapy for preventing winter depression recurrence: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a subtype of recurrent depression involving major depressive episodes during the fall and/or winter months that remit in the spring. The central public health challenge in the management of SAD is prevention of winter depression recurrence. Light therapy (LT) is the established and best available acute SAD treatment. However, long-term compliance with daily LT from first symptom through spontaneous springtime remission every fall/winter season is poor. Time-limited alternative treatments with effects that endure beyond the cessation of acute treatment are needed to prevent the annual recurrence of SAD. Methods/design This is an NIMH-funded R01-level randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy of a novel, SAD-tailored cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBT) against LT in a head-to-head comparison on next winter outcomes. This project is designed to test for a clinically meaningful difference between CBT and LT on depression recurrence in the next winter (the primary outcome). This is a concurrent two-arm study that will randomize 160 currently symptomatic community adults with major depression, recurrent with seasonal pattern, to CBT or LT. After 6 weeks of treatment in the initial winter, participants are followed in the subsequent summer, the next winter, and two winters later. Key methodological issues surround timing study procedures for a predictably recurrent and time-limited disorder with a focus on long-term outcomes. Discussion The chosen design answers the primary question of whether prior exposure to CBT is associated with a substantially lower likelihood of depression recurrence the next winter than LT. This design does not test the relative contributions of the cognitive-behavioral treatment components vs. nonspecific factors to CBT’s outcomes and is not adequately powered to test for differences or equivalence between cells at treatment endpoint. Alternative designs addressing these limitations

  3. Outcome From a Randomized Controlled Trial of Group Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder: Comparing Dialectical Behavior Therapy Adapted for Binge Eating to an Active Comparison Group Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Debra L.; Robinson, Athena Hagler; Jo, Booil

    2011-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder (DBT-BED) aims to reduce binge eating by improving adaptive emotion-regulation skills. Preliminary findings have been promising but have only compared DBT-BED to a wait-list. To control for the hypothesized specific effects of DBT-BED, the present study compared DBT-BED to an active comparison group therapy (ACGT). Men and women (n = 101) meeting DSM-IV BED research criteria were randomly assigned to 20 group sessions of DBT-BED (n = 50) or ACGT (n = 51). DBT-BED had a significantly lower dropout rate (4%) than ACGT (33.3%). Linear Mixed Models revealed that posttreatment binge abstinence and reductions in binge frequency were achieved more quickly for DBT-BED than for ACGT (posttreatment abstinence rate = 64% for DBT-BED vs. 36% for ACGT) though differences did not persist over the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up assessments (e.g., 12-month follow-up abstinence rate = 64% for DBT-BED vs. 56% for ACGT). Secondary outcome measures revealed no sustained impact on emotion regulation. Although both DBT-BED and ACGT reduced binge eating, DBT-BED showed significantly fewer dropouts and greater initial efficacy (e.g., at posttreatment) than ACGT. The lack of differential findings over follow-up suggests that the hypothesized specific effects of DBT-BED do not show long-term impact beyond those attributable to nonspecific common therapeutic factors. PMID:20171332

  4. Sleep Disturbances in Individuals with Alcohol-Related Disorders: A Review of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) and Associated Non-Pharmacological Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Alyssa T; Wallen, Gwenyth R

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among alcohol-dependent individuals and are often associated with relapse. The utility of behavioral therapies for sleep disturbances, including cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), among those with alcohol-related disorders is not well understood. This review systematically evaluates the evidence of CBT-I and related behavioral therapies applied to those with alcohol-related disorders and accompanying sleep disturbances. A search of four research databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and CINAHL Plus) yielded six studies that met selection criteria. Articles were reviewed using Cochrane’s Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) scoring system. A majority of the studies demonstrated significant improvements in sleep efficiency among behavioral therapy treatment group(s), including but not limited to CBT-I. While behavioral sleep interventions have been successful in varied populations, they may not be utilized to their full potential among those with alcohol-related disorders as evidenced by the low number of studies found. These findings suggest a need for mixed-methods research on individuals’ sleep experience to inform interventions that are acceptable to the target population. PMID:25288884

  5. Positive effects of early androgen therapy on the behavioral phenotype of boys with 47,XXY.

    PubMed

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole; Stapleton, Emily J; Lawson, Patrick; Mitchell, Francie; Sadeghin, Teresa; Powell, Sherida; Gropman, Andrea L

    2015-06-01

    47, XXY occurs in up to 1 in 650 male births and is associated with androgen deficiency, neurodevelopmental delays, and atypical social-behaviors. Previously, we showed that young boys with 47, XXY who received early hormonal therapy (EHT) had significantly improved neurodevelopment. The objective of this follow-up study was to examine the effects of EHT on social behavior in boys with 47, XXY. The study consisted of boys prenatally diagnosed with 47, XXY who were referred for evaluations. Twenty-nine boys received three injections of 25 mg testosterone enanthate and 57 controls did not receive EHT. Behavioral functioning was assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Social Responsiveness Scale, 2nd Ed., and the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18. The hypothesis that EHT may affect behavior was formulated prior to data collection. Questionnaire data was prospectively obtained and analyzed to test for significance between two groups. Significant differences were identified between group's scores over time in Social Communication (P=0.007), Social Cognition (P=0.006), and Total T-score (P=0.001) on the SRS-2; Initiation (P=0.05) on the BRIEF; and Externalizing Problems (P=0.024), Affective Problems (P=0.05), and Aggressive Behaviors (P=0.031) on the CBCL. This is the third study revealing positive effects of EHT on boys with XXY. There was a significant improvements associated with the 47, XXY genotype in boys who received EHT. Research is underway on the neurobiological mechanisms, and later developmental effects of EHT. PMID:25939399

  6. Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses to Music Therapy in Vegetative and Minimally Conscious States

    PubMed Central

    O’Kelly, Julian; James, L.; Palaniappan, R.; Taborin, J.; Fachner, J.; Magee, W. L.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of awareness for those with disorders of consciousness is a challenging undertaking, due to the complex presentation of the population. Debate surrounds whether behavioral assessments provide greatest accuracy in diagnosis compared to neuro-imaging methods, and despite developments in both, misdiagnosis rates remain high. Music therapy may be effective in the assessment and rehabilitation with this population due to effects of musical stimuli on arousal, attention, and emotion, irrespective of verbal or motor deficits. However, an evidence base is lacking as to which procedures are most effective. To address this, a neurophysiological and behavioral study was undertaken comparing electroencephalogram (EEG), heart rate variability, respiration, and behavioral responses of 20 healthy subjects with 21 individuals in vegetative or minimally conscious states (VS or MCS). Subjects were presented with live preferred music and improvised music entrained to respiration (procedures typically used in music therapy), recordings of disliked music, white noise, and silence. ANOVA tests indicated a range of significant responses (p ≤ 0.05) across healthy subjects corresponding to arousal and attention in response to preferred music including concurrent increases in respiration rate with globally enhanced EEG power spectra responses (p = 0.05–0.0001) across frequency bandwidths. Whilst physiological responses were heterogeneous across patient cohorts, significant post hoc EEG amplitude increases for stimuli associated with preferred music were found for frontal midline theta in six VS and four MCS subjects, and frontal alpha in three VS and four MCS subjects (p = 0.05–0.0001). Furthermore, behavioral data showed a significantly increased blink rate for preferred music (p = 0.029) within the VS cohort. Two VS cases are presented with concurrent changes (p ≤ 0.05) across measures indicative of discriminatory responses to both music therapy

  7. Using Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Mindfulness Techniques in the Management of Chronic Pain in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Baker, Norah

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain and its associated syndrome have become increasingly prevalent in primary care. With the increase in narcotic use and subsequent adverse events, primary care physicians often seek safer alternatives to treating this condition. Prescribing narcotics necessitates using methods to screen for high abuse risk and protect against misuse. With the understanding of how chronic pain is related to mental illnesses such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, mindfulness techniques and behavioral therapy can be used to help decrease the dependence on dangerous opioid medications and help patients understand, accept, and cope with their chronic pain. PMID:27262002

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Olfactory Hallucinations and Associated Delusions: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kimhy, David

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory hallucinations (OH) are experienced by a substantial minority of people with schizophrenia, often leading to social anxiety, depression and suffering. Yet, despite their prevalence and clinical significance, OH in schizophrenia are under-researched and poorly understood, with scarce information about potential treatments. To address this gap in the literature, the author describes a case report of successfully using Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for psychosis (CBTp) to address OH, related delusions, as well as mood and social functioning difficulties in a male patient with schizophrenia. The results provide preliminary support for the feasibility and effectiveness of using CBTp to address OH and related delusions in individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:27052609

  9. OCD behavior therapy before and after gamma ventral capsulotomy: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Spofford, Christopher M.; McLaughlin, Nicole C. R.; Penzel, Fred; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a patient requiring gamma ventral capsulotomy (GVC), a neurosurgical intervention to address severe refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). GVC involves stereotactic lesions in the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule and adjacent ventral striatum. This study details the course of an extinction-based behavioral therapy, namely exposure and response prevention (ERP). The patient experienced significant changes in motivation and ability to tolerate ERP post-surgery. Furthermore, he was better able to absorb and remember exposure sessions. GVC surgery may affect the neural mechanisms involved in the extinction learning process, the same process implicated in ERP treatment. PMID:23057416

  10. Outpatient Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents Engaged in Deliberate Self-Harm: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Kimberly R.; James, Sigrid; Klein, Keith P.; Mayo, Danessa; Montgomery, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The current review examines conceptual and methodological issues related to the use of dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents (DBT-A) in treating youth who engage in deliberate self-harm. A comprehensive review of the literature identified six studies appropriate for the review. Results indicated several inconsistencies and limitations across studies including the mixing of various forms of self-harm; variations in diagnostic inclusion/exclusion criteria, insufficient use of standardized self-harm outcome measures, variable lengths and intensity of provided treatment, and inadequate attention paid to DBT adherence. Each of these areas is reviewed along with a discussion of ways to improve the quality of future research. PMID:26985126

  11. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth: The Inner Workings

    PubMed Central

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of the clinical application of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxious youth. A rationale for the development of BCBT is presented, followed by a description and discussion of the 8 sessions of the treatment. Mike, a 7-year-old youth with anxiety disorders, is used to illustrate the inner workings of implementing BCBT. Case conceptualization, session details, and pre-, post- and follow-up-treatment information are provided. Conclusions regarding clinical advantages and future directions are made. PMID:25083131

  12. Preliminary Evidence for Cognitive Mediation During Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy of Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Suvak, Michael K.; Barlow, David H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Meuret, Alicia E.; Rosenfield, David; Gorman, Jack M.; Woods, Scott W.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy are similarly effective for treating panic disorder with mild or no agoraphobia, but little is known about the mechanism through which these treatments work. The present study examined some of the criteria for cognitive mediation of treatment change in CBT alone, imipramine alone, CBT plus imipramine, and CBT plus placebo. Ninety-one individuals who received 1 of these interventions were assessed before and after acute treatment, and after a 6-month maintenance period. Multilevel moderated mediation analyses provided preliminary support for the notion that changes in panic-related cognitions mediate changes in panic severity only in treatments that include CBT. PMID:17563154

  13. Response to cognitive-behavioral therapy in depression: effects of pretreatment cognitive dysfunction and life stress.

    PubMed

    Spangler, D L; Simons, A D; Monroe, S M; Thase, M E

    1997-08-01

    Response to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression is variable and the factors that account for differences in response are not yet well established. Level of cognitive dysfunction and the occurrence of negative life stress have been theorized as patient variables, which may account for differences in response to CBT. The relationship between response to CBT and the interaction of cognitive dysfunction with negative life events was examined in a sample of 53 depressed outpatients. Overall, there was little support for the prediction of a difference in acute outcome between patients with or without pretreatment cognitive dysfunction and negative stressors. PMID:9256557

  14. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Sexually Exploited, War-Affected Congolese Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, Paul; McMullen, John; Shannon, Ciaran; Rafferty, Harry; Black, Alastair

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) delivered by nonclinical facilitators in reducing posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety and conduct problems and increasing prosocial behavior in a group of war-affected, sexually exploited girls in a single-blind, parallel-design, randomized,…

  15. Feasibility of Using Video to Teach a Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skill to Clients with Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, Jennifer; Dimeff, Linda A.; Koerner, Kelly; Linehan, Marsha M.; Taylor, Laura; Miller, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the feasibility of using a psychoeducational video recording to teach a behavioral skill from the Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT; Linehan, 1993a, 1993b) skills training program to individuals meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder. A video presenting a DBT emotion-regulation skill was developed and the extent to…

  16. Use of Individual Feedback during Human Gross Anatomy Course for Enhancing Professional Behaviors in Doctor of Physical Therapy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youdas, James W.; Krause, David A.; Hellyer, Nathan J.; Rindflesch, Aaron B.; Hollman, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Medical professionals and public consumers expect that new physical therapy graduates possess cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills required to provide safe and high-quality care to patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if a repertoire of ten professional behaviors assessed at the beginning of doctorate of physical therapy…

  17. Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Disaster-Exposed Youth with Posttraumatic Stress: Results from a Multiple-Baseline Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Leslie K.; Weems, Carl F.

    2011-01-01

    Youth traumatized by natural disasters report high levels of posttraumatic stress such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, and depression. Research suggests that cognitive behavioral therapies are promising interventions for symptom reduction; however, few cognitive behavioral treatments have been systematically…

  18. The effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in autistic children: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized tools and DVD analysis of sessions to evaluate behavioral changes in children with autism. The overall results indicated that improvisational music therapy was more effective at facilitating joint attention behaviors and non-verbal social communication skills in children than play. Session analysis showed significantly more and lengthier events of eye contact and turn-taking in improvisational music therapy than play sessions. The implications of these findings are discussed further. PMID:18592368

  19. Examining Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Externalizing and Internalizing Disorders in Urban Schools.

    PubMed

    Eiraldi, Ricardo; Power, Thomas J; Schwartz, Billie S; Keiffer, Jackie N; McCurdy, Barry L; Mathen, Manju; Jawad, Abbas F

    2016-07-01

    This article presents outcome data of the implementation of three group cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT) interventions for children with externalizing behavior problems, anxiety, and depression. School counselors and graduate students co-led the groups in two low-income urban schools. Data were analyzed to assess pre-treatment to post-treatment changes in diagnostic severity level. Results of the exploratory study indicated that all three GCBT protocols were effective at reducing diagnostic severity level for children who had a primary diagnosis of an externalizing disorder, anxiety disorder, or depressive disorder at the clinical or intermediate (at-risk) level. All three GCBT protocols were implemented with relatively high levels of fidelity. Data on the effectiveness of the interventions for reducing diagnostic severity level for externalizing and internalizing spectrum disorders and for specific disorders are presented. A discussion of implementation of mental health evidence-based interventions in urban schools is provided. PMID:26872957

  20. The Evolution of “Enhanced” Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Eating Disorders: Learning From Treatment Nonresponse

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been widespread acceptance that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa. The cognitive behavioral treatment of bulimia nervosa (CBT-BN) was first described in 1981. Over the past decades the theory and treatment have evolved in response to a variety of challenges. The treatment has been adapted to make it suitable for all forms of eating disorder—thereby making it “transdiagnostic” in its scope— and treatment procedures have been refined to improve outcome. The new version of the treatment, termed enhanced CBT (CBT-E) also addresses psychopathological processes “external” to the eating disorder, which, in certain subgroups of patients, interact with the disorder itself. In this paper we discuss how the development of this broader theory and treatment arose from focusing on those patients who did not respond well to earlier versions of the treatment. PMID:23814455

  1. The Evolution of "Enhanced" Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Eating Disorders: Learning From Treatment Nonresponse.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2011-08-01

    In recent years there has been widespread acceptance that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa. The cognitive behavioral treatment of bulimia nervosa (CBT-BN) was first described in 1981. Over the past decades the theory and treatment have evolved in response to a variety of challenges. The treatment has been adapted to make it suitable for all forms of eating disorder-thereby making it "transdiagnostic" in its scope- and treatment procedures have been refined to improve outcome. The new version of the treatment, termed enhanced CBT (CBT-E) also addresses psychopathological processes "external" to the eating disorder, which, in certain subgroups of patients, interact with the disorder itself. In this paper we discuss how the development of this broader theory and treatment arose from focusing on those patients who did not respond well to earlier versions of the treatment. PMID:23814455

  2. Breaking the cycle: cognitive behavioral therapy and biofeedback training in a case of cyclic vomiting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Slutsker, Barak; Konichezky, Andres; Gothelf, Doron

    2010-12-01

    The present article presents a case of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) along with heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback training for the treatment of a medication unresponsive 13-year-old boy with cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS). CVS is characterized by recurring stereotypic episodes of vomiting, interspersed with asymptomatic periods. Triggers for vomiting include anticipatory anxiety related to school examinations, family conflicts, and birthday parties as well as infectious diseases, and certain foods. Current treatment design addressed two pivotal etiological factors: autonomic dysregulation and anticipatory anxiety. Treatment outcome suggests that vomiting episodes may be successfully prevented by aiding the patient to identify and manage precipitant psychological stressors, to regulate HRV patterns, and gain a renewed sense of bodily control and self-efficacy. Further research is suggested using a controlled study with pre- and post-behavioral and stress measures to evaluate the effectiveness of CBT and biofeedback training compared to pharmacotherapy and placebo. PMID:21154016

  3. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Spanish: Culture-Sensitive Manualized Treatment in Practice

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Adrian; Garza, Monica J.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.

    2014-01-01

    The authors applied cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression using the Healthy Management of Reality treatment manual. This 16-week group treatment comprised four 4-week modules: thoughts (cognitive restructuring), activities (behavioral activation), people (interpersonal skills training), and health (addresses physical health and depression). They illustrated the use of the culture-sensitive treatment manuals by way of the member characteristics and clinical process of a Spanish-language CBT group for depression. They highlighted the challenges and satisfactions of working with a Spanish-speaking population in the public sector, and focused on how culture and socioeconomic status influence patients, and how to adapt treatment to these factors. Last, they demonstrated how technological advances integrate with culture-sensitive, evidence-based treatments to better serve this population and reduce disparities. PMID:20549680

  4. Current Status of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Knouse, Laura E.; Safren, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a valid and impairing psychological disorder that persists into adulthood in a majority of cases and is associated with chronic functional impairment and increased rates of comorbidity. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) approaches for this disorder have emerged relatively recently, and available evidence from open and randomized controlled trials suggests that these approaches are promising in producing significant symptom reduction. A conceptual model of how CBT may work for ADHD is reviewed along with existing efficacy studies. A preliminary comparison of effect sizes across intervention packages suggests that targeted learning and practice of specific behavioral compensatory strategies may be a critical “active ingredient” in CBT for adult ADHD. The article concludes with a discussion of future directions and critical questions that must be addressed in this area of clinical research. PMID:20599129

  5. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, James D.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Moitra, Ethan; Myers, Valerie H.; Dalrymple, Kristy L.; Brandsma, Lynn L.

    2010-01-01

    Early identification and treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is critical to prevent development of a chronic course of symptoms, persistent functional impairment, and progressive psychiatric comorbidity. A small but growing literature supports the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders, including SAD, in adolescence. The present randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of group vs. individual CBT for adolescents with generalized SAD in relation to an educational/supportive psychotherapy that did not contain specific CBT elements. All three treatments were associated with significant reductions in symptoms and functional impairment, and in improved social skills. No differences between treatments emerged on measures of symptoms, but the CBT conditions demonstrated greater gains on behavioral measures. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:18653310

  6. Observed Communication in Couples Two Years after Integrative and Traditional Behavioral Couple Therapy: Outcome and Link with Five-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baucom, Katherine J. W.; Sevier, Mia; Eldridge, Kathleen A.; Doss, Brian D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine changes in observed communication after therapy termination in distressed couples from a randomized clinical trial. Method: A total of 134 distressed couples were randomly assigned to either traditional behavioral couple therapy (TBCT; Jacobson & Margolin, 1979) or integrative behavioral couple therapy (IBCT; Jacobson &…

  7. An empirical test of the information, motivation and behavioral skills model of antiretroviral therapy adherence.

    PubMed

    Amico, K R; Toro-Alfonso, J; Fisher, J D

    2005-08-01

    Nearly perfect adherence to demanding antiretroviral therapy (ART) is now recognized as essential for HIV-positive patients to realize its life sustaining benefits. Despite the dire consequences of non-adherence, a large number of patients do not follow their ART regimen. While many factors influence adherence, the literature is dominated by studies on only one or a small set of them. Multivariate, theory-based models of adherence behavior are of great interest. The current study tested one such model, the Information, Motivation and Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of ART adherence (Fisher et al., under review). A sample of HIV-positive patients on ART in clinical care in Puerto Rico (N=200) provided data on adherence-related information, motivation and behavioral skills as well as adherence behavior per se. Structural equation model tests used to assess the propositions of the IMB model of ART adherence provided support for the interrelations between the elements proposed by the model and extended previous work. Implications for future research and intervention development are discussed. PMID:16036253

  8. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Stress and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age=15) receiving Multisystemic Therapy (MST). To examine the differential relationship of cortisol with various types of stressors, self-report measures assessed lifetime stress, current episodic stress, and daily hassles. Morning and afternoon cortisol samples were collected to examine whether the relationship between stress and treatment outcome depended on the youth’s biological stress levels. Regression analyses indicated that awakening cortisol levels moderated the relationship between daily hassles and externalizing behaviors at post-treatment. More specifically, higher levels of daily hassles predicted worse outcomes only among adolescents with high levels of morning cortisol. In addition, lifetime stressors and afternoon measures of cortisol interacted to predict changes in caretaker reports of externalizing problems and youth arrests following treatment; lifetime stressors were positively associated with externalizing behavior when adolescents had low levels of afternoon cortisol. Implications for theory and future directions for evidence-based treatment are discussed. PMID:22350278

  9. Evaluation of an occupational therapy mentorship program: effects on therapists' skills and family-centered behavior.

    PubMed

    King, Gillian; Tam, Cynthia; Fay, Linda; Pilkington, Martha; Servais, Michelle; Petrosian, Hasmik

    2011-08-01

    There is growing interest in understanding the usefulness of mentorship programs for children's rehabilitation service providers. This evaluation study examined the effects of an occupational therapy mentorship program on the skills and behaviors of 8 new and 17 experienced occupational therapists practicing at a regional children's rehabilitation center. Self- and peer-report measures of family-centered behavior, critical thinking ability, listening/interactive communication skill, and clinical behavior were collected before and after an 11-month facilitated, collaborative group mentorship intervention. Significant pre-post changes associated with intervention were found on 9 of 12 outcome measures, including information provision, respectful treatment, self-confidence, and listening and clinical skill. Changes were not found on the more trait-like variables of open-mindedness, interpersonal sensitivity, and interpersonal skill. Experienced therapists had higher scores than new therapists on most variables, including family-centered behavior, listening skill, and clinical skill. Implications regarding the utility of mentorship programs in children's rehabilitation centers are discussed. PMID:20950057

  10. Predicting early positive change in multisystemic therapy with youth exhibiting antisocial behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tiernan, Kristine; Foster, Sharon L; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Brennan, Patricia; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study examined individual and family characteristics that predicted early positive change in the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Families (n = 185; 65% male; average youth age 15 years) receiving MST in community settings completed assessments at the outset of treatment and 6-12 weeks into treatment. Early positive changes in youth antisocial behavior were assessed using the caregiver report on the Child Behavior Checklist Externalizing Behaviors subscale and youth report on the Self-Report Delinquency Scale. Overall, families showed significant positive changes by 6-12 weeks into treatment; these early changes were maintained into midtreatment 6-12 weeks later. Families who exhibited clinically significant gains early in treatment were more likely to terminate treatment successfully compared with those who did not show these gains. Low youth internalizing behaviors and absence of youth drug use predicted early positive changes in MST. High levels of parental monitoring and low levels of affiliation with deviant peers (mechanisms known to be associated with MST success) were also associated with early positive change. PMID:24866967

  11. Tics Moderate Sertraline, but Not Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Patients Who Do Not Respond to Cognitive-Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Scott; Thomsen, Per Hove; Weidle, Bernhard; Dahl, Kitty; Nissen, Judith Becker; Torp, Nor Christian; Hybel, Katja; Melin, Karin Holmgren; Valderhaug, Robert; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Ivarsson, Tord

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the presence of tic disorder is negatively associated with sertraline (SRT) outcomes, but not with continued cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), in a sample of youth who were unresponsive to an initial full course of CBT. Methods: In the Nordic Long-Term OCD Study, children and adolescents with OCD who were rated as nonresponders to 14 weeks of open-label CBT were randomized to continued CBT (n=28) or SRT treatment (n=22) for an additional 16 weeks of treatment. We investigated whether the presence or absence of comorbid tic disorder moderated treatment outcomes on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Results: Twelve out of 50 (24.0%) participants were diagnosed with comorbid tic disorder, with 7 receiving continued CBT and 5 receiving SRT, respectively. In patients without tic disorder, results showed no significant between-group differences on average CY-BOCS scores. However, in patients with comorbid tic disorder, those who received SRT had significantly lower average CY-BOCS scores than those who received continued CBT. Conclusions: Children and adolescents with OCD and comorbid tic disorder, who are nonresponders to an initial 14 week course of CBT, may benefit more from a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) than from continued CBT. PMID:26091197

  12. A Pilot Study of an Acceptance-Based Separated Family Treatment for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Merwin, Rhonda M.; Zucker, Nancy L.; Timko, C. Alix

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) has improved significantly with the increased emphasis on family-based intervention. Yet despite advances, a substantial number of adolescents do not respond optimally to existing treatment models and thus there is a need for treatment alternatives that address barriers to recovery. We developed and piloted an acceptance-based separated family treatment (ASFT) with 6 adolescents with AN or subthreshold AN (eating disorder not otherwise specified, with the primary symptoms of restriction and severe weight loss). Treatment acceptability was adequate. Overall, parents rated the treatment as credible and expected improvement in their child's condition. Five of the 6 adolescents treated with ASFT restored weight to their ideal body mass index as indicated by age, height, and sex and determined by individual growth charts. Many demonstrated improved psychological health and adaptive functioning. There was evidence of broad effects, with parents reporting decreased anxiety and caregiver burden. ASFT holds promise as a treatment option for AN. The efficacy of this therapeutic approach should be tested in larger trials and compared to current family-based interventions to determine unique effects. PMID:27307691

  13. A longitudinal examination of positive parenting following an acceptance-based couple intervention.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Melinda Ippolito; Hawrilenko, Matt; Córdova, James V

    2016-02-01

    Positive parenting practices have been shown to be essential for healthy child development, and yet have also been found to be particularly challenging for parents to enact and maintain. This article explores an innovative approach for increasing positive parenting by targeting specific positive emotional processes within marital relationships. Couple emotional acceptance is a powerful mechanism that has repeatedly been found to improve romantic relationships, but whether these effects extend to the larger family environment is less well understood. The current longitudinal study examined the impact of improved relational acceptance after a couple intervention on mother's and father's positive parenting. Participants included 244 parents (122 couples) in the Marriage Checkup (MC) study, a randomized, controlled, acceptance-based, intervention study. Data indicated that both women and men experienced significantly greater felt acceptance 2 weeks after the MC intervention, treatment women demonstrated greater positive parenting 2 weeks after the intervention, and all treatment participants' positive parenting was better maintained than control couple's 6 months later. Importantly, although mothers' positive parenting was not influenced by different levels of felt acceptance, changes in father's positive parenting were positively associated with changes in felt acceptance. As men felt more accepted by their wives, their levels of positive parenting changed in kind, and this effect on positive parenting was found to be mediated by felt acceptance 2 weeks after the MC. Overall, findings supported the potential benefits of targeting couple acceptance to generate positive cascades throughout the larger family system. PMID:26551659

  14. New Developments in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Stangier, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a highly prevalent and chronic disorder that causes considerable psychosocial impairment. This article reviews recent changes in the definition of SAD in DSM-5 and summarizes the current evidence for effective cognitive-behavioral treatments in adults, children, and adolescents. Current data suggests that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is efficacious in the treatment of this condition. Among different CBT approaches, individual cognitive therapy may be associated with the largest effect sizes. In this review, interventions targeting dysfunctional cognitive processes that contribute to the effective treatment of SAD are discussed. Some recent findings from neuroimaging research and studies on the augmentation of CBT using neuroenhancers indicate that changes in emotion regulation as well as fear extinction are important psychological mediators of positive outcome. Furthermore, internet-delivered CBT is a promising field of technological innovation that may improve access to effective treatments. Despite the availability of effective treatments, treatment-resistant SAD remains a common problem in clinical practice that requires more research efforts. Finally, potential areas for further development of CBT as well as its dissemination in health care are summarized. PMID:26830883

  15. Effectiveness of rhythmic movement therapy for disordered eating behaviors and obesity.

    PubMed

    Malkina-Pykh, Irina G

    2012-11-01

    The aims of the present study were: a) to examine associations between pre-treatment BMI, body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, alexithymia, and restraint, emotional and external eating behaviour in obese patients; b) to analyze the impact of the pre-treatment measures in psychological variables on the outcome of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program; c) to test the effectiveness of rhythmic movement therapy (RMT) in the treatment of disordered eating behaviors and obesity with the CBT non-responders. At the first stage of treatment a total of 104 patients (32 males and 72 females, mean age was 37.6 +/- 6.7 years) self-referred or referred by professionals to CBT weight management program were selected at random. At the second stage 58 obese CBT-non-responders were randomly divided among the continuing CBT individual treatment group and RMT group. Control group was included. Results revealed that: a) significant associations existed between pre-treatment BMI, external eating and two dimensions of perfectionism, as well as between emotional and external eating and all dimensions of perfectionism, alexithymia and body image dissatisfaction; b) pre-treatment means of psychological variables significantly impacted the CBT program outcome; c). the efficacy of RMT approach for weight reduction as well as for the improvement of psychological status for CBT-non-responders was confirmed. PMID:23156940

  16. The Effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy for Youth with Behavioral Problems in a Community Practice Setting

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Thomas; Turner, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy (FFT), as compared to probation services, in a community juvenile justice setting 12 months post treatment. The study also provides specific insight into the interactive effects of therapist model specific adherence and measures of youth risk and protective factors on behavioral outcomes for a diverse group of adolescents. The findings suggest that FFT was effective in reducing youth behavioral problems, although only when the therapists adhered to the treatment model. High adherent therapists delivering FFT had a statistically significant reduction of (35%) in felony, a (30%) violent crime, and a marginally significant reduction (21%) in misdemeanor recidivisms as compared to the control condition. The results represent a significant reduction in serious crimes one year after treatment, when delivered by a model adherent therapist. The low adherent therapists were significantly higher than the control group in recidivism rates. There was an interaction effect between youth risk level and therapist adherence demonstrating that the most difficult families (those with high peer and family risk) had a higher likelihood of successful outcomes when their therapist demonstrated model specific adherence. These results are discussed within the context of the need and importance of measuring and accounting for model specific adherence in the evaluation of community-based replications of evidence-based family therapy models like FFT. PMID:20545407

  17. Hoarding Disorder and a Systematic Review of Treatment with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Monnica; Viscusi, Jenifer A

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, compulsive hoarding has been treated as a type of obsessive-compulsive disorder with mixed results. Little research exists on the efficacy of behavioral interventions specifically designed to treat hoarding disorder, and most existing research is limited with regard to the numbers of participants, their ethnic and cultural diversity, and study replication; therefore, the generalizability of findings is limited. This article reviews the prevalence of hoarding disorder, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment approaches, and measurement of symptoms. A systematic review compares the efficacy of various CBT methods, with particular attention to comparing therapy that is traditionally used to treat OCD with those designed specifically to treat hoarding disorder. Only clinical studies using CBT interventions designed to treat hoarding associated with OCD or hoarding disorder were included. Studies included participants of all ages, and articles were published in peer-reviewed journals. Case studies were excluded. After a comprehensive search and removing duplicates from databases and references, 65 articles were reviewed, of which 12 met criteria for review. Preliminary results demonstrate improvement in hoarding symptoms with CBT interventions that are both for OCD and those designed to specifically treat hoarding disorder; however, when compared to each other, the efficacy of these treatments is inconclusive, thus more research is needed. PMID:26795499

  18. Antinociceptive Effects of Spinal Manipulative Therapy on Nociceptive Behavior of Adult Rats during the Formalin Test

    PubMed Central

    Onifer, Stephen M.; Reed, William R.; Sozio, Randall S.; Long, Cynthia R.

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing pain relief resulting from spinal manipulative therapies, including low velocity variable amplitude spinal manipulation (LVVA-SM), requires determining their mechanisms. Pain models that incorporate simulated spinal manipulative therapy treatments are needed for these studies. The antinociceptive effects of a single LVVA-SM treatment on rat nociceptive behavior during the commonly used formalin test were investigated. Dilute formalin was injected subcutaneously into a plantar hindpaw. Licking behavior was video-recorded for 5 minutes. Ten minutes of LVVA-SM at 20° flexion was administered with a custom-made device at the lumbar (L5) vertebra of isoflurane-anesthetized experimental rats (n = 12) beginning 10 minutes after formalin injection. Hindpaw licking was video-recorded for 60 minutes beginning 5 minutes after LVVA-SM. Control rats (n = 12) underwent the same methods except for LVVA-SM. The mean times spent licking the formalin-injected hindpaw of both groups 1–5 minutes after injection were not different. The mean licking time during the first 20 minutes post-LVVA-SM of experimental rats was significantly less than that of control rats (P < 0.001). The mean licking times of both groups during the second and third 20 minutes post-LVVA-SM were not different. Administration of LVVA-SM had a short-term, remote antinociceptive effect similar to clinical findings. Therefore, mechanistic investigations using this experimental approach are warranted. PMID:26693243

  19. Is enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy an effective intervention in eating disorders? A review.

    PubMed

    Groff, Sara E

    2015-01-01

    In this study the author reviews the current empirical research regarding Enhanced Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT-E) in the treatment of the full range of eating disorders (EDs): anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified. All peer-reviewed outcome studies identified through electronic bibliographic databases and manual searches of article reference lists are reviewed. A total of six studies (n = 6) were found. The author reports the results of these studies consisting of open-trials of CBT-E applied to different ED diagnoses, comparing two forms of CBT-E (focused and broad) to waitlist, and comparing CBT-E plus Motivation Focused Therapy. There is evidence to support the use of CBT-E for the treatment of EDs; however, this evidence is tentative as CBT-E is still in its early phases of empirical testing. No trials found CBT-E to be ineffective. Although these research designs are not randomized control trials, these results are promising for ED research. There are few efficacious treatments for EDs, especially for those with "chronic" EDs and adults with anorexia nervosa. CBT-E is one of the first interventions that focuses on particular symptomatic behaviors of EDs manifested in individual clients rather than treating ED diagnoses generically. PMID:25661898

  20. Computer-assisted behavioral therapy and contingency management for cannabis use disorder.

    PubMed

    Budney, Alan J; Stanger, Catherine; Tilford, J Mick; Scherer, Emily B; Brown, Pamela C; Li, Zhongze; Li, Zhigang; Walker, Denise D

    2015-09-01

    Computer-assisted behavioral treatments hold promise for enhancing access to and reducing costs of treatments for substance use disorders. This study assessed the efficacy of a computer-assisted version of an efficacious, multicomponent treatment for cannabis use disorders (CUD), that is, motivational enhancement therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and abstinence-based contingency-management (MET/CBT/CM). An initial cost comparison was also performed. Seventy-five adult participants, 59% Black, seeking treatment for CUD received either, MET only (BRIEF), therapist-delivered MET/CBT/CM (THERAPIST), or computer-delivered MET/CBT/CM (COMPUTER). During treatment, the THERAPIST and COMPUTER conditions engendered longer durations of continuous cannabis abstinence than BRIEF (p < .05), but did not differ from each other. Abstinence rates and reduction in days of use over time were maintained in COMPUTER at least as well as in THERAPIST. COMPUTER averaged approximately $130 (p < .05) less per case than THERAPIST in therapist costs, which offset most of the costs of CM. Results add to promising findings that illustrate potential for computer-assisted delivery methods to enhance access to evidence-based care, reduce costs, and possibly improve outcomes. The observed maintenance effects and the cost findings require replication in larger clinical trials. PMID:25938629

  1. Cognitive, Emotional, and Social Processes in Psychosis: Refining Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Persistent Positive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa; Fowler, David; Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Bebbington, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Psychosis used to be thought of as essentially a biological condition unamenable to psychological interventions. However, more recent research has shown that positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations are on a continuum with normality and therefore might also be susceptible to adaptations of the cognitive behavioral therapies found useful for anxiety and depression. In the context of a model of cognitive, emotional, and social processes in psychosis, the latest evidence for the putative psychological mechanisms that elicit and maintain symptoms is reviewed. There is now good support for emotional processes in psychosis, for the role of cognitive processes including reasoning biases, for the central role of appraisal, and for the effects of the social environment, including stress and trauma. We have also used virtual environments to test our hypotheses. These developments have improved our understanding of symptom dimensions such as distress and conviction and also provide a rationale for interventions, which have some evidence of efficacy. Therapeutic approaches are described as follows: a collaborative therapeutic relationship, managing dysphoria, helping service users reappraise their beliefs to reduce distress, working on negative schemas, managing and reducing stressful environments if possible, compensating for reasoning biases by using disconfirmation strategies, and considering the full range of evidence in order to reduce high conviction. Theoretical ideas supported by experimental evidence can inform the development of cognitive behavior therapy for persistent positive symptoms of psychosis. PMID:16885206

  2. Computer-assisted Behavioral Therapy and Contingency Management for Cannabis Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Budney, Alan J.; Stanger, Catherine; Tilford, J. Mick; Scherer, Emily; Brown, Pamela C.; Li, Zhongze; Li, Zhigang; Walker, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted behavioral treatments hold promise for enhancing access to and reducing costs of treatments for substance use disorders. This study assessed the efficacy of a computer-assisted version of an efficacious, multicomponent treatment for cannabis use disorders (CUD), i.e., motivational enhancement therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and abstinence-based contingency-management (MET/CBT/CM). An initial cost comparison was also performed. Seventy-five adult participants, 59% African Americans, seeking treatment for CUD received either, MET only (BRIEF), therapist-delivered MET/CBT/CM (THERAPIST), or computer-delivered MET/CBT/CM (COMPUTER). During treatment, the THERAPIST and COMPUTER conditions engendered longer durations of continuous cannabis abstinence than BRIEF (p < .05), but did not differ from each other. Abstinence rates and reduction in days of use over time were maintained in COMPUTER at least as well as in THERAPIST. COMPUTER averaged approximately $130 (p < .05) less per case than THERAPIST in therapist costs, which offset most of the costs of CM. Results add to promising findings that illustrate potential for computer-assisted delivery methods to enhance access to evidence-based care, reduce costs, and possibly improve outcomes. The observed maintenance effects and the cost findings require replication in larger clinical trials. PMID:25938629

  3. The Effect of Borderline Personality Pathology on Outcome of Cognitive Behavior Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lis, Eric; Myhr, Gail

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based psychotherapeutic approach which has been shown to be an effective intervention for most psychiatric disorders. There are conflicting data in the literature regarding whether a comorbid personality disorder worsens the prognosis of CBT for depression, anxiety, and other complaints. This study examined data collected before and after courses of CBT for patients with significant borderline (n=39, 11.5%) or obsessive-compulsive (n=66, 19.4%) personality pathology or no personality disorder (n=235, 69.1%). A diagnosis of personality pathology was not a significant predictor of outcome in CBT as measured by the reliable change index. However, patients with borderline personality pathology did demonstrate a greater response to CBT than other patients in terms of improvement on several measures of symptoms. Patients with borderline personality pathology appear to enter therapy with greater subjective depression and interpersonal difficulty than other patients but achieve larger gains during therapy. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:27427839

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder with Integrated Techniques from Emotion-Focused and Interpersonal Therapies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michelle G.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Borkovec, Thomas D.; Fisher, Aaron J.; Boswell, James F.; Szkodny, Lauren E.; Nordberg, Samuel S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Recent models suggest that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms may be maintained by emotional processing avoidance and interpersonal problems. Method: This is the first randomized controlled trial to test directly whether cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) could be augmented with the addition of a module targeting interpersonal…

  5. Impact of Comorbid Anxiety and Depressive Disorders on Treatment Response to Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Lynda; Harvey, Allison G.; Fortier-Brochu, Émilie; Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon; Eidelman, Polina; Talbot, Lisa; Ivers, Hans; Hein, Kerrie; Lamy, Manon; Soehner, Adriane M.; Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of comorbid anxiety or depressive disorders on treatment response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for insomnia, behavior therapy (BT), or cognitive therapy (CT). Method Participants were 188 adults (117 women; M age = 47.4 years) with chronic insomnia, including 45 also presenting a comorbid anxiety or mild to moderate depressive disorder. They were randomized to BT (n = 63), CT (n = 65), or CBT (n = 60). Outcome measures were the proportion of treatment responders (decrease of ≥ 8 points on the Insomnia Severity Index; ISI) and remissions (ISI score < 8) and depression and anxiety symptoms. Results Proportion of treatment responders and remitters in the CBT condition was not significantly different between the subgroups with and without comorbidity. However, the proportion of responders was lower in the comorbidity subgroup compared to those without comorbidity in both the BT (34.4% vs 81.6%; p=0.007) and CT (23.6% vs 57.6%; p=0.02) alone conditions, although remission rates and pre-post ISI change scores were not. Pre to post change scores on the depression (−10.6 vs −3.9; p<0.001) and anxiety measures (−9.2 vs −2.5; p=.01) were significantly greater in the comorbidity subgroup relative to the subgroup without comorbidity but only for those treated with the full CBT; no difference was found for those treated with either BT or CT alone. Conclusions The presence of a comorbid anxiety or mild to moderate depressive disorder did not reduce the efficacy of CBT for insomnia, but it did for its single BT and CT components when used alone. PMID:26963600

  6. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for externalizing disorders: A meta-analysis of treatment effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Battagliese, Gemma; Caccetta, Maria; Luppino, Olga Ines; Baglioni, Chiara; Cardi, Valentina; Mancini, Francesco; Buonanno, Carlo

    2015-12-01

    Externalizing disorders are the most common and persistent forms of maladjustment in childhood. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) to reduce externalizing symptoms in two disorders: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositive Defiant Disorder (ODD). The efficacy of CBT to improve social competence and positive parenting and reduce internalizing behaviors, parent stress and maternal depression was also explored. The database PsycInfo, PsycARTICLES, Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant studies. Twenty-one trials met the inclusion criteria. Results showed that the biggest improvement, after CBT, was in ODD symptoms (-0.879) followed by parental stress (-0.607), externalizing symptoms (-0.52), parenting skills (-0.381), social competence (-0.390) and ADHD symptoms (-0.343). CBT was also associated with improved attention (-0.378), aggressive behaviors (-0.284), internalizing symptoms (-0.272) and maternal depressive symptoms (-0.231). Overall, CBT is an effective treatment option for externalizing disorders and is also associated with reduced parental distress and maternal depressive symptoms. Multimodal treatments targeting both children and caregivers' symptoms (e.g. maternal depressive symptoms) appear important to produce sustained and generalized benefits. PMID:26575979

  7. Hematopoietic Stem Cell and Gene Therapy Corrects Primary Neuropathology and Behavior in Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA Mice

    PubMed Central

    Langford-Smith, Alexander; Wilkinson, Fiona L; Langford-Smith, Kia J; Holley, Rebecca J; Sergijenko, Ana; Howe, Steven J; Bennett, William R; Jones, Simon A; Wraith, JE; Merry, Catherine LR; Wynn, Robert F; Bigger, Brian W

    2012-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA or Sanfilippo disease) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme sulfamidase (SGSH), catabolizing heparan sulfate (HS). Affected children present with severe behavioral abnormalities, sleep disturbances, and progressive neurodegeneration, leading to death in their second decade. MPS I, a similar neurodegenerative disease accumulating HS, is treated successfully with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) but this treatment is ineffectual for MPS IIIA. We compared HSCT in MPS IIIA mice using wild-type donor cells transduced ex vivo with lentiviral vector-expressing SGSH (LV-WT-HSCT) versus wild-type donor cell transplant (WT-HSCT) or lentiviral-SGSH transduced MPS IIIA cells (LV-IIIA-HSCT). LV-WT-HSCT results in 10% of normal brain enzyme activity, near normalization of brain HS and GM2 gangliosides, significant improvements in neuroinflammation and behavioral correction. Both WT-HSCT and LV-IIIA-HSCT mediated improvements in GM2 gangliosides and neuroinflammation but were less effective at reducing HS or in ameliorating abnormal HS sulfation and had no significant effect on behavior. This suggests that HS may have a more significant role in neuropathology than neuroinflammation or GM2 gangliosides. These data provide compelling evidence for the efficacy of gene therapy in conjunction with WT-HSCT for neurological correction of MPS IIIA where conventional transplant is ineffectual. PMID:22547151

  8. Computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy for children with epilepsy and anxiety: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Blocher, Jacquelyn B.; Fujikawa, Mayu; Sung, Connie; Jackson, Daren C.; Jones, Jana E.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are prevalent in children with epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, adaptability, and feasibility of a manual-based, computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for anxiety disorders in children with epilepsy. Fifteen anxious youth (aged 8–13 years) with epilepsy completed 12 weeks of manualized computer-assisted CBT. Children and parents completed a semi-structured interview at baseline, and questionnaires assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and behavior problems were completed prior to treatment, at treatment midpoint, after treatment completion, and three months post treatment. There were significant reductions in symptoms of anxiety and depression reported by the children at completion of the intervention and at the three-month follow-up. Similarly, parents reported fewer symptoms of anxiety and a reduction in behavior problems. No adverse events were reported. This CBT intervention for children with epilepsy and anxiety disorders is safe, effective, and feasible with a promising future. PMID:23376339

  9. Sleeping well with cancer: a systematic review of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Sheila N; Johnson, Jillian A; Savard, Josee; Gehrman, Philip; Perlis, Michael; Carlson, Linda; Campbell, Tavis

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with cancer are disproportionately affected by sleep disturbance and insomnia relative to the general population. These problems can be a consequence of the psychological, behavioral, and physical effects of a cancer diagnosis and treatment. Insomnia often persists for years and, when combined with already high levels of cancer-related distress, may place cancer survivors at a higher risk of future physical and mental health problems and poorer quality of life. The recommended first-line treatment for insomnia is cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), a non-pharmacological treatment that incorporates cognitive and behavior-change techniques and targets dysfunctional attitudes, beliefs, and habits involving sleep. This article presents a comprehensive review of the literature examining the efficacy of CBT-I on sleep and psychological outcomes in cancer patients and survivors. The search revealed 12 studies (four uncontrolled, eight controlled) that evaluated the effects of CBT-I in cancer patients or survivors. Results suggest that CBT-I is associated with statistically and clinically significant improvements in subjective sleep outcomes in patients with cancer. CBT-I may also improve mood, fatigue, and overall quality of life, and can be successfully delivered through a variety of treatment modalities, making it possible to reach a broader range of patients who may not have access to more traditional programs. Future research in this area should focus on the translation of evidence into clinical practice in order to increase awareness and access to effective insomnia treatment in cancer care. PMID:24971014

  10. Implementing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in the real world: A case study of two mental health centers

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Teresa L; Burns, Barbara J

    2008-01-01

    Background Behavioral health services for children and adolescents in the U.S. are lacking in accessibility, availability and quality. Evidence-based interventions for emotional and behavioral disorders can improve quality, yet few studies have systematically examined their implementation in routine care settings. Methods Using quantitative and qualitative data, we evaluated a multi-faceted implementation strategy to implement cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depressed adolescents into two publicly-funded mental healthcare centers. Extent of implementation during the study's duration and variables influencing implementation were explored. Results Of the 35 clinicians eligible to participate, 25 (71%) were randomized into intervention (n = 11) or usual care (n = 14). Nine intervention clinicians completed the CBT training. Sixteen adolescents were enrolled in CBT with six of the intervention clinicians; half of these received at least six CBT manually-based sessions. Multiple barriers to CBT adoption and sustained use were identified by clinicians in qualitative interviews. Conclusion Strategies to implement evidence-based interventions into routine clinical settings should include multi-method, pre-implementation assessments of the clinical environment and address multiple barriers to initial uptake as well as long-term sustainability. PMID:18312677

  11. The Effect of The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Pharmacotherapy on Infertility Stress: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Pasha, Hajar; Esmailzadeh, Seddigheh; Kheirkhah, Farzan; Heidary, Shima; Afshar, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infertility has been described as creating a form of stress leading to a variety of psychological problems. Both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy are effective treatments for infertility stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy along with fluoxetine for improvement infertility stress in infertile women. Materials and Methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial, 89 infertile women with mild to moderate depression (Beck scores 10-47) were recruited into the following three groups: i. cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), ii. antidepressant therapy, and iii. control group. Twenty-nine participants in the CBT method received gradual relaxation training, restructuring, and eliminating of negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional attitudes to infertility for 10 sessions. Thirty participants in the pharmacotherapy group took 20 mg fluoxetine daily for 90 days. Thirty individuals in control group did not receive any intervention. All participants completed fertility problem inventory (FPI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at the beginning and end of the study. We applied Chi-square paired t test, ANOVA and Turkey’s test to analyze the data. Results: The mean of the infertility stress scores in CBT, fluoxetine, and control groups at the beginning and end of the study were as follows, respectively: 3.5 ± 0.62 vs.2.7 ± 0.62 (p<0.05), 3.5 ± 0.53 vs.3.2 ± 4.4 (p<0.05), and 3.4 ± 0.55 vs. 3.5 ± 0.48. In CBT group, the mean scores of social concern, sexual concern, marital concern, rejection of child-free lifestyle, and need for parenthood decreased meaningfully compared to those before starting the therapy. But in fluoxetine group, mean score of women sexual concern out of those five main problems of infertility reduced significantly. Also, fluoxetine and CBT reduced depression compared to the control group. Conclusion: CBT improved the social concerns, sexual concerns, marital concerns

  12. Significant Other Enhanced Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for PTSD and Alcohol Misuse in OEF/OIF Veterans

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript describes early work to develop a cognitive-behavioral therapy protocol for returning OEF/OIF Veterans with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD). Based on the unique characteristics of this population, and on the literature supporting cognitive behavioral coping skills and significant other involvement for both PTSD and for AUD, the new therapy involves both of those components. The paper includes brief descriptions of two patients who were successfully treated with this approach. Although preliminary, these case studies suggest that cognitive-behavioral therapy enhanced by significant other involvement may be a promising approach for OEF/OIF Veterans with PTSD-AUD. PMID:23750071

  13. Understanding HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among HIV-Infected South Africans Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy: An Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills Model Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kiene, Susan M.; Fisher, William A.; Shuper, Paul A.; Cornman, Deborah H.; Christie, Sarah; MacDonald, Susan; Pillay, Sandy; Mahlase, Gethwana; Fisher, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study applied the Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills (IMB) model (J. D. Fisher & Fisher, 1992; W. A. Fisher & Fisher, 1993) to identify factors associated with HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-infected South Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), a population of considerable significance for curtailing, or maintaining, South Africa’s generalized HIV epidemic. HIV prevention information, HIV prevention motivation, HIV prevention behavioral skills, and HIV transmission risk behavior were assessed in a sample of 1,388 South Africans infected with HIV and receiving ART in 16 clinics in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Results confirmed the assumptions of the IMB model and demonstrated that HIV prevention information and HIV prevention motivation work through HIV prevention behavioral skills to affect HIV transmission risk behavior in this population. Subanalyses confirmed these relationships for HIV transmission risk behavior overall and for HIV transmission risk behavior with partners perceived to be HIV-negative or HIV-status unknown. A consistent pattern of gender differences showed that for men, HIV prevention information and HIV prevention motivation may have direct links with HIV preventive behavior, while for women, the effects of HIV prevention information and HIV prevention motivation work through HIV prevention behavioral skills to affect HIV preventive behavior. These IMB model-based findings suggest directions for HIV prevention interventions with South African men and women living with HIV and on ART as an important component of overall strategies to contain South Africa’s generalized HIV epidemic. PMID:23477576

  14. [Critical comments on the theory and practice of behavior therapy from the viewpoint of Marxist-Leninist philosophy].

    PubMed

    Franz, B; Thom, A

    1978-03-01

    By analyzing previous critical studies of the theoretical and methodological positions of behavioral therapy, which were conducted on Marxist-Leninist principles, the authors discuss the complex relationship of one-sided philosophical assumptions, simplifying elements of psychological theories, and radional moments of successful practical application in certain fields. Both critical delimitation from untenable theoretical interpretations and the inclusion of rational forms of therapy in a complex system of psychotherapy are considered essential. PMID:652870

  15. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy on health-related quality of life: An evaluation of therapies provided by trainee therapists.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Sophie; Anclair, Malin; Hiltunen, Arto J

    2016-06-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the treatment effect of cognitive behavioral therapy provided by trainee therapists at a university clinic, focusing on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) optimism and symptoms. The study was conducted through a repeated measures design and included a treatment group (n = 21), which received cognitive behavioral therapy for an average of 10.7 therapy sessions and a control group (n = 14), that was put on a wait list for 8.6 weeks on average. After treatment, the treatment group improved significantly concerning general health (p = 0.028) and optimism (p = 0.027). In addition, clients improved in several areas within mental health and displayed some reduction in anxiety symptoms. Concurrently, the results also indicated some improvement within the control group, which may have been caused by the initial therapeutic contact, expectancy effects or spontaneous remission. The study concluded that cognitive behavioral therapy provided by trainee therapists may have a positive effect on areas within HRQOL and optimism. PMID:27119256

  16. Use of individual feedback during human gross anatomy course for enhancing professional behaviors in doctor of physical therapy students.

    PubMed

    Youdas, James W; Krause, David A; Hellyer, Nathan J; Rindflesch, Aaron B; Hollman, John H

    2013-01-01

    Medical professionals and public consumers expect that new physical therapy graduates possess cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills required to provide safe and high-quality care to patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if a repertoire of ten professional behaviors assessed at the beginning of doctorate of physical therapy education and before the first significant clinical internship could be enhanced in a semester course in gross human anatomy using individual formative feedback. During the human anatomy course, 28 first-year physical therapy students completed six biweekly, anonymous self- and peer assessment surveys that targeted ten professional behaviors important to physical therapists. All professional behaviors were assessed using a five-point Likert scale. Feedback reports occurred at week eight (mid-semester) and week 16 (end-of-semester) and comprised the direct intervention components of this study. At the midpoint of the semester, professional behavior scores and narrative comments from weeks two, four, and six were compiled and shared with each student by one of three faculty members in a feedback session. Students then submitted biweekly self-and peer professional behavior assessments (weeks 10, 12, and 14) for the remainder of the human anatomy course. Differences between preintervention and postintervention scores for each of the ten professional behaviors were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. Upon receiving mid-semester individual feedback, students demonstrated significant improvement in each of the ten professional behaviors. Results from this study indicated a gross anatomy laboratory dissection experience during the first academic semester provided an effective opportunity for teaching and assessing professional behaviors of doctoral students in physical therapy. PMID:23509010

  17. Integrating cognitive-behavioral and expressive therapy interventions:applying the trauma outcome process in treating children with sexually abusive behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, L A

    2001-01-01

    This article presents intervention strategies based on the Trauma Outcome Process, an integrated treatment model for guiding clinical practice with children with sexually abusive behavior problems. The steps for completing a comprehensive assessment are reviewed, and strategies are presented to help clinicians create a therapeutic alliance and increase these children's self-awareness of their thoughts, feelings, and body sensations. Treatment techniques based on an integrated approach combining cognitive-behavioral and expressive therapy approaches are described. These exercises help children accept responsibility for sexually inappropriate behavior and select adaptive responses for coping with the effects of traumatic experiences. PMID:16221624

  18. Therapist awareness of client resistance in cognitive-behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kimberley M; Westra, Henny A; Aviram, Adi; Button, Melissa L; Constantino, Michael J; Antony, Martin M

    2015-01-01

    Clients' resistance relates negatively to their retention and outcomes in psychotherapy; thus, it has been increasingly identified as a key process marker in both research and practice. This study compared therapists' postsession ratings of resistance with those of trained observers in the context of 40 therapist-client dyads receiving 15 sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Therapist and observer ratings were then examined as correlates of proximal (therapeutic alliance quality and homework compliance) and distal (posttreatment worry severity) outcomes. Although there was reasonable concordance between rater perspectives, observer ratings were highly and consistently related to both proximal and distal outcomes, while therapist ratings were not. These findings underscore the need to enhance therapists' proficiency in identifying important and often covert in-session clinical phenomena such as the cues reflecting resistance and noncollaboration. PMID:25611825

  19. Are inner context factors related to implementation outcomes in cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety?

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Julie; Ditty, Matthew; Watkins, Jessica; Walsh, Lucia; Marcus, Steven; Kendall, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Among the challenges facing the mental health field are the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices. The present study investigated the relationships between inner context variables (i.e., adopter characteristics and individual perceptions of intra-organizational factors) and two implementation outcomes – independently rated therapist fidelity on a performance-based role-play (i.e., adherence and skill) and self-reported penetration of cognitive behavioral therapy for youth anxiety following training. A significant relationship was found between inner context variables and fidelity. Specifically, adopter characteristics were associated with adherence and skill; individual perceptions of intra-organizational factors were associated with adherence. Inner context variables were not associated with penetration. Future directions are discussed. PMID:24202067

  20. Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Eating Disorders: The Use of Contingency Management Procedures to Manage Dialectical Dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Lucene; Ben-Porath, Denise D

    2015-01-01

    Several researchers have adapted and/or applied dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for populations with eating disorders. There is a growing body of research that indicates that DBT is an effective treatment option for this population, including those who have co-occurring Axis II disorders. The goal of the current paper is to summarize the research conducted in the area of DBT with those individuals who present with eating disorders only as well as those who present with both eating disorders and Axis II disorders. We also describe a dialectical dilemma, apparent compliance vs. active defiance, which is commonly observed in the group with comorbidities A DBT change strategy, contingency management, is discussed as an intervention to target apparent compliance and active defiance. PMID:26160619