Brown, Lily A.; Forman, Evan M.; Herbert, James D.; Hoffman, Kimberly L.; Yuen, Erica K.; Goetter, Elizabeth M.
Many university students suffer from test anxiety that is severe enough to impair performance. Given mixed efficacy results of previous cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) trials and a theoretically driven rationale, an acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) approach was compared to traditional CBT (i.e., Beckian cognitive therapy; CT) for the…
Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.
Research suggests that experiential avoidance may play an important role in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; see Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S.M. (2002). "Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: Integrating mindfulness/acceptance-based approaches with existing cognitive-behavioral models." "Clinical…
La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara
In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…
Glick, Debra M; Orsillo, Susan M
Procrastination among college students is both prevalent and troublesome, harming both academic performance and physical health. Unfortunately, no "gold standard" intervention exists. Research suggests that psychological inflexibility may drive procrastination. Accordingly, interventions using acceptance and mindfulness methods to increase psychological flexibility may decrease procrastination. This study compared time management and acceptance-based behavioral interventions. College students' predictions of how much assigned reading they should complete were compared to what they did complete. Procrastination, anxiety, psychological flexibility, and academic values were also measured. Although a trend suggested that time management intervention participants completed more reading, no group differences in procrastination were revealed. The acceptance-based behavioral intervention was most effective for participants who highly valued academics. Clinical implications and future research are discussed.
Kocovski, Nancy L; Fleming, Jan E; Hawley, Lance L; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Antony, Martin M
The present study investigated mechanisms of change for two group treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD): cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) and mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy (MAGT). Participants were treatment completers (n = 37 for MAGT, n = 32 for CBGT) from a randomized clinical trial. Cognitive reappraisal was the hypothesized mechanism of change for CBGT. Mindfulness and acceptance were hypothesized mechanisms of change for MAGT. Latent difference score (LDS) analysis results demonstrate that cognitive reappraisal coupling (in which cognitive reappraisal is negatively associated with the subsequent rate of change in social anxiety) had a greater impact on social anxiety for CBGT than MAGT. The LDS bidirectional mindfulness model (mindfulness predicts subsequent change in social anxiety; social anxiety predicts subsequent change in mindfulness) was supported for both treatments. Results for acceptance were less clear. Cognitive reappraisal may be a more important mechanism of change for CBGT than MAGT, whereas mindfulness may be an important mechanism of change for both treatments.
Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Busch, Andrew M.; Wenze, Susan J.; Nowlan, Kathryn; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Miller, Ivan W.
Acceptance-based depression and psychosis therapy (ADAPT), a mindfulness/acceptance-based behavioral activation treatment, showed clinically significant effects in the treatment of depression with psychosis in a previous open trial. The goal of the current study was to further test the feasibility of ADAPT to determine the utility of testing it in a future clinical trial, following a stage model of treatment development. Feasibility was determined by randomizing a small number of patients (N = 13) with comorbid depression and psychosis to medication treatment as usual plus enhanced assessment and monitoring (EAM) versus ADAPT for 4 months of outpatient treatment. Both conditions were deemed acceptable by patients. Differences in between-subjects effect sizes favored ADAPT post-treatment and were in the medium to large range for depression, psychosocial functioning, and experiential avoidance (ie, the target mechanism). Thus ADAPT shows promise for improving outcomes compared to medications alone and requires testing in a fully powered randomized trial. PMID:26352221
Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.; Salters-Pedneault, Kristalyn
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic anxiety disorder, associated with comorbidity and impairment in quality of life, for which improved psychosocial treatments are needed. GAD is also associated with reactivity to and avoidance of internal experiences. The current study examined the efficacy of an acceptance-based behavioral therapy…
Glassman, Lisa Hayley
Individuals with public speaking phobia experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for public speaking phobia focus on the reduction of anxiety and avoidance, but neglect performance. Additionally, very little is known about the relationship between verbal working memory and social performance under conditions of high anxiety. The current study compared the efficacy of two cognitive behavioral treatments, traditional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (tCBT) and acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT), in enhancing public speaking performance via coping with anxiety. Verbal working memory performance, as measured by the backwards digit span (BDS), was measured to explore the relationships between treatment type, anxiety, performance, and verbal working memory. We randomized 30 individuals with high public speaking anxiety to a 90-minute ABBT or tCBT intervention. As this pilot study was underpowered, results are examined in terms of effect sizes as well as statistical significance. Assessments took place at pre and post-intervention and included self-rated and objective anxiety measurements, a behavioral assessment, ABBT and tCBT process measures, and backwards digit span verbal working memory tests. In order to examine verbal working memory during different levels of anxiety and performance pressure, we gave each participant a backwards digit span task three times during each assessment: once under calm conditions, then again while experiencing anticipatory anxiety, and finally under conditions of acute social performance anxiety in front of an audience. Participants were asked to give a video-recorded speech in front of the audience at pre- and post-intervention to examine speech performance. Results indicated that all participants experienced a very large and statistically significant decrease in anxiety (both during the speech and BDS
Danitz, Sara B; Orsillo, Susan M
First-year students in higher education deal with an increasing number of mental health issues. Cost-effective and time-efficient programs that ease transitions and reduce risk of depression are needed. To date, programs informed by both cognitive-behavioral and acceptance-based-behavioral therapy (ABBT) approaches have produced some positive outcomes, but methodological limitations limit their utility. The aim of the present study was to address some of these limitations, by developing and preliminary testing the efficacy of a one-session ABBT intervention with first-year undergraduates and first-year law students. Ninety-eight first-year students were randomly assigned to receive either a single-session 90-min ABBT workshop within their first month of school or to a waitlist control condition. Students who received the intervention reported significantly less depression and more acceptance. Moreover, increase in acceptance over the course of the semester was associated with reductions in depression. Implications of these findings for future interventions are discussed.
Moitra, Ethan; Chan, Philip A; Stein, Michael D
Successful linkage and retention in care of newly diagnosed individuals in the United States remains a significant gap in the HIV care continuum. This study assessed the acceptability and feasibility of an acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) intervention to engage patients newly diagnosed with HIV in medical care. Nine patients were recruited over 4 months for this brief ABBT intervention, which consisted of two brief sessions, each lasting less than 20 min. The intervention was developed to promote psychological acceptance of the HIV diagnosis, thereby increasing patients' willingness to make informed disclosure of their status. Eight patients completed a 1-month follow-up assessment, and all approved of the intervention and its components. Over the 1-month period, participants showed increased acceptance, reduced perceptions of HIV stigmatization, and increased disclosure of HIV status to social supports. This pilot study provided support for the continued investigation of ABBT as an adjunctive intervention for newly diagnosed HIV patients who are at high-risk of dropping out of HIV care.
Eustis, Elizabeth H; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A; Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M
As a field, we lack information about specific mechanisms that are responsible for changes that occur over the course of treatments for anxiety disorders (Kazdin, 2007). Identifying these mechanisms would help streamline evidence-based approaches, increase treatment response rates, and aid in the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based approaches in diverse contexts. The current study examined reductions in experiential avoidance (EA; Hayes, Wilson, Gifford, Follette, & Strosahl, 1996), attempts to control or eliminate distressing internal experiences, regardless of behavioral consequences, as a potential mechanism of change in participants with a principal diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) receiving either acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) or applied relaxation (AR). Participants' EA scores across treatment on the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ) were used to calculate slopes, which were used as predictors in a series of linear regressions. Greater change in EA across treatment significantly predicted change in worry (PSWQ) and quality of life (QOLI) across both treatments. These results contribute to the body of literature on common mechanisms of change across traditional CBTs and mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches.
Goodwin, Christina L.; Forman, Evan M.; Herbert, James D.; Butryn, Meghan L.; Ledley, Gary S.
Approximately 90% of cardiac events are attributable to a small number of modifiable behavioral risk factors that, if changed, can greatly decrease morbidity and mortality. However, few at-risk individuals make recommended behavioral changes, including those who receive formal interventions designed to facilitate healthy behavior. Given evidence…
Relationships Between Amount of Post-Intervention of Mindfulness Practice and Follow-up Outcome Variables in an Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: The Importance of Informal Practice.
Morgan, Lucas P K; Graham, Jessica R; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A; Orsillo, Susan M; Roemer, Lizabeth
Because most behavioral treatments are time-limited, skills and practices that foster long-term maintenance of gains made during treatment are of critical importance. While some studies have found mindfulness practice to be associated with improvements in outcome variables over the course of treatment (Vettese et al., 2009), very little is known about the effects of continued mindfulness practice following treatment termination. The current study examined the relationships between separate single item measurements of three types of mindfulness practices (formal, informal, and mindfulness of breath in daily life) and longer-term outcomes in worry, clinician-rated anxiety severity, and quality of life following treatment with an acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in two separate treatment studies. Results from Study 1 showed that at 9-month follow-up, amount of informal mindfulness practice was significantly related to continued beneficial outcomes for worry, clinician-rated anxiety severity, and quality of life. Similarly, in Study 2, at 6-month follow-up informal mindfulness practice was significantly related to continued beneficial outcomes for anxiety severity and worry, and at 12-month follow-up informal mindfulness practice was significantly related to continued beneficial outcomes for quality of life and worry, and mindfulness of breath was significantly related to quality of life. When results from the final time point in both studies were combined, informal practice was significant related to all three outcome variables, and mindfulness of breath was significantly related to worry and quality of life. Formal practice was not significantly related to outcomes in either study, or in the combined sample. These findings support the further study of informal mindfulness practices as important tools for continued beneficial clinical outcomes following treatment for people with a principal diagnosis of GAD.
Kocovski, Nancy L.; Fleming, Jan E.; Rector, Neil A.
Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Group Therapy (MAGT) for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is based largely on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes et al., 1999), with enhanced mindfulness mostly from Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT; Segal et al., 2002). The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and initial…
Dalrymple, Kristy L; Morgan, Theresa A; Lipschitz, Jessica M; Martinez, Jennifer H; Tepe, Elizabeth; Zimmerman, Mark
Depression and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are highly comorbid, resulting in greater severity and functional impairment compared with each disorder alone. Although recently transdiagnostic treatments have been developed, no known treatments have addressed this comorbidity pattern specifically. Preliminary support exists for acceptance-based approaches for depression and SAD separately, and they may be more efficacious for comorbid depression and anxiety compared with traditional cognitive-behavioral approaches. The aim of the current study was to develop and pilot test an integrated acceptance-based behavioral treatment for depression and comorbid SAD. Participants included 38 patients seeking pharmacotherapy at an outpatient psychiatry practice, who received 16 individual sessions of the therapy. Results showed significant improvement in symptoms, functioning, and processes from pre- to post-treatment, as well as high satisfaction with the treatment. These results support the preliminary acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of this treatment in a typical outpatient psychiatry practice, and suggest that further research on this treatment in larger randomized trials is warranted.
Dahlin, Mats; Andersson, Gerhard; Magnusson, Kristoffer; Johansson, Tomas; Sjögren, Johan; Håkansson, Andreas; Pettersson, Magnus; Kadowaki, Åsa; Cuijpers, Pim; Carlbring, Per
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a disabling condition which can be treated with cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The present study tested the effects of therapist-guided internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy on symptoms of GAD and quality of life. An audio CD with acceptance and mindfulness exercises and a separate workbook were also included in the treatment. Participants diagnosed with GAD (N = 103) were randomly allocated to immediate therapist-guided internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy or to a waiting-list control condition. A six month follow-up was also included. Results using hierarchical linear modelling showed moderate to large effects on symptoms of GAD (Cohen's d = 0.70 to 0.98), moderate effects on depressive symptoms (Cohen's d = 0.51 to 0.56), and no effect on quality of life. Follow-up data showed maintained effects. While there was a 20% dropout rate, sensitivity analyses showed that dropouts did not differ in their degree of change during treatment. To conclude, our study suggests that internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy can be effective in reducing the symptoms of GAD.
Dougher, Michael J.; Hackbert, Lucianne
Although roughly 6% of the general population is affected by depression at some time during their lifetime, the disorder has been relatively neglected by behavior analysts. The preponderance of research on the etiology and treatment of depression has been conducted by cognitive behavior theorists and biological psychiatrists and psychopharmacologists interested in the biological substrates of depression. These approaches have certainly been useful, but their reliance on cognitive and biological processes and their lack of attention to environment—behavior relations render them unsatisfactory from a behavior-analytic perspective. The purpose of this paper is to provide a behavior-analytic account of depression and to derive from this account several possible treatment interventions. In addition, case material is presented to illustrate an acceptance-based approach with a depressed client. PMID:22478195
Forman, Evan M.; Butryn, Meghan L.; Hoffman, Kimberly L.; Herbert, James D.
Innovative approaches are urgently needed to improve behavioral treatment for weight loss. The weight regain that is so common after treatment may be a result of an environment that makes it challenging to adhere, long-term, to a dietary and physical activity regimen. This study was designed to test, via a 12-week open trial, the preliminary…
Shawyer, Frances; Farhall, John; Mackinnon, Andrew; Trauer, Tom; Sims, Eliza; Ratcliff, Kirk; Larner, Chris; Thomas, Neil; Castle, David; Mullen, Paul; Copolov, David
Command hallucinations represent a special problem for the clinical management of psychosis. While compliance with both non-harmful and harmful commands can be problematic, sometimes in the extreme, active efforts to resist commands may also contribute to their malignancy. Previous research suggests Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) to be a useful treatment for reducing compliance with harmful command hallucinations. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate whether CBT augmented with acceptance-based strategies from Acceptance and Commitment Therapy could more broadly reduce the negative impact of command hallucinations. Forty-three participants with problematic command hallucinations were randomized to receive 15 sessions of the intervention "TORCH" (Treatment of Resistant Command Hallucinations) or the control, Befriending, then followed up for 6 months. A sub-sample of 17 participants was randomized to a waitlist control before being allocated to TORCH or Befriending. Participants engaged equally well with both treatments. Despite TORCH participants subjectively reporting greater improvement in command hallucinations compared to Befriending participants, the study found no significant group differences in primary and secondary outcome measures based on blinded assessment data. Within-group analyses and comparisons between the combined treatments and waitlist suggested, however, that both treatments were beneficial with a differential pattern of outcomes observed across the two conditions.
Chapman, Alexander L.
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) are both innovative behavioral treatments that incorporate mindfulness practices and acceptance-based interventions into their treatment packages. Although there are many similarities between these treatments, including the fact that they are part of a newer "wave" in…
Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Nowlan, Kathryn; Brown, Lily A.; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Miller, Ivan W.
Research suggests that cognitive and behavioral therapies produce significant benefits over medications alone in the treatment of severe, nonpsychotic major depression or primary psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. However, previous research has not demonstrated the efficacy of psychotherapy for major depression with psychotic features. In…
Whiting, Diane L; Deane, Frank P; Simpson, Grahame K; McLeod, Hamish J; Ciarrochi, Joseph
This paper provides a selective review of cognitive and psychological flexibility in the context of treatment for psychological distress after traumatic brain injury, with a focus on acceptance-based therapies. Cognitive flexibility is a component of executive function that is referred to mostly in the context of neuropsychological research and practice. Psychological flexibility, from a clinical psychology perspective, is linked to health and well-being and is an identified treatment outcome for therapies such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). There are a number of overlaps between the constructs. They both manifest in the ability to change behaviour (either a thought or an action) in response to environmental change, with similarities in neural substrate and mental processes. Impairments in both show a strong association with psychopathology. People with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) often suffer impairments in their cognitive flexibility as a result of damage to areas controlling executive processes but have a positive response to therapies that promote psychological flexibility. Overall, psychological flexibility appears a more overarching construct and cognitive flexibility may be a subcomponent of it but not necessarily a pre-requisite. Further research into therapies which claim to improve psychological flexibility, such as ACT, needs to be undertaken in TBI populations in order to clarify its utility in this group.
Behavior therapy approaches to the treatment of male sexual impotence, specifically premature ejaculation and erective impotence, are discussed. Included in the behavioral therapies are systematic desensitization, active graded therapy, assertive techniques, sexual responses, operant approaches and others. Often marriage counseling is also…
Insomnia is one of the most frequently encountered disorders in general clinical practices. At present, the most commonly used therapy for insomnia is pharmacotherapy. There are some problems in pharmacotherapy such as side effects. Therefore nonpharmacological therapy for insomnia is needed. The cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is a nonpharmacological therapy attracting attention most. CBT-I not only alleviates insomnia symptoms in patients but also enables them to reduce/discontinue the use of hypnotics. I reviewed a study about the effectiveness of CBT-I and commented the future directions of CBT-I.
Arch, Joanna J.; Eifert, Georg H.; Davies, Carolyn; Vilardaga, Jennifer C. Plumb; Rose, Raphael D.; Craske, Michelle G.
Objective: Randomized comparisons of acceptance-based treatments with traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders are lacking. To address this gap, we compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) to CBT for heterogeneous anxiety disorders. Method: One hundred twenty-eight individuals (52% female, mean age = 38, 33%…
The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-Based Behavioral Treatment Versus Traditional Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Public Speaking Anxiety: An Exploratory Trial Examining Differential Effects on Performance and Neurophysiology.
Glassman, Lisa H; Forman, Evan M; Herbert, James D; Bradley, Lauren E; Foster, Elizabeth E; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Ruocco, Anthony C
Individuals with public speaking anxiety (PSA) experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for PSA emphasize anxiety reduction rather than enhancing behavioral performance. We compared the efficacy of two brief cognitive-behavioral interventions, a traditional cognitive-behavior treatment (tCBT) and an acceptance-based behavior treatment (ABBT), on public speaking performance and anxiety in a clinical sample of persons with PSA. The effects of treatment on prefrontal brain activation were also examined. Participants (n = 21) were randomized to 90 min of an ABBT or a tCBT intervention. Assessments took place at pre- and post-treatment and included self-rated anxiety and observer-rated performance measures, a behavioral assessment, and prefrontal cortical activity measurements using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Exploratory results indicated that participants in the ABBT condition experienced greater improvements in observer-rated performance relative to those in the tCBT condition, while those in the tCBT condition experienced greater reductions in subjective anxiety levels. Individuals in the ABBT condition also exhibited a trend toward greater treatment-related reductions in blood volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to those who received tCBT. Overall, these findings preliminarily suggest that acceptance-based treatments may free more cognitive resources in comparison with tCBT, possibly resulting in greater improvements in objectively rated behavioral performances for ABBT interventions.
Jones, W. Paul
Discusses the theoretical and practical applications of cosmetic behavior therapy in a private practice. Enhancement of physical appearance will frequently result in an enhancement of self-concept, and the client's attainment of physical attractiveness contributes to the probability of success in current culture. (Author/JAC)
Publication of papers related to psycho-social interventions in general and Behavior Therapy, in particular, in Indian Journal of Psychiatry has been limited. Though the first paper related to Behavior Therapy was published in 1952, a manual search of all available issues of the journal from 1949 showed that only 42 papers related to Behavior Therapy have been published till 2009. Among them 10 are case reports. Methodological limitations abound even in the papers on larger groups of patients. Studies using operant conditioning have been very few. Aversion therapy and progressive muscle relaxation have been very frequently used. The published articles are reviewed under the various diagnostic categories. Publications in the recent years have been mostly on Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Even after 57 years of co-existence, the relationship between Behavior Therapy and Indian Psychiatry remains a tenuous one. PMID:21836708
Levis, Donald J.
The movement within behavior therapy to introduce cognitive terms, constructs, and techniques reflects and involves an extension of the pervasive cognitive movement within the experimental field and the long-standing cognitive approach of many clinicians. Modern day attacks on behaviorism by cognitivists have been almost exclusively geared to the…
Lynn, Steven Jay; Malakataris, Anne; Condon, Liam; Maxwell, Reed; Cleere, Colleen
In this article, we describe how cognitive hypnotherapy can be used in conjunction with evidence-based practices for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We review cognitive-behavioral interventions for PTSD, including mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches, and contend that (a) empirical support for the use of hypnosis in treating a variety of conditions is considerable; (b) hypnosis is fundamentally a cognitive-behavioral intervention; (c) psychological interventions with a firm footing in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are well-suited to treat the symptoms of PTSD; and (d) hypnosis can be a useful adjunct to evidence-based cognitive-behavioral approaches, including mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions, for treating PTSD.
Witkiewitz, Katie; Marlatt, G. Alan
Numerous effective behavioral therapies have been developed that can bring the treatment to the patient rather than bringing the patient to treatment. These behavioral therapy techniques, which can provide effective treatment across the spectrum of severity of alcohol abuse disorders, include facilitated self-change, individual therapies, couples and family approaches, and contingency management. New methods of delivery and successful adjuncts to existing behavioral treatments also have been introduced, including computerized cognitive–behavioral treatments, Web-based guided self-change, and mindfulness-based approaches. Although a wide variety of behavioral approaches have been shown to have good efficacy, choosing the treatment most appropriate for a given patient remains a challenge. PMID:23580016
Behavior therapy has up to now, only been applied to a limited degree to elderly people. Operant learning paradigma receive special meaning within the framework of intervention as well as theoretical explanation. Publications will be presented for the areas of social behavior, self care, motoric ability etc. according to their different techniques. It is remarkable that interest has only focused institutionalized elderly people with a high degree of incapacitation. In the following discussion the necessity for stronger consideration of the newer behavioral approach as well the latest developments in gerontology will be made clear.
Sacks, Susan Bendersky
This article provides an overview of the concepts and techniques of rational emotive behavior therapy to distinguish it from cognitive-behavioral therapy. Rational emotive behavior therapy proposes that psychological disturbance is largely created and maintained through irrational philosophies consisting of internal absolutistic demands. This therapy strives to produce sustained and profound cognitive, emotive, and behavioral change through active, vigorous disputation of underlying irrational philosophies.
including an understanding of abnormal behavior in terms of the motivational system, and the present and potential roles of behavior therapy and behavior modification in dealing with personality problems.
... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program that combines motivational incentives with cognitive-behavioral ...
Our first concern is a general characterization of behaviour therapy. It cannot be produced by means of the description of its methods and techniques, since it includes a wide gamut of them, ranging from systematic desensitization to assertive training and aversive conditioning. It is necessary then to resort to the theoretical basis common to the different methods and techniques. The reciprocal inhibition principle, as stated by John Wolpe, is likely to provide a sound starting point. To Wolpe's mind, a neurosis is an anxiety response deeply rooted through conditioning. Most behaviour therapists share this conception. The therapist task is, according to it, to unchain the circuit between anxiety producing stimulus and neurotic responses. In order to achieve the disjunction, an antagonistic response is used, that reciprocally inhibits the anxiety response. Systematic desensitization based on relation is a typical application of the reciprocal inhibition principle. Nevertheless, other usual techniques, such as negative practice (used by Yates for the treatment of tics) or Skinner's operant conditioning are not based on that principle. A wider basis is thus required. Behaviour therapists claim that the theoretical basis is to be found in learning theory laws. The reciprocal inhibition principle is the counterpart of the counter-conditioning law, the negative practice principle is similar to the extinction law, and so on. However, there is not one single learning theory, but several ones, mutually contradictory. And they are not fit to provide the needed theoretical basis. That disagreement can be overcome looking for the common principle of all learning laws, namely, that the need is to create definite circuits that can operate in front of adequate stimulus. Still another set of criticisms to behaviour therapy comes from dynamic psychology and psychoanalysis. The fact is stressed that suppressing symptoms does not modify structural maladjustments. Behavior therapists
Grossberg, J M
This article identifies, describes and discusses two major sources of controversy between cognitive therapists and behavior therapists. One class of conflict has been generated by specific misinterpretations of opposing viewpoints. Appropriate quotations are used in an attempt to clarify the views of the major protagonists. The other source of conflict is the metaphysical issue of mind-body dualism and differing definitions of psychology. After discussing justifications for renewed research on cognitive interactions and the major behaviorist objections to such an effort, the author recommends intensified applications of behavioral technology in the socio-economic and political arena.
NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to compare a brief-cognitive behavioral therapy (B- CBT ) to usual care in the treatment of active...The primary purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (B- CBT ) for the treatment of suicidality...involve tests conducted comparing improvement following B- CBT ( treatment duration of 12 weeks) to treatment as usual (TAU). The primary outcome
Behavior therapy in South Africa has, after strong beginnings, undergone a slump which seems largely due to the drain of leading behavior therapists from this country. During the last decade there has been evidence of a revival of this approach, due largely to the increasing place of behavior therapy in clinical training curricula. Questionnaire and interview data from universities and hospitals indicated that therapy training was "eclectic" in the sense that interns and registrars were expected to master the basics of several approaches; and this was reflected in clinical practice in that most therapists used behavior therapy in conjunction with other approaches. It was noted that relatively little research in behavior therapy was published by South Africans, but that this appeared to be increasing in the last few years. Cross-cultural issues were assuming increasing importance as psychotherapeutic services were increasingly extended to the indigenous African population of this country, and it was suggested that behavior therapy was an effective approach in this context when due consideration was given to the cultural beliefs and patterns of the particular patient.
Behaviour therapies using conditioning principles have been successful in the treatment of some psychopatological eating behaviours. Such have been the cases for anorexia nervosae in adolescents and adults, refusal to eat in the young child and difficulties of swallowing. Some of these cases are described. Research has been done in different countries on the applications of these methods to the treatment of obesity caused by overeating which appears very frequently in our societies. Systematic and covert desensitization and operant conditioning using positive reinforcements are more frequently used in these behaviour modification procedures than aversive methods. More recently, researches on self-control (self-reward and self-punishment) have shown it as a very efficient tool for inducing weight loss. These methods using self-control have been applied to large populations: after a first, careful examination of the patient's eating behaviour, the program of reinforcement is established. It can be partially controlled by written instructions and letters. Results are already encouraging although they need to be followed up. But more research should be done on overeating behaviours, the way they appear and are maintained and on different programs of reinforcement for weight loss.
Labrador, Francisco Javier
Skinner is, without a doubt, one of the most predominant figures in the development of Behavior Modification and Behavior Therapy. Skinners' work is essential to the development of Behavior Modification and Behavior Therapy. Beginning with the social need for efficient psychotherapy, and after having generated a solid theoretical body of behavioral laws, Skinner indicated and also developed the appropriate path towards efficient interventions for unadaptive behavior. He developed a new theory regarding abnormal behavior (psychopathology), as well as a procedural model for evaluation (diagnosis) and intervention: "The functional analysis of behavior". His applications for this kind of work are pioneering and at the same time, he is the agglutinant figure of what we today call "Behavior Modification and/or Therapy". It is remarkable that a scientist could change the theories and practices of a discipline as radically as Skinner and his work did. His work, however, still has its limitations. The best way to acknowledge and pay tribute to Skinners' work is to overcome these limitations.
Wang, Lu-Mei; Hung, Shih-Yuan; Chiou, Chou-Ping
Kidney patients often suffer numerous comorbidities (e.g., hyperphosphatemia, renal osteodystrophy, and bodyweight gain induced by fluid overload or hypertension), which often impart discomfort and a significantly reduced quality of life. The literatures points to the efficacy of behavior modification therapy in changing inappropriate self-health care behavior in order to improve comorbidity symptoms. This article introduces behavior modification theory and its application as well as clinical strategies related to kidney patient care. The authors hope this article will promote knowledge of behavior modification theory among healthcare professionals and facilitate to the application of this theory in clinical practice to improve nursing care.
Lorenzo-Luaces, Lorenzo; Keefe, John R; DeRubeis, Robert J
Since the introduction of Beck's cognitive theory of emotional disorders, and their treatment with psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral approaches have become the most extensively researched psychological treatment for a wide variety of disorders. Despite this, the relative contribution of cognitive to behavioral approaches to treatment are poorly understood and the mechanistic role of cognitive change in therapy is widely debated. We critically review this literature, focusing on the mechanistic role of cognitive change across cognitive and behavioral therapies for depressive and anxiety disorders.
Bastien, Celyne H.; Morin, Charles M.; Ouellet, Marie-Christine; Blais, France C.; Bouchard, Sebastien
Forty-five adults with primary insomnia received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) implemented in a group therapy format, in individual face-to-face therapy or through brief individual telephone consultations. The results indicate that CBT was effective in improving sleep parameters with all 3 methods of treatment implementation, and there was no…
Rizvi, Shireen L.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has become a widely used treatment model for individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and other individuals with significant emotion dysregulation problems. Despite its strong empirical support, DBT obviously does not have positive outcomes for all individuals. It is critical that cases of DBT…
Petry, Nancy M.; Ammerman, Yola; Bohl, Jaime; Doersch, Anne; Gay, Heather; Kadden, Ronald; Molina, Cheryl; Steinberg, Karen
Few studies have evaluated efficacy of psychotherapies for pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (N = 231) were randomly assigned to (a) referral to Gamblers Anonymous (GA), (b) GA referral plus a cognitive-behavioral (CB) workbook, or (c) GA referral plus 8 sessions of individual CB therapy. Gambling and related problems were assessed…
Sigmon, Scott B.
Cognitive behavioral psychology is a new theoretical orientation. When applied in treatment, it is known as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). CBT, although based primarily on an information processing model, rests firmly on the twin pillars of both behaviorism and cognitive psychology. Today cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy are terms which…
Skinner, B F
For more than twenty-four hundred years, people were seen to behave in given ways because of what they were feeling or thinking, and feelings and thoughts were therefore the things to study. However, it has always been difficult to do very much with feelings and thoughts because of their inaccessibility to outside observers. Further, important distinctions are obscured when behavior is attributed to a state of mind. As more and more of the variables of which behavior is a function are identified and their role analysed, less remains to be explained in mentalistic ways. The operant side of behavior therapy is illustrated by considering a few characteristic problems. Discussion includes the analysis of contingencies outside and inside the clinic, and the relationship between behavioral health and medical health.
Shaffer, Carolyn S.; And Others
The relative efficacy of both group and individual cognitive behavior therapeutic approaches in treating anxiety and depression are evaluated and then compared to an interpersonal group therapy approach. The two major hypotheses are that group cognitive behavior therapy is at least as effective as individual cognitive behavior therapy, and that…
Mitchell, James E; Burgard, Melissa; Faber, Ron; Crosby, Ross D; de Zwaan, Martina
To our knowledge, no psychotherapy treatment studies for compulsive buying have been published. The authors conducted a pilot trial comparing the efficacy of a group cognitive behavioral intervention designed for the treatment of compulsive buying to a waiting list control. Twenty-eight subjects were assigned to receive active treatment and 11 to the waiting list control group. The results at the end of treatment showed significant advantages for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) over the waiting list in reductions in the number of compulsive buying episodes and time spent buying, as well as scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale--Shopping Version and the Compulsive Buying Scale. Improvement was well-maintained at 6-month follow-up. The pilot data suggests that a cognitive behavioral intervention can be quite effective in the treatment of compulsive buying disorder. This model requires further testing.
Insomnia is very common in older adults, but is generally related to medical and psychiatric illness, medication, circadian rhythm change. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia(CBT-I) is a brief, sleep-focused, multimodal intervention by psychological and behavioral procedures. The most common approach includes a behavioral (sleep restriction, stimulus control, relaxation) component combined cognitive and educational (cognitive strategies, sleep hygiene education) component. CBT-I has adequate evidence from clinical trials to support the management of insomnia. CBT-I has proved successful for older adults with primary and comorbid insomnia and for those with dependency on hypnotics. Proper treatment of insomnia is effective and can improve overall physical and mental health and quality of life in the elderly patient.
Agras, W. Stewart
The relationship between three behavior therapies and the experimental behavioral sciences is examined. It is concluded that behavior therapy is one of the few media within which the relevance of the experimental behavioral sciences to clinical medicine can be demonstrated. (Author)
Fassbinder, Eva; Schweiger, Ulrich; Martius, Desiree; Brand-de Wilde, Odette; Arntz, Arnoud
Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross' process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness) are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g., lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect). These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogs and imagery rescripting. PMID:27683567
Ganasen, K A; Ipser, J C; Stein, D J
There has long been interest in combining pharmacotherapy with psychotherapy, including cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). More recently, basic research on fear extinction has led to interest in augmentation of CBT with the N-methyl Daspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) for anxiety disorders. In this article, the literature on clinical trials that have combined pharmacotherapy and CBT is briefly reviewed, focusing particularly on the anxiety disorders. The literature on CBT and DCS is then systematically reviewed. A series of randomized placebo-controlled trials on panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia suggest that low dose DCS before therapy sessions may be more effective compared with CBT alone in certain anxiety disorders. The strong translational foundation of this work is compelling, and the positive preliminary data gathered so far encourage further work. Issues for future research include delineating optimal dosing, and demonstrating effectiveness in real-world settings.
Although a common disease, conversion disorder still calls attention in the clinical practice. A case of conversion disorder, diagnosed as a psychogenic aphonia that persisted for a week, was reported in this paper. A 21-year-old woman developed symptoms after breaking off a long-lasting relationship with her boy-friend. History revealed that she was introvert with high neuroticism and communication problems. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was used. After the positive reinforcement in the therapy of her aphonia, assertion training for the development of communication skills was performed. In the end, cognitive restructuring was used to prevent relapse in regard to her actual life situation of being a refugee preparing for immigration to Australia.
Dimeff, Linda A.; Linehan, Marsha M.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a well-established treatment for individuals with multiple and severe psychosocial disorders, including those who are chronically suicidal. Because many such patients have substance use disorders (SUDs), the authors developed DBT for Substance Abusers, which incorporates concepts and modalities designed to promote abstinence and to reduce the length and adverse impact of relapses. Among these are dialectical abstinence, “clear mind,” and attachment strategies that include off-site counseling as well as active attempts to find patients who miss sessions. Several randomized clinical trials have found that DBT for Substance Abusers decreased substance abuse in patients with borderline personality disorder. The treatment also may be helpful for patients who have other severe disorders co-occurring with SUDs or who have not responded to other evidence-based SUD therapies. PMID:18497717
Constraint-induced (CI) therapy is a term given to a family of efficacious neurorehabilitation treatments including to date: upper extremity CI movement therapy, lower extremity CI movement therapy, pediatric CI therapy, and CI aphasia therapy. The purpose of this article is to outline the behavior analysis origins of CI therapy and the ways in…
Chand, Suma P
Insomnia most commonly presents comorbidly in association with medical and psychiatric disorders. Comorbid insomnia, however, remains under treated in the majority of patients. Concerns about drug interactions, adverse events, and dependence as well as the assumption that treating the insomnia as a secondary presentation that will resolve when the primary condition improves are all factors that contribute to the under treatment of comorbid insomnia. This article presents the growing research evidence that highlights the benefits and importance of targeting the insomnia that presents comorbidly with medical and psychiatric conditions utilizing the nonpharmacological and effective treatment of cognitive behavior therapy.
Babson, Kimberly A; Feldner, Matthew T; Badour, Christal L
More than 70 million people in the United States experience primary insomnia (PI) at some point in their life, resulting in an estimated $65 billion in health care costs and lost productivity. PI is therefore one of the most common health care problems in the United States. To mollify the negative effects of PI, scholars have sought to evaluate and improve treatments of this costly health care problem. A breadth of research has demonstrated that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective intervention for PI. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of CBT for PI, including evidence regarding treatment efficacy, effectiveness, and practitioner considerations.
... back pain - cognitive behavioral; Backache - chronic - cognitive behavioral; Lumbar pain - chronic - cognitive behavioral; Pain - back - chronic - cognitive behavioral; Chronic back pain - low - cognitive behavioral
Williams, David A
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a formal therapeutic approach that encourages selfmanagement of illnesses in accordance with the BioPsychoSocial model. CBT is composed of numerous skills grounded in known principles of behavioral and cognitive change. Each skill is designed to influence one of the facets associated with the perception of pain (i.e., sensory factors, emotional factors, or cognitive factors). Across the various Central Sensitivity Syndromes (CSS), CBT is thought to be beneficial to at least a portion of individuals afflicted. This paper provides a description of CBT, some recommendations for integrating CBT into clinical practice, and a brief review of the evidence supporting the use of CBT with various forms of CSS.
Heimberg, R G; Barlow, D H
Significant advances in cognitive-behavioral therapy for social phobia have occurred during the past 5 years. A new psychobiological model of social anxiety is described, and recent controlled clinical trials are reviewed. An effective cognitive-behavioral approach to therapy for social phobia developed in the authors' setting is described with case studies. Finally, future directions in cognitive-behavioral approaches to therapy for social anxiety, including clinical trials of interactive approaches that combine drug therapy with behavioral therapy and of intensive treatment of patients with avoidant personality disorder, are described briefly.
Staats, A W
The field of behavior therapy is not in touch with itself in terms of its overarching behaviorism. Many erroneously consider its basic behaviorism to have been radical behaviorism and continue to look to develop behavior therapy (including behavior analysis and behavioral assessment) within that framework. But that approach turns out to be much less than maximal because there is a more advanced, better developed behaviorism within which to conduct and project the field. There is much that behavior therapy is not doing in practice and research because it is not making full use of that behaviorism foundation.
Latimer, P R; Sweet, A A
During the past decade there has been an increasing emphasis on cognition in psychology and behavior therapy. This movement has spawned several distinctive cognitive therapies. While those therapies do employ innovative cognitive treatment procedures, they often do so in the context of well-established behavioral treatment procedures which may or may not be acknowledged by the label "cognitive-behavior therapy". This paper addresses the question of whether cognitive therapy is an evolutionary or revolutionary development from behavior therapy and critically evaluates the evidence for the efficacy of procedures specific to cognitive therapy.
Safren, Steven A.; Hendriksen, Ellen S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Pickard, Robert; Otto, Michael W.
For patients with HIV, depression is a common, distressing condition that can interfere with a critical self-care behavior--adherence to antiretroviral therapy. The present study describes a cognitive-behavioral treatment designed to integrate cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression with our previously tested approach to improving adherence to…
A case study of a high school student concerned with weight problems illustrates multimodal behavior therapy and its use in a high school setting. Multimodal therapy allows the school counselor to maximize referral sources while emphasizing growth and actualization. (JAC)
Gillen, Mark C.
Adventure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy share elements, including transformation of distorted thinking patterns, a focus on current and future functioning, consideration of the counselor-client relationship, and the use of stress in the change process. Recognizing cognitive behavioral therapy as an empirically sound theory underlying…
Ryan, Tracey Ellen; Blau, Shawn; Grozeva, Dima
This article describes an experimental undergraduate psychology course that ran for two semesters during the 2009 academic year at a private, urban university in the United States. Students learned the techniques and strategies of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) with a focus on the practical elements…
Ford, Julian D.
Investigated determinants and predictive utility of client's perception of therapuetic relationship (CPTR) in context of behavior therapy research. CPTR was an effective predictor of dropping out when measured early in therapy, of immediate posttherapy client gains when measured in mid- to late therapy, but not of long-term maintenance.…
Walkup, John T.; Albano, Anne Marie; Piacentini, John; Birmaher, Boris; Compton, Scott N.; Sherrill, Joel T.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Rynn, Moira A.; McCracken, James; Waslick, Bruce; Iyengar, Satish; March, John S.; Kendall, Philip C.
Background Anxiety disorders are common psychiatric conditions affecting children and adolescents. Although cognitive behavioral therapy and selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors have shown efficacy in treating these disorders, little is known about their relative or combined efficacy. Methods In this randomized, controlled trial, we assigned 488 children between the ages of 7 and 17 years who had a primary diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia to receive 14 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy, sertraline (at a dose of up to 200 mg per day), a combination of sertraline and cognitive behavioral therapy, or a placebo drug for 12 weeks in a 2:2:2:1 ratio. We administered categorical and dimensional ratings of anxiety severity and impairment at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. Results The percentages of children who were rated as very much or much improved on the Clinician Global Impression-Improvement scale were 80.7% for combination therapy (P<0.001), 59.7% for cognitive behavioral therapy (P<0.001), and 54.9% for sertraline (P<0.001); all therapies were superior to placebo (23.7%). Combination therapy was superior to both monotherapies (P<0.001). Results on the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale documented a similar magnitude and pattern of response; combination therapy had a greater response than cognitive behavioral therapy, which was equivalent to sertraline, and all therapies were superior to placebo. Adverse events, including suicidal and homicidal ideation, were no more frequent in the sertraline group than in the placebo group. No child attempted suicide. There was less insomnia, fatigue, sedation, and restlessness associated with cognitive behavioral therapy than with sertraline. Conclusions Both cognitive behavioral therapy and sertraline reduced the severity of anxiety in children with anxiety disorders; a combination of the two therapies had a superior response rate. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT
McCrady, Barbara S; Wilson, Adam D; Muñoz, Rosa E; Fink, Brandi C; Fokas, Kathryn; Borders, Adrienne
Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy (ABCT) has emerged over the last 30 years as a highly efficacious treatment for those with alcohol use disorders. This review highlights the historical and conceptual underpinnings of ABCT, as well as the specific treatment elements and structure. Proposed active ingredients, moderators, and mediators of treatment outcome are discussed. Efficacy is evaluated for reductions in identified patient drinking, improved relationship functioning, and reductions in intimate partner violence. Adaptations of ABCT for substances other than alcohol are described. Other adaptations, including brief interventions, interventions addressing PTSD and TBI along with alcohol use, and interventions deliverable via technology platforms are described. Additional cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness findings supporting the economic value of ABCT are noted. Future directions for research in this area include possible adaptations for female identified patients, nontraditional couples, LGBT partners and dyads involving nonintimate partner relationships. The development of more flexible models and enhanced dissemination strategies may improve clinical uptake and utility as well as increasing the feasibility of this treatment for integrated healthcare settings.
Staats, Arthur W.
"A History of the Behavioral Therapies" (O'Donohue, et al., 2001) contains no description of psychological behaviorism (PB) and the role it played as one of the foundations of behavior therapy. This article indicates some of the contributions made by PB that make the missing chapter and related phenomena a major aberration in science. (Contains 39…
Harvey, Allison G.; Bélanger, Lynda; Talbot, Lisa; Eidelman, Polina; Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon; Fortier-Brochu, Émilie; Ivers, Hans; Lamy, Manon; Hein, Kerrie; Soehner, Adriane M.; Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.
Objective To examine the unique contribution of behavior therapy (BT) and cognitive therapy (CT) relative to the full cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for persistent insomnia. Method Participants were 188 adults (117 women; M age = 47.4 years old, SD=12.6) with persistent insomnia (average of 14.5 years duration). They were randomized to eight, weekly, individual sessions consisting of BT (n = 63), CT (n = 65), or CBT (n = 60). Results Full CBT was associated with greatest improvements, the improvements associated with BT were faster but not as sustained and the improvements associated with CT were slower and sustained. The proportion of treatment responders was significantly higher in the CBT (67.3%) and BT (67.4%) relative to CT (42.4%) groups at post treatment, while 6-months later CT made significant further gains (62.3%), BT had significant loss (44.4%) and CBT retained its initial response (67.6%). Remission rates followed a similar trajectory, with higher remission rates at post treatment in CBT (57.3%) relative to CT (30.8%), with BT falling in between (39.4%); CT made further gains from post treatment to follow up (30.9% to 51.6%). All three therapies produced improvements of daytime functioning at both post treatment and follow up, with few differential changes across groups. Conclusions Full CBT is the treatment of choice. Both BT and CT are effective, with a more rapid effect for BT and a delayed action for CT. These different trajectories of changes provide unique insights into the process of behavior change via behavioral versus cognitive routes. PMID:24865869
Curtis, David F
Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) present significant problems with behavioral disinhibition that often negatively affect their peer relationships. Although behavior therapies for ADHD have traditionally aimed to help parents and teachers better manage children's ADHD-related behaviors, therapy processes seldom use peer relationships to implement evidence-based behavioral principles. This article introduces Structured Dyadic Behavior Therapy as a milieu for introducing effective behavioral techniques within a socially meaningful context. Establishing collaborative behavioral goals, benchmarking, and redirection strategies are discussed to highlight how in-session dyadic processes can be used to promote more meaningful reinforcement and change for children with ADHD. Implications for improving patient care, access to care, and therapist training are also discussed.
Neacsiu, Andrada D.; Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.; Linehan, Marsha M.
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is a comprehensive, multimodal cognitive behavioral treatment originally developed for individuals who met criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) who displayed suicidal tendencies. DBT is based on behavioral theory but also includes principles of acceptance, mindfulness, and validation. Since its…
Papadomarkaki, E; Portinou, S
The present study constitutes a brief literature overview, in which the term of clinical perfectionism, its etiopathology, its assessment and its relation to psychopathology, as well as the therapeutic interventions based on the Cognitive Behavioral Model are discussed. According to Frost, perfectionism is associated with one's desire to achieve the greatest degree of performance and it is accompanied by an extremely strict evaluation of that particular performance. The relationship with oneself as well as the relationship with others are both characterised by high standards and demands which tend to exhaust one individual and dramatically toughen the development of proximity with the others. Perfectionism, as a personality trait, presents functional and dysfunctional elements for a person. Dysfunctional, clinical perfectionism -a term recently coined by researchers- has been linked to a number of disorders, such as social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders -anorexia and bulimia nervosa- depression and personality disorders. From a perfectionist's point of view, perfection exists and its attaintment is feasible. The existence of a particularly high and often unrealistic goal can lead the person to severe disappointment when this specific goal is not finally reached. A person with functional perfectionism is possible to set another, more achievable, goal next time, while a person with clinical perfectionism will interpret this failure as a sign of personal inadequacy and will either make another attempt to reach the same goal or will abandon the effort altogether. A sense of weakness and subsequent negative automatic thoughts are the aftermath of both the first and the second choice. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy focuses on the realisation that clinical perfectionism is undesirable, on the dispute of negative automatic thoughts and on the replacement of unfunctional cognitive schemas with other, more functional ones. In the therapeutic process
Ono, Yutaka; Furukawa, Toshi A; Shimizu, Eiji; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Nakagawa, Akiko; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Ishii, Tomoko; Nakajima, Satomi
Cognitive therapy/cognitive behavior therapy was introduced into the field of psychiatry in the late 1980s in Japan, and the Japanese Association for Cognitive Therapy (JACT), founded in 2004, now has more than 1500 members. Along with such progress, awareness of the effectiveness of cognitive therapy/cognitive behavioral therapy has spread, not only among professionals and academics but also to the public. The Study Group of the Procedures and Effectiveness of Psychotherapy, funded by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, has conducted a series of studies on the effectiveness of cognitive therapy/cognitive behavior therapy since 2006 and shown that it is feasible for Japanese patients. As a result, in April 2010 cognitive therapy/cognitive behavior therapy for mood disorders was added to the national health insurance scheme in Japan. This marked a milestone in Japan's psychiatric care, where pharmacotherapy has historically been more common. In this article the authors review research on cognitive therapy/cognitive behavior therapy in Japan.
Art therapy in conjunction with cognitive behavioral therapy reduces symptoms and enhances the potential for positive outcomes for sexually abused children in trauma-focused treatment. This article presents a treatment model that utilizes specific art therapy interventions to facilitate treatment, based on research on the effectiveness of combined…
This manual describes a clay therapy program appropriate for use with students having a variety of exceptionalities and in an age range from 6 to 18 years. Organization and staffing are briefly discussed followed by a list of long range goals (affective, motoric, and aesthetic), suggestions for clay therapy implementation to achieve these goals,…
Eidelman, Polina; Talbot, Lisa; Ivers, Hans; Bélanger, Lynda; Morin, Charles M; Harvey, Allison G
As part of a larger randomized controlled trial, 188 participants were randomized to behavior therapy (BT), cognitive therapy (CT), or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. The aims of this study were threefold: (a) to determine whether change in dysfunctional beliefs about sleep was related to change in sleep, insomnia symptoms, and impairment following treatment; (b) to determine whether BT, CT, and CBT differ in their effects on dysfunctional beliefs; and (c) to determine whether the treatments differ in their effects on particular kinds of dysfunctional beliefs. Beliefs, sleep, insomnia symptoms, and sleep-related psychosocial impairment were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-up. Greater change in dysfunctional beliefs occurring over the course of BT, CT, or CBT was associated with greater improvement in insomnia symptoms and impairment at posttreatment and both follow-ups. All groups experienced a significant decrease in dysfunctional beliefs during treatment, which were sustained through 6- and 12-month follow-up. Compared with the BT group, a greater proportion of participants in the CT and/or CBT groups endorsed dysfunctional beliefs below a level considered clinically significant at posttreatment and 12-month follow-up. The results demonstrate the importance of targeting dysfunctional beliefs in insomnia treatment, suggest that beliefs may be significantly modified with BT alone, and indicate that cognitive interventions may be particularly powerful in enhancing belief change.
Dethier, M; Blairy, S; Poirrier, R
Today, insomnia is predominantly treated by pharmacotherapy. Yet, cognitive-behavioral therapy has better long-term outcomes. In this paper, we describe the basic principles of this short-term psychotherapeutic treatment. It combines methods of sleep restriction and stimulus control, the learning of relaxation techniques, advices on sleep hygiene and cognitive therapy techniques applied to cognitions that overwhelm insomniac moments.
Petry, Nancy M
Numerous types of treatments for pathological gambling have been described, but two of the most common are Gamblers Anonymous (GA) and cognitive-behavioral therapy. This paper describes some outcome data associated with the two approaches. It also reviews evidence suggesting that a combined intervention may enhance therapy engagement and reduce relapse rates.
Watson, Joshua C.
In 1956, Dr. Albert Ellis presented his seminal work on Rational Therapy, subsequently renamed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) in 1993. This paper explores the origins, theoretical foundations, applications, and implications of REBT and provides a look at the empirical research available in support of the approach's efficacy. REBT is…
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is one of the main approaches in psychotherapy. It teaches the patient to examine the link between dysfunctional thoughts and maladaptive behaviors and to re- evaluate the cognitive biases involved in the maintenance of symptoms by using strategies such as guided discovery. CBT is constantly evolving in part to improve its' effectiveness and accessibility. Thus in the last decade, increasingly popular approaches based on mindfulness and acceptance have emerged. These therapies do not attempt to modify cognitions even when they are biased and dysfunctional but rather seek a change in the relationship between the individual and the symptoms. This article aims to present the historical context that has allowed the emergence of this trend, the points of convergence and divergence with traditional CBT as well as a brief presentation of the different therapies based on mindfulness meditation and acceptance. Hayes (2004) described three successive waves in behavior therapy, each characterized by "dominant assumptions, methods and goals": traditional behavior therapy, cognitive therapy and therapies based on mindfulness meditation and acceptance. The latter consider that human suffering occurs when the individual lives a restricted life in order avoid pain and immediate discomfort to the detriment of his global wellbeing. These therapies combine mindfulness, experiential, acceptance strategies with traditional behavior principles in order to attain lasting results. There are significant points of convergence between traditional CBT and therapies based on mindfulness meditation and acceptance. They are both empirically validated, based upon a theoretical model postulating that avoidance is key in the maintenance of psychopathology and they recommend an approach strategy in order to overcome the identified problem. They both use behavioral techniques in the context of a collaborative relationship in order to identify precise problems and to
Baddeley, Jenna L; Gros, Daniel F
Insomnia is present in a majority of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, when both disorders are present, disagreements exist about whether to provide exposure therapy for PTSD before insomnia treatment, or vice versa. The current case study describes the psychological treatment of a psychotherapy-naive veteran with comorbid insomnia and PTSD. The patient initially refused exposure therapy for PTSD; thus, cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi) was a first-step treatment. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Insomnia provided insomnia symptom relief psychoeducation and self-monitoring of PTSD symptoms prepared the patient to enter exposure therapy. After six CBTi sessions, the patient completed seven sessions of trauma-specific exposure therapy. At the conclusion of treatment and at 90-day follow up, the patient demonstrated significant reductions in insomnia and PTSD symptoms. Findings support the safe and effective use of CBTi in patients with comorbid insomnia and PTSD to improve sleep and facilitate entry into exposure therapy for PTSD.
Fichten, Catherine; Wright, John
Reviewed experimental evidence for the efficacy of videotape and verbal feedback in behavioral couple therapy. Concluded that research does not permit definitive conclusions concerning either procedure. Evidence indicates that it is difficult to ascertain just how the communication behaviors of happy and distressed couples differ. (Author/JAC)
Kazdin, Alan E.
Reviews advances in child behavior therapy by illustrating the range of problems treated and the techniques and accomplishments that have emerged. Discusses training of parents, teachers, peers, and children themselves in behavior change techniques, as well as general implications of therapeutic developments for enhancing child welfare. (GC)
Zionts, Paul; Zionts, Laura
Based on the early work of Albert Ellis, seeks to identify and challenge irrational beliefs that underlie behavior problems. Outlines concepts and methods of Rational Emotive Behavior Theory and describes the application both in counseling and as a mental health curriculum for troubled children and youth. Offers classroom techniques. (RJM)
Zimmer, Michelle; Desch, Larry
Sensory-based therapies are increasingly used by occupational therapists and sometimes by other types of therapists in treatment of children with developmental and behavioral disorders. Sensory-based therapies involve activities that are believed to organize the sensory system by providing vestibular, proprioceptive, auditory, and tactile inputs. Brushes, swings, balls, and other specially designed therapeutic or recreational equipment are used to provide these inputs. However, it is unclear whether children who present with sensory-based problems have an actual "disorder" of the sensory pathways of the brain or whether these deficits are characteristics associated with other developmental and behavioral disorders. Because there is no universally accepted framework for diagnosis, sensory processing disorder generally should not be diagnosed. Other developmental and behavioral disorders must always be considered, and a thorough evaluation should be completed. Difficulty tolerating or processing sensory information is a characteristic that may be seen in many developmental behavioral disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, developmental coordination disorders, and childhood anxiety disorders. Occupational therapy with the use of sensory-based therapies may be acceptable as one of the components of a comprehensive treatment plan. However, parents should be informed that the amount of research regarding the effectiveness of sensory integration therapy is limited and inconclusive. Important roles for pediatricians and other clinicians may include discussing these limitations with parents, talking with families about a trial period of sensory integration therapy, and teaching families how to evaluate the effectiveness of a therapy.
Fresco, David M
For the past half century, behavior therapy has served as the theoretical basis for successful inquiries into the nature and treatment of many emotional disorders. Although there are core principles shared by all behavior therapies, two primary approaches, traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), have emerged as the most viable treatment approaches, even though they achieve their success through different methods and are predicated in different assumptions, principles, questions, and scientific strategies. In this special series, theorists and therapists with allegiances to one of these two approaches articulate the philosophical and theoretical underpinnings of their approach, summarize the evidence to date, point out current gaps or inconsistencies, and map out future directions with predictions informed by theory. The series concludes with a capstone paper that seeks to find common ground within the family of behavior therapies while also positing ways for behavior therapy to remain relevant in a world that increasingly emphasizes neuroscience and biobehavioral approaches to understand and reduce human suffering.
Choi, Dennis C; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Gerardi, Maryrose; Ressler, Kerry J
Improved efficacy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other anxiety disorders is urgently needed. Traditional anxiety treatments of hypnosis and psychodynamic therapy may be of some help, but uncontrolled studies lead to inconclusive results on the efficacy of these treatment techniques. There is a larger literature supporting the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral procedures with PTSD, including prolonged exposure therapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and anxiety management techniques. The cutting-edge technology of virtual reality-based exposure therapy for PTSD is particularly exciting. To further build on effective psychosocial treatments, current pharmacological augmentation approaches to emotional learning are being combined with psychotherapy. In particular, D-cycloserine, a partial NMDA agonist, has shown to be effective in facilitating the exposure/extinction therapy to improve the efficacy of treating anxiety disorders, and may guide the way for new pharmacological enhancements of behavioral therapy.
The theory of rational-emotive therapy (RET) and of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is briefly explained and is applied to group therapy. It is shown how RET and CBT therapy groups deal with transference, countertransference, levels of group intervention, process versus content orientation, identifying underlying group process themes, here-and-now activation, working with difficult group members, activity levels of therapist and group members, and other group problems. Although they particularly concentrate on people's tendencies to construct and create their own "emotional" difficulties, RET and CBT group procedures fully acknowledge the interactions of human thoughts, feelings, and actions and active-directively employ a variety of cognitive, emotive, and behavioral group therapy techniques.
Wang, Feng; Feng, Ting-Yi; Yang, Shilin; Preter, Maurice; Zhou, Jiang-Ning; Wang, Xiao-Ping
Dementia, which can be induced by diverse factors, is a clinical syndrome characterized by the decline of cognitive function. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) include depression, agitation, and aggression. Dementia causes a heavy burden on patients and their caregivers. Patients with BPSD should be assessed comprehensively by practitioners and offered appropriate non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic therapy. Non-pharmacologic therapy has been recommended as the basal treatment for BPSD; however, pharmacologic therapy is required under many situations. Medications, including antipsychotic agents, antidepressants, sedative and hypnotic agents, mood stabilizers, cholinesterase inhibitors, and amantadine, are extensively used in clinical practice. We have reviewed the progression of pharmacologic therapy for BPSD. PMID:26644152
Award Number: W81XWH-09-1-0722 TITLE: High Risk Suicidal Behavior in Veterans- Assessment of Predictors and Efficacy of Dialectical Behavioral ...first project is a randomized clinical trial of 120 veterans identified with high-risk suicidal behavior comparing the efficacy of Dialectical... Behavioral Therapy (DBT) vs. treatment as usual (TAU) on suicidal behavior as a primary outcome measure. A second aim of the project is to examine group
Foa, Edna B.
Until the mid-1960s, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was considered to be treatment-resistant, as both psychodynamic psychotherapy and medication had been unsuccessful in significantly reducing OCD symptoms. The first real breakthrough came in 1966 with the introduction of exposure and ritual prevention. This paper will discuss the cognitive behavioral conceptualizations that influenced the development of cognitive behavioral treatments for OCD. There will be a brief discussion of the use of psychodynamic psychotherapy and early behavioral therapy, neither of which produced successful outcomes with OCD. The main part of the paper will be devoted to current cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with an emphasis on variants of exposure and ritual or response prevention (EX/RP) treatments, the therapy that has shown the most empirical evidence of its efficacy. PMID:20623924
Eifert, Georg H.; Forsyth, John P.; Arch, Joanna; Espejo, Emmanuel; Keller, Melody; Langer, David
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is an innovative acceptance-based behavior therapy that has been applied broadly and successfully to treat a variety of clinical problems, including the anxiety disorders. Throughout treatment ACT balances acceptance and mindfulness processes with commitment and behavior change processes. As applied to…
O'Hearn, Amanda; Pollard, Robert Q., Jr.
Therapies that rely on written materials, information, or procedures involving familiarity with the dominant culture (e.g., colloquialisms, history) often pose barriers to people who use another language, have low English literacy, or are less familiar with the dominant culture. All this applies deaf individuals. One of the most well-validated…
Constraint-induced (CI) therapy is a term given to a family of efficacious neurorehabilitation treatments including to date: upper extremity CI movement therapy, lower extremity CI movement therapy, pediatric CI therapy, and CI aphasia therapy. The purpose of this article is to outline the behavior analysis origins of CI therapy and the ways in which its procedures incorporate behavior analysis methods and principles. The intervention is founded on the concept of learned nonuse, a mechanism now empirically demonstrated to exist, which occurs after many different types of damage to the central nervous system (CNS). It results from the dramatic alteration of the contingencies of reinforcement that results from substantial CNS damage and leads to a greater deficit than is warranted by the actual damage sustained. CI therapy produces a countervailing alteration in the contingencies of reinforcement. The intervention has been used successfully to substantially improve motor deficits after stroke, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, with cerebral palsy in a pediatric population, and for language impairment in poststroke aphasia. The protocol of CI therapy consists primarily of standard behavior-analytic methods. It produces a marked plastic brain change that is correlated with its therapeutic effect, and therefore provides an example of the way in which behavior change can contribute to a profound remodeling of the brain. CI therapy may be viewed as an example of behavioral neurorehabilitation. PMID:23449867
Peterson, Brennan D.; Eifert, Georg H.; Feingold, Tal; Davidson, Sarah
Although the field of couple therapy has made significant strides in recent years, there continues to be a need for theoretically sound and empirically supported treatments. The current case study examines whether Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), an experiential acceptance-based behavior therapy, can be effective in treating distressed…
Jennings, Jerry L.; Deming, Adam
Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is touted as the predominant approach in sex offender-specific group treatment, a review of the field shows that the "behavioral" part of CBT has become minimal in relation to that which is cognitive. The authors show how a revitalized "behavioral sensibility" may help to enhance…
Devlin, Sarah; Healy, Olive; Leader, Geraldine; Hughes, Brian M.
The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of sensory-integration therapy (SIT) and a behavioral intervention on rates of challenging behavior (including self-injurious behavior) in four children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. For each of the participants a functional assessment was conducted to identify the variables…
Stewart, Carment D.; Quinn, Andrea; Plever, Sally; Emmerson, Brett
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), problem-solving therapy (PST), or treatment as usual (TAU) were compared in the management of suicide attempters. Participants completed the Beck Hopelessness Scale, Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation, Social Problem-Solving Inventory, and Client Satisfaction Questionnaire at pre- and posttreatment. Both CBT and PST…
Coffman, Sandra J.; Martell, Christopher R.; Dimidjian, Sona; Gallop, Robert; Hollon, Steven D.
In a recent placebo-controlled comparison, behavioral activation was superior to cognitive therapy in the treatment of moderate to severely depressed adults. Moreover, a subset of patients exhibited a pattern of extreme nonresponse to cognitive therapy on self-reports of depression not evident on the clinician ratings. These patients were severely…
Woodward, Susan Crump
Sleep-wake disturbances, particularly insomnia, are among the most prevalent and distressing symptoms experienced by patients with cancer. As a result of extensive interdisciplinary research conducted since 2000, cognitive-behavioral therapy now is considered the standard of care for the treatment of insomnia in the general population and also has been upgraded to "likely to be effective" in the Oncology Nursing Society Putting Evidence Into Practice weight of evidence category. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a multicomponent psychological and behavioral treatment designed to eliminate the perpetuating factors of insomnia. The most frequently used strategies are stimulus control, sleep restriction and relaxation therapies, paradoxical intention, sleep hygiene, and cognitive restructuring. Although this insomnia treatment recommendation has been well publicized, the nursing literature has not effectively translated the theories and principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy into practical guidelines or considerations for use by oncology staff nurses and advanced practitioners. This article attempts to demystify cognitive-behavioral therapy and provide nurses at different levels of practice a foundation from which to evaluate and potentially deliver this promising insomnia intervention.
Cooper, Katy; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Dickinson, Kath; Cantrell, Anna; Wylie, Kevan; Frodsham, Leila; Hood, Catherine
Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is defined by short ejaculatory latency and inability to delay ejaculation causing distress. Management may involve behavioral and/or pharmacological approaches. Aim To systematically review the randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence for behavioral therapies in the management of PE. Methods Nine databases including MEDLINE were searched up to August 2014. Included RCTs compared behavioral therapy against waitlist control or another therapy, or behavioral plus drug therapy against drug treatment alone. [Correction added on 10 September 2015, after first online publication: Search period has been amended from August 2013 to August 2014.] Main Outcome Measure Intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), sexual satisfaction, ejaculatory control, and anxiety and adverse effects. Results Ten RCTs (521 participants) were included. Overall risk of bias was unclear. All studies assessed physical techniques, including squeeze and stop-start, sensate focus, stimulation device, and pelvic floor rehabilitation. Only one RCT included a psychotherapeutic approach (combined with stop-start and drug treatment). Four trials compared behavioral therapies against waitlist control, of which two (involving squeeze, stop-start, and sensate focus) reported IELT differences of 7–9 minutes, whereas two (web-based sensate focus, stimulation device) reported no difference in ejaculatory latency posttreatment. For other outcomes (sexual satisfaction, desire, and self-confidence), some waitlist comparisons significantly favored behavioral therapy, whereas others were not significant. Three trials favored combined behavioral and drug treatment over drug treatment alone, with small but significant differences in IELT (0.5–1 minute) and significantly better results on other outcomes (sexual satisfaction, ejaculatory control, and anxiety). Direct comparisons of behavioral therapy vs. drug treatment gave mixed results, mostly either favoring drug
Smith, Michael T; Neubauer, David N
Approximately 20% of patients presenting in general medical settings have severe and persistent insomnia. Studies consistently find that trouble initiating and maintaining sleep are independent risk factors for medical and psychiatric morbidity, but insomnia is often underdetected and undertreated in primary care settings. Cognitive-behavioral treatment approaches for chronic insomnia and related sleep disorders have been shown to be effective in various patient populations. This article reviews the most common cognitive-behavioral interventions for insomnia, and discusses their efficacy and durability. Possible adaptations for the integration of these approaches into primary care settings and a description of the emerging field of behavioral sleep medicine as a resource for health care providers treating patients with chronic insomnia are also presented.
van Leer, Eva; Hapner, Edie R; Connor, Nadine P
Studies of patient adherence to health behavior programs, such as physical exercise, smoking cessation, and diet, have resulted in the formulation and validation of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change. Although widely accepted as a guide for the development of health behavior interventions, this model has not been applied to vocal rehabilitation. Because resolution of vocal difficulties frequently depends on a patient's ability to make changes in vocal and health behaviors, the TTM may be a useful way to conceptualize voice behavior change processes, including the patient's readiness for change. The purpose of this paper is to apply the TTM to the voice therapy process to: (1) provide an organizing framework for understanding of behavior change in voice therapy, (2) explain how treatment adherence problems can arise, and (3) provide broad strategies to improve treatment adherence. Given the significant role of treatment adherence in treatment outcome, considering readiness for behavior change should be taken into account when planning treatment. Principles of health behavior change can aid speech pathologists in such understanding and estimating readiness for voice therapy.
Carroll, Kathleen M.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.
Behavioral therapy platforms have become virtual requirements in pharmacotherapy trials due to their utility in reducing noise variability, preventing differential medication adherence and protocol attrition, enhancing statistical power and addressing ethical issues in placebo-controlled trials. Selecting an appropriate behavioral platform for a particular trial requires study-specific tailoring, taking into account both the stage of development of the medication being evaluated, as well as the specific strengths and weaknesses of a broad array of available empirically supported behavioral therapies and the range of their possible targets (e.g., enhancing medication adherence, preventing attrition, addressing co-morbid problems, fostering abstinence, and targeting specific weaknesses of the pharmacologic agent). Choosing a suitable behavioral platform also requires consideration of the characteristics of the population to be treated, stage of scientific knowledge regarding the medication’s effects, appropriate balance of internal and external validity, and consideration of potential ceiling effects. Available manualized behavioral treatments are reviewed, noting their strengths and limitations as behavioral therapy platforms for pharmacotherapy trials and as potential concomitant therapies in clinical practice. PMID:15276217
Gronert, Richard R.
Two comprehensive case studies present the careful use of a Time Out" approach to behavior modification with elementary school students. These sessions should be undertaken only under supervision of the school psychologist since a Time Out" can produce damaging psychological effects if used indiscriminately. (CJ)
Sotolongo-Costa, O.; Morales Molina, L.; Rodríguez Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Chacón Reyes, M.
We present a model for the interaction dynamics of lymphocytes-tumor cells population. This model reproduces all known states for the tumor. Further, we develop it taking into account periodical immunotherapy treatment with cytokines alone. A detailed analysis for the evolution of tumor cells as a function of frequency and therapy burden applied for the periodical treatment is carried out. Certain threshold values for the frequency and applied doses are derived from this analysis. So it seems possible to control and reduce the growth of the tumor. Also, constant values for cytokines doses seems to be a successful treatment.
Hayes, Steven C.
The first wave of behavior therapy countered the excesses and scientific weakness of existing nonempirical clinical traditions through empirically studied first-order change efforts linked to behavioral principles targeting directly relevant clinical targets. The second wave was characterized by similar direct change efforts guided by social…
Coletti, Juan P; Teti, Germán L
Over the last decades a series of psychological treatments labeled 'Third Generation Therapies' have been developed. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a third generation therapy that essentially seeks to promote the acceptance of private events in opposition to their modification or change, with the aim of promoting cognitive flexibility. Thus, it is intended that the subject be permitted to choose their behavior consistent with personal values. The current work aims to provide overview specific to the contextual conditions that promoted the emergence of ACT, the underlying philosophy and theory, and the particularities of the intervention model.
Coletti, Juan Pablo; Teti, Germán Leandro
Over the last decades a series of psychological treatments labeled
and borderline personality disorder . Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006; 63:757–766 10. Brown GK, Ten Have T, Henriques GR, et al: Cognitive therapy for the... disorder Substance 13 dependence A lcohol dependence 11 Soc otherwise specified DSM-IV axis II diagnosisb Depressive disorder 9 Borderline ... personality 7 disorder A ntisocial personality 5 84.2 69 90.8 76.3 52 68.4 13.2 10 13.2 2.6 2 1.3 1.3 1 2.6 5.3 3 3.9 6.6 7 9.2 17.1 21 27.6 19.7 16 21.1
Milne, Jill L
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a symptom-based syndrome characterized by the presence of urgency, which is defined as a sudden and compelling desire to void that cannot be postponed. OAB may significantly impact of quality of life. Numerous treatment options exist for OAB, including behavioral therapies such as pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation, bladder training, and dietary modification, as well as traditional therapies such as pharmacological therapy and neuromodulation. Behavioral therapies are considered the mainstay of treatment for urinary incontinence in general. However the efficacy of these noninvasive strategies for OAB treatment has not been well addressed in the literature. This article presents an overview of current evidence with attention to the clinical relevance of findings related to lifestyle modification, bladder training, and pelvic floor muscle training. Initial evidence suggests that obesity, smoking, and consumption of carbonated drinks are risk factors for OAB but there is less support for the contributory role of caffeine or the impact of caffeine reduction. The evidence supporting bladder training and pelvic floor muscle training is more consistent and a trend towards combining these therapies to treat OAB appears positive. Given the prevalence of OAB and growing support for the efficacy of behavioral treatments it is important and timely to augment existing evidence with well-designed multicenter trials.
Mulick, Patrick S.; Landers, Sara J.; Kanter, Jonathan W.
Empirical evidence supports cognitive-behavioral interventions for the treatment Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), with exposure therapy typically being the most frequently utilized. While the success of exposure treatments is well established there are factors which may hinder their use in "real-world" settings (e.g., poor treatment…
Lajoie, Travis; Sonkiss, Joshua; Rich, Anne
Objective: The authors describe the first 6 months of a dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) clinic operated by trainees in a general adult psychiatry residency program. The purpose of this report is to provide a model for the creation and maintenance of a formalized resident DBT clinic. Methods: Residents participated in the DBT clinic, attended a…
Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Cohen, Judith A.
Schools are ideal settings for identifying children and adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic events. They are also ideal for providing evidence-based mental health services, such as trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, to students affected by childhood posttraumatic stress disorder and co-occurring mental health and behavioral…
Katz, Laurence Y.; Cox, Brian J.; Gunasekara, Shiny; Miller, Alec L.
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) implementation in a general child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit and to provide preliminary effectiveness data on DBT versus treatment as usual (TAU). Method: Sixty-two adolescents with suicide attempts or suicidal ideation were admitted to one of two…
Fine, Kathi M.; Walther, Michael R.; Joseph, Jessica M.; Robinson, Jordan; Ricketts, Emily J.; Bowe, William E.; Woods, Douglas W.
Although several studies have examined the efficacy of Acceptance Enhanced Behavior Therapy (AEBT) for the treatment of trichotillomania (TTM) in adults, data are limited with respect to the treatment of adolescents. Our case series illustrates the use of AEBT for TTM in the treatment of two adolescents. The AEBT protocol (Woods & Twohig, 2008) is…
Reports that expand the understanding of the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder by using exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy in the age group of 5 to 8-year-olds are presented. A model for collecting the common core elements of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for childhood disorders is also presented.
Frederick, John T.; Comtois, Katherine Anne
Objective: The University of Washington (UW) psychiatry residency program attempted to determine how participation in a dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) training program influenced the practice of its graduates. Methods: A survey was completed by 30 graduates who participated in elective DBT training. This survey obtained information about their…
Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Knauz, Robert O.
This article describes the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Between 10% and 24% of bipolar patients experience a rapid cycling course, with 4 or more mood episodes occurring per year. Characterized by nonresponse to standard mood-stabilizing medications, rapid cyclers are…
Alley, Patricia M.
Describes a range of behavior therapy techniques for treating sleep disturbances, including physical activity, relaxation training, biofeedback, autogenic training, and cognitive techniques. The importance of understanding the client's background is emphasized. Restoring the client's self-control and positive psychological growth are stressed.…
Wood, Jeffrey J.; Piacentini, John C.; Southam-Gerow, Michael; Chu, Brian C.; Sigman, Marian
Objective: This study compared family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT: the Building Confidence Program) with traditional child-focused CBT with minimal family involvement for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Forty clinically anxious youth (6-13 years old) were randomly assigned to a family- or child-focused cognitive-behavioral…
Franklin, Martin E.; Edson, Aubrey L.; Ledley, Deborah A.; Cahill, Shawn P.
Objective: To examine the efficacy and durability of a behavioral therapy (BT) protocol for pediatric TTM compared with a minimal attention control (MAC) condition. It was hypothesized that the BT condition would be superior to MAC at the end of acute treatment, and would also demonstrate durability of gains through the maintenance treatment…
O'Donohue, William; Fryling, Mitch
Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied…
Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige
Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in…
Anxiety disorders occur frequently, and can have a negative impact on the quality of people's lives. They often begin at an early age and can have some serious consequences. This article is an overview of the recent studies concerning group cognitive-behavioral interventions for anxiety disorders. In the last few years, anxiety disorder prevention for children and adolescents has become an important focus of research work. Group prevention programs are based on standard cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) strategies and are aimed at preventing anxiety disorders as early as possible. Numerous cognitive behavioral group therapies for children as well as adults have been well studied. There are many CBT protocols that have been developed for treating specific anxiety disorders. Now, specialized CBT programs are available for individuals who suffer from different anxiety disorders, enabling them to be treated together in groups.
In the treatment of obesity, the behavior modification therapy has aimed at maintaining weight reduction by reforming wrong daily habitual eating behavior which leads obesity. However, a distorted cognitive pattern or a deviated physical lies behind the problematic eating behavior. In that aspect, we have developed new devices as belows. The ingestive behavioral questionnaire discloses problematic eating behavior and its related cognitive and sensational pattern at an early stage of the treatment. The charting of daily weight pattern is convenient for both therapist and patient himself to visually look out an actual ingestive pattern and reinforces maintenance of weight reduction by long term self-monitoring. The chewing chart recording is useful for the recovery of physical satiety sensation, and prevents over eating.
Vranešić Bender, Darija; Krznarić, Zeljko
Current practice guidelines for management of overweight and obesity recommend a tripartite treatment - lifestyle modification program of diet, exercise, and behavior therapy for all persons with a body mass index of at least 30 (and those with body mass index 25 plus two weight-related comorbidities). Behavior therapy provides the structure that facilitates meeting goals for energy intake and expenditure. Lately, there has been a shift in focus from behavior change to cognitive change because it improves long-term results of lifestyle modification programs. Weight loss diets based on the amounts of individual macronutrients (high-protein diets, low-fat diets and low-carbohydrate diets, etc.) in the diet are not more effective than 'classical' low-calorie and balanced diets. An exception has been detected only in short-term diets with a low glycemic load. Also, epidemiological studies show that there is an inversely proportional relationship between body weight and Mediterranean diet. Cognitive behavioral therapy based on the Mediterranean diet has proven to be effective in clinical practice with regard to weight loss, body fat distribution, biochemical parameters, blood pressure and simplicity of following the diet.
Moreira, Fernanda Pedrotti; Cardoso, Taiane de Azevedo; Mondin, Thaíse Campos; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Silva, Ricardo; Jansen, Karen; Oses, Jean Pierre; Wiener, Carolina David
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disorder and its pathophysiology is associated with deregulation of the immune system. We investigated the changes in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines (specifically IL-6 and TNF-α) measured by the ELISA kit in two psychotherapeutic interventions for MDD: Narrative Cognitive Therapy (NCT) and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). This is a randomized clinical trial including 97 individuals (18 to 29years-old) with MDD. In CBT there was a significant difference in serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, therefore indicating that CBT was more effective than NCT on serum levels proinflammatory cytokines.
Trinidad, Antolin C
Would-be learners of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) may be hampered by learning traps that impede effective acquisition of the skills necessary to provide this type of therapy to clients. Among these pitfalls are the possibility of isolation, therapeutic fanaticism, lack of seriousness, therapeutic drift, and thinking CBT is antipsychodynamic or antipsychoanalytic. The author advocates immersion learning of CBT, arguing that theoretical learning must be supplemented by supervision and active use of the method in one's patients. Presented are two case vignettes demonstrating therapeutic drift and therapeutic fanaticism to highlight potential therapeutic impasses that may ensue from these pitfalls.
Devlin, Sarah; Healy, Olive; Leader, Geraldine; Hughes, Brian M
The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of sensory-integration therapy (SIT) and a behavioral intervention on rates of challenging behavior (including self-injurious behavior) in four children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. For each of the participants a functional assessment was conducted to identify the variables maintaining challenging behavior. Results of these assessments were used to design function-based behavioral interventions for each participant. Recommendations for the sensory-integration treatment were designed by an Occupational Therapist, trained in the use of sensory-integration theory and techniques. The sensory-integration techniques were not dependent on the results of the functional assessments. The study was conducted within an alternating treatments design, with initial baseline and final best treatment phase. For each participant, results demonstrated that the behavioral intervention was more effective than the sensory integration therapy in the treatment of challenging behavior. In the best treatment phase, the behavioral intervention alone was implemented and further reduction was observed in the rate of challenging behavior. Analysis of saliva samples revealed relatively low levels of cortisol and very little stress-responsivity across the SIT condition and the behavioral intervention condition, which may be related to the participants' capacity to perceive stress in terms of its social significance.
Drass, Jessica Masino
Art therapy has shown benefits for people with borderline personality disorder and borderline personality traits by alleviating interpersonal difficulties such as affect regulation, an unstable sense of self, self-injurious behaviors, and suicidal ideation. Borderline personality disorder is currently viewed as a trauma spectrum disorder, because…
Otto, Michael W; Smits, Jasper A J; Reese, Hannah E
In this article, we consider the evidence supporting the range of applications of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders, and we examine some of the complex issues encountered for the combination of pharmacologic and cognitive-behavioral treatment strategies. The available evidence supports CBT as an effective first-line treatment for anxiety disorders offering longer-term maintenance of treatment gains. There is also evidence that CBT is an effective strategy for pharmacotherapy nonresponders, a replacement strategy for patients who wish to discontinue their medications, and a standard strategy for pharmacotherapy patients who need to boost their treatment response. Relative to combination therapy, we review some of the conditions that may influence the longevity of treatment gains from CBT.
Dalrymple, Kristy L.; Herbert, James D.
Despite the demonstrated efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD), many individuals do not respond to treatment or demonstrate residual symptoms and impairment posttreatment. Preliminary evidence indicates that acceptance-based approaches (e.g., acceptance and commitment therapy; ACT) can be helpful for a…
Holroyd, Kenneth A.; And Others
Randomly assigned 41 recurrent tension headache sufferers to either cognitive-behavioral therapy or to amitriptyline therapy. Both therapies yielded clinically significant improvements in headache activity. In instances where differences in treatment effectiveness were observed, cognitive-behavioral therapy yielded somewhat more positive outcomes…
Roddy, McKenzie K; Nowlan, Kathryn M; Doss, Brian D; Christensen, Andrew
Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT), developed by Drs. Andrew Christensen and Neil Jacobson, builds off the tradition of behavioral couple therapy by including acceptance strategies as key components of treatment. Results from a large randomized clinical trial of IBCT indicate that it yields large and significant gains in relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, these benefits have been shown to persist for at least 5 years after treatment for the average couple. Not only does IBCT positively impact relationship constructs such as satisfaction and communication, but the benefits of therapy extend to individual, co-parenting, and child functioning. Moreover, IBCT has been shown to operate through the putative mechanisms of improvements in emotional acceptance, behavior change, and communication. IBCT was chosen for nationwide training and dissemination through the Veteran Affairs Medical Centers. Furthermore, the principles of IBCT have been translated into a web-based intervention for distressed couples, OurRelationship.com. IBCT is continuing to evolve and grow as research and technologies allow for continued evaluation and dissemination of this well-supported theoretical model.
Turner, Judith A.; And Others
Evaluated effects of group behavioral therapy including aerobic exercise, behavioral therapy alone, and aerobic exercise alone on pain and physical and psychological disability among mildly disabled chronic low-back-pain patients (n=96). The combined behavioral therapy and exercise group improved significantly more pretreatment to posttreatment…
Möller, A T; Botha, H C
A sample of 44 male Type A insurance representatives, selected by means of the Videotaped Structured Interview, were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 22) and a delayed treatment control group (n = 22). The treatment group participated in 9 weekly sessions of group Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy and were followed up after 10 weeks. After the control period, the delayed treatment control group received the same treatment program. Repeated measurements were obtained by means of the Videotaped Structured Interview, Jenkins Activity Survey, Cook-Medley Hostility Scale, and Type A Cognitive Questionnaire. Self and spouse/friend ratings of Type A behavior were obtained by means of the Bortner Rating Scale. Analysis indicated that, compared to the control condition, the therapy significantly reduced the intensity of Type A behavior and its time urgency component. These improvements were maintained at follow-up and were accompanied by self-reports of significant positive changes in Type A behavior and irrational beliefs.
Hayes, Steven C; Levin, Michael E; Plumb-Vilardaga, Jennifer; Villatte, Jennifer L; Pistorello, Jacqueline
A number of recent authors have compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The present article describes ACT as a distinct and unified model of behavior change, linked to a specific strategy of scientific development, which we term "contextual behavioral science." We outline the empirical progress of ACT and describe its distinctive development strategy. A contextual behavioral science approach is an inductive attempt to build more adequate psychological systems based on philosophical clarity; the development of basic principles and theories; the development of applied theories linked to basic ones; techniques and components linked to these processes and principles; measurement of theoretically key processes; an emphasis on mediation and moderation in the analysis of applied impact; an interest in effectiveness, dissemination, and training; empirical testing of the research program across a broad range of areas and levels of analysis; and the creation of a more effective scientific and clinical community. We argue that this is a reasonable approach, focused on long-term progress, and that in broad terms it seems to be working. ACT is not hostile to traditional CBT, and is not directly buoyed by whatever weaknesses traditional CBT may have. ACT should be measured at least in part against its own goals as specified by its own developmental strategy.
Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy integrated with systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy combined with virtual reality exposure therapy methods in the treatment of flight anxiety: a randomized trial
Triscari, Maria Teresa; Faraci, Palmira; Catalisano, Dario; D’Angelo, Valerio; Urso, Viviana
The purpose of the research was to compare the effectiveness of the following treatment methods for fear of flying: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) integrated with systematic desensitization, CBT combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and CBT combined with virtual reality exposure therapy. Overall, our findings have proven the efficacy of all interventions in reducing fear of flying in a pre- to post-treatment comparison. All groups showed a decrease in flight anxiety, suggesting the efficiency of all three treatments in reducing self-report measures of fear of flying. In particular, our results indicated significant improvements for the treated patients using all the treatment programs, as shown not only by test scores but also by participation in the post-treatment flight. Nevertheless, outcome measures maintained a significant effect at a 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, combining CBT with both the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment and the virtual stimuli used to expose patients with aerophobia seemed as efficient as traditional cognitive behavioral treatments integrated with systematic desensitization. PMID:26504391
Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy integrated with systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy combined with virtual reality exposure therapy methods in the treatment of flight anxiety: a randomized trial.
Triscari, Maria Teresa; Faraci, Palmira; Catalisano, Dario; D'Angelo, Valerio; Urso, Viviana
The purpose of the research was to compare the effectiveness of the following treatment methods for fear of flying: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) integrated with systematic desensitization, CBT combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and CBT combined with virtual reality exposure therapy. Overall, our findings have proven the efficacy of all interventions in reducing fear of flying in a pre- to post-treatment comparison. All groups showed a decrease in flight anxiety, suggesting the efficiency of all three treatments in reducing self-report measures of fear of flying. In particular, our results indicated significant improvements for the treated patients using all the treatment programs, as shown not only by test scores but also by participation in the post-treatment flight. Nevertheless, outcome measures maintained a significant effect at a 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, combining CBT with both the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment and the virtual stimuli used to expose patients with aerophobia seemed as efficient as traditional cognitive behavioral treatments integrated with systematic desensitization.
Pinninti, Narsimha R; Schmidt, Lisa T; Snyder, Richard P
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based intervention for individuals with serious mental illness and potentiates standard medication management. Americans receiving publicly funded treatment for serious mental illnesses have limited access to CBT and hence we need to devise innovative ways of providing access to this important intervention. We present a case of a man who had severe disability, was medication resistant, and diagnosed with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder. After being home bound for many years he was provided CBT utilizing his existing case manager as a therapy extender. The specific roles of the primary therapist and case manager as well as the improvement in quality of life of the individual are delineated. This case report opens up the possibility of further studying case managers as therapy extenders for treating serious mental illnesses.
Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Siv, Alexander M.
This study summarized two treatment research studies and included recidivism data for two years post discharge for group therapy. The study compared Mode deactivation Therapy (MDT), Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), and Social Skills training (SST), results of the MDT series of studies and the two year post-study recidivism data. The data from the…
Coffey, Scott F; Banducci, Anne N; Vinci, Christine
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a time-limited, goal-oriented psychotherapy that has been extensively researched and has benefits in a number of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, and insomnia. CBT uses targeted strategies to help patients adopt more adaptive patterns of thinking and behaving, which leads to positive changes in emotions and decreased functional impairments. Strategies include identifying and challenging problematic thoughts and beliefs, scheduling pleasant activities to increase environmental reinforcement, and extended exposure to unpleasant thoughts, situations, or physiologic sensations to decrease avoidance and arousal associated with anxiety-eliciting stimuli. CBT can be helpful in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by emphasizing safety, trust, control, esteem, and intimacy. Prolonged exposure therapy is a CBT technique that includes a variety of strategies, such as repeated recounting of the trauma and exposure to feared real-world situations. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, CBT focuses on establishing structures and routines, and clear rules and expectations within the home and classroom. Early intensive behavioral interventions should be initiated in children with autism before three years of age; therapy consists of 12 to 40 hours of intensive treatment per week, for at least one year. In many disorders, CBT can be used alone or in combination with medications. However, CBT requires a significant commitment from patients. Family physicians are well suited to provide collaborative care for patients with psychiatric disorders, in concert with cognitive behavior therapists.
Magidson, Jessica F; Weisberg, Risa B
This article is an introduction to the second issue of a two-part Special Series on integrating cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) into medical settings. The first issue focused on integrating CBT into primary care, and this issue focuses on implementing CBT in other specialty medical settings, including cancer treatment, HIV care, and specialized pediatric medical clinics. Models for treatment delivery to improve ease of implementation are also discussed, including telehealth and home-delivered treatment. The six articles in this series provide examples of how to transport CBT techniques that are largely designed for implementation in outpatient mental health settings to specialized medical settings, and discuss unique considerations and recommendations for implementation.
Neziroglu, F; Hsia, C; Yaryura-Tobias, J A
Behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy, individually and combined, are a solid base in any therapy, the goal of which is to decrease the maladaptive behaviors associated with obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. Future research into this area involves two branches: (1) better resolution in what components of current treatments are effective and (2) a better understanding of the cause of OCD. The therapies of choice are behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy, but often what is described as behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy varies. Further refinement of the specific components of behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy that directly apply to OCD is needed. The specific components likely include the use of ERP and rational emotive behavioral therapy but often even these therapies can be parceled into smaller discrete parts. Many facets still have not been explored thoroughly (e.g., the extent of exposure to adverse situations needed, ideal length of therapy, time needed for exposure, and the use of virtual reality versus traditional exposures). A better understanding of the biological basis for OCD also would further the field. A better understanding of the basis of this disorder also would help clinicians to treat it with medication and behavioral therapy. Research into how behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy makes neurophysiologic changes would show the effectiveness of the treatment and a biological basis. Such studies could include the use of MR imaging during different stages in behavioral therapy and the use of functional during therapy to observe changes in the brain. Although OCD still is not fully understood, researchers are now beginning to understand how to treat it, and a solid base of empiric data now exists. The authors hope that investigators will continue research toward a better understanding of this disorder so that clinicians can better help their patients.
Morin, C M; Kowatch, R A; Barry, T; Walton, E
Twenty-four older adults with persistent psychophysiological insomnia were randomly assigned to an immediate or a delayed cognitive-behavioral intervention in a waiting-list control group design. Cognitive-behavior therapy consisted of an 8-week group intervention aimed at changing maladaptive sleep habits and altering dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleeplessness. Treatment was effective in reducing sleep latency, wake after sleep onset, and early morning awakening, and in increasing sleep efficiency. The magnitude of changes obtained on polysomnographic measures was smaller but in the same direction as that obtained on daily sleep diaries. Sleep improvements obtained by the immediate-treatment group were replicated with the delayed treatment condition. Therapeutic gains were well maintained at 3- and 12-month follow-ups. Clinical validation of outcome was obtained through collateral ratings from the patients and their significant others. The findings indicate that late-life insomnia can be effectively treated with nonpharmacological interventions.
Based primarily on studies that employ Pavlovian fear conditioning, extinction of conditioned fear has been found to be mediated by N-methyi-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex. This led to the discovery that an NMDA partial agonist, D-cycloserine, could facilitate fear extinction when given systemically or locally into the amygdala. Because many forms of cognitive behavioral therapy depend on fear extinction, this led to the successful use of D-cycloserine as an adjunct to psychotherapy in patients with so-called simple phobias (fear of heights), social phobia, obsessive-compulsive behavior, and panic disorder. Data in support of these conclusions are reviewed, along with some of the possible limitations of D-cycloserine as an adjunct to psychotherapy.
Dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) programs, particularly for low-functioning individuals at the safety and stabilization phase of therapy, work with a variety of high-risk and often complex cases, with a curriculum consisting primarily of concrete skill acquisition and application. A significant subset of individuals in DBT programs, however, may suffer high-risk dissociative episodes in which skill application may be less available to them, contributing to further destabilization, demoralization, and thoughts of self-inefficacy in treatment. This article evaluates the potential benefits of complementing traditional DBT with psychoeducation on structural dissociation for such patients, acknowledging and addressing some of the concerns that might accompany such a consideration.
Laberge, Benoit; And Others
Investigated extent to which cognitive-behavioral therapy can be used successfully in treatment of secondary depressed panic patients. Findings from eight panic patients with major depression and seven panic patients without major depression showed that cognitive-behavioral therapy was significantly superior to information-based therapy in…
Goldstein, Tina R.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.
Objective: To describe an adapted version of dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents with bipolar disorder. Method: The dialectical behavior therapy intervention is delivered over 1 year and consists of two modalities: family skills training (conducted with individual family units) and individual therapy. The acute treatment period (6 months)…
Monson, Candice M.; Fredman, Steffany J.; Macdonald, Alexandra; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D.; Resick, Patricia A.; Schnurr, Paula P.
Context Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent condition associated with intimate relationship problems, and intimate relationship factors have been shown to affect individual PTSD treatment outcomes. Objective To compare cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD (a manualized couple therapy delivered to patients with PTSD and their significant others to simultaneously treat PTSD symptoms and enhance relationship satisfaction) with a wait-list condition. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized controlled trial of heterosexual and same-sex couples (n=40 couples; n=80 individuals) in which one partner met criteria for PTSD according to the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, conducted from 2008 to 2012 in a Department of Veterans Affairs outpatient hospital setting in Boston, Massachusetts, and a university-based research center in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Symptoms of PTSD, comorbid conditions, and relationship satisfaction were collected by blinded assessors at baseline, at mid treatment (median, 8.00 weeks [range, 1.71–20.43 weeks] after baseline), and at posttreatment (median, 15.86 weeks [range, 7.14–38.57 weeks] after baseline). An uncontrolled 3-month follow-up (median, 38.21 weeks [range, 28.43–50.57 weeks] after baseline) was also completed. Intervention Couples were randomly assigned to take part in the 15-session cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD protocol immediately (n=20) or were placed on a wait list for the therapy (n=20). Main Outcome Measures Clinician-rated PTSD symptom severity was the primary outcome and was assessed with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Intimate relationship satisfaction, assessed with the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, patient- and partner-rated PTSD symptoms, and comorbid symptoms were secondary outcomes. Results PTSD symptom severity (score range, 0–136) was significantly more improved in the couple therapy condition than in the wait-list condition (mean change difference, −23
Tsagaris, K. Zoe; Labar, Douglas R.; Edwards, Dylan J.
Upon its inception, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was delivered at rest, without regard to the potential impact of activity occurring during or around the time of stimulation. rTMS was considered an experimental intervention imposed on the brain; therefore, the myriad features that might suppress or enhance its desired effects had not yet been explored. The field of rTMS has since grown substantially and therapeutic benefits have been reported, albeit with modest and inconsistent improvements. Work in this field accelerated following approval of a psychiatric application (depression), and it is now expanding to other applications and disciplines. In the last decade, experimental enquiry has sought new ways to improve the therapeutic benefits of rTMS, intended to enhance underlying brain reorganization and functional recovery by combining it with behavioral therapy. This concept is appealing, but poorly defined and requires clarity. We provide an overview of how combined rTMS and behavioral therapy has been delineated in the literature, highlighting the diversity of approaches. We outline a framework for study design and reporting such that the effects of this emerging method can be better understood. PMID:27895557
Marks, I M
Behavioral-cognitive therapy is a cost-effective treatment for social phobia. The doctor's role is to teach the patient how to do successful self-exposure. The clinician acts as a guide and monitor; there is no need to waste time accompanying the patient into the phobic situation. The patient first reads a self-exposure manual to learn how to confront panic-evoking social cues for prolonged period without avoidance until habituation sets in. This might require an hour daily of self-exposure over weeks or months. As patients habituate to social cues to which they have exposed themselves, they arrange exposure to fresh cues until they become used to all. The patient tracks progress by recording completed exposure-homework tasks in a daily diary. In instances where it is technically difficult to do regular exposure, the patient carries out imagined tape-recorded exposure in his/her own voice. The therapist can briefly help the patient role-play such exposure. Rational role-play enhances outcome of body dysmorphic disorder or delusional disorder somatic type with prominent social phobia. Cognitive therapy can be useful. Most social phobics improve with behavioral-cognitive treatment without medication. When patients have low mood, concurrent antidepressants can be synergistic.
O'Farrell, Timothy J; Fals-Stewart, William
Behavioral couples therapy (BCT) sees the substance-abusing patient with the spouse to arrange a daily "sobriety contract" in which the patient states his or her intent not to drink or use drugs, and the spouse expresses support for the patient's efforts to stay abstinent. For patients taking a recovery-related medication (eg, disulfiram, naltrexone), daily medication ingestion witnessed and verbally reinforced by the spouse also is part of the contract. Behavioral couples therapy also teaches communication and increases positive activities. Findings of the past few years have added considerably to the evidence base showing that BCT produces greater abstinence and better relationship functioning than typical individual-based treatment; BCT also reduces social costs and domestic violence. Noteworthy recent advances have extended the positive effects of BCT to women drug abusers, showed the indirect benefits of BCT for the couple's children, expanded BCT to include family members other than spouses, integrated BCT with pharmacotherapy, and started to address barriers to technology transfer.
Tsagaris, K Zoe; Labar, Douglas R; Edwards, Dylan J
Upon its inception, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was delivered at rest, without regard to the potential impact of activity occurring during or around the time of stimulation. rTMS was considered an experimental intervention imposed on the brain; therefore, the myriad features that might suppress or enhance its desired effects had not yet been explored. The field of rTMS has since grown substantially and therapeutic benefits have been reported, albeit with modest and inconsistent improvements. Work in this field accelerated following approval of a psychiatric application (depression), and it is now expanding to other applications and disciplines. In the last decade, experimental enquiry has sought new ways to improve the therapeutic benefits of rTMS, intended to enhance underlying brain reorganization and functional recovery by combining it with behavioral therapy. This concept is appealing, but poorly defined and requires clarity. We provide an overview of how combined rTMS and behavioral therapy has been delineated in the literature, highlighting the diversity of approaches. We outline a framework for study design and reporting such that the effects of this emerging method can be better understood.
Cinciripini, Paul M.; And Others
Process and outcome of a smoking cessation program using behavior therapy along (BT) or behavior therapy plus the nicotine patch (BTP) was studied in 64 participants. Abstinence was significantly higher for the BTP group from the end of behavioral treatment (79% vs. 63%) through the three-month follow-up, with the effects weakening at the six- and…
Doerfler, R Eric; Goodfellow, Linda
No study has tested the effectiveness of individualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions to reduce persistent nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to determine if CBT could reduce nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients with HIV on ART. Men ages 40 to 56 years on ART (n = 18) at a suburban HIV clinic were randomly assigned to a control group or the CBT intervention. Usual adherence education and side-effect management were provided to both groups. Symptoms, health perception, medication adherence, and side-effect-reducing medication use were measured at four time points over 3 months. Participants in the intervention group rated usual fatigue and worst fatigue at 60 days, and nausea duration at 90 days significantly lower than controls (p < .05). Brief CBT training may reduce fatigue and nausea in patients with HIV undergoing ART.
Ramirez de Arellano, Michael A.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; George, Preethy; Dougherty, Richard H.; Daniels, Allen S.; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Huang, Larke; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E.
Objective Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a conjoint parent-child treatment developed by Cohen, Mannarino, and Deblinger that uses cognitive-behavioral principles and exposure techniques to prevent and treat posttraumatic stress, depression, and behavioral problems. This review defined TF-CBT, differentiated it from other models, and assessed the evidence base. Methods Authors reviewed meta-analyses, reviews, and individual studies (1995 to 2013). Databases surveyed were PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, PILOTS, the ERIC, and the CINAHL. They chose from three levels of research evidence (high, moderate, and low) on the basis of benchmarks for number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of effectiveness. Results The level of evidence for TF-CBT was rated as high on the basis of ten RCTs, three of which were conducted independently (not by TF-CBT developers). TF-CBT has demonstrated positive outcomes in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, although it is less clear whether TF-CBT is effective in reducing behavior problems or symptoms of depression. Limitations of the studies include concerns about investigator bias and exclusion of vulnerable populations. Conclusions TF-CBT is a viable treatment for reducing trauma-related symptoms among some children who have experienced trauma and their nonoffending caregivers. Based on this evidence, TF-CBT should be available as a covered service in health plans. Ongoing research is needed to further identify best practices for TF-CBT in various settings and with individuals from various racial and ethnic backgrounds and with varied trauma histories, symptoms, and stages of intellectual, social, and emotional development. PMID:24638076
Magidson, Jessica F.; Weisberg, Risa B.
This article is an introduction to the second issue of a two-part Special Series on integrating cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) into medical settings. The first issue focused on integrating CBT into primary care, and this issue focuses on implementing CBT in other specialty medical settings, including cancer treatment, HIV care, and specialized pediatric medical clinics. Models for treatment delivery to improve ease of implementation are also discussed, including telehealth and home-delivered treatment. The six articles in this series provide examples of how to transport CBT techniques that are largely designed for implementation in outpatient mental health settings to specialized medical settings, and discuss unique considerations and recommendations for implementation. PMID:27471371
Ramsawh, Holly J; Bomyea, Jessica; Stein, Murray B; Cissell, Shadha H; Lang, Ariel J
Despite the ubiquity of sleep complaints among individuals with anxiety disorders, few prior studies have examined whether sleep quality improves during anxiety treatment. The current study examined pre- to posttreatment sleep quality improvement during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder (PD; n = 26) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 24). Among sleep quality indices, only global sleep quality and sleep latency improved significantly (but modestly) during CBT. Sleep quality improvement was greater for treatment responders, but did not vary by diagnosis. Additionally, poor baseline sleep quality was independently associated with worse anxiety treatment outcome, as measured by higher intolerance of uncertainty. Additional intervention targeting sleep prior to or during CBT for anxiety may be beneficial for poor sleepers.
Romana, Maria S
Because deinstitutionalization of individuals with mental retardation/developmental disability and mental illness has become the standard of practice, many practitioners are now faced with the challenge of serving the needs of this specialized population. The existence of mental illness in individuals with mental retardation has been well established in the literature, but there are relatively few studies involving therapeutic interventions in this client population. However, there is a theoretical framework that guides practice and measures the effectiveness of interventions with this specialized population. This article presents a case study exploring the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy to a client with mental retardation and mental illness. The theoretical framework, major concepts, and key assumptions of the theory will be reviewed, as well as treatment outcomes.
Nabieva, T N; Mukhin, E I
Thirty-two children suffering from motor and vocal ticks exhibited weakness and distonia of ticks-prone muscles were examined. Based on the results obtained earlier, a complex of physical exercises has been worked out and conducted for 20 days. The patients were divided into 3 groups: 1st (n = 10) group did the exercises daily for training the ticks-prone muscles; the 2nd one (n = 10) exercised only after tick's appearance--negative reinforcement; 3rd group (n = 12) did exercises after tick's appearance as well but on irregular basis--probable negative reinforcement. In the 1st group, the exercising resulted in muscle strengthening and decrease of tick's number. The patients of the 2nd group got rid of ticks for 20 days. The probable tick's reinforcement in children of the 3rd group did not change pathological muscle activity. The central mechanisms of cortical plasticity in behavioral therapy of ticks are discussed.
Pérez Benítez, Carlos I; Zlotnick, Caron; Gomez, Judelysse; Rendón, Maria J; Swanson, Amelia
No treatment, to date, has been developed to improve both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS), despite mounting evidence of high comorbidity between PTSD and MUPS. This study assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcomes of an adapted cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD and abridged somatization in a sample of eight participants. Fifteen percent of completers did not meet PTSD criteria after treatment completion and 62.5% improved their somatic symptoms. There was a significant difference between pre- and post-treatment depression symptoms, as well as in psychological and physical functioning measures. Results indicated a small to moderate effect size (d = 0.27-0.78) in PTSD severity scores, and moderate to large effect size in depression symptoms and psychosocial and physical functioning variables (d = 0.39-1.12). Preliminary evidence of acceptability indicates that the current CBT intervention may be suitable for Latinos individuals with PTSD and MUPS.
Bang, Magnus; Timpka, Toomas; Eriksson, Henrik; Holm, Einar; Nordin, Conny
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for psychological disorders is becoming increasingly popular on the Internet. However, when using this workstation approach, components such as training and learning relaxation skills, problem solving, exposure exercises, and sleep management guidance must be done in the domestic environment. This paper describes design concepts for providing spatially explicit CBT with mobile phones. We reviewed and analyzed a set of treatment manuals to distinguish elements of CBT that can be improved and supported using mobile phone applications. The key advantage of mobile computing support in CBT is that multimedia can be applied to record, scale, and label anxiety-provoking situations where the need arises, which helps the CBT clients formulate and convey their thoughts and feelings to relatives and friends, as well as to therapists at subsequent treatment sessions.
Devlin, Sarah; Leader, Geraldine; Healy, Olive
The current study investigates the comparative effects of sensory-integration therapy and behavioral interventions on rates of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in a 9-year-old boy with diagnosis of autism. A functional analysis was conducted to identify the variables maintaining the self-injurious behavior. This analysis demonstrated that SIB was…
McCart, Michael R.; Priester, Paul E.; Davies, W. Hobard; Azen, Razia
Extended the findings from previous meta-analytic work by comparing the effectiveness of behavioral parent-training (BPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth with antisocial behavior problems. Youth demographic variables were also examined as potential moderators of the effectiveness of these 2 types of interventions. Thirty BPT…
Wildes, Jennifer E.; Marcus, Marsha D.; Cheng, Yu; McCabe, Elizabeth B.; Gaskill, Jill A.
Objective This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of Emotion Acceptance Behavior Therapy (EABT), an outpatient psychotherapeutic intervention for anorexia nervosa (AN) based on a disorder-specific model of symptom maintenance that emphasizes emotion avoidance. EABT combines standard behavioral interventions that are central to the clinical management of AN with evidence-supported strategies to increase emotion awareness, decrease emotion avoidance, and encourage resumption of valued activities and relationships outside the eating disorder. Method Twenty-four individuals aged ≥17 years with AN were treated using the EABT manual. EABT was delivered in 33–58 individual sessions provided over 38–53 weeks. Assessments were conducted before and after treatment, and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Results Thirteen patients (54.2%) completed EABT; 11 (45.8%) dropped out or were withdrawn. EABT was associated with significant improvements in weight, disordered eating symptoms, and emotion avoidance that were maintained over 6-month follow-up. The majority of EABT completers achieved a body mass index >18.5 (n=9/13) or had a normal Eating Disorder Examination Global score (n=10/13) at post-treatment. Discussion Preliminary data suggest that EABT may have utility for a subset of adults with AN. Future research will focus on improving outcomes in EABT non-responders and identifying of mechanisms that drive treatment response. PMID:24407934
Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige
Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in other emotionally dysregulated populations. This longitudinal single-group pilot study examined whether individuals with impaired intellectual functioning would show reductions in CBs while receiving standard DBT individual therapy used in conjunction with the Skills System (DBT-SS), a DBT emotion regulation skills curriculum adapted for individuals with cognitive impairment. Forty adults with developmental disabilities (most of whom also had intellectual disabilities) and CBs, including histories of aggression, self-injury, sexual offending, or other CBs, participated in this study. Changes in their behaviors were monitored over 4 years while in DBT-SS. Large reductions in CBs were observed during the 4 years. These findings suggest that modified DBT holds promise for effectively treating individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:23914278
Timko, C Alix; Zucker, Nancy L; Herbert, James D; Rodriguez, Daniel; Merwin, Rhonda M
Family based-treatments have the most empirical support in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa; yet, a significant percentage of adolescents and their families do not respond to manualized family based treatment (FBT). The aim of this open trial was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of an innovative family-based approach to the treatment of anorexia: Acceptance-based Separated Family Treatment (ASFT). Treatment was grounded in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), delivered in a separated format, and included an ACT-informed skills program. Adolescents (ages 12-18) with anorexia or sub-threshold anorexia and their families received 20 treatment sessions over 24 weeks. Outcome indices included eating disorder symptomatology reported by the parent and adolescent, percentage of expected body weight achieved, and changes in psychological acceptance/avoidance. Half of the adolescents (48.0%) met criteria for full remission at the end of treatment, 29.8% met criteria for partial remission, and 21.3% did not improve. Overall, adolescents had a significant reduction in eating disorder symptoms and reached expected body weight. Treatment resulted in changes in psychological acceptance in the expected direction for both parents and adolescents. This open trial provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of ASFT for adolescents with anorexia. Directions for future research are discussed.
Rohan, Kelly J.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Tierney Lindsey, Kathryn; Johnson, Leigh G.; Lippy, Robert D.; Lacy, Timothy J.; Barton, Franca B.
This first controlled psychotherapy trial for seasonal affective disorder (SAD) compared SAD-tailored cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), light therapy (LT), and their combination to a concurrent wait-list control. Adults (N = 61) with major depression, recurrent with seasonal pattern, were randomized to one of four 6-week conditions: CBT (1.5-hr…
Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Ya; Yu, Shi; Ran, Li-Wen; Liu, Xiang-Ping; Chen, Yu-Fei
Objective: This study tested the efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), compared with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), in alleviating academic procrastination. Method: A total of 60 (53.3% male) undergraduates suffering from academic procrastination were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (ACT and CBT) and a control group.…
Agras, W. Stewart; And Others
Examines the effectiveness of group interpersonal therapy (IPT) in treating overweight, binge-eating patients. Participants were randomly allocated to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or to an assessment-only group. After 12 weeks, those who did not respond to CBT were assigned 12 weeks of IPT. IPT led to no further improvement. (JPS)
Miller, Jonathan M; Singer, Harvey S; Bridges, Dana D; Waranch, H Richard
Although typically described in autistic, mentally retarded, and sensory-deprived individuals, motor stereotypies also occur in normal children. In this preliminary report, the behavior modification techniques of habit reversal and differential reinforcement of other behavior were evaluated as a therapeutic modality for the suppression of stereotypic movements in nonautistic subjects. Twelve children, ages 6 to 14 years, with physiologic stereotypies were treated using a standardized treatment protocol. Clinical outcomes were based on differences between assessments obtained at baseline and on telephone follow-up. Evaluation scales included measures of the frequency, intensity, interference, and number of stereotypies (Stereotypy Severity Scale motor portion and Stereotypy Linear Analog Scale) and assessment of global function (Child Global Assessment Scale and Stereotypy Severity Scale global portion). The results were correlated with the child's level of motivation and the number of treatment sessions. After a mean follow-up of 12.1 months, motor stereotypies showed significant improvement on the Stereotypy Linear Analog Scale and Stereotypy Severity Scale total score, P = .009 and P = .046, respectively. Both scales showed a relationship between the number of treatment sessions attended and a reduction in movements. The Child Global Assessment Scale also improved with therapy, but there was no correlation with the number of treatment sessions. Highly motivated patients had greater improvement on the Stereotypy Linear Analog Scale and Stereotypy Severity Scale scales compared with less motivated patients, but motivation had no impact on the Child Global Assessment Scale. The combined use of habit reversal and differential reinforcement of other behavior is beneficial in reducing motor stereotypies in nonautistic children.
Federici, Anita; Wisniewski, Lucene; Ben-Porath, Denise
The authors describe an intensive outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for multidiagnostic clients with eating disorders who had not responded adequately to standard, empirically supported treatments for eating disorders. The program integrates DBT with empirically supported cognitive behavior therapy approaches that are well…
Sallinen, Bethany J.; Nangle, Douglas W.; O'Grady, April C.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy to a medication regimen of clomipramine and fluoxetine and the withdrawal of medication during cognitive-behavioral therapy. The participant was an 11-year-old girl with symptoms of obsessive thoughts about germs and illness and…
Friedlander, Myrna L.; Bernardi, Shaina; Lee, Hsin-Hua
To be responsive to clients' evaluations of the unfolding therapy process, therapists must first accurately "read" client behavior, a particularly challenging task in conjoint family therapy. In this study, the authors compared client behavior in 28 sessions that one family member and the therapist concurred, on the Session Evaluation…
Felmingham, Kim L.; Bryant, Richard A.
Objective: To examine potential differential responses in men and women to cognitive behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Fifty-two men and 56 women diagnosed with PTSD participated in randomized controlled trials of cognitive behavior therapy for PTSD. Participants were randomly allocated to either (a) exposure-only…
Jones, Karyn Dayle
Group play therapy is a common treatment modality for children who have been sexually abused. Sexually abused preschoolers exhibit different group play therapy behaviors than do nonabused children. Group workers need to be aware of these differences and know the appropriate group interventions. This article describes group play therapy with…
Homework, or self-help, is an essential and required part of cognitive behavioral treatment. It offers several opportunities for the therapist to extend and increase therapy contact by having the patient "live" the therapy outside of the consulting room. It can also serve as a measure of the patient's motivation for therapy or for change. Homework…
Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Bohnekamp, Inga; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Miller, Alec L.
The aim of this study was to describe a case series of adolescents (mean age = 16.5 years, SD = 1.0) with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) who received dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Twelve outpatients with AN and BN took part in 25 weeks of twice weekly therapy consisting of individual therapy and a skills training group.…
Watson, Jeanne C.; Bedard, Danielle L.
The authors compared clients' emotional processing in good and bad outcome cases in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and process-experiential therapy (PET) and investigated whether clients' emotional processing increases over the course of therapy. Twenty minutes from each of 3 sessions from 40 clients were rated on the Experiencing Scale. A 2 *…
Vyskocilova, Jana; Prasko, Jan; Sipek, Jiri
Background The aim of the study was to determine whether patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) resistant to drug therapy may improve their condition using intensive, systematic cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) lasting for 6 weeks, and whether it is possible to predict the therapeutic effect using demographic, clinical, and selected psychological characteristics at baseline. Methods Sixty-six OCD patients were included in the study, of which 57 completed the program. The diagnosis was confirmed using the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Patients were rated using the objective and subjective forms of the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, objective and subjective forms of the Clinical Global Impression, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Dissociative Experiences Scale, 20-item Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire, and the Sheehan Disability Scale before their treatment, and with subjective Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory at the end of the treatment. Patients were treated with antidepressants and daily intensive group CBT for the 6-week period. Results During the 6-week intensive CBT program in combination with pharmacotherapy, there was a significant improvement in patients suffering from OCD resistant to drug treatment. There were statistically significantly decrease in the scores assessing the severity of OCD symptoms, anxiety, and depressive feelings. A lower treatment effect was achieved specifically in patients who 1) showed fewer OCD themes in symptomatology, 2) showed a higher level of somatoform dissociation, 3) had poor insight, and 4) had a higher initial level of overall severity of the disorder. Remission of the disorder was more likely in patients who had 1) good insight, 2) a lower initial level of anxiety, and 3) no comorbid depressive disorder. PMID:27042074
Hoppes, Steve; Hellman, Chan M
Community-based practice has always been a central domain of occupational therapy, and evidence supporting its increasing importance is growing. Preparing occupational therapy students for community practice has received considerable attention in professional literature, but students' voices have seldom been heard concerning this issue. This study sought to investigate attitudes, intentions, and behaviors regarding community service among occupational therapy students enrolled in one professional program using the Community Service Attitudes Survey. We present the Theory of Planned Behavior as a conceptual framework linking students' attitudes and intentions with behaviors. Results indicate that these occupational therapy students' attitudes and intentions regarding community service tended to be more strongly positive than those of their counterparts in other allied health disciplines; however, the community service behaviors of occupational therapy students were not significantly different from those of other allied health students, possibly because occupational therapy students perceived high costs to community service.
Tikotzky, Liat; Sadeh, Avi
Behavioral insomnia is a very common problem throughout childhood. It has negative impact on children and their families and can persist for many years if not treated. Interventions based on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) principles have mainly focused on withdrawing excessive parental bedtime involvement and helping children develop self-soothing strategies for falling asleep and resuming sleep during the night. With young children, these interventions are mostly based on training and modifying parental behaviors. Changing parental sleep-related expectations, beliefs and perceptions is an important component in these interventions. With older children and adolescents, more versatile interventions exist and they include additional components of CBT including relaxation and stress reduction techniques, modifying cognitive processes related to worrying and anxiety, positive imagery training and others. Extensive research has established the efficacy of behavioral interventions in early childhood. However, research on interventions for older children has been very limited and has failed to provide sufficient information on the efficacy of specific CBT techniques for childhood insomnia.
Zielhorst, Thomas; van den Brule, Daphne; Visch, Valentijn; Melles, Marijke; van Tienhoven, Sam; Sinkbaek, Helle; Schrieken, Bart; Tan, Eduard S-H; Lange, Alfred
Burnout is a globally increasing illness, and as a result, many forms of burnout therapy have arisen. The use of digital games can be psychotherapeutically effective because they can transform exercises that are by themselves unattractive into intrinsically motivated action. This pilot study aims to test whether a specially designed game contributes to patients learning desired behavior and achieving other specific therapeutic goals in an online cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-based burnout treatment context. In total, 101 participants took part in the experiment, under four conditions: (a) Game+Therapy, (b) Therapy Only, (c) Game Only, and (d) No Game+No Therapy. Pre- and postmeasures were taken online. Results showed that the two therapy conditions (Game+Therapy and Therapy Only) showed a greater decrease in complaints and disengagement, and a stronger increase in coping skills than the nontherapy conditions (Game Only and No Game+No Therapy). As expected, the Game+Therapy condition outperformed the Therapy Only condition on combined improvement measures of burnout symptoms. However, analyses of individual measures showed no effects. It can be cautiously concluded that the therapeutic digital game may be a useful tool when embedded in a therapeutic burnout treatment program and is probably more efficient than CBT, as it is used in current practice.
Sung, Huei-Chuan; Chang, Anne M; Abbey, Jennifer
Older people with dementia may display negative emotions, memory problems, sleep disturbance, and agitated behavior. Among these symptoms, agitated behavior has been identified by families and nursing staff as the care problem that presents the greatest challenge. Several studies have found that music therapy reduced agitated behaviors in those with dementia and recommended use of music as an effective strategy in managing this behavioral problem. Music therapy represents a lower cost, effective care approach that nursing staff can easily learn and apply to those with dementia. Furthermore, reductions in agitated behavior in dementia patients that result from music therapy can also alleviate caregiver stress and burden of care, leading to improvements in the health and quality of life of both dementia patients and their caregivers. This paper aims to introduce the principles and application of music therapy in the management of agitated behavior in those with dementia.
Deckersbach, Thilo; Chou, Tina; Britton, Jennifer C.; Carlson, Lindsay E.; Reese, Hannah E.; Siev, Jedidiah; Scahill, Lawrence; Piacentini, John C.; Woods, Douglas W.; Walkup, John T.; Peterson, Alan L.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Wilhelm, Sabine
Tourette’s disorder, also called Tourette syndrome (TS), is characterized by motor and vocal tics that can cause significant impairment in daily functioning. Tics are believed to be due to failed inhibition of both associative and motor cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical pathways. Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT), which is an extension of Habit Reversal Therapy (HRT), teaches patients to become more aware of sensations that reliably precede tics (premonitory urges) and to initiate competing movements that inhibit the occurrence of tics. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural changes associated with CBIT treatment in subjects with TS. Eight subjects with TS were matched with eight healthy controls in gender, education, age, and handedness. Subjects completed the Visuospatial Priming (VSP) task, a measure of response inhibition, during fMRI scanning before and after CBIT treatment (or waiting period for controls). For TS subjects, we found a significant decrease in striatal (putamen) activation from pre- to post-treatment. Change in VSP task-related activation from pre- to post-treatment in Brodmann’s area 47 (the inferior frontal gyrus) was negatively correlated with changes in tic severity. CBIT may promote normalization of aberrant cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical associative and motor pathways in individuals with TS. PMID:25444535
Smailes, David; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Dodgson, Guy
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for voice-hearing (i.e., auditory verbal hallucinations; AVH) has, at best, small to moderate effects. One possible reason for this limited efficacy is that current CBT approaches tend to conceptualize voice-hearing as a homogenous experience in terms of the cognitive processes involved in AVH. However, the highly heterogeneous nature of voice-hearing suggests that many different cognitive processes may be involved in the etiology of AVH. These heterogeneous voice-hearing experiences do, however, appear to cluster into a set of subtypes, opening up the possibility of tailoring treatment to the subtype of AVH that a voice-hearer reports. In this paper, we (a) outline our rationale for tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing, (b) describe CBT for three putative subtypes of AVH (inner speech-based AVH, memory-based AVH, and hypervigilance AVH), and (c) discuss potential limitations and problems with such an approach. We conclude by arguing that tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing could prove to be a valuable therapeutic development, which may be especially effective when used in early intervention in psychosis services.
Deckersbach, Thilo; Chou, Tina; Britton, Jennifer C; Carlson, Lindsay E; Reese, Hannah E; Siev, Jedidiah; Scahill, Lawrence; Piacentini, John C; Woods, Douglas W; Walkup, John T; Peterson, Alan L; Dougherty, Darin D; Wilhelm, Sabine
Tourette's disorder, also called Tourette syndrome (TS), is characterized by motor and vocal tics that can cause significant impairment in daily functioning. Tics are believed to be due to failed inhibition of both associative and motor cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical pathways. Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT), which is an extension of Habit Reversal Therapy (HRT), teaches patients to become more aware of sensations that reliably precede tics (premonitory urges) and to initiate competing movements that inhibit the occurrence of tics. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural changes associated with CBIT treatment in subjects with TS. Eight subjects with TS were matched with eight healthy controls in gender, education, age, and handedness. Subjects completed the Visuospatial Priming (VSP) task, a measure of response inhibition, during fMRI scanning before and after CBIT treatment (or waiting period for controls). For TS subjects, we found a significant decrease in striatal (putamen) activation from pre- to post-treatment. Change in VSP task-related activation from pre- to post-treatment in Brodmann's area 47 (the inferior frontal gyrus) was negatively correlated with changes in tic severity. CBIT may promote normalization of aberrant cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical associative and motor pathways in individuals with TS.
Yoshinaga, Naoki; Nosaki, Akiko; Hayashi, Yuta; Tanoue, Hiroki; Shimizu, Eiji; Kunikata, Hiroko; Okada, Yoshie; Shiraishi, Yuko
Psychiatric nurses have played a significant role in disseminating cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in Western countries; however, in Japan, the application, practice, efficiency, and quality control of CBT in the psychiatric nursing field are unclear. This study conducted a literature review to assess the current status of CBT practice and research in psychiatric nursing in Japan. Three English databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) and two Japanese databases (Ichushi-Web and CiNii) were searched with predetermined keywords. Fifty-five articles met eligibility criteria: 46 case studies and 9 comparative studies. It was found that CBT took place primarily in inpatient settings and targeted schizophrenia and mood disorders. Although there were only a few comparative studies, each concluded that CBT was effective. However, CBT recipients and outcome measures were diverse, and nurses were not the only CBT practitioners in most reports. Only a few articles included the description of CBT training and supervision. This literature review clarified the current status of CBT in psychiatric nursing in Japan and identified important implications for future practice and research: performing CBT in a variety of settings and for a wide range of psychiatric disorders, conducting randomized controlled trials, and establishing pre- and postqualification training system. PMID:26798512
Smailes, David; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Dodgson, Guy
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for voice-hearing (i.e., auditory verbal hallucinations; AVH) has, at best, small to moderate effects. One possible reason for this limited efficacy is that current CBT approaches tend to conceptualize voice-hearing as a homogenous experience in terms of the cognitive processes involved in AVH. However, the highly heterogeneous nature of voice-hearing suggests that many different cognitive processes may be involved in the etiology of AVH. These heterogeneous voice-hearing experiences do, however, appear to cluster into a set of subtypes, opening up the possibility of tailoring treatment to the subtype of AVH that a voice-hearer reports. In this paper, we (a) outline our rationale for tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing, (b) describe CBT for three putative subtypes of AVH (inner speech-based AVH, memory-based AVH, and hypervigilance AVH), and (c) discuss potential limitations and problems with such an approach. We conclude by arguing that tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing could prove to be a valuable therapeutic development, which may be especially effective when used in early intervention in psychosis services. PMID:26733919
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-2-0109 TITLE: Telephone-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Pain Following Traumatic Brain Injury...2014-29 Sept 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Telephone-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Pain 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-2-0109...study is to evaluate the efficacy of a telephone-delivered cognitive behavioral treatment (T-CBT) in Veterans with a history of traumatic brain injury
Schaal, David W.
This article presents an introduction to "The Behavior-Analytic Origins of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: An Example of Behavioral Neurorehabilitation," by Edward Taub and his colleagues (Taub, 2012). Based on extensive experimentation with animal models of peripheral nerve injury, Taub and colleagues have created an approach to overcoming…
MacPherson, Heather A.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.; Fristad, Mary A.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed for chronically suicidal adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and emotion dysregulation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate DBT is associated with improvements in problem behaviors, including suicide ideation and behavior, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), attrition,…
Lindenboim, Noam; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Linehan, Marsha M.
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based practice for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and suicidal behavior that has been replicated with a variety of populations. Patients' practice of behavioral skills taught in the group skills training component of DBT may be partly responsible for the positive treatment outcomes according…
Lovaas, O. Ivar; And Others
Reported was a behavior therapy program emphasizing language training for 20 autistic children who variously exhibited apparent sensory deficit, severe affect isolation, self stimulatory behavior, mutism, echolalic speech, absence of receptive speech and social and self help behaviors, and self destructive tendencies. The treatment emphasized…
Herbert, James D; Gaudiano, Brandon A; Forman, Evan M
For the past 30 years, generations of scholars of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) have expressed concern that clinical practice has abandoned the close links with theory that characterized the earliest days of the field. There is also a widespread assumption that a greater working knowledge of theory will lead to better clinical outcomes, although there is currently very little hard evidence to support this claim. We suggest that the rise of so-called "third generation" models of CBT over the past decade, along with the dissemination of statistical innovations among psychotherapy researchers, have given new life to this old issue. We argue that theory likely does matter to clinical outcomes, and we outline the future research that would be needed to address this conjecture.
Young, Kimberly S
Research over the last decade has identified Internet addiction as a new and often unrecognized clinical disorder that impact a user's ability to control online use to the extent that it can cause relational, occupational, and social problems. While much of the literature explores the psychological and social factors underlying Internet addiction, little if any empirical evidence exists that examines specific treatment outcomes to deal with this new client population. Researchers have suggested using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as the treatment of choice for Internet addiction, and addiction recovery in general has utilized CBT as part of treatment planning. To investigate the efficacy of using CBT with Internet addicts, this study investigated 114 clients who suffered from Internet addiction and received CBT at the Center for Online Addiction. This study employed a survey research design, and outcome variables such as client motivation, online time management, improved social relationships, improved sexual functioning, engagement in offline activities, and ability to abstain from problematic applications were evaluated on the 3rd, 8th, and 12th sessions and over a 6-month follow-up. Results suggested that Caucasian, middle-aged males with at least a 4-year degree were most likely to suffer from some form of Internet addiction. Preliminary analyses indicated that most clients were able to manage their presenting complaints by the eighth session, and symptom management was sustained upon a 6-month follow-up. As the field of Internet addiction continues to grow, such outcome data will be useful in treatment planning with evidenced-based protocols unique to this emergent client population.
Van Lankveld, Jacques J. D. M.; ter Kuile, Moniek M.; de Groot, H. Ellen; Melles, Reinhilde; Nefs, Janneke; Zandbergen, Maartje
Women with lifelong vaginismus (N = 117) were randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral group therapy, cognitive-behavioral bibliotherapy, or a waiting list. Manualized treatment comprised sexual education, relaxation exercises, gradual exposure, cognitive therapy, and sensate focus therapy. Group therapy consisted of ten 2-hr sessions with 6 to 9…
Wadden, Thomas A; Stunkard, Albert J.
Assessed the effectiveness of a combined program of very low calorie diet and behavior therapy in treating obesity. Combined treatment and behavior therapy alone subjects maintained weight losses; none of the diet alone subjects met the criterion used to define maintenance. Only those receiving behavior therapy alone and combined treatment showed…
Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Siv, Alexander M.
This treatment research study extended the results of Apsche, Bass, Jennings, Murphy, Hunter, and Siv (2005), from behavioral data to standard measures of psychological distress. In Apsche, et. al. (2005) results suggest that Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) was more effective than Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Social Skills Therapy (SST) in…
Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Ljótsson, Brjánn
Severe health anxiety can be effectively treated with exposure-based Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT), but information about which factors that predict outcome is scarce. Using data from a recently conducted RCT comparing ICBT (n = 79) with Internet-delivered behavioral stress management (IBSM) (n = 79) the presented study investigated predictors of treatment outcome. Analyses were conducted using a two-step linear regression approach and the dependent variable was operationalized both as end state health anxiety at post-treatment and as baseline-to post-treatment improvement. A hypothesis driven approach was used where predictors expected to influence outcome were based on a previous predictor study by our research group. As hypothesized, the results showed that baseline health anxiety and treatment adherence predicted both end state health anxiety and improvement. In addition, anxiety sensitivity, treatment credibility, and working alliance were significant predictors of health anxiety improvement. Demographic variables, i.e. age, gender, marital status, computer skills, educational level, and having children, had no significant predictive value. We conclude that it is possible to predict a substantial proportion of the outcome variance in ICBT and IBSM for severe health anxiety. The findings of the present study can be of high clinical value as they provide information about factors of importance for outcome in the treatment of severe health anxiety.
Courtney, Darren B; Flament, Martine F
The purpose of this study was to explore clinical changes observed in suicidal adolescents treated with an adapted form of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for adolescents (A-DBT-A) in a tertiary care setting. We conducted an open-label naturalistic study including 61 adolescents with self-injurious thoughts and behaviors and associated features of borderline personality disorder, who underwent a 15-week course of A-DBT-A. Pre- and post-treatment measures were administered, the primary outcome being the total score on the Suicidal Ideas Questionnaire. Self-harm, symptoms of borderline personality disorder, resiliency measures, predictors of response, and predictors of attrition were also explored. Among participants who completed post-treatment measures, we found a significant reduction in suicidal ideation (n = 31, p < 0.001). Secondary outcomes also suggested improvement. Baseline substance use predicted attrition (HR 2.51; 95% CI 1.03-6.14; p < 0.05), as did baseline impulsivity score on the Life Problems Inventory (HR 1.03; 95% CI 1.004-1.06; p < 0.05). Overall, we observed clinical improvements in adolescents receiving A-DBT-A.
Thoma, Nathan; Pilecki, Brian; McKay, Dean
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has come to be a widely practiced psychotherapy throughout the world. The present article reviews theory, history, and evidence for CBT. It is meant as an effort to summarize the forms and scope of CBT to date for the uninitiated. Elements of CBT such as cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, and so-called "third wave" CBT, such as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) are covered. The evidence for the efficacy of CBT for various disorders is reviewed, including depression, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, substance abuse, schizophrenia, chronic pain, insomnia, and child/adolescent disorders. The relative efficacy of medication and CBT, or their combination, is also briefly considered. Future directions for research and treatment development are proposed.
McGuire, Joseph F.; Ricketts, Emily J.; Piacentini, John; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.; Lewin, Adam B.
Behavior therapy is an evidenced-based intervention with moderate-to-large treatment effects in reducing tic symptom severity among individuals with Persistent Tic Disorders (PTDs) and Tourette’s Disorder (TD). This review describes the behavioral treatment model for tics, delineates components of evidence-based behavior therapy for tics, and reviews the empirical support among randomized controlled trials for individuals with PTDs or TD. Additionally, this review discusses several challenges confronting the behavioral management of tics, highlights emerging solutions for these challenges, and outlines new directions for treatment research. PMID:26543797
Farronato, Nadine S; Dürsteler-Macfarland, Kenneth M; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Petitjean, Sylvie A
The main objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and contingency management for cocaine dependence. Contingency management alone reliably reduced cocaine use during active treatment in all cited trials, whereas the positive effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy emerged after treatment in 3 of 5 trials. Synergistic effects of the combination of contingency management plus cognitive-behavioral therapy are shown in 2 trials, but another 3 trials found no additive effects. Positive, rapid, and enduring effects on cocaine use are reliably seen with contingency management interventions, whereas measurable effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy emerge after treatment and are not as reliable as effects with contingency management.
Women with breast cancer who were suffering from treatment-related menopausal symptoms experienced symptom relief with cognitive behavioral therapy, physical exercise, or both, according to a Dutch study.
This article examines 32 important clinical and personality hypotheses of rational-emotive therapy (RET) and other modes of cognitive-behavior therapy and lists a large number of research studies that provide empirical confirmation of these hypotheses. (Author)
Szigethy, Eva; Kenney, Elyse; Carpenter, Johanna; Hardy, Diana M.; Fairclough, Diane; Bousvaros, Athos; Keljo, David; Weisz, John; Beardslee, William R.; Noll, Robert; DeMaso, David Ray
Objective: To examine the feasibility and efficacy of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing depressive symptomatology in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Therapy-Physical Illness(PASCET-PI) modified for youths with IBD was compared to treatment as usual (TAU), plus…
Newman, Michelle G.; Fisher, Aaron J.
Objective: This study examined (a) duration of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as a moderator of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus its components (cognitive therapy and self-control desensitization) and (b) increases in dynamic flexibility of anxious symptoms during the course of psychotherapy as a mediator of this moderation. Degree of…
Chiu, Angela W.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Har, Kim; Wood, Jeffrey J.
Background: Few studies have examined the link between child-therapist alliance and outcome in manual-guided cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for children diagnosed with anxiety disorders. This study sought to clarify the nature and strength of this relation. Methods: The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child…
Tang, Tony Z.; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Beberman, Rachel; Pham, Thu
Using an independent cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) data set, the authors replicated T. Z. Tang and R. J. DeRubeis' (1999) discovery of sudden gains--sudden and large decreases in depression severity in a single between-session interval. By incorporating therapy session transcripts, the authors of this study improved the reliability of the…
Gosselin, Patrick; Ladouceur, Robert; Morin, Charles M.; Dugas, Michel J.; Baillargeon, Lucie
This study evaluated the specific effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) combined with medication tapering for benzodiazepine discontinuation among generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients by using a nonspecific therapy control group. Sixty-one patients who had used benzodiazepines for more than 12 months were randomly assigned to…
Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane
Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…
Sampl, Susan; Kadden, Ronald
This manual is designed to help train substance abuse treatment counselors to conduct a brief five-session treatment intervention for adolescents with cannabis use disorders presenting for outpatient treatment. It combines two sessions of motivational enhancement therapy provided individually and three sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy…
Seyffert, Michael; Lagisetty, Pooja; Landgraf, Jessica; Chopra, Vineet; Pfeiffer, Paul N.; Conte, Marisa L.; Rogers, Mary A. M.
Background Insomnia is of major public health importance. While cognitive behavioral therapy is beneficial, in-person treatment is often unavailable. We assessed the effectiveness of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. Objectives The primary objectives were to determine whether online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia could improve sleep efficiency and reduce the severity of insomnia in adults. Secondary outcomes included sleep quality, total sleep time, time in bed, sleep onset latency, wake time after sleep onset, and number of nocturnal awakenings. Data Sources We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Embase, and the Web of Science for randomized trials. Methods Studies were eligible if they were randomized controlled trials in adults that reported application of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia via internet delivery. Mean differences in improvement in sleep measures were calculated using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random effects meta-analysis. Results We found 15 trials, all utilizing a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. Sleep efficiency was 72% at baseline and improved by 7.2% (95% CI: 5.1%, 9.3%; p<0.001) with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy versus control. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy resulted in a decrease in the insomnia severity index by 4.3 points (95% CI: -7.1, -1.5; p = 0.017) compared to control. Total sleep time averaged 5.7 hours at baseline and increased by 20 minutes with internet-delivered therapy versus control (95% CI: 9, 31; p = 0.004). The severity of depression decreased by 2.3 points (95% CI: -2.9, -1.7; p = 0.013) in individuals who received internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy compared to control. Improvements in sleep efficiency, the insomnia severity index and depression scores with internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy were
Jungbluth, Nathaniel J.; Shirk, Stephen R.
This study examined predictive relations between 9 therapist behaviors and client involvement in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Analyses included 42 adolescents who met criteria for a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or adjustment disorder with depressed mood) and who were…
Wetterneck, Chad T.; Hart, John M.
Problems with intimacy and interpersonal issues are exhibited across most psychiatric disorders. However, most of the targets in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy are primarily intrapersonal in nature, with few directly involved in interpersonal functioning and effective intimacy. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) provides a behavioral basis for…
Koons, Cedar R.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Betts, Bette B.; O'Rourke, Beth; Morse, Nesha; Robins, Clive J.
Twelve vocational rehabilitation clients with severe mental illness received a comprehensive adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) delivered in a group format. Treatment consisted of 2 hours of standard DBT skills training per week and 90 minutes of diary card review, chain analysis, and behavioral rehearsal. Participants were selected…
Mason, Susan Ann; Iwata, Brian A.
Three severely retarded individuals (ages 3, 6, and 18) who exhibited self-injurious behavior (SIB) were exposed to sensory-integrative therapy. Prior to treatment, a functional analysis baseline was conducted to identify the motivation features of the SIB. The SIB of all three subjects was reduced when behavior interventions were applied. (DB)
Tremblay, Valerie; Savard, Josee; Ivers, Hans
Prior studies have supported the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia comorbid with cancer. This article reports secondary analyses that were performed on one of these studies to investigate the predictive role of changes in dysfunctional beliefs about sleep, adherence to behavioral strategies, and some nonspecific factors…
Binford, Roslyn B.; Mussell, Melissa Pederson; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Mitchell, James E.
This study's purpose was to examine the extent to which participants (N = 143) receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (BN) reported implementing therapeutic strategies to abstain from BN behaviors, and to assess whether use of specific strategies predicts outcome at treatment end and 1-and 6-month follow-up. Frequency of…
Kanter, Jonathan W.; Baruch, David E.; Gaynor, Scott T.
The field of clinical behavior analysis is growing rapidly and has the potential to affect and transform mainstream cognitive behavior therapy. To have such an impact, the field must provide a formulation of and intervention strategies for clinical depression, the "common cold" of outpatient populations. Two treatments for depression have emerged:…
Escalona, Angelica; Field, Tiffany; Singer-Strunck, Ruth; Cullen, Christy; Hartshorn, Kristen
Twenty children with autism, ages 3 to 6 years, received either massage therapy or reading attention by their parents for 15 minutes daily for one month. Evaluation suggested that children in the massage group exhibited less stereotypic behavior and showed more on-task and social relatedness behavior during play observations at school, and they…
McEvoy, Christopher; And Others
The report documents the theoretical basis and application of massage therapy, with six students who exhibited self-injurious behaviors (SIB), in two studies. The first study investigated the relationship between physical and/or emotional stress and self-abusive behavior in five severely mentally impaired students. Subjects received two to three…
Delinsky, Sherrie S.; Wilson, G. Terence
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN). However, among patients with BN, symptom improvement is more pronounced for behavioral eating symptoms (i.e., bingeing and purging) than for body image disturbance, and the persistence of body image disturbance is associated with relapse. The need for more…
Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G.
In recent years there has been widespread acceptance that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa. The cognitive behavioral treatment of bulimia nervosa (CBT-BN) was first described in 1981. Over the past decades the theory and treatment have evolved in response to a variety of challenges. The treatment has…
Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David A.; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary F.; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer
Objective: To describe the elements of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method: The CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction and relapse prevention approach and…
Koons, Cedar R.
Standard, outpatient Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) includes the provision of intersession telephone contact between the therapist and the client to reduce suicidal crisis behaviors, enhance skills generalization, and reduce alienation and conflict in the therapeutic relationship. Therapists providing telephone consultation need the help of…
Dicker, Stacy L.; Craighead, Linda Wilcoxon
The first-line treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), uses food-based self-monitoring. Six young women presenting with BN or significant purging behavior were treated with a modification, Appetite-Focused CBT (CBT-AF), in which self-monitoring is based on appetite cues and food monitoring is proscribed. This change…
Argues that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) share important rational objectives and numerous cognitive-behavioral methods. Both emphasize a philosophical shift as a principal ingredient for change. Provides definitions of rationality and spirituality and explains how REBT and smart recovery are spiritual…
McDonald, James E.
Proposes reasons for the popular use of stimulant medication in the treatment of hyperactivity, as well as assertions that drug therapy alone is inadequate and insufficient. Behavior modification, although limited in applications with hyperactive children, has demonstrated a favorable effect on disruptive behaviors, self-concept, peer acceptance,…
Turner, Samuel M.; And Others
Randomly assigned 72 social phobics to behavioral (flooding) or drug treatment with atenolol or placebo. Found that flooding consistently was superior to placebo, whereas atenolol was not. Flooding also was superior to atenolol on behavioral measures and composite indexes. Subjects who improved during treatment maintained gains at six-month…
Field, Tiffany; And Others
Preschool children received twice-weekly massages for five weeks. Compared to control children, the massaged children had better behavior ratings on mood state, vocalization, activity, and cooperation following massage on day one and throughout the study. Teachers rated their behavior more optimally, and their parents rated them as having less…
Lauche, Romy; Haller, Heidemarie; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav
Background: Mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions are increasingly studied as a potential treatment for a variety of mental conditions. Objective: To assess the effects of mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions on psychotic symptoms and hospitalization in patients with psychosis Methods: MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO were screened from inception through April 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were analyzed when they assessed psychotic symptoms or hospitalization in patients with psychosis; affect, acceptance, mindfulness, and safety were defined as secondary outcomes. Results: Eight RCTs with a total of 434 patients comparing mindfulness-based (4 RCTs) or acceptance-based interventions (4 RCTs) to treatment as usual or attention control were included. Six RCTs had low risk of bias. Moderate evidence was found for short-term effects on total psychotic symptoms, positive symptoms, hospitalization rates, duration of hospitalization, and mindfulness and for long-term effects on total psychotic symptoms and duration of hospitalization. No evidence was found for effects on negative symptoms, affect, or acceptance. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions can be recommended as an additional treatment for patients with psychosis. PMID:26937312
A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity.
Waller, Glenn; Stringer, Hannah; Meyer, Caroline
Objective: Clinicians commonly "drift" away from using proven therapeutic techniques. This study examined the degree to which such drift occurs among cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) clinicians working with a specific clinical population--adults with eating disorders. Method: The study used a correlational design. The participants were…
Lindgreen, Pil; Rolving, Nanna; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Lomborg, Kirsten
BACKGROUND: Patients receiving lumbar spinal fusion surgery often have persisting postoperative pain negatively affecting their daily life. These patients may be helped by interdisciplinary cognitive-behavioral therapy which is recognized as an effective intervention for improving beneficial pain coping behavior, thereby facilitating the rehabilitation process of patients with chronic pain. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experience of patients recovering from lumbar spinal fusion surgery and to explore potential similarities and disparities in pain coping behavior between receivers and nonreceivers of interdisciplinary cognitive-behavioral group therapy. METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews with 10 patients; 5 receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy in connection with their lumbar spinal fusion surgery and 5 receiving usual care. We conducted a phenomenological analysis to reach our first aim and then conducted a comparative content analysis to reach our second aim. RESULTS: Patients' postoperative experience was characterized by the need to adapt to the limitations imposed by back discomfort (coexisting with the back), need for recognition and support from others regarding their pain, a relatively long rehabilitation period during which they “awaited the result of surgery”, and ambivalence toward analgesics. The patients in both groups had similar negative perception of analgesics and tended to abstain from them to avoid addiction. Coping behavior apparently differed among receivers and nonreceivers of interdisciplinary cognitive-behavioral group therapy. Receivers prevented or minimized pain by resting before pain onset, whereas nonreceivers awaited pain onset before resting. CONCLUSION: The postoperative experience entailed ambivalence, causing uncertainty, worry and insecurity. This ambivalence was relieved when others recognized the patient's pain and offered support. Cognitive-behavioral therapy as part of
Coelho, Luzia Flavia; Barbosa, Deise Lima Fernandes; Rizzutti, Sueli; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Miranda, Monica Carolina
Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with the Token-Economy (TE) technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11) on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior), a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in seven categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children’s inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication. PMID:26635642
Coelho, Luzia Flavia; Barbosa, Deise Lima Fernandes; Rizzutti, Sueli; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Miranda, Monica Carolina
Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with the Token-Economy (TE) technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11) on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior), a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in seven categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children's inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication.
Escalona, A; Field, T; Singer-Strunck, R; Cullen, C; Hartshorn, K
Twenty children with autism, ages 3 to 6 years, were randomly assigned to massage therapy and reading attention control groups. Parents in the massage therapy group were trained by a massage therapist to massage their children for 15 minutes prior to bedtime every night for 1 month and the parents of the attention control group read Dr. Seuss stories to their children on the same time schedule. Conners Teacher and Parent scales, classroom and playground observations, and sleep diaries were used to assess the effects of therapy on various behaviors, including hyperactivity, stereotypical and off-task behavior, and sleep problems. Results suggested that the children in the massage group exhibited less stereotypic behavior and showed more on-task and social relatedness behavior during play observations at school, and they experienced fewer sleep problems at home.
Shelton, Deborah; Kesten, Karen; Zhang, Wanli; Trestman, Robert
Purpose This article reports the findings of a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy- Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) intervention upon difficult to manage, impulsive and/or aggressive incarcerated male adolescents. Methods A secondary analysis of a sub-sample of 38 male adolescents who participated in the study was conducted. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used; descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted. Results Significant changes were found in physical aggression, distancing coping methods and number of disciplinary tickets for behavior. Conclusion The study supports the value of DBT-CM for management of incarcerated male adolescents with difficult to manage aggressive behaviors. PMID:21501287
Spirito, Anthony; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Wolff, Jennifer; Uhl, Kristen
Synopsis CBT has emerged as a well-established treatment for depression in children and adolescents but treatment trials for adolescents with suicidality are few in number, and their efficacy to date is rather limited. Although a definitive treatment for adolescent suicide attempters has yet to be established, the limited literature suggests that suicidal thoughts and behavior should be directly addressed for optimal treatment outcome. This chapter reviews the rationale underlying the use of CBT for the treatment of depression and suicidality in adolescents, the literature supporting the efficacy of CBT for depressed adolescents, and whether CBT for depression reduces suicidal thoughts and behavior. A description of some of the core cognitive, affective, and behavioral techniques used in CBT treatments of suicidal ideation and behavior in depressed adolescents is included. PMID:21440850
Pagoto, Sherry L; Pbert, Lori; Emmons, Karen
In 2011, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) issued a decision to cover intensive behavior therapy for obesity in the primary care setting. The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) Public Policy Leadership Group reviewed the CMS decision and has issued a position statement. SBM is in support of the CMS decision to cover intensive behavior therapy for obesity but expresses significant concern that aspects of the decision will severely limit the impact of the decision. Concerns focus on the degree to which this care can be feasibly implemented in its current form given the limitations in providers who are covered and the short length of counseling visits relative to evidence-based protocols. SBM is in strong support of modifications that would include providers who have expertise in weight control (e.g., psychologists and dietitians) and to expand the treatment time to better match protocols with confirmed efficacy.
de Bruin, Eduard J.; Bögels, Susan M.; Oort, Frans J.; Meijer, Anne Marie
Study Objectives: To investigate the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) in adolescents. Design: A randomized controlled trial of CBTI in group therapy (GT), guided internet therapy (IT), and a waiting list (WL), with assessments at baseline, directly after treatment (post-test), and at 2 months follow-up. Setting: Diagnostic interviews were held at the laboratory of the Research Institute of Child Development and Education at the University of Amsterdam. Treatment for GT occurred at the mental health care center UvAMinds in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants: One hundred sixteen adolescents (mean age = 15.6 y, SD = 1.6 y, 25% males) meeting DSM-IV criteria for insomnia, were randomized to IT, GT, or WL. Interventions: CBTI of 6 weekly sessions, consisted of psychoeducation, sleep hygiene, restriction of time in bed, stimulus control, cognitive therapy, and relaxation techniques. GT was conducted in groups of 6 to 8 adolescents, guided by 2 trained sleep therapists. IT was applied through an online guided self-help website with programmed instructions and written feedback from a trained sleep therapist. Measurements and Results: Sleep was measured with actigraphy and sleep logs for 7 consecutive days. Symptoms of insomnia and chronic sleep reduction were measured with questionnaires. Results showed that adolescents in both IT and GT, compared to WL, improved significantly on sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, and total sleep time at post-test, and improvements were maintained at follow-up. Most of these improvements were found in both objective and subjective measures. Furthermore, insomnia complaints and symptoms of chronic sleep reduction also decreased significantly in both treatment conditions compared to WL. Effect sizes for improvements ranged from medium to large. A greater proportion of participants from the treatment conditions showed high end-state functioning and clinically significant
Jamilian, H. R.; Malekirad, A. A.; Farhadi, M.; Habibi, M.; Zamani, N.
Introduction: The purpose of this study is to measure Effectiveness of group dialectical behavior therapy (basedon core distress tolerance and emotion regulation components) on Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors. Materials & Methods: Research method is a semi experimental socio-statistic approach consisting of experimental group (dialectical behavior therapy) and control group. Participants were patients referred to Amir Kabir Hospital in Arak who suffered from Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors. Based on stratified random sampling, 16 patients (women) were placed in each group. Research tools included the structured diagnosis interview according to DSM-IV-TR (2000), Barrat impulsivity scale (1994) Distress Tolerance Scale (2005) Difficulties of Emotion Regulation Scale (2004) and dialectical behavior therapy were done for two months,8 group-sessions). Findings: Dialectical behavior therapy was effective on Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors. Discussion & Conclusion: Distress tolerance and emotion regulation components were effective on Expulsive Anger and Impulsive Behaviors. PMID:25363188
Perri, Michael G.; And Others
Moderately obese volunteers were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions (behavior therapy or behavior therapy plus aerobic exercise) and two posttreatment conditions (no further contact or a multicomponent maintenance program). Clients in the aerobic exercise condition lost significantly more weight than those who received behavior therapy…
Storch, Eric A.; McKay, Dean; Reid, Jeannette M.; Geller, Daniel A.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.
This paper discusses a recent translational success in combining behavioral psychotherapy with a novel medication, d-cycloserine (DCS), to augment cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. The literature on behavioral theory of exposure-based therapies is provided, followed by a discussion of the role of DCS in enhancing extinction…
Macgowan, Mark J.; Engle, Bretton
This article reviews behavior therapies (n = 12), motivational interviewing interventions (n = 12), and combined behavioral-psychosocial therapies (n = 12), across thirty-four peer-reviewed publications. Studies were included if they involved youth with alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, included measures of AOD outcomes, and utilized controlled research designs with a control or comparison condition. Across the studies, there were mild to very serious AOD problems including comorbidity. The level of empirical support of the interventions was evaluated using established guidelines to determine if the interventions could be considered “well-established,” “probably efficacious,” or “promising.” The review determined that behavior therapies were “probably efficacious,” and motivational interviewing interventions easily met the criteria for “promising.” Due to small sample sizes, combined behavioral-psychosocial therapies marginally met the criteria for “promising.” The findings from this review underscore the value of individual and group behavior therapies and motivational interviewing in helping reduce mild to serious AOD use among adolescents. PMID:20682219
Hiltunen, Arto J; Kocys, Elo; Perrin-Wallqvist, Renée
At the psychotherapy training center at Karlstad University, a study was carried out to examine the levels of symptom change and satisfaction with therapy in a heterogeneous population of clients treated using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) by less experienced trainee therapists with limited theoretical education. The clients received an average of 11 therapy sessions. The results suggested that CBT performed by less experienced trainee therapists can be effective. According to client estimations, a statistically significant reduction in symptoms, measured using the Symptoms Checklist, was achieved for seven of nine variables (p ≤ .006), as well as a significant increase in satisfaction with life (p ≤ .001). Also, the pre- and posttherapy measurements using the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale showed a statistically significant improvement in the clients’ condition. According to the therapists’ estimations, 64% (SD = 32.01) of the clients experienced a significant improvement in their condition. In addition, the results of a survey of client satisfaction demonstrated that the clients were very pleased with the therapy received. Also the therapists were, to a great extent, satisfied with the treatment process itself, including the supervision received, and very satisfied with the client alliance. A correlation analysis between the clients’ perceived level of improvement and therapist satisfaction showed a strong correlation between the two variables (r = .50, p < .005). By including the Comparative Psychotherapy Process Scale (CPPS) in our study it was possible to measure trueness to therapy form. An analysis of the CPPS results confirmed that the form of therapy used at the training site was more strongly CBT than psychodynamic interpersonal treatment (p ≤ .001). The CBT subscale score indicated that the therapy was characteristic of CBT, confirming that the interventions used in the therapy belong to the CBT
Rosenberg, J B; Lindblad, M B
This paper discusses the necessity of using both behavioral and family approaches in combination, while working with electively mute children. The symptom and its significance within the family system is presented along with a rationale for avoiding the pitfalls of individual approaches with such children. A case history outlining specific behavioral techniques is described in detail with an exploration of the use of reinforcement theory, counter-conditioning, and successive approximations in bringing about change in electively mute children. The need for bringing about changes within the family system so as to maintain the changes that have occurred through use of the behavior techniques is discussed and presented as crucial to the treatment process. The paper takes the position that either approach, by itself, will not be effective in helping electively mute children but that the treatment of choice is a combination of therapeutic techniques.
Benjamin, Courtney L.; Puleo, Connor M.; Settipani, Cara A.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Edmunds, Julie M.; Cummings, Colleen M.
Synopsis CBT represents a combination of behavioral and cognitive theories of human behavior and psychopathology, and a melding of emotional, familial, and peer influences. The numerous intervention strategies that comprise CBT reflect its complex and integrative nature and include such topics as extinction, habituation, modeling, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving, and the development of coping strategies, mastery, and a sense of self-control. CBT targets multiple areas of potential vulnerability (e.g., cognitive, behavioral, affective) with developmentally-guided strategies and traverses multiple intervention pathways. Although CBT is often considered the “first line treatment” for many psychological disorders in youth, additional work is necessary to address treatment non-responders and to facilitate the dissemination of efficacious CBT approaches. PMID:21440849
Lehrer, Paul M.; And Others
This paper describes a model in which parents were taught to modify the behavior of their children. Parents were referred to the group after only brief screening consisting of a lengthy questionnaire, an intake interview with a clinician at a mental health center, and perhaps a brief discussion of the case at a disposition conference. Referrals to…
Morin, Charles M.; And Others
Assigned 24 older adults with persistent psychophysiological insomnia to immediate or delayed cognitive-behavioral intervention in waiting-list control group design. Treatment was effective in reducing sleep latency, wake after sleep onset, and early morning awakening, and in increasing sleep efficiency. Sleep improvements obtained by…
Markle, Allan; And Others
Examined the relationship between outcomes of behaviorally oriented treatment for children (N=366) and eye color. Findings were consistent with theoretical expectations: Dark-eyed children and teenagers responded better to reactive treatment programs than their light-eyed counterparts, while the reverse was true for self-paced treatment programs.…
Kendall, Philip C., Ed.
Widely regarded as the definitive clinical reference and text in the field, this authoritative volume presents effective cognitive-behavioral approaches for treating frequently encountered child and adolescent disorders. The editor and contributors are leading experts who provide hands-on, how-to-do-it descriptions illustrated with clinical…
Suzuki, Mizue; Kanamori, Masao; Watanabe, Motoko; Nagasawa, Shingo; Kojima, Emi; Ooshiro, Hajime; Nakahara, Daiichirou
The present study investigated the effectiveness of music therapy for dementia patients using endocrinological and behavioral evaluations. The study comprised 10 patients with senile dementia who received music therapy; six had Alzheimer's dementia and four had vascular dementia. Music therapy was performed twice a week for 8 consecutive weeks (16 sessions). As a result, total scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) did not significantly change, but the scores of a subscale, "language", improved significantly. According to the Multidimensional Observation Scale For Elderly Subjects (MOSES), scores for "irritability" decreased significantly. Regarding changes in salivary chromogranin A (CgA) levels, the average was significantly decreased before session 16 compared to after this. These results suggest that the combination of endocrinological measurements, behavioral evaluations and functional assessment methods are useful in evaluating the effects of music therapy in persons with senile dementia.
Burgio, Kathryn L.; Kraus, Stephen R.; Menefee, Shawn; Borello-France, Diane; Corton, Marlene; Johnson, Harry W.; Mallett, Veronica; Norton, Peggy; FitzGerald, Mary P.; Dandreo, Kimberly J.; Richter, Holly E.; Rozanski, Thomas; Albo, Michael; Zyczynski, Halina M.; Lemack, Gary E.; Chai, Toby C.; Khandwala, Salil; Baker, Jan; Brubaker, Linda; Stoddard, Anne M.; Goode, Patricia S.; Nielsen-Omeis, Betsy; Nager, Charles W.; Kenton, Kimberly; Tennstedt, Sharon L.; Kusek, John W.; Chang, T. Debuene; Nyberg, Leroy M.; Steers, William
Background Women with urge urinary incontinence are commonly treated with antimuscarinic medications, but many discontinue therapy. Objective To determine whether combining antimuscarinic drug therapy with supervised behavioral training, compared to drug therapy alone, improves the ability of women with urge incontinence to achieve clinically important reductions in incontinence episodes and to and sustain these improvements after discontinuing medication. Design Two-stage, multi-center, randomized clinical trial (BE-DRI trial) (July 2004 – January 2006). Setting Nine university-affiliated outpatient clinics. Patients 307 women with urge predominant incontinence. Interventions Ten weeks of open-label, extended-release tolterodine alone (N = 153) or combined with behavioral training (N = 154) (Stage 1), followed by discontinuation of therapy and follow-up at 8 months (Stage 2); 237 participants completed the trial. Measurements The primary outcome, measured at 8 months, was defined as not taking drug or receiving any other therapy for urge incontinence and ≥70% reduction in frequency of incontinence episodes. Secondary outcomes were reduction in incontinence, self-reported satisfaction and improvement, and scores on validated questionnaires measuring symptom distress/bother and health-related quality-of-life. Study staff who performed outcome evaluations were blinded to group assignment, but participants and interventionists were not. Results At 8 months, there was no difference in successful discontinuation of drug therapy between combined therapy and drug alone (41% in both groups, 95% confidence interval on difference: -12% to +12%). A higher proportion of patients in combined therapy achieved ≥70% reduction of incontinence than in drug therapy alone at 10 weeks (69% vs. 58%; difference = 11%; 95% confidence interval: -0.3 to +22.1). Combined therapy yielded better outcomes over time on the Urogenital Distress Inventory and Overactive Bladder Questionnaire
Muñoz-Martínez, Amanda M; Coletti, Juan P
Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a therapeutic approach developed in 'third wave therapies' context. FAP is characterized by use therapeutic relationship and the behaviors emit into it to improve clients daily life functioning. This therapeutic model is supported in behavior analysis principles and contextual functionalism philosophy. FAP proposes that clients behavior in session are functional equivalent with those out of session; therefore, when therapists respond to clients behaviors in session contingently, they promote and increase improvements in the natural setting. This article poses main features of FAP, its philosophical roots, achievements and research challenges to establish FAP as an independent treatment based on the evidence.
Muñoz-Martínez, Amanda M; Coletti, Juan Pablo
Abstract Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a therapeutic approach developed in
Fernández, María Dolores; Luciano, Carmen; Valdivia-Salas, Sonsoles
Research has shown that teaching individuals to experience pain and anxiety as inevitable products of the actions they freely and responsibly undertake yields healthier reactions to suffering. This preliminary study assesses whether a brief acceptance-based psychological intervention along with the usual presurgical protocol for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy will produce healthier reactions to postsurgical pain, and will reduce anxiety, duration of postsurgical hospitalization, and demand of analgesics. After admission, screening, and consent procedures, we assessed pain and anxiety. Patients in the experimental condition (n = 6) then received a brief acceptance-based nursing intervention addressing the individual meaning of surgery, and including a metaphor and defusion practice, along with routine care. Patients in the control condition (n = 7) received routine care only. Twenty-four hr following the intervention, surgery took place. Pain, anxiety, and patients' demand for analgesics were assessed 24 hr or 48 hr after surgery. All six experimental patients, as compared to three of seven control patients, demanded fewer analgesics and left the hospital within 24 hr or 48 hr from surgery even in the presence of frequent and/or intense pain. Anxiety slightly decreased in the experimental patients. The brief acceptance-based intervention was effective in improving postsurgical recovery. These preliminary findings support the potential of this type of intervention as a cost-effective strategy to be implemented in the sanitary context.
Burnett, Kent F.; And Others
Implemented a behavioral treatment program for obesity using an interactive microcomputer system small enough to be carried by subjects. Subjects receiving the computer-assisted treatment lost approximately 2.5 times as much weight as controls and their rate of weight loss equaled that for more elaborate behavioral treatments. (MCF)
Lovaas, O. Ivar; Koegel, Robert; Simmons, James Q.; Long, Judith Stevens
We have treated 20 autistic children with behavior therapy. At intake, most of the children were severely disturbed, having symptoms indicating an extremely poor prognosis. The children were treated in separate groups, and some were treated more than once, allowing for within- and between-subject replications of treatment effects. We have employed reliable measures of generalization across situations and behaviors as well as across time (follow-up). The findings can be summarized as follows: (1) Inappropriate behaviors (self-stimulation and echolalia) decreased during treatment, and appropriate behaviors (appropriate speech, appropriate play, and social non-verbal behaviors) increased. (2) Spontaneous social interactions and the spontaneous use of language occurred about eight months into treatment for some of the children. (3) IQs and social quotients reflected improvement during treatment. (4) There were no exceptions to the improvement, however, some of the children improved more than others. (5) Follow-up measures recorded 1 to 4 yr after treatment showed that large differences between groups of children depended upon the post-treatment environment (those groups whose parents were trained to carry out behavior therapy continued to improve, while children who were institutionalized regressed). (6) A brief reinstatement of behavior therapy could temporarily re-establish some of the original therapeutic gains made by the children who were subsequently institutionalized. PMID:16795385
Groen, Gunter; Petermann, Franz
Cognitive behavior therapy offers a theoretically and empirically valid therapeutic approach for children and adolescents suffering from depression. It can be recommended according to present guidelines and efficacy studies. Further research and conceptual development, however, is necessary especially regarding the small to moderate effect sizes as well as the lack of long-term efficacy and effect factors. This article gives a short overview of the basics and contents of cognitive behavior therapy for depressive children and adolescents. It furthermore presents the latest findings and an assessment of its efficacy and relevant developments and perspectives.
McCullough Chavis, Annie
This article examines theoretical thoughts of social learning theory and behavioral therapy and their influences on human behavior within a social and cultural context. The article utilizes two case illustrations with applications for consumers. It points out the abundance of research studies concerning the effectiveness of social learning theory, and the paucity of research studies regarding effectiveness and evidence-based practices with diverse groups. Providing a social and cultural context in working with diverse groups with reference to social learning theory adds to the literature for more cultural considerations in adapting the theory to women, African Americans, and diverse groups.
Greco, Laurie A.; Sorrell, John T.; McNeil, Cheryl B.
Provides a model of understanding and evaluating manualized treatments by beginning with a review of the theory and data-driven principles upon which one treatment, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), is based. As a point of illustration, several principles of PCIT, such as reinforcement, punishment, and stimulus control, are highlighted, and…
The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Plus Media on the Reduction of Bullying and Victimization and the Increase of Empathy and Bystander Response in a Bully Prevention Program for Urban Sixth-Grade Students
McLaughlin, Laura Pierce
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy plus media on the reduction of bullying and victimization and the increase in empathy and bystander response in a bully prevention program for urban sixth-graders. Sixty-eight students participated. Because one of the…
Mander, Helen; Kingdon, David
Cognitive therapy for psychosis has developed over the past 30 years from initial case studies, treatment manuals, pilot randomized controlled studies to fully powered and methodologically rigorous efficacy and, subsequently, effectiveness trials. Reviews and meta-analyses have confirmed the benefits of the interventions. Considered appraisal by government and professional organizations has now led to its inclusion in international treatment guidelines for schizophrenia. Patients consistently ask for access to psychotherapeutic interventions, and it is slowly becoming available in many European countries and other parts of the world, eg, US and the People’s Republic of China. However, it remains unacceptably difficult to access for the vast majority of people with psychosis who could benefit from it. Psychosis affects people in the prime of their lives and leads to major effects on their levels of distress, well-being, and functioning, and also results in major costs to society. Providing effective interventions at an early stage has the potential to reduce the high relapse rates that occur after recovery from first episode and the ensuing morbidity and premature mortality associated with psychosis. PMID:25733937
Hesser, Hugo; Westin, Vendela Zetterqvist; Andersson, Gerhard
Despite demonstrated efficacy of behavioral and cognitive techniques in treating the impact of tinnitus (constant ringing in the ears), little is known about the mechanisms by which these techniques achieve their effect. The present study examined acceptance of tinnitus as a potential mediator of treatment changes on global tinnitus severity in internet-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy (iACT) and internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT). Data from 67 participants who were distressed by tinnitus and who were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 treatments were analyzed using a multilevel moderated mediation model. We predicted that acceptance as measured with the two subscales of the tinnitus acceptance questionnaire (i.e., activity engagement and tinnitus suppression) would mediate the outcome in iACT, but not in iCBT. Results provided partial support to the notion that mediation was moderated by treatment: tinnitus suppression mediated changes in tinnitus severity in iACT, but not in iCBT. However, inconsistent with the view that the treatments worked through different processes of change, activity engagement mediated treatment changes across both iACT and iCBT. Acceptance is identified as a key source of therapeutic change in behavioral-based treatments for tinnitus.
Crawley, Sarah A.; Kendall, Philip C.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Wei, Chiaying; Beidas, Rinad S.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Mauro, Christian
We developed and evaluated a brief (8-session) version of cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxiety disorders in youth ages 6 to 13. This report describes the design and development of the BCBT program and intervention materials (therapist treatment manual and child treatment workbook) and an initial evaluation of child treatment outcomes.…
Kertes, Angela; Westra, Henny A.; Angus, Lynne; Marcus, Madalyn
Motivational Interviewing (MI) has recently been applied to the treatment of anxiety disorders in an effort to bolster engagement with and response rates to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). In a recent randomized control trial, the addition of MI as a pretreatment compared to no pretreatment was found to significantly improve response to CBT…
Labrecque, Joane; Marchand, Andre; Dugas, Michel J.; Letarte, Andree
The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for comorbid panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by combining treatment strategies for both disorders. A single-case, multiple-baseline design across participants was used. Three participants with primary PDA and secondary…
Suveg, Cynthia; Sood, Erica; Comer, Jonathan S.; Kendall, Philip C.
This study examined emotion-related functioning following cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with 37 youth with anxiety disorders (22 boys, 15 girls) ranging in age from 7 to 15 with a principal diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (n = 27), separation anxiety disorder (n = 12), and/or social phobia (n = 13). Treated youth exhibited a…
Banks, Tachelle I.
Mental health curriculum should be delivered in classroom settings to address and remediate the socio-emotional needs of students with and without disabilities. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is a comprehensive, universal, and humanistic approach that focuses on the emotional distress manifested by individuals has been used with children…
Interian, Alejandro; Diaz-Martinez, Angelica M.
The purpose of this paper is to outline considerations for adapting cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to Hispanic patients who have recently immigrated, particularly those presenting with depressive symptoms. Culturally competent CBT is framed within a model originally proposed by Rogler and his colleagues (1987). The considerations outlined by…
Goodmon, Leilani B.; Leverett, Raven; Royer, Amanda; Hillard, Gracia; Tedder, Tracey; Rakes, Lori
The purpose of this study was to determine if the behavioral and learning benefit found from the use of therapy balls as classroom seats in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (e.g., Schilling, Washington, Billingsley, & Deitz, 2003) generalizes to children with dyslexia who suffer from similar attention problems…
Comtois, Katherine Anne; Elwood, Lynn; Holdcraft, Laura C.; Smith, Wayne R.; Simpson, Tracy L.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has been shown to be effective in randomized controlled trials with women with borderline personality disorder and histories of chronic self-inflicted injury including suicide attempts. The present study is a pre-post replication of a comprehensive DBT program in a community mental health center for individuals…
Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachel M.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.
This research represents the first controlled treatment study of hypnosis and cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) of acute stress disorder (ASD). Civilian trauma survivors (N = 87) who met criteria for ASD were randomly allocated to 6 sessions of CBT, CBT combined with hypnosis (CBT-hypnosis), or supportive counseling (SC). CBT comprised exposure,…
Radhu, Natasha; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Arpin-Cribbie, Chantal A.; Irvine, Jane; Ritvo, Paul
Objective: This study assessed a Web-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for maladaptive perfectionism, investigating perfectionism, anxiety, depression, negative automatic thoughts, and perceived stress. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students defined as maladaptive perfectionists through a screening questionnaire at an urban…
Wagner, Birgit; Knaevelsrud, Christine; Maercker, Andreas
The present study investigates the efficacy of an Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy program for bereaved people suffering complicated grief. The program combines established methods of psychotherapy with new technology--therapists and patients communicated exclusively by e-mail. Bereaved individuals diagnosed with complicated grief (n =…
de Graaf, L. Esther; Hollon, Steven D.; Huibers, Marcus J. H.
Objective: To explore pretreatment and short-term improvement variables as potential moderators and predictors of 12-month follow-up outcome of unsupported online computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT), usual care, and CCBT combined with usual care for depression. Method: Three hundred and three depressed patients were randomly allocated…
Chugani, Carla D.; Landes, Sara J.
The purpose of this study was to examine trends and barriers in implementation of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) programs in college counseling centers (CCCs). Participants were 107 CCC employees who participated in an electronic survey. One third of respondents endorsed use or planned use of DBT at their centers. The most prevalent primary…
Chugani, Carla D.
This article examines the topic of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) applied in college counseling centers. Trends in mental health issues on college campuses are briefly reviewed in support of the increased need for evidence-based treatment of severe mental health issues. The article next presents an overview of the standard DBT model and…
Hamilton, Kate E.; Wershler, Julie L.; Macrodimitris, Sophie D.; Backs-Dermott, Barb J.; Ching, Laurie E.; Mothersill, Kerry J.
Depression and anxiety are the most common mental health disorders seen in clinical practice and they are highly comorbid. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been demonstrated as an effective treatment for both depression and anxiety but is often not available to all individuals who could benefit from it. This paper investigates the…
van Rooij, Antonius J.; Zinn, Mieke F.; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; van de Mheen, Dike
In 2009, one of the major Dutch addiction care organizations initiated a pilot program to explore the possibility of using an existing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Interviewing based treatment program ("Lifestyle Training") to treat internet addiction. The current study evaluates this pilot treatment program by providing…
Hodge, David R.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective modality for the treatment of alcoholism. Given widespread interest in incorporating spirituality into professional treatment, this article orients practitioners to spiritually modified CBT, an approach that may enhance outcomes with some spiritually motivated clients. More specifically, by…
Salloum, Alison; Scheeringa, Michael S.; Cohen, Judith A.; Storch, Eric A.
Background: In order to develop Stepped Care trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), a definition of early response/non-response is needed to guide decisions about the need for subsequent treatment. Objective: The purpose of this article is to (1) establish criterion for defining an early indicator of response/non-response to the…
Smith, Patrick; Yule, William; Perrin, Sean; Tranah, Troy; Dagleish, Tim; Clark, David M.
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of individual trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and young people. Method: Following a 4-week symptom-monitoring baseline period, 24 children and young people (8-18 years old) who met full "DSM-IV" PTSD diagnostic criteria after…
Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Staron, Virginia R.
Objective: This pilot study evaluated outcomes for a modified 12-session protocol of cognitive-behavioral therapy for childhood traumatic grief (CBT-CTG) conducted between March 2004 and October 2005. CTG is an emerging condition characterized by a combination of posttraumatic stress and unresolved grief symptoms. This two-module treatment model…
McCloskey, Michael S.; Noblett, Kurtis L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Gollan, Jackie K.; Coccaro, Emil F.
No randomized clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of psychotherapy for intermittent explosive disorder (IED). In the present study, the authors tested the efficacy of 12-week group and individual cognitive-behavioral therapies (adapted from J. L. Deffenbacher & M. McKay, 2000) by comparing them with a wait-list control in a randomized…
Budney, Alan J.; Moore, Brent A.; Rocha, Heath L.; Higgins, Stephen T.
Ninety cannabis-dependent adults seeking treatment were randomly assigned to receive cognitive-behavioral therapy, abstinence-based voucher incentives, or their combination. Treatment duration was 14 weeks, and outcomes were assessed for 12 months post treatment. Findings suggest that (a) abstinence-based vouchers were effective for engendering…
Bazelmans, Ellen; Prins, Judith; Bleijenberg, Gijs
In chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), facilitating, initiating, and perpetuating factors are distinguished. Although somatic factors might have initiated symptoms in CFS, they do not explain the persistence of fatigue. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for CFS focuses on factors that perpetuate and prolong symptoms. Recently it has been shown that,…
Scheeres, Korine; Wensing, Michel; Knoop, Hans; Bleijenberg, Gijs
Objective: This study evaluated the success of implementing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in a representative clinical practice setting and compared the patient outcomes with those of previously published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CBT for CFS. Method: The implementation interventions were the…
Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Levin, Michael E.
The present article summarizes the assumptions, model, techniques, evidence, and diversity/social justice commitments of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). ACT focused on six processes (acceptance, defusion, self, now, values, and action) that bear on a single overall target (psychological flexibility). The ACT model of behavior change has…
Hofmann, Stefan G.; Meuret, Alicia E.; Rosenfield, David; Suvak, Michael K.; Barlow, David H.; Gorman, Jack M.; Shear, M. Katherine; Woods, Scott W.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy are similarly effective for treating panic disorder with mild or no agoraphobia, but little is known about the mechanism through which these treatments work. The present study examined some of the criteria for cognitive mediation of treatment change in CBT alone, imipramine alone, CBT plus…
Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.
Recent meta-analytic data suggest a need for ongoing evaluation of treatments for youth depression. The present article calls attention to a number of issues relevant to the empirical evaluation of if and how cognitive behavior therapy for child depression works. A case series of 6 children and a primary caregiver received treatment--individual…
Tiano, Jennifer D.; McNeil, Cheryl B.
The current project evaluated the use of behavior management techniques utilized in Parent- Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in head start classrooms. The sample included seven Head Start classrooms; four classrooms receiving treatment and three classrooms receiving no treatment. Evaluation of the progress included observation of teacher and…
Lincoln, Tania M.; Ziegler, Michael; Mehl, Stephanie; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Lullmann, Eva; Westermann, Stefan; Rief, Winfried
Objective: Randomized controlled trials have attested the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing psychotic symptoms. Now, studies are needed to investigate its effectiveness in routine clinical practice settings. Method: Eighty patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who were seeking outpatient treatment were randomized…
Valmaggia, Lucia R.; Tabraham, Paul; Morris, Eric; Bouman, Theo K.
Since the early 1990s, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been increasingly used as an adjunctive treatment for psychotic disorders. This paper describes the CBT of three cases, each at a different stage of psychotic disorder: at-risk mental state, first-episode psychosis, and chronic psychotic disorder. For the at-risk mental state, treatment…
Ceramidas, Dagmar M
Minimizing depression in residential aged care facilities is a formidable challenge but doing so may improve quality of life and protect against dementia. A pilot project with residents with cognitive decline and concurrent depression tested the suitability of a faith-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention in reducing participant levels of depression, offering promising results.
Sharma, Binali; Dunlop, Boadie W.; Ninan, Philip T.; Bradley, Rebekah
Objective: The authors describe the use of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) in treating borderline personality disorder during psychiatry residency, and assess the status of DBT education within psychiatry residencies in the United States. Method: The authors present a patient with borderline personality disorder treated by a resident using DBT,…
Woodberry, Kristen A.; Popenoe, Ellen J.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), an empirically supported treatment for adult women diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), has been increasingly adapted for use with adolescents across a variety of settings. This article describes a community-based application of DBT principles and strategies for adolescents and their families.…
Kliem, Soren; Kroger, Christoph; Kosfelder, Joachim
Objective: At present, the most frequently investigated psychosocial intervention for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy and long-term effectiveness of DBT. Method: Systematic bibliographic research was undertaken to find relevant literature from online…
Pistorello, Jacqueline; Fruzzetti, Alan E.; MacLane, Chelsea; Gallop, Robert; Iverson, Katherine M.
Objective: College counseling centers (CCCs) are increasingly being called upon to treat highly distressed students with complex clinical presentations. This study compared the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for suicidal college students with an optimized control condition and analyzed baseline global functioning as a…
Makinson, Ryan A.; Young, J. Scott
There is increasing evidence to support the biological basis of mental disorders. Subsequently, understanding the neurobiological context from which mental distress arises can help counselors appropriately apply cognitive behavioral therapy and other well-researched cognitive interventions. The purpose of this article is to describe the…
Sudak, Donna M.
In January 2001, Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education accredited general psychiatry training programs were charged with the requirement to train residents in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to a level of competence. Programs were given the responsibility to delineate standards for trainees, to determine measures of competence,…
Simpson, E B; Pistorello, J; Begin, A; Costello, E; Levinson, J; Mulberry, S; Pearlstein, T; Rosen, K; Stevens, M
Dialectical behavior therapy, an outpatient psychosocial treatment for chronically suicidal women with borderline personality disorder, has been adapted for use in a partial hospital program for women. Patients attend the program for a minimum of five days of individual and group therapy, and full census is 12 women. About 65 percent of participants meet at least three criteria for borderline personality disorder, and most have suicidal and self-injurious behavior. Their comorbid diagnoses include trauma-related diagnoses and anxiety disorders, severe eating disorders, substance abuse, and depression. The partial hospital program is linked to an aftercare program offering six months of outpatient skills training based on dialectical behavior therapy. Both programs focus on teaching patients four skills: mindfulness (attention to one's experience), interpersonal effectiveness, emotional regulation, and distress tolerance. Two years of operation of the women's partial hospital program provides promising anecdotal evidence that dialectical behavioral therapy, an outpatient approach, can be effectively modified for partial hospital settings and a more diverse population.
Kearny, Regina; Pawlukewicz, Justine; Guardino, Mary
Because anxiety is the most common mental health disorder diagnosed in children, early intervention is crucial for fundamental coping. Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the preferred treatment method for this affective disorder, instruction for children needs to be specific for them to successfully acquire and implement essential CBT…
King, Gillian; Tam, Cynthia; Fay, Linda; Pilkington, Martha; Servais, Michelle; Petrosian, Hasmik
There is growing interest in understanding the usefulness of mentorship programs for children's rehabilitation service providers. This evaluation study examined the effects of an occupational therapy mentorship program on the skills and behaviors of 8 new and 17 experienced occupational therapists practicing at a regional children's rehabilitation…
Manning, Sharon Y.
Telephone consultation is an integral mode of the comprehensive treatment in dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). The mode of telephone consultation functions primarily to ensure that the skills learned in skills training group and the solutions created in DBT individual psychotherapy generalize to the client's environment. However, there are many…
Safir, Marilyn P.; Wallach, Helene S.; Bar-Zvi, Margalit
Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common social phobia. Although cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice, difficulties arise with both in vivo and in vitro exposure (lack of therapist control, patient's inability to imagine, self-flooding, and a lack of confidentiality resulting from public exposure). Virtual reality CBT…
Addison, Laura R.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Patel, Meeta R.; Bachmeyer, Melanie H.; Rivas, Kristi M.; Milnes, Suzanne M.; Oddo, Jackie
We compared the effects of escape extinction (EE) plus noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with sensory integration therapy as treatment for the feeding problems of 2 children. Results indicated that EE plus NCR was more effective in increasing acceptance, decreasing inappropriate behavior, and increasing amount consumed relative to sensory…
Rybarczyk, Bruce; Stepanski, Edward; Fogg, Louis; Lopez, Martita; Barry, Paulette; Davis, Andrew
The present study tested cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia in older adults with osteoarthritis, coronary artery disease, or pulmonary disease. Ninety-two participants (mean age = 69 years) were randomly assigned to classroom CBT or stress management and wellness (SMW) training, which served as a placebo condition. Compared with SMW,…
Perlman, Lawrence M.; Arnedt, J. Todd; Earnheart, Kristie L.; Gorman, Ashley A.; Shirley, Katherine G.
Effective cognitive-behavioral therapies for insomnia have been developed over the past 2 decades, but they have not been systematically evaluated in some clinical settings. While insomnia is common among veterans with mental health problems, the availability of effective treatments is limited. We report on the group application of a…
Szigethy, Eva; Whitton, Sarah W.; Levy-Warren, Anna; DeMaso, David Ray; Weisz, John; Beardslee, William R.
Objective: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression in physically ill adolescents. Method: In an open trial, 11 adolescents (12-17 years) with inflammatory bowel disease and either major or minor depression underwent 12 sessions of a manual-based CBT enhanced by social skills, physical illness…
Spangler, Diane L.; Baldwin, Scott A.; Agras, W. Stewart
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa (BN) has received considerable empirical support for its efficacy. However, few investigators have examined the mechanisms proposed to account for the reduction of BN symptoms during CBT. The current study examined the associations between therapist interventions, client mechanisms, and…
Bateman, Katy; Hansen, Lars; Turkington, Douglas; Kingdon, David
Patients with schizophrenia are at high risk of suicide. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to reduce symptoms in schizophrenia. This study examines whether CBT also changes the level of suicidal ideation in patients with schizophrenia compared to a control group. Ninety ambulatory patients with symptoms of schizophrenia resistant to…
Objective: The objectives of the current study were to ascertain feasibility and acceptability of directly delivering a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention for inattentive children in a school setting, to examine the reliability of the RATE-C Questionnaires that accompany the program, and to determine whether they can be used to…
Gonzalez, Vivian M.; Schmitz, Joy M.; DeLaune, Katherine A.
This study examines the effect of homework compliance on treatment outcome in 123 participants receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for cocaine dependence. Regression analyses revealed a significant relationship between homework compliance and cocaine use that was moderated by readiness to change. Homework compliance predicted less cocaine…
Dietrich, Coralie; And Others
This study explored the efficacy of semantic behavior therapy in the management of chronic osteoarthritis pain in elderly patients as well as the relationships among pain, physical health, personality, and social characteristics in this population. The sample consisted of 8 elderly persons who had osteoarthritis of the knee, and 11 healthy elderly…
GOLDSTEIN, TINA R.; AXELSON, DAVID A.; BIRMAHER, BORIS; BRENT, DAVID A.
Objective To describe an adapted version of dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents with bipolar disorder. Method The dialectical behavior therapy intervention is delivered over 1 year and consists of two modalities: family skills training (conducted with individual family units) and individual therapy. The acute treatment period (6 months) includes 24 weekly sessions; sessions alternate between the two treatment modalities. Continuation treatment consists of 12 additional sessions tapering in frequency through 1 year. We conducted an open pilot trial of the treatment, designed as an adjunct to pharmacological management, to establish feasibility and acceptability of the treatment for this population. Participants included 10 patients (mean age 15.8 ± 1.5 years, range 14–18) receiving treatment in an outpatient pediatric bipolar specialty clinic. Symptom severity and functioning were assessed quarterly by an independent evaluator. Consumer satisfaction was also assessed posttreatment. Results Feasibility and acceptability of the intervention were high, with 9 of 10 patients completing treatment, 90% of scheduled sessions attended, and high treatment satisfaction ratings. Patients exhibited significant improvement from pre- to posttreatment in suicidality, nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, emotional dysregulation, and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Dialectical behavior therapy may offer promise as an approach to the psychosocial treatment of adolescent bipolar disorder. PMID:17581446
Storch, Eric A.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Larson, Michael J.; Geffken, Gary R.; Lehmkuh, Heather D.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.
A chronic psychiatric condition among children and adolescents of concern is obsessive-compulsive disorder, which involves comorbid conditions. The impact of a range of comorbid illnesses on cognitive-behavioral therapy response and remission rates was conducted, with results revealing a negative impact on treatment response.
Habigzang, Luisa Fernanda; Damasio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Silvia Helena
This study evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral group therapy model in Brazilian girls who had experienced sexual abuse. The effect of the waiting period before treatment and the enduring effectiveness of the treatment after six and 12 months were also evaluated. Forty-nine female sexual abuse victims between the ages of 9 and 16…
Klosko, Janet S.; And Others
Compared panic control treatment (PCT), behavior therapy for panic disorders, with alprazolam medication, placebo, and waiting-list control groups. Percentage of clients (N=57) completing study who were free of panic attacks following PCT was 87 percent, compared with 50 percent for alprazolam, 36 percent for placebo, and 33 percent for…
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a highly effective treatment for panic disorder. However, few patients have access to this treatment, particularly those living in rural areas. In a pilot study, the author previously described the efficacy of a 2-day, intensive, exposure-based CBT intervention that was developed for the purpose of delivering…
Jacob, Karen L.; Christopher, Michael S.; Neuhaus, Edmund C.
Although several theories exist to describe why patients improve in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), in only a limited number of studies has CBT skill acquisition been examined, particularly among patients with complex clinical profiles. Thus, the overarching aim of this research was to develop a tool to measure patients' use of CBT skills,…
Khanna, Muniya S.; Kendall, Philip C.
Objective: This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of Camp Cope-A-Lot (CCAL), a computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety in youth. Method: Children (49; 33 males) ages 7-13 (M = 10.1 [plus or minus] 1.6; 83.7% Caucasian, 14.2% African American, 2% Hispanic) with a principal anxiety disorder were…
Clarke, Gregory; DeBar, Lynn; Lynch, Frances; Powell, James; Gale, John; O'Connor, Elizabeth; Ludman, Evette; Bush, Terry; Lin, Elizabeth H. B.; Von Korff, Michael; Hertert, Stephanie
Objective: To test a collaborative-care, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program adjunctive to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment in HMO pediatric primary care. Method: A randomized effectiveness trial comparing a treatment-as-usual (TAU) control condition consisting primarily of SSRI medication delivered outside the…
Ahmed, Mariyam; Westra, Henry A.; Stewart, Sherry H.
Although prescription rates may be declining, benzodiazepines (BZs) are still very commonly prescribed for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Because many anxiety patients require assistance in successfully discontinuing BZs, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approaches have been specifically developed to target this issue, and an evidence base…
Ricard, Richard J.; Lerma, Eunice; Heard, Courtney C. C.
This study explored the impact of a 4-week skills group intervention based on the principles of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) with a sample of adolescents attending a Disciplinary Alternative Education Program. This article provides a session-by-session overview of activities adapted from DBT-specified training modules of mindfulness,…
Panepinto, Amberly R.; Uschold, Carissa C.; Olandese, Michelle; Linn, Braden K.
The study investigated the efficacy of a dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program with a general college counseling center population, not limited to students diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. A review of records of 64 students found that obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, paranoia,…
Moree, Brittany N.; Davis, Thompson E., III
Anxiety disorders have been found to be highly comorbid with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Even so, the identification and dissemination of empirically supported treatments for anxiety in adults or children who have ASD has lagged behind the larger evidence-based trend. This review examines the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a…
Milne, Jill L
Urinary incontinence, the complaint of any involuntary loss of urine, is a troubling symptom experienced by men and women of all ages. Options for treatment include a range of behavioral, pharmacologic, and surgical therapies. Behavioral therapies, such as dietary modification, pelvic floor muscle training, and bladder training, are noninvasive, with little risk of side effects, and experts agree they should represent the first line of treatment whenever possible. These therapies can be initiated and monitored at the primary care level, thereby enhancing the accessibility of care for those affected. The purpose of this article is to methodically review what is and is not known about behavioral therapies, with attention to research needs. Although there is clear evidence for pelvic floor muscle training in women with urinary incontinence and modest evidence in men for a short time after radical prostatectomy, less is known about bladder training, prompted voiding, habit retraining, and timed voiding. Additional research is required to enhance our understanding of the comparative efficacy of behavioral interventions in specific populations. This research must take an increasingly long-term focus, given the potentially chronic nature of urinary incontinence.
Mohr, David C.; Carmody, Timothy; Erickson, Lauren; Jin, Ling; Leader, Julie
Objective: Multiple trials have found telephone-administered cognitive behavioral therapy (T-CBT) to be effective for the treatment of depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate T-CBT for the treatment of depression among veterans served by community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) outside of major urban areas. Method: Eighty-five veterans…
Curry, John F.; Wells, Karen C.
The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) was designed to compare the relative and combined effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and fluoxetine, each of which had demonstrated efficacy in carefully controlled single-site studies. Models of CBT from these efficacy studies served as the foundation for the TADS…
Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.
Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.…
Martin, Paul R.; Forsyth, Michael R.; Reece, John
Sixty-four headache sufferers were allocated randomly to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), temporal pulse amplitude (TPA) biofeedback training, or waiting-list control. Fifty-one participants (14M/37F) completed the study, 30 with migraine and 21 with tension-type headache. Treatment consisted of 8, 1-hour sessions. CBT was highly effective,…
Kennard, Betsy D.; Clarke, Greg N.; Weersing, V. Robin; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Shamseddeen, Wael; Porta, Giovanna; Berk, Michele; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham J.; Keller, Martin B.; Wagner, Karen D.; Brent, David A.
In this report, we conducted a secondary analysis of the Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) study to explore the impact of specific cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment components on outcome. In TORDIA, 334 youths (ages 12 to 18 years) with major depressive disorder who had failed to respond to an adequate…
Beidas, Rinad S.; Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.
We provide a detailed description of the clinical application of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxious youth. A rationale for the development of BCBT is presented, followed by a description and discussion of the 8 sessions of the treatment. Mike, a 7-year-old youth with anxiety disorders, is used to illustrate the inner workings of…
Menzies, Ross G.; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; St Clare, Tamsen; Block, Susan
Purpose: The aims of the present study were to (a) examine the rate of social phobia among adults who stutter, (b) study the effects of speech restructuring treatment on social anxiety, and (c) study the effects on anxiety and stuttering of a cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) package for social anxiety. Method: Thirty-two adults with chronic…
Choate, Laura H.
Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is, by far, the most common eating disorder that college counseling professionals encounter among their female clients. Empirical evidence and best practice guidelines support use of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with women experiencing EDNOS. This article…
Safer, Debra L.; Couturier, Jennifer L.; Lock, James
Given the lack of empirically supported treatments available for adolescents with eating disorders, it is important to investigate the clinical utility of extending treatments for adults with eating disorders to younger populations. Dialectical behavior therapy for binge eating disorder, based on the affect-regulation model, conceptualizes binge…
Hofmann, Stefan G.; Wu, Jade Q.; Boettcher, Hannah
OBJECTIVE Although cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective for treating anxiety disorders, little is known about its effect on quality of life. To conduct a meta-analysis of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders on quality of life, we searched for relevant studies in PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library, and conducted manual searches. METHOD The search identified 44 studies that included 59 CBT trials, totaling 3,326 participants receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. We estimated the controlled and within-group random effects of the treatment changes on quality of life. RESULTS The pre-post within-group and controlled effect sizes were moderately strong, Hedges’ g = 0.54 and Hedges’ g = 0.56, respectively. Improvements were greater for physical and psychological domains of quality of life than for environmental and social domains. The overall effect sizes decreased with publication year and increased with treatment duration. Face-to-face treatments delivered individually and in groups produced significantly higher effect sizes than internet-delivered treatments. CONCLUSION Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders is moderately effective for improving quality of life, especially in physical and psychological domains. Internet-delivered treatments are less effective in improving quality of life than face-to-face treatments. PMID:24447006
Satterfield, Jason M.; Crabb, Rebecca
Although strong evidence supports cognitive-behavioral therapy for late-life depression and depression in racial and ethnic minorities, there are no empirical studies on the treatment of depression in older sexual minorities. Three distinct literatures were tapped to create a depression treatment protocol for an older gay male. Interventions were…
James, Jessica S.
Depression is common in individuals with intellectual disabilities, but evidence regarding treatment for this population is lacking. Through a systematic literature review of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with individuals with intellectual disabilities, a total of six studies were identified that used pretest-post-test nonequivalent control…
Shirk, Stephen R.; Kaplinski, Heather; Gudmundsen, Gretchen
The current study evaluated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression delivered in health clinics and counseling centers in four high schools. Outcomes were benchmarked to results from prior efficacy trials. Fifty adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorders were treated by eight doctoral-level psychologists who followed a…
Hopko, Derek R.; Armento, Maria E. A.; Robertson, Sarah M. C.; Ryba, Marlena M.; Carvalho, John P.; Colman, Lindsey K.; Mullane, Christen; Gawrysiak, Michael; Bell, John L.; McNulty, James K.; Lejuez, Carl W.
Objective: Major depression is the most common psychiatric disorder among breast cancer patients and is associated with substantial impairment. Although some research has explored the utility of psychotherapy with breast cancer patients, only 2 small trials have investigated the potential benefits of behavior therapy among patients with…
Cohen, Michael J.; And Others
Compared the effectiveness of behavioral (BT) or physical therapy (PT) for treating chronic low back pain (CLBP), for 13 BT patients and 12 PT patients. Treatments were conducted in a group outpatient setting. Posttreatment results showed general improvement for patients in both groups, but few treatment-specific differences in outcome measures.…
Notes that Rosen's concern with consumer effects produced by behavior therapy self-help programs is to be lauded, but that some problems are best left to the judgment of the public, rather than of those who would look after it. (Author/AM)
Forand, Nicholas R.; Evans, Susan; Haglin, Dean; Fishman, Baruch
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is known to be effective for a number of disorders, and can be delivered effectively by trainees in controlled settings. However, the effectiveness of trainee therapists in general practice compared to that of more experienced therapists is unknown. In this study, the authors used a benchmarking strategy to…
Wood, Jeffrey J.; Drahota, Amy; Sze, Karen; Har, Kim; Chiu, Angela; Langer, David A.
Background: Children with autism spectrum disorders often present with comorbid anxiety disorders that cause significant functional impairment. This study tested a modular cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program for children with this profile. A standard CBT program was augmented with multiple treatment components designed to accommodate or…
Kennard, Betsy D.; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jones, Jessica M.; Tao, Rongrong; Stewart, Sunita M.; Jarrett, Robin B.
The outcome of a sequential treatment strategy that included cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the prevention of major depressive disorder relapse among 46 youths is examined. Results show that youths under the antidepressant medication management plus relapse prevention CBT treatment was at lower risk for relapse than those under the…
Melvin, Glenn A.; Tonge, Bruce J.; King, Neville J.; Heyne, David; Gordon, Michael S.; Klimkeit, Ester
Objective: To evaluate cognitive-behavioral therapy, antidepressant medication alone, and combined CBT and antidepressant medication in the treatment of depressive disorders in adolescents. Method: Seventy-three adolescents (ages 12-18 years) with a primary diagnosis of DSM-IV major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or depressive disorder…
Puente, Antonio E.; Beiman, Irving
Compared Behavior Therapy (BT), self-relaxation (SR), transcendental meditation (TM), and a waiting-list control group (WL) on measures of cardiovascular and subjective stress response. Results indicate that BT and SR were more effective than either TM or WL in reducing cardiovascular stress response. (Author)
Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.
Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care…
Wallach, Helene S.; Safir, Marilyn P.; Bar-Zvi, Margalit
Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common phobia. Although cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is preferred, difficulties arise with the exposure component (lack of therapist control, patient's inability to imagine, self-flooding, loss of confidentiality resulting from public exposure). Virtual reality CBT (VRCBT) enables a high degree of therapist…
Dobkin, Roseanne D.; Rubino, Jade Tiu; Allen, Lesley A.; Friedman, Jill; Gara, Michael A.; Mark, Margery H.; Menza, Matthew
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of treatment response to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression in Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The sample comprised 80 depressed ("DSM-IV" criteria) adults with PD (60% male) and their caregivers who participated in an National Institutes of Health-sponsored…
Glasgow, Russell E.; Rosen, Gerald M.
Describes the organizing concepts and strategies for the development and evaluation of self-help behavioral treatment manuals. Reviews programs that have been published or empirically tested for the treatment of phobias, smoking, obesity, sexual dysfunction, assertiveness, child behavior problems, study skills, and physical fitness, as well as…
Kendall, Philip C.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Gosch, Elizabeth; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Suveg, Cynthia
This randomized clinical trial compared the relative efficacy of individual (child) cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT), family cognitive-behavioral therapy (FCBT), and a family-based education/support/attention (FESA) active control for treating anxiety disordered youth ages 7-14 years (M = 10.27). Youth (N = 161; 44% female; 85% Caucasian, 9%…
Intranasal Oxytocin as an Adjunct to Behavioral Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: John Gabrieli...SUBTITLE A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Intranasal Oxytocin as an Adjunct to Behavioral Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...dysfunctions and (2) oxytocin (OT) administration prior to CBT sessions will each enhance social function in young adults with autism spectrum disorders
Selles, Robert R.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Phares, Vicky; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in youth with an autism spectrum disorder appears efficacious; however, maintenance of treatment gains has not yet been studied. Using a sample of 32 youth who had benefited at least minimally from a past trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in autism spectrum disorder, this study assessed…
Alberts, Hugo J E M; Schneider, Francine; Martijn, Carolien
Previous studies have consistently shown that changing or avoiding emotions requires resources and therefore leads to impaired performance on a subsequent self-control task. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which acceptance-based coping requires regulatory resources. Participants who accepted their emotions during exposure to a sad video performed better on a subsequent self-control task than participants who were instructed to suppress their emotions and a control group who received no instructions. These findings suggest that acceptance is an efficient strategy in terms of resources.
Welch, Christie D; Polatajko, H J
Occupational therapists strive to be mindful, competent practitioners and continuously look for ways to improve practice. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has strong evidence of effectiveness in helping people with autism achieve goals, yet it does not seem to be implemented in occupational therapy practice. To better understand whether ABA could be an evidence-based option to expand occupational therapy practice, the authors conducted an iterative, multiphase investigation of relevant literature. Findings suggest that occupational therapists apply developmental and sensory approaches to autism treatment. The occupational therapy literature does not reflect any use of ABA despite its strong evidence base. Occupational therapists may currently avoid using ABA principles because of a perception that ABA is not client centered. ABA principles and occupational therapy are compatible, and the two could work synergistically.
Brown, Lily A.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Miller, Ivan W.
There has been much discussion in the literature recently regarding the conceptual and technical differences between so-called second- (e.g., Beckian cognitive therapy) and third-wave (e.g., acceptance and commitment therapy) behavioral therapies. Previous research has not addressed the potential similarities and differences among the…
McDonagh, Annmarie; Friedman, Matthew; McHugo, Gregory; Ford, Julian; Sengupta, Anjana; Mueser, Kim; Demment, Christine Carney; Fournier, Debra; Schnurr, Paula P.
The authors conducted a randomized clinical trial of individual psychotherapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (n = 74), comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with a problem-solving therapy (present-centered therapy; PCT) and to a wait-list (WL). The authors hypothesized that CBT would be…
Kanter, Jonathan W; Baruch, David E; Gaynor, Scott T
The field of clinical behavior analysis is growing rapidly and has the potential to affect and transform mainstream cognitive behavior therapy. To have such an impact, the field must provide a formulation of and intervention strategies for clinical depression, the “common cold” of outpatient populations. Two treatments for depression have emerged: acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and behavioral activation (BA). At times ACT and BA may suggest largely redundant intervention strategies. However, at other times the two treatments differ dramatically and may present opposing conceptualizations. This paper will compare and contrast these two important treatment approaches. Then, the relevant data will be presented and discussed. We will end with some thoughts on how and when ACT or BA should be employed clinically in the treatment of depression. PMID:22478462
McKeon, Andrew; Josephs, Keith A; Klos, Kevin J; Hecksel, Kathleen; Bower, James H; Michael Bostwick, J; Eric Ahlskog, J
Unusual compulsive behaviors (weighing, card and video game playing, fishing, gardening, intense interest in established hobbies, locking and unlocking doors, repetitive dressing and undressing) occurred in relation to dopamine agonist therapy (six patients) and levodopa therapy (one patient) in seven patients with parkinsonism (seven Parkinson's disease, one multiple system atrophy). These behaviors occurred in tandem with pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive eating, compulsive shopping or punding in six of the seven cases. Obsessive thoughts were present in one patient, with no prior history of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The simultaneous occurrence of these phenomenologically distinct behaviors in this group of patients suggests that a broad spectrum of psychopathology may occur in this context and should be monitored for in routine neurological practice.
Foote, Brad; Van Orden, Kim
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), created by Marsha Linehan, has been shown to be an effective therapy for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and for suicidal and self-harming behavior. Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a complex post-traumatic disorder which is highly comorbid with BPD, shares a number of clinical features with BPD, and which like BPD features a high degree of suicidality. The DID treatment literature emphasizes the importance of a staged approach, beginning with the creation of a safe therapeutic frame prior to addressing traumatic material; DBT is also a staged treatment, in which behavioral and safety issues are addressed in Stage 1, and trauma work reserved for Stage 2. The authors describe adapting DBT, and especially its techniques for Stage 1 safety work, for work with DID patients. Basic theoretical principles are described and illustrated with a case example.
McGrane, Ian R; Leung, Jonathan G; St Louis, Erik K; Boeve, Bradley F
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia associated with dream enactment often involving violent or potentially injurious behaviors during REM sleep that is strongly associated with synucleinopathy neurodegeneration. Clonazepam has long been suggested as the first-line treatment option for RBD. However, evidence supporting melatonin therapy is expanding. Melatonin appears to be beneficial for the management of RBD with reductions in clinical behavioral outcomes and decrease in muscle tonicity during REM sleep. Melatonin also has a favorable safety and tolerability profile over clonazepam with limited potential for drug-drug interactions, an important consideration especially in elderly individuals with RBD receiving polypharmacy. Prospective clinical trials are necessary to establish the evidence basis for melatonin and clonazepam as RBD therapies.
Leung, Jonathan G.; St Louis, Erik K.; Boeve, Bradley F.
REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia associated with dream enactment often involving violent or potentially injurious behaviors during REM sleep that is strongly associated with synucleinopathy neurodegeneration. Clonazepam has long been suggested as the first-line treatment option for RBD. However, evidence supporting melatonin therapy is expanding. Melatonin appears to be beneficial for the management of RBD with reductions in clinical behavioral outcomes and decrease in muscle tonicity during REM sleep. Melatonin also has a favorable safety and tolerability profile over clonazepam with limited potential for drug-drug interactions, an important consideration especially in elderly individuals with RBD receiving polypharmacy. Prospective clinical trials are necessary to establish evidence-basis for melatonin and clonazepam as RBD therapies. PMID:25454845
Wilhelm, Sabine; Peterson, Alan L.; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Chang, Susanna; Liu, Haibei; Dziura, James; Walkup, John T.; Scahill, Lawrence
Context Tics in Tourette syndrome begin in childhood, peak in early adolescence, and often decline by early adulthood. However, some adult patients continue to have impairing tics. Medications for tics are often effective but can cause adverse effects. Behavior therapy may offer an alternative but has not been examined in a large-scale controlled trial in adults. Objective To test the efficacy of a comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics in adults with Tourette syndrome of at least moderate severity. Design A randomized, controlled trial with posttreatment evaluations at 3 and 6 months for positive responders. Setting Three outpatient research clinics. Subjects Subjects (N = 122; 78 males, age 16 to 69 years) with Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorder. Interventions Eight sessions of Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics or 8 sessions of supportive treatment delivered over 10 weeks. Subjects showing a positive response were given 3 monthly booster sessions. Main Outcome Measures Total Tic score of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale and the Improvement scale of the Clinical Global Impression rated by a clinician blind to treatment assignment. Results Behavior therapy was associated with a significantly greater decrease on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (24.0 ± 6.47 to 17.8 ± 7.32) from baseline to endpoint compared to the control treatment (21.8 ± 6.59 to 19.3 ± 7.40) (P < .001; effect size = 0.57). Twenty-four of 63 subjects (38.1%) in CBIT were rated as Much Improved or Very Much Improved on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale compared to 6.8% (4 of 63) in the control group (P < .0001). Attrition was 13.9% with no difference across groups. Subjects in behavior therapy available for assessment at 6 months posttreatment showed continued benefit. Conclusions Comprehensive behavior therapy is a safe and effective intervention for adults with Tourette syndrome. PMID:22868933
Hunter, Jennifer A; Button, Melissa L; Westra, Henny A
Client ambivalence about change (or motivation) is regarded as central to outcomes in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, little research has been conducted to examine the impact of client ambivalence about change on therapy process variables such as the therapeutic alliance. Given the demonstrated limitations of self-report measures of key constructs such as ambivalence and motivation, the present study instead employed a newly adapted observational measure of client ambivalence. Client statements regarding change (change talk (CT) and counter-change talk (CCT)) were coded in early (session 1 or 2) therapy sessions of CBT for generalized anxiety disorder. The frequency of CT and CCT was then compared between clients who later experienced an alliance rupture with their therapist, and clients who did not. The results showed that clients in dyads who later experienced an alliance rupture expressed significantly more CCT at the outset of therapy than clients who did not later experience an alliance rupture. However, CT utterances did not significantly differ between alliance rupture and no-rupture groups. CCT may strain the alliance because clients expressing higher levels of CCT early in therapy may be less receptive to therapist direction in CBT. Consequently, it is recommended that clients and therapists work together to carefully address these key moments in therapy so as to prevent alliance rupture and preserve client engagement in therapy.
Stephenson, Kyle R; Rellini, Alessandra H; Meston, Cindy M
Although recent research suggests that individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) may be an effective treatment for female sexual dysfunctions, we have little information regarding predictors of treatment response. The goal of the current study was to assess the degree to which pre-treatment relationship satisfaction predicted treatment response to cognitive behavioral sex therapy. Women with sexual dysfunction (n = 31, M age = 28 years, 77.4 % Caucasian) receiving cognitive-behavioral sex therapy with or without ginkgo biloba, as part of a wider randomized clinical trial, were assessed pre- and post-treatment using validated self-report measures of sexual satisfaction, sexual distress, sexual functioning, and relationship satisfaction. Pre-treatment relationship satisfaction predicted changes in sexual satisfaction and distress, but not sexual functioning. Women with higher relationship satisfaction at intake experienced larger gains in sexual satisfaction and distress over the course of treatment. Pre-treatment relationship satisfaction also moderated the association between changes in sexual functioning and changes in sexual distress, such that improved functioning was associated with decreased distress only for women entering therapy with high relationship satisfaction. These findings suggest that, for women with low relationship satisfaction before entering treatment, improvement in sexual functioning may not be enough to alleviate their sexual distress.
Carroll, Kathleen M
In the treatment of addictions, the gap between the availability of evidence-based therapies and their limited implementation in practice has not yet been bridged. Two empirically validated behavioral therapies, contingency management (CM) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), exemplify this challenge. Both have a relatively strong level of empirical support but each has weak and uneven adoption in clinical practice. This review highlights examples of how barriers to their implementation in practice have been addressed systematically, using the Stage Model of Behavioral Therapies Development as an organizing framework. For CM, barriers such as cost and ideology have been addressed through the development of lower-cost and other adaptations to make it more community friendly. For CBT, barriers such as relative complexity, lack of trained providers, and need for supervision have been addressed via conversion to standardized computer-assisted versions that can serve as clinician extenders. Although these and other modifications have rendered both interventions more disseminable, diffusion of innovation remains a complex, often unpredictable process. The existing specialty addiction-treatment system may require significant reforms to fully implement CBT and CM, particularly greater focus on definable treatment goals and performance-based outcomes.
Carroll, Kathleen M.
In the treatment of addictions, the gap between the availability of evidence-based therapies and their limited implementation in practice has not yet been bridged. Two empirically validated behavioral therapies, contingency management (CM) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), exemplify this challenge. Both have a relatively strong level of empirical support but each has weak and uneven adoption in clinical practice. This review highlights examples of how barriers to their implementation in practice have been addressed systematically, using the Stage Model of Behavioral Therapies Development as an organizing framework. For CM, barriers such as cost and ideology have been addressed through the development of lower-cost and other adaptations to make it more community-friendly. For CBT, barriers such as relative complexity, lack of trained providers and need for supervision have been addressed via conversion to standardized computer-assisted versions that can serve as clinician extenders. Although these and other modifications have rendered both interventions more disseminable, diffusion of innovation remains a complex, often unpredictable process. The existing specialty addiction treatment system may require significant reforms to fully implement CBT and CM, particularly greater focus on definable treatment goals and performance-based outcomes. PMID:25204847
Soleimani, Robabeh; Modabbernia, Mohammad Jafar; Habibi, Sharareh; Roudsary, Maryam Habibi; Elahi, Masoumeh
Background: Sleep disturbance is a common complaint of patients undergoing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). There are limited studies about the effect of different treatments on insomnia due to MMT. In this study, we evaluated the effect of cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBTI) on sleep disorders in patients undergoing MMT. Methods: Twenty-two patients with insomnia due to MMT (aged 18-60 years) participated in this randomized double-blind clinical trial. The intervention group received CBTI from a clinical psychologist for 8 weeks, whereas the control group received behavioral placebo therapy (BPT). The duration of individual sessions was 45 minutes, which was conducted once a week. The primary outcome was sleep disturbance assessed with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 19. Results: Eleven patients were assigned to each group. Two groups were matched according to demographic characteristics (age, marital status, education, and daily methadone doses). Although PSQI score was significantly reduced during weeks 5 and 8 after both interventions, there was a significant difference in intervention versus time interaction (P<0.02). The effects of CBTI versus placebo were significantly different (P<0.001). The time course was also significant (P<0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that CBTI is more effective than BPT in overall sleep quality. We recommend further studies, with a larger sample, on CBTI in patients undergoing MMT. PMID:26379345
Szentagotai, Aurora; David, Daniel; Lupu, Viorel; Cosman, Doina
Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies (CBT) are among the first-line interventions for major depressive disorder (MDD), and a significant number of studies indicate their efficacy in the treatment of this disorder. However, differential effects of various forms of CBT have seldom been analyzed in the same experimental design. On the basis of data collected in a randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT), cognitive therapy (CT), and pharmacotherapy (SSRI) in the treatment of MDD, the present article investigates the theory of change advanced by REBT and CT. Measures included to test the two theories of change assess three classes of cognitions: (a) automatic thoughts, (b) dysfunctional attitudes, and (c) irrational beliefs. The results indicate that REBT and CT (and also pharmacotherapy) indiscriminately affect the three classes of cognitions. On the long term (follow-up), a change in implicit demandingness seems more strongly associated with reduced depression and relapse prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Hesser, Hugo; Gustafsson, Tore; Lunden, Charlotte; Henrikson, Oskar; Fattahi, Kidjan; Johnsson, Erik; Westin, Vendela Zetterqvist; Carlbring, Per; Maki-Torkko, Elina; Kaldo, Viktor; Andersson, Gerhard
Objective: Our aim in this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effects on global tinnitus severity of 2 Internet-delivered psychological treatments, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), in guided self-help format. Method: Ninety-nine participants (mean age = 48.5 years; 43% female) who were…
Woods, Douglas W.; Piacentini, John C.; Scahill, Lawrence; Peterson, Alan L.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Chang, Susanna; Deckersbach, Thilo; McGuire, Joseph; Specht, Matt; Conelea, Christine A.; Rozenman, Michelle; Dzuria, James; Liu, Haibei; Levi-Pearl, Sue; Walkup, John T.
Children (n = 126) ages 9 to 17 years with chronic tic or Tourette disorder were randomly assigned to receive either behavior therapy or a control treatment over 10 weeks. This study examined acute effects of behavior therapy on secondary psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial functioning and long-term effects on these measures for behavior therapy responders only. Baseline and end point assessments conducted by a masked independent evaluator assessed several secondary psychiatric symptoms and measures of psychosocial functioning. Responders to behavior therapy at the end of the acute phase were reassessed at 3-month and 6-month follow-up. Children in the behavior therapy and control conditions did not differentially improve on secondary psychiatric or psychosocial outcome measures at the end of the acute phase. At 6-month posttreatment, positive response to behavior therapy was associated with decreased anxiety, disruptive behavior, and family strain and improved social functioning. Behavior therapy is a tic-specific treatment for children with tic disorders. PMID:21555779
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0543 TITLE: “A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Intranasal Oxytocin as an Adjunct to Behavioral Therapy for Autism... Behavioral Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder” 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0543 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) John Gabrieli, Ph.D; Aude...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The primary objectives of this clinical study are test the hypotheses that (1) cognitive behavioral
Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer
Objective To describe the elements of a manualized cognitive behavior psychotherapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction, relapse prevention approach and theoretically grounded in principles of cognitive behavior therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy and targeted therapies for suicidal, depressed youth. CBT-SP consists of acute and continuation phases, each lasting about 12 sessions, and includes a chain analysis of the suicidal event, safety plan development, skill building, psychoeducation, family intervention, and relapse prevention. Results CBT-SP was administered to 110 depressed, recent suicide attempters aged 13–19 years (mean 15.8±1.6) across five academic sites. Twelve or more sessions were completed by 72.4% of the sample. Conclusions A specific intervention for adolescents at high risk for repeated suicide attempts has been developed and manualized, and further testing of its efficacy appears feasible. PMID:19730273
Levita, Liat; Salas Duhne, Paulina Gonzalez; Girling, Carla; Waller, Glenn
Psychological therapists commonly fail to adhere to treatment protocols in everyday clinical practice. In part, this pattern of drift is attributable to anxious therapists being less likely to undertake some elements of evidence-based therapies - particularly the exposure-based elements. This study considers what facets of anxiety (cognitive, behavioral, physiological) are related to junior clinicians' reported use of cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques. Thirty-two clinicians (mean age = 28.9 years; mean length of CBT experience = 1.5 years; 23 female, nine male) who offered CBT were assessed for their cognitive, behavioral and physiological characteristics (Intolerance of Uncertainty scale; risk taking; skin conductance response and heart rate variability). While the three different facets of anxiety were relatively poorly associated with each other, as is usual in this literature, each facet was linked differently to the reported delivery of CBT techniques (P < .05). Overall, higher anxiety levels were associated with a poorer use of exposure methods or with a greater use of other behavioral or cognitive methods. Of the three facets of anxiety, only physiological reactivity showed an association with the clinicians' temporal characteristics, with more experienced therapists being more likely to have greater skin conductance responses to positive and negative outcomes. These findings suggest that clinicians who are more anxious are less likely to deliver the full evidence-based form of CBT and to focus instead on less challenging elements of the therapy. Potential ways of overcoming this limitation are discussed.
Abdulrahman, Surajudeen Abiola; Rampal, Lekhraj; Othman, Norlijah; Ibrahim, Faisal; Kadir Shahar, Hayati; Radhakrishnan, Anuradha P
Medication adherence remains a critical link between the prescribed ART regimen and treatment outcome. Several factors may influence adherence behavior. This cross-sectional study aimed to highlight socioeconomic predictors of adherence behavior among a cohort of 242 adult Malaysian patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Hospital Sungai Buloh, Malaysia, where they were enrolled in a parent study (single-blinded randomized controlled trial) between January and December 2014. Statistical analysis of secondary data on adherence behavior and sociodemographic characteristics of the patients revealed mean age of 33.4 years and ranged from 18 to 64 years; 88.8% were males. A total of 224 (93%) patients who completed 6 months' adherence assessment were included in the model. Of these, 135 (60.3%) achieved optimal adherence. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis revealed that patient's income and ethnicity were significant predictors of adherence behavior. This may be valuable for targeted programmatic interventions to further enhance successful treatment outcomes among the target population.
Curtis, David F; Chapman, Stephanie; Dempsey, Jack; Mire, Sarah
This study examined classroom behavioral outcomes for children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) following their participation in a manualized, 10-week intervention called Family Skills Training for ADHD-Related Symptoms (Family STARS). Family STARS combined behavioral parent training (BPT) and child-focused behavioral activation therapy (CBAT). Participants were children ages 7-10 diagnosed with ADHD-Combined Type. Pre- and post-treatment teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms were compared using a single group, within-subjects research design. Intervention effectiveness was analyzed using paired-samples t-tests. Results indicated statistically significant classroom improvements for externalizing behaviors and attention problems with medium and large main effects (respectively) for the intervention. Possible implications for combining CBAT with BPT for the treatment of ADHD are discussed as well as the relevance of these results for improving the effectiveness and portability of empirically supported interventions.
Elbing, U; Rohmann, U H
The development of severely disturbed and socially accepted behavior in mentally handicapped persons with autistic or psychotic symptoms is documented before, during and after an intensive therapy program conducted in a residential institution for mentally handicapped persons. Seven single case studies were made as long term observation with a duration between 18 and 33 weeks, mostly with a multiple baseline design. One or two follow ups with at least four weeks length were conducted in six out of seven cases up to four years after the end of the intensive therapy. The main results show (1) the decrease of disturbed behavior and the increase of socially accepted behavior during the therapy program, and (2) the significant reduction of the disturbed behavior patterns taking place during the baseline phase before the beginning of the therapy in all cases but one. The results are discussed under the aspects of a possible explanation for the findings and their impact on the discussion about psychotherapy research.
Miller, Natalie V.; Haas, Sarah M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Willoughby, Michael T.; Helseth, Sarah A.; Crum, Kathleen I.; Coles, Erika K.; Pelham, William E.
The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional traits (i.e., lack of empathy, guilt/lack of caring behaviors) (CU) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), however reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (condition C), compared to a standard behavioral intervention (condition A). Interventions were delivered through a Summer Treatment Program over seven weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of eleven children (7–11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the seven weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed. PMID:25022772
Miller, Natalie V; Haas, Sarah M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willoughby, Michael T; Helseth, Sarah A; Crum, Kathleen I; Coles, Erika K; Pelham, William E
The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy, lack of guilt/lack of caring behaviors) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), whereas reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (Condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (Condition C), compared with a standard behavioral intervention (Condition A). Interventions were delivered through a summer treatment program over 7 weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of 11 children (7-11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low-punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the 7 weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed.
Turner, Martin J.
In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957), the original cognitive behavioral therapy, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one’s beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3) the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as highlighting research
Turner, Martin J
In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957), the original cognitive behavioral therapy, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one's beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3) the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as highlighting research
Willard, Victoria W.; Conklin, Heather M.; Boop, Frederick A.; Wu, Shengjie; Merchant, Thomas E.
Purpose: The standard of care for pediatric patients with ependymoma involves postoperative radiation therapy. Prior research suggests that conformal radiation therapy (CRT) is associated with relative sparing of cognitive and academic functioning, but little is known about the effect of CRT on emotional and behavioral functioning. Methods and Materials: A total of 113 patients with pediatric ependymoma underwent CRT using photons as part of their enrollment on an institutional trial. Patients completed annual evaluations of neurocognitive functioning during the first 5 years after CRT. Emotional and behavioral functioning was assessed via the Child Behavior Checklist. Results: Before CRT, emotional and behavioral functioning were commensurate with those of the normative population and within normal limits. After 5 years, means remained within normal limits but were significantly below the normative mean. Linear mixed models revealed a significant increase in attention problems over time. These problems were associated with age at diagnosis/CRT, tumor location, and extent of resection. A higher-than-expected incidence of school problems was present at all assessment points after baseline. Conclusions: The use of photon CRT for ependymoma is associated with relatively stable emotional and behavioral functioning during the first 5 years after treatment. The exception is an increase in attention problems. Results suggest that intervening earlier in the survivorship period—during the first year posttreatment—may be beneficial.
Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W.; Scahill, Lawrence; Wilhelm, Sabine; Peterson, Alan L.; Chang, Susanna; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Dziura, James; Levi-Pearl, Sue; Walkup, John T.
Context Tourette disorder is a chronic and typically impairing childhood-onset neurological condition. Antipsychotic medications, the first-line treatments for moderate to severe tics, are often associated with adverse effects. Behavioral interventions, although promising, have not been evaluated in large-scale controlled trials. Objective To determine the efficacy of a comprehensive behavioral intervention for reducing tic severity in children and adolescents. Design, Setting, Participants Randomized, observer-blind, controlled trial of 126 youngsters recruited from December, 2004 through May, 2007 and aged 9–17 years with impairing Tourette or chronic tic disorder as primary diagnosis randomized to 8 sessions over 10 weeks of behavior therapy (n=61) or a control treatment consisting of supportive therapy and education (n=65). Responders received 3 monthly treatment booster sessions and were reassessed at 3- and 6-months post-treatment. Intervention Comprehensive behavioral intervention. Main Outcome Measures Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (range 0–40, score >15 indicating clinically significant tics), Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale (range 1-very much improved to 8-very much worse). Results Behavioral intervention led to a significantly greater decrease on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (24.7; CI:23.1,26.3) to 17.1 CI:15.1,19.1) from baseline to endpoint compared to the control treatment (24.6 CI:23.2,26.0) to 21.1 CI:19.2,23.0) (P<.001; 95% CI for difference between groups: 6.2, 2.0); (effect size=0.68). Compared to children in control treatment, significantly more children receiving behavioral intervention were rated as “very much” or “much improved” on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale (52.5% to 18.5%, respectively; P<0.001; number-needed-to-treat=3). Attrition was low (12/126 or 9.5%); tic worsening was reported by 4% of children (5/126). Treatment gains were durable with 87% of available responders to behavior
Szapocznik, José; Zarate, Monica; Duff, Johnathan; Muir, Joan
Despite the efficacy of family-based interventions for improving outcomes for adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, engaging and retaining whole families in treatment is one of the greatest challenges therapists confront. This article illustrates how the Brief Strategic Family Therapy® (BSFT®) model, a family-based, empirically validated intervention designed to treat children and adolescents’ problem behaviors, can be used to increase engagement, improve retention, and bring about positive outcomes for families. Research evidence for efficacy and effectiveness is also presented. PMID:23731415
Robbins, Michael S; Horigian, Viviana E; Szapocznik, José
Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) is an empirically-supported treatment for children and adolescents with behavior problems and substance use problems. For three decades, the efficacy and effectiveness of BSFT has been established through the results of rigorous clinical trials studies conducted at the University of Miami's Center for Family Studies. BSFT is based on family systems approaches, most notably the work of Salvador Minuchin and Jay Haley, but has been refined to meet the pressing needs of youth with behavior problems. BSFT theory and interventions cover four broad domains: joining with family members and the family system, assessing problematic family interactions, creating a motivational context for change, and restructuring family interactions.
Tai, Sara; Turkington, Douglas
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) evolved from behavioral theory and developed to focus more on cognitive models that incorporated reappraisal of thinking errors and schema change strategies. This article will describe the key elements of CBT for schizophrenia and the current evidence of its efficacy and effectiveness. We conclude with a description of recent concepts that extend the theoretical basis of practice and expand the range of CBT strategies for use in schizophrenia. Mindfulness, meta-cognitive approaches, compassionate mind training, and method of levels are postulated as useful adjuncts for CBT with psychotic patients. PMID:19661198
Keijsers, G P; Schaap, C P; Hoogduin, C A
Empirical studies are reviewed, the aim being to investigate characteristics of the therapeutic relationship in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) and to identify therapist or patient interpersonal behavior that affects treatment outcome. CBT is characterized by a more active and directive stance on the part of the therapists and higher levels of emotional support than are found in insight-oriented psychotherapies. Therapists express high levels of empathy and unconditional positive regard, similar to those expressed by insight-oriented psychotherapists. Two clusters of interpersonal behavior have been identified that are clearly associated with CBT outcome: (a) the Rogerian therapist variables--empathy, nonpossessive warmth, positive regard, and genuineness; and (b) therapeutic alliance. There is some evidence for the impact on outcome of three additional clusters of patient behavior: (a) the patients' perception of the therapist as being self-confident, skillful, and active; (b) the patients' openness to discuss their problems; and (c) the patients' pretreatment predisposition to change and to accept psychological treatment as a means of achieving this. It is further concluded that relationship factors in general have a consistent but moderate impact on CBT outcome.
Dialectic-Behavioral Therapy is a specific psychotherapeutic approach to answer the needs of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder. It uses concepts and techniques of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and of Humanistic Psychotherapies. For a deeper understanding, it is necessary to include also its Zen-Buddhistic background. The experience of Zen-meditation and the basic philosophy of Zen-Buddhism will be explained. In the context of the historical relation between Zen-Buddhism and Psychotherapy, the position of the DBT will be specified. Finally it will be demonstrated how Zen-Buddhism inspired the practice of DBT and what kinds of problems arise when a modern psychotherapy uses the concept of a premodern conception of the world and human existence.
Wildes, Jennifer E.; Marcus, Marsha D.
This case series describes the development of a novel psychotherapeutic intervention for older adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). Emotion acceptance behavior therapy (EABT) is based on a model that emphasizes the role of anorexic symptoms in facilitating avoidance of emotions. EABT combines standard behavioral interventions that are central to the clinical management of AN with psychotherapeutic techniques designed to increase emotion awareness, decrease emotion avoidance, and encourage resumption of valued activities and relationships outside the eating disorder. Five AN patients ages 17-43 years were offered a 24-session manualized version of EABT. Four patients completed at least 90% of the therapy sessions, and three showed modest weight gains without return to intensive treatment. Improvements in depressive and anxiety symptoms, emotion avoidance, and quality of life also were observed. These results offer preliminary support for the potential utility of EABT in the treatment of older adolescents and adults with AN. PMID:20721894
Wildes, Jennifer E; Marcus, Marsha D
This case series describes the development of a novel psychotherapeutic intervention for older adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). Emotion acceptance behavior therapy (EABT) is based on a model that emphasizes the role of anorexic symptoms in facilitating avoidance of emotions. EABT combines standard behavioral interventions that are central to the clinical management of AN with psychotherapeutic techniques designed to increase emotion awareness, decrease emotion avoidance, and encourage resumption of valued activities and relationships outside the eating disorder. Five patients with AN aged 17-43 years were offered a 24-session manualized version of EABT. Four patients completed at least 90% of the therapy sessions, and three showed modest weight gains without return to intensive treatment. Improvements in depressive and anxiety symptoms, emotion avoidance, and quality of life also were observed. These results offer preliminary support for the potential utility of EABT in the treatment of older adolescents and adults with AN.
Khalsa, Manjit K.; Greiner-Ferris, Julie M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.
Cognitive behavioral therapy is an effective treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but there is still room for improvement. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential benefit of enriching cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with Kundalini Yoga (Y-CBT). Participants consisted of treatment resistant clients at a community mental health clinic. A total of 32 participants enrolled in the study and 22 completed the program. After the Y-CBT intervention, pre-post comparisons showed statistically significant improvements in state and trait anxiety, depression, panic, sleep, and quality of life. Results from this preliminary study suggest that Y-CBT may have potential as a promising treatment for those suffering from GAD. PMID:24804619
Hanscom, David A; Brox, Jens Ivar; Bunnage, Ray
Study Design Narrative review of the literature. Objectives Determine if the term cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is useful in clinical care and research. What literature supports these variables being relevant to the experience of chronic pain? What effects of CBT in treating these factors have been documented? What methods and platforms are available to administer CBT? Methods Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a complex neurologic disorder with many components. CBT refers to a broad family of therapies that address both maladaptive thoughts and behaviors. There are several ways to deliver it. CLBP was broken into five categories that affect the perception of pain, and the literature was reviewed to see the effects of CBT on these variables. Results The term cognitive behavioral therapy has little use in future research because it covers such a wide range of therapies. CBT should always be defined by the problem it is intended to solve. The format and method of delivery should be defined because they have implications for outcomes. They are readily available even at the primary care level. The effectiveness of CBT is unquestioned regarding its effectiveness in treating each of the variables that affect CLBP. It is unclear why it is not more widely implemented. Conclusions CBT represents a family of therapies that are effective for a wide range of problems, many of which coexist with and influence CLBP. Each of the variables can be improved with focused CBT. Early, widespread adoption of CBT in treating and preventing CLBP is recommended. Future research and clinical care should focus on strategies to operationalize these well-documented treatments utilizing a public health approach.
Hanscom, David A.; Brox, Jens Ivar; Bunnage, Ray
Study Design Narrative review of the literature. Objectives Determine if the term cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is useful in clinical care and research. What literature supports these variables being relevant to the experience of chronic pain? What effects of CBT in treating these factors have been documented? What methods and platforms are available to administer CBT? Methods Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a complex neurologic disorder with many components. CBT refers to a broad family of therapies that address both maladaptive thoughts and behaviors. There are several ways to deliver it. CLBP was broken into five categories that affect the perception of pain, and the literature was reviewed to see the effects of CBT on these variables. Results The term cognitive behavioral therapy has little use in future research because it covers such a wide range of therapies. CBT should always be defined by the problem it is intended to solve. The format and method of delivery should be defined because they have implications for outcomes. They are readily available even at the primary care level. The effectiveness of CBT is unquestioned regarding its effectiveness in treating each of the variables that affect CLBP. It is unclear why it is not more widely implemented. Conclusions CBT represents a family of therapies that are effective for a wide range of problems, many of which coexist with and influence CLBP. Each of the variables can be improved with focused CBT. Early, widespread adoption of CBT in treating and preventing CLBP is recommended. Future research and clinical care should focus on strategies to operationalize these well-documented treatments utilizing a public health approach. PMID:26682100
Breitstein, Joshua; Penix, Brandon; Roth, Bernard J; Baxter, Tristin; Mysliwiec, Vincent
The case of a 59-year-old woman psychiatrically hospitalized with comorbid insomnia, suicidal ideation, and generalized anxiety disorder is presented. Pharmacologic therapies were unsuccessful for treating insomnia prior to and during hospitalization. Intensive sleep deprivation was initiated for 40 consecutive hours followed by a recovery sleep period of 8 hours. Traditional components of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi), sleep restriction, and stimulus control therapies, were initiated on the ward. After two consecutive nights with improved sleep, anxiety, and absence of suicidal ideation, the patient was discharged. She was followed in the sleep clinic for two months engaging in CBTi. Treatment resulted in substantial improvement in her insomnia, daytime sleepiness, and anxiety about sleep. Sleep deprivation regimens followed by a restricted sleep recovery period have shown antidepressant effects in depressed patients. Similar treatment protocols have not been investigated in patients with pharmacotherapy refractory insomnia and generalized anxiety disorder.
Addison, Laura R; Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Bachmeyer, Melanie H; Rivas, Kristi M; Milnes, Suzanne M; Oddo, Jackie
We compared the effects of escape extinction (EE) plus noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with sensory integration therapy as treatment for the feeding problems of 2 children. Results indicated that EE plus NCR was more effective in increasing acceptance, decreasing inappropriate behavior, and increasing amount consumed relative to sensory integration for both children. The results are discussed in terms of the challenges of evaluating sensory-integration-based treatments, and the reasons why component analyses of multicomponent treatments like sensory integration are important. PMID:23060661
Chen, Chen; Li, Chun; Wang, Hong; Ou, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Song; Wang, Xiao-Ping
This 9-week study was designed to determine whether a commercial cognitive-behavioral training program could effectively reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders. Sixty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive routine intervention alone (control group) or routine intervention plus Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST group) in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was change scores on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) from baseline to one week following end of training. Secondary outcomes were change scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). There were significant between-group differences in change of MOAS total score (P < .001) and all sub-scores (Ps < .01) except aggression against property. Between-group differences were also observed in change of BIS-11 and CMHS total score (Ps < 0.05). All results favored the WLST group. These findings suggest WLST has the potential to be an effective intervention to reduce overt aggressive behavior in young male violent offenders.
Anderson, Page; Jacobs, Carli H; Lindner, Gretchen K; Edwards, Shannan; Zimand, Elana; Hodges, Larry; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov
This study examines the long-term efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for fear of flying (FOF) after a catastrophic fear-relevant event, the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Participants (N = 115) were randomly assigned to and completed treatment for FOF using 8 sessions of either virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE) or standard exposure therapy (SE) prior to September 11, 2001. Individuals were reassessed in June, 2002, an average of 2.3 years after treatment, with a response rate of 48% (n = 55). Analyses were run on the original data and, using multiple imputation procedures, on imputed data for the full sample. Individuals maintained or improved upon gains made in treatment as measured by standardized FOF questionnaires and by number of flights taken. There were no differences between VRE and SE. Thus, results suggest that individuals previously treated for FOF with cognitive-behavioral therapy can maintain treatment gains in the face of a catastrophic fear-relevant event, even years after treatment is completed.
Burgio, Kathryn L.; Kraus, Stephen R.; Borello-France, Diane; Chai, Toby C.; Kenton, Kimberly; Goode, Patricia S.; Xu, Yan; Kusek, John W.
Introduction and Hypotheses The objective of this study was to examine the effects of drug therapy alone and combined with behavioral therapy on urgency and 24-voiding frequency in women with urge-predominant incontinence and to identify predictors of change. Methods A planned analysis of data from a multi-site, randomized, controlled trial (N=307). Bladder diaries were used to document voids, incontinence, and urgency severity. Results Urgency scores decreased significantly within both treatment groups, but changes did not differ between groups (p=0.30). Improvement in urgency was associated with greater baseline urgency (p<0.0001) and black ethnicity (p=0.03). Voiding frequency increased with drug alone and decreased slightly with combined therapy (p=0.009), and improvement was associated with combined treatment (p<0.0001), higher baseline frequency (p<0.0001), and lower baseline incontinence episode frequency (p=0.001). Conclusions Although combined drug and behavioral therapy does not appear to improve urgency more than drug alone, it resulted in better outcomes on voiding frequency. PMID:20143047
Santos-Ruiz, Ana; Robles-Ortega, Humbelina; Pérez-García, Miguel; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel
This study aims to determine whether it is possible to modify executive function in stressed individuals by means of cognitive-behavioral therapy for stress management. Thirty-one people with high levels of perceived stress were recruited into the study (treatment group = 18; wait-list group = 13). The treatment group received 14 weeks of stress management program. Psychological and executive function variables were evaluated in both groups pre and post-intervention. The treatment group showed improved psychological variables of perceived stress (t = 5.492; p = .001), vulnerability to stress (t = 4.061; p = .001) and superstitious thinking (t = 2.961; p = .009). Likewise, the results showed statistically significant differences in personality variables related to executive function, positive urgency (t = 3.585; p = .002) and sensitivity to reward (t = -2.201; p = .042), which improved after the therapy. These variables showed a moderate to high effect size (oscillates between 1.30 for perceived stress and .566 for sensitivity to reward). The cognitive-behavioral therapy for stress management may be an appropriate strategy for improving personality construct components related to executive function, however effects of the therapy are not showed on performance on the tests of executive function applied, as presented studies previous.
Breitstein, Joshua; Penix, Brandon; Roth, Bernard J.; Baxter, Tristin; Mysliwiec, Vincent
The case of a 59-year-old woman psychiatrically hospitalized with comorbid insomnia, suicidal ideation, and generalized anxiety disorder is presented. Pharmacologic therapies were unsuccessful for treating insomnia prior to and during hospitalization. Intensive sleep deprivation was initiated for 40 consecutive hours followed by a recovery sleep period of 8 hours. Traditional components of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi), sleep restriction, and stimulus control therapies, were initiated on the ward. After two consecutive nights with improved sleep, anxiety, and absence of suicidal ideation, the patient was discharged. She was followed in the sleep clinic for two months engaging in CBTi. Treatment resulted in substantial improvement in her insomnia, daytime sleepiness, and anxiety about sleep. Sleep deprivation regimens followed by a restricted sleep recovery period have shown antidepressant effects in depressed patients. Similar treatment protocols have not been investigated in patients with pharmacotherapy refractory insomnia and generalized anxiety disorder. Citation: Breitstein J, Penix B, Roth BJ, Baxter T, Mysliwiec V. Intensive sleep deprivation and cognitive behavioral therapy for pharmacotherapy refractory insomnia in a hospitalized patient. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(6):689-690. PMID:24932151
Pratt, Rebekah; Ahmed, Nimo; Noor, Sahra; Sharif, Hiba; Raymond, Nancy; Williams, Chris
To test the feasibility and acceptability of implementing an evidence-based, peer-delivered mental health intervention for Somali women in Minnesota, and to assess the impact of the intervention on the mental health of those who received the training. In a feasibility study, 11 Somali female community health workers were trained to deliver an 8-session cognitive behavioral therapy intervention. Each of the trainers recruited 5 participants through community outreach, resulting in 55 participants in the intervention. Self-assessed measures of mood were collected from study participants throughout the intervention, and focus groups were conducted. The 55 Somali women who participated recorded significant improvements in mood, with self-reported decreases in anxiety and increases in happiness. Focus group data showed the intervention was well received, particularly because it was delivered by a fellow community member. Participants reported gaining skills in problem solving, stress reduction, and anger management. Participants also felt that the intervention helped to address some of the stigma around mental health in their community. Delivery of cognitive behavioral therapy by a community health workers offered an acceptable way to build positive mental health in the Somali community.
... Center on AD/HD Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD) or 800/233-4050 Attention Deficit Disorder ... 2017 Source Understanding ADHD: Information for Parents About Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Copyright © 2007 American Academy of Pediatrics, Updated 6/ ...
Stotts, Angela L; Northrup, Thomas F
Substance use disorders are common and frequently complex, with overlapping medical, legal, social and psychiatric problems. Innovative treatment models to address the full range of problems in new ways using common principles are needed. Third wave behavior therapies such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) comprise novel approaches and methods that have great potential to address complex substance abuse cases. These treatment models derive from contextual and behavioral science and have a common emphasis on developing empirical, principle-driven methods for approaching unwanted or distressing psychological and physical experiences common to substance use and other disorders. Randomized controlled trials targeting substance use with ACT and DBT have been conducted across varying populations, including various target substances (opiates, methamphetamine, polysubstance) and settings (prisons, methadone clinics, residential treatment, and outpatient). Despite methodological heterogeneity, ACT and DBT have compared favorably to passive and active control conditions. Further research is needed, however, with larger samples and active control conditions, along with studies of treatment mechanisms, to inform and shape theoretical models and substance abuse treatment protocols for enhanced efficacy.
Stotts, Angela L.; Northrup, Thomas F.
Substance use disorders are common and frequently complex, with overlapping medical, legal, social and psychiatric problems. Innovative treatment models to address the full range of problems in new ways using common principles are needed. Third wave behavior therapies such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) comprise novel approaches and methods that have great potential to address complex substance abuse cases. These treatment models derive from contextual and behavioral science and have a common emphasis on developing empirical, principle-driven methods for approaching unwanted or distressing psychological and physical experiences common to substance use and other disorders. Randomized controlled trials targeting substance use with ACT and DBT have been conducted across varying populations, including various target substances (opiates, methamphetamine, polysubstance) and settings (prisons, methadone clinics, residential treatment, and outpatient). Despite methodological heterogeneity, ACT and DBT have compared favorably to passive and active control conditions. Further research is needed, however, with larger samples and active control conditions, along with studies of treatment mechanisms, to inform and shape theoretical models and substance abuse treatment protocols for enhanced efficacy. PMID:26693170
Duarte, Priscila Silveira; Miyazaki, Maria Cristina; Blay, Sergio Luís; Sesso, Ricardo
Depression is an important target of psychological assessment in patients with end-stage renal disease because it predicts their morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. We assessed the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in chronic hemodialysis patients diagnosed with major depression by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). In a randomized trial conducted in Brazil, an intervention group of 41 patients was given 12 weekly sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy led by a trained psychologist over 3 months while a control group of 44 patients received the usual treatment offered in the dialysis unit. In both groups, the Beck Depression Inventory, the MINI, and the Kidney Disease and Quality of Life-Short Form questionnaires were administered at baseline, after 3 months of intervention or usual treatment, and after 9 months of follow-up. The intervention group had significant improvements, compared to the control group, in the average scores of the Beck Depression Inventory overall scale, MINI scores, and in quality-of-life dimensions that included the burden of renal disease, sleep, quality of social interaction, overall health, and the mental component summary. We conclude that cognitive-behavioral group therapy is an effective treatment of depression in chronic hemodialysis patients.
Hartley, Sigan L; Esbensen, Anna J; Shalev, Rebecca; Vincent, Lori B; Mihaila, Iulia; Bussanich, Paige
Background There is a paucity of research on psychosocial treatments for depression in adults with intellectual disability (ID). In this pilot study, we explored the efficacy of a group CBT treatment that involved a caregiver component in adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder. Method Sixteen adults with mild ID and a depressive disorder participated in a 10-week group CBT treatment and 8 adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder served as a treatment as usual (TAU) control group. Adults with mild ID and caregivers completed measures of depressive symptoms, behavior problems, and social skills at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and a 3-month follow-up. Adults with mild ID also completed a series of tasks to measure their understanding of the principles of cognitive therapy pre- and post-treatment. Results The CBT group demonstrated significant decreases in depressive symptoms and behavior problems from pre-treatment to post-treatment and these effects were maintained at a 3-month follow-up. The CBT group demonstrated significant improvements in their ability to infer emotions and thoughts based on various situation-thought-emotion pairings from pre-treatment to post-treatment. Conclusions Findings indicate that adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder benefitted from a group CBT treatment with a caregiver component. Moreover, adults with mild ID appeared to benefit, at least in part, from the cognitive therapy components of the treatment, in addition to the behavior therapy components. PMID:26925187
Geelen, R; Bleijenberg, G
An application in a psychogeriatric nursing home. This article describes the application of mediative behaviour therapy in a psychogeriatric nursing home. Behavioural interventions carried out by the nursing team addressed a variety of problems: quarreling between an institutionalised woman and her visiting husband, complaining about this staff by the husband to team members of another department, and the patient who let herself drop on the floor about once a week. Special regard is given to the analysis of the problems, the learning of appropriate responses by team members, as well as changing their cognitions and emotions about the problem behaviours. A meaningful reduction of the problem behaviours and of the burden experienced by team members was achieved.
Haller, Moira; Norman, Sonya B; Cummins, Kevin; Trim, Ryan S; Xu, Xiaomin; Cui, Ruifeng; Allard, Carolyn B; Brown, Sandra A; Tate, Susan R
The comorbidity of substance use disorder (SUD), depression, and PTSD is common among veterans. Prior research has shown that among veterans with SUD and depression, those with PTSD did not maintain cognitive-behavioral treatment gains as well as those without PTSD. Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate whether adding trauma-focused treatment following an initial group-based integrated cognitive behavioral treatment (ICBT) for SUD and depression improved treatment outcomes. Participants were 123 veterans (89% male) recruited from the VA San Diego Healthcare System. All participants received ICBT in twice weekly, group-delivered sessions for 12 weeks (Phase 1). Participants were then randomized to receive 12 sessions of individual follow-up sessions (Phase 2) utilizing either ICBT or cognitive processing therapy that was modified to integrate SUD treatment (CPT-M). Results indicated that PTSD and depression symptoms slightly improved at the end of Phase 1 group ICBT and further improved through Phase 2 individual treatment (except for participants without PTSD who received CPT-M), with treatment gains maintained one year later. Substance use significantly improved at the end of Phase 1 group ICBT and these improvements were maintained through Phase 2 and the one year follow-up. Participants in the trauma-focused Phase 2 treatment (CPT-M) exhibited similar levels of symptom reduction and maintenance of treatment gains as those in the non-trauma-focused Phase 2 treatment (ICBT). However, there was a slight advantage for Phase 2 CPT-M over Phase 2 ICBT with respect to heavy drinking outcomes for individuals with PTSD. Overall, the combination of group ICBT followed by either CPT-M or ICBT individual therapy appears to be effective for veterans with depression, SUD, and trauma history.
Carroll, Kathleen M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.
Whither, or wither, empirically supported therapies? Increasingly rigorous research in behavioral therapies has yielded a large number of effective therapies, but comparatively little work, demonstrating that integrating empirically supported therapies (ESTs) into standard practice results in meaningful improvements in patient outcomes. Methodology and strategies for evaluating ESTs and their effectiveness in clinical practice is a fairly recent innovation, and a host of unanswered questions remain regarding issues such as selection among different ESTs and what type of ESTs should be emphasized in dissemination efforts, what type of clinicians should be trained in what type of ESTs, the most effective training strategies for various types of clinicians, the need for ongoing supervision to maintain minimum levels of treatment fidelity and skill. In this review, we call for broader use of new research strategies and methods relevant to dissemination of ESTs; these may include adaptive designs, identification of mechanisms of action to foster greater emphasis on effective change principles, training and adoption trials, as well as novel implementation strategies including computer-assisted therapy and computer-assisted training. PMID:17523974
Sijercic, Iris; Button, Melissa L; Westra, Henny A; Hara, Kimberley M
Previous research has found that client motivational language (especially arguments against change or counterchange talk; CCT) in early therapy sessions is a reliable predictor of therapy process and outcomes across a broad range of treatments including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Existing studies have considered the general occurrence of CCT, but the present study differentiated 2 types of CCT in early CBT sessions for 37 clients with generalized anxiety disorder: (a) statements that are uttered to express ambivalence regarding change versus (b) statements that are intended to oppose the therapist or therapy. Two process coding systems were used to accomplish this differentiation. Findings indicated that a higher number of CCT statements that occurred in the presence of resistance (opposition to the therapist or therapy) were a substantive and consistent predictor of lower homework compliance and poorer outcomes, up to 1 year posttreatment. Moreover, when both types of CCT were considered together, only opposition CCT was related to outcomes, and ambivalent CCT was not significantly predictive of proximal and distal outcomes. These findings suggest that the interpersonal context in which CCT statements occur may be critically important to their predictive capacity. More broadly, the findings of this study have implications for the future study of client motivational language and underscore the clinical importance of detecting opposition CCT.
Yamadera, Wataru; Sato, Miki; Harada, Daisuke; Iwashita, Masayuki; Aoki, Ryo; Obuchi, Keita; Ozone, Motohiro; Itoh, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Kazuhiko
The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of individual and group cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in outpatients with primary insomnia diagnosed by DSM-IV-TR. The participants were 20 individually treated (I-CBT-I) and 25 treated in a group therapy format (three to five patients per group) (G-CBT-I), which showed no significant difference regarding demographic variables between groups. The same components of CBT-I stimulus control therapy, sleep restriction therapy, cognitive therapy, and sleep hygiene education were applied on both groups. The short-term outcome (4 weeks after treatment) was measured by sleep logs, actigraphy, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale (DBAS), and was compared between I-CBT-I and G-CBT-I. The results indicated that CBT-I was effective in improving subjective and objective sleep parameters and subjective sleep evaluations for both individual and group treatment. However, I-CBT-I resulted in significantly better improvements over G-CBT-I, in (i) objective and subjective sleep onset latency time, (ii) objective sleep efficacy and moving time during sleeping, (iii) overall sleep quality and duration of actual sleep time in PSQI, (iv) consequences of insomnia, control and predictability of sleep, sleep requirement expectation, and sleep-promoting practices in DBAS. The present study suggested the superiority of I-CBT-I over G-CBT-I in clinical settings, and further evaluations are necessary.
Yovel, Iftah; Mor, Nilly; Shakarov, Hagit
We aimed to examine the core elements of cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy that target distressing negative cognitions, cognitive restructuring (CR) and cognitive defusion (CD), respectively. Participants (N=142) recalled a saddening autobiographical event, identified a distressing thought it triggered, and completed a task that induced rumination on these cognitions. They then completed one of four brief interventions that targeted these emotionally charged cognitions: analogue versions of CR and CD, and two control interventions. The personal negative cognitions were then reactivated to examine the protective effects of these interventions. CR and CD were similarly efficacious in alleviating distress, compared to a control intervention that focused on participants' negative thoughts. Mood improvement was associated with state levels of reappraisal and not with acceptance in CR, whereas the reverse was observed in CD. Improvement was associated with perceived efficacy of the intervention in CR but not in CD. The present findings suggest that although CR and CD effectively promote different types of cognitive strategies, they may share important features that set them both apart from maladaptive forms of coping.
Burklund, Lisa J; Torre, Jared B; Lieberman, Matthew D; Taylor, Shelley E; Craske, Michelle G
Previous research has often highlighted hyperactivity in emotion regions to simple, static social threat cues in social anxiety disorder (SAD). Investigation of the neurobiology of SAD using more naturalistic paradigms can further reveal underlying mechanisms and how these relate to clinical outcomes. We used fMRI to investigate responses to novel dynamic rejection stimuli in individuals with SAD (N=70) and healthy controls (HC; N=17), and whether these responses predicted treatment outcomes following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Both HC and SAD groups reported greater distress to rejection compared to neutral social stimuli. At the neural level, HCs exhibited greater activations in social pain/rejection regions, including dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula, to rejection stimuli. The SAD group evidenced a different pattern, with no differences in these rejection regions and relatively greater activations in the amygdala and other regions to neutral stimuli. Greater responses in anterior cingulate cortex and the amygdala to rejection vs. neutral stimuli predicted better CBT outcomes. In contrast, enhanced activity in sensory-focused posterior insula predicted ACT responses.
Sitnikov, Lilya; Rohan, Kelly J; Evans, Maggie; Mahon, Jennifer N; Nillni, Yael I
There is no empirical basis for determining which seasonal affective disorder (SAD) patients are best suited for what type of treatment. Using data from a parent clinical trial comparing light therapy (LT), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and their combination (CBT + LT) for SAD, we constructed hierarchical linear regression models to explore baseline cognitive vulnerability constructs (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes, negative automatic thoughts, response styles) as prognostic and prescriptive factors of acute and next winter depression outcomes. Cognitive constructs did not predict or moderate acute treatment outcomes. Baseline dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts were prescriptive of next winter treatment outcomes. Participants with higher baseline levels of dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts had less severe depression the next winter if treated with CBT than if treated with LT. In addition, participants randomized to solo LT who scored at or above the sample mean on these cognitive measures at baseline had more severe depressive symptoms the next winter relative to those who scored below the mean. Baseline dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts did not predict treatment outcomes in participants assigned to solo CBT or CBT + LT. Therefore, SAD patients with extremely rigid cognitions did not fare as well in the subsequent winter if treated initially with solo LT. Such patients may be better suited for initial treatment with CBT, which directly targets cognitive vulnerability processes.
Suzuki, Mizue; Kanamori, Masao; Nagasawa, Shingo; Saruhara, Takayuki
The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of behavioral, stress and immunological evaluation methods in music therapy (MT) with elderly patients with senile dementia. The MT group consisted of 8 elderly patients with dementia and the control group included 8 similarly matched patients. A total of 25 sessions of music therapy were conducted for one hour, twice each week for three months. The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Gottfries-Brane-Steen Scale (GBS), and Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (Behave-AD) were used to evaluate behavioral changes. Saliva Chromogranin A (Cg A) and Immunoglobulin A (Ig A) were used to assess changes in stress and immunological status, respectively. The results of the study were as follows: 1. In GBS, the mean score of "different symptoms common in dementia" improved significantly after MT. 2. The mean Behave-AD score of "paranoid and delusional ideation" was also significantly improved (p<0.05) after the intervention. 3. In the 25th session, mean saliva Cg A was significantly decreased after MT (p<0.05). IgA was slightly increased prior to intervention. Our results suggest that a combination of behavioral, stress and immunological evaluation methods were valuable for assessing changes that occurred during MT for elderly patients with dementia.
Washington, Karla T.; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Parker Oliver, Debra; Baldwin, Paula K.; Tappana, Jessica; Wright, Jesse H.; Demiris, George
Hospice family caregivers experience significantly higher rates of psychological distress than demographically similar noncaregivers. Interventions based on cognitive–behavioral therapy have been shown to reduce psychological distress in the general population by providing tools to modify thinking patterns that directly affect emotions and behavior. Such interventions might reasonably be incorporated into hospice social work; however, numerous contextual factors must be taken into account to ensure that any interventions are appropriate to the unique needs of clients. The purpose of the study discussed in this article was to contextualize one aspect of the cognitive–behavioral model based on firsthand accounts of hospice family caregivers. Following a modified grounded theory approach, researchers engaged in a secondary analysis of data from a larger study provided in a subsample of 90 audio-recorded conversations between hospice family caregivers and interventionists. Findings indicated that distressed caregivers engaged in five dominant thinking patterns: (1) “should” statements, (2) catastrophizing or minimizing, (3) personalizing, (4) absolute thinking, and (5) making assumptions. Implementing cognitive–behavioral therapies based on identified caregiver thinking patterns will allow hospice social workers to empower caregivers to cope more effectively with the numerous stressors they encounter while caring for a dying loved one. PMID:25369725
Ehrhardt, T; Hampel, H; Hegerl, U; Möller, H J
At the Psychiatric Department, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, a behavioral competency training (Verhaltenstherapeutisches Kompetenztraining) VKT is offered to patients with early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The primary objects of VKT are, (a) patient support in coping with the diagnosis of AD, (b) mobilization of the present personal activity resources, and (c) minimization of depressive symptoms. The VKT consists of six therapy-modules: 1. behavior analysis, 2. psychoeducation, 3. stress management, 4. increase of pleasant activities, 5. enhancement of social competency, and 6. modification of depressive cognitive patterns. The VKT is derived from scientific findings that show the involvement of psycho-social factors in the genesis of AD. Inadequate coping-behavior, unescapable stress and resulting neurodegenerative effects, a low premorbid niveau of activity and the presence of premorbid depressive symptoms outline the necessity of psychotherapeutic treatment in AD patients.
Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L
Individuals with social anxiety are prone to engage in post event processing (PEP), a post mortem review of a social interaction that focuses on negative elements. The extent that PEP is impacted by cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and the relation between PEP and change during treatment has yet to be evaluated in a controlled study. The current study used multilevel modeling to determine if PEP decreased as a result of treatment and if PEP limits treatment response for two types of cognitive behavioral treatments, a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention and individually based virtual reality exposure. These hypotheses were evaluated using 91 participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. The findings suggested that PEP decreased as a result of treatment, and that social anxiety symptoms for individuals reporting greater levels of PEP improved at a slower rate than those with lower levels of PEP. Further research is needed to understand why PEP attenuates response to treatment.
Wallach, Helene S; Safir, Marilyn P; Bar-Zvi, Margalit
Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common phobia. Although cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is preferred, difficulties arise with the exposure component (lack of therapist control, patient's inability to imagine, self-flooding, loss of confidentiality resulting from public exposure). Virtual reality CBT (VRCBT) enables a high degree of therapist control, thus overcoming these difficulties. This study examined whether VRCBT is an alternative to CBT. Participants with PSA were randomly assigned to VRCBT (28 participants), CBT (30 participants), and wait list control (WLC; 30 participants). VRCBT and CBT were significantly more effective than WLC in anxiety reduction on four of five anxiety measures, and on subject's self-rating of anxiety during a behavioral task. No significant differences were found on observer ratings of the behavioral task. However, twice as many participants dropped out from CBT than from VRCBT. Our results demonstrated that VRCBT is an effective and brief treatment regimen, equal to CBT.
Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, G. Terence; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; White, Marney A.
Objective: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best established treatment for binge-eating disorder (BED) but does not produce weight loss. The efficacy of behavioral weight loss (BWL) in obese patients with BED is uncertain. This study compared CBT, BWL, and a sequential approach in which CBT is delivered first, followed by BWL (CBT + BWL).…
Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L
Outcome expectancy, the extent that clients anticipate benefiting from therapy, is theorized to be an important predictor of treatment response for cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, there is a relatively small body of empirical research on outcome expectancy and the treatment of social anxiety disorder. This literature, which has examined the association mostly in group-based interventions, has yielded mixed findings. The current study sought to further evaluate the effect of outcome expectancy as a predictor of treatment response for public-speaking fears across both individual virtual reality and group-based cognitive-behavioral therapies. The findings supported outcome expectancy as a predictor of the rate of change in public-speaking anxiety during both individual virtual reality exposure therapy and group cognitive-behavioral therapy. Furthermore, there was no evidence to suggest that the impact of outcome expectancy differed across virtual reality or group treatments.
van Lankveld, Jacques J D M; ter Kuile, Moniek M; de Groot, H Ellen; Melles, Reinhilde; Nefs, Janneke; Zandbergen, Maartje
Women with lifelong vaginismus (N=117) were randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral group therapy, cognitive-behavioral bibliotherapy, or a waiting list. Manualized treatment comprised sexual education, relaxation exercises, gradual exposure, cognitive therapy, and sensate focus therapy. Group therapy consisted of ten 2-hr sessions with 6 to 9 participants per group. Assistance with minimal-contact bibliotherapy consisted of 6 biweekly, 15-min telephone contacts. Twenty-one percent of the participants left the study before posttreatment assessment. Intent-to-treat analysis revealed that successful intercourse at posttreatment was reported by 14% of the treated participants compared with none of the participants in the control condition. At the 12-month follow-up 21% of the group therapy participants and 15% of the bibliotherapy participants, respectively, reported successful intercourse. Cognitive-behavioral treatment of lifelong vaginismus was thus found to be efficacious, but the small effect size of the treatment warrants future efforts to improve the treatment.
McGrath, Patrick J.; Wozney, Lori; Wheaton, Mike; Conrod, Jill; Rozario, Sharlene
Depression is a common mental health condition for which many mobile apps aim to provide support. This review aims to identify self-help apps available exclusively for people with depression and evaluate those that offer cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or behavioural activation (BA). One hundred and seventeen apps have been identified after searching both the scientific literature and the commercial market. 10.26% (n = 12) of these apps identified through our search offer support that seems to be consistent with evidence-based principles of CBT or BA. Taking into account the non existence of effectiveness/efficacy studies, and the low level of adherence to the core ingredients of the CBT/BA models, the utility of these CBT/BA apps are questionable. The usability of reviewed apps is highly variable and they rarely are accompanied by explicit privacy or safety policies. Despite the growing public demand, there is a concerning lack of appropiate CBT or BA apps, especially from a clinical and legal point of view. The application of superior scientific, technological, and legal knowledge is needed to improve the development, testing, and accessibility of apps for people with depression. PMID:27135410
Huguet, Anna; Rao, Sanjay; McGrath, Patrick J; Wozney, Lori; Wheaton, Mike; Conrod, Jill; Rozario, Sharlene
Depression is a common mental health condition for which many mobile apps aim to provide support. This review aims to identify self-help apps available exclusively for people with depression and evaluate those that offer cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or behavioural activation (BA). One hundred and seventeen apps have been identified after searching both the scientific literature and the commercial market. 10.26% (n = 12) of these apps identified through our search offer support that seems to be consistent with evidence-based principles of CBT or BA. Taking into account the non existence of effectiveness/efficacy studies, and the low level of adherence to the core ingredients of the CBT/BA models, the utility of these CBT/BA apps are questionable. The usability of reviewed apps is highly variable and they rarely are accompanied by explicit privacy or safety policies. Despite the growing public demand, there is a concerning lack of appropiate CBT or BA apps, especially from a clinical and legal point of view. The application of superior scientific, technological, and legal knowledge is needed to improve the development, testing, and accessibility of apps for people with depression.
ter Kuile, Moniek M; van Lankveld, Jacques J D M; de Groot, Ellen; Melles, Reinhilde; Neffs, Janneke; Zandbergen, Maartje
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) seems an effective treatment of lifelong vaginismus, but mechanisms of action have not yet been established. The present study explored whether the effect of CBT for lifelong vaginismus is mediated by changes in fear of penetration and avoidance behavior, which CBT explicitly aims to alter. A second aim of this study was to predict treatment outcome on the basis of pre-treatment variables. Participants with lifelong vaginismus were allocated at random to a 3-months CBT (n=81) or a waiting-list control condition (n=36). Full vaginal penetration with the penis of the partner constituted the primary outcome measure. Change scores in successful 'non-coital penetrative-behavior' and 'fear of coitus' were used to measure the mediating variables. Treatment resulted in an increase of intercourse (outcome), a decrease in fear of coitus, and an enhancement of successful non-coital penetration behavior, compared with no treatment. Outcome (intercourse) was partly mediated by changes in fear of coitus and changes in avoidance behavior. No treatment predictors could be detected in this study sample. It is concluded that techniques such as gradual exposure, aimed at decreasing avoidance behavior and penetration fear, constitute an important avenue of change in the treatment of lifelong vaginismus.
Plaud, J J; Gaither, G A; Weller, L A; Bigwood, S J; Barth, J; von Duvillard, S P
Stimulus equivalence is a behavioral approach to analyzing the "meaning" of stimulus sets and has an implication for clinical psychology. The formation of three-member (A --> B --> C) stimulus equivalence classes was used to investigate the effects of three different sets of sample and comparison stimuli on emergent behavior. The three stimulus sets were composed of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)-related words, non-REBT emotionally charged words, and a third category of neutral words composed of flower labels. Sixty-two women and men participated in a modified matching-to-sample experiment. Using a mixed cross-over design, and controlling for serial order effects, participants received conditional training and emergent relationship training in the three stimulus set conditions. Results revealed a significant interaction between the formation of stimulus equivalence classes and stimulus meaning, indicating consistently biased responding in favor of reaching criterion responding more slowly for REBT-related and non-REBT emotionally charged words. Results were examined in the context of an analysis of the importance of stimulus meaning on behavior and the relation of stimulus meaning to behavioral and cognitive theories, with special appraisal given to the influence of fear-related discriminative stimuli on behavior.
Sveinsdottir, Vigdis; Eriksen, Hege R; Reme, Silje Endresen
Purpose The aim of this study is to provide a narrative review of the current state of knowledge of the role of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the management of chronic nonspecific back pain. Methods A literature search on all studies published up until July 2012 (PubMed and PsycINFO) was performed. The search string consisted of 4 steps: cognitive behavioral therapy/treatment/management/modification/intervention, chronic, back pain (MeSH term) or low back pain (MeSH term), and randomized controlled trial (MeSH term). The conclusions are based on the results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and reviews of RCTs. Interventions were not required to be pure CBT interventions, but were required to include both cognitive and behavioral components. Results The search yielded 108 studies, with 46 included in the analysis. Eligible intervention studies were categorized as CBT compared to wait-list controls/treatment as usual, physical treatments/exercise, information/education, biofeedback, operant behavioral treatment, lumbar spinal fusion surgery, and relaxation training. The results showed that CBT is a beneficial treatment for chronic back pain on a wide range of relevant variables, especially when compared to wait-list controls/treatment as usual. With regards to the other comparison treatments, results were mixed and inconclusive. Conclusion The results of this review suggest that CBT is a beneficial treatment for chronic nonspecific back pain, leading to improvements in a wide range of relevant cognitive, behavioral and physical variables. This is especially evident when CBT is compared to treatment as usual or wait-list controls, but mixed and inconclusive when compared with various other treatments. Multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary interventions that integrate CBT with other approaches may represent the future direction of management of chronic back pain, with treatments modified for specific circumstances and stakeholders. There is a need for
Yektatalab, Shahrzad; Alipour, Abdolrasool; Edraki, Mitra; Tavakoli, Pouran
Background: Aggression is a kind of behavior that causes damage or harm to others. The prevalence of aggression is 8–20% in 3–6 years old children. The present study aimed to assess the effect of training kindergarten teachers regarding reinforcement behavior therapy on preschoolers’ aggression. Methods: In this cluster randomized control trial, 14 out of 35 kindergarten and preschool centers of Mohr city, Iran, were chosen using random cluster sampling and then randomly assigned to an intervention and a control group. All 370 kindergarten and preschool children in 14 kindergarten were assessed by preschoolers’ aggression questionnaire and 60 children who obtained a minimum aggression score of 117.48 for girls and 125.77 for boys were randomly selected. The teachers in the intervention group participated in 4 educational sessions on behavior therapy and then practiced this technique under the supervision of the researcher for two months. Preschoolers’ aggression questionnaire was computed in both intervention and control groups before and after a two-month period. Results: The results demonstrated a significant statistical difference in the total aggression score (P=0.01), verbal (P=0.02) and physical (P=0.01) aggression subscales scores in the intervention group in comparison to the control group after the intervention. But the scores of relational aggression (P=0.09) and impulsive anger (P=0.08) subscales were not statistically different in the intervention group compared to the controls. Conclusion: This study highlighted the importance of teaching reinforcement behavior therapy by kindergarten teachers in decreasing verbal and physical aggression in preschoolers. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2014042617436N1 PMID:26793733
Sevier, Mia; Atkins, David C; Doss, Brian D; Christensen, Andrew
Observed positive and negative spouse behavior during sessions of Traditional (TBCT) and Integrative Behavioral Couples Therapy (IBCT) were compared for couples with successful outcomes and their unsuccessful counterparts. One hundred and thirty-four married chronically and seriously distressed couples (on average in their forties and 80% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to TBCT or IBCT. Trained observers made ratings of 1224 segments from approximately 956 sessions sampled from the course of up to 26 sessions. Multilevel modeling was used to examine change over time. TBCT treatment responders demonstrated a boost-drop pattern, increasing in constructive behaviors early (more positive behaviors and less negative behaviors) but decreasing later. IBCT responders demonstrated an opposite, drop-boost pattern, decreasing in constructive behaviors early and increasing later. Patterns were significant for positive behaviors (p < .05) and approached significance for negative behaviors (p = .05). In both treatments, nonresponders showed a significant pattern of decline in positive and increase in negative behaviors over time, although a trend (p = .05) indicates that TBCT nonresponders initially declined in negative behaviors. This study helps clarify the different process of change in two behavioral couple therapies, which may assist in treatment development and provide a guide for therapists in considering behavioral markers of change during treatment.
Pavuluri, Mani N.; Graczyk, Patricia A.; Henry, David B.; Carbray, Julie A.; Heidenreich, Jodi; Miklowitz, David J.
Objective: To describe child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CFF-CBT), a new developmentally sensitive psychosocial intervention for pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) that is intended for use along with medication. CFF-CBT integrates principles of family-focused therapy with those of CBT. The theoretical framework is based on (1)…
Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized…
Harned, Melanie S.; Linehan, Marsha M.
Despite the high rate of trauma and PTSD among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), no studies have specifically evaluated the treatment of PTSD in a BPD population. These case studies illustrate the use of a protocol based on prolonged exposure therapy that can be integrated into standard dialectical behavior therapy to treat…
Sookman, Debbie; Steketee, Gail
This paper discusses specialized approaches developed for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who are resistant to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Following a review of theoretical and outcome research, two approaches developed to resolve persistent OCD are described and illustrated. Cognitive therapy (CT) designed to address…
O'Connor, L H; Erway, L C; Vogler, C A; Sly, W S; Nicholes, A; Grubb, J; Holmberg, S W; Levy, B; Sands, M S
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII; Sly syndrome) is one of a group of lysosomal storage diseases that share many clinical features, including mental retardation and hearing loss. Lysosomal storage in neurons of the brain and the associated behavioral abnormalities characteristic of a murine model of MPS VII have not been shown to be corrected by either bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. However, intravenous injections of recombinant beta-glucuronidase initiated at birth reduce the pathological evidence of disease in MPS VII mice. In this study we present evidence that enzyme replacement initiated at birth improved the behavioral performance and reduced hearing loss in MPS VII mice. Enzyme-treated MPS VII mice performed similarly to normal mice and significantly better than mock- treated MPS VII mice in every phase of the Morris Water Maze test. In addition, the auditory function of treated MPS VII mice was dramatically improved, and was indistinguishable from normal mice. These data indicate that some of the learning, memory, and hearing deficits can be prevented in MPS VII mice if enzyme replacement therapy is initiated early in life. These data also provide functional correlates to the biochemical and histopathological improvements observed after enzyme replacement therapy. PMID:9525982
Trindade, Marilene; Orestes-Cardoso, Silvana; de Siqueira, Teresa Cristina
The etiology of bruxism is associated with exogenous factors, such as occlusal interference, stress, and anxiety, as well as endogenous factors involving neurotransmitters of the basal ganglia. Due to the multifactorial etiology of bruxism, interdisciplinary treatment involving professionals from different healthcare fields has been proposed. The aim of the present study was to compare 2 groups of patients with bruxism (11 in each group) treated with either an occlusal splint combined with cognitive behavioral therapy or an occlusal splint alone. Surface electromyography of the masseter and anterior temporal muscles at rest was performed before and after treatment. The mean amplitude of activity of all muscles was lower after treatment, except for the right anterior temporal muscle in the group treated with an occlusal splint alone. Mean amplitudes were greater in the anterior temporal muscles than in the masseter muscles. Significantly greater improvement was found in the group exposed to cognitive behavioral therapy (P < 0.05; analysis of variance and Student t tests). Therefore, the combination of occlusal splint and psychological therapy was more effective at achieving muscle relaxation than occlusal splint use alone.
Landowska, A.; Karpienko, K.; Wróbel, M.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.
In this article the procedure of selection of physiological parameters for optoelectronic system supporting behavioral therapy of autistic children is proposed. Authors designed and conducted an experiment in which a group of 30 health volunteers (16 females and 14 males) were examined. Under controlled conditions people were exposed to a stressful situation caused by the picture or sound (1kHz constant sound, which was gradually silenced and finished with a shot sound). For each of volunteers, a set of physiological parameters were recorded, including: skin conductance, heart rate, peripheral temperature, respiration rate and electromyography. The selected characteristics were measured in different locations in order to choose the most suitable one for the designed therapy supporting system. The bio-statistical analysis allowed us to discern the proper physiological parameters that are most associated to changes due to emotional state of a patient, such as: skin conductance, temperatures and respiration rate. This allowed us to design optoelectronic sensors network for supporting behavioral therapy of children with autism.
Anderson, Page L; Zimand, Elana; Hodges, Larry F; Rothbaum, Barbara O
This study used an open clinical trial to test a cognitive-behavioral treatment for public-speaking anxiety that utilized virtual reality as a tool for exposure therapy. Treatment was completed by participants (n = 10) meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria for social phobia, or panic disorder with agoraphobia in which public speaking was the predominantly feared stimulus. Treatment was conducted by a licensed psychologist in an outpatient clinic. Treatment consisted of eight individual therapy sessions, including four sessions of anxiety management training and four sessions of exposure therapy using a virtual audience, according to a standardized treatment manual. Participants completed standardized self-report questionnaires assessing public-speaking anxiety at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Participants were asked to give a speech to an actual audience at pre- and post-treatment. Results showed decreases on all self-report measures of public-speaking anxiety from pre- to post-treatment, which were maintained at follow-up (n = 8; all P = 05). Participants were no more likely to complete a speech post-treatment than at pre-treatment. This study provides preliminary evidence that a cognitive-behavioral treatment using virtual reality for exposure to public speaking may reduce public-speaking anxiety and suggests that further research with a controlled design is needed.
Young, Brittany M; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A; Grogan, Scott W; Tyler, Mitchell E; Edwards, Dorothy F; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A; Williams, Justin C; Prabhakaran, Vivek
This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI) values during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy, but not in the absence of therapy, to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere) as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions.
Young, Brittany M.; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M.; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A.; Grogan, Scott W.; Tyler, Mitchell E.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A.; Williams, Justin C.; Prabhakaran, Vivek
This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI) values during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy, but not in the absence of therapy, to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere) as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions. PMID:25076886
Fischer, Sarah; Peterson, Claire
There are few published randomized controlled trials examining treatment for symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) in adolescents. Additionally, many adolescents presenting for treatment for BN symptoms endorse co-occurring mood disturbances, suicidality, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and may not meet full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for BN. In addition to the limited number of randomized controlled trials, published treatment studies of BN symptoms in adolescence do not specifically address the multiple comorbid symptoms that these adolescents often report. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of an outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for adolescents with symptoms of BN, suicide attempts, and NSSI. Ten eligible participants enrolled in the study; 3 dropped within 4 weeks of initiating treatment. In addition to binge eating and suicidal behavior, participants also endorsed a number of other comorbid mood disorders and substance abuse. Seven participants completed 6 months of treatment and 6-month follow-up assessments. Treatment included access to a crisis management system, individual therapy, skills training, and a therapist consultation team. At posttreatment, participants had significantly reduced self-harm; (Cohen's d = 1.35), frequency of objective binge episodes (Cohen's d = .46), frequency of purging (Cohen's d = .66), and Global Eating Disorder Examination scores (Cohen's d = .64). At follow-up, 6 participants were abstinent of NSSI; 3 participants were abstinent from binge eating. At follow-up, treatment gains were maintained and enhanced. Results indicate that it is feasible to address multiple forms of psychopathology during the treatment of BN symptoms in this age-group.
Savaskan, Egemen; Bopp-Kistler, Irene; Buerge, Markus; Fischlin, Regina; Georgescu, Dan; Giardini, Umberto; Hatzinger, Martin; Hemmeter, Ulrich; Justiniano, Isabella; Kressig, Reto W; Monsch, Andreas; Mosimann, Urs P; Mueri, Renè; Munk, Anna; Popp, Julius; Schmid, Ruth; Wollmer, Marc A
In patients with dementia, Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) are frequent findings that accompany deficits caused by cognitive impairment and thus complicate diagnostics, therapy and care. BPSD are a burden both for affected individuals as well as care-givers, and represent a significant challenge for therapy of a patient population with high degree of multi-morbidity. The goal of this therapy-guideline issued by swiss professional associations is to present guidance regarding therapy of BPSD as attendant symptoms in dementia, based on evidence as well as clinical experience. Here it appears to be of particular importance to take into account professional experience, as at this point for most therapeutic options no sufficiently controlled clinical trials are available. A critical discussion of pharmaco-therapeutic intervention is necessary, as this patient-population is particularly vulnerable for medication side-effects. Finally, a particular emphasis is placed on incorporating and systematically reporting psycho-social and nursing options therapeutic intervention.
McKay, Dean; Sookman, Debbie; Neziroglu, Fugen; Wilhelm, Sabine; Stein, Dan J; Kyrios, Michael; Matthews, Keith; Veale, David
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which encompasses exposure with response prevention (ERP) and cognitive therapy (CT), has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the samples studied (reflecting the heterogeneity of OCD), the interventions examined (reflecting the heterogeneity of CBT), and the definitions of treatment response vary considerably across studies. This review examined the meta-analyses conducted on ERP and cognitive therapy (CT) for OCD. Also examined was the available research on long-term outcome associated with ERP and CT. The available research indicates that ERP is the first line evidence based psychotherapeutic treatment for OCD and that concurrent administration of cognitive therapy that targets specific symptom-related difficulties characteristic of OCD may improve tolerance of distress, symptom-related dysfunctional beliefs, adherence to treatment, and reduce drop out. Recommendations are provided for treatment delivery for OCD in general practice and other service delivery settings. The literature suggests that ERP and CT may be delivered in a wide range of clinical settings. Although the data are not extensive, the available research suggests that treatment gains following ERP are durable. Suggestions for future research to refine therapeutic outcome are also considered.
Fersch-Podrat, Rachael K.; Rivera, Maribel; Axelson, David A.; Merranko, John; Yu, Haifeng; Brent, David A.; Birmaher, Boris
Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot randomized trial of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) versus psychosocial treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BP). Methods: We recruited participants 12–18 years of age with a primary BP diagnosis (I, II, or operationalized not otherwise specified [NOS] criteria) from a pediatric specialty clinic. Eligible patients were assigned using a 2:1 randomization structure to either DBT (n=14) or psychosocial TAU (n=6). All patients received medication management from a study-affiliated psychiatrist. DBT included 36 sessions (18 individual, 18 family skills training) over 1 year. TAU was an eclectic psychotherapy approach consisting of psychoeducational, supportive, and cognitive behavioral techniques. An independent evaluator, blind to treatment condition, assessed outcomes including affective symptoms, suicidal ideation and behavior, nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, and emotional dysregulation, quarterly over 1 year. Results: Adolescents receiving DBT attended significantly more therapy sessions over 1 year than did adolescents receiving TAU, possibly reflecting greater engagement and retention; both treatments were rated as highly acceptable by adolescents and parents. As compared with adolescents receiving TAU, adolescents receiving DBT demonstrated significantly less severe depressive symptoms over follow-up, and were nearly three times more likely to demonstrate improvement in suicidal ideation. Models indicate a large effect size, for more weeks being euthymic, over follow-up among adolescents receiving DBT. Although there were no between-group differences in manic symptoms or emotional dysregulation with treatment, adolescents receiving DBT, but not those receiving TAU, evidenced improvement from pre- to posttreatment in both manic symptoms and emotional dysregulation. Conclusions: DBT may offer promise as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in the treatment
Jungbluth, Nathaniel J; Shirk, Stephen R
This study used prospective, observational methods to evaluate six features of therapist behavior as predictors of homework adherence in cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression, with the goal of identifying therapist strategies with the potential to improve adolescent adherence. Therapist behaviors were expected to interact with initial levels of client resistance or adherence to predict subsequent homework completion. Participants were 50 referred adolescents (33 female, 54% ethnic minority) ages 14 to 18 (M = 15.9) meeting diagnostic criteria for a depressive disorder, and without comorbid psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, or concurrent treatments. Therapist homework-related behaviors were coded from audiotapes of Sessions 1 and 2 and used to predict adolescents' homework adherence, coded from audiotapes of Sessions 2 and 3. Several therapist behaviors were predictive of subsequent homework adherence, particularly for initially resistant or nonadherent adolescents. Stronger homework rationale and greater time allocated to explaining homework in Session 1 predicted greater adherence at Session 2, particularly for initially resistant adolescents. Stronger rationale and eliciting reactions/troubleshooting obstacles in Session 2 predicted greater adherence at Session 3, particularly for adolescents who were less adherent to prior homework. Strategies such as providing a strong rationale, allocating more time to assigning homework, and eliciting reactions/troubleshooting obstacles may be effective ways to bolster homework adherence among initially less engaged, depressed teens.
Hagen, Eunice; Shprung, Dana; Minakova, Elena; Washington, James; Kumar, Udaya; Shin, Don; Sankar, Raman; Mazarati, Andrey
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by impairments in social and communication abilities, as well as by restricted and repetitive behaviors. Incidence of autism is higher than earlier estimates, and treatments have limited efficacy and are costly. Limited clinical and experimental evidence suggest that patients with autism may benefit from electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We examined the therapeutic potential of ECT in BTBR T+ tf/j mice, which represent a validated model of autism. A series of 13 electroconvulsive shocks (ECS) delivered twice a day over 7 days reversed core autism-like behavioral abnormalities-impaired sociability, social novelty, and repetitive behavior-when the animals were tested 24 h after the last ECS. The effect lasted up to 2 weeks after ECT. Neither single ECS nor a series of 6 ECS modified animals' behavior. Chronic infusion into the lateral brain ventricle of a preferential oxytocin receptor blocker (2S)-2-Amino-N-[(1S,2S,4R)-7,7-dimethyl-1-[[[4-(2-methylphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]sulfonyl]methyl]bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]-4-(methylsulfonyl)butanamide hydrochloride abolished ECT-induced improvement of sociability and mitigated improvement of social novelty but did not affect ECT-induced reversal of repetitive behavior. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that ECT may, indeed, be useful in the treatment of autism, and that its therapeutic effects may be mediated, in part, by central oxytocin signaling.
Morrill, Melinda Ippolito; Hawrilenko, Matt; Córdova, James V
Positive parenting practices have been shown to be essential for healthy child development, and yet have also been found to be particularly challenging for parents to enact and maintain. This article explores an innovative approach for increasing positive parenting by targeting specific positive emotional processes within marital relationships. Couple emotional acceptance is a powerful mechanism that has repeatedly been found to improve romantic relationships, but whether these effects extend to the larger family environment is less well understood. The current longitudinal study examined the impact of improved relational acceptance after a couple intervention on mother's and father's positive parenting. Participants included 244 parents (122 couples) in the Marriage Checkup (MC) study, a randomized, controlled, acceptance-based, intervention study. Data indicated that both women and men experienced significantly greater felt acceptance 2 weeks after the MC intervention, treatment women demonstrated greater positive parenting 2 weeks after the intervention, and all treatment participants' positive parenting was better maintained than control couple's 6 months later. Importantly, although mothers' positive parenting was not influenced by different levels of felt acceptance, changes in father's positive parenting were positively associated with changes in felt acceptance. As men felt more accepted by their wives, their levels of positive parenting changed in kind, and this effect on positive parenting was found to be mediated by felt acceptance 2 weeks after the MC. Overall, findings supported the potential benefits of targeting couple acceptance to generate positive cascades throughout the larger family system.
Morrill, Melinda Ippolito; Hawrilenko, Matt; Córdova, James V.
Positive parenting practices have been shown to be essential for healthy child development, and yet have also been found to be particularly challenging for parents to enact and maintain. This paper explores an innovative approach for increasing positive parenting by targeting specific positive emotional processes within marital relationships. Couple emotional acceptance is a powerful mechanism that has repeatedly been found to improve romantic relationships, but whether these effects extend to the larger family environment is less well understood. The current longitudinal study examined the role of improved levels of acceptance in mother’s and father’s positive parenting after a couple intervention. Participants included 244 parents (122 couples) in the Marriage Checkup (MC) study, a randomized, controlled, acceptance-based, intervention study. Data indicated that both women and men experienced significantly greater felt acceptance two-weeks after the MC intervention, treatment women demonstrated greater positive parenting two weeks after the intervention, and all treatment participants’ positive parenting was better maintained than control couple’s six months later. Importantly, although mothers’ positive parenting was not influenced by different levels of felt acceptance, changes in father’s positive parenting were positively associated with changes in felt acceptance. As men felt more accepted by their wives, their levels of positive parenting changed in kind, and this effect on positive parenting was found to be mediated by felt acceptance two weeks after the MC. Overall, findings supported the potential benefits of targeting couple acceptance to generate positive cascades throughout the larger family system. PMID:26551659
Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Foa, Edna B
A large amount of research has accumulated on the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. The purpose of the current article is to provide an overview of two of the most commonly used CBT methods used to treat anxiety disorders (exposure and cognitive therapy) and to summarize and discuss the current empirical research regarding the usefulness of these techniques for each anxiety disorder. Additionally, we discuss the difficulties that arise when comparing active CBT treatments, and we suggest directions for future research. Overall, CBT appears to be both efficacious and effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, but dismantling studies are needed to determine which specific treatment components lead to beneficial outcomes and which patients are most likely to benefit from these treatment components.
Gonzalez, Vivian M; Schmitz, Joy M; DeLaune, Katherine A
This study examines the effect of homework compliance on treatment outcome in 123 participants receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for cocaine dependence. Regression analyses revealed a significant relationship between homework compliance and cocaine use that was moderated by readiness to change. Homework compliance predicted less cocaine use during treatment but only for participants higher in readiness to change. For those lower in readiness to change, homework compliance was not associated with cocaine use during treatment. Homework compliance early in therapy was associated with better retention in treatment. Homework compliance was not predicted by participants' level of education or readiness to change. These findings support the use of homework during CBT for substance use disorders.
Kaczkurkin, Antonia N.; Foa, Edna B.
A large amount of research has accumulated on the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. The purpose of the current article is to provide an overview of two of the most commonly used CBT methods used to treat anxiety disorders (exposure and cognitive therapy) and to summarize and discuss the current empirical research regarding the usefulness of these techniques for each anxiety disorder. Additionally, we discuss the difficulties that arise when comparing active CBT treatments, and we suggest directions for future research. Overall, CBT appears to be both efficacious and effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, but dismantling studies are needed to determine which specific treatment components lead to beneficial outcomes and which patients are most likely to benefit from these treatment components. PMID:26487814
Newcomb, Michael E; Bedoya, C Andres; Blashill, Aaron J; Lerner, Jonathan A; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Pinkston, Megan M; Safren, Steven A
There are an estimated 1.1 million individuals living with HIV/AIDS in the United States. In addition to the various medical comorbidities of HIV infection, depression is one of the most frequently co-occurring psychiatric conditions among HIV-infected individuals. Furthermore, depression has been found to be associated with nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), as well as HIV disease progression. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has repeatedly been found to effectively treat depression in adult populations, and CBT for adherence and depression (CBT-AD) is an effective treatment for improving depressive symptoms and medication adherence in the context of various chronic health conditions, including diabetes and HIV-infection. This paper provides a description of the CBT-AD approach to treat depression and ART adherence in HIV-infected adults, which we have developed and tested in our clinic, and for which detailed therapist and client guides exist. To augment the description of treatment, the present article provides video component demonstrations of several core modules that highlight important aspects of this treatment, including Life-Steps for medication adherence, orientation to CBT-AD and psychoeducation, and suggestions for adaptation of core CBT modules for HIV-infected adults. Discussion of video demonstrations highlights differences in patient presentations and course of treatment between HIV-infected adults receiving CBT-AD and HIV-uninfected adults receiving traditional CBT for depression. This description and the accompanying demonstrations are intended as a practical guide to assist therapists wishing to conduct such a treatment in the outpatient setting.
Jensen, Tine K.; Holt, Tonje; Ormhaug, Silje M.; Egeland, Karina; Granly, Lene; Hoaas, Live C.; Hukkelberg, Silje S.; Indregard, Tore; Stormyren, Shirley D.; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore
The efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) has been shown in several randomized controlled trials. However, few trials have been conducted in community clinics, few have used therapy as usual (TAU) as a comparison group, and none have been conducted outside of the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of TF-CBT in regular community settings compared with TAU. One hundred fifty-six traumatized youth (M age = 15.1 years, range = 10–18; 79.5% girls) were randomly assigned to TF-CBT or TAU. Intent-to-treat analysis using mixed effects models showed that youth receiving TF-CBT reported significantly lower levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (est. = 5.78, d = 0.51), 95% CI [2.32, 9.23]; depression (est. = 7.00, d = 0.54), 95% CI [2.04, 11.96]; and general mental health symptoms (est. = 2.54, d = 0.45), 95% CI [0.50, 4.58], compared with youth in the TAU group. Youth assigned to TF-CBT showed significantly greater improvements in functional impairment (est. = −1.05, d = −0.55), 95% CI [−1.67, −0.42]. Although the same trend was found for anxiety reduction, this difference was not statistically significant (est. = 4.34, d = 0.30), 95% CI [−1.50, 10.19]. Significantly fewer youths in the TF-CBT condition were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder compared to youths in the TAU condition, χ2(1, N = 116) = 4.61, p = .031, Phi = .20). Findings indicate that TF-CBT is effective in treating traumatized youth in community mental health clinics and that the program may also be successfully implemented in countries outside the United States. PMID:23931093
Newcomb, Michael E.; Bedoya, C. Andres; Blashill, Aaron J.; Lerner, Jonathan A.; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Pinkston, Megan M.; Safren, Steven A.
There are an estimated 1.1 million individuals living with HIV/AIDS in the United States. In addition to the various medical comorbidities of HIV infection, depression is one of the most frequently co-occurring psychiatric conditions among HIV-infected individuals. Furthermore, depression has been found to be associated with nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), as well as HIV disease progression. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has repeatedly been found to effectively treat depression in adult populations, and CBT for adherence and depression (CBT-AD) is an effective treatment for improving depressive symptoms and medication adherence in the context of various chronic health conditions, including diabetes and HIV-infection. This paper provides a description of the CBT-AD approach to treat depression and ART adherence in HIV-infected adults, which we have developed and tested in our clinic, and for which detailed therapist and client guides exist. To augment the description of treatment, the present article provides video component demonstrations of several core modules that highlight important aspects of this treatment, including Life-Steps for medication adherence, orientation to CBT-AD and psychoeducation, and suggestions for adaptation of core CBT modules for HIV-infected adults. Discussion of video demonstrations highlights differences in patient presentations and course of treatment between HIV-infected adults receiving CBT-AD and HIV-uninfected adults receiving traditional CBT for depression. This description and the accompanying demonstrations are intended as a practical guide to assist therapists wishing to conduct such a treatment in the outpatient setting. PMID:26688659
Samango-Sprouse, Carole; Stapleton, Emily J; Lawson, Patrick; Mitchell, Francie; Sadeghin, Teresa; Powell, Sherida; Gropman, Andrea L
47, XXY occurs in up to 1 in 650 male births and is associated with androgen deficiency, neurodevelopmental delays, and atypical social-behaviors. Previously, we showed that young boys with 47, XXY who received early hormonal therapy (EHT) had significantly improved neurodevelopment. The objective of this follow-up study was to examine the effects of EHT on social behavior in boys with 47, XXY. The study consisted of boys prenatally diagnosed with 47, XXY who were referred for evaluations. Twenty-nine boys received three injections of 25 mg testosterone enanthate and 57 controls did not receive EHT. Behavioral functioning was assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Social Responsiveness Scale, 2nd Ed., and the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18. The hypothesis that EHT may affect behavior was formulated prior to data collection. Questionnaire data was prospectively obtained and analyzed to test for significance between two groups. Significant differences were identified between group's scores over time in Social Communication (P=0.007), Social Cognition (P=0.006), and Total T-score (P=0.001) on the SRS-2; Initiation (P=0.05) on the BRIEF; and Externalizing Problems (P=0.024), Affective Problems (P=0.05), and Aggressive Behaviors (P=0.031) on the CBCL. This is the third study revealing positive effects of EHT on boys with XXY. There was a significant improvements associated with the 47, XXY genotype in boys who received EHT. Research is underway on the neurobiological mechanisms, and later developmental effects of EHT.
Brooks, Alyssa T; Wallen, Gwenyth R
Sleep disturbances are common among alcohol-dependent individuals and are often associated with relapse. The utility of behavioral therapies for sleep disturbances, including cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), among those with alcohol-related disorders is not well understood. This review systematically evaluates the evidence of CBT-I and related behavioral therapies applied to those with alcohol-related disorders and accompanying sleep disturbances. A search of four research databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and CINAHL Plus) yielded six studies that met selection criteria. Articles were reviewed using Cochrane’s Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) scoring system. A majority of the studies demonstrated significant improvements in sleep efficiency among behavioral therapy treatment group(s), including but not limited to CBT-I. While behavioral sleep interventions have been successful in varied populations, they may not be utilized to their full potential among those with alcohol-related disorders as evidenced by the low number of studies found. These findings suggest a need for mixed-methods research on individuals’ sleep experience to inform interventions that are acceptable to the target population. PMID:25288884
Schumm, Jeremiah A.; O’Farrell, Timothy J.; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic
Although behavioral couples therapy (BCT) has considerable support in treating alcohol use disorder (AUD), studies have not examined BCT for dual problem couples in which both partners have current AUD. This study compared outcomes after BCT for dual problem couples (n = 20) with outcomes for single problem couples in which only one partner had AUD (n = 386). Results showed that dual problem and single problem couples did not differ significantly on degree of improvement in abstinence following BCT. A case example illustrates the application of BCT when both partners have a current AUD. PMID:23264718
Freeman, Kimberly R.; James, Sigrid; Klein, Keith P.; Mayo, Danessa; Montgomery, Susanne
The current review examines conceptual and methodological issues related to the use of dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents (DBT-A) in treating youth who engage in deliberate self-harm. A comprehensive review of the literature identified six studies appropriate for the review. Results indicated several inconsistencies and limitations across studies including the mixing of various forms of self-harm; variations in diagnostic inclusion/exclusion criteria, insufficient use of standardized self-harm outcome measures, variable lengths and intensity of provided treatment, and inadequate attention paid to DBT adherence. Each of these areas is reviewed along with a discussion of ways to improve the quality of future research. PMID:26985126
Courbasson, Christine M; Nishikawa, Yasunori; Shapira, Leah B
Individuals with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) often evidence comorbid Substance Use Disorders (SUD), resulting in poor outcome. This study is the first to examine treatment outcome for this concurrent disordered population. In this pilot study, 38 individuals diagnosed with BED and SUD participated in a 16-week group Mindfulness-Action Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MACBT). Participants significantly improved on measures of objective binge eating episodes; disordered eating attitudes; alcohol and drug addiction severity; and depression. Taken together, MACBT appears to hold promise in treating individuals with co-existing BED-SUD.
Spofford, Christopher M.; McLaughlin, Nicole C. R.; Penzel, Fred; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.
We report the case of a patient requiring gamma ventral capsulotomy (GVC), a neurosurgical intervention to address severe refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). GVC involves stereotactic lesions in the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule and adjacent ventral striatum. This study details the course of an extinction-based behavioral therapy, namely exposure and response prevention (ERP). The patient experienced significant changes in motivation and ability to tolerate ERP post-surgery. Furthermore, he was better able to absorb and remember exposure sessions. GVC surgery may affect the neural mechanisms involved in the extinction learning process, the same process implicated in ERP treatment. PMID:23057416
Satterfield, Jason M; Crabb, Rebecca
Although strong evidence supports cognitive-behavioral therapy for late-life depression and depression in racial and ethnic minorities, there are no empirical studies on the treatment of depression in older sexual minorities. Three distinct literatures were tapped to create a depression treatment protocol for an older gay male. Interventions were deduced from the late-life depression literature, culturally adapted CBT protocols for racial minorities, and the emerging social and developmental psychological theories for lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations. Specific treatment interventions, processes, and outcomes are described to illustrate how these literatures may be used to provide more culturally appropriate and effective health care for the growing, older sexual minority population.
O’Kelly, Julian; James, L.; Palaniappan, R.; Taborin, J.; Fachner, J.; Magee, W. L.
Assessment of awareness for those with disorders of consciousness is a challenging undertaking, due to the complex presentation of the population. Debate surrounds whether behavioral assessments provide greatest accuracy in diagnosis compared to neuro-imaging methods, and despite developments in both, misdiagnosis rates remain high. Music therapy may be effective in the assessment and rehabilitation with this population due to effects of musical stimuli on arousal, attention, and emotion, irrespective of verbal or motor deficits. However, an evidence base is lacking as to which procedures are most effective. To address this, a neurophysiological and behavioral study was undertaken comparing electroencephalogram (EEG), heart rate variability, respiration, and behavioral responses of 20 healthy subjects with 21 individuals in vegetative or minimally conscious states (VS or MCS). Subjects were presented with live preferred music and improvised music entrained to respiration (procedures typically used in music therapy), recordings of disliked music, white noise, and silence. ANOVA tests indicated a range of significant responses (p ≤ 0.05) across healthy subjects corresponding to arousal and attention in response to preferred music including concurrent increases in respiration rate with globally enhanced EEG power spectra responses (p = 0.05–0.0001) across frequency bandwidths. Whilst physiological responses were heterogeneous across patient cohorts, significant post hoc EEG amplitude increases for stimuli associated with preferred music were found for frontal midline theta in six VS and four MCS subjects, and frontal alpha in three VS and four MCS subjects (p = 0.05–0.0001). Furthermore, behavioral data showed a significantly increased blink rate for preferred music (p = 0.029) within the VS cohort. Two VS cases are presented with concurrent changes (p ≤ 0.05) across measures indicative of discriminatory responses to both music therapy
Bullock, Kim D; Mirza, Nida; Forte, Craig; Trockel, Mickey
Neuroimaging evidence suggests deficits in affective regulation in conversion disorder (CD). Dialectical-behavior therapy skills training (DBT-ST) was developed to target emotion dysregulation. This study was aimed to test the feasibility of stand-alone DBT-ST for CD using Linehan's manual for borderline personality disorder. In a prospective naturalistic design, 19 adult outpatients diagnosed with video EEG-confirmed seizure type CD were recruited and received weekly group DBT. Seventeen out of 19 subjects finished an average of 20.5 weeks of treatment. The mean seizure rate decreased by 66%. Cessation of seizures occurred in 35% of the sample. Completion rates reached 90%.
Beidas, Rinad S.; Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.
We provide a detailed description of the clinical application of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxious youth. A rationale for the development of BCBT is presented, followed by a description and discussion of the 8 sessions of the treatment. Mike, a 7-year-old youth with anxiety disorders, is used to illustrate the inner workings of implementing BCBT. Case conceptualization, session details, and pre-, post- and follow-up-treatment information are provided. Conclusions regarding clinical advantages and future directions are made. PMID:25083131
O'Callaghan, Paul; McMullen, John; Shannon, Ciaran; Rafferty, Harry; Black, Alastair
Objective: To assess the efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) delivered by nonclinical facilitators in reducing posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety and conduct problems and increasing prosocial behavior in a group of war-affected, sexually exploited girls in a single-blind, parallel-design, randomized,…
Waltz, Jennifer; Dimeff, Linda A.; Koerner, Kelly; Linehan, Marsha M.; Taylor, Laura; Miller, Christopher
This study tested the feasibility of using a psychoeducational video recording to teach a behavioral skill from the Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT; Linehan, 1993a, 1993b) skills training program to individuals meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder. A video presenting a DBT emotion-regulation skill was developed and the extent to…
Youdas, James W.; Krause, David A.; Hellyer, Nathan J.; Rindflesch, Aaron B.; Hollman, John H.
Medical professionals and public consumers expect that new physical therapy graduates possess cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills required to provide safe and high-quality care to patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if a repertoire of ten professional behaviors assessed at the beginning of doctorate of physical therapy…
Taylor, Leslie K.; Weems, Carl F.
Youth traumatized by natural disasters report high levels of posttraumatic stress such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, and depression. Research suggests that cognitive behavioral therapies are promising interventions for symptom reduction; however, few cognitive behavioral treatments have been systematically…
Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized tools and DVD analysis of sessions to evaluate behavioral changes in children with autism. The overall results indicated that improvisational music therapy was more effective at facilitating joint attention behaviors and non-verbal social communication skills in children than play. Session analysis showed significantly more and lengthier events of eye contact and turn-taking in improvisational music therapy than play sessions. The implications of these findings are discussed further.
Aguilera, Adrian; Garza, Monica J.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.
The authors applied cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression using the Healthy Management of Reality treatment manual. This 16-week group treatment comprised four 4-week modules: thoughts (cognitive restructuring), activities (behavioral activation), people (interpersonal skills training), and health (addresses physical health and depression). They illustrated the use of the culture-sensitive treatment manuals by way of the member characteristics and clinical process of a Spanish-language CBT group for depression. They highlighted the challenges and satisfactions of working with a Spanish-speaking population in the public sector, and focused on how culture and socioeconomic status influence patients, and how to adapt treatment to these factors. Last, they demonstrated how technological advances integrate with culture-sensitive, evidence-based treatments to better serve this population and reduce disparities. PMID:20549680
Herbert, James D.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Moitra, Ethan; Myers, Valerie H.; Dalrymple, Kristy L.; Brandsma, Lynn L.
Early identification and treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is critical to prevent development of a chronic course of symptoms, persistent functional impairment, and progressive psychiatric comorbidity. A small but growing literature supports the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders, including SAD, in adolescence. The present randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of group vs. individual CBT for adolescents with generalized SAD in relation to an educational/supportive psychotherapy that did not contain specific CBT elements. All three treatments were associated with significant reductions in symptoms and functional impairment, and in improved social skills. No differences between treatments emerged on measures of symptoms, but the CBT conditions demonstrated greater gains on behavioral measures. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:18653310
Aguilera, Adrian; Garza, Monica J; Muñoz, Ricardo F
The authors applied cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression using the Healthy Management of Reality treatment manual. This 16-week group treatment comprised four 4-week modules: thoughts (cognitive restructuring), activities (behavioral activation), people (interpersonal skills training), and health (addresses physical health and depression). They illustrated the use of the culture-sensitive treatment manuals by way of the member characteristics and clinical process of a Spanish-language CBT group for depression. They highlighted the challenges and satisfactions of working with a Spanish-speaking population in the public sector, and focused on how culture and socioeconomic status influence patients, and how to adapt treatment to these factors. Last, they demonstrated how technological advances integrate with culture-sensitive, evidence-based treatments to better serve this population and reduce disparities.
Rogojanski, Jenny; Carney, Colleen E; Monson, Candice M
Sleep has largely been conceptualized as an individual phenomenon, despite the fact that most adults share their bed with a partner at some time in their life. Only recently have researchers begun to examine the dyadic nature of sleep, and there is growing evidence that bed partners can play a role in the onset and maintenance of insomnia. Additionally, emerging evidence suggests that bed partners can be powerful agents of social control in terms of promoting adaptive health and sleep-related behaviors, and shared social rhythms between partners can help foster an environment that is conducive to good sleep. As such, the aim of the present article is to review the social context of the sleep environment and how best to include bed partners in insomnia treatment. Based on a synthesis of relevant literatures, a model for integrating bed partners into cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is presented and directions for future research are discussed.
Barnes, Christopher M; Miller, Jared A; Bostock, Sophie
Drawing from recent research advances indicating the harmful effects of insomnia on negative affect, job satisfaction, self-control, organizational citizenship behavior, and interpersonal deviance, we hypothesized that treating insomnia with Internet based cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia would lead to improvements in these outcomes. In a field experiment with a randomized wait-list control group, we found that treatment had a beneficial direct effect on negative affect, job satisfaction, and self-control. Moreover, the effect of treatment on job satisfaction was mediated by negative affect. We were not able to detect a direct effect of treatment on organizational citizenship behavior or interpersonal deviance. However, treatment had a beneficial indirect effect on organizational citizenship behavior through the mediators of negative affect and job satisfaction, and a beneficial indirect effect on interpersonal deviance through the mediator of self-control. These results move the applied psychology literature on insomnia beyond simply pointing out problematic effects of employee insomnia to providing evidence of a partial solution to such effects. (PsycINFO Database Record
Heinssen, Robert K
Introduction by the column editors: Numerous factors influence a patient's decision to accept or reject prescribed medications, including the patient's personal values, environmental conditions, and the quality of the patient-physician relationship (1). Guidelines for evaluating and managing noncompliance with medication regimens by patients with schizophrenia take this multidimensional perspective into account, emphasizing functional assessment of nonadherence behaviors and individualized behavior-change strategies to secure and maintain the patient's cooperation (2). Moreover, a collaborative approach to planning pharmacotherapy is required to ensure medication compliance, with a particular emphasis on linking the positive effects of medications with the patient's personal goals and desires for better functioning and quality of life (3). The following case study illustrates the application of principles for enhancing medication compliance in the treatment of a woman diagnosed as having schizophrenia, paranoid type. Strategies presented by Dr. Heinssen include collaborative treatment contracts, analysis of adherence behaviors, and techniques for boosting medication cues and reinforcers in the patient's home. The therapy described was provided in the Life Skills partial hospitalization and psychiatric rehabilitation program, a multidisciplinary, multilevel outpatient service of the now-closed Chestnut Lodge Hospital in Rockville, Maryland. The program integrated medical, social-learning, and cognitive-behavioral interventions for psychosis within a psychiatric rehabilitation framework.
Compton, Scott; Thomsen, Per Hove; Weidle, Bernhard; Dahl, Kitty; Nissen, Judith Becker; Torp, Nor Christian; Hybel, Katja; Melin, Karin Holmgren; Valderhaug, Robert; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Ivarsson, Tord
Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the presence of tic disorder is negatively associated with sertraline (SRT) outcomes, but not with continued cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), in a sample of youth who were unresponsive to an initial full course of CBT. Methods: In the Nordic Long-Term OCD Study, children and adolescents with OCD who were rated as nonresponders to 14 weeks of open-label CBT were randomized to continued CBT (n=28) or SRT treatment (n=22) for an additional 16 weeks of treatment. We investigated whether the presence or absence of comorbid tic disorder moderated treatment outcomes on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Results: Twelve out of 50 (24.0%) participants were diagnosed with comorbid tic disorder, with 7 receiving continued CBT and 5 receiving SRT, respectively. In patients without tic disorder, results showed no significant between-group differences on average CY-BOCS scores. However, in patients with comorbid tic disorder, those who received SRT had significantly lower average CY-BOCS scores than those who received continued CBT. Conclusions: Children and adolescents with OCD and comorbid tic disorder, who are nonresponders to an initial 14 week course of CBT, may benefit more from a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) than from continued CBT. PMID:26091197
Onifer, Stephen M.; Reed, William R.; Sozio, Randall S.; Long, Cynthia R.
Optimizing pain relief resulting from spinal manipulative therapies, including low velocity variable amplitude spinal manipulation (LVVA-SM), requires determining their mechanisms. Pain models that incorporate simulated spinal manipulative therapy treatments are needed for these studies. The antinociceptive effects of a single LVVA-SM treatment on rat nociceptive behavior during the commonly used formalin test were investigated. Dilute formalin was injected subcutaneously into a plantar hindpaw. Licking behavior was video-recorded for 5 minutes. Ten minutes of LVVA-SM at 20° flexion was administered with a custom-made device at the lumbar (L5) vertebra of isoflurane-anesthetized experimental rats (n = 12) beginning 10 minutes after formalin injection. Hindpaw licking was video-recorded for 60 minutes beginning 5 minutes after LVVA-SM. Control rats (n = 12) underwent the same methods except for LVVA-SM. The mean times spent licking the formalin-injected hindpaw of both groups 1–5 minutes after injection were not different. The mean licking time during the first 20 minutes post-LVVA-SM of experimental rats was significantly less than that of control rats (P < 0.001). The mean licking times of both groups during the second and third 20 minutes post-LVVA-SM were not different. Administration of LVVA-SM had a short-term, remote antinociceptive effect similar to clinical findings. Therefore, mechanistic investigations using this experimental approach are warranted. PMID:26693243
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a highly prevalent and chronic disorder that causes considerable psychosocial impairment. This article reviews recent changes in the definition of SAD in DSM-5 and summarizes the current evidence for effective cognitive-behavioral treatments in adults, children, and adolescents. Current data suggests that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is efficacious in the treatment of this condition. Among different CBT approaches, individual cognitive therapy may be associated with the largest effect sizes. In this review, interventions targeting dysfunctional cognitive processes that contribute to the effective treatment of SAD are discussed. Some recent findings from neuroimaging research and studies on the augmentation of CBT using neuroenhancers indicate that changes in emotion regulation as well as fear extinction are important psychological mediators of positive outcome. Furthermore, internet-delivered CBT is a promising field of technological innovation that may improve access to effective treatments. Despite the availability of effective treatments, treatment-resistant SAD remains a common problem in clinical practice that requires more research efforts. Finally, potential areas for further development of CBT as well as its dissemination in health care are summarized.
Fogler, Jason M; Tompson, Martha C; Steketee, Gail; Hofmann, Stefan G
This study examined significant others' expressed emotion (EE) and a closely related construct, perceived criticism, as predictors of cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome in a sample of 40 patients with social phobia (social anxiety disorder). Patients enrolled in group therapy for social phobia completed pre- and post-treatment questionnaire measures of perceived criticism and anxious and depressive symptoms. Designated significant others were assessed for the components of high EE (criticism, hostility and emotional overinvolvement) using the Camberwell Family Interview. It was hypothesized that these high-EE components and patients' perceived criticism would be associated with poorer treatment outcome, and results ran counter to these expectations. Controlling for initial social phobia severity, lower levels of perceived criticism predicted treatment dropout. There was also a nonsignificant trend for participants with a significant other rated as high in emotional overinvolvement to show less change on a composite symptom measure. Findings from this study suggest that close relationships impact the outcome of cognitive-behavioral interventions for social phobia.
Budney, Alan J.; Stanger, Catherine; Tilford, J. Mick; Scherer, Emily; Brown, Pamela C.; Li, Zhongze; Li, Zhigang; Walker, Denise
Computer-assisted behavioral treatments hold promise for enhancing access to and reducing costs of treatments for substance use disorders. This study assessed the efficacy of a computer-assisted version of an efficacious, multicomponent treatment for cannabis use disorders (CUD), i.e., motivational enhancement therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and abstinence-based contingency-management (MET/CBT/CM). An initial cost comparison was also performed. Seventy-five adult participants, 59% African Americans, seeking treatment for CUD received either, MET only (BRIEF), therapist-delivered MET/CBT/CM (THERAPIST), or computer-delivered MET/CBT/CM (COMPUTER). During treatment, the THERAPIST and COMPUTER conditions engendered longer durations of continuous cannabis abstinence than BRIEF (p < .05), but did not differ from each other. Abstinence rates and reduction in days of use over time were maintained in COMPUTER at least as well as in THERAPIST. COMPUTER averaged approximately $130 (p < .05) less per case than THERAPIST in therapist costs, which offset most of the costs of CM. Results add to promising findings that illustrate potential for computer-assisted delivery methods to enhance access to evidence-based care, reduce costs, and possibly improve outcomes. The observed maintenance effects and the cost findings require replication in larger clinical trials. PMID:25938629
Powers, Mark B; Vedel, Ellen; Emmelkamp, Paul M G
Narrative reviews conclude that behavioral couples therapy (BCT) produces better outcomes than individual-based treatment for alcoholism and drug abuse problems (e.g., [Epstein, E. E., & McCrady, B. S. (1998). Behavioral couples treatment of alcohol and drug use disorders: Current status and innovations. Clinical Psychology Review, 18(6), 689-711; O'Farrell, T. J., & Fals-Stewart, W. (2003). Alcohol abuse. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 29(1), 121-146]). However, the strength and consistency of this effect favoring BCT has not been examined because a meta-analysis of BCT studies has not been reported. This meta-analysis combines multiple well controlled studies to help clarify the overall impact of BCT in the treatment of substance use disorders. A comprehensive literature search produced 12 randomized controlled trials (n=754) that were included in the final analyses. There was a clear overall advantage of including BCT compared to individual-based treatments (Cohen's d=0.54). This was true across outcome domains (frequency of use d=0.36, consequences of use d=0.52, and relationship satisfaction d=0.57). However the pattern of results varied as a function of time. BCT was superior to control conditions only in relationship satisfaction at posttreatment (d=0.64). However, at follow-up BCT was superior on all three outcome domains (frequency of use d=0.45, consequences of use d=0.50, and relationship satisfaction d=0.51). In addition to other control conditions, BCT also outperformed individual cognitive behavioral therapy without couples therapy (d=0.42). Larger sample sizes were associated with higher effect sizes (p=0.02). However, treatment dose and publication year were not related to effect size. Overall, BCT shows better outcomes than more typical individual-based treatment for married or cohabiting individuals who seek help for alcohol dependence or drug dependence problems. The benefit for BCT with low severity problem drinkers has received little
Lis, Eric; Myhr, Gail
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based psychotherapeutic approach which has been shown to be an effective intervention for most psychiatric disorders. There are conflicting data in the literature regarding whether a comorbid personality disorder worsens the prognosis of CBT for depression, anxiety, and other complaints. This study examined data collected before and after courses of CBT for patients with significant borderline (n=39, 11.5%) or obsessive-compulsive (n=66, 19.4%) personality pathology or no personality disorder (n=235, 69.1%). A diagnosis of personality pathology was not a significant predictor of outcome in CBT as measured by the reliable change index. However, patients with borderline personality pathology did demonstrate a greater response to CBT than other patients in terms of improvement on several measures of symptoms. Patients with borderline personality pathology appear to enter therapy with greater subjective depression and interpersonal difficulty than other patients but achieve larger gains during therapy. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Newman, Michelle G.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Borkovec, Thomas D.; Fisher, Aaron J.; Boswell, James F.; Szkodny, Lauren E.; Nordberg, Samuel S.
Objective: Recent models suggest that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms may be maintained by emotional processing avoidance and interpersonal problems. Method: This is the first randomized controlled trial to test directly whether cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) could be augmented with the addition of a module targeting interpersonal…
Bélanger, Lynda; Harvey, Allison G.; Fortier-Brochu, Émilie; Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon; Eidelman, Polina; Talbot, Lisa; Ivers, Hans; Hein, Kerrie; Lamy, Manon; Soehner, Adriane M.; Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.
Objective To evaluate the impact of comorbid anxiety or depressive disorders on treatment response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for insomnia, behavior therapy (BT), or cognitive therapy (CT). Method Participants were 188 adults (117 women; M age = 47.4 years) with chronic insomnia, including 45 also presenting a comorbid anxiety or mild to moderate depressive disorder. They were randomized to BT (n = 63), CT (n = 65), or CBT (n = 60). Outcome measures were the proportion of treatment responders (decrease of ≥ 8 points on the Insomnia Severity Index; ISI) and remissions (ISI score < 8) and depression and anxiety symptoms. Results Proportion of treatment responders and remitters in the CBT condition was not significantly different between the subgroups with and without comorbidity. However, the proportion of responders was lower in the comorbidity subgroup compared to those without comorbidity in both the BT (34.4% vs 81.6%; p=0.007) and CT (23.6% vs 57.6%; p=0.02) alone conditions, although remission rates and pre-post ISI change scores were not. Pre to post change scores on the depression (−10.6 vs −3.9; p<0.001) and anxiety measures (−9.2 vs −2.5; p=.01) were significantly greater in the comorbidity subgroup relative to the subgroup without comorbidity but only for those treated with the full CBT; no difference was found for those treated with either BT or CT alone. Conclusions The presence of a comorbid anxiety or mild to moderate depressive disorder did not reduce the efficacy of CBT for insomnia, but it did for its single BT and CT components when used alone. PMID:26963600
DeVito, Elise E.; Babuscio, Theresa A.; Nich, Charla; Ball, Samuel A.; Carroll, Kathleen M.
Background Despite extensive research on gender differences in addiction, there are relatively few published reports comparing treatment outcomes for women versus men based on evidence-based treatments evaluated in randomized clinical trials. Methods An aggregate sample comprised of data from five randomized clinical trials of treatment for cocaine dependence (N = 434) was evaluated for gender differences in clinical outcomes. Secondary analyses compared gender differences in outcome by medication condition (disulfiram versus no medication) and across multiple behavioral treatment conditions. Results Women, compared with men, had poorer treatment outcomes on multiple measures of cocaine use during treatment and at post-treatment follow-up. These results appear to be primarily accounted for by disulfiram being less effective in women compared with men. There was no evidence of meaningful gender differences in outcome as a function of the behavioral therapies evaluated. Conclusions These findings suggest that women and men may benefit to similar degrees from some empirically validated behavioral treatments for addiction. Conversely, some addiction pharmacotherapies, such as disulfiram, may be associated with poorer outcomes among women relative to men and point to the need for careful assessment of pharmacological treatments in both sexes prior to widespread clinical implementation. PMID:25457739
Tiernan, Kristine; Foster, Sharon L.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Brennan, Patricia; Whitmore, Elizabeth
This study examined individual and family characteristics that predicted early positive change in the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Families (n=185; 65% male; average youth age 15 years) receiving MST in community settings completed assessments at the outset of treatment and 6-12 weeks into treatment. Early positive changes in youth antisocial behavior were assessed using the caregiver report on the CBCL Externalizing Behaviors subscale and youth report on the Self-Report Delinquency Scale. Overall, families showed significant positive changes by 6-12 weeks into treatment; these early changes were maintained into mid-treatment 6-12 weeks later. Families who exhibited clinically significant gains early in treatment were more likely to terminate treatment successfully compared to those who did not show these gains. Low youth internalizing behaviors and absence of youth drug use predicted early positive changes in MST. High levels of parental monitoring and low levels of affiliation with deviant peers (mechanisms known to be associated with MST success) were also associated with early positive change. PMID:24866967
van der Sluis, Cathy M; van der Bruggen, Corine O; Brechman-Toussaint, Margaret L; Thissen, Michèl A P; Bögels, Susan M
Anxiety in children age 8 years and above has been successfully treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, the efficacy of CBT for anxious children ages 4-7 years has not, to date, been fully investigated. This paper piloted a CBT intervention targeting child anxiety that was delivered exclusively to parents of 26 children with anxiety symptoms ages 4-7 years. The intervention consisted of four 2-hour group sessions of four to six parents (couples). These group sessions were followed by four individual telephone sessions, once per week across a 4-week period. The pre- and postintervention assessment involved measures of multiple constructs of child anxiety (anxiety symptoms, children's fears, behavioral inhibition, and internalizing symptoms) from multiple informants (parents, children, and teachers). Parents also reported parenting strategies they were likely to use to manage their children's anxiety pre- and postintervention. Results indicated a significant decrease in child anxiety and behavioral inhibition as reported by parents and teachers. Furthermore, mothers reported significant increases in their use of positive reinforcement, and modeling and reassurance, and a significant decrease in their use of reinforcement of dependency directly after treatment. Taken together, parent-directed CBT appears to be an effective approach for treating children ages 4-7 years with anxiety symptoms. Limitations of the current research are discussed.
Battagliese, Gemma; Caccetta, Maria; Luppino, Olga Ines; Baglioni, Chiara; Cardi, Valentina; Mancini, Francesco; Buonanno, Carlo
Externalizing disorders are the most common and persistent forms of maladjustment in childhood. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) to reduce externalizing symptoms in two disorders: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositive Defiant Disorder (ODD). The efficacy of CBT to improve social competence and positive parenting and reduce internalizing behaviors, parent stress and maternal depression was also explored. The database PsycInfo, PsycARTICLES, Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant studies. Twenty-one trials met the inclusion criteria. Results showed that the biggest improvement, after CBT, was in ODD symptoms (-0.879) followed by parental stress (-0.607), externalizing symptoms (-0.52), parenting skills (-0.381), social competence (-0.390) and ADHD symptoms (-0.343). CBT was also associated with improved attention (-0.378), aggressive behaviors (-0.284), internalizing symptoms (-0.272) and maternal depressive symptoms (-0.231). Overall, CBT is an effective treatment option for externalizing disorders and is also associated with reduced parental distress and maternal depressive symptoms. Multimodal treatments targeting both children and caregivers' symptoms (e.g. maternal depressive symptoms) appear important to produce sustained and generalized benefits.
Kramer, Teresa L; Burns, Barbara J
Background Behavioral health services for children and adolescents in the U.S. are lacking in accessibility, availability and quality. Evidence-based interventions for emotional and behavioral disorders can improve quality, yet few studies have systematically examined their implementation in routine care settings. Methods Using quantitative and qualitative data, we evaluated a multi-faceted implementation strategy to implement cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depressed adolescents into two publicly-funded mental healthcare centers. Extent of implementation during the study's duration and variables influencing implementation were explored. Results Of the 35 clinicians eligible to participate, 25 (71%) were randomized into intervention (n = 11) or usual care (n = 14). Nine intervention clinicians completed the CBT training. Sixteen adolescents were enrolled in CBT with six of the intervention clinicians; half of these received at least six CBT manually-based sessions. Multiple barriers to CBT adoption and sustained use were identified by clinicians in qualitative interviews. Conclusion Strategies to implement evidence-based interventions into routine clinical settings should include multi-method, pre-implementation assessments of the clinical environment and address multiple barriers to initial uptake as well as long-term sustainability. PMID:18312677