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Sample records for acceptance-based behavior therapy

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Therapy for Test Anxiety: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lily A.; Forman, Evan M.; Herbert, James D.; Hoffman, Kimberly L.; Yuen, Erica K.; Goetter, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Many university students suffer from test anxiety that is severe enough to impair performance. Given mixed efficacy results of previous cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) trials and a theoretically driven rationale, an acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) approach was compared to traditional CBT (i.e., Beckian cognitive therapy; CT) for the…

  2. An Open Trial of an Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that experiential avoidance may play an important role in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; see Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S.M. (2002). "Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: Integrating mindfulness/acceptance-based approaches with existing cognitive-behavioral models." "Clinical…

  3. Being Mindful about the Assessment of Culture: A Cultural Analysis of Culturally Adapted Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…

  4. An investigation of the efficacy of acceptance-based behavioral therapy for academic procrastination.

    PubMed

    Glick, Debra M; Orsillo, Susan M

    2015-04-01

    Procrastination among college students is both prevalent and troublesome, harming both academic performance and physical health. Unfortunately, no "gold standard" intervention exists. Research suggests that psychological inflexibility may drive procrastination. Accordingly, interventions using acceptance and mindfulness methods to increase psychological flexibility may decrease procrastination. This study compared time management and acceptance-based behavioral interventions. College students' predictions of how much assigned reading they should complete were compared to what they did complete. Procrastination, anxiety, psychological flexibility, and academic values were also measured. Although a trend suggested that time management intervention participants completed more reading, no group differences in procrastination were revealed. The acceptance-based behavioral intervention was most effective for participants who highly valued academics. Clinical implications and future research are discussed. PMID:25688905

  5. An investigation of the efficacy of acceptance-based behavioral therapy for academic procrastination.

    PubMed

    Glick, Debra M; Orsillo, Susan M

    2015-04-01

    Procrastination among college students is both prevalent and troublesome, harming both academic performance and physical health. Unfortunately, no "gold standard" intervention exists. Research suggests that psychological inflexibility may drive procrastination. Accordingly, interventions using acceptance and mindfulness methods to increase psychological flexibility may decrease procrastination. This study compared time management and acceptance-based behavioral interventions. College students' predictions of how much assigned reading they should complete were compared to what they did complete. Procrastination, anxiety, psychological flexibility, and academic values were also measured. Although a trend suggested that time management intervention participants completed more reading, no group differences in procrastination were revealed. The acceptance-based behavioral intervention was most effective for participants who highly valued academics. Clinical implications and future research are discussed.

  6. Mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy and traditional cognitive behavioral group therapy for social anxiety disorder: Mechanisms of change.

    PubMed

    Kocovski, Nancy L; Fleming, Jan E; Hawley, Lance L; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Antony, Martin M

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated mechanisms of change for two group treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD): cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) and mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy (MAGT). Participants were treatment completers (n = 37 for MAGT, n = 32 for CBGT) from a randomized clinical trial. Cognitive reappraisal was the hypothesized mechanism of change for CBGT. Mindfulness and acceptance were hypothesized mechanisms of change for MAGT. Latent difference score (LDS) analysis results demonstrate that cognitive reappraisal coupling (in which cognitive reappraisal is negatively associated with the subsequent rate of change in social anxiety) had a greater impact on social anxiety for CBGT than MAGT. The LDS bidirectional mindfulness model (mindfulness predicts subsequent change in social anxiety; social anxiety predicts subsequent change in mindfulness) was supported for both treatments. Results for acceptance were less clear. Cognitive reappraisal may be a more important mechanism of change for CBGT than MAGT, whereas mindfulness may be an important mechanism of change for both treatments.

  7. Acceptance-based Behavior Therapy for Depression with Psychosis: Results from a Pilot Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Busch, Andrew M.; Wenze, Susan J.; Nowlan, Kathryn; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Miller, Ivan W.

    2015-01-01

    Acceptance-based depression and psychosis therapy (ADAPT), a mindfulness/acceptance-based behavioral activation treatment, showed clinically significant effects in the treatment of depression with psychosis in a previous open trial. The goal of the current study was to further test the feasibility of ADAPT to determine the utility of testing it in a future clinical trial, following a stage model of treatment development. Feasibility was determined by randomizing a small number of patients (N = 13) with comorbid depression and psychosis to medication treatment as usual plus enhanced assessment and monitoring (EAM) versus ADAPT for 4 months of outpatient treatment. Both conditions were deemed acceptable by patients. Differences in between-subjects effect sizes favored ADAPT post-treatment and were in the medium to large range for depression, psychosocial functioning, and experiential avoidance (ie, the target mechanism). Thus ADAPT shows promise for improving outcomes compared to medications alone and requires testing in a fully powered randomized trial. PMID:26352221

  8. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing an Acceptance Based Behavior Therapy to Applied Relaxation for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A.; Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether an empirically and theoretically derived treatment combining mindfulness- and acceptance-based strategies with behavioral approaches would improve outcomes in GAD over an empirically-supported treatment. Method This trial randomized 81 individuals (65.4% female, 80.2% identified as White, average age 32.92) diagnosed with GAD to receive 16 sessions of either an Acceptance Based Behavior Therapy (ABBT) or Applied Relaxation (AR). Assessments at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up included the following primary outcome measures: GAD Clinician Severity Rating, Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Secondary outcomes included the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Quality of Life Inventory, and number of comorbid diagnoses. Results Mixed Effect Regression Models showed significant large effects for Time for all primary outcome measures (d’s 1.36 to 1.61) but non-significant, small effects for Condition and Condition X Time (d’s 0.002 to 0.24), indicating clients in both treatments improved comparably over treatment. For secondary outcomes, Time was significant (d’s 0.74 to 1.38) but Condition and Condition X Time effects were not (d’s 0.11 to 0.31). No significant differences emerged over follow-up (d’s 0.02 to 0.16) indicating maintenance of gains. Between 63.3 and 80.0% of clients in ABBT and 60.6 and 78.8% of clients in AR experienced clinically significant change across 5 calculations of change at post-treatment and follow-up. Conclusions ABBT is a viable alternative for treating GAD. PMID:23647281

  9. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-based Behavior Therapy vs. Traditional Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: Differential Effects on Performance and Verbal Working Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassman, Lisa Hayley

    Individuals with public speaking phobia experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for public speaking phobia focus on the reduction of anxiety and avoidance, but neglect performance. Additionally, very little is known about the relationship between verbal working memory and social performance under conditions of high anxiety. The current study compared the efficacy of two cognitive behavioral treatments, traditional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (tCBT) and acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT), in enhancing public speaking performance via coping with anxiety. Verbal working memory performance, as measured by the backwards digit span (BDS), was measured to explore the relationships between treatment type, anxiety, performance, and verbal working memory. We randomized 30 individuals with high public speaking anxiety to a 90-minute ABBT or tCBT intervention. As this pilot study was underpowered, results are examined in terms of effect sizes as well as statistical significance. Assessments took place at pre and post-intervention and included self-rated and objective anxiety measurements, a behavioral assessment, ABBT and tCBT process measures, and backwards digit span verbal working memory tests. In order to examine verbal working memory during different levels of anxiety and performance pressure, we gave each participant a backwards digit span task three times during each assessment: once under calm conditions, then again while experiencing anticipatory anxiety, and finally under conditions of acute social performance anxiety in front of an audience. Participants were asked to give a video-recorded speech in front of the audience at pre- and post-intervention to examine speech performance. Results indicated that all participants experienced a very large and statistically significant decrease in anxiety (both during the speech and BDS

  10. A Pilot Study Examining the Initial Effectiveness of a Brief Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy for Modifying Diet and Physical Activity among Cardiac Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Christina L.; Forman, Evan M.; Herbert, James D.; Butryn, Meghan L.; Ledley, Gary S.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 90% of cardiac events are attributable to a small number of modifiable behavioral risk factors that, if changed, can greatly decrease morbidity and mortality. However, few at-risk individuals make recommended behavioral changes, including those who receive formal interventions designed to facilitate healthy behavior. Given evidence…

  11. Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: An Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocovski, Nancy L.; Fleming, Jan E.; Rector, Neil A.

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Group Therapy (MAGT) for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is based largely on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes et al., 1999), with enhanced mindfulness mostly from Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT; Segal et al., 2002). The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and initial…

  12. A behavior-analytic account of depression and a case report using acceptance-based procedures

    PubMed Central

    Dougher, Michael J.; Hackbert, Lucianne

    1994-01-01

    Although roughly 6% of the general population is affected by depression at some time during their lifetime, the disorder has been relatively neglected by behavior analysts. The preponderance of research on the etiology and treatment of depression has been conducted by cognitive behavior theorists and biological psychiatrists and psychopharmacologists interested in the biological substrates of depression. These approaches have certainly been useful, but their reliance on cognitive and biological processes and their lack of attention to environment—behavior relations render them unsatisfactory from a behavior-analytic perspective. The purpose of this paper is to provide a behavior-analytic account of depression and to derive from this account several possible treatment interventions. In addition, case material is presented to illustrate an acceptance-based approach with a depressed client. PMID:22478195

  13. An open trial of a new acceptance-based behavioral treatment for major depression with psychotic features.

    PubMed

    Gaudiano, Brandon A; Nowlan, Kathryn; Brown, Lily A; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Miller, Ivan W

    2013-05-01

    Research suggests that cognitive and behavioral therapies produce significant benefits over medications alone in the treatment of severe, nonpsychotic major depression or primary psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. However, previous research has not demonstrated the efficacy of psychotherapy for major depression with psychotic features. In this initial treatment development study, we conducted an open trial of a new behavioral intervention that combines elements of behavioral activation and acceptance and commitment therapy for depression and psychosis. Fourteen patients with major depressive disorder with psychotic features were provided with up to 6 months of Acceptance-Based Depression and Psychosis Therapy (ADAPT) in combination with pharmacotherapy. Patients reported a high degree of treatment credibility and acceptability. Results showed that patients achieved clinically significant and sustained improvements through posttreatment follow-up in depressive and psychotic symptoms, as well as psychosocial functioning. In addition, the processes targeted by the intervention (e.g., acceptance, mindfulness, values) improved significantly over the course of treatment, and changes in processes were correlated with changes in symptoms. Results suggest that ADAPT combined with pharmacotherapy is a promising treatment approach for psychotic depression that should be tested in a future randomized trial. PMID:23223385

  14. An Open Trial of an Acceptance-Based Behavioral Intervention for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Evan M.; Butryn, Meghan L.; Hoffman, Kimberly L.; Herbert, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Innovative approaches are urgently needed to improve behavioral treatment for weight loss. The weight regain that is so common after treatment may be a result of an environment that makes it challenging to adhere, long-term, to a dietary and physical activity regimen. This study was designed to test, via a 12-week open trial, the preliminary…

  15. Acceptance and Mindfulness in Behavior Therapy: A Comparison of Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Alexander L.

    2006-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) are both innovative behavioral treatments that incorporate mindfulness practices and acceptance-based interventions into their treatment packages. Although there are many similarities between these treatments, including the fact that they are part of a newer "wave" in…

  16. An Open Trial of a New Acceptance-Based Behavioral Treatment for Major Depression with Psychotic Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Nowlan, Kathryn; Brown, Lily A.; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Miller, Ivan W.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that cognitive and behavioral therapies produce significant benefits over medications alone in the treatment of severe, nonpsychotic major depression or primary psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. However, previous research has not demonstrated the efficacy of psychotherapy for major depression with psychotic features. In…

  17. Behavior Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and consequences. Give your child a specified reward (positive reinforcement) every time she shows the desired behavior. Give your child a consequence (unwanted result or punishment) consistently when she has ... in a positive way. Most experts recommend using both medication and ...

  18. Behavior Therapy of Impotence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dengrove, Edward

    1971-01-01

    Behavior therapy approaches to the treatment of male sexual impotence, specifically premature ejaculation and erective impotence, are discussed. Included in the behavioral therapies are systematic desensitization, active graded therapy, assertive techniques, sexual responses, operant approaches and others. Often marriage counseling is also…

  19. Behavior therapy in Russia.

    PubMed

    Sukhodolsky, D G; Tsytsarev, S V; Kassinove, H

    1995-06-01

    The development of behavior therapy in Russia is discussed within the context of the evolution of Russian psychology. The pre-revolutionary contributions of Sechenov, Grot, Pavlov, and Bekhterev to the conceptual foundation of behaviorism in Russia are examined. This is followed by a discussion of the marked impact of social and political influences on the development of therapeutic methods from 1917 onward. Major milestones in the development of behavior therapy are examined. Finally, it is noted that the current period of openness provides an expanded opportunity to teach behavior therapy which has so far been limited to major Russian cities.

  20. [Behavior therapy and neurotic behavior].

    PubMed

    Ylieff, M

    1977-01-01

    The first part of the lecture presents three classical aspects of behavior therapy: therapeutic efficiency, utilisation of well defined methods, rapidity of treatment. Emphasis is brought to the importance of behavior analysis and to the dangers arisen from insufficient knowledge or ignorance of learning theories and fundamental principles of behavior analysis. One insists on experimental analysis which is the basis for methods of action having as consequence for the therapeut: controlling strategy of treatment and direct responsibility concerning success and failure. Then, actual limitations of behaviour therapy are described. The second part deals with one of the most important working hypothesis on human neurosis originating from laboratory and clinical research. Behavior therapy refuses to elaborate hypothetical deductive constructions, unless working hypotheses to be verified. Then the four essential clues to behavioural psychotherapy are formulated. The main methods of action presently utilized are presented: aversive methods, operational and systematic desensitization technics through reciprocal inhibition. Finally, some of the main criticism usually made on behaviour therapy are being discussed.

  1. Research in Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.; And Others

    This series of papers was presented in a symposium on behavior therapy. Each paper represents a separate study focusing on one aspect of behavior modification. The issue of reinforcement is prominant with regard to its type and source. Methods of self-reinforcement and older-peer modeling are studied. The suggestion that subjects who reinforce…

  2. Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) versus Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for Mixed Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arch, Joanna J.; Eifert, Georg H.; Davies, Carolyn; Vilardaga, Jennifer C. Plumb; Rose, Raphael D.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Randomized comparisons of acceptance-based treatments with traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders are lacking. To address this gap, we compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) to CBT for heterogeneous anxiety disorders. Method: One hundred twenty-eight individuals (52% female, mean age = 38, 33%…

  3. Cosmetic Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, W. Paul

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the theoretical and practical applications of cosmetic behavior therapy in a private practice. Enhancement of physical appearance will frequently result in an enhancement of self-concept, and the client's attainment of physical attractiveness contributes to the probability of success in current culture. (Author/JAC)

  4. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-Based Behavioral Treatment Versus Traditional Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Public Speaking Anxiety: An Exploratory Trial Examining Differential Effects on Performance and Neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Lisa H; Forman, Evan M; Herbert, James D; Bradley, Lauren E; Foster, Elizabeth E; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Ruocco, Anthony C

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with public speaking anxiety (PSA) experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for PSA emphasize anxiety reduction rather than enhancing behavioral performance. We compared the efficacy of two brief cognitive-behavioral interventions, a traditional cognitive-behavior treatment (tCBT) and an acceptance-based behavior treatment (ABBT), on public speaking performance and anxiety in a clinical sample of persons with PSA. The effects of treatment on prefrontal brain activation were also examined. Participants (n = 21) were randomized to 90 min of an ABBT or a tCBT intervention. Assessments took place at pre- and post-treatment and included self-rated anxiety and observer-rated performance measures, a behavioral assessment, and prefrontal cortical activity measurements using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Exploratory results indicated that participants in the ABBT condition experienced greater improvements in observer-rated performance relative to those in the tCBT condition, while those in the tCBT condition experienced greater reductions in subjective anxiety levels. Individuals in the ABBT condition also exhibited a trend toward greater treatment-related reductions in blood volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to those who received tCBT. Overall, these findings preliminarily suggest that acceptance-based treatments may free more cognitive resources in comparison with tCBT, possibly resulting in greater improvements in objectively rated behavioral performances for ABBT interventions. PMID:26872958

  5. The Effects of a Brief Acceptance-Based Behavioral Treatment Versus Traditional Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Public Speaking Anxiety: An Exploratory Trial Examining Differential Effects on Performance and Neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Lisa H; Forman, Evan M; Herbert, James D; Bradley, Lauren E; Foster, Elizabeth E; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Ruocco, Anthony C

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with public speaking anxiety (PSA) experience fear and avoidance that can cause extreme distress, impaired speaking performance, and associated problems in psychosocial functioning. Most extant interventions for PSA emphasize anxiety reduction rather than enhancing behavioral performance. We compared the efficacy of two brief cognitive-behavioral interventions, a traditional cognitive-behavior treatment (tCBT) and an acceptance-based behavior treatment (ABBT), on public speaking performance and anxiety in a clinical sample of persons with PSA. The effects of treatment on prefrontal brain activation were also examined. Participants (n = 21) were randomized to 90 min of an ABBT or a tCBT intervention. Assessments took place at pre- and post-treatment and included self-rated anxiety and observer-rated performance measures, a behavioral assessment, and prefrontal cortical activity measurements using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Exploratory results indicated that participants in the ABBT condition experienced greater improvements in observer-rated performance relative to those in the tCBT condition, while those in the tCBT condition experienced greater reductions in subjective anxiety levels. Individuals in the ABBT condition also exhibited a trend toward greater treatment-related reductions in blood volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to those who received tCBT. Overall, these findings preliminarily suggest that acceptance-based treatments may free more cognitive resources in comparison with tCBT, possibly resulting in greater improvements in objectively rated behavioral performances for ABBT interventions.

  6. Indian contribution to behavior therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, K.

    2010-01-01

    Publication of papers related to psycho-social interventions in general and Behavior Therapy, in particular, in Indian Journal of Psychiatry has been limited. Though the first paper related to Behavior Therapy was published in 1952, a manual search of all available issues of the journal from 1949 showed that only 42 papers related to Behavior Therapy have been published till 2009. Among them 10 are case reports. Methodological limitations abound even in the papers on larger groups of patients. Studies using operant conditioning have been very few. Aversion therapy and progressive muscle relaxation have been very frequently used. The published articles are reviewed under the various diagnostic categories. Publications in the recent years have been mostly on Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Even after 57 years of co-existence, the relationship between Behavior Therapy and Indian Psychiatry remains a tenuous one. PMID:21836708

  7. [Behavior therapy in sexual deviation].

    PubMed

    Schmieschek, H

    1977-12-01

    The author, after discussing theoretical aspects of the development and treatment of sexual deviations, describes methods of behavior therapy which when used in combination and by experienced clinicians will yield promising results. In addition, a number of cases are reported, and these indicate some special problems associated with the therapy of sexual deviations.

  8. Behavioral Therapy Across the Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2011-01-01

    Numerous effective behavioral therapies have been developed that can bring the treatment to the patient rather than bringing the patient to treatment. These behavioral therapy techniques, which can provide effective treatment across the spectrum of severity of alcohol abuse disorders, include facilitated self-change, individual therapies, couples and family approaches, and contingency management. New methods of delivery and successful adjuncts to existing behavioral treatments also have been introduced, including computerized cognitive–behavioral treatments, Web-based guided self-change, and mindfulness-based approaches. Although a wide variety of behavioral approaches have been shown to have good efficacy, choosing the treatment most appropriate for a given patient remains a challenge. PMID:23580016

  9. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Enhancement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sarah S; Schoenfelder, Erin; Hsiao, Ray Chih-Jui

    2016-10-01

    Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is widely recognized as the preferred treatment of psychiatric disorders, less is known about the application of CBT to substance use disorders, particularly in adolescence. This article discusses how CBT conceptualizes substance use and how it is implemented as a treatment of adolescent substance abuse. The article draws on several manuals for CBT that implement it as a standalone treatment or in combination with motivational enhancement therapies. Also reviewed are several studies that examined the efficacy of CBT. Finally, the implications are discussed. Numerous starting resources are provided to help a clinician implement CBT.

  10. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Enhancement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sarah S; Schoenfelder, Erin; Hsiao, Ray Chih-Jui

    2016-10-01

    Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is widely recognized as the preferred treatment of psychiatric disorders, less is known about the application of CBT to substance use disorders, particularly in adolescence. This article discusses how CBT conceptualizes substance use and how it is implemented as a treatment of adolescent substance abuse. The article draws on several manuals for CBT that implement it as a standalone treatment or in combination with motivational enhancement therapies. Also reviewed are several studies that examined the efficacy of CBT. Finally, the implications are discussed. Numerous starting resources are provided to help a clinician implement CBT. PMID:27613342

  11. Behavioral therapy for chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Pistoia, Francesca; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Chronic migraine is a disabling condition which affects a considerable proportion of patients. Several risk factors and lifestyle habits contribute to the transformation of migraine into a chronic form. Behavioral treatments, including relaxation, biofeedback, and cognitive behavioral therapy reduce the risk of episodic into chronic migraine transformation, thus restraining the headache-related disability. The rationale of behavioral therapies is that a medical problem should be recognized and thoroughly examined by the patient to be successfully managed. Being aware of factors which precipitate or aggravate migraine allows patients to progressively modulate the frequency and duration of their attacks. Similarly, the acquisition of healthy habits improves the quality of life and the subjective well-being of patients and contributes to breaking the vicious cycle that leads to migraine chronification. The highest level of care is achieved when behavioral therapies are integrated with other treatments, including physical and pharmacological interventions.

  12. [Behavior therapy in older adults].

    PubMed

    Junkers, G

    1981-01-01

    Behavior therapy has up to now, only been applied to a limited degree to elderly people. Operant learning paradigma receive special meaning within the framework of intervention as well as theoretical explanation. Publications will be presented for the areas of social behavior, self care, motoric ability etc. according to their different techniques. It is remarkable that interest has only focused institutionalized elderly people with a high degree of incapacitation. In the following discussion the necessity for stronger consideration of the newer behavioral approach as well the latest developments in gerontology will be made clear. PMID:7222914

  13. [Behavior therapy in older adults].

    PubMed

    Junkers, G

    1981-01-01

    Behavior therapy has up to now, only been applied to a limited degree to elderly people. Operant learning paradigma receive special meaning within the framework of intervention as well as theoretical explanation. Publications will be presented for the areas of social behavior, self care, motoric ability etc. according to their different techniques. It is remarkable that interest has only focused institutionalized elderly people with a high degree of incapacitation. In the following discussion the necessity for stronger consideration of the newer behavioral approach as well the latest developments in gerontology will be made clear.

  14. Mentalization and Dialectical Behavior Therapy.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Charles R; Choi-Kain, Lois W

    2015-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and Mentalization-Based Treatment (MBT) are two approaches to the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). While DBT has the most empirical support, MBT has a small but significant evidence base. Dialectical behavior therapy synthesizes behaviorism, mindfulness, and dialectics, while MBT is conceptually anchored in psychoanalysis, attachment theory, cognitive neuroscience, and developmental psychopathology. While coming from strikingly different orientations, DBT and MBT therapists share more interventions and stances than one might suppose. The central purported active ingredient of MBT is the capacity to mentalize, which is crucial for the formation of secure attachment, and this ability is thought to be weak and unstable in individuals with borderline personality disorder. This article explores the question of whether or not mentalizing is already present in DBT practice, whether it would be compatible with DBT conceptually and practically, and whether a focus on mentalizing would be of use to the DBT therapists and their patients. PMID:26160623

  15. Mentalization and Dialectical Behavior Therapy.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Charles R; Choi-Kain, Lois W

    2015-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and Mentalization-Based Treatment (MBT) are two approaches to the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). While DBT has the most empirical support, MBT has a small but significant evidence base. Dialectical behavior therapy synthesizes behaviorism, mindfulness, and dialectics, while MBT is conceptually anchored in psychoanalysis, attachment theory, cognitive neuroscience, and developmental psychopathology. While coming from strikingly different orientations, DBT and MBT therapists share more interventions and stances than one might suppose. The central purported active ingredient of MBT is the capacity to mentalize, which is crucial for the formation of secure attachment, and this ability is thought to be weak and unstable in individuals with borderline personality disorder. This article explores the question of whether or not mentalizing is already present in DBT practice, whether it would be compatible with DBT conceptually and practically, and whether a focus on mentalizing would be of use to the DBT therapists and their patients.

  16. Pavlov and the foundation of behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Plaud, Joseph J

    2003-11-01

    The foundation, achievements, and proliferation of behavior therapy have largely been fueled by the movement's foundation in behavioral principles and theories. Although behavioral accounts of the genesis and treatment of psychopathology differ in the extent to which they emphasize classical or operant conditioning, the mediation of cognitive factors, and the role of biological variables, Pavlov's discovery of conditioning principles was essential to the founding of behavior therapy in the 1950s, and continues to be central to modern behavior therapy. Pavlov's reliance on a physiological model of the nervous system, sensible in the context of an early science of neurology, has had an implication for behavior therapists interested in the study of personality types. However, Pavlov's major legacy to behavior therapy was his discovery of "experimental neuroses," shown by his students Eroféeva and Shenger-Krestovnikova, to be produced and eliminated through the principles of conditioning and counter-conditioning. This discovery laid the foundation for the first empirically-validated behavior therapy procedure, systematic desensitization, pioneered by Wolpe. The Pavlovian origins of behavior therapy are analyzed in this paper, and the relevance of conditioning principles to modern behavior therapy is demonstrated. It is shown that Pavlovian conditioning represents far more than a systematic basic learning paradigm. It is also an essential theoretical foundation for the theory and practice of behavior therapy. PMID:14628701

  17. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program that combines motivational incentives with cognitive-behavioral ...

  18. Cognitive-behavioral therapies for personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Rafaeli, Eshkol

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been strongly identified as a time-limited treatment approach for Axis-I disorders, but CBT models for addressing personality disorders - enduring patterns of relational and emotional difficulties - are gaining greater attention. This review touches on three influential models: Beck's cognitive therapy (CT), Young's schema focused therapy (SFT), and Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), presenting the rationale for their development, main theoretical components, and a brief discussion of their goals and means, along with a review of the growing evidence base supporting their effectiveness. The need for integrative models for treatment of this population is noted.

  19. Dialectical Behavior Therapy with Suicidal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alec L.; Rathus, Jill H.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2006-01-01

    Filling a tremendous need, this highly practical book adapts the proven techniques of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) to treatment of multiproblem adolescents at highest risk for suicidal behavior and self-injury. The authors are master clinicians who take the reader step by step through understanding and assessing severe emotional…

  20. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Humanism in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Larry K.

    1996-01-01

    Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)

  1. Behavior Analysis of Forgiveness in Couples Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordova, James; Cautilli, Joseph; Simon, Corrina; Sabag, Robin Axelrod

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral couples' therapy has a long history of success with couples and is an empirically validated treatment for marital discord (Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures, 1995). However, only about 50% of all couples in treatment experience long-term change (2 years). One of the founders of behavioral couples'…

  2. Cognitive behavioral therapy for suicidal behaviors: improving patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mewton, Louise; Andrews, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing suicidal cognitions and behavior in the adult population. We identified 15 randomized controlled trials of CBT for adults (aged 18 years and older) that included suicide-related cognitions or behaviors as an outcome measure. The studies were identified from PsycINFO searches, reference lists, and a publicly available database of psychosocial interventions for suicidal behaviors. This review identified some evidence of the use of CBT in the reduction of both suicidal cognitions and behaviors. There was not enough evidence from clinical trials to suggest that CBT focusing on mental illness reduces suicidal cognitions and behaviors. On the other hand, CBT focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors was found to be effective. Given the current evidence, clinicians should be trained in CBT techniques focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors that are independent of the treatment of mental illness. PMID:27042148

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia: Comparison of Individual Therapy, Group Therapy, and Telephone Consultations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastien, Celyne H.; Morin, Charles M.; Ouellet, Marie-Christine; Blais, France C.; Bouchard, Sebastien

    2004-01-01

    Forty-five adults with primary insomnia received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) implemented in a group therapy format, in individual face-to-face therapy or through brief individual telephone consultations. The results indicate that CBT was effective in improving sleep parameters with all 3 methods of treatment implementation, and there was no…

  4. [Cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders].

    PubMed

    Sakano, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary to take the psychological characteristics of anxiety into account when we consider the improvement of anxiety. Anxiety is generally observed basic emotion in human and never extinguishable. Therefore, it is important for patients with anxiety disorders to learn how to manage their daily anxious responses, even after their pathological anxiety is successfully treated and improved. Considering these points, comprehensive psychological treatment, including not only effective intervention to pathological anxiety but also anxiety management program, is needed in treating anxiety disorders effectively. Reviewing previous studies on effectiveness of psychotherapy for anxiety disorders shows that the cognitive behavior therapy is the most effective intervention in terms of extinction of pathological anxiety, prolonged effectiveness of the treatment, prognosis, prevention of recurrence, and improvement of patients' quality of life. In this article, firstly, basic conceptualization and case formulation of anxiety disorders are discussed theoretically. Secondly, effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, general anxiety disorder, and specific phobia, is reviewed. And finally, challenges of cognitive behavior therapy are discussed in terms of further development and dissemination of cognitive behavior therapy in Japan. PMID:23198598

  5. Treatment Failure in Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Shireen L.

    2011-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has become a widely used treatment model for individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and other individuals with significant emotion dysregulation problems. Despite its strong empirical support, DBT obviously does not have positive outcomes for all individuals. It is critical that cases of DBT…

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Ammerman, Yola; Bohl, Jaime; Doersch, Anne; Gay, Heather; Kadden, Ronald; Molina, Cheryl; Steinberg, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated efficacy of psychotherapies for pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (N = 231) were randomly assigned to (a) referral to Gamblers Anonymous (GA), (b) GA referral plus a cognitive-behavioral (CB) workbook, or (c) GA referral plus 8 sessions of individual CB therapy. Gambling and related problems were assessed…

  7. [Practice of Behavioral Activation in Cognitive-behavioral Therapy].

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Nobuki

    2015-01-01

    An approach focusing on behavioral activation (BA) was adopted in the cognitive therapy of A. T. Beck, and it came to be considered that BA can play an important role in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Therefore, in recent years, BA based on clinical behavior analysis has been developed as a new treatment (Martell, et al.). The core characteristics are as follows: 1) focusing attention on context in daily life to promote the behavior control of patients and avoidance of a hatred experience ; 2) breaking the vicious circle; 3) promoting the behavior according to the purpose that the patients originally expect; 4) recognizing a relationship between behavior and the situation (contingency), thereby recovering self-efficacy tied to the long-term results that one originally expects. This does not increase pleasant activity at random when the patient is inactive, or give a sense of accomplishment. We know that depression is maintained by conducting functional analysis of detailed life behavior, and encourage the patients to have healthy behavior according to individual values. We help them to complete schedules regardless of mood and reflect on the results patiently. It is considered that those processes are important. BA may be easy to apply in clinical practice and effective for the chronic cases, or the patients in a convalescent stage. Also, in principle in the CBT for major depression, it may be effective that behavioral activation is provided in an early stage, and cognitive reconstruction in a latter stage. However, an approach to carry out functional analysis by small steps with careful activity monitoring is essential when the symptoms are severe. Furthermore, it should be considered that the way of psychoeducation requires caution because we encourage rest in the treatment of depression in our country. In particular, we must be careful not to take an attitude that an inactive behavior pattern is unproductive only based model cases.

  8. [Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia].

    PubMed

    Yamadera, Wataru

    2015-06-01

    Insomnia is very common in older adults, but is generally related to medical and psychiatric illness, medication, circadian rhythm change. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia(CBT-I) is a brief, sleep-focused, multimodal intervention by psychological and behavioral procedures. The most common approach includes a behavioral (sleep restriction, stimulus control, relaxation) component combined cognitive and educational (cognitive strategies, sleep hygiene education) component. CBT-I has adequate evidence from clinical trials to support the management of insomnia. CBT-I has proved successful for older adults with primary and comorbid insomnia and for those with dependency on hypnotics. Proper treatment of insomnia is effective and can improve overall physical and mental health and quality of life in the elderly patient. PMID:26065131

  9. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fassbinder, Eva; Schweiger, Ulrich; Martius, Desiree; Brand-de Wilde, Odette; Arntz, Arnoud

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross' process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness) are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g., lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect). These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogs and imagery rescripting.

  10. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fassbinder, Eva; Schweiger, Ulrich; Martius, Desiree; Brand-de Wilde, Odette; Arntz, Arnoud

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross' process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness) are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g., lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect). These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogs and imagery rescripting. PMID:27683567

  11. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fassbinder, Eva; Schweiger, Ulrich; Martius, Desiree; Brand-de Wilde, Odette; Arntz, Arnoud

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross' process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness) are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g., lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect). These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogs and imagery rescripting. PMID:27683567

  12. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fassbinder, Eva; Schweiger, Ulrich; Martius, Desiree; Brand-de Wilde, Odette; Arntz, Arnoud

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross' process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness) are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g., lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect). These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogs and imagery rescripting.

  13. Behavioral and psychodynamic dimensions of the new sex therapy.

    PubMed

    Sollod, R N

    1975-01-01

    The new sexual therapy, a brief outpatient treatment of sexual dysfunction consisting of structured sexual exercises and conjoint therapeutic sessions, is a systematic intergration of behavioral and psychodynamic elements. Formally consisting of many defining characteristics of a behavior therapy including the direct treatment of a specified problem and the application of behavioral principles, the new sex therapy also relies on psychodynamic understanding. The result is synergistic. Psychodynamic understanding underlies appropriate behavioral intervention, and psychodynamic exploration of resistance enhances the effectiveness of behavioral methods. Behavioral techniques facilitate the most rapid implementation of therapeutic insight. The integration of approaches in the new sex therapy has general significance for psychotherapeutic theory and practice.

  14. [Cognitive-behavioral therapy of conversion aphonia].

    PubMed

    Kuljić, Blagoje

    2004-01-01

    Although a common disease, conversion disorder still calls attention in the clinical practice. A case of conversion disorder, diagnosed as a psychogenic aphonia that persisted for a week, was reported in this paper. A 21-year-old woman developed symptoms after breaking off a long-lasting relationship with her boy-friend. History revealed that she was introvert with high neuroticism and communication problems. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was used. After the positive reinforcement in the therapy of her aphonia, assertion training for the development of communication skills was performed. In the end, cognitive restructuring was used to prevent relapse in regard to her actual life situation of being a refugee preparing for immigration to Australia. PMID:15717733

  15. Augmentation of cognitive behavioral therapy with pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ganasen, K A; Ipser, J C; Stein, D J

    2010-09-01

    There has long been interest in combining pharmacotherapy with psychotherapy, including cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). More recently, basic research on fear extinction has led to interest in augmentation of CBT with the N-methyl Daspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) for anxiety disorders. In this article, the literature on clinical trials that have combined pharmacotherapy and CBT is briefly reviewed, focusing particularly on the anxiety disorders. The literature on CBT and DCS is then systematically reviewed. A series of randomized placebo-controlled trials on panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia suggest that low dose DCS before therapy sessions may be more effective compared with CBT alone in certain anxiety disorders. The strong translational foundation of this work is compelling, and the positive preliminary data gathered so far encourage further work. Issues for future research include delineating optimal dosing, and demonstrating effectiveness in real-world settings.

  16. The Behavior-Analytic Origins of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: An Example of Behavioral Neurorehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Constraint-induced (CI) therapy is a term given to a family of efficacious neurorehabilitation treatments including to date: upper extremity CI movement therapy, lower extremity CI movement therapy, pediatric CI therapy, and CI aphasia therapy. The purpose of this article is to outline the behavior analysis origins of CI therapy and the ways in…

  17. Cognitive behavioral therapy for substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    McHugh, R Kathryn; Hearon, Bridget A; Otto, Michael W

    2010-09-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders has shown efficacy as a monotherapy and as part of combination treatment strategies. This article provides a review of the evidence supporting the use of CBT, clinical elements of its application, novel treatment strategies for improving treatment response, and dissemination efforts. Although CBT for substance abuse is characterized by heterogeneous treatment elements such as operant learning strategies, cognitive and motivational elements, and skills-building interventions, across protocols several core elements emerge that focus on overcoming the powerfully reinforcing effects of psychoactive substances. These elements, and support for their efficacy, are discussed.

  18. Clinical errors in cognitive-behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ha; Hollon, Steven D; Olatunji, Bunmi O

    2016-09-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be highly effective for a wide range of disorders, many patients do not benefit. The failure to fully benefit from CBT may be due to a wide range of factors, one of which includes "clinical errors" that often occur during the therapeutic process. We briefly note 4 such clinical errors including neglecting to conduct a detailed functional analysis of the presenting problem(s), not adequately engaging the patient in developing a case formulation for the purposes of treatment planning, getting wrapped up in simply examining beliefs without behavioral tests, and not holding patients accountable for fear of rupturing the therapeutic alliance. We then discuss the context in which these clinical errors may occur during CBT and highlight alternative approaches. Being mindful of these and other potential clinical errors during CBT may facilitate better treatment outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27505455

  19. Clinical errors in cognitive-behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ha; Hollon, Steven D; Olatunji, Bunmi O

    2016-09-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be highly effective for a wide range of disorders, many patients do not benefit. The failure to fully benefit from CBT may be due to a wide range of factors, one of which includes "clinical errors" that often occur during the therapeutic process. We briefly note 4 such clinical errors including neglecting to conduct a detailed functional analysis of the presenting problem(s), not adequately engaging the patient in developing a case formulation for the purposes of treatment planning, getting wrapped up in simply examining beliefs without behavioral tests, and not holding patients accountable for fear of rupturing the therapeutic alliance. We then discuss the context in which these clinical errors may occur during CBT and highlight alternative approaches. Being mindful of these and other potential clinical errors during CBT may facilitate better treatment outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Behavioral and pharmacologic therapies for obesity

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, Marion L.; Faulconbridge, Lucy F.; Webb, Victoria L.; Wadden, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews novel developments in the behavioral and pharmacologic treatment of obesity and explores the potential contribution of genomics research to weight control. A comprehensive program of lifestyle modification, comprised of diet, physical activity and behavior therapy, induces a mean loss of 7–10% of initial weight in individuals with obesity. Two trials demonstrated that weight loss of this magnitude, combined with increased physical activity, substantially reduced the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. A third trial is now investigating whether a lifestyle intervention will reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in overweight individuals who already have diabetes mellitus. Pharmacotherapy is recommended, in some patients, as an adjunct to lifestyle modification. Two medications—orlistat and sibutramine—are currently approved in the US for long-term weight loss. Both are efficacious when combined with lifestyle modification, although health concerns have been raised about the use of sibutramine. Several novel combination therapies, which target multiple hypothalamic pathways that regulate appetite and body weight, are currently under investigation. Genomic studies provide further evidence for the role of these pathways in the regulation of body weight. Identification of new genes controlling satiety and energy expenditure may yield valuable clues for the development of novel pharmacologic treatments. PMID:20680034

  1. The Humanism of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Other Cognitive Behavior Therapies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Albert

    1996-01-01

    Describes aspects of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT). REBT shows how people can both create and uncreate many of their emotional disturbances. It is a theory of personality which avoids devotion to any kind of magic and supernaturalism and emphasizes unconditional self-acceptance, antiabsolutism, uncertainty, and human fallibility. (RJM)

  2. Behavior Therapy versus Psychoanalysis: Therapeutic and Social Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolpe, Joseph

    1981-01-01

    That psychoanalytic theory has not been displaced by the behavioral theory of neurosis is remarkable in view of the persuasive evidence that exists for the efficacy of behavior therapy. One reason for this seems to be the persistence of widespread misperceptions of behavior therapy. (Author)

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for HIV Medication Adherence and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safren, Steven A.; Hendriksen, Ellen S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Pickard, Robert; Otto, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    For patients with HIV, depression is a common, distressing condition that can interfere with a critical self-care behavior--adherence to antiretroviral therapy. The present study describes a cognitive-behavioral treatment designed to integrate cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression with our previously tested approach to improving adherence to…

  4. Pathway to Efficacy: Recognizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as an Underlying Theory for Adventure Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Mark C.

    2003-01-01

    Adventure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy share elements, including transformation of distorted thinking patterns, a focus on current and future functioning, consideration of the counselor-client relationship, and the use of stress in the change process. Recognizing cognitive behavioral therapy as an empirically sound theory underlying…

  5. Transitional Probability Analysis of Two Child Behavior Analytic Therapy Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xavier, Rodrigo Nunes; Kanter, Jonathan William; Meyer, Sonia Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to highlight the process of therapist direct contingent responding to shape client behavior in two Child Behavior Analytic Therapy (CBAT) cases using transitional probabilities. The Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Rating Scale (FAPRS) was used to code client behaviors and the Multidimensional System for Coding Behaviors in…

  6. Teaching Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Undergraduate Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Tracey Ellen; Blau, Shawn; Grozeva, Dima

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an experimental undergraduate psychology course that ran for two semesters during the 2009 academic year at a private, urban university in the United States. Students learned the techniques and strategies of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) with a focus on the practical elements…

  7. Application of Cognitive Behavioral Therapies for Comorbid Insomnia and Depression.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    This article provides an overview of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia and depression. Included is a discussion of how CBT for insomnia affects depression symptoms and how CBT for depression affects insomnia symptoms. The extant literature is reviewed on ways that depression/insomnia comorbidity moderates CBT response. The article concludes with an introduction to cognitive behavioral social rhythm therapy, a group therapy that integrates tenets of CBT for both disorders.

  8. Alcohol-Focused Behavioral Couple Therapy.

    PubMed

    McCrady, Barbara S; Wilson, Adam D; Muñoz, Rosa E; Fink, Brandi C; Fokas, Kathryn; Borders, Adrienne

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy (ABCT) has emerged over the last 30 years as a highly efficacious treatment for those with alcohol use disorders. This review highlights the historical and conceptual underpinnings of ABCT, as well as the specific treatment elements and structure. Proposed active ingredients, moderators, and mediators of treatment outcome are discussed. Efficacy is evaluated for reductions in identified patient drinking, improved relationship functioning, and reductions in intimate partner violence. Adaptations of ABCT for substances other than alcohol are described. Other adaptations, including brief interventions, interventions addressing PTSD and TBI along with alcohol use, and interventions deliverable via technology platforms are described. Additional cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness findings supporting the economic value of ABCT are noted. Future directions for research in this area include possible adaptations for female identified patients, nontraditional couples, LGBT partners and dyads involving nonintimate partner relationships. The development of more flexible models and enhanced dissemination strategies may improve clinical uptake and utility as well as increasing the feasibility of this treatment for integrated healthcare settings. PMID:27369809

  9. Alcohol-Focused Behavioral Couple Therapy.

    PubMed

    McCrady, Barbara S; Wilson, Adam D; Muñoz, Rosa E; Fink, Brandi C; Fokas, Kathryn; Borders, Adrienne

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy (ABCT) has emerged over the last 30 years as a highly efficacious treatment for those with alcohol use disorders. This review highlights the historical and conceptual underpinnings of ABCT, as well as the specific treatment elements and structure. Proposed active ingredients, moderators, and mediators of treatment outcome are discussed. Efficacy is evaluated for reductions in identified patient drinking, improved relationship functioning, and reductions in intimate partner violence. Adaptations of ABCT for substances other than alcohol are described. Other adaptations, including brief interventions, interventions addressing PTSD and TBI along with alcohol use, and interventions deliverable via technology platforms are described. Additional cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness findings supporting the economic value of ABCT are noted. Future directions for research in this area include possible adaptations for female identified patients, nontraditional couples, LGBT partners and dyads involving nonintimate partner relationships. The development of more flexible models and enhanced dissemination strategies may improve clinical uptake and utility as well as increasing the feasibility of this treatment for integrated healthcare settings.

  10. Behavioral disorders, learning disabilities and megavitamin therapy.

    PubMed

    LaPerchia, P

    1987-01-01

    During the 1970s, vitamins and vitamin therapy became household words. Vitamin therapy, better known as "orthomolecular psychiatry," is both appealing and very popular. The question that must be asked is: Does this popularity and appeal validate this form of therapy? This paper presents findings from various sources that give results of research in megavitamin nutritional therapy. The following categories are examined: learning disabilities in general, schizophrenia, autism, mental retardation and Down's syndrome, and hyperkinesis. PMID:2963502

  11. The Missing Psychological Behaviorism Chapter in "A History of the Behavioral Therapies."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staats, Arthur W.

    2003-01-01

    "A History of the Behavioral Therapies" (O'Donohue, et al., 2001) contains no description of psychological behaviorism (PB) and the role it played as one of the foundations of behavior therapy. This article indicates some of the contributions made by PB that make the missing chapter and related phenomena a major aberration in science. (Contains 39…

  12. Behavioral Disorders, Learning Disabilities and Megavitamin Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPerchia, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Presents findings from several sources that give results of research in megavitamin nutritional therapy. Examines vitamin therapy in learning disabilities in general, schizophrenia, autism, mental retardation and Down's syndrome, and hyperkinesis. Concludes that holistic approach to treatment is needed and that vitamin therapy, if proven…

  13. Cognitive behavioral therapy for back pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... cognitive behavioral; Pain - back - chronic - cognitive behavioral; Chronic back pain - low - cognitive behavioral ... Assendelft WJ, Main CJ. Behavioural treatment for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2010;(7). PMID: 20614428 ...

  14. Structured dyadic behavior therapy processes for ADHD intervention.

    PubMed

    Curtis, David F

    2014-03-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) present significant problems with behavioral disinhibition that often negatively affect their peer relationships. Although behavior therapies for ADHD have traditionally aimed to help parents and teachers better manage children's ADHD-related behaviors, therapy processes seldom use peer relationships to implement evidence-based behavioral principles. This article introduces Structured Dyadic Behavior Therapy as a milieu for introducing effective behavioral techniques within a socially meaningful context. Establishing collaborative behavioral goals, benchmarking, and redirection strategies are discussed to highlight how in-session dyadic processes can be used to promote more meaningful reinforcement and change for children with ADHD. Implications for improving patient care, access to care, and therapist training are also discussed.

  15. Emerging Approaches to Counseling Intervention: Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neacsiu, Andrada D.; Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2012-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is a comprehensive, multimodal cognitive behavioral treatment originally developed for individuals who met criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) who displayed suicidal tendencies. DBT is based on behavioral theory but also includes principles of acceptance, mindfulness, and validation. Since its…

  16. Jogging the Cogs: Trauma-Focused Art Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Sexually Abused Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifalo, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Art therapy in conjunction with cognitive behavioral therapy reduces symptoms and enhances the potential for positive outcomes for sexually abused children in trauma-focused treatment. This article presents a treatment model that utilizes specific art therapy interventions to facilitate treatment, based on research on the effectiveness of combined…

  17. [Cognitive behavior therapy in eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Tölgyes, Tamás; Unoka, Zsolt

    2009-01-01

    Author's aim is to give a comprehensive review of the behavioural and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapeutic development in the treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, on the base of the literature as well as on own clinical experiences. Behavioural therapies, currently applied as part of integrative therapies mainly, will be shown, and theoretical background and techniques of classical cognitive behavioural therapy of anorexia and bulimia nervosa will be shortly summarized. Theory and therapeutic techniques of the schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, applied in the treatment of eating disorders more frequently in the last few years, will be made acquainted in details. Indications and contraindications of classic cognitive behavioural therapy and schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy in eating disorders will be discussed. Stress will be laid on the fact, that schema-focused cognitive behaviour therapy is to be chosen mostly in the cases where comorbid dissociation, personality disorder, very low self-esteem or traumatic history diminishes the applicability of traditional cognitive behavioural therapy. Authors emphasize the importance of further controlled efficacy studies in the field of schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, to define the indication fields regarding different subgroups of eating disorders.

  18. Change in Dysfunctional Beliefs About Sleep in Behavior Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Eidelman, Polina; Talbot, Lisa; Ivers, Hans; Bélanger, Lynda; Morin, Charles M; Harvey, Allison G

    2016-01-01

    As part of a larger randomized controlled trial, 188 participants were randomized to behavior therapy (BT), cognitive therapy (CT), or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. The aims of this study were threefold: (a) to determine whether change in dysfunctional beliefs about sleep was related to change in sleep, insomnia symptoms, and impairment following treatment; (b) to determine whether BT, CT, and CBT differ in their effects on dysfunctional beliefs; and (c) to determine whether the treatments differ in their effects on particular kinds of dysfunctional beliefs. Beliefs, sleep, insomnia symptoms, and sleep-related psychosocial impairment were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-up. Greater change in dysfunctional beliefs occurring over the course of BT, CT, or CBT was associated with greater improvement in insomnia symptoms and impairment at posttreatment and both follow-ups. All groups experienced a significant decrease in dysfunctional beliefs during treatment, which were sustained through 6- and 12-month follow-up. Compared with the BT group, a greater proportion of participants in the CT and/or CBT groups endorsed dysfunctional beliefs below a level considered clinically significant at posttreatment and 12-month follow-up. The results demonstrate the importance of targeting dysfunctional beliefs in insomnia treatment, suggest that beliefs may be significantly modified with BT alone, and indicate that cognitive interventions may be particularly powerful in enhancing belief change.

  19. Change in Dysfunctional Beliefs About Sleep in Behavior Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Eidelman, Polina; Talbot, Lisa; Ivers, Hans; Bélanger, Lynda; Morin, Charles M; Harvey, Allison G

    2016-01-01

    As part of a larger randomized controlled trial, 188 participants were randomized to behavior therapy (BT), cognitive therapy (CT), or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. The aims of this study were threefold: (a) to determine whether change in dysfunctional beliefs about sleep was related to change in sleep, insomnia symptoms, and impairment following treatment; (b) to determine whether BT, CT, and CBT differ in their effects on dysfunctional beliefs; and (c) to determine whether the treatments differ in their effects on particular kinds of dysfunctional beliefs. Beliefs, sleep, insomnia symptoms, and sleep-related psychosocial impairment were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-up. Greater change in dysfunctional beliefs occurring over the course of BT, CT, or CBT was associated with greater improvement in insomnia symptoms and impairment at posttreatment and both follow-ups. All groups experienced a significant decrease in dysfunctional beliefs during treatment, which were sustained through 6- and 12-month follow-up. Compared with the BT group, a greater proportion of participants in the CT and/or CBT groups endorsed dysfunctional beliefs below a level considered clinically significant at posttreatment and 12-month follow-up. The results demonstrate the importance of targeting dysfunctional beliefs in insomnia treatment, suggest that beliefs may be significantly modified with BT alone, and indicate that cognitive interventions may be particularly powerful in enhancing belief change. PMID:26763501

  20. Improving Mealtime Behaviors of a Multihandicapped Child Using Behavior Therapy Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, L. A.; Dixon, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Inappropriate mealtime behaviors of a blind, mentally retarded, behaviorally disordered 10-year-old were modified via behavior therapy techniques, including audiotape of favorite stories turned off during inappropriate behavior and praise (plus access to food) for appropriate napkin and utensil use, once desired sitting posture had been…

  1. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Bulimia: An Initial Outcome Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordman, Arnold M.; Kirschenbaum, Daniel S.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia. Assigned 20 bulimic women to full- or brief-intervention therapy programs. Results indicated that full-intervention clients, relative to brief-intervention clients, substantially reduced the frequency of their bingeing-vomiting; improved their psychological adjustment; and…

  2. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy after Ellis: Predictions for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinrach, Stephen G.; Ellis, Albert; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Bernard, Michael E.; Dryden, Windy; Kassinove, Howard; Morris, G. Barry; Vernon, Ann; Wolfe, Janet

    1995-01-01

    Nine members of the institute for Rational-Emotive Therapy's (REBT) International Training Standards and Review Committee predicted the status of REBT 25 to 50 years after the death of Albert Ellis. Will REBT continue to exist in its own right or be incorporated into newer forms of cognitive behavior therapy? (EMK)

  3. Behavioral and Psychodynamic Dimensions of the New Sex Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sollod, Robert N.

    1975-01-01

    The new sex therapy, a brief outpatient treatment of sexual dysfunction consisting of structured sexual exercises and conjoint therapeutic sessions, is a systematic integration of behavioral and psychodynamic elements. The integration of approaches in the new sex therapy has general significance for psychotherapeutic theory and practice. (Author)

  4. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Origins, Constructs, and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joshua C.

    In 1956, Dr. Albert Ellis presented his seminal work on Rational Therapy, subsequently renamed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) in 1993. This paper explores the origins, theoretical foundations, applications, and implications of REBT and provides a look at the empirical research available in support of the approach's efficacy. REBT is…

  5. [How I treat... chronic insomnia by cognitive and behavioral therapy].

    PubMed

    Dethier, M; Blairy, S; Poirrier, R

    2016-04-01

    Today, insomnia is predominantly treated by pharmacotherapy. Yet, cognitive-behavioral therapy has better long-term outcomes. In this paper, we describe the basic principles of this short-term psychotherapeutic treatment. It combines methods of sleep restriction and stimulus control, the learning of relaxation techniques, advices on sleep hygiene and cognitive therapy techniques applied to cognitions that overwhelm insomniac moments. PMID:27295894

  6. [Acceptance and mindfulness-based cognitive-behavioral therapies].

    PubMed

    Ngô, Thanh-Lan

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is one of the main approaches in psychotherapy. It teaches the patient to examine the link between dysfunctional thoughts and maladaptive behaviors and to re- evaluate the cognitive biases involved in the maintenance of symptoms by using strategies such as guided discovery. CBT is constantly evolving in part to improve its' effectiveness and accessibility. Thus in the last decade, increasingly popular approaches based on mindfulness and acceptance have emerged. These therapies do not attempt to modify cognitions even when they are biased and dysfunctional but rather seek a change in the relationship between the individual and the symptoms. This article aims to present the historical context that has allowed the emergence of this trend, the points of convergence and divergence with traditional CBT as well as a brief presentation of the different therapies based on mindfulness meditation and acceptance. Hayes (2004) described three successive waves in behavior therapy, each characterized by "dominant assumptions, methods and goals": traditional behavior therapy, cognitive therapy and therapies based on mindfulness meditation and acceptance. The latter consider that human suffering occurs when the individual lives a restricted life in order avoid pain and immediate discomfort to the detriment of his global wellbeing. These therapies combine mindfulness, experiential, acceptance strategies with traditional behavior principles in order to attain lasting results. There are significant points of convergence between traditional CBT and therapies based on mindfulness meditation and acceptance. They are both empirically validated, based upon a theoretical model postulating that avoidance is key in the maintenance of psychopathology and they recommend an approach strategy in order to overcome the identified problem. They both use behavioral techniques in the context of a collaborative relationship in order to identify precise problems and to

  7. The Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supplement: 7 Sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Charles; Scudder, Meleney; Kaminer, Yifrah; Kaden, Ron

    This manual, a supplement to "Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1", presents a seven-session cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT7) approach designed especially for adolescent cannabis users. It addresses the implementation and…

  8. Videotape and Verbal Feedback in Behavioral Couple Therapy: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fichten, Catherine; Wright, John

    1983-01-01

    Reviewed experimental evidence for the efficacy of videotape and verbal feedback in behavioral couple therapy. Concluded that research does not permit definitive conclusions concerning either procedure. Evidence indicates that it is difficult to ascertain just how the communication behaviors of happy and distressed couples differ. (Author/JAC)

  9. Tending the garden and harvesting the fruits of behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Fresco, David M

    2013-06-01

    For the past half century, behavior therapy has served as the theoretical basis for successful inquiries into the nature and treatment of many emotional disorders. Although there are core principles shared by all behavior therapies, two primary approaches, traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), have emerged as the most viable treatment approaches, even though they achieve their success through different methods and are predicated in different assumptions, principles, questions, and scientific strategies. In this special series, theorists and therapists with allegiances to one of these two approaches articulate the philosophical and theoretical underpinnings of their approach, summarize the evidence to date, point out current gaps or inconsistencies, and map out future directions with predictions informed by theory. The series concludes with a capstone paper that seeks to find common ground within the family of behavior therapies while also positing ways for behavior therapy to remain relevant in a world that increasingly emphasizes neuroscience and biobehavioral approaches to understand and reduce human suffering.

  10. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy with Troubled Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zionts, Paul; Zionts, Laura

    1997-01-01

    Based on the early work of Albert Ellis, seeks to identify and challenge irrational beliefs that underlie behavior problems. Outlines concepts and methods of Rational Emotive Behavior Theory and describes the application both in counseling and as a mental health curriculum for troubled children and youth. Offers classroom techniques. (RJM)

  11. A proposed trial of dialectical behavior therapy and trauma model therapy.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A

    2005-06-01

    Dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder resemble each other in trauma histories and comorbidity. Each disorder is frequently comorbid with the other. Treatment outcome data for Dialectical Behavior Therapy of borderline personality disorder and Trauma Model Therapy of dissociative identity disorder are reviewed. The author proposes a psychotherapy treatment study in which there are three subject groups and two treatment conditions. The subject groups are borderline personality disorder without dissociative identity disorder; dissociative identity disorder without borderline personality disorder; and both conditions present concurrently. Subjects would be randomized to receive Dialectical Behavior Therapy or Trauma Model Therapy. Such a study could provide answers to controversies in the field about a better treatment approach for dissociative identity disorder and potentially could broaden and strengthen the indications for Dialectical Behavior Therapy.

  12. Behavioral couple therapy: building a secure base for therapeutic integration.

    PubMed

    Gurman, Alan S

    2013-03-01

    Behavioral couple therapy (BCT), one of the two most empirically supported approaches to the treatment of couple discord, has undergone enormous changes in its four decades-long clinical and conceptual history. The evolution of thought about what maintains couple disaffection and distress and what can be done about it from a behavioral perspective is reviewed. These changes are considered in the larger context of the field of behavior therapy, noting shifts within BCT that parallel the three "waves" of development within that field. Integrative behavioral couple therapy (IBCT), the most visible and influential of the several BCT approaches, is examined, with particular attention to its functional-contextual base and the nature and role of functional analysis in clinical case conceptualization. It is argued that continuing enhancement and refinement of IBCT as an integrative therapeutic method will require greater flexibility in the techniques that are used and increased attention to the self of the IBCT therapist. PMID:25408093

  13. Cognitive behavioral therapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Foa, Edna B

    2010-01-01

    Until the mid-1960s, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was considered to be treatment-resistant, as both psychodynamic psychotherapy and medication had been unsuccessful in significantly reducing OCD symptoms. The first real breakthrough came in 1966 with the introduction of exposure and ritual prevention. This paper will discuss the cognitive behavioral conceptualizations that influenced the development of cognitive behavioral treatments for OCD. There will be a brief discussion of the use of psychodynamic psychotherapy and early behavioral therapy, neither of which produced successful outcomes with OCD. The main part of the paper will be devoted to current cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with an emphasis on variants of exposure and ritual or response prevention (EX/RP) treatments, the therapy that has shown the most empirical evidence of its efficacy.

  14. The Behavior-Analytic Origins of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: An Example of Behavioral Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Taub, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Constraint-induced (CI) therapy is a term given to a family of efficacious neurorehabilitation treatments including to date: upper extremity CI movement therapy, lower extremity CI movement therapy, pediatric CI therapy, and CI aphasia therapy. The purpose of this article is to outline the behavior analysis origins of CI therapy and the ways in which its procedures incorporate behavior analysis methods and principles. The intervention is founded on the concept of learned nonuse, a mechanism now empirically demonstrated to exist, which occurs after many different types of damage to the central nervous system (CNS). It results from the dramatic alteration of the contingencies of reinforcement that results from substantial CNS damage and leads to a greater deficit than is warranted by the actual damage sustained. CI therapy produces a countervailing alteration in the contingencies of reinforcement. The intervention has been used successfully to substantially improve motor deficits after stroke, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, with cerebral palsy in a pediatric population, and for language impairment in poststroke aphasia. The protocol of CI therapy consists primarily of standard behavior-analytic methods. It produces a marked plastic brain change that is correlated with its therapeutic effect, and therefore provides an example of the way in which behavior change can contribute to a profound remodeling of the brain. CI therapy may be viewed as an example of behavioral neurorehabilitation. PMID:23449867

  15. Comparing Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Problem Solving Therapy, and Treatment as Usual in a High Risk Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Carment D.; Quinn, Andrea; Plever, Sally; Emmerson, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), problem-solving therapy (PST), or treatment as usual (TAU) were compared in the management of suicide attempters. Participants completed the Beck Hopelessness Scale, Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation, Social Problem-Solving Inventory, and Client Satisfaction Questionnaire at pre- and posttreatment. Both CBT and PST…

  16. Extreme Nonresponse in Cognitive Therapy: Can Behavioral Activation Succeed where Cognitive Therapy Fails?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Sandra J.; Martell, Christopher R.; Dimidjian, Sona; Gallop, Robert; Hollon, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    In a recent placebo-controlled comparison, behavioral activation was superior to cognitive therapy in the treatment of moderate to severely depressed adults. Moreover, a subset of patients exhibited a pattern of extreme nonresponse to cognitive therapy on self-reports of depression not evident on the clinician ratings. These patients were severely…

  17. Comparison of Behavioral Intervention and Sensory-Integration Therapy in the Treatment of Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Sarah; Healy, Olive; Leader, Geraldine; Hughes, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of sensory-integration therapy (SIT) and a behavioral intervention on rates of challenging behavior (including self-injurious behavior) in four children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. For each of the participants a functional assessment was conducted to identify the variables…

  18. Effectively Utilizing the "Behavioral" in Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy of Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Deming, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is touted as the predominant approach in sex offender-specific group treatment, a review of the field shows that the "behavioral" part of CBT has become minimal in relation to that which is cognitive. The authors show how a revitalized "behavioral sensibility" may help to enhance…

  19. Cognitive behavioral therapy for orthodontic pain control: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Jian, F; Chen, J; Ye, N S; Huang, Y H; Wang, S; Huang, R H; Pei, J; Liu, P; Zhang, L; Zhao, Z H; Chen, Q M; Lai, W L; Lin, Y F

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy intervention for patients who experienced pain during orthodontic treatment. The baseline characteristics were assessed via questionnaires and oral examinations. Four hundred and fifty eligible individuals were recruited and randomized by computer-generated block randomization into three groups: cognitive behavioral therapy intervention (n = 150), ibuprofen intervention (n = 150), and no intervention (control; n = 150). Primary outcomes were the change from baseline in pain intensity measured with 100-mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores at 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days after initial archwire placement. Outcomes assessment was blinded and followed the intention-to-treat principle. One hundred forty-three (95.30%), 145 (96.70%), and 141 (94.00%) individuals in the cognitive behavioral therapy, the ibuprofen, and the control groups, respectively, completed the one-month follow-up evaluations. Those in the cognitive behavioral therapy group showed a greater decrease in mean VAS scores than did those in the control group over the previous five time-points (p < 0.001). Cognitive behavioral therapy was shown to be effective in pain control during the initial stage of orthodontic treatment. The study registration number was ChiCTR-TRC-00000556.

  20. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: Three Case Studies Exemplifying a Unified Treatment Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eifert, Georg H.; Forsyth, John P.; Arch, Joanna; Espejo, Emmanuel; Keller, Melody; Langer, David

    2009-01-01

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is an innovative acceptance-based behavior therapy that has been applied broadly and successfully to treat a variety of clinical problems, including the anxiety disorders. Throughout treatment ACT balances acceptance and mindfulness processes with commitment and behavior change processes. As applied to…

  1. Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior Change Applied to Voice Therapy

    PubMed Central

    van Leer, Eva; Hapner, Edie R.; Connor, Nadine P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Studies of patient adherence to health behavior programs, such as physical exercise, smoking cessation, and diet, have resulted in the formulation and validation of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change. Although widely accepted as a guide for the development of health behavior interventions, this model has not been applied to vocal rehabilitation. Because resolution of vocal difficulties frequently depends on a patient’s ability to make changes in vocal and health behaviors, the TTM may be a useful way to conceptualize voice behavior change processes, including the patient’s readiness for change. The purpose of this paper is to apply the TTM to the voice therapy process to: (1) provide an organizing framework for understanding of behavior change in voice therapy, (2) explain how treatment adherence problems can arise, and (3) provide broad strategies to improve treatment adherence. Given the significant role of treatment adherence in treatment outcome, considering readiness for behavior change should be taken into account when planning treatment. Principles of health behavior change can aid speech pathologists in such understanding and estimating readiness for voice therapy. PMID:18082367

  2. Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Treat Distressed Couples: A Case Study With Two Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Brennan D.; Eifert, Georg H.; Feingold, Tal; Davidson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Although the field of couple therapy has made significant strides in recent years, there continues to be a need for theoretically sound and empirically supported treatments. The current case study examines whether Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), an experiential acceptance-based behavior therapy, can be effective in treating distressed…

  3. Acceptance in behavior therapy: Understanding the process of change

    PubMed Central

    Cordova, James V.

    2001-01-01

    Acceptance is integral to several cutting-edge behavior therapies. However, several questions about acceptance remain to be clearly answered. First, what does acceptance look like, and can it be observed and measured? Second, what are the behavioral principles involved in the promotion of acceptance? Third, when is acceptance indicated or contraindicated as a therapeutic goal? The current paper attempts to clarify answers to these questions. The goal is to provide a conceptualization of the what, how, and when of acceptance that is accessible to behavior analysts, both to promote our understanding of acceptance as a behavioral phenomenon and to facilitate its empirical study and therapeutic utility. PMID:22478366

  4. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Relational Frame Theory, and the Third Wave of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Steven C.

    2004-01-01

    The first wave of behavior therapy countered the excesses and scientific weakness of existing nonempirical clinical traditions through empirically studied first-order change efforts linked to behavioral principles targeting directly relevant clinical targets. The second wave was characterized by similar direct change efforts guided by social…

  5. [Obesity psychological treatment: beyond cognitive and behavioral therapy].

    PubMed

    Volery, M; Bonnemain, A; Latino, A; Ourrad, N; Perroud, A

    2015-03-25

    The psychological assessment of the patient with obesity aims to identify the factors of maintenance of excess weight, such as eating disorders or anxio-depressive disorders. Psychotherapy helps a better weight management. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown its effectiveness in the treatment of obesity. New psychotherapeutic approaches are explored. The hypnosis and mindfulness are proposed for the management of emotions and stress. A targeted approach on the body image disorder decreases body dissatisfaction. When post-traumatic stress syndrome is involved, EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization & Reprocessing) is better than other types of therapies. Family therapy is indicated when the entourage is impacted. Psychological difficulties should be the subject of specific care.

  6. [ACCEPTANCE AND COMMITMENT THERAPY (ACT): BEHAVIORISM, MINDFULNESS AND VALUES].

    PubMed

    Coletti, Juan Pablo; Teti, Germán Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades a series of psychological treatments labeled Therapies> have been developed. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a third generation therapy that essentially seeks to promote the acceptance of private events in opposition to their modification or change, with the aim of promoting cognitive flexibility. Thus, it is intended that the subject be permitted to choose their behavior consistent with personal values. The current work aims to provide overview specific to the contextual conditions that promoted the emergence of ACT, the underlying philosophy and theory, and the particularities of the intervention model. PMID:26323112

  7. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Successes and Failures: Eight Personal Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinrach, Stephen G.; Ellis, Albert; MacLaren, Catharine; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Vernon, Ann; Wolfe, Janet; Malkinson, Ruth; Backx, Wouter

    2001-01-01

    Eight experts in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) provide personal examples of their own successes and failures in applying REBT to themselves. The experts actively talked to themselves both rationally and irrationally. Rational self-talk was more prevalent in the examples of how REBT was successfully used by the experts. (GCP)

  8. Counseling Children and Adolescents: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Humanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Describes specific parallels between rational emotive behavior therapy and humanism. Places specific emphasis on the application of these principles with children and adolescents. Concepts are illustrated with case studies and a description of the similarities between rational emotive and humanistic, or affective, education. Highlights emotional…

  9. Behavior Therapy for Pediatric Trichotillomania: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Martin E.; Edson, Aubrey L.; Ledley, Deborah A.; Cahill, Shawn P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy and durability of a behavioral therapy (BT) protocol for pediatric TTM compared with a minimal attention control (MAC) condition. It was hypothesized that the BT condition would be superior to MAC at the end of acute treatment, and would also demonstrate durability of gains through the maintenance treatment…

  10. Optimizing Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piacentini, John

    2008-01-01

    Reports that expand the understanding of the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder by using exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy in the age group of 5 to 8-year-olds are presented. A model for collecting the common core elements of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for childhood disorders is also presented.

  11. Modular Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Phillips, Katharine A.; Fama, Jeanne M.; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Steketee, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This study pilot tested a newly developed modular cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment manual for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome in a sample of 12 adults with primary BDD. Treatment was delivered in weekly individual sessions over 18 or 22 weeks. Standardized clinician ratings…

  12. Acceptance-Enhanced Behavior Therapy for Trichotillomania in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Kathi M.; Walther, Michael R.; Joseph, Jessica M.; Robinson, Jordan; Ricketts, Emily J.; Bowe, William E.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the efficacy of Acceptance Enhanced Behavior Therapy (AEBT) for the treatment of trichotillomania (TTM) in adults, data are limited with respect to the treatment of adolescents. Our case series illustrates the use of AEBT for TTM in the treatment of two adolescents. The AEBT protocol (Woods & Twohig, 2008) is…

  13. Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Child Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Piacentini, John C.; Southam-Gerow, Michael; Chu, Brian C.; Sigman, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study compared family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT: the Building Confidence Program) with traditional child-focused CBT with minimal family involvement for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Forty clinically anxious youth (6-13 years old) were randomly assigned to a family- or child-focused cognitive-behavioral…

  14. Evaluation of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramham, Jessica; Young, Susan; Bickerdike, Alison; Spain, Deborah; McCartan, Denise; Xenitidis, Kiriakos

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A brief cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention was designed to treat comorbid anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem and self-efficacy in adults with ADHD. It was hypothesised that participants would gain knowledge about ADHD, experience a reduction in comorbid symptoms, and benefit from the supportive aspect of group…

  15. Feasibility of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Adolescent Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Laurence Y.; Cox, Brian J.; Gunasekara, Shiny; Miller, Alec L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) implementation in a general child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit and to provide preliminary effectiveness data on DBT versus treatment as usual (TAU). Method: Sixty-two adolescents with suicide attempts or suicidal ideation were admitted to one of two…

  16. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Knauz, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Between 10% and 24% of bipolar patients experience a rapid cycling course, with 4 or more mood episodes occurring per year. Characterized by nonresponse to standard mood-stabilizing medications, rapid cyclers are…

  17. Development and Clinical Outcomes of a Dialectical Behavior Therapy Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lajoie, Travis; Sonkiss, Joshua; Rich, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the first 6 months of a dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) clinic operated by trainees in a general adult psychiatry residency program. The purpose of this report is to provide a model for the creation and maintenance of a formalized resident DBT clinic. Methods: Residents participated in the DBT clinic, attended a…

  18. Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Cohen, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    Schools are ideal settings for identifying children and adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic events. They are also ideal for providing evidence-based mental health services, such as trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, to students affected by childhood posttraumatic stress disorder and co-occurring mental health and behavioral…

  19. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Markowitz, Sarah; Petronko, Michael R.; Taylor, Caitlin E.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Wilson, G. Terence

    2010-01-01

    The onset of appearance-related concerns associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) typically occurs in adolescence, and these concerns are often severe enough to interfere with normal development and psychosocial functioning. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for adults with BDD. However, no treatment studies…

  20. Contextual Behavior Therapies in the Treatment of PTSD: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulick, Patrick S.; Landers, Sara J.; Kanter, Jonathan W.

    2005-01-01

    Empirical evidence supports cognitive-behavioral interventions for the treatment Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), with exposure therapy typically being the most frequently utilized. While the success of exposure treatments is well established there are factors which may hinder their use in "real-world" settings (e.g., poor treatment…

  1. How Has Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Therapy Changed?: An Historical Analysis of Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donohue, William; Fryling, Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied…

  2. Treating Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors with Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in…

  3. Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Depressive Mothers of Children with Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hye Ha, Eun

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBT) for depressed mothers of children between 5-12 years old, with behavior problems and to examine the effectiveness of the program. The CBT group met 8 times in total (2-hour weekly sessions for 8 weeks), followed by a booster session 3 months after the program was…

  4. United we stand: emphasizing commonalities across cognitive-behavioral therapies.

    PubMed

    Mennin, Douglas S; Ellard, Kristen K; Fresco, David M; Gross, James J

    2013-06-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has a rich history of alleviating the suffering associated with mental disorders. Recently, there have been exciting new developments, including multicomponent approaches, incorporated alternative therapies (e.g., meditation), targeted and cost-effective technologies, and integrated biological and behavioral frameworks. These field-wide changes have led some to emphasize the differences among variants of CBT. Here, we draw attention to commonalities across cognitive-behavioral therapies, including shared goals, change principles, and therapeutic processes. Specifically, we offer a framework for examining common CBT characteristics that emphasizes behavioral adaptation as a unifying goal and three core change principles, namely (a) context engagement to promote adaptive imagining and enacting of new experiences; (b) attention change to promote adaptive sustaining, shifting, and broadening of attention; and (c) cognitive change to promote adaptive perspective taking on events so as to alter verbal meanings. Further, we argue that specific intervention components, including behavioral exposure/activation, attention training, acceptance/tolerance, decentering/defusion, and cognitive reframing, may be emphasized to a greater or lesser degree by different treatment packages but are still fundamentally common therapeutic processes that are present across approaches and are best understood by their relationships to these core CBT change principles. We conclude by arguing for shared methodological and design frameworks for investigating unique and common characteristics to advance a unified and strong voice for CBT in a widening, increasingly multimodal and interdisciplinary, intervention science.

  5. Cognitive behavioral group therapy for anxiety: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Wolgensinger, Laure

    2015-09-01

    Anxiety disorders occur frequently, and can have a negative impact on the quality of people's lives. They often begin at an early age and can have some serious consequences. This article is an overview of the recent studies concerning group cognitive-behavioral interventions for anxiety disorders. In the last few years, anxiety disorder prevention for children and adolescents has become an important focus of research work. Group prevention programs are based on standard cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) strategies and are aimed at preventing anxiety disorders as early as possible. Numerous cognitive behavioral group therapies for children as well as adults have been well studied. There are many CBT protocols that have been developed for treating specific anxiety disorders. Now, specialized CBT programs are available for individuals who suffer from different anxiety disorders, enabling them to be treated together in groups.

  6. Cognitive behavioral group therapy for anxiety: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Wolgensinger, Laure

    2015-09-01

    Anxiety disorders occur frequently, and can have a negative impact on the quality of people's lives. They often begin at an early age and can have some serious consequences. This article is an overview of the recent studies concerning group cognitive-behavioral interventions for anxiety disorders. In the last few years, anxiety disorder prevention for children and adolescents has become an important focus of research work. Group prevention programs are based on standard cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) strategies and are aimed at preventing anxiety disorders as early as possible. Numerous cognitive behavioral group therapies for children as well as adults have been well studied. There are many CBT protocols that have been developed for treating specific anxiety disorders. Now, specialized CBT programs are available for individuals who suffer from different anxiety disorders, enabling them to be treated together in groups. PMID:26487815

  7. Psychodynamic therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy in social anxiety disorder: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Leichsenring, Falk; Salzer, Simone; Beutel, Manfred E; Herpertz, Stephan; Hiller, Wolfgang; Hoyer, Juergen; Huesing, Johannes; Joraschky, Peter; Nolting, Bjoern; Poehlmann, Karin; Ritter, Viktoria; Stangier, Ulrich; Strauss, Bernhard; Stuhldreher, Nina; Tefikow, Susan; Teismann, Tobias; Willutzki, Ulrike; Wiltink, Joerg; Leibing, Eric

    2013-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Various approaches to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) have been shown to be effective for social anxiety disorder. For psychodynamic therapy, evidence for efficacy in this disorder is scant. The authors tested the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy and CBT in social anxiety disorder in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. METHOD In an outpatient setting, 495 patients with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to manual-guided CBT (N=209), manual-guided psychodynamic therapy (N=207), or a waiting list condition (N=79). Assessments were made at baseline and at end of treatment. Primary outcome measures were rates of remission and response, based on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale applied by raters blind to group assignment. Several secondary measures were assessed as well. RESULTS Remission rates in the CBT, psychodynamic therapy, and waiting list groups were 36%, 26%, and 9%, respectively. Response rates were 60%, 52%, and 15%, respectively. CBT and psychodynamic therapy were significantly superior to waiting list for both remission and response. CBT was significantly superior to psychodynamic therapy for remission but not for response. Between-group effect sizes for remission and response were small. Secondary outcome measures showed significant differences in favor of CBT for measures of social phobia and interpersonal problems, but not for depression. CONCLUSIONS CBT and psychodynamic therapy were both efficacious in treating social anxiety disorder, but there were significant differences in favor of CBT. For CBT, the response rate was comparable to rates reported in Swedish and German studies in recent years. For psychodynamic therapy, the response rate was comparable to rates reported for pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral group therapy.

  8. Irritable bowel syndrome treatment: cognitive behavioral therapy versus medical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mahvi-Shirazi, Majid; Rasoolzade-Tabatabaei, Sayed-Kazem; Amini, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The study aims to investigate two kinds of treatment in patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and consequently compares its efficacy on improving the symptoms and mental health of patients; one with just medical treatment and another through a combination of psychotherapy and medical treatment. Material and methods Applying general sampling, 50 IBS patients were selected from among those who used to refer to a Gastroenterology Clinic. After physical and mental evaluations based on ROME-II scale and SCL-90-R questionnaires, the subjects were randomly superseded into: the control group with medical treatment and, the case group with a combination of medical and psychological treatments. The acquired data were then analyzed through t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Results The findings show that the mental health of patients receiving cognitive behavioral therapy along with the medical treatment was higher than those of the control group at post-test level. It was observed that the therapy reduces the disability caused by IBS. Comparatively, while the cognitive therapy and medical treatments cured 80% of the patients, those receiving cognitive therapy alone showed an extensive reduction of symptoms. Conclusions Considering the role of cognitive behavioral therapy, it is therefore recommend that such patients be managed by a combined team of gastroenterologists and psychologists. PMID:22457686

  9. How not to learn cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).

    PubMed

    Trinidad, Antolin C

    2007-01-01

    Would-be learners of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) may be hampered by learning traps that impede effective acquisition of the skills necessary to provide this type of therapy to clients. Among these pitfalls are the possibility of isolation, therapeutic fanaticism, lack of seriousness, therapeutic drift, and thinking CBT is antipsychodynamic or antipsychoanalytic. The author advocates immersion learning of CBT, arguing that theoretical learning must be supplemented by supervision and active use of the method in one's patients. Presented are two case vignettes demonstrating therapeutic drift and therapeutic fanaticism to highlight potential therapeutic impasses that may ensue from these pitfalls. PMID:18251384

  10. Associations between therapy skills and patient experiences of change processes in cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Wittorf, Andreas; Jakobi-Malterre, Ute E; Beulen, Silke; Bechdolf, Andreas; Müller, Bernhard W; Sartory, Gudrun; Wagner, Michael; Wiedemann, Georg; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Herrlich, Jutta; Klingberg, Stefan

    2013-12-30

    Despite the promising findings in relation to the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp), little attention has been paid to the therapy skills necessary to deliver CBTp and to the influence of such skills on processes underlying therapeutic change. Our study investigated the associations between general and technical therapy skills and patient experiences of change processes in CBTp. The study sample consisted of 79 patients with psychotic disorders who had undergone CBTp. We randomly selected one tape-recorded therapy session from each of the cases. General and technical therapy skills were assessed by the Cognitive Therapy Scale for Psychosis. The Bern Post Session Report for Patients was applied to measure patient experiences of general change processes in the sense of Grawe's psychological therapy. General skills, such as feedback and understanding, explained 23% of the variance of patients' self-esteem experience, but up to 10% of the variance of mastery, clarification, and contentment experiences. The technical skill of guided discovery consistently showed negative associations with patients' alliance, contentment, and control experiences. The study points to the importance of general therapy skills for patient experiences of change processes in CBTp. Some technical skills, however, could detrimentally affect the therapeutic relationship.

  11. Associations between therapy skills and patient experiences of change processes in cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Wittorf, Andreas; Jakobi-Malterre, Ute E; Beulen, Silke; Bechdolf, Andreas; Müller, Bernhard W; Sartory, Gudrun; Wagner, Michael; Wiedemann, Georg; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Herrlich, Jutta; Klingberg, Stefan

    2013-12-30

    Despite the promising findings in relation to the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp), little attention has been paid to the therapy skills necessary to deliver CBTp and to the influence of such skills on processes underlying therapeutic change. Our study investigated the associations between general and technical therapy skills and patient experiences of change processes in CBTp. The study sample consisted of 79 patients with psychotic disorders who had undergone CBTp. We randomly selected one tape-recorded therapy session from each of the cases. General and technical therapy skills were assessed by the Cognitive Therapy Scale for Psychosis. The Bern Post Session Report for Patients was applied to measure patient experiences of general change processes in the sense of Grawe's psychological therapy. General skills, such as feedback and understanding, explained 23% of the variance of patients' self-esteem experience, but up to 10% of the variance of mastery, clarification, and contentment experiences. The technical skill of guided discovery consistently showed negative associations with patients' alliance, contentment, and control experiences. The study points to the importance of general therapy skills for patient experiences of change processes in CBTp. Some technical skills, however, could detrimentally affect the therapeutic relationship. PMID:23992793

  12. A systems analysis of psychobiology and behavior therapy. Implications for behavioral medicine.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, G E

    1981-01-01

    This article examines some basic principles of systems theory and applies them to the integration of psychobiology and behavior therapy in the evolution of behavioral medicine. Using the concepts of whole/part relationships, level and emergent property, and self-regulation and disregulation, it is proposed that all behavioral therapies involve psychobiological processes, and therefore, indirectly impinge on physical health. It is argued that the distinction between behavior and biology is one of level, and, therefore, behavioral therapies are ultimately biobehavioral therapies having biobehavioral consequences. It is proposed that contrary to traditional reductionistic logic, modern advances in biology are providing strong justification for the importance of including psychological methods in treating diseases manifested at the biological level. Various clinical examples are used to demonstrate how systems theory can be applied to differential diagnosis and treatment, computing cost/benefit ratios of different treatments, and conducting comprehensive clinical research and evaluation. Assessing the interaction of biological, psychological, and social treatment modalities becomes the hallmark of responsible patient care. Implications of the systems conception of behavioral medicine for collaboration among health care providers, the training of future clinicians in different disciplines, and policy decisions regarding the larger social consequences of health care are considered.

  13. Art Therapy for Individuals with Borderline Personality: Using a Dialectical Behavior Therapy Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drass, Jessica Masino

    2015-01-01

    Art therapy has shown benefits for people with borderline personality disorder and borderline personality traits by alleviating interpersonal difficulties such as affect regulation, an unstable sense of self, self-injurious behaviors, and suicidal ideation. Borderline personality disorder is currently viewed as a trauma spectrum disorder, because…

  14. History of cognitive-behavioral therapy in youth.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Courtney L; Puleo, Connor M; Settipani, Cara A; Brodman, Douglas M; Edmunds, Julie M; Cummings, Colleen M; Kendall, Philip C

    2011-04-01

    The numerous intervention strategies that comprise cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) reflect its complex and integrative nature and include such topics as extinction, habituation, modeling, cognitive restructuring, problem solving, and the development of coping strategies, mastery, and a sense of self-control. CBT targets multiple areas of potential vulnerability (eg, cognitive, behavioral, affective) with developmentally guided strategies and traverses multiple intervention pathways. Although CBT is often considered the "first-line treatment" for many psychological disorders in youth, additional work is necessary to address nonresponders to treatment and to facilitate the dissemination of efficacious CBT approaches.

  15. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Seligman, Laura D.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Randomized clinical trials indicate that approximately two-thirds of children treated with CBT will be free of their primary diagnosis at posttreatment. Although several CBT treatment packages have been investigated in youth with diverse anxiety disorders, common core components have been identified. A comprehensive assessment, development of a good therapeutic relationship and working alliance, cognitive restructuring, repeated exposure with reduction of avoidance behavior, and skills training comprise the core procedures for the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth. PMID:21440852

  16. Dialectical behavior therapy for Binge-Eating Disorder.

    PubMed

    Wiser, S; Telch, C F

    1999-06-01

    Binge-eating episodes have alternately been described as stemming from strict dieting behaviors driven by overvalued ideas of weight and shape, or as arising from problematic interpersonal experiences. A third way of conceptualizing an eating binge is as a maladaptive emotion-regulation strategy, suggesting that facilitating more adaptive and effective affect regulation capacities may be a useful treatment. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), a treatment aimed at increasing emotion regulation skill, is currently being adapted for use with a binge-eating disorder population. Assumptions underlying the treatment, methods in treatment delivery, and goals of the treatment package are discussed. A pilot study currently underway of group DBT therapy for individuals with Binge-Eating Disorder is described.

  17. Smoking cessation: integration of behavioral and drug therapies.

    PubMed

    Mallin, Robert

    2002-03-15

    Family physicians should take advantage of each contact with smokers to encourage and support smoking cessation. Once a patient is identified as a smoker, tools are available to assess readiness for change. Using motivational interviewing techniques, the physician can help the patient move from the precontemplation stage through the contemplation stage to the preparation stage, where plans are made for the initiation of nicotine replacement and/or bupropion therapy when indicated. Continued motivational techniques and support are needed in the action stage, when the patient stops smoking. Group or individual behavioral counseling can facilitate smoking cessation and improve quit rates. Combined use of behavioral and drug therapies can dramatically improve the patient's chance of quitting smoking. A plan should be in place for recycling the patient through the appropriate stages if relapse should occur.

  18. [Obesity psychological treatment: beyond cognitive and behavioral therapy].

    PubMed

    Volery, M; Bonnemain, A; Latino, A; Ourrad, N; Perroud, A

    2015-03-25

    The psychological assessment of the patient with obesity aims to identify the factors of maintenance of excess weight, such as eating disorders or anxio-depressive disorders. Psychotherapy helps a better weight management. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown its effectiveness in the treatment of obesity. New psychotherapeutic approaches are explored. The hypnosis and mindfulness are proposed for the management of emotions and stress. A targeted approach on the body image disorder decreases body dissatisfaction. When post-traumatic stress syndrome is involved, EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization & Reprocessing) is better than other types of therapies. Family therapy is indicated when the entourage is impacted. Psychological difficulties should be the subject of specific care. PMID:26111421

  19. A Comparison of Pharmacological (Amitriptyline HCL) and Nonpharmacological (Cognitive-Behavioral) Therapies for Chronic Tension Headaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holroyd, Kenneth A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Randomly assigned 41 recurrent tension headache sufferers to either cognitive-behavioral therapy or to amitriptyline therapy. Both therapies yielded clinically significant improvements in headache activity. In instances where differences in treatment effectiveness were observed, cognitive-behavioral therapy yielded somewhat more positive outcomes…

  20. Cognitive behavioral therapy (brief vs standard duration) for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Farooq; Farooq, Saeed; Kingdon, David

    2014-09-01

    There is some evidence from research that suggests that cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp) might offer some advantage if offered in combination with pharmacological treatments for people with schizophrenia. There are, however, limitations in its provision due to available resource and training issues. Brief forms of CBTp might be an alternative in settings with limited resources. Brief therapies have shown to be as effective as standard therapies for some nonpsychotic disorders. There is some evidence in favor of brief CBTp. We wanted to review the effects of brief CBTp for people with schizophrenia compared with standard CBTp. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults with schizophrenia or related disorders, comparing brief cognitive behavioral therapy for people with psychosis vs standard CBTp. We found only 7 studies which used a brief version of CBTp, but no study compared brief CBTp with CBTp of standard duration. There is a need for RCTs which compare brief with standard CBTp. This review also highlighted the need for setting standard criteria for CBTp dose. For this review, we considered brief CBTp to be delivered within 4 months and using 6-10 sessions.

  1. Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy: Theoretical Background, Empirical Research, and Dissemination.

    PubMed

    Roddy, McKenzie K; Nowlan, Kathryn M; Doss, Brian D; Christensen, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT), developed by Drs. Andrew Christensen and Neil Jacobson, builds off the tradition of behavioral couple therapy by including acceptance strategies as key components of treatment. Results from a large randomized clinical trial of IBCT indicate that it yields large and significant gains in relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, these benefits have been shown to persist for at least 5 years after treatment for the average couple. Not only does IBCT positively impact relationship constructs such as satisfaction and communication, but the benefits of therapy extend to individual, co-parenting, and child functioning. Moreover, IBCT has been shown to operate through the putative mechanisms of improvements in emotional acceptance, behavior change, and communication. IBCT was chosen for nationwide training and dissemination through the Veteran Affairs Medical Centers. Furthermore, the principles of IBCT have been translated into a web-based intervention for distressed couples, OurRelationship.com. IBCT is continuing to evolve and grow as research and technologies allow for continued evaluation and dissemination of this well-supported theoretical model.

  2. Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy: Theoretical Background, Empirical Research, and Dissemination.

    PubMed

    Roddy, McKenzie K; Nowlan, Kathryn M; Doss, Brian D; Christensen, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT), developed by Drs. Andrew Christensen and Neil Jacobson, builds off the tradition of behavioral couple therapy by including acceptance strategies as key components of treatment. Results from a large randomized clinical trial of IBCT indicate that it yields large and significant gains in relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, these benefits have been shown to persist for at least 5 years after treatment for the average couple. Not only does IBCT positively impact relationship constructs such as satisfaction and communication, but the benefits of therapy extend to individual, co-parenting, and child functioning. Moreover, IBCT has been shown to operate through the putative mechanisms of improvements in emotional acceptance, behavior change, and communication. IBCT was chosen for nationwide training and dissemination through the Veteran Affairs Medical Centers. Furthermore, the principles of IBCT have been translated into a web-based intervention for distressed couples, OurRelationship.com. IBCT is continuing to evolve and grow as research and technologies allow for continued evaluation and dissemination of this well-supported theoretical model. PMID:27226235

  3. Effectiveness of Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Component Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Judith A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated effects of group behavioral therapy including aerobic exercise, behavioral therapy alone, and aerobic exercise alone on pain and physical and psychological disability among mildly disabled chronic low-back-pain patients (n=96). The combined behavioral therapy and exercise group improved significantly more pretreatment to posttreatment…

  4. Pavlov's contributions to behavior therapy. The obvious and not so obvious.

    PubMed

    Wolpe, J; Plaud, J J

    1997-09-01

    The foundation, accomplishments, and proliferation of behavior therapy have been fueled largely by the movement's grounding in behavioral principles and theories. Ivan P. Pavlov's discovery of conditioning principles was essential to the founding of behavior therapy in the 1950s and continues to be central to modern behavior therapy. Pavlov's major legacy to behavior therapy was his discovery of "experimental neuroses", shown by his students M.N. Eroféeva and N.R. Shenger-Krestovnikova to be produced and eliminated through the principles of conditioning and counterconditioning. In this article, the Pavlovian origins of behavior therapy are assessed, and the relevance of conditioning principles to modern behavior therapy are analyzed. It is shown that Pavlovian conditioning represents far more than a systematic basic learning paradigm. It is also an essential theoretical foundation for the theory and practice of behavior therapy.

  5. Pavlov's contributions to behavior therapy. The obvious and not so obvious.

    PubMed

    Wolpe, J; Plaud, J J

    1997-09-01

    The foundation, accomplishments, and proliferation of behavior therapy have been fueled largely by the movement's grounding in behavioral principles and theories. Ivan P. Pavlov's discovery of conditioning principles was essential to the founding of behavior therapy in the 1950s and continues to be central to modern behavior therapy. Pavlov's major legacy to behavior therapy was his discovery of "experimental neuroses", shown by his students M.N. Eroféeva and N.R. Shenger-Krestovnikova to be produced and eliminated through the principles of conditioning and counterconditioning. In this article, the Pavlovian origins of behavior therapy are assessed, and the relevance of conditioning principles to modern behavior therapy are analyzed. It is shown that Pavlovian conditioning represents far more than a systematic basic learning paradigm. It is also an essential theoretical foundation for the theory and practice of behavior therapy. PMID:9382243

  6. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalrymple, Kristy L.; Herbert, James D.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the demonstrated efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD), many individuals do not respond to treatment or demonstrate residual symptoms and impairment posttreatment. Preliminary evidence indicates that acceptance-based approaches (e.g., acceptance and commitment therapy; ACT) can be helpful for a…

  7. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy integrated with systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy combined with virtual reality exposure therapy methods in the treatment of flight anxiety: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Triscari, Maria Teresa; Faraci, Palmira; Catalisano, Dario; D’Angelo, Valerio; Urso, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare the effectiveness of the following treatment methods for fear of flying: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) integrated with systematic desensitization, CBT combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and CBT combined with virtual reality exposure therapy. Overall, our findings have proven the efficacy of all interventions in reducing fear of flying in a pre- to post-treatment comparison. All groups showed a decrease in flight anxiety, suggesting the efficiency of all three treatments in reducing self-report measures of fear of flying. In particular, our results indicated significant improvements for the treated patients using all the treatment programs, as shown not only by test scores but also by participation in the post-treatment flight. Nevertheless, outcome measures maintained a significant effect at a 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, combining CBT with both the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment and the virtual stimuli used to expose patients with aerophobia seemed as efficient as traditional cognitive behavioral treatments integrated with systematic desensitization. PMID:26504391

  8. Acceptance and commitment therapy and contextual behavioral science: examining the progress of a distinctive model of behavioral and cognitive therapy.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Steven C; Levin, Michael E; Plumb-Vilardaga, Jennifer; Villatte, Jennifer L; Pistorello, Jacqueline

    2013-06-01

    A number of recent authors have compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The present article describes ACT as a distinct and unified model of behavior change, linked to a specific strategy of scientific development, which we term "contextual behavioral science." We outline the empirical progress of ACT and describe its distinctive development strategy. A contextual behavioral science approach is an inductive attempt to build more adequate psychological systems based on philosophical clarity; the development of basic principles and theories; the development of applied theories linked to basic ones; techniques and components linked to these processes and principles; measurement of theoretically key processes; an emphasis on mediation and moderation in the analysis of applied impact; an interest in effectiveness, dissemination, and training; empirical testing of the research program across a broad range of areas and levels of analysis; and the creation of a more effective scientific and clinical community. We argue that this is a reasonable approach, focused on long-term progress, and that in broad terms it seems to be working. ACT is not hostile to traditional CBT, and is not directly buoyed by whatever weaknesses traditional CBT may have. ACT should be measured at least in part against its own goals as specified by its own developmental strategy.

  9. Cognitive-behavioral and operant-behavioral therapy for people with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Thieme, K; Turk, D C

    2012-09-28

    The current article reviews the cognitive-behavioral (CB) and operant-behavioral perspectives on chronic pain and suggests an answer to the question why changes in behaviors, attitudes, and emotions are associated with decreases in pain severity and impact discussing potential psychobiological mechanisms that may underlie cognitive and behavioral techniques. The impact of learning such as classical and operant conditioning in behaviors and physical responses including baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), as well as the influence of cognitions on pain perception and impact will be presented to explain general efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) and operant-behavioral therapy (OBT) in the treatment of people with fibromyalgia (FM) describing some of the limitations of published outcome studies. We discuss advances in moderation and mediation of treatment outcomes. Lastly, we will discuss the need for research that takes into account evidence-based medicine, methods that address treatment responders and non-responders, individual trajectories, how we might advance and refine CBT and OBT, and strategies related to relapse prevention, maintenance, and adherence-enhancement taking advantage of evolving, technological methods of service delivery. We provide recommendations of how to move forward in approaching studies of CBT and OBT efficacy as a function of better understanding of patient characteristics and contextual factors. We advocate for the potential of the CB perspective and principle of learning for all health care providers regardless of discipline or training and will give examples for making more effective the patient-rheumatologist-relationship by using the principles discussed.

  10. Summary of Mode Deactivation Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Social Skills Training with Two Year Post Treatment Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2006-01-01

    This study summarized two treatment research studies and included recidivism data for two years post discharge for group therapy. The study compared Mode deactivation Therapy (MDT), Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), and Social Skills training (SST), results of the MDT series of studies and the two year post-study recidivism data. The data from the…

  11. Cognitive Behavioral and Psychodynamic Therapies: Points of Intersection and Divergence.

    PubMed

    Pilecki, Brian; Thoma, Nathan; McKay, Dean

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic therapy (PDT) are two major paradigms in the mental health care field. The present article reviews broad similarities and differences between each tradition while acknowledging that such generalizations may overlook heterogeneity within each. However, it is believed that a comparison between CBT and PDT is beneficial in dispelling myths about each tradition, fostering dialogue, encouraging further scholarship and research. While not an exhaustive account, this article will examine how CBT and PDT differ in how they view several topics such as the unconscious, the therapeutic alliance, the role of homework, symptom reduction, and therapeutic heuristics. Commentary is also offered on how research may be more effectively and collaboratively integrated with clinical work from both traditions. Future directions for partnership and improving mental health treatments are also discussed. PMID:26301762

  12. [Motivational interviewing and cognitive behavior therapy for smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Atsuko; Kano, Masato; Sato, Tadahiro

    2013-03-01

    The combination therapy of counseling and medication is very important in smoking cessation treatment. Motivational interviewing (MI) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) are interventions recommended in two well-recognized guidelines for smoking cessation in the United States. MI is effective for those who do not want to quit smoking; CBT for those who cannot but want to quit smoking, those who repeatedly quit and re-smoke, those who are depressed, and women who are concerned about their weight. However, neither MI nor CBT for smoking cessation is widely practiced in Japan. We describe the nature of, evidence for, and practice of MI and CBT in smoking cessation treatment, hopeful that clinicians and other healthcare staff learn and apply these techniques.

  13. Cognitive Behavioral and Psychodynamic Therapies: Points of Intersection and Divergence.

    PubMed

    Pilecki, Brian; Thoma, Nathan; McKay, Dean

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic therapy (PDT) are two major paradigms in the mental health care field. The present article reviews broad similarities and differences between each tradition while acknowledging that such generalizations may overlook heterogeneity within each. However, it is believed that a comparison between CBT and PDT is beneficial in dispelling myths about each tradition, fostering dialogue, encouraging further scholarship and research. While not an exhaustive account, this article will examine how CBT and PDT differ in how they view several topics such as the unconscious, the therapeutic alliance, the role of homework, symptom reduction, and therapeutic heuristics. Commentary is also offered on how research may be more effectively and collaboratively integrated with clinical work from both traditions. Future directions for partnership and improving mental health treatments are also discussed.

  14. Behavioral naltrexone therapy: an integrated treatment for opiate dependence.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Jami L; Sullivan, Maria A; Church, Sarah H; Seracini, Angela; Collins, Eric; Kleber, Herbert D; Nunes, Edward V

    2002-12-01

    Treatment of opiate dependence with naltrexone has been limited by poor compliance. Behavioral Naltrexone Therapy (BNT) was developed to promote adherence to naltrexone and lifestyle changes supportive of abstinence, by incorporating components from empirically validated treatments, including Network Therapy with a significant other to monitor medication compliance, the Community Reinforcement Approach, and voucher incentives. An overview is presented of the BNT treatment manual. In an uncontrolled Stage I trial (N = 47), 19% completed the 6-month course of treatment. Retention was especially poor in the subsample of patients who were using methadone at baseline (N = 18; 39% completed 1 month, none completed 6 months), and more encouraging among heroin-dependent patients (N = 29; 65% completed 1 month, 31% completed 6 months). Thus, attrition continues to be a serious problem for naltrexone maintenance, although further efforts to develop interventions such as BNT are warranted. PMID:12495797

  15. Effect of DHEA therapy on sexual behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Pluchino, Nicola; Giannini, Andrea; Cela, Vito; Santoro, Anna N; Carnevale, Gianluca; Zavatti, Manuela; Di Viesti, Vittoria; Benelli, Augusta; Genazzani, Andrea R; Zanoli, Paola

    2013-05-01

    Delta-5 androgen therapies seem to enhance the sexual response in experimental animal models and in clinical trial. This study analyzed the influence of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) administration on receptive and proceptive components of female rat sexual behavior. Ovariectomized (OVX) adult rats were divided in six groups submitted to the following treatments for 4 weeks: DHEA 0.5 and 5 mg/kg, by oral gavage, alone or in combination with estradiol benzoate 3 µg/rat; EB 3 and 10 µg/rat as control groups. All animals received progesterone (500 µg/rat) 4 h before the behavioral tests. All animals were tested for the following: receptivity and proceptivity weekly for 4 weeks; partner preference and paced mating behavior at the end of the treatments. Oral administration of DHEA at 5 mg/kg in EB primed rats was able to significantly increase proceptive behaviors, already after 1 week of treatment. The increase was more marked after 3 and 4 weeks of treatment. Behavioral changes were associated to modifications of circulating and brain level of allopregnanolone and beta-endorphin, although circulating hormonal levels were within a physiological range. Hormonal treatment using physiological doses of delta-5 androgens (DHEA) positively affects sexual motivation in OVX rats.

  16. Behavior therapy in drug abuse treatment: review and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Stitzer, M L; Bigelow, G E; McCaul, M E

    1985-01-01

    The goal of drug abuse treatment is to decrease the dominance of drug-related behaviors while enhancing the dominance of alternative socially acceptable behaviors. The behavioral techniques of extinction, satiation, and punishment can be used to suppress undesirable behaviors, and reinforcement can be used to enhance desirable behaviors. Methadone maintenance offers unique advantages for treatment of opiate abuse since methadone satiates the drug abuser, thereby reducing the reinforcing efficacy of illicit opiate drugs, while also serving as a reinforcer whose delivery in the treatment setting can be used in contingent arrangements. Short-term efficacy has been demonstrated in studies that used contingent treatment termination or contingent dose decreases as punishing events and contingent dose increases or contingent take-home privileges as reinforcing events to promote reductions in drug use and cooperation with clinic rules. Systematic use of dose adjustments and take-home privileges may be a useful adjunct to methadone maintenance treatment, having a positive impact both on client outcomes and clinic operation. Rehabilitation efforts might also benefit if delivery of reinforcers available at the clinic is contingent upon participation in skills training and therapy programs or community activities outside the drug abuse clinic. PMID:3929125

  17. Common Questions About Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Scott F; Banducci, Anne N; Vinci, Christine

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a time-limited, goal-oriented psychotherapy that has been extensively researched and has benefits in a number of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, and insomnia. CBT uses targeted strategies to help patients adopt more adaptive patterns of thinking and behaving, which leads to positive changes in emotions and decreased functional impairments. Strategies include identifying and challenging problematic thoughts and beliefs, scheduling pleasant activities to increase environmental reinforcement, and extended exposure to unpleasant thoughts, situations, or physiologic sensations to decrease avoidance and arousal associated with anxiety-eliciting stimuli. CBT can be helpful in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by emphasizing safety, trust, control, esteem, and intimacy. Prolonged exposure therapy is a CBT technique that includes a variety of strategies, such as repeated recounting of the trauma and exposure to feared real-world situations. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, CBT focuses on establishing structures and routines, and clear rules and expectations within the home and classroom. Early intensive behavioral interventions should be initiated in children with autism before three years of age; therapy consists of 12 to 40 hours of intensive treatment per week, for at least one year. In many disorders, CBT can be used alone or in combination with medications. However, CBT requires a significant commitment from patients. Family physicians are well suited to provide collaborative care for patients with psychiatric disorders, in concert with cognitive behavior therapists. PMID:26554473

  18. Common Questions About Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Scott F; Banducci, Anne N; Vinci, Christine

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a time-limited, goal-oriented psychotherapy that has been extensively researched and has benefits in a number of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, and insomnia. CBT uses targeted strategies to help patients adopt more adaptive patterns of thinking and behaving, which leads to positive changes in emotions and decreased functional impairments. Strategies include identifying and challenging problematic thoughts and beliefs, scheduling pleasant activities to increase environmental reinforcement, and extended exposure to unpleasant thoughts, situations, or physiologic sensations to decrease avoidance and arousal associated with anxiety-eliciting stimuli. CBT can be helpful in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by emphasizing safety, trust, control, esteem, and intimacy. Prolonged exposure therapy is a CBT technique that includes a variety of strategies, such as repeated recounting of the trauma and exposure to feared real-world situations. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, CBT focuses on establishing structures and routines, and clear rules and expectations within the home and classroom. Early intensive behavioral interventions should be initiated in children with autism before three years of age; therapy consists of 12 to 40 hours of intensive treatment per week, for at least one year. In many disorders, CBT can be used alone or in combination with medications. However, CBT requires a significant commitment from patients. Family physicians are well suited to provide collaborative care for patients with psychiatric disorders, in concert with cognitive behavior therapists.

  19. Dialectical behavior therapy: current indications and unique elements.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Alexander L

    2006-09-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a comprehensive, evidence-based treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD). The patient populations for which DBT has the most empirical support include parasuicidal women with borderline personality disorder (BPD), but there have been promising findings for patients with BPD and substance use disorders (SUDs), persons who meet criteria for binge-eating disorder, and depressed elderly patients. Although DBT has many similarities with other cognitive-behavioral approaches, several critical and unique elements must be in place for the treatment to constitute DBT. Some of these elements include (a) serving the five functions of treatment, (b) the biosocial theory and focusing on emotions in treatment, (c) a consistent dialectical philosophy, and (d) mindfulness and acceptance-oriented interventions.

  20. A bibliometric analysis of research on the behavior therapy in China and its trend.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shanming; Neng, Changhua; Wu, Hanrong

    2003-01-01

    To get formed of the status of research and application of the domestic behavior therapy and its development trend, the time distribution and the subject distribution were bibliometrically analyzed of the literature on behavior therapy from 1981 to 2000 in the CBMdisc. Our results showed that the number of literature of behavior therapy has been increasing in exponential manner over the past 20 years; the behavior modification, the biofeedback and the cognitive therapy are extensively used in China. In clinical practice, the behavior modification and the biofeedback have been applied in all departments of medical institutions, especially for treating the cardiovascular and the neurological conditions. The cognitive therapy has been employed mainly for the treatment of mental disorders (or dysphrenia), the aversive therapy mainly for material withdrawal, and the systematic desensitization for phobia. There was no report found on the clinical use of meditation. It is concluded that the study and application in behavior therapy in China is currently developing very fast.

  1. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy of Panic Disorder with Secondary Major Depression: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laberge, Benoit; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigated extent to which cognitive-behavioral therapy can be used successfully in treatment of secondary depressed panic patients. Findings from eight panic patients with major depression and seven panic patients without major depression showed that cognitive-behavioral therapy was significantly superior to information-based therapy in…

  2. Acceptance versus Change in Behavior Therapy: An Interview with Neil Jacobson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Max

    1998-01-01

    Neil Jacobson is a leader in research-based efforts to improve behavioral couples therapy. This interview focuses on his professional journey toward an integrative model, as well as his thoughts about the future directions of behavioral therapy and family counseling. The integrative-couples therapy model is described and discussed. (Author/EMK)

  3. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: A 1-Year Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe an adapted version of dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents with bipolar disorder. Method: The dialectical behavior therapy intervention is delivered over 1 year and consists of two modalities: family skills training (conducted with individual family units) and individual therapy. The acute treatment period (6 months)…

  4. Behavior therapy for a child with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bull, M; LaVecchio, F

    1978-06-01

    The behavioural symptoms in a 10-year-old boy with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome were effectively ameliorated by the behavior therapy techniques of systematic desensitization and extinction. Therapy was undertaken in a highly controlled environment. The hypothesis that the self-destructive behaviours in this syndrome were voluntary and maintained through continuous reinforcement was confirmed. Characteristic biting and other maladaptive behaviours were extinguished. Over a period of time it was possible to remove all the physical restraints previously used to prevent the boy injuring himself. During treatment his anxiety, associated with phobic reaction to being unrestrained, was reduced by nitrous oxide. At 1 1/2 years follow-up the boy continues to be symptom-free. He attends a special class at school and is learning to walk with crutches. It is emphasied that a trained and experienced therapist and a controlled environment are essential for the success of this form of behaviour therapy, and the dangers inherent in this method of treatment are discussed. PMID:669067

  5. Behavior Therapy and the Transdermal Nicotine Patch: Effects on Cessation Outcome, Affect, and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinciripini, Paul M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Process and outcome of a smoking cessation program using behavior therapy along (BT) or behavior therapy plus the nicotine patch (BTP) was studied in 64 participants. Abstinence was significantly higher for the BTP group from the end of behavioral treatment (79% vs. 63%) through the three-month follow-up, with the effects weakening at the six- and…

  6. A Contribution to the Development of the Behavioral-Analytic Sex Therapy Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apfelbaum, Bernard

    1977-01-01

    This paper illustrates an ego-analytic strategy by describing the hypothetical treatment of a couple who were not capable of or motivated by conventional therapy and for whom strictly behavioral sex therapy failed. (Author)

  7. Use of cognitive behavior therapy for functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Berga, Sarah L; Loucks, Tammy L

    2006-12-01

    address problematic behaviors and attitudes, such as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), have the potential to permit resumption of full ovarian function along with recovery of the adrenal, thyroidal, and other neuroendocrine aberrations. Full endocrine recovery potentially offers better individual, maternal, and child health.

  8. Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Assessing the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez de Arellano, Michael A.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; George, Preethy; Dougherty, Richard H.; Daniels, Allen S.; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Huang, Larke; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a conjoint parent-child treatment developed by Cohen, Mannarino, and Deblinger that uses cognitive-behavioral principles and exposure techniques to prevent and treat posttraumatic stress, depression, and behavioral problems. This review defined TF-CBT, differentiated it from other models, and assessed the evidence base. Methods Authors reviewed meta-analyses, reviews, and individual studies (1995 to 2013). Databases surveyed were PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, PILOTS, the ERIC, and the CINAHL. They chose from three levels of research evidence (high, moderate, and low) on the basis of benchmarks for number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of effectiveness. Results The level of evidence for TF-CBT was rated as high on the basis of ten RCTs, three of which were conducted independently (not by TF-CBT developers). TF-CBT has demonstrated positive outcomes in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, although it is less clear whether TF-CBT is effective in reducing behavior problems or symptoms of depression. Limitations of the studies include concerns about investigator bias and exclusion of vulnerable populations. Conclusions TF-CBT is a viable treatment for reducing trauma-related symptoms among some children who have experienced trauma and their nonoffending caregivers. Based on this evidence, TF-CBT should be available as a covered service in health plans. Ongoing research is needed to further identify best practices for TF-CBT in various settings and with individuals from various racial and ethnic backgrounds and with varied trauma histories, symptoms, and stages of intellectual, social, and emotional development. PMID:24638076

  9. Sleep Quality Improvement During Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramsawh, Holly J; Bomyea, Jessica; Stein, Murray B; Cissell, Shadha H; Lang, Ariel J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of sleep complaints among individuals with anxiety disorders, few prior studies have examined whether sleep quality improves during anxiety treatment. The current study examined pre- to posttreatment sleep quality improvement during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder (PD; n = 26) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 24). Among sleep quality indices, only global sleep quality and sleep latency improved significantly (but modestly) during CBT. Sleep quality improvement was greater for treatment responders, but did not vary by diagnosis. Additionally, poor baseline sleep quality was independently associated with worse anxiety treatment outcome, as measured by higher intolerance of uncertainty. Additional intervention targeting sleep prior to or during CBT for anxiety may be beneficial for poor sleepers.

  10. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anorexia Nervosa: An Update.

    PubMed

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; El Ghoch, Marwan; Sartirana, Massimiliano; Calugi, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anorexia nervosa (AN), based on Beck's cognitive theory, was developed in a "generic" form in the early eighties. In recent years, however, improved knowledge of the mechanisms involved in maintaining eating disorder psychopathology has led to the development of a "specific" form of CBT, termed CBT-E (E = enhanced), designed to treat all forms of eating disorders, including AN, from outpatient to inpatient settings. Although more studies are required to assess the relative effectiveness of CBT-E with respect to other available treatments, the data indicate that in outpatient settings it is both viable and promising for adults and adolescents with AN. Encouraging results are also emerging from inpatient CBT-E, particularly in adolescents, and clinical services offering CBT-E at different levels of care are now offered in several countries around the world. However, CBT-E requires dissemination in order to become widely available to patients.

  11. Chronic Pain and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Knoerl, Robert; Lavoie Smith, Ellen M; Weisberg, James

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is often used to treat chronic pain; however, more information is needed about what are the most efficacious dose and delivery methods. The aims of this review were to determine (a) which CBT doses, delivery methods, strategies, and follow-up periods have been explored in recent intervention studies of individuals with chronic pain and (b) whether the outcomes described in the selected studies were consistent with recommendations by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials. The CINAHL, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS databases were searched for randomized controlled trials published from 2009 to 2015 testing CBT for adults with chronic pain. Thirty-five studies were included in this review. Results revealed that CBT reduced pain intensity in 43% of trials, the efficacy of online and in-person formats were comparable, and military veterans and individuals with cancer-related chronic pain were understudied. PMID:26604219

  12. Mobile phone computing for in-situ cognitive behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Bang, Magnus; Timpka, Toomas; Eriksson, Henrik; Holm, Einar; Nordin, Conny

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for psychological disorders is becoming increasingly popular on the Internet. However, when using this workstation approach, components such as training and learning relaxation skills, problem solving, exposure exercises, and sleep management guidance must be done in the domestic environment. This paper describes design concepts for providing spatially explicit CBT with mobile phones. We reviewed and analyzed a set of treatment manuals to distinguish elements of CBT that can be improved and supported using mobile phone applications. The key advantage of mobile computing support in CBT is that multimedia can be applied to record, scale, and label anxiety-provoking situations where the need arises, which helps the CBT clients formulate and convey their thoughts and feelings to relatives and friends, as well as to therapists at subsequent treatment sessions.

  13. Cognitive behavioral therapy: current status and future research directions.

    PubMed

    McMain, Shelley; Newman, Michelle G; Segal, Zindel V; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), an umbrella term that includes a diverse group of treatments, is defined by a strong commitment to empiricism. While CBT has a robust empirical base, areas for improvement remain. This article reviews the status of the current empirical base and its limitations, and presents future directions for advancement of the field. Ultimately, studies are needed that will identify the predictors, mediators, and moderators of treatment response in order to increase knowledge on how to personalize interventions for each client and to strengthen the impact of CBT. Efforts to advance the dissemination and implementation of CBT, innovative approaches such as practice-oriented research, and the advantages of incorporating new and existing technologies, are discussed as well.

  14. [Behavioral therapy of ticks with negative reinforcement in children].

    PubMed

    Nabieva, T N; Mukhin, E I

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-two children suffering from motor and vocal ticks exhibited weakness and distonia of ticks-prone muscles were examined. Based on the results obtained earlier, a complex of physical exercises has been worked out and conducted for 20 days. The patients were divided into 3 groups: 1st (n = 10) group did the exercises daily for training the ticks-prone muscles; the 2nd one (n = 10) exercised only after tick's appearance--negative reinforcement; 3rd group (n = 12) did exercises after tick's appearance as well but on irregular basis--probable negative reinforcement. In the 1st group, the exercising resulted in muscle strengthening and decrease of tick's number. The patients of the 2nd group got rid of ticks for 20 days. The probable tick's reinforcement in children of the 3rd group did not change pathological muscle activity. The central mechanisms of cortical plasticity in behavioral therapy of ticks are discussed.

  15. Treatment of adult insomnia with cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Pigeon, Wilfred R

    2010-11-01

    Insomnia is a highly prevalent disorder that occurs frequently in its acute form and at a rate of approximately 10% in its chronic form. There is a high prevalence of insomnia in a variety of medical and psychiatric conditions. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) may be employed for chronic insomnia as well as for insomnia in the context of other conditions such as chronic pain conditions. In such cases, some simple adaptations to standard CBT for insomnia are useful. This article reviews the typical assessment and CBT for adult insomnia, which have substantial empirical support for its efficacy. A case illustrates the core treatment processes and demonstrates that improving sleep in the context of conditions like chronic pain can lead to better management of such conditions.

  16. Cognitive behavioral therapy: current status and future research directions.

    PubMed

    McMain, Shelley; Newman, Michelle G; Segal, Zindel V; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), an umbrella term that includes a diverse group of treatments, is defined by a strong commitment to empiricism. While CBT has a robust empirical base, areas for improvement remain. This article reviews the status of the current empirical base and its limitations, and presents future directions for advancement of the field. Ultimately, studies are needed that will identify the predictors, mediators, and moderators of treatment response in order to increase knowledge on how to personalize interventions for each client and to strengthen the impact of CBT. Efforts to advance the dissemination and implementation of CBT, innovative approaches such as practice-oriented research, and the advantages of incorporating new and existing technologies, are discussed as well. PMID:25689506

  17. Treatment of Adult Insomnia With Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pigeon, Wilfred R.

    2015-01-01

    Insomnia is a highly prevalent disorder that occurs frequently in its acute form and at a rate of approximately 10% in its chronic form. There is a high prevalence of insomnia in a variety of medical and psychiatric conditions. Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) may be employed for chronic insomnia as well as for insomnia in the context of other conditions such as chronic pain conditions. In such cases, some simple adaptations to standard CBT for insomnia are useful. This article reviews the typical assessment and CBT for adult insomnia, which have substantial empirical support for its efficacy. A case illustrates the core treatment processes and demonstrates that improving sleep in the context of conditions like chronic pain can lead to better management of such conditions. PMID:20853442

  18. [Cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis to promote social recovery].

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Syudo

    2013-01-01

    When conducting cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp), it is essential that therapists aim for the recovery of patients with psychosis. During the sessions, the therapist helps a person with psychosis understand their symptoms, manages his/her residual positive symptoms, and helps them to cope with distress from the positive symptoms by themselves. Such CBTp should be designed to achieve the goals of the patient's social life. Recently, the effect of CBTp on residual positive symptoms of drug resistance has been reported repeatedly. Manifestation, cognitive bias, and activaters of residual positive symptoms differ considerably between individuals with psychosis. In the psychiatric rehabilitation field in Japan today, the symptom self-management module is being used. The symptom self-management module is derived from the techniques of group social skills training. However, there are needs for individual cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis to meet the marked variation in individual needs. The effect of CBTp by itself on an individual with the initial episode of psychosis is limited. Many individuals with their first episode are teenagers or adolescents. Those patients are usually confronted with the problems of education and employment, which are key developmental tasks in adolescence. In order to meet those needs, a case manager should be assigned to an individual with first-episode psychosis, and CBTp should be implemented within the case management process. The CBTp has been introduced in various forms for the purpose of recovery support of individuals with psychosis. For the future, not only the accumulation of evidence but also the development of a dissemination system of CBTp are required to meet the individual needs of patients.

  19. [Third Wave Therapies of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Reasonable Add-on Therapy for CBT? State of the Art].

    PubMed

    Külz, AnneKatrin; Barton, Barbara; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with exposure is the state of the art and most efficient treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder and recommended as treatment of 1st choice according to guidelines. Therapies of the third wave, such as mindfulness based approaches (ACT, MBCT), metacognitive therapy, CBASP or schema therapy, have become more popular over past few years. A small number of studies that investigated some of these therapies show promising results. However, due to the small number of available studies, small sample sizes and methodologic limitations (only a few available RCTs) the evidence of these therapies is insufficient. Above all no study compared these alternative therapies with the well-proven CBT and exposure. Therefore, therapies of the third wave should only be used as add-on therapies to CBT and exposure if individually needed in the treatment of OCD. Future research is absolutely needed.

  20. Comparison of Behavioral Intervention and Sensory-Integration Therapy in the Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Sarah; Leader, Geraldine; Healy, Olive

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigates the comparative effects of sensory-integration therapy and behavioral interventions on rates of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in a 9-year-old boy with diagnosis of autism. A functional analysis was conducted to identify the variables maintaining the self-injurious behavior. This analysis demonstrated that SIB was…

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Light Therapy, and Their Combination for Seasonal Affective Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohan, Kelly J.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Tierney Lindsey, Kathryn; Johnson, Leigh G.; Lippy, Robert D.; Lacy, Timothy J.; Barton, Franca B.

    2007-01-01

    This first controlled psychotherapy trial for seasonal affective disorder (SAD) compared SAD-tailored cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), light therapy (LT), and their combination to a concurrent wait-list control. Adults (N = 61) with major depression, recurrent with seasonal pattern, were randomized to one of four 6-week conditions: CBT (1.5-hr…

  2. Does Interpersonal Therapy Help Patients with Binge Eating Disorder Who Fail to Respond to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agras, W. Stewart; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of group interpersonal therapy (IPT) in treating overweight, binge-eating patients. Participants were randomly allocated to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or to an assessment-only group. After 12 weeks, those who did not respond to CBT were assigned 12 weeks of IPT. IPT led to no further improvement. (JPS)

  3. Cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders: 40 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Ost, Lars-Göran

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive-behavior therapies (CBT) have been evaluated in randomized controlled studies (RCT) and anxiety disorders since 1966 and for each disorder there are at least two CBT methods that are considered evidence based (empirically supported) today. Numerous meta-analyses have evaluated the efficacy of these methods against various control conditions. However, none has looked at whether modern CBT studies lead to better treatment effects than were obtained 10-40 years ago. The aim of this paper is to present a meta-analysis focusing on the mean extent of change achieved by the CBT treatments across decades (from the 1970s onwards). Database searches yielded a total of 432 RCTs for the anxiety disorders combined and 364 of these allowed calculation of within-group effect size (ES) or percentage clinical improvement. Separate ESs were calculated for three central measures: independent assessor rating, self-report and behavioral approach test. The results showed that in most instances there was no significant change in ES across time. In a few instances, the treatment effects were greater in modern studies. However, it was more common with a negative development, or a mixed development (first positive then negative or vice versa). There was no significant change in proportion of clinical improvement. Treatment time and attrition either increased or remained stable. If the single studies that gave the highest ES each decade were compared, all anxiety disorders besides panic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder showed a positive development. Possible explanations to the results are discussed.

  4. Impact of nicotine replacement therapy on smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Cummings, K Michael; Hyland, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes evidence pertaining to the role of nicotine medications in smoking cessation and focuses particularly on evaluating evidence of the impact that nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) have had on altering population trends in smoking behavior. Accumulated evidence from controlled clinical trials has demonstrated that available forms of NRT (e.g., gum, transdermal patch, nasal spray, inhaler, and lozenge) increase quit rates compared with placebos by 50%-100%. However, despite the positive results from these studies, fewer than one in five smokers making a quit attempt do so with the benefit of NRT. Because not enough smokers are using NRT, the availability of NRT has not had a measurable impact on influencing population trends in smoking behavior. Among the factors contributing to the low utilization of nicotine medications are the inadequacies of the current dosage strengths and formulations of existing medications, smokers' perceptions of the high cost of the drugs, and concerns that many smokers have about safety and efficacy of nicotine medications. PMID:15760302

  5. Treating Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors With Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in other emotionally dysregulated populations. This longitudinal single-group pilot study examined whether individuals with impaired intellectual functioning would show reductions in CBs while receiving standard DBT individual therapy used in conjunction with the Skills System (DBT-SS), a DBT emotion regulation skills curriculum adapted for individuals with cognitive impairment. Forty adults with developmental disabilities (most of whom also had intellectual disabilities) and CBs, including histories of aggression, self-injury, sexual offending, or other CBs, participated in this study. Changes in their behaviors were monitored over 4 years while in DBT-SS. Large reductions in CBs were observed during the 4 years. These findings suggest that modified DBT holds promise for effectively treating individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:23914278

  6. Behavioral therapy for treatment of stereotypic movements in nonautistic children.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jonathan M; Singer, Harvey S; Bridges, Dana D; Waranch, H Richard

    2006-02-01

    Although typically described in autistic, mentally retarded, and sensory-deprived individuals, motor stereotypies also occur in normal children. In this preliminary report, the behavior modification techniques of habit reversal and differential reinforcement of other behavior were evaluated as a therapeutic modality for the suppression of stereotypic movements in nonautistic subjects. Twelve children, ages 6 to 14 years, with physiologic stereotypies were treated using a standardized treatment protocol. Clinical outcomes were based on differences between assessments obtained at baseline and on telephone follow-up. Evaluation scales included measures of the frequency, intensity, interference, and number of stereotypies (Stereotypy Severity Scale motor portion and Stereotypy Linear Analog Scale) and assessment of global function (Child Global Assessment Scale and Stereotypy Severity Scale global portion). The results were correlated with the child's level of motivation and the number of treatment sessions. After a mean follow-up of 12.1 months, motor stereotypies showed significant improvement on the Stereotypy Linear Analog Scale and Stereotypy Severity Scale total score, P = .009 and P = .046, respectively. Both scales showed a relationship between the number of treatment sessions attended and a reduction in movements. The Child Global Assessment Scale also improved with therapy, but there was no correlation with the number of treatment sessions. Highly motivated patients had greater improvement on the Stereotypy Linear Analog Scale and Stereotypy Severity Scale scales compared with less motivated patients, but motivation had no impact on the Child Global Assessment Scale. The combined use of habit reversal and differential reinforcement of other behavior is beneficial in reducing motor stereotypies in nonautistic children.

  7. Description of an Intensive Dialectical Behavior Therapy Program for Multidiagnostic Clients with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federici, Anita; Wisniewski, Lucene; Ben-Porath, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe an intensive outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for multidiagnostic clients with eating disorders who had not responded adequately to standard, empirically supported treatments for eating disorders. The program integrates DBT with empirically supported cognitive behavior therapy approaches that are well…

  8. Case Study: Successful Medication Withdrawal Using Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for a Preadolescent with OCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallinen, Bethany J.; Nangle, Douglas W.; O'Grady, April C.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy to a medication regimen of clomipramine and fluoxetine and the withdrawal of medication during cognitive-behavioral therapy. The participant was an 11-year-old girl with symptoms of obsessive thoughts about germs and illness and…

  9. Behavior Theory and Therapy. California Mental Health Research Symposium No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, C. E.; And Others

    Reproduced here are symposia papers dealing with behavior theory and therapy. Behavior therapy attempts to apply the findings of experimental psychology and the laboratory to the clinic. It takes the principles of learning and scientific psychology and makes them useful therapeutically. The two orientations in this area are operant and classical…

  10. Treatment Adherence, Competence, and Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake,…

  11. Enhancing Behavioral Couple Therapy: Addressing the Therapeutic Alliance, Hope, and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Shalonda; Iwamasa, Gayle Y.

    2005-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of behavioral couple therapy (BCT) are well documented and disseminated, and this couple therapy approach continues to evolve. Newer behaviorally based approaches share an openness to integration and can enhance the ability of BCT to address three key process-related variables: the therapeutic alliance, hope, and…

  12. Traditional Versus Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy for Significantly and Chronically Distressed Married Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Andrew; Atkins, David C.; Berns, Sara; Wheeler, Jennifer; Baucom, Donald H.; Simpson, Lorelei E.

    2004-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial compared the effects of traditional behavioral couple therapy (TBCT) and integrative behavioral couple therapy (IBCT) on 134 seriously and chronically distressed married couples, stratified into moderately and severely distressed groups. Couples in IBCT made steady improvements in satisfaction throughout the course of…

  13. Better versus Worse Family Therapy Sessions as Reflected in Clients' Alliance-Related Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; Bernardi, Shaina; Lee, Hsin-Hua

    2010-01-01

    To be responsive to clients' evaluations of the unfolding therapy process, therapists must first accurately "read" client behavior, a particularly challenging task in conjoint family therapy. In this study, the authors compared client behavior in 28 sessions that one family member and the therapist concurred, on the Session Evaluation…

  14. Gender Differences in the Maintenance of Response to Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felmingham, Kim L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential differential responses in men and women to cognitive behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Fifty-two men and 56 women diagnosed with PTSD participated in randomized controlled trials of cognitive behavior therapy for PTSD. Participants were randomly allocated to either (a) exposure-only…

  15. Clients' Emotional Processing in Psychotherapy: A Comparison between Cognitive-Behavioral and Process-Experiential Therapies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jeanne C.; Bedard, Danielle L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors compared clients' emotional processing in good and bad outcome cases in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and process-experiential therapy (PET) and investigated whether clients' emotional processing increases over the course of therapy. Twenty minutes from each of 3 sessions from 40 clients were rated on the Experiencing Scale. A 2 *…

  16. Early Therapeutic Alliance and Treatment Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Cecero, John J.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of early therapeutic alliance was examined in 100 clients receiving either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Observational ratings of adolescent alliance in CBT and adolescent and parent alliance in family therapy were used to predict treatment retention (in CBT only) and…

  17. The Use of Homework in Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Working with Complex Anxiety and Insomnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Homework, or self-help, is an essential and required part of cognitive behavioral treatment. It offers several opportunities for the therapist to extend and increase therapy contact by having the patient "live" the therapy outside of the consulting room. It can also serve as a measure of the patient's motivation for therapy or for change. Homework…

  18. Dialectical Behavior Therapy of Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa among Adolescents: A Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Bohnekamp, Inga; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Miller, Alec L.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a case series of adolescents (mean age = 16.5 years, SD = 1.0) with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) who received dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Twelve outpatients with AN and BN took part in 25 weeks of twice weekly therapy consisting of individual therapy and a skills training group.…

  19. Understanding occupational therapy students' attitudes, intentions, and behaviors regarding community service.

    PubMed

    Hoppes, Steve; Hellman, Chan M

    2007-01-01

    Community-based practice has always been a central domain of occupational therapy, and evidence supporting its increasing importance is growing. Preparing occupational therapy students for community practice has received considerable attention in professional literature, but students' voices have seldom been heard concerning this issue. This study sought to investigate attitudes, intentions, and behaviors regarding community service among occupational therapy students enrolled in one professional program using the Community Service Attitudes Survey. We present the Theory of Planned Behavior as a conceptual framework linking students' attitudes and intentions with behaviors. Results indicate that these occupational therapy students' attitudes and intentions regarding community service tended to be more strongly positive than those of their counterparts in other allied health disciplines; however, the community service behaviors of occupational therapy students were not significantly different from those of other allied health students, possibly because occupational therapy students perceived high costs to community service.

  20. Understanding occupational therapy students' attitudes, intentions, and behaviors regarding community service.

    PubMed

    Hoppes, Steve; Hellman, Chan M

    2007-01-01

    Community-based practice has always been a central domain of occupational therapy, and evidence supporting its increasing importance is growing. Preparing occupational therapy students for community practice has received considerable attention in professional literature, but students' voices have seldom been heard concerning this issue. This study sought to investigate attitudes, intentions, and behaviors regarding community service among occupational therapy students enrolled in one professional program using the Community Service Attitudes Survey. We present the Theory of Planned Behavior as a conceptual framework linking students' attitudes and intentions with behaviors. Results indicate that these occupational therapy students' attitudes and intentions regarding community service tended to be more strongly positive than those of their counterparts in other allied health disciplines; however, the community service behaviors of occupational therapy students were not significantly different from those of other allied health students, possibly because occupational therapy students perceived high costs to community service. PMID:17944290

  1. Cognitive behavioral therapy in pharmacoresistant obsessive–compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Vyskocilova, Jana; Prasko, Jan; Sipek, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to determine whether patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) resistant to drug therapy may improve their condition using intensive, systematic cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) lasting for 6 weeks, and whether it is possible to predict the therapeutic effect using demographic, clinical, and selected psychological characteristics at baseline. Methods Sixty-six OCD patients were included in the study, of which 57 completed the program. The diagnosis was confirmed using the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Patients were rated using the objective and subjective forms of the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, objective and subjective forms of the Clinical Global Impression, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Dissociative Experiences Scale, 20-item Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire, and the Sheehan Disability Scale before their treatment, and with subjective Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory at the end of the treatment. Patients were treated with antidepressants and daily intensive group CBT for the 6-week period. Results During the 6-week intensive CBT program in combination with pharmacotherapy, there was a significant improvement in patients suffering from OCD resistant to drug treatment. There were statistically significantly decrease in the scores assessing the severity of OCD symptoms, anxiety, and depressive feelings. A lower treatment effect was achieved specifically in patients who 1) showed fewer OCD themes in symptomatology, 2) showed a higher level of somatoform dissociation, 3) had poor insight, and 4) had a higher initial level of overall severity of the disorder. Remission of the disorder was more likely in patients who had 1) good insight, 2) a lower initial level of anxiety, and 3) no comorbid depressive disorder. PMID:27042074

  2. Using a digital game for training desirable behavior in cognitive-behavioral therapy of burnout syndrome: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Zielhorst, Thomas; van den Brule, Daphne; Visch, Valentijn; Melles, Marijke; van Tienhoven, Sam; Sinkbaek, Helle; Schrieken, Bart; Tan, Eduard S-H; Lange, Alfred

    2015-02-01

    Burnout is a globally increasing illness, and as a result, many forms of burnout therapy have arisen. The use of digital games can be psychotherapeutically effective because they can transform exercises that are by themselves unattractive into intrinsically motivated action. This pilot study aims to test whether a specially designed game contributes to patients learning desired behavior and achieving other specific therapeutic goals in an online cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-based burnout treatment context. In total, 101 participants took part in the experiment, under four conditions: (a) Game+Therapy, (b) Therapy Only, (c) Game Only, and (d) No Game+No Therapy. Pre- and postmeasures were taken online. Results showed that the two therapy conditions (Game+Therapy and Therapy Only) showed a greater decrease in complaints and disengagement, and a stronger increase in coping skills than the nontherapy conditions (Game Only and No Game+No Therapy). As expected, the Game+Therapy condition outperformed the Therapy Only condition on combined improvement measures of burnout symptoms. However, analyses of individual measures showed no effects. It can be cautiously concluded that the therapeutic digital game may be a useful tool when embedded in a therapeutic burnout treatment program and is probably more efficient than CBT, as it is used in current practice.

  3. An Open Trial of Acceptance-based Separated Family Treatment (ASFT) for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Timko, C. Alix; Zucker, Nancy L.; Herbert, James D.; Rodriguez, Daniel; Merwin, Rhonda M.

    2016-01-01

    Family based-treatments have the most empirical support in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa; yet, a significant percentage of adolescents and their families do not respond to manualized family based treatment (FBT). The aim of this open trial was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of an innovative family-based approach to the treatment of anorexia: Acceptance-based Separated Family Treatment (ASFT). Treatment was grounded in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), delivered in a separated format, and included an ACT-informed skills program. Adolescents (ages 12–18) with anorexia or sub-threshold anorexia and their families received 20 treatment sessions over 24 weeks. Outcome indices included eating disorder symptomatology reported by the parent and adolescent, percentage of expected body weight achieved, and changes in psychological acceptance/avoidance. Half of the adolescents (48.0%) met criteria for full remission at the end of treatment, 29.8% met criteria for partial remission, and 21.3% did not improve. Overall, adolescents had a significant reduction in eating disorder symptoms and reached expected body weight. Treatment resulted in changes in psychological acceptance in the expected direction for both parents and adolescents. This open trial provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of ASFT for adolescents with anorexia. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25898341

  4. [Application of music therapy for managing agitated behavior in older people with dementia].

    PubMed

    Sung, Huei-Chuan; Chang, Anne M; Abbey, Jennifer

    2006-10-01

    Older people with dementia may display negative emotions, memory problems, sleep disturbance, and agitated behavior. Among these symptoms, agitated behavior has been identified by families and nursing staff as the care problem that presents the greatest challenge. Several studies have found that music therapy reduced agitated behaviors in those with dementia and recommended use of music as an effective strategy in managing this behavioral problem. Music therapy represents a lower cost, effective care approach that nursing staff can easily learn and apply to those with dementia. Furthermore, reductions in agitated behavior in dementia patients that result from music therapy can also alleviate caregiver stress and burden of care, leading to improvements in the health and quality of life of both dementia patients and their caregivers. This paper aims to introduce the principles and application of music therapy in the management of agitated behavior in those with dementia.

  5. Cognitive behavior therapy for night eating syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Lundgren, Jennifer D; Moore, Reneé H; O'Reardon, John P; Stunkard, Albert J

    2010-01-01

    Because no studies of psychotherapy treatments for night eating syndrome (NES) have been published, we conducted a pilot study of a 10-session cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for NES. Twenty-five patients (19 female, 6 male) were screened and comprehensively assessed before being enrolled. At each visit, patients completed the Night Eating Symptom Scale (NESS), were weighed, and number of awakenings and the number of nocturnal ingestions and daily caloric intake were calculated from weekly food and sleep records. Mixed model regression analyses [of the data] showed significant decreases in caloric intake after dinner (35.0% to 24.9%); number of nocturnal ingestions (8.7 to 2.6 per week); weight (82.5 to 79.4 kg); and NESS score (28.7 to 16.3; all p values <0.0001). Number of awakenings per week, depressed mood, and quality of life also improved significantly (p values <.02). This first clinical trial of CBT for NES shows significant improvements in the core aspects of NES and weight reduction, suggesting the need for a controlled treatment trial.

  6. Cognitive behavior therapy for night eating syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Lundgren, Jennifer D; Moore, Reneé H; O'Reardon, John P; Stunkard, Albert J

    2010-01-01

    Because no studies of psychotherapy treatments for night eating syndrome (NES) have been published, we conducted a pilot study of a 10-session cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for NES. Twenty-five patients (19 female, 6 male) were screened and comprehensively assessed before being enrolled. At each visit, patients completed the Night Eating Symptom Scale (NESS), were weighed, and number of awakenings and the number of nocturnal ingestions and daily caloric intake were calculated from weekly food and sleep records. Mixed model regression analyses [of the data] showed significant decreases in caloric intake after dinner (35.0% to 24.9%); number of nocturnal ingestions (8.7 to 2.6 per week); weight (82.5 to 79.4 kg); and NESS score (28.7 to 16.3; all p values <0.0001). Number of awakenings per week, depressed mood, and quality of life also improved significantly (p values <.02). This first clinical trial of CBT for NES shows significant improvements in the core aspects of NES and weight reduction, suggesting the need for a controlled treatment trial. PMID:20405767

  7. Neural correlates of behavior therapy for Tourette's disorder.

    PubMed

    Deckersbach, Thilo; Chou, Tina; Britton, Jennifer C; Carlson, Lindsay E; Reese, Hannah E; Siev, Jedidiah; Scahill, Lawrence; Piacentini, John C; Woods, Douglas W; Walkup, John T; Peterson, Alan L; Dougherty, Darin D; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2014-12-30

    Tourette's disorder, also called Tourette syndrome (TS), is characterized by motor and vocal tics that can cause significant impairment in daily functioning. Tics are believed to be due to failed inhibition of both associative and motor cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical pathways. Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT), which is an extension of Habit Reversal Therapy (HRT), teaches patients to become more aware of sensations that reliably precede tics (premonitory urges) and to initiate competing movements that inhibit the occurrence of tics. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural changes associated with CBIT treatment in subjects with TS. Eight subjects with TS were matched with eight healthy controls in gender, education, age, and handedness. Subjects completed the Visuospatial Priming (VSP) task, a measure of response inhibition, during fMRI scanning before and after CBIT treatment (or waiting period for controls). For TS subjects, we found a significant decrease in striatal (putamen) activation from pre- to post-treatment. Change in VSP task-related activation from pre- to post-treatment in Brodmann's area 47 (the inferior frontal gyrus) was negatively correlated with changes in tic severity. CBIT may promote normalization of aberrant cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical associative and motor pathways in individuals with TS.

  8. Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Subtypes of Voice-Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Smailes, David; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Dodgson, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for voice-hearing (i.e., auditory verbal hallucinations; AVH) has, at best, small to moderate effects. One possible reason for this limited efficacy is that current CBT approaches tend to conceptualize voice-hearing as a homogenous experience in terms of the cognitive processes involved in AVH. However, the highly heterogeneous nature of voice-hearing suggests that many different cognitive processes may be involved in the etiology of AVH. These heterogeneous voice-hearing experiences do, however, appear to cluster into a set of subtypes, opening up the possibility of tailoring treatment to the subtype of AVH that a voice-hearer reports. In this paper, we (a) outline our rationale for tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing, (b) describe CBT for three putative subtypes of AVH (inner speech-based AVH, memory-based AVH, and hypervigilance AVH), and (c) discuss potential limitations and problems with such an approach. We conclude by arguing that tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing could prove to be a valuable therapeutic development, which may be especially effective when used in early intervention in psychosis services. PMID:26733919

  9. The theory-practice gap in cognitive-behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Pilecki, Brian; McKay, Dean

    2013-12-01

    This special series is devoted to understanding the theory-practice gap in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT). Although CBT enjoys considerable empirical support, and is widely recognized as an efficacious approach to a diversity of psychiatric disorders and includes many different forms of treatment, it is unclear whether clinicians are familiar with the underlying theories of the treatments they are practicing. Moreover, it is unclear to what degree an understanding of the theory is necessary for effective practice. Gaining clarity on the role of understanding underlying theory and identifying potential disparities between theory and practice may have implications for the way graduate training programs are structured and current professionals approach continuing education. A brief exploration of these implications will be offered by introducing issues related to the scientist-practitioner model and dissemination of efficacious treatments, in addition to an outline of potential advantages and disadvantages of knowing underlying theory. This special series will then feature several major approaches to treatment wherein the role of theory and practice are discussed.

  10. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Psychiatric Nursing in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinaga, Naoki; Nosaki, Akiko; Hayashi, Yuta; Tanoue, Hiroki; Shimizu, Eiji; Kunikata, Hiroko; Okada, Yoshie; Shiraishi, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric nurses have played a significant role in disseminating cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in Western countries; however, in Japan, the application, practice, efficiency, and quality control of CBT in the psychiatric nursing field are unclear. This study conducted a literature review to assess the current status of CBT practice and research in psychiatric nursing in Japan. Three English databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) and two Japanese databases (Ichushi-Web and CiNii) were searched with predetermined keywords. Fifty-five articles met eligibility criteria: 46 case studies and 9 comparative studies. It was found that CBT took place primarily in inpatient settings and targeted schizophrenia and mood disorders. Although there were only a few comparative studies, each concluded that CBT was effective. However, CBT recipients and outcome measures were diverse, and nurses were not the only CBT practitioners in most reports. Only a few articles included the description of CBT training and supervision. This literature review clarified the current status of CBT in psychiatric nursing in Japan and identified important implications for future practice and research: performing CBT in a variety of settings and for a wide range of psychiatric disorders, conducting randomized controlled trials, and establishing pre- and postqualification training system. PMID:26798512

  11. [Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Treatment of ADHD in Adults].

    PubMed

    Auclair, Vickie; Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background The international prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated at 2.5%. ADHD is associated with serious impairment in academic, occupational, social and emotional functioning. Despite the debilitating nature of this disorder, few individuals with ADHD receive appropriate help. Further, although psychopharmacology is considered the first-line treatment of adults with ADHD, it is now recognized that medication alone may be insufficient. Thus, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a promising approach.Objectives This study aimed to review literature and investigate the efficacy of CBT, in reducing ADHD symptoms and comorbid conditions such anxiety and depression for adults with ADHD, by several studies through a meta-analysis.Methods We searched the literature from 1946 through 2015 using especially MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO. We used a random-effects model, Odds Ratios (OR) and Hedge's g.Results Data from 12 randomized controlled studies were included, totaling 575 subjects. The results showed a significant reduction in ADHD symptoms (Hedge's g = 0.95) and comorbid anxiety (Hedge's g = 0.39) and depression (Hedge's g = 0.30) for the CBT group in comparison with controls. Following the end of treatment, ADHD symptoms continue to improve, but not the comorbid conditions.Conclusion In summary, in adults with ADHD, CBT appears to be a promising treatment. PMID:27570962

  12. Pilot testing of a mindfulness- and acceptance-based intervention for increasing cardiorespiratory fitness in sedentary adults: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, E.C.; Galloway-Williams, N.; Cox, M.G.; Winett, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Vigorous physical activity (PA) has been promoted for improving cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). However, therapeutic techniques designed to engage participants in vigorous PA have fallen short; one reason for this may be the unpleasant physical sensations associated with vigorous exercise (e.g., temporary shortness of breath and mild muscle soreness). Mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may be helpful at improving adherence to vigorous PA levels. In this open clinical trial, we sought to demonstrate the feasibility and acceptability of a mindfulness- and acceptance-based intervention for increasing CRF in sedentary adults and to generate initial outcomes data. Design Participants (N=24) engaged in a 10-week fitness walking program while attending regular group sessions based on ACT. Main outcome measures and results The feasibility and acceptability of the intervention were demonstrated through high levels of walking adherence (89.30%) and group session attendance (85.50%). A large significant decrease in total 1-mile walk test time [t(18)=4.61, p=.0002, d=.64] and a moderate significant increase in estimated VO2max [t(18)=−4.05, p=.0007, d=−.43] were observed. Analyses indicated a large significant increase in exercise-related experiential acceptance [t(18)=−9.19, p <.0001, d=−2.09]. Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility and acceptability of an ACT-based intervention for supporting participation in vigorous PA in sedentary individuals. PMID:27104134

  13. Introduction to "The Behavior-Analytic Origins of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: An Example of Behavioral Neurorehabilitation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaal, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to "The Behavior-Analytic Origins of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: An Example of Behavioral Neurorehabilitation," by Edward Taub and his colleagues (Taub, 2012). Based on extensive experimentation with animal models of peripheral nerve injury, Taub and colleagues have created an approach to overcoming…

  14. Behavioral health staff's perceptions of pet-assisted therapy: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Jeanette; DeFabiis, Susanne; Belpedio, Camille

    2008-09-01

    The purpose and objectives of this exploratory descriptive study were threefold: to assess the impact of pet-assisted therapy on the overall well-being of behavioral health staff, to document whether pet-assisted therapy affected the retention of behavioral health staff, and to explore and describe therapeutic measures behavioral health staff implemented in using pet-assisted therapy in the delivery of mental health patient care. The participants in this study were 10 behavioral health staff members who were involved with the pet-assisted therapy program at a private psychiatric hospital in a Chicago suburb. Themes that emerged from the study included Self-Awareness, Morale, Innovative Therapeutic Strategies, Challenges, and Future Directions. This article describes these themes in detail, provides quotations from participants to further highlight meaning, and discusses the powerful effect of pet-assisted therapy on both patients and staff in the therapeutic milieu. PMID:18822998

  15. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents: Theory, Treatment Adaptations, and Empirical Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Heather A.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.; Fristad, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed for chronically suicidal adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and emotion dysregulation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate DBT is associated with improvements in problem behaviors, including suicide ideation and behavior, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), attrition,…

  16. Some Generalization and Follow-Up Measures on Autistic Children in Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovaas, O. Ivar; And Others

    Reported was a behavior therapy program emphasizing language training for 20 autistic children who variously exhibited apparent sensory deficit, severe affect isolation, self stimulatory behavior, mutism, echolalic speech, absence of receptive speech and social and self help behaviors, and self destructive tendencies. The treatment emphasized…

  17. Skills Practice in Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Women Meeting Criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindenboim, Noam; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2007-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based practice for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and suicidal behavior that has been replicated with a variety of populations. Patients' practice of behavioral skills taught in the group skills training component of DBT may be partly responsible for the positive treatment outcomes according…

  18. Application of the theory of planned behavior to oral anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed

    Burns, Sharita

    2009-03-01

    Anticoagulation control is imperative for individuals who are prescribed long-term oral anticoagulation therapy. Therapeutic international normalized ratios decrease the risk of the thromboembolic complications that are associated with oral anticoagulation therapy. Individuals on oral anticoagulation therapy are often asked to make lifestyle modifications that can become barriers to medication adherence. The application of the theory of planned behavior to oral anticoagulation therapy can be used to assist advanced practice nurses in assessing individuals for the perceived barriers or obstacles that might interfere with the behavioral changes necessary to successfully comply with the recommended treatment plan. PMID:19298315

  19. Cognitive behavior therapy with Internet addicts: treatment outcomes and implications.

    PubMed

    Young, Kimberly S

    2007-10-01

    Research over the last decade has identified Internet addiction as a new and often unrecognized clinical disorder that impact a user's ability to control online use to the extent that it can cause relational, occupational, and social problems. While much of the literature explores the psychological and social factors underlying Internet addiction, little if any empirical evidence exists that examines specific treatment outcomes to deal with this new client population. Researchers have suggested using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as the treatment of choice for Internet addiction, and addiction recovery in general has utilized CBT as part of treatment planning. To investigate the efficacy of using CBT with Internet addicts, this study investigated 114 clients who suffered from Internet addiction and received CBT at the Center for Online Addiction. This study employed a survey research design, and outcome variables such as client motivation, online time management, improved social relationships, improved sexual functioning, engagement in offline activities, and ability to abstain from problematic applications were evaluated on the 3rd, 8th, and 12th sessions and over a 6-month follow-up. Results suggested that Caucasian, middle-aged males with at least a 4-year degree were most likely to suffer from some form of Internet addiction. Preliminary analyses indicated that most clients were able to manage their presenting complaints by the eighth session, and symptom management was sustained upon a 6-month follow-up. As the field of Internet addiction continues to grow, such outcome data will be useful in treatment planning with evidenced-based protocols unique to this emergent client population.

  20. The importance of theory in cognitive behavior therapy: a perspective of contextual behavioral science.

    PubMed

    Herbert, James D; Gaudiano, Brandon A; Forman, Evan M

    2013-12-01

    For the past 30 years, generations of scholars of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) have expressed concern that clinical practice has abandoned the close links with theory that characterized the earliest days of the field. There is also a widespread assumption that a greater working knowledge of theory will lead to better clinical outcomes, although there is currently very little hard evidence to support this claim. We suggest that the rise of so-called "third generation" models of CBT over the past decade, along with the dissemination of statistical innovations among psychotherapy researchers, have given new life to this old issue. We argue that theory likely does matter to clinical outcomes, and we outline the future research that would be needed to address this conjecture.

  1. A Review and Empirical Comparison of Three Treatments for Adolescent Males with Conduct and Personality Disorder: Mode Deactivation Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Social Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2005-01-01

    This treatment research study extended the results of Apsche, Bass, Jennings, Murphy, Hunter, and Siv (2005), from behavioral data to standard measures of psychological distress. In Apsche, et. al. (2005) results suggest that Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) was more effective than Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Social Skills Therapy (SST) in…

  2. Controlled Trial of Very Low Calorie Diet, Behavior Therapy, and Their Combination in the Treatment of Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadden, Thomas A; Stunkard, Albert J.

    1986-01-01

    Assessed the effectiveness of a combined program of very low calorie diet and behavior therapy in treating obesity. Combined treatment and behavior therapy alone subjects maintained weight losses; none of the diet alone subjects met the criterion used to define maintenance. Only those receiving behavior therapy alone and combined treatment showed…

  3. Effects of Active Versus Passive Group Music Therapy on Preadolescents with Emotional, Learning, and Behavioral Disorders.

    PubMed

    Montello; Coons

    1999-01-01

    This study attempted to compare the behavioral effects of active, rhythm-based group music therapy vs. those of passive, listening-based group music therapy on preadolescents with emotional, learning, and behavioral disorders. It was hypothesized that preadolescents who participated in active music therapy would more significantly improve target behaviors than those involved in passive music therapy. Achenbach's Teacher Report Form (TRF) was used to confirm changes among subjects in attention, motivation, and hostility as rated by homeroom teachers. Twelve music therapy sessions were conducted over a 4-month period with three different groups of subjects (n = 16), with two groups participating in active music therapy and the other receiving passive music therapy. Results indicate that subjects improved significantly after receiving both music therapy interventions. The most significant change in subjects was found on the aggression/hostility scale. These results suggest that group music therapy can facilitate the process of serf-expression in emotionally disturbed/learning disabled adolescents and provide a channel for transforming frustration, anger, and aggression into the experience of creativity and self-mastery. Discussion of results also includes recommendations for chousing one music therapy approach over another based on personality types and/or clinical diagnoses of subjects.

  4. The Problem of Achieving Scientific Cognitive-Behavior Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Albert

    1978-01-01

    In the long run, the scientific therapies will prove more efficient for more people more of the time and will produce less harmful results. To the degree that the "unscientific" therapies last, they will have certain usable aspects incorporated into the remaining "scientific" systems. (Author)

  5. Predictors in Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy and behavioral stress management for severe health anxiety.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2015-01-01

    Severe health anxiety can be effectively treated with exposure-based Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT), but information about which factors that predict outcome is scarce. Using data from a recently conducted RCT comparing ICBT (n = 79) with Internet-delivered behavioral stress management (IBSM) (n = 79) the presented study investigated predictors of treatment outcome. Analyses were conducted using a two-step linear regression approach and the dependent variable was operationalized both as end state health anxiety at post-treatment and as baseline-to post-treatment improvement. A hypothesis driven approach was used where predictors expected to influence outcome were based on a previous predictor study by our research group. As hypothesized, the results showed that baseline health anxiety and treatment adherence predicted both end state health anxiety and improvement. In addition, anxiety sensitivity, treatment credibility, and working alliance were significant predictors of health anxiety improvement. Demographic variables, i.e. age, gender, marital status, computer skills, educational level, and having children, had no significant predictive value. We conclude that it is possible to predict a substantial proportion of the outcome variance in ICBT and IBSM for severe health anxiety. The findings of the present study can be of high clinical value as they provide information about factors of importance for outcome in the treatment of severe health anxiety.

  6. Contemporary Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Review of Theory, History, and Evidence.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Nathan; Pilecki, Brian; McKay, Dean

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has come to be a widely practiced psychotherapy throughout the world. The present article reviews theory, history, and evidence for CBT. It is meant as an effort to summarize the forms and scope of CBT to date for the uninitiated. Elements of CBT such as cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, and so-called "third wave" CBT, such as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) are covered. The evidence for the efficacy of CBT for various disorders is reviewed, including depression, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, substance abuse, schizophrenia, chronic pain, insomnia, and child/adolescent disorders. The relative efficacy of medication and CBT, or their combination, is also briefly considered. Future directions for research and treatment development are proposed.

  7. Principles of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, David M.; Davis, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a cognitive-behavioral approach to treating bulimia, focusing on the client's eating behavior, physical condition, and dysfunctional attitudes responsible for deficiencies in self-concept. (Author/ABB)

  8. Exercise, Behavioral Therapy Reduce Menopausal Symptoms Caused by Breast Cancer Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    Women with breast cancer who were suffering from treatment-related menopausal symptoms experienced symptom relief with cognitive behavioral therapy, physical exercise, or both, according to a Dutch study.

  9. Rational-Emotive Therapy: Research Data That Supports the Clinical and Personality Hypotheses of Ret and Other Modes of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Albert

    1977-01-01

    This article examines 32 important clinical and personality hypotheses of rational-emotive therapy (RET) and other modes of cognitive-behavior therapy and lists a large number of research studies that provide empirical confirmation of these hypotheses. (Author)

  10. An Empirical Examination of Symptom Substitution Associated With Behavior Therapy for Tourette's Disorder.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Alan L; McGuire, Joseph F; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W; Walkup, John T; Hatch, John P; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Over the past six decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a long-standing concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt motor and vocal tics associated with Tourette's disorder, it presents an excellent opportunity to empirically evaluate the potential risk for symptom substitution associated with behavior therapy. The present study examined the possible presence of symptom substitution using four methods: (a) the onset of new tic symptoms, (b) the occurrence of adverse events, (c) change in tic medications, and (d) worsening of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. Two hundred twenty-eight participants with Tourette's disorder or persistent motor or vocal tic disorders were randomly assigned to receive behavioral therapy or supportive therapy for tics. Both therapies consisted of eight sessions over 10 weeks. Results indicated that participants treated with behavior therapy were not more likely to have an onset of new tic symptoms, experience adverse events, increase tic medications, or have an exacerbation in co-occurring psychiatric symptoms relative to participants treated with supportive therapy. Further analysis suggested that the emergence of new tics was attributed with the normal waxing and waning nature of Tourette's disorder. Findings provide empirical support to counter the long-standing concern of symptom substitution in response to behavior therapy for individuals with Tourette's disorder. PMID:26763495

  11. Cognitive Behavioral Marital Therapy in the Treatment of Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Norman

    This paper considers the common association between marital problems and depression and describes the cognitive and behavioral factors which are common to these two problems. A set of cognitive behavioral interventions is presented, a treatment procedure which addresses cognitive and behavioral factors at the intrapersonal and interpersonal levels…

  12. [Therapist self-disclosure in cognitive-behavioral therapy].

    PubMed

    Panagiotidou, K; Zervas, I

    2014-01-01

    Social changes and developments in medical science prompted mental health professionals to adopt new roles in relation to their self-disclosure practices. The physician-patient relationship has balanced on a different level, promoting the equity and the autonomy of the second. The contemporary patient is better informed, asks more questions and requires more answers. The boundaries between "professional" and "personal" are less strict and patients believe that they have a right to know whether the personal experiences (educational, clinical, research) of their therapists enable them to understand and help them. Although the latest version of the American Psychological Association's Ethics Code (APA, 2002) offers no explicit guidance on therapist self-disclosure, it incorporates an implicit message that therapists can no longer choose non-disclosure without having considered the issue carefully. Non-disclosure is no longer the easy answer, as it may affect adversely the therapeutic relationship and the therapeutic effect. These new circumstances prompted representatives of all psychotherapeutic orientations to reconsider traditional positions on therapist self-disclosure, to adapt to the diverse needs of the patients and the modern requirements of the therapeutic process and to define the framework within which its conduct is not only safe but also effective. This review attempts to describe the concept of therapist self-disclosure and its use and its functions in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, following a history of the term in other major therapeutic schools (psychoanalytic, client-centered and systemic). As the focus of any psychotherapy is the patient himself, we added reports of patients' experiences by their therapists' disclosures. Those descriptions reveal clearly not only the benefits of therapist self-disclosure but also the dangers posed by improper use. Finally, we attempt to set a framework in the form of proposals, as these result from existing

  13. Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Cannabis Users: 5 Sessions. Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Series, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampl, Susan; Kadden, Ronald

    This manual is designed to help train substance abuse treatment counselors to conduct a brief five-session treatment intervention for adolescents with cannabis use disorders presenting for outpatient treatment. It combines two sessions of motivational enhancement therapy provided individually and three sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy…

  14. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  15. Benzodiazepine Discontinuation among Adults with GAD: A Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Patrick; Ladouceur, Robert; Morin, Charles M.; Dugas, Michel J.; Baillargeon, Lucie

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the specific effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) combined with medication tapering for benzodiazepine discontinuation among generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients by using a nonspecific therapy control group. Sixty-one patients who had used benzodiazepines for more than 12 months were randomly assigned to…

  16. Mediated Moderation in Combined Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Component Treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michelle G.; Fisher, Aaron J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined (a) duration of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as a moderator of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus its components (cognitive therapy and self-control desensitization) and (b) increases in dynamic flexibility of anxious symptoms during the course of psychotherapy as a mediator of this moderation. Degree of…

  17. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Subsyndromal Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szigethy, Eva; Kenney, Elyse; Carpenter, Johanna; Hardy, Diana M.; Fairclough, Diane; Bousvaros, Athos; Keljo, David; Weisz, John; Beardslee, William R.; Noll, Robert; DeMaso, David Ray

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the feasibility and efficacy of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing depressive symptomatology in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Therapy-Physical Illness(PASCET-PI) modified for youths with IBD was compared to treatment as usual (TAU), plus…

  18. Cognitive Changes, Critical Sessions, and Sudden Gains in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Tony Z.; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Beberman, Rachel; Pham, Thu

    2005-01-01

    Using an independent cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) data set, the authors replicated T. Z. Tang and R. J. DeRubeis' (1999) discovery of sudden gains--sudden and large decreases in depression severity in a single between-session interval. By incorporating therapy session transcripts, the authors of this study improved the reliability of the…

  19. Child-Therapist Alliance and Clinical Outcomes in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Child Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Angela W.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Har, Kim; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the link between child-therapist alliance and outcome in manual-guided cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for children diagnosed with anxiety disorders. This study sought to clarify the nature and strength of this relation. Methods: The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child…

  20. The Evolution of "Enhanced" Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Eating Disorders: Learning from Treatment Nonresponse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been widespread acceptance that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa. The cognitive behavioral treatment of bulimia nervosa (CBT-BN) was first described in 1981. Over the past decades the theory and treatment have evolved in response to a variety of challenges. The treatment has…

  1. Predictors of the Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Insomnia Comorbid with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Valerie; Savard, Josee; Ivers, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies have supported the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia comorbid with cancer. This article reports secondary analyses that were performed on one of these studies to investigate the predictive role of changes in dysfunctional beliefs about sleep, adherence to behavioral strategies, and some nonspecific factors…

  2. Intimacy Is a Transdiagnostic Problem for Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Functional Analytical Psychotherapy Is a Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetterneck, Chad T.; Hart, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Problems with intimacy and interpersonal issues are exhibited across most psychiatric disorders. However, most of the targets in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy are primarily intrapersonal in nature, with few directly involved in interpersonal functioning and effective intimacy. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) provides a behavioral basis for…

  3. Coping Strategies in Bulimia Nervosa Treatment: Impact on Outcome in Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binford, Roslyn B.; Mussell, Melissa Pederson; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Mitchell, James E.

    2005-01-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the extent to which participants (N = 143) receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (BN) reported implementing therapeutic strategies to abstain from BN behaviors, and to assess whether use of specific strategies predicts outcome at treatment end and 1-and 6-month follow-up. Frequency of…

  4. Successful Treatment of Olfactory Reference Syndrome with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Pichora, Andrea L.; Antony, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) is characterized by a preoccupation with the belief that one's body emits a foul odor. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was used to treat a woman in her 50s who presented in our outpatient anxiety disorders specialty clinic with ORS, accompanied by embarrassment, shame, distress, avoidance behavior, and social…

  5. Therapist Strategies for Building Involvement in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungbluth, Nathaniel J.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between 9 therapist behaviors and client involvement in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Analyses included 42 adolescents who met criteria for a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or adjustment disorder with depressed mood) and who were…

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP): Treatment Model, Feasibility, and Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David A.; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary F.; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the elements of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method: The CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction and relapse prevention approach and…

  7. Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Body Image Exposure for Bulimia Nervosa: A Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delinsky, Sherrie S.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN). However, among patients with BN, symptom improvement is more pronounced for behavioral eating symptoms (i.e., bingeing and purging) than for body image disturbance, and the persistence of body image disturbance is associated with relapse. The need for more…

  8. The Role of the Team in Managing Telephone Consultation in Dialectical Behavior Therapy: Three Case Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koons, Cedar R.

    2011-01-01

    Standard, outpatient Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) includes the provision of intersession telephone contact between the therapist and the client to reduce suicidal crisis behaviors, enhance skills generalization, and reduce alienation and conflict in the therapeutic relationship. Therapists providing telephone consultation need the help of…

  9. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Self-Determination Theory with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Peter C.; Patrick, Heather; Wenzel, Amy; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in preventing suicide-related behavior. However, it is often difficult to engage patients who are at-risk in treatment. Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been shown to increase treatment engagement and improve treatment outcomes when it is used to complement other treatments. As a…

  10. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Behavioral Activation for the Treatment of Depression: Description and Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Baruch, David E.; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2006-01-01

    The field of clinical behavior analysis is growing rapidly and has the potential to affect and transform mainstream cognitive behavior therapy. To have such an impact, the field must provide a formulation of and intervention strategies for clinical depression, the "common cold" of outpatient populations. Two treatments for depression have emerged:…

  11. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Adapted for the Vocational Rehabilitation of Significantly Disabled Mentally Ill Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koons, Cedar R.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Betts, Bette B.; O'Rourke, Beth; Morse, Nesha; Robins, Clive J.

    2006-01-01

    Twelve vocational rehabilitation clients with severe mental illness received a comprehensive adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) delivered in a group format. Treatment consisted of 2 hours of standard DBT skills training per week and 90 minutes of diary card review, chain analysis, and behavioral rehearsal. Participants were selected…

  12. Appetite-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Binge Eating with Purging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicker, Stacy L.; Craighead, Linda Wilcoxon

    2004-01-01

    The first-line treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), uses food-based self-monitoring. Six young women presenting with BN or significant purging behavior were treated with a modification, Appetite-Focused CBT (CBT-AF), in which self-monitoring is based on appetite cues and food monitoring is proscribed. This change…

  13. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) ‎

    PubMed Central

    Maddineshat, Maryam; Keyvanloo, Sodabe; Lashkardoost, Hossein; Arki, Mina; Tabatabaeichehr, Mahbubeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Standards of care and treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) vary. Non-drug ‎psychosocial intervention therapy is recommended for women with any kind of ‎discomfort or distress caused by PMS. The current study examined the effectiveness of ‎group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the symptoms of PMS at a girls’ dormitory of ‎North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences. Method: In this quasi-experimental study, 32 female students with PMS who were majoring in ‎nursing and midwifery and residing in the dormitory were selected using the ‎convenience sampling method and were assigned to experimental and control groups. ‎The Standardized Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool was used as the research ‎tool. Eight sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy were held for the students Results: There was a significant difference in psychological symptoms before and after ‎cognitive-behavioral therapy (p=0.012). Furthermore, cognitive-behavioral therapy was ‎effective on social interferences caused by PMS symptoms (p=0.012).‎ Conclusion: Group cognitive-behavioral therapy effectively alleviates PMS symptoms in female ‎college students.‎ PMID:27252766

  14. Efficacy of telephone-administered behavioral therapy for panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    PubMed

    Swinson, R P; Fergus, K D; Cox, B J; Wickwire, K

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a structured exposure-based behavior therapy program delivered by telephone to agoraphobic individuals who were isolated from specialized treatment centres. Forty-two individuals with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of panic disorder with agoraphobia who were living in rural areas of Ontario were assigned to either an eight-session telephone behavior therapy program or wait-list control condition. There were significant treatment x time interaction effects on several outcome variables. Patients originally in the wait-list group then received the same type of therapy and they also significantly improved. All treatment gains were maintained at three-month and six-month follow-up. Telephone behavior therapy appears to be a cost-effective and efficacious treatment for agoraphobics living in remote regions where specialized anxiety disorder services are not readily available. PMID:7755536

  15. The New Therapies and Psychopathology: The Behavioral Viewpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, P. E.

    Behavior therapists view psychopathology differently from dynamically oriented therapists, in that behaviorists are taught to regard symptoms primarily as sets of learned behaviors rather than cues to underlying psychological disorders. Even though there is a split among behaviorists as to which procedure is best to follow, there are some special…

  16. Social Phobia: A Comparison of Behavior Therapy and Atenolol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Samuel M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Randomly assigned 72 social phobics to behavioral (flooding) or drug treatment with atenolol or placebo. Found that flooding consistently was superior to placebo, whereas atenolol was not. Flooding also was superior to atenolol on behavioral measures and composite indexes. Subjects who improved during treatment maintained gains at six-month…

  17. Behaviors of Providers of Traditional Korean Medicine Therapy and Complementary and Alternative Medicine Therapy for the Treatment of Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jun-Sang; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Ki-Kyong; Lee, Ji-Eun; Kim, Min-Young

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In Korea, cancer is one of the most important causes of death. Cancer patients have sought alternative methods, like complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) together with Western medicine, to treat cancer. Also, there are many kinds of providers of CAM therapy, including providers of Korean oriental medicine therapy. The purpose of this study is to identify the behaviors of Korean oriental medicine therapy and CAM therapy providers who treat cancer patients and to provide background knowledge for establishing a new policy with the management and quality control of CAM. Methods: Structured and well organized questionnaires were made, and 350 persons were surveyed concerning the providers of CAM or Korean oriental medicine. The questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Results: The questionnaires (182) were collected. The questionnaires identified a total of 73 known providers, such as medicinal professionals or other providers of CAM suppliers, 35.6% of whom had had experience with treating cancer patients (52.6% vs. 29.6%). The treatment methods were a little different: alternative therapy and nutritional therapy being preferred by medicinal professionals and mind body modulation therapy and alternative therapy being preferred by other CAM providers. Four patients (7.4%) experienced side effects, and 6 patients (12.5%) experienced legal problems. As the method for managing the therapy, CAM providers, medicinal professionals, and other CAM providers had different viewpoints. For example, some CAM providers stated that both legislation and an official education on CAM or a national examination were needed as a first step to establish the provider’s qualifications and that as a second step, a license test was needed for quality control. To the contrary, medicinal professionals stated that a license test was needed before legislation. Conclusion: Adequate management and quality control of CAM providers is thought to involve both education and

  18. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy--theoretic premises and practical strategies.

    PubMed

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity.

  19. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy--theoretic premises and practical strategies.

    PubMed

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity. PMID:25054888

  20. What Cognitive Behavioral Techniques Do Therapists Report Using when Delivering Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for the Eating Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Glenn; Stringer, Hannah; Meyer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Clinicians commonly "drift" away from using proven therapeutic techniques. This study examined the degree to which such drift occurs among cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) clinicians working with a specific clinical population--adults with eating disorders. Method: The study used a correlational design. The participants were 80…

  1. Interdisciplinary Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as Part of Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Lindgreen, Pil; Rolving, Nanna; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients receiving lumbar spinal fusion surgery often have persisting postoperative pain negatively affecting their daily life. These patients may be helped by interdisciplinary cognitive-behavioral therapy which is recognized as an effective intervention for improving beneficial pain coping behavior, thereby facilitating the rehabilitation process of patients with chronic pain. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experience of patients recovering from lumbar spinal fusion surgery and to explore potential similarities and disparities in pain coping behavior between receivers and nonreceivers of interdisciplinary cognitive-behavioral group therapy. METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews with 10 patients; 5 receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy in connection with their lumbar spinal fusion surgery and 5 receiving usual care. We conducted a phenomenological analysis to reach our first aim and then conducted a comparative content analysis to reach our second aim. RESULTS: Patients' postoperative experience was characterized by the need to adapt to the limitations imposed by back discomfort (coexisting with the back), need for recognition and support from others regarding their pain, a relatively long rehabilitation period during which they “awaited the result of surgery”, and ambivalence toward analgesics. The patients in both groups had similar negative perception of analgesics and tended to abstain from them to avoid addiction. Coping behavior apparently differed among receivers and nonreceivers of interdisciplinary cognitive-behavioral group therapy. Receivers prevented or minimized pain by resting before pain onset, whereas nonreceivers awaited pain onset before resting. CONCLUSION: The postoperative experience entailed ambivalence, causing uncertainty, worry and insecurity. This ambivalence was relieved when others recognized the patient's pain and offered support. Cognitive-behavioral therapy as part of

  2. Neurobiological factors as predictors of cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome in individuals with antisocial behavior: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cornet, Liza J M; de Kogel, Catharina H; Nijman, Henk L I; Raine, Adrian; van der Laan, Peter H

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses on the predictive value of neurobiological factors in relation to cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Ten relevant studies were found. Although the literature on this topic is scarce and diverse, it appears that specific neurobiological characteristics, such as physiological arousal levels, can predict treatment outcome. The predictive value of neurobiological factors is important as it could give more insight into the causes of variability in treatment outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Furthermore, results can contribute to improvement in current treatment selection procedures and to the development of alternative treatment options.

  3. Impact of a Dialectic Behavior Therapy - Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) Upon Behaviorally Challenged Incarcerated Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Deborah; Kesten, Karen; Zhang, Wanli; Trestman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This article reports the findings of a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy- Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) intervention upon difficult to manage, impulsive and/or aggressive incarcerated male adolescents. Methods A secondary analysis of a sub-sample of 38 male adolescents who participated in the study was conducted. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used; descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted. Results Significant changes were found in physical aggression, distancing coping methods and number of disciplinary tickets for behavior. Conclusion The study supports the value of DBT-CM for management of incarcerated male adolescents with difficult to manage aggressive behaviors. PMID:21501287

  4. Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Internet Therapy, Group Therapy and A Waiting List Condition

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Eduard J.; Bögels, Susan M.; Oort, Frans J.; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) in adolescents. Design: A randomized controlled trial of CBTI in group therapy (GT), guided internet therapy (IT), and a waiting list (WL), with assessments at baseline, directly after treatment (post-test), and at 2 months follow-up. Setting: Diagnostic interviews were held at the laboratory of the Research Institute of Child Development and Education at the University of Amsterdam. Treatment for GT occurred at the mental health care center UvAMinds in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants: One hundred sixteen adolescents (mean age = 15.6 y, SD = 1.6 y, 25% males) meeting DSM-IV criteria for insomnia, were randomized to IT, GT, or WL. Interventions: CBTI of 6 weekly sessions, consisted of psychoeducation, sleep hygiene, restriction of time in bed, stimulus control, cognitive therapy, and relaxation techniques. GT was conducted in groups of 6 to 8 adolescents, guided by 2 trained sleep therapists. IT was applied through an online guided self-help website with programmed instructions and written feedback from a trained sleep therapist. Measurements and Results: Sleep was measured with actigraphy and sleep logs for 7 consecutive days. Symptoms of insomnia and chronic sleep reduction were measured with questionnaires. Results showed that adolescents in both IT and GT, compared to WL, improved significantly on sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, and total sleep time at post-test, and improvements were maintained at follow-up. Most of these improvements were found in both objective and subjective measures. Furthermore, insomnia complaints and symptoms of chronic sleep reduction also decreased significantly in both treatment conditions compared to WL. Effect sizes for improvements ranged from medium to large. A greater proportion of participants from the treatment conditions showed high end-state functioning and clinically significant

  5. Use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Token Economy to Alleviate Dysfunctional Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Luzia Flavia; Barbosa, Deise Lima Fernandes; Rizzutti, Sueli; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Miranda, Monica Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with the Token-Economy (TE) technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11) on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior), a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in seven categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children’s inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication. PMID:26635642

  6. Use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Token Economy to Alleviate Dysfunctional Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luzia Flavia; Barbosa, Deise Lima Fernandes; Rizzutti, Sueli; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Miranda, Monica Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with the Token-Economy (TE) technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11) on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior), a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in seven categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children's inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication.

  7. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression and suicidality

    PubMed Central

    Spirito, Anthony; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Wolff, Jennifer; Uhl, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis CBT has emerged as a well-established treatment for depression in children and adolescents but treatment trials for adolescents with suicidality are few in number, and their efficacy to date is rather limited. Although a definitive treatment for adolescent suicide attempters has yet to be established, the limited literature suggests that suicidal thoughts and behavior should be directly addressed for optimal treatment outcome. This chapter reviews the rationale underlying the use of CBT for the treatment of depression and suicidality in adolescents, the literature supporting the efficacy of CBT for depressed adolescents, and whether CBT for depression reduces suicidal thoughts and behavior. A description of some of the core cognitive, affective, and behavioral techniques used in CBT treatments of suicidal ideation and behavior in depressed adolescents is included. PMID:21440850

  8. Therapy of Isolate Rhesus: Different Partners and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamove, Arnold S.

    1978-01-01

    Evidence is found against a learning or instrumental model of aggression production, and a novel theory is advanced suggesting that infants are genetically predisposed to acquire specific behavioral characteristics shown by the mother. (Author/JMB)

  9. Efficacy of the third wave of behavioral therapies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ost, Lars-Göran

    2008-03-01

    During the last two decades a number of therapies, under the name of the third wave of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), have been developed: acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP), functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP), and integrative behavioral couple therapy (IBCT). The purposes of this review article of third wave treatment RCTs were: (1) to describe and review them methodologically, (2) to meta-analytically assess their efficacy, and (3) to evaluate if they currently fulfil the criteria for empirically supported treatments. There are 13 RCTs both in ACT and DBT, 1 in CBASP, 2 in IBCT, and none in FAP. The conclusions that can be drawn are that the third wave treatment RCTs used a research methodology that was significantly less stringent than CBT studies; that the mean effect size was moderate for both ACT and DBT, and that none of the third wave therapies fulfilled the criteria for empirically supported treatments. The article ends with suggestions on how to improve future RCTs to increase the possibility of them becoming empirically supported treatments.

  10. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Individuals with Disabilities: A Behavior Analytic Strategy for Addressing Private Events in Challenging Behavior.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Audrey N; Contreras, Bethany P; Clay, Casey J; Twohig, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Applied behavior analysts work with many populations including individuals with developmental and intellectual disabilities. Although behavior analysts have a variety of empirically supported treatments to implement when working with individuals with disabilities, sometimes, other variables may adversely impact treatment effectiveness. The degree to which problematic thoughts and feelings (private events) influence behavior may be a variable that contributes to treatment efficacy. Traditional behavior analytic services are not always equipped to successfully address the private events influencing client behavior. In such cases, it may be beneficial for behavior analysts to consider additional philosophically aligned treatments for private events. One such treatment, acceptance and commitment therapy, may be a useful tool for behavior analysts to incorporate into their toolbox in order to help clients. The purpose of this paper is to introduce behavior analysts to a potential solution to the problem of effectively addressing private events in behavior analytic services. We then propose a model for thinking about private events in relation to clients with disabilities and present a guide for taking steps to address private events in the clinical setting. We conclude this paper with a call for research and present a possible research agenda for behavior analysts. PMID:27606236

  11. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Individuals with Disabilities: A Behavior Analytic Strategy for Addressing Private Events in Challenging Behavior.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Audrey N; Contreras, Bethany P; Clay, Casey J; Twohig, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Applied behavior analysts work with many populations including individuals with developmental and intellectual disabilities. Although behavior analysts have a variety of empirically supported treatments to implement when working with individuals with disabilities, sometimes, other variables may adversely impact treatment effectiveness. The degree to which problematic thoughts and feelings (private events) influence behavior may be a variable that contributes to treatment efficacy. Traditional behavior analytic services are not always equipped to successfully address the private events influencing client behavior. In such cases, it may be beneficial for behavior analysts to consider additional philosophically aligned treatments for private events. One such treatment, acceptance and commitment therapy, may be a useful tool for behavior analysts to incorporate into their toolbox in order to help clients. The purpose of this paper is to introduce behavior analysts to a potential solution to the problem of effectively addressing private events in behavior analytic services. We then propose a model for thinking about private events in relation to clients with disabilities and present a guide for taking steps to address private events in the clinical setting. We conclude this paper with a call for research and present a possible research agenda for behavior analysts.

  12. D-Cycloserine Augmentation of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Directions for Pilot Research in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; McKay, Dean; Reid, Jeannette M.; Geller, Daniel A.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses a recent translational success in combining behavioral psychotherapy with a novel medication, d-cycloserine (DCS), to augment cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. The literature on behavioral theory of exposure-based therapies is provided, followed by a discussion of the role of DCS in enhancing extinction…

  13. Enhancing the Efficacy of Behavior Therapy for Obesity: Effects of Aerobic Exercise and a Multicomponent Maintenance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, Michael G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Moderately obese volunteers were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions (behavior therapy or behavior therapy plus aerobic exercise) and two posttreatment conditions (no further contact or a multicomponent maintenance program). Clients in the aerobic exercise condition lost significantly more weight than those who received behavior therapy…

  14. Evidence for Optimism: Behavior Therapies and Motivational Interviewing in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Macgowan, Mark J.; Engle, Bretton

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews behavior therapies (n = 12), motivational interviewing interventions (n = 12), and combined behavioral-psychosocial therapies (n = 12), across thirty-four peer-reviewed publications. Studies were included if they involved youth with alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, included measures of AOD outcomes, and utilized controlled research designs with a control or comparison condition. Across the studies, there were mild to very serious AOD problems including comorbidity. The level of empirical support of the interventions was evaluated using established guidelines to determine if the interventions could be considered “well-established,” “probably efficacious,” or “promising.” The review determined that behavior therapies were “probably efficacious,” and motivational interviewing interventions easily met the criteria for “promising.” Due to small sample sizes, combined behavioral-psychosocial therapies marginally met the criteria for “promising.” The findings from this review underscore the value of individual and group behavior therapies and motivational interviewing in helping reduce mild to serious AOD use among adolescents. PMID:20682219

  15. Computer-assisted cognitive-behavior therapy for depression.

    PubMed

    Eells, Tracy D; Barrett, Marna S; Wright, Jesse H; Thase, Michael

    2014-06-01

    This article reviews the use of computer technology in treating depression as a substitute or adjunct for standard therapy. It discusses advantages and disadvantages of introducing computer technology as a treatment option, problems and barriers to expanded use, the varieties of computer-assisted psychotherapy for major depression, and relevant research. Three specific Internet-based programs are described, assessed and compared: Good Days Ahead, Beating the Blues, and MoodGYM. The authors conclude that these and similar programs are promising. Preliminary outcome studies suggest that these programs produce outcome similar to standard therapy, although methodological shortcomings limit confidence in these findings. Suggestions are offered for practitioners considering the addition of computer assistance to their treatment of depression. PMID:24059735

  16. Behavior therapy in a family context: treating elective mutism.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, J B; Lindblad, M B

    1978-03-01

    This paper discusses the necessity of using both behavioral and family approaches in combination, while working with electively mute children. The symptom and its significance within the family system is presented along with a rationale for avoiding the pitfalls of individual approaches with such children. A case history outlining specific behavioral techniques is described in detail with an exploration of the use of reinforcement theory, counter-conditioning, and successive approximations in bringing about change in electively mute children. The need for bringing about changes within the family system so as to maintain the changes that have occurred through use of the behavior techniques is discussed and presented as crucial to the treatment process. The paper takes the position that either approach, by itself, will not be effective in helping electively mute children but that the treatment of choice is a combination of therapeutic techniques.

  17. Intelligent mobile support for therapy adherence and behavior change.

    PubMed

    Klein, Michel; Mogles, Nataliya; van Wissen, Arlette

    2014-10-01

    Mobile applications have proven to be promising tools for supporting people in adhering to their health goals. Although coaching and reminder apps abound, few of them are based on established theories of behavior change. In the present work, a behavior change support system is presented that uses a computational model based on multiple psychological theories of behavior change. The system determines the user's reason for non-adherence using a mobile phone app and an online lifestyle diary. The user automatically receives generated messages with persuasive, tailored content. The system was designed to support chronic patients with type 2 diabetes, HIV, and cardiovascular disease, but can be applied to many health and lifestyle domains. The main focus of this work is the development of the model and the underlying reasoning method. Furthermore, the implementation of the system and some preliminary results of its functioning will be discussed.

  18. The Impact of Acceptance-Based Versus Avoidance-Based Protocols on Discomfort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luciano, Carmen; Molina, Francisco; Gutierrez-Martinez, Olga; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Valdivia-Salas, Sonsoles; Cabello, Francisco; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Rodriguez-Valverde, Miguel; Wilson, Kelly G.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate the conditions under which aversive stimulation is experienced as more or less discomforting/unpleasant. Discomfort was induced by playing loud noises through headphones while participants performed computer tasks. We employed 4 main conditions. Condition 1: the acceptance-based protocol (ACT), intended to integrate…

  19. Behavioral and endocrinological evaluation of music therapy for elderly patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mizue; Kanamori, Masao; Watanabe, Motoko; Nagasawa, Shingo; Kojima, Emi; Ooshiro, Hajime; Nakahara, Daiichirou

    2004-03-01

    The present study investigated the effectiveness of music therapy for dementia patients using endocrinological and behavioral evaluations. The study comprised 10 patients with senile dementia who received music therapy; six had Alzheimer's dementia and four had vascular dementia. Music therapy was performed twice a week for 8 consecutive weeks (16 sessions). As a result, total scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) did not significantly change, but the scores of a subscale, "language", improved significantly. According to the Multidimensional Observation Scale For Elderly Subjects (MOSES), scores for "irritability" decreased significantly. Regarding changes in salivary chromogranin A (CgA) levels, the average was significantly decreased before session 16 compared to after this. These results suggest that the combination of endocrinological measurements, behavioral evaluations and functional assessment methods are useful in evaluating the effects of music therapy in persons with senile dementia.

  20. Eye Color as a Predictor of Outcomes in Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Allan; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between outcomes of behaviorally oriented treatment for children (N=366) and eye color. Findings were consistent with theoretical expectations: Dark-eyed children and teenagers responded better to reactive treatment programs than their light-eyed counterparts, while the reverse was true for self-paced treatment programs.…

  1. Retaining Pathological Gamblers in Cognitive Behavior Therapy through Motivational Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfert, Edelgard; Blanchard, Edward B.; Freidenberg, Brian M.; Martell, Rebecca S.

    2006-01-01

    Treatment for pathological gambling is in its infancy. Several cognitive and behavioral interventions have shown promise, but high attrition and relapse rates suggest that gamblers requesting treatment are not uniformly committed to change. This article describes an exploratory study with 9 severe pathological gamblers--in their majority horse…

  2. Child and Adolescent Therapy: Cognitive-Behavioral Procedures. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Widely regarded as the definitive clinical reference and text in the field, this authoritative volume presents effective cognitive-behavioral approaches for treating frequently encountered child and adolescent disorders. The editor and contributors are leading experts who provide hands-on, how-to-do-it descriptions illustrated with clinical…

  3. Cognitive dissonance in behavior therapy: some basic treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Jensen, R E

    1979-04-01

    As the behavioral model becomes liberalized and more encompassing very different frameworks may offer treatment resources. Several treatment techniques derived from cognitive-dissonance theory are discussed in the context of relevant theoretical postulates. Most of the techniques may be applied as needed regardless of the orientation of the practitioner.

  4. Maintaining Nursing Staff Performance on an Intensive Behavior Therapy Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, B. D., Jr.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The authors suggest ways to establish quality behavioral programs within a hospital for the mentally ill. They emphasize the importance of staff morale, consistency of effort, teamwork, staff training and reinforcement. Procedures said to be responsible for successful maintenance include a flexible credit economy system. (Author/CL)

  5. Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Late-Life Insomnia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Charles M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Assigned 24 older adults with persistent psychophysiological insomnia to immediate or delayed cognitive-behavioral intervention in waiting-list control group design. Treatment was effective in reducing sleep latency, wake after sleep onset, and early morning awakening, and in increasing sleep efficiency. Sleep improvements obtained by…

  6. D-Cycloserine as an augmentation strategy for cognitive behavioral therapy of anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this review is to examine the clinical studies on d-cycloserine, a partial glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist, as an augmentation strategy for exposure procedures during cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. Although cognitive behavioral therapy and anxiolytic medications are more effective than placebo for treating anxiety disorders, there is still considerable room for further improvement. Traditional combination strategies typically yield disappointing results. However, recent studies based on translational research have shown promise to augment the neural circuitry underlying fear extinction with pharmacological means. We discuss the current state of the literature, including inconsistencies of findings and issues concerning the drug mechanism, dosing, and dose timing. D-cycloserine is a promising combination strategy for cognitive behavioral therapy of anxiety disorders by augmenting extinction learning. However, there is also evidence to suggest that d-cycloserine can facilitate reconsolidation of fear memory when exposure procedures are unsuccessful. PMID:23768232

  7. [Collaboration between psychiatrists and clinical psychologists for efficient delivery of cognitive behavioral therapy in Japan].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based psychotherapy which leads to recovery in over 50% of patients with depression and anxiety disorders. It is, therefore, the first-line treatment for those disorders. In April 2010 we began a beacon project, called "Increasing Access for Psychological Therapies" (IAPT), in Chiba, Japan. In the Chiba IAPT project, we lead the cognitive-behavioral therapy training and provide individual CBT supervision, based on the system of IAPT in the UK. It is important to differentiate between counseling services and psychiatric services under the Medical Practitioners Act. To improve mental health in Japan, we will establish national standards for certification of clinical professionals trained in the science and art of CBT, and develop a law related to national licensing of cognitive-behavioral therapists.

  8. [DIALECTICAL-BEHAVIOR THERAPY: A POSSIBLE TREATMENT FOR PATIENTS WITH SEVERE DISORDERS].

    PubMed

    Teti, Germán Leandro; Boggiano, Juan Pablo; Gagliesi, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Clinical work with patient suffering complex or multiple problems represents one of the biggest challenges for mental health professionals. The third wave of cognitive behavioral therapies emphasizes the context and function of psychological events more so than their validity, frequency, or form, while incorporating processes of acceptance and mindfulness. The current work aims to provide a description of one type of these therapies, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), which was developed by Dr. Marsha M. Linehan. In the 80's DBT's efficacy was investigated among women diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, while later extending the model to be used for other disorders. Specifically, the orientation of DBT, the central dialectic component between acceptance and change, validation procedures, and changes are explained. Moreover, the biosocial theory of the etiology and maintenance of behavioral problems are considered. Lastly, the targeted problems specific to when they occurred and their components for treatment are explained in stages. PMID:26323115

  9. The effects of behavior therapy, self-relaxation, and transcendental meditation on cardiovascular stress response.

    PubMed

    Puente, A E; Beiman, I

    1980-01-01

    Compared Behavior Therapy (BT), self-relaxation (SR), transcendental meditation (TM), and a waiting-list control group (WL) on measures of cardiovascular and subjective stress response. Male and female respondents (N = 60) to an ad for therapy were evaluated in assessment sessions before and after treatment. The results indicate that BT and SR were more effective than either TM or WL in reducing cardiovascular stress response. These data were interpreted as resulting from therapeutic suggestion and positively reinforced client progress.

  10. [FUNCTIONAL ANALYTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY: APPROACHES AND SCOPE OF BEHAVIOR THERAPY BASED ON CHANGES IN THE THERAPEUTIC CONTEXT].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Martínez, Amanda M; Coletti, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a therapeutic approach developed in therapies> context. FAP is characterized by use therapeutic relationship and the behaviors emit into it to improve clients daily life functioning. This therapeutic model is supported in behavior analysis principles and contextual functionalism philosophy. FAP proposes that clients behavior in session are functional equivalent with those out of session; therefore, when therapists respond to clients behaviors in session contingently, they promote and increase improvements in the natural setting. This article poses main features of FAP, its philosophical roots, achievements and research challenges to establish FAP as an independent treatment based on the evidence.

  11. The Impact of Behavioral Couple Therapy on Attachment in Distressed Couples

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Lisa A.; Sevier, Mia; Christensen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Emotion-Focused Therapy (EFT; Greenberg & Johnson, 1988) is anchored in attachment theory (Johnson, 2003) and considers change in attachment schemas essential in the process of improving satisfaction in relationships (Johnson, 1999). However, there is little data on how measures of attachment change over the course of EFT or any other couple therapy. The current study examines whether increases in attachment security predict improvements in marital satisfaction during behavioral couple therapy, which would suggest that change in attachment style is a key process variable even for a non-attachment focused treatment. Multilevel models of data from 134 couples participating in a randomized clinical trial of Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy and Traditional Behavioral Couple Therapy (Christensen et al., 2004) indicate that although there is a trend for early change in attachment-related anxiety and avoidance to predict later change in marital satisfaction, early change in marital satisfaction strongly predicts change in attachment-related anxiety through the end of treatment and two-year follow-up. These findings suggest that changes in satisfaction may lead to changes in attachment rather than the reverse and that change in attachment may not be the mechanism of change in all efficacious couple therapy. PMID:25800417

  12. Some generalization and follow-up measures on autistic children in behavior therapy1

    PubMed Central

    Lovaas, O. Ivar; Koegel, Robert; Simmons, James Q.; Long, Judith Stevens

    1973-01-01

    We have treated 20 autistic children with behavior therapy. At intake, most of the children were severely disturbed, having symptoms indicating an extremely poor prognosis. The children were treated in separate groups, and some were treated more than once, allowing for within- and between-subject replications of treatment effects. We have employed reliable measures of generalization across situations and behaviors as well as across time (follow-up). The findings can be summarized as follows: (1) Inappropriate behaviors (self-stimulation and echolalia) decreased during treatment, and appropriate behaviors (appropriate speech, appropriate play, and social non-verbal behaviors) increased. (2) Spontaneous social interactions and the spontaneous use of language occurred about eight months into treatment for some of the children. (3) IQs and social quotients reflected improvement during treatment. (4) There were no exceptions to the improvement, however, some of the children improved more than others. (5) Follow-up measures recorded 1 to 4 yr after treatment showed that large differences between groups of children depended upon the post-treatment environment (those groups whose parents were trained to carry out behavior therapy continued to improve, while children who were institutionalized regressed). (6) A brief reinstatement of behavior therapy could temporarily re-establish some of the original therapeutic gains made by the children who were subsequently institutionalized. PMID:16795385

  13. [MINDFULNESS-BASED COGNITIVE THERAPY (MBCT) AND THE "THIRD WAVE" OF COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL THERAPIES (CBT)].

    PubMed

    Garay, Cristian Javier; Korman, Guido Pablo; Keegan, Eduardo Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the reasons that led to the incorporation of mindfulness as part of a cognitive therapy approach to the prevention of relapse of recurrent depressive disorders. It describes the context in which models focused on the contents of cognition gave way to models focused on cognitive processes. We highlight the problems encountered by the standard cognitive model when trying to account for the cognitive vulnerability of individuals who, having experienced a depressive episode, are in remission. We briefly describe the theoretical foundations of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and its therapeutic approach.

  14. Clients' emotional processing in psychotherapy: a comparison between cognitive-behavioral and process-experiential therapies.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jeanne C; Bedard, Danielle L

    2006-02-01

    The authors compared clients' emotional processing in good and bad outcome cases in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and process-experiential therapy (PET) and investigated whether clients' emotional processing increases over the course of therapy. Twenty minutes from each of 3 sessions from 40 clients were rated on the Experiencing Scale. A 2x2x3 analysis of variance showed a significant difference between outcome and therapy groups, with clients in the good outcome and PET groups showing significantly higher levels of emotional processing than those in the poor outcome and CBT groups, respectively. Clients' level of emotional processing significantly increased from the beginning to the midpoint of therapy. The results indicate that CBT clients are more distant and disengaged from their emotional experience than clients in PET. PMID:16551152

  15. Problems and solutions: two concepts of mankind in cognitive-behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Rudolph Friedrich; Reinecker, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Scientific theories that are concerned with experience and behavior of human beings always include anthropological core assumptions. This applies in particular to psychotherapeutic theories. These anthropological core assumptions (i.e., concepts of mankind) affect techniques that are derived from these theories but they also have a great influence on acceptance and spreading of psychotherapeutic methods. This article examines the concept of mankind in cognitive-behavior therapy. In this connection two highly differing conceptions of the human being are identified: the early behavioristic black-box model and the conception of the human being as an actively performing subject ("man the scientist") in the framework of the self-management approach and in cognitive therapy. The image problem of today's behavior therapy, the lack of application of efficient methods of behavior therapy and problems in finding a professional identity as a behavior therapist can be seen as stemming from the differing concepts of mankind. To solve these problems we propose: an integrative concept of mankind, an increased emphasis of a cooperative therapist-patient relationship, and the taking into account of unconscious processes. PMID:12961823

  16. Family Mode Deactivation Therapy as a Manualized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Houston, Marsha-Ann

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of Mode Deactivation Family Therapy (MDT) in an outpatient setting as compared to Treatment as Usual (TAU). MDT is an evidence-based psychotherapy and has been shown to be effective treating adolescents with a variety of problems involving emotional disorder, physical and sexual aggression, as well as…

  17. Understanding Manual-Based Behavior Therapy: Some Theoretical Foundations of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Laurie A.; Sorrell, John T.; McNeil, Cheryl B.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a model of understanding and evaluating manualized treatments by beginning with a review of the theory and data-driven principles upon which one treatment, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), is based. As a point of illustration, several principles of PCIT, such as reinforcement, punishment, and stimulus control, are highlighted, and…

  18. Social Learning Theory and Behavioral Therapy: Considering Human Behaviors within the Social and Cultural Context of Individuals and Families.

    PubMed

    McCullough Chavis, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines theoretical thoughts of social learning theory and behavioral therapy and their influences on human behavior within a social and cultural context. The article utilizes two case illustrations with applications for consumers. It points out the abundance of research studies concerning the effectiveness of social learning theory, and the paucity of research studies regarding effectiveness and evidence-based practices with diverse groups. Providing a social and cultural context in working with diverse groups with reference to social learning theory adds to the literature for more cultural considerations in adapting the theory to women, African Americans, and diverse groups.

  19. The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Plus Media on the Reduction of Bullying and Victimization and the Increase of Empathy and Bystander Response in a Bully Prevention Program for Urban Sixth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Laura Pierce

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy plus media on the reduction of bullying and victimization and the increase in empathy and bystander response in a bully prevention program for urban sixth-graders. Sixty-eight students participated. Because one of the…

  20. Acceptance as a mediator in internet-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive behavior therapy for tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Hesser, Hugo; Westin, Vendela Zetterqvist; Andersson, Gerhard

    2014-08-01

    Despite demonstrated efficacy of behavioral and cognitive techniques in treating the impact of tinnitus (constant ringing in the ears), little is known about the mechanisms by which these techniques achieve their effect. The present study examined acceptance of tinnitus as a potential mediator of treatment changes on global tinnitus severity in internet-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy (iACT) and internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT). Data from 67 participants who were distressed by tinnitus and who were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 treatments were analyzed using a multilevel moderated mediation model. We predicted that acceptance as measured with the two subscales of the tinnitus acceptance questionnaire (i.e., activity engagement and tinnitus suppression) would mediate the outcome in iACT, but not in iCBT. Results provided partial support to the notion that mediation was moderated by treatment: tinnitus suppression mediated changes in tinnitus severity in iACT, but not in iCBT. However, inconsistent with the view that the treatments worked through different processes of change, activity engagement mediated treatment changes across both iACT and iCBT. Acceptance is identified as a key source of therapeutic change in behavioral-based treatments for tinnitus.

  1. The evolution of cognitive–behavioral therapy for psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mander, Helen; Kingdon, David

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive therapy for psychosis has developed over the past 30 years from initial case studies, treatment manuals, pilot randomized controlled studies to fully powered and methodologically rigorous efficacy and, subsequently, effectiveness trials. Reviews and meta-analyses have confirmed the benefits of the interventions. Considered appraisal by government and professional organizations has now led to its inclusion in international treatment guidelines for schizophrenia. Patients consistently ask for access to psychotherapeutic interventions, and it is slowly becoming available in many European countries and other parts of the world, eg, US and the People’s Republic of China. However, it remains unacceptably difficult to access for the vast majority of people with psychosis who could benefit from it. Psychosis affects people in the prime of their lives and leads to major effects on their levels of distress, well-being, and functioning, and also results in major costs to society. Providing effective interventions at an early stage has the potential to reduce the high relapse rates that occur after recovery from first episode and the ensuing morbidity and premature mortality associated with psychosis. PMID:25733937

  2. Eye color as a predictor of outcomes in behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Markle, A; Rinn, R C; Bell, C

    1984-03-01

    Eye color research has centered primarily on the dimension of self-paced vs. reactive performance. Self-paced activities are those in which the individual may initiate the activity when he/she chooses while the stimulus situation remains relatively constant. Reactive activities must be initiated at the precise time dictated by a rapidly changing stimulus situation. The present study examined the relationship between outcomes of behaviorally oriented treatment for children (N = 366) and eye color. The findings were consistent with theoretical expectations: Dark-eyed children and teenagers responded better to reactive treatment programs than their light-eyed counterparts, while the reverse was true for self-paced treatment programs. Implications for research and practice were discussed.

  3. Treatment of Complicated Grief: A Comparison between Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Supportive Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boelen, Paul A.; de Keijser, Jos; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van den Bout, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined treatments for complicated grief--a debilitating condition that can develop after the loss of a loved one. This study compared the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy with a nonspecific treatment with supportive counseling (SC). Using a minimization method, 54 mourners with clinically significant levels of…

  4. A Pilot Study of Modified Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Traumatic Grief (CBT-CTG)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Staron, Virginia R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study evaluated outcomes for a modified 12-session protocol of cognitive-behavioral therapy for childhood traumatic grief (CBT-CTG) conducted between March 2004 and October 2005. CTG is an emerging condition characterized by a combination of posttraumatic stress and unresolved grief symptoms. This two-module treatment model…

  5. Internet-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Complicated Grief: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Birgit; Knaevelsrud, Christine; Maercker, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the efficacy of an Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy program for bereaved people suffering complicated grief. The program combines established methods of psychotherapy with new technology--therapists and patients communicated exclusively by e-mail. Bereaved individuals diagnosed with complicated grief (n =…

  6. The "RAPID" Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Program for Inattentive Children: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of the current study were to ascertain feasibility and acceptability of directly delivering a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention for inattentive children in a school setting, to examine the reliability of the RATE-C Questionnaires that accompany the program, and to determine whether they can be used to…

  7. The Impact of Motivational Interviewing on Client Experiences of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertes, Angela; Westra, Henny A.; Angus, Lynne; Marcus, Madalyn

    2011-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) has recently been applied to the treatment of anxiety disorders in an effort to bolster engagement with and response rates to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). In a recent randomized control trial, the addition of MI as a pretreatment compared to no pretreatment was found to significantly improve response to CBT…

  8. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Modified for Adolescent Binge Eating Disorder: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safer, Debra L.; Couturier, Jennifer L.; Lock, James

    2007-01-01

    Given the lack of empirically supported treatments available for adolescents with eating disorders, it is important to investigate the clinical utility of extending treatments for adults with eating disorders to younger populations. Dialectical behavior therapy for binge eating disorder, based on the affect-regulation model, conceptualizes binge…

  9. Semantic Behavior Therapy and Psychosocial Variables in the Treatment of Chronic Pain in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Coralie; And Others

    This study explored the efficacy of semantic behavior therapy in the management of chronic osteoarthritis pain in elderly patients as well as the relationships among pain, physical health, personality, and social characteristics in this population. The sample consisted of 8 elderly persons who had osteoarthritis of the knee, and 11 healthy elderly…

  10. Effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy in a Community Mental Health Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comtois, Katherine Anne; Elwood, Lynn; Holdcraft, Laura C.; Smith, Wayne R.; Simpson, Tracy L.

    2007-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has been shown to be effective in randomized controlled trials with women with borderline personality disorder and histories of chronic self-inflicted injury including suicide attempts. The present study is a pre-post replication of a comprehensive DBT program in a community mental health center for individuals…

  11. Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budney, Alan J.; Moore, Brent A.; Rocha, Heath L.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2006-01-01

    Ninety cannabis-dependent adults seeking treatment were randomly assigned to receive cognitive-behavioral therapy, abstinence-based voucher incentives, or their combination. Treatment duration was 14 weeks, and outcomes were assessed for 12 months post treatment. Findings suggest that (a) abstinence-based vouchers were effective for engendering…

  12. Beyond Borderline Personality Disorder: Dialectical Behavior Therapy in a College Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panepinto, Amberly R.; Uschold, Carissa C.; Olandese, Michelle; Linn, Braden K.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the efficacy of a dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program with a general college counseling center population, not limited to students diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. A review of records of 64 students found that obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, paranoia,…

  13. Cognitive behavioral therapy and exercise minimally help Gulf War veterans' illnesses.

    PubMed

    Luttermoser, Gary

    2003-06-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy and aerobic exercise provide only modest relief from symptoms of Gulf War veterans' illnesses. Unfortunately, over 80% of the patients showed no improvement of symptoms after 1 year of either or both treatments. With the Iraqi war ending, the outcomes of veterans of this previous conflict may prove significant. PMID:12791222

  14. Treating Internet Addiction with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: A Thematic Analysis of the Experiences of Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rooij, Antonius J.; Zinn, Mieke F.; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; van de Mheen, Dike

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, one of the major Dutch addiction care organizations initiated a pilot program to explore the possibility of using an existing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Interviewing based treatment program ("Lifestyle Training") to treat internet addiction. The current study evaluates this pilot treatment program by providing a…

  15. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Anxious Adolescents: Developmental Influences on Treatment Design and Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauter, Floor M.; Heyne, David; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety disorders in adolescence are common and disruptive, pointing to a need for effective treatments for this age group. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is one of the most popular interventions for adolescent anxiety, and there is empirical support for its application. However, a significant proportion of adolescent clients continue to report…

  16. Use of dialectical behavior therapy in a partial hospital program for women with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Simpson, E B; Pistorello, J; Begin, A; Costello, E; Levinson, J; Mulberry, S; Pearlstein, T; Rosen, K; Stevens, M

    1998-05-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy, an outpatient psychosocial treatment for chronically suicidal women with borderline personality disorder, has been adapted for use in a partial hospital program for women. Patients attend the program for a minimum of five days of individual and group therapy, and full census is 12 women. About 65 percent of participants meet at least three criteria for borderline personality disorder, and most have suicidal and self-injurious behavior. Their comorbid diagnoses include trauma-related diagnoses and anxiety disorders, severe eating disorders, substance abuse, and depression. The partial hospital program is linked to an aftercare program offering six months of outpatient skills training based on dialectical behavior therapy. Both programs focus on teaching patients four skills: mindfulness (attention to one's experience), interpersonal effectiveness, emotional regulation, and distress tolerance. Two years of operation of the women's partial hospital program provides promising anecdotal evidence that dialectical behavioral therapy, an outpatient approach, can be effectively modified for partial hospital settings and a more diverse population.

  17. Implementing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in a Mental Health Center: A Benchmarking Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheeres, Korine; Wensing, Michel; Knoop, Hans; Bleijenberg, Gijs

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the success of implementing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in a representative clinical practice setting and compared the patient outcomes with those of previously published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CBT for CFS. Method: The implementation interventions were the…

  18. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Relatively Active and for Passive Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazelmans, Ellen; Prins, Judith; Bleijenberg, Gijs

    2006-01-01

    In chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), facilitating, initiating, and perpetuating factors are distinguished. Although somatic factors might have initiated symptoms in CFS, they do not explain the persistence of fatigue. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for CFS focuses on factors that perpetuate and prolong symptoms. Recently it has been shown that,…

  19. Teaching Behavioral Therapists to Conduct Brief Preference Assessments during Therapy Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Michele R.; Kenzer, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group classroom instruction and the need for in vivo feedback when teaching 11 behavioral therapists how to conduct a brief paired-stimulus preference assessment, when to conduct preference assessments, and how to interpret the data during regular therapy sessions. Group classroom instruction, consisting of…

  20. Effective Components of TORDIA Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Clarke, Greg N.; Weersing, V. Robin; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Shamseddeen, Wael; Porta, Giovanna; Berk, Michele; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham J.; Keller, Martin B.; Wagner, Karen D.; Brent, David A.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we conducted a secondary analysis of the Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) study to explore the impact of specific cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment components on outcome. In TORDIA, 334 youths (ages 12 to 18 years) with major depressive disorder who had failed to respond to an adequate…

  1. Building capacity for cognitive behavioral therapy delivery for depression in disaster-impacted contexts.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Victoria K; Centanni, Angela; Wong, Eunice; Wennerstrom, Ashley; Miranda, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Numerous challenges exist in implementing evidence-based practices, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, in resource poor, ethnic minority, and/or disaster-affected communities with disparities in mental health. Community-academic participatory partnerships are a promising approach to addressing disparities by implementing community-appropriate, evidence-based depression care. A community-academic collaborative was formed in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina to expand resources for effective depression care, including cognitive behavioral therapy. In this article, we: 1) describe our model of building capacity to deliver cognitive behavioral therapy for depression in post-disaster community-based settings; 2) discuss the impact of this training program on therapist reported practice; and 3) share lessons learned regarding disseminating and sustaining evidence-based interventions in the context of a disaster impacted community. Using a mixed methods approach, we found that this model was feasible, acceptable, and disseminated knowledge about cognitive behavioral therapy in community settings. Over the course of two years, community providers demonstrated the feasibility of implementing evidence-based practice and potential for local community leadership. The lessons learned from this model of implementation may help address barriers to disseminating evidence-based interventions in other low-resource, disaster-impacted community settings.

  2. A Comparison of Sensory Integrative and Behavioral Therapies as Treatment for Pediatric Feeding Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Laura R.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Patel, Meeta R.; Bachmeyer, Melanie H.; Rivas, Kristi M.; Milnes, Suzanne M.; Oddo, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of escape extinction (EE) plus noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with sensory integration therapy as treatment for the feeding problems of 2 children. Results indicated that EE plus NCR was more effective in increasing acceptance, decreasing inappropriate behavior, and increasing amount consumed relative to sensory…

  3. The Impact of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy on Teacher Efficacy and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    This literature review explores the potential impact of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) on teacher efficacy and student achievement. Research conducted to date, focusing on increasing teacher efficacy and student achievement, has produced mixed results. Teachers continue to think, emote, and behave in unhelpful ways. REBT appears to…

  4. A Model for Teaching Rational Behavior Therapy in a Public School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Patricia L.

    A training model for the use of rational behavior therapy (RBT) with emotionally disturbed adolescents in a school setting is presented, including a structured, didactic format consisting of five basic RBT training techniques. The training sessions, lasting 10 weeks each, are described. Also presented is the organization for the actual classroom…

  5. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Reduces Suicidal Ideation in Schizophrenia: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Katy; Hansen, Lars; Turkington, Douglas; Kingdon, David

    2007-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are at high risk of suicide. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to reduce symptoms in schizophrenia. This study examines whether CBT also changes the level of suicidal ideation in patients with schizophrenia compared to a control group. Ninety ambulatory patients with symptoms of schizophrenia resistant to…

  6. Predictors of Treatment Response to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobkin, Roseanne D.; Rubino, Jade Tiu; Allen, Lesley A.; Friedman, Jill; Gara, Michael A.; Mark, Margery H.; Menza, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of treatment response to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression in Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The sample comprised 80 depressed ("DSM-IV" criteria) adults with PD (60% male) and their caregivers who participated in an National Institutes of Health-sponsored…

  7. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth: The Inner Workings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of the clinical application of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxious youth. A rationale for the development of BCBT is presented, followed by a description and discussion of the 8 sessions of the treatment. Mike, a 7-year-old youth with anxiety disorders, is used to illustrate the inner workings of…

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Modification Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moree, Brittany N.; Davis, Thompson E., III

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety disorders have been found to be highly comorbid with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Even so, the identification and dissemination of empirically supported treatments for anxiety in adults or children who have ASD has lagged behind the larger evidence-based trend. This review examines the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a…

  9. The Role of Homework in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cocaine Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Vivian M.; Schmitz, Joy M.; DeLaune, Katherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effect of homework compliance on treatment outcome in 123 participants receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for cocaine dependence. Regression analyses revealed a significant relationship between homework compliance and cocaine use that was moderated by readiness to change. Homework compliance predicted less cocaine…

  10. The Additive Benefit of Hypnosis and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Treating Acute Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachel M.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2005-01-01

    This research represents the first controlled treatment study of hypnosis and cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) of acute stress disorder (ASD). Civilian trauma survivors (N = 87) who met criteria for ASD were randomly allocated to 6 sessions of CBT, CBT combined with hypnosis (CBT-hypnosis), or supportive counseling (SC). CBT comprised exposure,…

  11. Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Mood Management in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghafoori, Bita; Ratanasiripong, Paul; Holladay, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) often display mental health symptoms that may benefit from psychotherapy. In this pilot study, a newly designed cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group treatment targeting mood difficulties was provided to 8 adults with mild-borderline ID. Assessment occurred at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 4…

  12. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth: Feasibility and Initial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Sarah A.; Kendall, Philip C.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Wei, Chiaying; Beidas, Rinad S.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Mauro, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a brief (8-session) version of cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxiety disorders in youth ages 6 to 13. This report describes the design and development of the BCBT program and intervention materials (therapist treatment manual and child treatment workbook) and an initial evaluation of child treatment outcomes.…

  13. An Experimental Clinical Trial of a Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Package for Chronic Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menzies, Ross G.; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; St Clare, Tamsen; Block, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of the present study were to (a) examine the rate of social phobia among adults who stutter, (b) study the effects of speech restructuring treatment on social anxiety, and (c) study the effects on anxiety and stuttering of a cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) package for social anxiety. Method: Thirty-two adults with chronic…

  14. Collaborating with Parents to Establish Behavioral Goals in Child-Centered Play Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Phyllis B.; Ceballos, Peggy L.; Penn, Saundra L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide specific guidelines for child-centered play therapists to set behavioral outcome goals to effectively work with families and to meet the demands for accountability in the managed care environment. The child-centered play therapy orientation is the most widely practiced approach among play therapists who…

  15. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for PTSD in Children and Adolescents: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Patrick; Yule, William; Perrin, Sean; Tranah, Troy; Dagleish, Tim; Clark, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of individual trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and young people. Method: Following a 4-week symptom-monitoring baseline period, 24 children and young people (8-18 years old) who met full "DSM-IV" PTSD diagnostic criteria after…

  16. A Comparison of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Sertraline, and Their Combination for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Glenn A.; Tonge, Bruce J.; King, Neville J.; Heyne, David; Gordon, Michael S.; Klimkeit, Ester

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate cognitive-behavioral therapy, antidepressant medication alone, and combined CBT and antidepressant medication in the treatment of depressive disorders in adolescents. Method: Seventy-three adolescents (ages 12-18 years) with a primary diagnosis of DSM-IV major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or depressive disorder…

  17. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy versus Temporal Pulse Amplitude Biofeedback Training for Recurrent Headache

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Paul R.; Forsyth, Michael R.; Reece, John

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-four headache sufferers were allocated randomly to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), temporal pulse amplitude (TPA) biofeedback training, or waiting-list control. Fifty-one participants (14M/37F) completed the study, 30 with migraine and 21 with tension-type headache. Treatment consisted of 8, 1-hour sessions. CBT was highly effective,…

  18. Use of Dialectical Behavior Therapy in Borderline Personality Disorder: A View from Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Binali; Dunlop, Boadie W.; Ninan, Philip T.; Bradley, Rebekah

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the use of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) in treating borderline personality disorder during psychiatry residency, and assess the status of DBT education within psychiatry residencies in the United States. Method: The authors present a patient with borderline personality disorder treated by a resident using DBT,…

  19. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Relapse in Pediatric Responders to Pharmacotherapy for Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jones, Jessica M.; Tao, Rongrong; Stewart, Sunita M.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2008-01-01

    The outcome of a sequential treatment strategy that included cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the prevention of major depressive disorder relapse among 46 youths is examined. Results show that youths under the antidepressant medication management plus relapse prevention CBT treatment was at lower risk for relapse than those under the…

  20. Impact of Comorbidity on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Larson, Michael J.; Geffken, Gary R.; Lehmkuh, Heather D.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2008-01-01

    A chronic psychiatric condition among children and adolescents of concern is obsessive-compulsive disorder, which involves comorbid conditions. The impact of a range of comorbid illnesses on cognitive-behavioral therapy response and remission rates was conducted, with results revealing a negative impact on treatment response.

  1. Two-Day, Intensive Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Brett

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a highly effective treatment for panic disorder. However, few patients have access to this treatment, particularly those living in rural areas. In a pilot study, the author previously described the efficacy of a 2-day, intensive, exposure-based CBT intervention that was developed for the purpose of delivering…

  2. A Comparison of Alprazolam and Behavior Therapy in Treatment of Panic Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klosko, Janet S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared panic control treatment (PCT), behavior therapy for panic disorders, with alprazolam medication, placebo, and waiting-list control groups. Percentage of clients (N=57) completing study who were free of panic attacks following PCT was 87 percent, compared with 50 percent for alprazolam, 36 percent for placebo, and 33 percent for…

  3. Computer-Assisted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Child Anxiety: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Muniya S.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of Camp Cope-A-Lot (CCAL), a computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety in youth. Method: Children (49; 33 males) ages 7-13 (M = 10.1 [plus or minus] 1.6; 83.7% Caucasian, 14.2% African American, 2% Hispanic) with a principal anxiety disorder were…

  4. Striving for Effectiveness in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression: Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Multisite Community Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, John F.; Wells, Karen C.

    2005-01-01

    The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) was designed to compare the relative and combined effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and fluoxetine, each of which had demonstrated efficacy in carefully controlled single-site studies. Models of CBT from these efficacy studies served as the foundation for the TADS…

  5. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Drahota, Amy; Sze, Karen; Har, Kim; Chiu, Angela; Langer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children with autism spectrum disorders often present with comorbid anxiety disorders that cause significant functional impairment. This study tested a modular cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program for children with this profile. A standard CBT program was augmented with multiple treatment components designed to accommodate or…

  6. Alcohol Treatment and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Enhancing Effectiveness by Incorporating Spirituality and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective modality for the treatment of alcoholism. Given widespread interest in incorporating spirituality into professional treatment, this article orients practitioners to spiritually modified CBT, an approach that may enhance outcomes with some spiritually motivated clients. More specifically, by…

  7. Changes in Emotion Regulation Following Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suveg, Cynthia; Sood, Erica; Comer, Jonathan S.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined emotion-related functioning following cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with 37 youth with anxiety disorders (22 boys, 15 girls) ranging in age from 7 to 15 with a principal diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (n = 27), separation anxiety disorder (n = 12), and/or social phobia (n = 13). Treated youth exhibited a…

  8. Telephone-Administered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Veterans Served by Community-Based Outpatient Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, David C.; Carmody, Timothy; Erickson, Lauren; Jin, Ling; Leader, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Multiple trials have found telephone-administered cognitive behavioral therapy (T-CBT) to be effective for the treatment of depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate T-CBT for the treatment of depression among veterans served by community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) outside of major urban areas. Method: Eighty-five veterans…

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in an Older Gay Man: A Clinical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, Jason M.; Crabb, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Although strong evidence supports cognitive-behavioral therapy for late-life depression and depression in racial and ethnic minorities, there are no empirical studies on the treatment of depression in older sexual minorities. Three distinct literatures were tapped to create a depression treatment protocol for an older gay male. Interventions were…

  10. School-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: A Benchmarking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Kaplinski, Heather; Gudmundsen, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression delivered in health clinics and counseling centers in four high schools. Outcomes were benchmarked to results from prior efficacy trials. Fifty adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorders were treated by eight doctoral-level psychologists who followed a…

  11. Development and Validation of the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Skills Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Karen L.; Christopher, Michael S.; Neuhaus, Edmund C.

    2011-01-01

    Although several theories exist to describe why patients improve in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), in only a limited number of studies has CBT skill acquisition been examined, particularly among patients with complex clinical profiles. Thus, the overarching aim of this research was to develop a tool to measure patients' use of CBT skills,…

  12. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Practice: Treatment Delivered by Trainees at an Outpatient Clinic Is Clinically Effective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forand, Nicholas R.; Evans, Susan; Haglin, Dean; Fishman, Baruch

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is known to be effective for a number of disorders, and can be delivered effectively by trainees in controlled settings. However, the effectiveness of trainee therapists in general practice compared to that of more experienced therapists is unknown. In this study, the authors used a benchmarking strategy to…

  13. Alliance and Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Kaplinski, Heather Crisp; McMakin, Dana L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcomes in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Fifty-four adolescents met criteria for a depressive disorder and were treated in school-based clinics. Alliance was measured after the third session from both therapist and…

  14. Exploring the Effectiveness of a Mixed-Diagnosis Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Intervention Across Diverse Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kate E.; Wershler, Julie L.; Macrodimitris, Sophie D.; Backs-Dermott, Barb J.; Ching, Laurie E.; Mothersill, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are the most common mental health disorders seen in clinical practice and they are highly comorbid. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been demonstrated as an effective treatment for both depression and anxiety but is often not available to all individuals who could benefit from it. This paper investigates the…

  15. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: A Benchmarking Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weersing, V. Robin; Iyengar, Satish; Kolko, David J.; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression. Outcomes of 80 youth treated with CBT in an outpatient depression specialty clinic, the Services for Teens at Risk Center (STAR), were compared to a "gold standard" CBT research benchmark. On average, youths treated with CBT in STAR…

  16. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Diagnostically Heterogeneous Groups: A Benchmarking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvoy, Peter M.; Nathan, Paula

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have recently suggested that the commonalities across the emotional disorders outweigh the differences, and thus similar treatment principles could be applied in unified interventions. In this study, the authors used a benchmarking strategy to investigate the transportability of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety and…

  17. Evaluating a Web-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Maladaptive Perfectionism in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhu, Natasha; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Arpin-Cribbie, Chantal A.; Irvine, Jane; Ritvo, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed a Web-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for maladaptive perfectionism, investigating perfectionism, anxiety, depression, negative automatic thoughts, and perceived stress. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students defined as maladaptive perfectionists through a screening questionnaire at an urban…

  18. Predicting Outcome in Computerized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Primary Care: A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaf, L. Esther; Hollon, Steven D.; Huibers, Marcus J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore pretreatment and short-term improvement variables as potential moderators and predictors of 12-month follow-up outcome of unsupported online computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT), usual care, and CCBT combined with usual care for depression. Method: Three hundred and three depressed patients were randomly allocated…

  19. The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) on Depression: The Role of Problem-Solving Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Szu-Yu; Jordan, Catheleen; Thompson, Sanna

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Many studies have confirmed the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as a treatment for depression. However, the mechanism of CBT for depression reduction is still not well understood. This study explored the mechanism of CBT from the perspective of individuals' problem-solving appraisal. Method: A one-group pretest-posttest…

  20. Children with Anxiety Disorders: Use of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Model within a Social Milieu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearny, Regina; Pawlukewicz, Justine; Guardino, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Because anxiety is the most common mental health disorder diagnosed in children, early intervention is crucial for fundamental coping. Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the preferred treatment method for this affective disorder, instruction for children needs to be specific for them to successfully acquire and implement essential CBT…

  1. Evaluation of an Occupational Therapy Mentorship Program: Effects on Therapists' Skills and Family-Centered Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gillian; Tam, Cynthia; Fay, Linda; Pilkington, Martha; Servais, Michelle; Petrosian, Hasmik

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in understanding the usefulness of mentorship programs for children's rehabilitation service providers. This evaluation study examined the effects of an occupational therapy mentorship program on the skills and behaviors of 8 new and 17 experienced occupational therapists practicing at a regional children's rehabilitation…

  2. A Self-Help Handout for Benzodiazepine Discontinuation Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Mariyam; Westra, Henry A.; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2008-01-01

    Although prescription rates may be declining, benzodiazepines (BZs) are still very commonly prescribed for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Because many anxiety patients require assistance in successfully discontinuing BZs, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approaches have been specifically developed to target this issue, and an evidence base…

  3. Virtual Reality Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: One-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safir, Marilyn P.; Wallach, Helene S.; Bar-Zvi, Margalit

    2012-01-01

    Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common social phobia. Although cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice, difficulties arise with both in vivo and in vitro exposure (lack of therapist control, patient's inability to imagine, self-flooding, and a lack of confidentiality resulting from public exposure). Virtual reality CBT…

  4. Impact Evaluation of a Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy Model in Brazilian Sexually Abused Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habigzang, Luisa Fernanda; Damasio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Silvia Helena

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral group therapy model in Brazilian girls who had experienced sexual abuse. The effect of the waiting period before treatment and the enduring effectiveness of the treatment after six and 12 months were also evaluated. Forty-nine female sexual abuse victims between the ages of 9 and 16…

  5. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Meta-Analysis Using Mixed-Effects Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliem, Soren; Kroger, Christoph; Kosfelder, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Objective: At present, the most frequently investigated psychosocial intervention for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy and long-term effectiveness of DBT. Method: Systematic bibliographic research was undertaken to find relevant literature from online…

  6. Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrecque, Joane; Marchand, Andre; Dugas, Michel J.; Letarte, Andree

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for comorbid panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by combining treatment strategies for both disorders. A single-case, multiple-baseline design across participants was used. Three participants with primary PDA and secondary…

  7. Therapist Adherence and Competence with Manualized Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for PTSD Delivered via Videoconferencing Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, B. Christopher; Monnier, Jeannine; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Elhai, Jon D.; Yim, Eunsil; Knapp, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Using secondary analyses from a randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder, we compared ratings of therapist competency and adherence between two service delivery modes: telepsychiatry (TP) and same room (SR). Patients were 38 male treatment-seeking veterans recruited…

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Intermittent Explosive Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Michael S.; Noblett, Kurtis L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Gollan, Jackie K.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2008-01-01

    No randomized clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of psychotherapy for intermittent explosive disorder (IED). In the present study, the authors tested the efficacy of 12-week group and individual cognitive-behavioral therapies (adapted from J. L. Deffenbacher & M. McKay, 2000) by comparing them with a wait-list control in a randomized…

  9. 12-Month Follow-Up of Fluoxetine and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.…

  10. Assessing Outcome in Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Child Depression: An Illustrative Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2009-01-01

    Recent meta-analytic data suggest a need for ongoing evaluation of treatments for youth depression. The present article calls attention to a number of issues relevant to the empirical evaluation of if and how cognitive behavior therapy for child depression works. A case series of 6 children and a primary caregiver received treatment--individual…

  11. Training in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Psychiatry Residency: An Overview for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudak, Donna M.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2001, Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education accredited general psychiatry training programs were charged with the requirement to train residents in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to a level of competence. Programs were given the responsibility to delineate standards for trainees, to determine measures of competence,…

  12. Building Capacity for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Delivery for Depression in Disaster Impacted Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Victoria K.; Centanni, Angela; Wong, Eunice; Wennerstrom, Ashley; Miranda, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Numerous challenges exist in implementing evidence-based practices, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, in resource poor, ethnic minority, and/or disaster-affected communities with disparities in mental health. Community-academic participatory partnerships are a promising approach to addressing disparities by implementing community-appropriate, evidence-based depression care. A community-academic collaborative was formed in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina to expand resources for effective depression care, including cognitive behavioral therapy. In this paper, we 1) describe our model of building capacity to deliver cognitive behavioral therapy for depression in post-disaster community-based settings, 2) discuss the impact of this training program on therapist reported practice, and 3) share lessons learned regarding disseminating and sustaining evidence-based interventions in the context of a disaster impacted community. Using a mixed methods approach, we found that this model was feasible, acceptable, and disseminated knowledge about cognitive behavioral therapy in community settings. Over the course of two years, community providers demonstrated the feasibility of implementing evidence-based practice and potential for local community leadership. The lessons learned from this model of implementation may help address barriers to disseminating evidence-based interventions in other low-resource, disaster-impacted community settings. PMID:22352079

  13. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szigethy, Eva; Whitton, Sarah W.; Levy-Warren, Anna; DeMaso, David Ray; Weisz, John; Beardslee, William R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression in physically ill adolescents. Method: In an open trial, 11 adolescents (12-17 years) with inflammatory bowel disease and either major or minor depression underwent 12 sessions of a manual-based CBT enhanced by social skills, physical illness…

  14. Responder Status Criterion for Stepped Care Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salloum, Alison; Scheeringa, Michael S.; Cohen, Judith A.; Storch, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to develop Stepped Care trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), a definition of early response/non-response is needed to guide decisions about the need for subsequent treatment. Objective: The purpose of this article is to (1) establish criterion for defining an early indicator of response/non-response to the…

  15. Virtual Reality Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Helene S.; Safir, Marilyn P.; Bar-Zvi, Margalit

    2009-01-01

    Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common phobia. Although cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is preferred, difficulties arise with the exposure component (lack of therapist control, patient's inability to imagine, self-flooding, loss of confidentiality resulting from public exposure). Virtual reality CBT (VRCBT) enables a high degree of therapist…

  16. Preliminary Evidence for Cognitive Mediation during Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy of Panic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Meuret, Alicia E.; Rosenfield, David; Suvak, Michael K.; Barlow, David H.; Gorman, Jack M.; Shear, M. Katherine; Woods, Scott W.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy are similarly effective for treating panic disorder with mild or no agoraphobia, but little is known about the mechanism through which these treatments work. The present study examined some of the criteria for cognitive mediation of treatment change in CBT alone, imipramine alone, CBT plus…

  17. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Promote Smoking Cessation among African American Smokers: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Monica S.; de Ybarra, Denise Rodriguez; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Reis, Isildinha M.; Carey, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The health consequences of tobacco smoking disproportionately affect African Americans, but research on whether efficacious interventions can be generalized to this population is limited. This study examined the efficacy of group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation among African Americans. Method: Participants…

  18. An Examination of the Mechanisms of Action in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Diane L.; Baldwin, Scott A.; Agras, W. Stewart

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa (BN) has received considerable empirical support for its efficacy. However, few investigators have examined the mechanisms proposed to account for the reduction of BN symptoms during CBT. The current study examined the associations between therapist interventions, client mechanisms, and…

  19. Moving from Efficacy to Effectiveness in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Psychosis: A Randomized Clinical Practice Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Tania M.; Ziegler, Michael; Mehl, Stephanie; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Lullmann, Eva; Westermann, Stefan; Rief, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Randomized controlled trials have attested the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing psychotic symptoms. Now, studies are needed to investigate its effectiveness in routine clinical practice settings. Method: Eighty patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who were seeking outpatient treatment were randomized…

  20. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy across the Stages of Psychosis: Prodromal, First Episode, and Chronic Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valmaggia, Lucia R.; Tabraham, Paul; Morris, Eric; Bouman, Theo K.

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been increasingly used as an adjunctive treatment for psychotic disorders. This paper describes the CBT of three cases, each at a different stage of psychotic disorder: at-risk mental state, first-episode psychosis, and chronic psychotic disorder. For the at-risk mental state, treatment…

  1. Group Outpatient Physical and Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Low Back Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Michael J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared the effectiveness of behavioral (BT) or physical therapy (PT) for treating chronic low back pain (CLBP), for 13 BT patients and 12 PT patients. Treatments were conducted in a group outpatient setting. Posttreatment results showed general improvement for patients in both groups, but few treatment-specific differences in outcome measures.…

  2. Adapted Behavior Therapy for Persistently Depressed Primary Care Patients: An Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care…

  3. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Modified for Adolescent Binge Eating Disorder: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safer, Debra L.; Couturier, Jennifer L.; Lock, James

    2007-01-01

    Given the lack of empirically supported treatments available for adolescents with eating disorders, it is important to investigate the clinical utility of extending treatments for adults with eating disorders to younger populations. Dialectical behavior therapy for binge eating disorder, based on the affect-regulation model, conceptualizes binge…

  4. Counseling College Women Experiencing Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: A Cognitive Behavior Therapy Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura H.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is, by far, the most common eating disorder that college counseling professionals encounter among their female clients. Empirical evidence and best practice guidelines support use of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with women experiencing EDNOS. This article…

  5. Application of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschell, Amy D.; Kolko, David J.; Baumann, Barbara L.; Brown, Elissa J.

    2012-01-01

    Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) is an evidence-based treatment for families with children aged 5 to 15 years who have been affected by verbal and physical aggression in the family. AF-CBT was designed to address risks for exposure to emotional and physical aggression as well as common clinical consequences of…

  6. Social Skills Training Augments the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, James D.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Myers, Valerie H.; Dalrymple, Kristy; Nolan, Elizabeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) is the most widely researched intervention program for social anxiety disorder (SAD, also known as social phobia), with a number of studies demonstrating its effectiveness. Another common treatment, social skills training (SST), has also been shown to be efficacious for SAD. The present study compared the…

  7. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) Applied to College Students: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistorello, Jacqueline; Fruzzetti, Alan E.; MacLane, Chelsea; Gallop, Robert; Iverson, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: College counseling centers (CCCs) are increasingly being called upon to treat highly distressed students with complex clinical presentations. This study compared the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for suicidal college students with an optimized control condition and analyzed baseline global functioning as a…

  8. Training Head Start Teachers in Behavior Management Using Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiano, Jennifer D.; McNeil, Cheryl B.

    2006-01-01

    The current project evaluated the use of behavior management techniques utilized in Parent- Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in head start classrooms. The sample included seven Head Start classrooms; four classrooms receiving treatment and three classrooms receiving no treatment. Evaluation of the progress included observation of teacher and…

  9. A Placebo-Controlled Test of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Insomnia in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybarczyk, Bruce; Stepanski, Edward; Fogg, Louis; Lopez, Martita; Barry, Paulette; Davis, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia in older adults with osteoarthritis, coronary artery disease, or pulmonary disease. Ninety-two participants (mean age = 69 years) were randomly assigned to classroom CBT or stress management and wellness (SMW) training, which served as a placebo condition. Compared with SMW,…

  10. Dialectical Behavior Therapy in College Counseling Centers: Current Trends and Barriers to Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chugani, Carla D.; Landes, Sara J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine trends and barriers in implementation of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) programs in college counseling centers (CCCs). Participants were 107 CCC employees who participated in an electronic survey. One third of respondents endorsed use or planned use of DBT at their centers. The most prevalent primary…

  11. Considerations for Culturally Competent Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression with Hispanic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interian, Alejandro; Diaz-Martinez, Angelica M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline considerations for adapting cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to Hispanic patients who have recently immigrated, particularly those presenting with depressive symptoms. Culturally competent CBT is framed within a model originally proposed by Rogler and his colleagues (1987). The considerations outlined by…

  12. Brief Behavioral Activation and Problem-Solving Therapy for Depressed Breast Cancer Patients: Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopko, Derek R.; Armento, Maria E. A.; Robertson, Sarah M. C.; Ryba, Marlena M.; Carvalho, John P.; Colman, Lindsey K.; Mullane, Christen; Gawrysiak, Michael; Bell, John L.; McNulty, James K.; Lejuez, Carl W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Major depression is the most common psychiatric disorder among breast cancer patients and is associated with substantial impairment. Although some research has explored the utility of psychotherapy with breast cancer patients, only 2 small trials have investigated the potential benefits of behavior therapy among patients with…

  13. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Where Counseling and Neuroscience Meet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makinson, Ryan A.; Young, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to support the biological basis of mental disorders. Subsequently, understanding the neurobiological context from which mental distress arises can help counselors appropriately apply cognitive behavioral therapy and other well-researched cognitive interventions. The purpose of this article is to describe the…

  14. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in a VA Mental Health Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Lawrence M.; Arnedt, J. Todd; Earnheart, Kristie L.; Gorman, Ashley A.; Shirley, Katherine G.

    2008-01-01

    Effective cognitive-behavioral therapies for insomnia have been developed over the past 2 decades, but they have not been systematically evaluated in some clinical settings. While insomnia is common among veterans with mental health problems, the availability of effective treatments is limited. We report on the group application of a…

  15. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Unified Model of Behavior Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Levin, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The present article summarizes the assumptions, model, techniques, evidence, and diversity/social justice commitments of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). ACT focused on six processes (acceptance, defusion, self, now, values, and action) that bear on a single overall target (psychological flexibility). The ACT model of behavior change has…

  16. Dialectical Behavior Therapy in College Counseling Centers: Current Literature and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chugani, Carla D.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the topic of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) applied in college counseling centers. Trends in mental health issues on college campuses are briefly reviewed in support of the increased need for evidence-based treatment of severe mental health issues. The article next presents an overview of the standard DBT model and…

  17. Anomalous subsurface thermal behavior in tissue mimics upon near infrared irradiation mediated photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soham; Sahoo, Nilamani; Sajanlal, P R; Sarangi, Nirod Kumar; Ramesh, Nivarthi; Panda, Tapobrata; Pradeep, T; Das, Sarit Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Photothermal therapy using (Near Infrared) NIR region of EM spectrum is a fast emerging technology for cancer therapy. Different types of nanoparticles may be used for enhancing the treatment. Though the treatment protocols are developed based on experience driven estimated temperature increase in the tissue, it is not really known what spatiotemporal thermal behavior in the tissue is. In this work, this thermal behavior of tissue models is investigated with and without using nanoparticles. An increased temperature inside tissue compared to surface is observed which is counter intuitive from the present state of knowledge. It is shown from fiber level microstructure that this increased temperature leads to enhanced damage at the deeper parts of biomaterials. Nanoparticles can be utilized to control this temperature increase spatially. A multiple scattering based physical model is proposed to explain this counterintuitive temperature rise inside tissue. The results show promising future for better understanding and standardizing the protocols for photothermal therapy.

  18. Development of an acceptance-based coping intervention for alcohol dependence relapse prevention.

    PubMed

    Vieten, Cassandra; Astin, John A; Buscemi, Raymond; Galloway, Gantt P

    2010-04-01

    Both psychological and neurobiological findings lend support to the long-standing clinical observation that negative affect is involved in the development and maintenance of alcohol dependence, and difficulty coping with negative affect is a common precipitant of relapse after treatment. Although many current approaches to relapse prevention emphasize change-based strategies for managing negative cognitions and affect, acceptance-based strategies for preventing relapse to alcohol use are intended to provide methods for coping with distress that are fundamentally different from, though in theory complementary to, approaches that emphasize control and change. This paper describes the development of Acceptance-Based Coping for Relapse Prevention (ABCRP), a new intervention for alcohol-dependent individuals who are within 6 months of having quit drinking. Results of preliminary testing indicate that the intervention is feasible with this population; and a small uncontrolled pilot study (N = 23) showed significant (P < .01) improvements in self-reported negative affect, emotional reactivity, perceived stress, positive affect, psychological well-being, and mindfulness level, as well as a trend (P = .06) toward reduction in craving severity between pre- and postintervention assessments. The authors conclude that this acceptance-based intervention seems feasible and holds promise for improving affect and reducing relapse in alcohol-dependent individuals, warranting further research.

  19. Alcoholics Anonymous and behavior therapy: can habits be treated as diseases? Can diseases be treated as habits?

    PubMed

    McCrady, B S

    1994-12-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and behavior therapy have often been characterized as having opposing views of the nature and treatment of alcohol problems. This article describes the theoretical foundations, view of the change process, and treatment practices of AA and behavior therapy. Theoretical and practice perspectives on integration of the two models are examined, and advantages and disadvantages of integration are discussed. PMID:7860813

  20. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Youth with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selles, Robert R.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Phares, Vicky; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in youth with an autism spectrum disorder appears efficacious; however, maintenance of treatment gains has not yet been studied. Using a sample of 32 youth who had benefited at least minimally from a past trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in autism spectrum disorder, this study assessed…

  1. Two Year Study of the Effect of Group Therapy on Teacher Perceived Classroom Behavior of Hyperactive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Harold; And Others

    A 2-year study was done on the effect of group therapy on the teacher-perceived classroom behavior of 82 hyperactive minority boys (ages 10-16 years) in a day school for disruptive children. By the end of the study, there were a minimum of four behaviors which indicated that the group therapy was accomplishing a statistically significant change in…

  2. Investigating the Similarities and Differences between Practitioners of Second- and Third-Wave Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lily A.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Miller, Ivan W.

    2011-01-01

    There has been much discussion in the literature recently regarding the conceptual and technical differences between so-called second- (e.g., Beckian cognitive therapy) and third-wave (e.g., acceptance and commitment therapy) behavioral therapies. Previous research has not addressed the potential similarities and differences among the…

  3. Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonagh, Annmarie; Friedman, Matthew; McHugo, Gregory; Ford, Julian; Sengupta, Anjana; Mueser, Kim; Demment, Christine Carney; Fournier, Debra; Schnurr, Paula P.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted a randomized clinical trial of individual psychotherapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (n = 74), comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with a problem-solving therapy (present-centered therapy; PCT) and to a wait-list (WL). The authors hypothesized that CBT would be…

  4. Applied Behavior Analysis, Autism, and Occupational Therapy: A Search for Understanding.

    PubMed

    Welch, Christie D; Polatajko, H J

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapists strive to be mindful, competent practitioners and continuously look for ways to improve practice. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has strong evidence of effectiveness in helping people with autism achieve goals, yet it does not seem to be implemented in occupational therapy practice. To better understand whether ABA could be an evidence-based option to expand occupational therapy practice, the authors conducted an iterative, multiphase investigation of relevant literature. Findings suggest that occupational therapists apply developmental and sensory approaches to autism treatment. The occupational therapy literature does not reflect any use of ABA despite its strong evidence base. Occupational therapists may currently avoid using ABA principles because of a perception that ABA is not client centered. ABA principles and occupational therapy are compatible, and the two could work synergistically.

  5. Melatonin Therapy for REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A Critical Review of Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jonathan G.; St Louis, Erik K.; Boeve, Bradley F.

    2014-01-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia associated with dream enactment often involving violent or potentially injurious behaviors during REM sleep that is strongly associated with synucleinopathy neurodegeneration. Clonazepam has long been suggested as the first-line treatment option for RBD. However, evidence supporting melatonin therapy is expanding. Melatonin appears to be beneficial for the management of RBD with reductions in clinical behavioral outcomes and decrease in muscle tonicity during REM sleep. Melatonin also has a favorable safety and tolerability profile over clonazepam with limited potential for drug-drug interactions, an important consideration especially in elderly individuals with RBD receiving polypharmacy. Prospective clinical trials are necessary to establish evidence-basis for melatonin and clonazepam as RBD therapies. PMID:25454845

  6. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Latina Adolescents: Supplemental Dialectical Corollaries and Treatment Targets.

    PubMed

    Germán, Miguelina; Smith, Heather L; Rivera-Morales, Camila; González, Garnetta; Haliczer, Lauren A; Haaz, Chloe; Miller, Alec L

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to describe extreme behavioral patterns that the authors have observed in treating Latina adolescents who are suicidal and their parents within the framework of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). These extreme patterns, called dialectical corollaries, serve to supplement the adolescent/family dialectical dilemmas described by Rathus and Miller (2002) as part of dialectical behavior therapy for suicidal adolescents with borderline personality features. The dialectical corollaries proposed are "old school versus new school" and "overprotecting" versus "underprotecting," and they are described in-depth. We also identify specific treatment targets for each corollary and discuss therapeutic techniques aimed at achieving a synthesis between the polarities that characterize each corollary. Lastly, we suggest clinical strategies to use when therapists reach a therapeutic impasse with the parent-adolescent dyad (i.e., dialectical failures). PMID:26160622

  7. Melatonin therapy for REM sleep behavior disorder: a critical review of evidence.

    PubMed

    McGrane, Ian R; Leung, Jonathan G; St Louis, Erik K; Boeve, Bradley F

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia associated with dream enactment often involving violent or potentially injurious behaviors during REM sleep that is strongly associated with synucleinopathy neurodegeneration. Clonazepam has long been suggested as the first-line treatment option for RBD. However, evidence supporting melatonin therapy is expanding. Melatonin appears to be beneficial for the management of RBD with reductions in clinical behavioral outcomes and decrease in muscle tonicity during REM sleep. Melatonin also has a favorable safety and tolerability profile over clonazepam with limited potential for drug-drug interactions, an important consideration especially in elderly individuals with RBD receiving polypharmacy. Prospective clinical trials are necessary to establish the evidence basis for melatonin and clonazepam as RBD therapies. PMID:25454845

  8. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Behavioral Activation for the Treatment of Depression: Description and Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Baruch, David E; Gaynor, Scott T

    2006-01-01

    The field of clinical behavior analysis is growing rapidly and has the potential to affect and transform mainstream cognitive behavior therapy. To have such an impact, the field must provide a formulation of and intervention strategies for clinical depression, the “common cold” of outpatient populations. Two treatments for depression have emerged: acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and behavioral activation (BA). At times ACT and BA may suggest largely redundant intervention strategies. However, at other times the two treatments differ dramatically and may present opposing conceptualizations. This paper will compare and contrast these two important treatment approaches. Then, the relevant data will be presented and discussed. We will end with some thoughts on how and when ACT or BA should be employed clinically in the treatment of depression. PMID:22478462

  9. Ambivalence and alliance ruptures in cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jennifer A; Button, Melissa L; Westra, Henny A

    2014-01-01

    Client ambivalence about change (or motivation) is regarded as central to outcomes in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, little research has been conducted to examine the impact of client ambivalence about change on therapy process variables such as the therapeutic alliance. Given the demonstrated limitations of self-report measures of key constructs such as ambivalence and motivation, the present study instead employed a newly adapted observational measure of client ambivalence. Client statements regarding change (change talk (CT) and counter-change talk (CCT)) were coded in early (session 1 or 2) therapy sessions of CBT for generalized anxiety disorder. The frequency of CT and CCT was then compared between clients who later experienced an alliance rupture with their therapist, and clients who did not. The results showed that clients in dyads who later experienced an alliance rupture expressed significantly more CCT at the outset of therapy than clients who did not later experience an alliance rupture. However, CT utterances did not significantly differ between alliance rupture and no-rupture groups. CCT may strain the alliance because clients expressing higher levels of CCT early in therapy may be less receptive to therapist direction in CBT. Consequently, it is recommended that clients and therapists work together to carefully address these key moments in therapy so as to prevent alliance rupture and preserve client engagement in therapy. PMID:24655131

  10. Ambivalence and alliance ruptures in cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jennifer A; Button, Melissa L; Westra, Henny A

    2014-01-01

    Client ambivalence about change (or motivation) is regarded as central to outcomes in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, little research has been conducted to examine the impact of client ambivalence about change on therapy process variables such as the therapeutic alliance. Given the demonstrated limitations of self-report measures of key constructs such as ambivalence and motivation, the present study instead employed a newly adapted observational measure of client ambivalence. Client statements regarding change (change talk (CT) and counter-change talk (CCT)) were coded in early (session 1 or 2) therapy sessions of CBT for generalized anxiety disorder. The frequency of CT and CCT was then compared between clients who later experienced an alliance rupture with their therapist, and clients who did not. The results showed that clients in dyads who later experienced an alliance rupture expressed significantly more CCT at the outset of therapy than clients who did not later experience an alliance rupture. However, CT utterances did not significantly differ between alliance rupture and no-rupture groups. CCT may strain the alliance because clients expressing higher levels of CCT early in therapy may be less receptive to therapist direction in CBT. Consequently, it is recommended that clients and therapists work together to carefully address these key moments in therapy so as to prevent alliance rupture and preserve client engagement in therapy.

  11. Therapist adherence and organizational effects on change in youth behavior problems one year after multisystemic therapy.

    PubMed

    Schoenwald, Sonja K; Carter, Rickey E; Chapman, Jason E; Sheidow, Ashli J

    2008-09-01

    The current study investigated the relations among therapist adherence to an evidence-based treatment for youth with serious antisocial behavior (i.e., Multisystemic Therapy), organizational climate and structure, and improvement in youth behavior problems one-year post treatment. Participants were 1979 youth and families treated by 429 therapists across 45 provider organizations in North America. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) results showed therapist adherence predicted improvement in youth behavior. Two structure variables and one climate variable predicted changes in youth behavior, and the climate variable also predicted therapist adherence. No statistical support for formal mediation of organizational effects through adherence was found, though examination of changes in parameter estimates suggest a possible interplay of organizational climate with adherence and youth behavior change.

  12. Therapist behavior as a predictor of black and white caregiver responsiveness in multisystemic therapy.

    PubMed

    Foster, Sharon L; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Warner, Sarah E; McCoy, Deborah Moyer; Barr, Tiffany S; Henggeler, Scott W

    2009-10-01

    This study examined whether (a) therapist behaviors thought to enhance family treatment predicted caregiver in-session responses, and (b) caregiver race, racial match between caregiver and therapist, and family financial hardship moderated the relationships between therapist and caregiver behavior. Observers coded caregiver and therapist behavior during one session of multisystemic therapy for substance abusing adolescents. Therapist teaching, focusing on strengths, making reinforcing statements, problem solving, and dealing with practical family needs predicted caregiver engagement and/or positive response, regardless of race, racial match, or financial hardship. Caregiver race, financial hardship, and therapist-caregiver racial match occasionally moderated the relationship between other therapist and caregiver behaviors. Findings suggest both commonalities and differences in how therapist behavior may function to engage caregivers in family treatment, depending on diversity-related factors.

  13. Habit Reversal Therapy for Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors in Williams Syndrome: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Klein-Tasman, Bonita P.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is genetic neurodevelopmental disorder with a well-characterized cognitive and behavioral phenotype. Research has consistently demonstrated high rates of psychopathology in this population; however, little research has examined the use of empirically-supported psychosocial interventions in those with WS. The current case study reports on the use of Habit Reversal Therapy (HRT) to treat multiple body-focused repetitive behaviors in a child with WS. Although HRT is a well-established cognitive-behavioral intervention for body-focused repetitive behaviors, it has been infrequently used in populations with developmental disabilities. An etiologically-informed approach was used to adapt HRT to fit the known behavioral and cognitive phenotype of WS. Results suggest that HRT may be beneficial for this population. Modified treatment elements are described and future research areas highlighted. PMID:24357918

  14. Lost in translation? Moving contingency management and cognitive behavioral therapy into clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    In the treatment of addictions, the gap between the availability of evidence-based therapies and their limited implementation in practice has not yet been bridged. Two empirically validated behavioral therapies, contingency management (CM) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), exemplify this challenge. Both have a relatively strong level of empirical support but each has weak and uneven adoption in clinical practice. This review highlights examples of how barriers to their implementation in practice have been addressed systematically, using the Stage Model of Behavioral Therapies Development as an organizing framework. For CM, barriers such as cost and ideology have been addressed through the development of lower-cost and other adaptations to make it more community-friendly. For CBT, barriers such as relative complexity, lack of trained providers and need for supervision have been addressed via conversion to standardized computer-assisted versions that can serve as clinician extenders. Although these and other modifications have rendered both interventions more disseminable, diffusion of innovation remains a complex, often unpredictable process. The existing specialty addiction treatment system may require significant reforms to fully implement CBT and CM, particularly greater focus on definable treatment goals and performance-based outcomes. PMID:25204847

  15. Lost in translation? Moving contingency management and cognitive behavioral therapy into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Kathleen M

    2014-10-01

    In the treatment of addictions, the gap between the availability of evidence-based therapies and their limited implementation in practice has not yet been bridged. Two empirically validated behavioral therapies, contingency management (CM) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), exemplify this challenge. Both have a relatively strong level of empirical support but each has weak and uneven adoption in clinical practice. This review highlights examples of how barriers to their implementation in practice have been addressed systematically, using the Stage Model of Behavioral Therapies Development as an organizing framework. For CM, barriers such as cost and ideology have been addressed through the development of lower-cost and other adaptations to make it more community friendly. For CBT, barriers such as relative complexity, lack of trained providers, and need for supervision have been addressed via conversion to standardized computer-assisted versions that can serve as clinician extenders. Although these and other modifications have rendered both interventions more disseminable, diffusion of innovation remains a complex, often unpredictable process. The existing specialty addiction-treatment system may require significant reforms to fully implement CBT and CM, particularly greater focus on definable treatment goals and performance-based outcomes.

  16. The Effect of Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Insomnia due to Methadone Maintenance Therapy: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Robabeh; Modabbernia, Mohammad Jafar; Habibi, Sharareh; Roudsary, Maryam Habibi; Elahi, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep disturbance is a common complaint of patients undergoing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). There are limited studies about the effect of different treatments on insomnia due to MMT. In this study, we evaluated the effect of cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBTI) on sleep disorders in patients undergoing MMT. Methods: Twenty-two patients with insomnia due to MMT (aged 18-60 years) participated in this randomized double-blind clinical trial. The intervention group received CBTI from a clinical psychologist for 8 weeks, whereas the control group received behavioral placebo therapy (BPT). The duration of individual sessions was 45 minutes, which was conducted once a week. The primary outcome was sleep disturbance assessed with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 19. Results: Eleven patients were assigned to each group. Two groups were matched according to demographic characteristics (age, marital status, education, and daily methadone doses). Although PSQI score was significantly reduced during weeks 5 and 8 after both interventions, there was a significant difference in intervention versus time interaction (P<0.02). The effects of CBTI versus placebo were significantly different (P<0.001). The time course was also significant (P<0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that CBTI is more effective than BPT in overall sleep quality. We recommend further studies, with a larger sample, on CBTI in patients undergoing MMT. PMID:26379345

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Tinnitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesser, Hugo; Gustafsson, Tore; Lunden, Charlotte; Henrikson, Oskar; Fattahi, Kidjan; Johnsson, Erik; Westin, Vendela Zetterqvist; Carlbring, Per; Maki-Torkko, Elina; Kaldo, Viktor; Andersson, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Our aim in this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effects on global tinnitus severity of 2 Internet-delivered psychological treatments, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), in guided self-help format. Method: Ninety-nine participants (mean age = 48.5 years; 43% female) who were…

  18. Facets of clinicians' anxiety and the delivery of cognitive behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Levita, Liat; Salas Duhne, Paulina Gonzalez; Girling, Carla; Waller, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    Psychological therapists commonly fail to adhere to treatment protocols in everyday clinical practice. In part, this pattern of drift is attributable to anxious therapists being less likely to undertake some elements of evidence-based therapies - particularly the exposure-based elements. This study considers what facets of anxiety (cognitive, behavioral, physiological) are related to junior clinicians' reported use of cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques. Thirty-two clinicians (mean age = 28.9 years; mean length of CBT experience = 1.5 years; 23 female, nine male) who offered CBT were assessed for their cognitive, behavioral and physiological characteristics (Intolerance of Uncertainty scale; risk taking; skin conductance response and heart rate variability). While the three different facets of anxiety were relatively poorly associated with each other, as is usual in this literature, each facet was linked differently to the reported delivery of CBT techniques (P < .05). Overall, higher anxiety levels were associated with a poorer use of exposure methods or with a greater use of other behavioral or cognitive methods. Of the three facets of anxiety, only physiological reactivity showed an association with the clinicians' temporal characteristics, with more experienced therapists being more likely to have greater skin conductance responses to positive and negative outcomes. These findings suggest that clinicians who are more anxious are less likely to deliver the full evidence-based form of CBT and to focus instead on less challenging elements of the therapy. Potential ways of overcoming this limitation are discussed.

  19. Medication taking behaviors among breast cancer patients on adjuvant endocrine therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kimmick, Gretchen; Edmond, Sara N.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Marcom, Paul K.; Blackwell, Kimberly; Keefe, Francis J.; Shelby, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore how symptoms and psychosocial factors are related to intentional and unintentional non-adherent medication taking behaviors. Methods Included were postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive, stage I-IIIA breast cancer, who had completed surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, and were taking endocrine therapy. Self-administered, standardized measures were completed during a routine clinic visit: Brief Fatigue Inventory, Brief Pain Inventory, Menopause Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy General and Neurotoxicity scales, and Self-Efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale. Regression analyses were performed to determine the degree to which demographic, medical, symptom, and psychosocial variables, explain intentional, such as changing one’s doses or stopping medication, and unintentional, such as forgetting to take one’s medication, non-adherent behaviors. Results Participants were 112 women: mean age 64 (SD=9) years; 81% white; mean time from surgery 40 (SD=28) months; 49% received chemotherapy (39% including a taxane); mean time on endocrine therapy, 35 (SD=29.6) months; 82% taking an aromatase inhibitor. Intentional and unintentional non-adherent behaviors were described in 33.9% and 58.9% of participants, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that higher self-efficacy for taking medication was associated with lower levels of unintentional (p=0.002) and intentional (p=0.004) non-adherent behaviors. The presence of symptoms (p=0.03) and lower self-efficacy for physician communication (p=0.009) were associated with higher levels of intentional non-adherent behaviors. Conclusions These results suggest that women who report greater symptoms, lower self-efficacy for communicating with their physician, and lower self-efficacy for taking their medication are more likely to engage in both intentional and unintentional non-adherent behaviors. PMID:26189978

  20. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), Irrational and Rational Beliefs, and the Mental Health of Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957), the original cognitive behavioral therapy, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one’s beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3) the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as highlighting research

  1. Emotional and Behavioral Functioning After Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, Victoria W.; Conklin, Heather M.; Boop, Frederick A.; Wu, Shengjie; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The standard of care for pediatric patients with ependymoma involves postoperative radiation therapy. Prior research suggests that conformal radiation therapy (CRT) is associated with relative sparing of cognitive and academic functioning, but little is known about the effect of CRT on emotional and behavioral functioning. Methods and Materials: A total of 113 patients with pediatric ependymoma underwent CRT using photons as part of their enrollment on an institutional trial. Patients completed annual evaluations of neurocognitive functioning during the first 5 years after CRT. Emotional and behavioral functioning was assessed via the Child Behavior Checklist. Results: Before CRT, emotional and behavioral functioning were commensurate with those of the normative population and within normal limits. After 5 years, means remained within normal limits but were significantly below the normative mean. Linear mixed models revealed a significant increase in attention problems over time. These problems were associated with age at diagnosis/CRT, tumor location, and extent of resection. A higher-than-expected incidence of school problems was present at all assessment points after baseline. Conclusions: The use of photon CRT for ependymoma is associated with relatively stable emotional and behavioral functioning during the first 5 years after treatment. The exception is an increase in attention problems. Results suggest that intervening earlier in the survivorship period—during the first year posttreatment—may be beneficial.

  2. [Brief strategic family therapy: an empirically-validated intervention for reducing adolescent behavior problems].

    PubMed

    Robbins, Michael S; Horigian, Viviana E; Szapocznik, José

    2008-01-01

    Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) is an empirically-supported treatment for children and adolescents with behavior problems and substance use problems. For three decades, the efficacy and effectiveness of BSFT has been established through the results of rigorous clinical trials studies conducted at the University of Miami's Center for Family Studies. BSFT is based on family systems approaches, most notably the work of Salvador Minuchin and Jay Haley, but has been refined to meet the pressing needs of youth with behavior problems. BSFT theory and interventions cover four broad domains: joining with family members and the family system, assessing problematic family interactions, creating a motivational context for change, and restructuring family interactions.

  3. The evolution of cognitive behavior therapy for schizophrenia: current practice and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Tai, Sara; Turkington, Douglas

    2009-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) evolved from behavioral theory and developed to focus more on cognitive models that incorporated reappraisal of thinking errors and schema change strategies. This article will describe the key elements of CBT for schizophrenia and the current evidence of its efficacy and effectiveness. We conclude with a description of recent concepts that extend the theoretical basis of practice and expand the range of CBT strategies for use in schizophrenia. Mindfulness, meta-cognitive approaches, compassionate mind training, and method of levels are postulated as useful adjuncts for CBT with psychotic patients.

  4. Behavior Therapy for Children with Tourette Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W.; Scahill, Lawrence; Wilhelm, Sabine; Peterson, Alan L.; Chang, Susanna; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Dziura, James; Levi-Pearl, Sue; Walkup, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Context Tourette disorder is a chronic and typically impairing childhood-onset neurological condition. Antipsychotic medications, the first-line treatments for moderate to severe tics, are often associated with adverse effects. Behavioral interventions, although promising, have not been evaluated in large-scale controlled trials. Objective To determine the efficacy of a comprehensive behavioral intervention for reducing tic severity in children and adolescents. Design, Setting, Participants Randomized, observer-blind, controlled trial of 126 youngsters recruited from December, 2004 through May, 2007 and aged 9–17 years with impairing Tourette or chronic tic disorder as primary diagnosis randomized to 8 sessions over 10 weeks of behavior therapy (n=61) or a control treatment consisting of supportive therapy and education (n=65). Responders received 3 monthly treatment booster sessions and were reassessed at 3- and 6-months post-treatment. Intervention Comprehensive behavioral intervention. Main Outcome Measures Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (range 0–40, score >15 indicating clinically significant tics), Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale (range 1-very much improved to 8-very much worse). Results Behavioral intervention led to a significantly greater decrease on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (24.7; CI:23.1,26.3) to 17.1 CI:15.1,19.1) from baseline to endpoint compared to the control treatment (24.6 CI:23.2,26.0) to 21.1 CI:19.2,23.0) (P<.001; 95% CI for difference between groups: 6.2, 2.0); (effect size=0.68). Compared to children in control treatment, significantly more children receiving behavioral intervention were rated as “very much” or “much improved” on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale (52.5% to 18.5%, respectively; P<0.001; number-needed-to-treat=3). Attrition was low (12/126 or 9.5%); tic worsening was reported by 4% of children (5/126). Treatment gains were durable with 87% of available responders to behavior

  5. Brief Strategic Family Therapy: Engaging Drug Using/Problem Behavior Adolescents and their Families into Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Szapocznik, José; Zarate, Monica; Duff, Johnathan; Muir, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Despite the efficacy of family-based interventions for improving outcomes for adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, engaging and retaining whole families in treatment is one of the greatest challenges therapists confront. This article illustrates how the Brief Strategic Family Therapy® (BSFT®) model, a family-based, empirically validated intervention designed to treat children and adolescents’ problem behaviors, can be used to increase engagement, improve retention, and bring about positive outcomes for families. Research evidence for efficacy and effectiveness is also presented. PMID:23731415

  6. Principles and Practice of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Working with Parents of Young Children with Behavior Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavuluri, Mani; Smith, Marita

    1996-01-01

    Describes a pragmatic approach using cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) to help correct parents' dysfunctional cognitions and strengthen confidence in parenting. Details three components of CBT: (1) focusing on positive behavior; (2) ignoring negative behavior if not dangerous; and (3) using special time. Notes that positive reinforcement is key to…

  7. [The relevance of zen-buddhism for dialectic-behavioral therapy].

    PubMed

    Huppertz, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Dialectic-Behavioral Therapy is a specific psychotherapeutic approach to answer the needs of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder. It uses concepts and techniques of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and of Humanistic Psychotherapies. For a deeper understanding, it is necessary to include also its Zen-Buddhistic background. The experience of Zen-meditation and the basic philosophy of Zen-Buddhism will be explained. In the context of the historical relation between Zen-Buddhism and Psychotherapy, the position of the DBT will be specified. Finally it will be demonstrated how Zen-Buddhism inspired the practice of DBT and what kinds of problems arise when a modern psychotherapy uses the concept of a premodern conception of the world and human existence.

  8. Implementing brief cognitive behavioral therapy in primary care: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mignogna, Joseph; Hundt, Natalie E; Kauth, Michael R; Kunik, Mark E; Sorocco, Kristen H; Naik, Aanand D; Stanley, Melinda A; York, Kaki M; Cully, Jeffrey A

    2014-06-01

    Effective implementation strategies are needed to improve the adoption of evidence-based psychotherapy in primary care settings. This study provides pilot data on the test of an implementation strategy conducted as part of a multisite randomized controlled trial examining a brief cognitive-behavioral therapy versus usual care for medically ill patients in primary care, using a hybrid (type II) effectiveness/implementation design. The implementation strategy was multifaceted and included (1) modular-based online clinician training, (2) treatment fidelity auditing with expert feedback, and (3) internal and external facilitation to provide ongoing consultation and support of practice. Outcomes included descriptive and qualitative data on the feasibility and acceptability of the implementation strategy, as well as initial indicators of clinician adoption and treatment fidelity. Results suggest that a comprehensive implementation strategy to improve clinician adoption of a brief cognitive-behavioral therapy in primary care is feasible and effective for reaching high levels of adoption and fidelity.

  9. Effects of Cognitive–Behavioral Conjoint Therapy for PTSD on Partners’ Psychological Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Shnaider, Philippe; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D.; Fredman, Steffany J.; Macdonald, Alexandra; Monson, Candice M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have documented that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in “one” partner are negatively associated with their intimate partner’s psychological functioning. The present study investigated intimate partners’ mental health outcomes (i.e., depression, anxiety, and anger) in a sample of 40 partners of individuals with PTSD within a randomized waitlist controlled trial of cognitive–behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD (Monson & Fredman, 2012). There were no significant differences between active treatment and waitlist in intimate partners’ psychological functioning at posttreatment. Subgroup analyses, however, of partners exhibiting clinical levels of distress at pretreatment on several measures showed reliable and clinically significant improvements in their psychological functioning at posttreatment and no evidence of worsening. Results suggest that cognitive–behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD may have additional benefits for partners presenting with psychological distress. PMID:24706354

  10. Intensive sleep deprivation and cognitive behavioral therapy for pharmacotherapy refractory insomnia in a hospitalized patient.

    PubMed

    Breitstein, Joshua; Penix, Brandon; Roth, Bernard J; Baxter, Tristin; Mysliwiec, Vincent

    2014-06-15

    The case of a 59-year-old woman psychiatrically hospitalized with comorbid insomnia, suicidal ideation, and generalized anxiety disorder is presented. Pharmacologic therapies were unsuccessful for treating insomnia prior to and during hospitalization. Intensive sleep deprivation was initiated for 40 consecutive hours followed by a recovery sleep period of 8 hours. Traditional components of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi), sleep restriction, and stimulus control therapies, were initiated on the ward. After two consecutive nights with improved sleep, anxiety, and absence of suicidal ideation, the patient was discharged. She was followed in the sleep clinic for two months engaging in CBTi. Treatment resulted in substantial improvement in her insomnia, daytime sleepiness, and anxiety about sleep. Sleep deprivation regimens followed by a restricted sleep recovery period have shown antidepressant effects in depressed patients. Similar treatment protocols have not been investigated in patients with pharmacotherapy refractory insomnia and generalized anxiety disorder. PMID:24932151

  11. Applying Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Group Format.

    PubMed

    Deblinger, Esther; Pollio, Elisabeth; Dorsey, Shannon

    2016-02-01

    Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), a well-established, evidence-based treatment for children who have experienced trauma, has been increasingly utilized in a group format. Group therapy formats are appealing because they can be highly effective and have the potential to reach larger numbers of clients. Moreover, TF-CBT group delivery may be particularly valuable in reducing the feelings of shame, isolation, and stigma experienced by youth and their caregivers in the aftermath of traumatic experiences. This article reviews the group TF-CBT research, discusses the therapeutic benefits of TF-CBT therapy groups, and provides clinical and logistical guidance for implementing TF-CBT in group format, including a session-by-session protocol. Future directions for research and clinical work in this area are also discussed.

  12. Defining the Role of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Treating Chronic Low Back Pain: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Hanscom, David A; Brox, Jens Ivar; Bunnage, Ray

    2015-12-01

    Study Design Narrative review of the literature. Objectives Determine if the term cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is useful in clinical care and research. What literature supports these variables being relevant to the experience of chronic pain? What effects of CBT in treating these factors have been documented? What methods and platforms are available to administer CBT? Methods Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a complex neurologic disorder with many components. CBT refers to a broad family of therapies that address both maladaptive thoughts and behaviors. There are several ways to deliver it. CLBP was broken into five categories that affect the perception of pain, and the literature was reviewed to see the effects of CBT on these variables. Results The term cognitive behavioral therapy has little use in future research because it covers such a wide range of therapies. CBT should always be defined by the problem it is intended to solve. The format and method of delivery should be defined because they have implications for outcomes. They are readily available even at the primary care level. The effectiveness of CBT is unquestioned regarding its effectiveness in treating each of the variables that affect CLBP. It is unclear why it is not more widely implemented. Conclusions CBT represents a family of therapies that are effective for a wide range of problems, many of which coexist with and influence CLBP. Each of the variables can be improved with focused CBT. Early, widespread adoption of CBT in treating and preventing CLBP is recommended. Future research and clinical care should focus on strategies to operationalize these well-documented treatments utilizing a public health approach. PMID:26682100

  13. Defining the Role of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Treating Chronic Low Back Pain: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Hanscom, David A.; Brox, Jens Ivar; Bunnage, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Narrative review of the literature. Objectives Determine if the term cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is useful in clinical care and research. What literature supports these variables being relevant to the experience of chronic pain? What effects of CBT in treating these factors have been documented? What methods and platforms are available to administer CBT? Methods Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a complex neurologic disorder with many components. CBT refers to a broad family of therapies that address both maladaptive thoughts and behaviors. There are several ways to deliver it. CLBP was broken into five categories that affect the perception of pain, and the literature was reviewed to see the effects of CBT on these variables. Results The term cognitive behavioral therapy has little use in future research because it covers such a wide range of therapies. CBT should always be defined by the problem it is intended to solve. The format and method of delivery should be defined because they have implications for outcomes. They are readily available even at the primary care level. The effectiveness of CBT is unquestioned regarding its effectiveness in treating each of the variables that affect CLBP. It is unclear why it is not more widely implemented. Conclusions CBT represents a family of therapies that are effective for a wide range of problems, many of which coexist with and influence CLBP. Each of the variables can be improved with focused CBT. Early, widespread adoption of CBT in treating and preventing CLBP is recommended. Future research and clinical care should focus on strategies to operationalize these well-documented treatments utilizing a public health approach. PMID:26682100

  14. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior.

    PubMed

    Miller, Natalie V; Haas, Sarah M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willoughby, Michael T; Helseth, Sarah A; Crum, Kathleen I; Coles, Erika K; Pelham, William E

    2014-09-01

    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy, lack of guilt/lack of caring behaviors) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), whereas reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (Condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (Condition C), compared with a standard behavioral intervention (Condition A). Interventions were delivered through a summer treatment program over 7 weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of 11 children (7-11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low-punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the 7 weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed.

  15. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior.

    PubMed

    Miller, Natalie V; Haas, Sarah M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willoughby, Michael T; Helseth, Sarah A; Crum, Kathleen I; Coles, Erika K; Pelham, William E

    2014-09-01

    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy, lack of guilt/lack of caring behaviors) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), whereas reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (Condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (Condition C), compared with a standard behavioral intervention (Condition A). Interventions were delivered through a summer treatment program over 7 weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of 11 children (7-11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low-punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the 7 weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed. PMID:25022772

  16. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: Effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Natalie V.; Haas, Sarah M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Willoughby, Michael T.; Helseth, Sarah A.; Crum, Kathleen I.; Coles, Erika K.; Pelham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional traits (i.e., lack of empathy, guilt/lack of caring behaviors) (CU) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), however reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (condition C), compared to a standard behavioral intervention (condition A). Interventions were delivered through a Summer Treatment Program over seven weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of eleven children (7–11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the seven weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed. PMID:25022772

  17. A COMPARISON OF SENSORY INTEGRATIVE AND BEHAVIORAL THERAPIES AS TREATMENT FOR PEDIATRIC FEEDING DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Addison, Laura R; Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Bachmeyer, Melanie H; Rivas, Kristi M; Milnes, Suzanne M; Oddo, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of escape extinction (EE) plus noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with sensory integration therapy as treatment for the feeding problems of 2 children. Results indicated that EE plus NCR was more effective in increasing acceptance, decreasing inappropriate behavior, and increasing amount consumed relative to sensory integration for both children. The results are discussed in terms of the challenges of evaluating sensory-integration-based treatments, and the reasons why component analyses of multicomponent treatments like sensory integration are important. PMID:23060661

  18. Differential effectiveness of behavioral parent-training and cognitive-behavioral therapy for antisocial youth: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    McCart, Michael R; Priester, Paul E; Davies, W Hobart; Azen, Razia

    2006-08-01

    Extended the findings from previous meta-analytic work by comparing the effectiveness of behavioral parent-training (BPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth with antisocial behavior problems. Youth demographic variables were also examined as potential moderators of the effectiveness of these 2 types of interventions. Thirty BPT studies and 41 CBT studies met inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. The weighted mean effect size (ES) for all interventions was 0.40. Youth age was found to moderate the outcome of the 2 interventions, with BPT having a stronger effect for preschool and school-aged youth and CBT having a stronger effect for adolescents. The results also indicate that there may be systematic differences in the outcomes associated with BPT and CBT when the setting of the intervention is considered, suggesting the need to carefully consider the effect of setting in future research. This study also highlights the need for outcome research dealing with more diverse populations and the better classification of research participants on different developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior.

  19. The impact of interpersonal patient and therapist behavior on outcome in cognitive-behavior therapy. A review of empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Keijsers, G P; Schaap, C P; Hoogduin, C A

    2000-04-01

    Empirical studies are reviewed, the aim being to investigate characteristics of the therapeutic relationship in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) and to identify therapist or patient interpersonal behavior that affects treatment outcome. CBT is characterized by a more active and directive stance on the part of the therapists and higher levels of emotional support than are found in insight-oriented psychotherapies. Therapists express high levels of empathy and unconditional positive regard, similar to those expressed by insight-oriented psychotherapists. Two clusters of interpersonal behavior have been identified that are clearly associated with CBT outcome: (a) the Rogerian therapist variables--empathy, nonpossessive warmth, positive regard, and genuineness; and (b) therapeutic alliance. There is some evidence for the impact on outcome of three additional clusters of patient behavior: (a) the patients' perception of the therapist as being self-confident, skillful, and active; (b) the patients' openness to discuss their problems; and (c) the patients' pretreatment predisposition to change and to accept psychological treatment as a means of achieving this. It is further concluded that relationship factors in general have a consistent but moderate impact on CBT outcome.

  20. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Sigan L; Esbensen, Anna J; Shalev, Rebecca; Vincent, Lori B; Mihaila, Iulia; Bussanich, Paige

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of research on psychosocial treatments for depression in adults with intellectual disability (ID). In this pilot study, we explored the efficacy of a group CBT treatment that involved a caregiver component in adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder. Method Sixteen adults with mild ID and a depressive disorder participated in a 10-week group CBT treatment and 8 adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder served as a treatment as usual (TAU) control group. Adults with mild ID and caregivers completed measures of depressive symptoms, behavior problems, and social skills at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and a 3-month follow-up. Adults with mild ID also completed a series of tasks to measure their understanding of the principles of cognitive therapy pre- and post-treatment. Results The CBT group demonstrated significant decreases in depressive symptoms and behavior problems from pre-treatment to post-treatment and these effects were maintained at a 3-month follow-up. The CBT group demonstrated significant improvements in their ability to infer emotions and thoughts based on various situation-thought-emotion pairings from pre-treatment to post-treatment. Conclusions Findings indicate that adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder benefitted from a group CBT treatment with a caregiver component. Moreover, adults with mild ID appeared to benefit, at least in part, from the cognitive therapy components of the treatment, in addition to the behavior therapy components. PMID:26925187

  1. A Preliminary Study of the Neural Effects of Behavioral Therapy for Substance Use Disorders*

    PubMed Central

    DeVito, Elise E.; Worhunsky, Patrick D.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Kober, Hedy; Potenza, Marc N.

    2011-01-01

    Background The mechanisms by which behavioral therapies for substance use disorders (SUDs) exert their effects and the components of treatment that contribute most to substance use outcome remain unclear. Disruptions to aspects of impulse control and attention have been hypothesized to contribute to the development and maintenance of addiction; moreover, alterations in these processes may underlie responses to treatment. Methods Individuals participating in a randomized clinical trial evaluating computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance abuse participated in fMRI Stroop before and after treatment. A non-substance-using comparison group performed the same task under test-retest conditions. Results The patient group demonstrated decreased Stroop-related BOLD signal in regions including the anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and midbrain at post-treatment relative to pre-treatment, and displayed a greater decrease in the subthalamic nucleus and surrounding regions compared to healthy controls following test-retest. Conclusions Behavioral therapies may be associated with reduction in substance use and effects on neural systems involved in cognitive control, impulsivity, motivation and attention. PMID:22041256

  2. Cognitive behavioral therapy to reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Li, Chun; Wang, Hong; Ou, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Song; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This 9-week study was designed to determine whether a commercial cognitive-behavioral training program could effectively reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders. Sixty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive routine intervention alone (control group) or routine intervention plus Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST group) in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was change scores on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) from baseline to one week following end of training. Secondary outcomes were change scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). There were significant between-group differences in change of MOAS total score (P < .001) and all sub-scores (Ps < .01) except aggression against property. Between-group differences were also observed in change of BIS-11 and CMHS total score (Ps < 0.05). All results favored the WLST group. These findings suggest WLST has the potential to be an effective intervention to reduce overt aggressive behavior in young male violent offenders.

  3. Cognitive remediation therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy with an older adult with anorexia nervosa: A brief case report.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Alison M; Fitzpatrick, Kara K; Lock, James

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive remediation therapy represents a new approach to the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN) emerging from research, suggesting that adults with chronic AN have specific neurocognitive inefficiencies. Specifically, adults with AN demonstrate an overly detailed cognitive processing bias (Roberts, Tchanturia, & Treasure, 2013) and difficulties shifting set quickly and efficiently (Roberts, Tchanturia, Stahl, Southgate, & Treasure, 2007). These characteristics manifest as rigid, rule-bound, and detail-focused cognitions, beliefs, and behaviors. Versions of these problems appear to persist after weight restoration (Tchanturia et al., 2004) and are observable in patient's healthy sisters (Roberts et al., 2013). Thus, central coherence difficulties and set-shifting problems have been proposed as endophenotypes and maintaining factors of AN (Roberts et al., 2013). (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27267509

  4. Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Versus Cognitive Processing Therapy for Adults With Depression, Substance Use Disorder, and Trauma.

    PubMed

    Haller, Moira; Norman, Sonya B; Cummins, Kevin; Trim, Ryan S; Xu, Xiaomin; Cui, Ruifeng; Allard, Carolyn B; Brown, Sandra A; Tate, Susan R

    2016-03-01

    The comorbidity of substance use disorder (SUD), depression, and PTSD is common among veterans. Prior research has shown that among veterans with SUD and depression, those with PTSD did not maintain cognitive-behavioral treatment gains as well as those without PTSD. Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate whether adding trauma-focused treatment following an initial group-based integrated cognitive behavioral treatment (ICBT) for SUD and depression improved treatment outcomes. Participants were 123 veterans (89% male) recruited from the VA San Diego Healthcare System. All participants received ICBT in twice weekly, group-delivered sessions for 12 weeks (Phase 1). Participants were then randomized to receive 12 sessions of individual follow-up sessions (Phase 2) utilizing either ICBT or cognitive processing therapy that was modified to integrate SUD treatment (CPT-M). Results indicated that PTSD and depression symptoms slightly improved at the end of Phase 1 group ICBT and further improved through Phase 2 individual treatment (except for participants without PTSD who received CPT-M), with treatment gains maintained one year later. Substance use significantly improved at the end of Phase 1 group ICBT and these improvements were maintained through Phase 2 and the one year follow-up. Participants in the trauma-focused Phase 2 treatment (CPT-M) exhibited similar levels of symptom reduction and maintenance of treatment gains as those in the non-trauma-focused Phase 2 treatment (ICBT). However, there was a slight advantage for Phase 2 CPT-M over Phase 2 ICBT with respect to heavy drinking outcomes for individuals with PTSD. Overall, the combination of group ICBT followed by either CPT-M or ICBT individual therapy appears to be effective for veterans with depression, SUD, and trauma history.

  5. Costs of a Motivational Enhancement Therapy Coupled with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Brief Advice for Pregnant Substance Users

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao; Yonkers, Kimberly A.; Ruger, Jennifer P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine and compare costs of a nurse-administered behavioral intervention for pregnant substance users that integrated motivational enhancement therapy with cognitive behavioral therapy (MET-CBT) to brief advice (BA) administered by an obstetrical provider. Both interventions were provided concurrent with prenatal care. Methods We conducted a micro-costing study that prospectively collected detailed resource utilization and unit cost data for each of the two intervention arms (MET-CBT and BA) within the context of a randomized controlled trial. A three-step approach for identifying, measuring and valuing resource utilization was used. All cost estimates were inflation adjusted to 2011 U.S. dollars. Results A total of 82 participants received the MET-CBT intervention and 86 participants received BA. From the societal perspective, the total cost (including participants’ time cost) of the MET-CBT intervention was $120,483 or $1,469 per participant. In contrast, the total cost of the BA intervention was $27,199 or $316 per participant. Personnel costs (nurse therapists and obstetric providers) for delivering the intervention sessions and supervising the program composed the largest share of the MET-CBT intervention costs. Program set up costs, especially intervention material design and training costs, also contributed substantially to the overall cost. Conclusions Implementation of an MET-CBT program to promote drug abstinence in pregnant women is associated with modest costs. Future cost effectiveness and cost benefit analyses integrating costs with outcomes and benefits data will enable a more comprehensive understanding of the intervention in improving the care of substance abusing pregnant women. PMID:24760017

  6. Randomized Trial of Telephone-Delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Smoking Cessation: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Terry; Zbikowski, Susan M.; Mercer, Laina D.; Heffner, Jaimee L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a pilot randomized trial of telephone-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) versus cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation. Method: Participants were 121 uninsured South Carolina State Quitline callers who were adult smokers (at least 10 cigarettes/day) and who wanted to quit within the next 30 days. Participants were randomized to 5 sessions of either ACT or CBT telephone counseling and were offered 2 weeks of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Results: ACT participants completed more calls than CBT participants (M = 3.25 in ACT vs. 2.23 in CBT; p = .001). Regarding satisfaction, 100% of ACT participants reported their treatment was useful for quitting smoking (vs. 87% for CBT; p = .03), and 97% of ACT participants would recommend their treatment to a friend (vs. 83% for CBT; p = .06). On the primary outcome of intent-to-treat 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 6 months postrandomization, the quit rates were 31% in ACT versus 22% in CBT (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.7–3.4). Among participants depressed at baseline (n = 47), the quit rates were 33% in ACT versus 13% in CBT (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0–1.6). Consistent with ACT’s theory, among participants scoring low on acceptance of cravings at baseline (n = 57), the quit rates were 37% in ACT versus 10% in CBT (OR = 5.3, 95% CI = 1.3–22.0). Conclusions: ACT is feasible to deliver by phone, is highly acceptable to quitline callers, and shows highly promising quit rates compared with standard CBT quitline counseling. As results were limited by the pilot design (e.g., small sample), a full-scale efficacy trial is now needed. PMID:24935757

  7. Ost's (2008) methodological comparison of clinical trials of acceptance and commitment therapy versus cognitive behavior therapy: Matching apples with oranges?

    PubMed

    Gaudiano, Brandon A

    2009-12-01

    Ost (2008) recently compared the methodological rigor of studies of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). He concluded that the ACT studies had more methodological deficiencies, and thus the treatment did not qualify as an "empirically supported treatment." Although Ost noted several important limitations that should be carefully considered when evaluating early ACT research, his attempt to devise an empirical matching strategy by creating a comparison sample of CBT studies to bolster his conclusions was itself problematic. The samples were clearly mismatched in terms of the populations being treated, leading to differences in study design and methodology. Furthermore, reanalysis showed clear differences in grant support favoring CBT compared with ACT studies that were not reported in the original article. Given the actual mismatch between the samples, Ost's methodological ratings are difficult to interpret and provide little useful information beyond what could already be gathered by a qualitative review of ACT study limitations. Such limitations are characteristic of the earlier randomized controlled trials of any emerging psychotherapeutic approach.

  8. Cognitive predictors and moderators of winter depression treatment outcomes in cognitive-behavioral therapy vs. light therapy.

    PubMed

    Sitnikov, Lilya; Rohan, Kelly J; Evans, Maggie; Mahon, Jennifer N; Nillni, Yael I

    2013-12-01

    There is no empirical basis for determining which seasonal affective disorder (SAD) patients are best suited for what type of treatment. Using data from a parent clinical trial comparing light therapy (LT), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and their combination (CBT + LT) for SAD, we constructed hierarchical linear regression models to explore baseline cognitive vulnerability constructs (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes, negative automatic thoughts, response styles) as prognostic and prescriptive factors of acute and next winter depression outcomes. Cognitive constructs did not predict or moderate acute treatment outcomes. Baseline dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts were prescriptive of next winter treatment outcomes. Participants with higher baseline levels of dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts had less severe depression the next winter if treated with CBT than if treated with LT. In addition, participants randomized to solo LT who scored at or above the sample mean on these cognitive measures at baseline had more severe depressive symptoms the next winter relative to those who scored below the mean. Baseline dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts did not predict treatment outcomes in participants assigned to solo CBT or CBT + LT. Therefore, SAD patients with extremely rigid cognitions did not fare as well in the subsequent winter if treated initially with solo LT. Such patients may be better suited for initial treatment with CBT, which directly targets cognitive vulnerability processes.

  9. Examination of the core cognitive components of cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy: an analogue investigation.

    PubMed

    Yovel, Iftah; Mor, Nilly; Shakarov, Hagit

    2014-07-01

    We aimed to examine the core elements of cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy that target distressing negative cognitions, cognitive restructuring (CR) and cognitive defusion (CD), respectively. Participants (N=142) recalled a saddening autobiographical event, identified a distressing thought it triggered, and completed a task that induced rumination on these cognitions. They then completed one of four brief interventions that targeted these emotionally charged cognitions: analogue versions of CR and CD, and two control interventions. The personal negative cognitions were then reactivated to examine the protective effects of these interventions. CR and CD were similarly efficacious in alleviating distress, compared to a control intervention that focused on participants' negative thoughts. Mood improvement was associated with state levels of reappraisal and not with acceptance in CR, whereas the reverse was observed in CD. Improvement was associated with perceived efficacy of the intervention in CR but not in CD. The present findings suggest that although CR and CD effectively promote different types of cognitive strategies, they may share important features that set them both apart from maladaptive forms of coping.

  10. The interpersonal context of client motivational language in cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Sijercic, Iris; Button, Melissa L; Westra, Henny A; Hara, Kimberley M

    2016-03-01

    Previous research has found that client motivational language (especially arguments against change or counterchange talk; CCT) in early therapy sessions is a reliable predictor of therapy process and outcomes across a broad range of treatments including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Existing studies have considered the general occurrence of CCT, but the present study differentiated 2 types of CCT in early CBT sessions for 37 clients with generalized anxiety disorder: (a) statements that are uttered to express ambivalence regarding change versus (b) statements that are intended to oppose the therapist or therapy. Two process coding systems were used to accomplish this differentiation. Findings indicated that a higher number of CCT statements that occurred in the presence of resistance (opposition to the therapist or therapy) were a substantive and consistent predictor of lower homework compliance and poorer outcomes, up to 1 year posttreatment. Moreover, when both types of CCT were considered together, only opposition CCT was related to outcomes, and ambivalent CCT was not significantly predictive of proximal and distal outcomes. These findings suggest that the interpersonal context in which CCT statements occur may be critically important to their predictive capacity. More broadly, the findings of this study have implications for the future study of client motivational language and underscore the clinical importance of detecting opposition CCT. PMID:26011747

  11. Behaviorally-based couple therapies reduce emotional arousal during couple conflict

    PubMed Central

    Baucom, Brian R.; Sheng, Elisa; Christensen, Andrew; Georgiou, Panayiotis G.; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.; Atkins, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Emotional arousal during relationship conflict is a major target for intervention in couple therapies. The current study examines changes in conflict-related emotional arousal in 104 couples that participated in a randomized clinical trial of two behaviorally-based couple therapies. Emotional arousal is measured using mean fundamental frequency of spouse’s speech, and changes in emotional arousal from pre- to post-therapy are examined using multilevel models. Overall emotional arousal, the rate of increase in emotional arousal at the beginning of conflict, and the duration of emotional arousal declined for all couples. Reductions in overall arousal were stronger for TBCT wives than for IBCT wives but not significantly different for IBCT and TBCT husbands. Reductions in the rate of initial arousal were larger for TBCT couples than IBCT couples. Reductions in duration were larger for IBCT couples than TBCT couples. These findings suggest that both therapies can reduce emotional arousal, but that the two therapies create different kinds of change in emotional arousal. PMID:26183021

  12. Rethinking Family Caregiving: Tailoring Cognitive–Behavioral Therapies to the Hospice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Karla T.; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Parker Oliver, Debra; Baldwin, Paula K.; Tappana, Jessica; Wright, Jesse H.; Demiris, George

    2014-01-01

    Hospice family caregivers experience significantly higher rates of psychological distress than demographically similar noncaregivers. Interventions based on cognitive–behavioral therapy have been shown to reduce psychological distress in the general population by providing tools to modify thinking patterns that directly affect emotions and behavior. Such interventions might reasonably be incorporated into hospice social work; however, numerous contextual factors must be taken into account to ensure that any interventions are appropriate to the unique needs of clients. The purpose of the study discussed in this article was to contextualize one aspect of the cognitive–behavioral model based on firsthand accounts of hospice family caregivers. Following a modified grounded theory approach, researchers engaged in a secondary analysis of data from a larger study provided in a subsample of 90 audio-recorded conversations between hospice family caregivers and interventionists. Findings indicated that distressed caregivers engaged in five dominant thinking patterns: (1) “should” statements, (2) catastrophizing or minimizing, (3) personalizing, (4) absolute thinking, and (5) making assumptions. Implementing cognitive–behavioral therapies based on identified caregiver thinking patterns will allow hospice social workers to empower caregivers to cope more effectively with the numerous stressors they encounter while caring for a dying loved one. PMID:25369725

  13. [Behavioral, stress and immunological evaluation methods of music therapy in elderly patients with senile dementia].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mizue; Kanamori, Masao; Nagasawa, Shingo; Saruhara, Takayuki

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of behavioral, stress and immunological evaluation methods in music therapy (MT) with elderly patients with senile dementia. The MT group consisted of 8 elderly patients with dementia and the control group included 8 similarly matched patients. A total of 25 sessions of music therapy were conducted for one hour, twice each week for three months. The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Gottfries-Brane-Steen Scale (GBS), and Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (Behave-AD) were used to evaluate behavioral changes. Saliva Chromogranin A (Cg A) and Immunoglobulin A (Ig A) were used to assess changes in stress and immunological status, respectively. The results of the study were as follows: 1. In GBS, the mean score of "different symptoms common in dementia" improved significantly after MT. 2. The mean Behave-AD score of "paranoid and delusional ideation" was also significantly improved (p<0.05) after the intervention. 3. In the 25th session, mean saliva Cg A was significantly decreased after MT (p<0.05). IgA was slightly increased prior to intervention. Our results suggest that a combination of behavioral, stress and immunological evaluation methods were valuable for assessing changes that occurred during MT for elderly patients with dementia.

  14. Outcome expectancy as a predictor of treatment response in cognitive behavioral therapy for public speaking fears within social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L

    2012-06-01

    Outcome expectancy, the extent that clients anticipate benefiting from therapy, is theorized to be an important predictor of treatment response for cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, there is a relatively small body of empirical research on outcome expectancy and the treatment of social anxiety disorder. This literature, which has examined the association mostly in group-based interventions, has yielded mixed findings. The current study sought to further evaluate the effect of outcome expectancy as a predictor of treatment response for public-speaking fears across both individual virtual reality and group-based cognitive-behavioral therapies. The findings supported outcome expectancy as a predictor of the rate of change in public-speaking anxiety during both individual virtual reality exposure therapy and group cognitive-behavioral therapy. Furthermore, there was no evidence to suggest that the impact of outcome expectancy differed across virtual reality or group treatments. PMID:21967073

  15. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Self Determination Theory with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Peter C.; Patrick, Heather; Wenzel, Amy; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in preventing suicide-related behavior. However, it is often difficult to engage patients who are at-risk in treatment. Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been shown to increase treatment engagement and improve treatment outcomes when it is used to complement other treatments. As a general theory of human motivation that is consistent with MI, Self-Determination Theory (SDT) provides a framework for understanding how MI may be added to CBT to increase treatment engagement and effectiveness. In this paper, we use SDT to explain how MI may complement CBT to reduce suicide-related behavior, provide a case example of using MI with a suicidal patient before CBT-based treatment, and explore future directions for research.

  16. The impact of cognitive behavioral therapy on post event processing among those with social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L

    2011-02-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are prone to engage in post event processing (PEP), a post mortem review of a social interaction that focuses on negative elements. The extent that PEP is impacted by cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and the relation between PEP and change during treatment has yet to be evaluated in a controlled study. The current study used multilevel modeling to determine if PEP decreased as a result of treatment and if PEP limits treatment response for two types of cognitive behavioral treatments, a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention and individually based virtual reality exposure. These hypotheses were evaluated using 91 participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. The findings suggested that PEP decreased as a result of treatment, and that social anxiety symptoms for individuals reporting greater levels of PEP improved at a slower rate than those with lower levels of PEP. Further research is needed to understand why PEP attenuates response to treatment. PMID:21159328

  17. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Behavioral Weight Loss, and Sequential Treatment for Obese Patients with Binge-Eating Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, G. Terence; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; White, Marney A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best established treatment for binge-eating disorder (BED) but does not produce weight loss. The efficacy of behavioral weight loss (BWL) in obese patients with BED is uncertain. This study compared CBT, BWL, and a sequential approach in which CBT is delivered first, followed by BWL (CBT + BWL).…

  18. A Systematic Review of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Behavioral Activation Apps for Depression.

    PubMed

    Huguet, Anna; Rao, Sanjay; McGrath, Patrick J; Wozney, Lori; Wheaton, Mike; Conrod, Jill; Rozario, Sharlene

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common mental health condition for which many mobile apps aim to provide support. This review aims to identify self-help apps available exclusively for people with depression and evaluate those that offer cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or behavioural activation (BA). One hundred and seventeen apps have been identified after searching both the scientific literature and the commercial market. 10.26% (n = 12) of these apps identified through our search offer support that seems to be consistent with evidence-based principles of CBT or BA. Taking into account the non existence of effectiveness/efficacy studies, and the low level of adherence to the core ingredients of the CBT/BA models, the utility of these CBT/BA apps are questionable. The usability of reviewed apps is highly variable and they rarely are accompanied by explicit privacy or safety policies. Despite the growing public demand, there is a concerning lack of appropiate CBT or BA apps, especially from a clinical and legal point of view. The application of superior scientific, technological, and legal knowledge is needed to improve the development, testing, and accessibility of apps for people with depression. PMID:27135410

  19. A Systematic Review of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Behavioral Activation Apps for Depression

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Patrick J.; Wozney, Lori; Wheaton, Mike; Conrod, Jill; Rozario, Sharlene

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common mental health condition for which many mobile apps aim to provide support. This review aims to identify self-help apps available exclusively for people with depression and evaluate those that offer cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or behavioural activation (BA). One hundred and seventeen apps have been identified after searching both the scientific literature and the commercial market. 10.26% (n = 12) of these apps identified through our search offer support that seems to be consistent with evidence-based principles of CBT or BA. Taking into account the non existence of effectiveness/efficacy studies, and the low level of adherence to the core ingredients of the CBT/BA models, the utility of these CBT/BA apps are questionable. The usability of reviewed apps is highly variable and they rarely are accompanied by explicit privacy or safety policies. Despite the growing public demand, there is a concerning lack of appropiate CBT or BA apps, especially from a clinical and legal point of view. The application of superior scientific, technological, and legal knowledge is needed to improve the development, testing, and accessibility of apps for people with depression. PMID:27135410

  20. Rational-emotive behavior therapy and the formation of stimulus equivalence classes.

    PubMed

    Plaud, J J; Gaither, G A; Weller, L A; Bigwood, S J; Barth, J; von Duvillard, S P

    1998-08-01

    Stimulus equivalence is a behavioral approach to analyzing the "meaning" of stimulus sets and has an implication for clinical psychology. The formation of three-member (A --> B --> C) stimulus equivalence classes was used to investigate the effects of three different sets of sample and comparison stimuli on emergent behavior. The three stimulus sets were composed of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)-related words, non-REBT emotionally charged words, and a third category of neutral words composed of flower labels. Sixty-two women and men participated in a modified matching-to-sample experiment. Using a mixed cross-over design, and controlling for serial order effects, participants received conditional training and emergent relationship training in the three stimulus set conditions. Results revealed a significant interaction between the formation of stimulus equivalence classes and stimulus meaning, indicating consistently biased responding in favor of reaching criterion responding more slowly for REBT-related and non-REBT emotionally charged words. Results were examined in the context of an analysis of the importance of stimulus meaning on behavior and the relation of stimulus meaning to behavioral and cognitive theories, with special appraisal given to the influence of fear-related discriminative stimuli on behavior.

  1. Reinforcement Behavior Therapy by Kindergarten Teachers on Preschool Children’s Aggression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yektatalab, Shahrzad; Alipour, Abdolrasool; Edraki, Mitra; Tavakoli, Pouran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aggression is a kind of behavior that causes damage or harm to others. The prevalence of aggression is 8–20% in 3–6 years old children. The present study aimed to assess the effect of training kindergarten teachers regarding reinforcement behavior therapy on preschoolers’ aggression. Methods: In this cluster randomized control trial, 14 out of 35 kindergarten and preschool centers of Mohr city, Iran, were chosen using random cluster sampling and then randomly assigned to an intervention and a control group. All 370 kindergarten and preschool children in 14 kindergarten were assessed by preschoolers’ aggression questionnaire and 60 children who obtained a minimum aggression score of 117.48 for girls and 125.77 for boys were randomly selected. The teachers in the intervention group participated in 4 educational sessions on behavior therapy and then practiced this technique under the supervision of the researcher for two months. Preschoolers’ aggression questionnaire was computed in both intervention and control groups before and after a two-month period. Results: The results demonstrated a significant statistical difference in the total aggression score (P=0.01), verbal (P=0.02) and physical (P=0.01) aggression subscales scores in the intervention group in comparison to the control group after the intervention. But the scores of relational aggression (P=0.09) and impulsive anger (P=0.08) subscales were not statistically different in the intervention group compared to the controls. Conclusion: This study highlighted the importance of teaching reinforcement behavior therapy by kindergarten teachers in decreasing verbal and physical aggression in preschoolers. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2014042617436N1 PMID:26793733

  2. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviors in Autistic Children: A Randomized Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized…

  3. Directions in Specialized Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Theory and Practice of Two Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sookman, Debbie; Steketee, Gail

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses specialized approaches developed for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who are resistant to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Following a review of theoretical and outcome research, two approaches developed to resolve persistent OCD are described and illustrated. Cognitive therapy (CT) designed to address…

  4. Integrating Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Prolonged Exposure to Treat Co-Occurring Borderline Personality Disorder and PTSD: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harned, Melanie S.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the high rate of trauma and PTSD among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), no studies have specifically evaluated the treatment of PTSD in a BPD population. These case studies illustrate the use of a protocol based on prolonged exposure therapy that can be integrated into standard dialectical behavior therapy to treat…

  5. Interdisciplinary treatment of bruxism with an occlusal splint and cognitive behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Marilene; Orestes-Cardoso, Silvana; de Siqueira, Teresa Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of bruxism is associated with exogenous factors, such as occlusal interference, stress, and anxiety, as well as endogenous factors involving neurotransmitters of the basal ganglia. Due to the multifactorial etiology of bruxism, interdisciplinary treatment involving professionals from different healthcare fields has been proposed. The aim of the present study was to compare 2 groups of patients with bruxism (11 in each group) treated with either an occlusal splint combined with cognitive behavioral therapy or an occlusal splint alone. Surface electromyography of the masseter and anterior temporal muscles at rest was performed before and after treatment. The mean amplitude of activity of all muscles was lower after treatment, except for the right anterior temporal muscle in the group treated with an occlusal splint alone. Mean amplitudes were greater in the anterior temporal muscles than in the masseter muscles. Significantly greater improvement was found in the group exposed to cognitive behavioral therapy (P < 0.05; analysis of variance and Student t tests). Therefore, the combination of occlusal splint and psychological therapy was more effective at achieving muscle relaxation than occlusal splint use alone.

  6. Selection of physiological parameters for optoelectronic system supporting behavioral therapy of autistic children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landowska, A.; Karpienko, K.; Wróbel, M.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.

    2014-11-01

    In this article the procedure of selection of physiological parameters for optoelectronic system supporting behavioral therapy of autistic children is proposed. Authors designed and conducted an experiment in which a group of 30 health volunteers (16 females and 14 males) were examined. Under controlled conditions people were exposed to a stressful situation caused by the picture or sound (1kHz constant sound, which was gradually silenced and finished with a shot sound). For each of volunteers, a set of physiological parameters were recorded, including: skin conductance, heart rate, peripheral temperature, respiration rate and electromyography. The selected characteristics were measured in different locations in order to choose the most suitable one for the designed therapy supporting system. The bio-statistical analysis allowed us to discern the proper physiological parameters that are most associated to changes due to emotional state of a patient, such as: skin conductance, temperatures and respiration rate. This allowed us to design optoelectronic sensors network for supporting behavioral therapy of children with autism.

  7. Culturally-Competent Treatments for Asian Americans: The Relevance of Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Psychotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Nagayama Hall, Gordon C.; Hong, Janie J.; Zane, Nolan W. S.; Meyer, Oanh L.

    2011-01-01

    The development of effective treatments for Asian Americans is important because treatment disparities continue to exist for this population. Because of their theoretical grounding in East Asian philosophies, mindfulness and acceptance-based psychotherapies appear to constitute promising ways to provide culturally responsive mental health care to Asian Americans. However, in practice these approaches often reflect conceptions of mental health that are more consistent with Western world views. We review points of intersection and divergence between Western-based mindfulness and acceptance psychotherapies and Asian American cultural values. We then propose a culturally syntonic approach that accentuates certain components of mindfulness and acceptance psychotherapies and adapts other components of these approaches to be more consistent with Asian American cultural values. PMID:22065893

  8. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Young, Brittany M; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A; Grogan, Scott W; Tyler, Mitchell E; Edwards, Dorothy F; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A; Williams, Justin C; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI) values during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy, but not in the absence of therapy, to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere) as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions.

  9. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brittany M.; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M.; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A.; Grogan, Scott W.; Tyler, Mitchell E.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A.; Williams, Justin C.; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI) values during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy, but not in the absence of therapy, to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere) as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions. PMID:25076886

  10. Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    McKay, Dean; Sookman, Debbie; Neziroglu, Fugen; Wilhelm, Sabine; Stein, Dan J; Kyrios, Michael; Matthews, Keith; Veale, David

    2015-05-30

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which encompasses exposure with response prevention (ERP) and cognitive therapy (CT), has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the samples studied (reflecting the heterogeneity of OCD), the interventions examined (reflecting the heterogeneity of CBT), and the definitions of treatment response vary considerably across studies. This review examined the meta-analyses conducted on ERP and cognitive therapy (CT) for OCD. Also examined was the available research on long-term outcome associated with ERP and CT. The available research indicates that ERP is the first line evidence based psychotherapeutic treatment for OCD and that concurrent administration of cognitive therapy that targets specific symptom-related difficulties characteristic of OCD may improve tolerance of distress, symptom-related dysfunctional beliefs, adherence to treatment, and reduce drop out. Recommendations are provided for treatment delivery for OCD in general practice and other service delivery settings. The literature suggests that ERP and CT may be delivered in a wide range of clinical settings. Although the data are not extensive, the available research suggests that treatment gains following ERP are durable. Suggestions for future research to refine therapeutic outcome are also considered.

  11. [Recommendations for diagnosis and therapy of behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD)].

    PubMed

    Savaskan, Egemen; Bopp-Kistler, Irene; Buerge, Markus; Fischlin, Regina; Georgescu, Dan; Giardini, Umberto; Hatzinger, Martin; Hemmeter, Ulrich; Justiniano, Isabella; Kressig, Reto W; Monsch, Andreas; Mosimann, Urs P; Mueri, Renè; Munk, Anna; Popp, Julius; Schmid, Ruth; Wollmer, Marc A

    2014-01-29

    In patients with dementia, Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) are frequent findings that accompany deficits caused by cognitive impairment and thus complicate diagnostics, therapy and care. BPSD are a burden both for affected individuals as well as care-givers, and represent a significant challenge for therapy of a patient population with high degree of multi-morbidity. The goal of this therapy-guideline issued by swiss professional associations is to present guidance regarding therapy of BPSD as attendant symptoms in dementia, based on evidence as well as clinical experience. Here it appears to be of particular importance to take into account professional experience, as at this point for most therapeutic options no sufficiently controlled clinical trials are available. A critical discussion of pharmaco-therapeutic intervention is necessary, as this patient-population is particularly vulnerable for medication side-effects. Finally, a particular emphasis is placed on incorporating and systematically reporting psycho-social and nursing options therapeutic intervention. PMID:24468453

  12. Combined pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Gelder, M G

    1998-12-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been combined with pharmacotherapy in the treatment of panic disorder in three ways: (1) to treat agoraphobic symptoms in the condition of panic with agoraphobia; (2) to reduce withdrawal effects during drug taper; and (3) to treat panic attacks. Exposure treatment and pharmacotherapy have a modest additive effect, although more patients drop out of exposure therapy combined with imipramine treatment compared with exposure therapy alone. CBT reduces symptoms of withdrawal from alprazolam and other benzodiazepines and improves the outcome of drug treatment. At present, sufficient data are not available to determine whether the effects of CBT combined with drug therapy are additive in treating panic disorder. The results of a large trial are awaited. Current CBT consists of 12 sessions and is not widely offered to patients because of cost considerations. Efforts are being made to decrease the number of sessions necessary by improving cognitive techniques. One of these models is the subject of an ongoing trial. Finally, efforts to educate and counsel patients in the clinical setting regarding the psychopathology of panic attacks may improve the outcome of pharmacotherapy. PMID:9872706

  13. The enhancement of traditional behavioral couples therapy: consideration of individual factors and dyadic development.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, E; Eldridge, K A; Christensen, A

    1998-09-01

    There has been little effort by behavior therapists to develop couple interventions that view marriage from a content-relevant or developmental perspective. Consequently, we have delineated ways in which a perspective of intimate relationships including individual factors and dyadic development might guide the enhancement of traditional behavioral couples therapy (TBCT) with novel and improved techniques that will ultimately allows us to reach a wider range of distressed couples than our current interventions allows. Specifically, we examined the potential benefits to intervention that could occur by considering the impact of individual factors on relationship quality, using the literature on attachment patterns as an example. Further, we have discussed the potential gains to couple interventions that could occur by considering the impact of dyadic development on relationship satisfaction. We first addressed gradual changes in marriage, using intimacy as an example. Next we examined "stage of marriage" issues, using child behavior problems as an example. Finally, we considered whether or not a problem was chronic. Throughout, we have proposed utilizing TBCT as a starting point, and considering ways to enhance TBCT specifically, as it is the marital therapy for which we have the most information and empirical support.

  14. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: Results from a Pilot Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fersch-Podrat, Rachael K.; Rivera, Maribel; Axelson, David A.; Merranko, John; Yu, Haifeng; Brent, David A.; Birmaher, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot randomized trial of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) versus psychosocial treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BP). Methods: We recruited participants 12–18 years of age with a primary BP diagnosis (I, II, or operationalized not otherwise specified [NOS] criteria) from a pediatric specialty clinic. Eligible patients were assigned using a 2:1 randomization structure to either DBT (n=14) or psychosocial TAU (n=6). All patients received medication management from a study-affiliated psychiatrist. DBT included 36 sessions (18 individual, 18 family skills training) over 1 year. TAU was an eclectic psychotherapy approach consisting of psychoeducational, supportive, and cognitive behavioral techniques. An independent evaluator, blind to treatment condition, assessed outcomes including affective symptoms, suicidal ideation and behavior, nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, and emotional dysregulation, quarterly over 1 year. Results: Adolescents receiving DBT attended significantly more therapy sessions over 1 year than did adolescents receiving TAU, possibly reflecting greater engagement and retention; both treatments were rated as highly acceptable by adolescents and parents. As compared with adolescents receiving TAU, adolescents receiving DBT demonstrated significantly less severe depressive symptoms over follow-up, and were nearly three times more likely to demonstrate improvement in suicidal ideation. Models indicate a large effect size, for more weeks being euthymic, over follow-up among adolescents receiving DBT. Although there were no between-group differences in manic symptoms or emotional dysregulation with treatment, adolescents receiving DBT, but not those receiving TAU, evidenced improvement from pre- to posttreatment in both manic symptoms and emotional dysregulation. Conclusions: DBT may offer promise as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in the treatment

  15. Dialectical behavior therapy for adolescent binge eating, purging, suicidal behavior, and non-suicidal self-injury: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sarah; Peterson, Claire

    2015-03-01

    There are few published randomized controlled trials examining treatment for symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) in adolescents. Additionally, many adolescents presenting for treatment for BN symptoms endorse co-occurring mood disturbances, suicidality, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and may not meet full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for BN. In addition to the limited number of randomized controlled trials, published treatment studies of BN symptoms in adolescence do not specifically address the multiple comorbid symptoms that these adolescents often report. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of an outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for adolescents with symptoms of BN, suicide attempts, and NSSI. Ten eligible participants enrolled in the study; 3 dropped within 4 weeks of initiating treatment. In addition to binge eating and suicidal behavior, participants also endorsed a number of other comorbid mood disorders and substance abuse. Seven participants completed 6 months of treatment and 6-month follow-up assessments. Treatment included access to a crisis management system, individual therapy, skills training, and a therapist consultation team. At posttreatment, participants had significantly reduced self-harm; (Cohen's d = 1.35), frequency of objective binge episodes (Cohen's d = .46), frequency of purging (Cohen's d = .66), and Global Eating Disorder Examination scores (Cohen's d = .64). At follow-up, 6 participants were abstinent of NSSI; 3 participants were abstinent from binge eating. At follow-up, treatment gains were maintained and enhanced. Results indicate that it is feasible to address multiple forms of psychopathology during the treatment of BN symptoms in this age-group. PMID:24773094

  16. Dialectical behavior therapy for adolescent binge eating, purging, suicidal behavior, and non-suicidal self-injury: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sarah; Peterson, Claire

    2015-03-01

    There are few published randomized controlled trials examining treatment for symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) in adolescents. Additionally, many adolescents presenting for treatment for BN symptoms endorse co-occurring mood disturbances, suicidality, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and may not meet full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for BN. In addition to the limited number of randomized controlled trials, published treatment studies of BN symptoms in adolescence do not specifically address the multiple comorbid symptoms that these adolescents often report. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of an outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for adolescents with symptoms of BN, suicide attempts, and NSSI. Ten eligible participants enrolled in the study; 3 dropped within 4 weeks of initiating treatment. In addition to binge eating and suicidal behavior, participants also endorsed a number of other comorbid mood disorders and substance abuse. Seven participants completed 6 months of treatment and 6-month follow-up assessments. Treatment included access to a crisis management system, individual therapy, skills training, and a therapist consultation team. At posttreatment, participants had significantly reduced self-harm; (Cohen's d = 1.35), frequency of objective binge episodes (Cohen's d = .46), frequency of purging (Cohen's d = .66), and Global Eating Disorder Examination scores (Cohen's d = .64). At follow-up, 6 participants were abstinent of NSSI; 3 participants were abstinent from binge eating. At follow-up, treatment gains were maintained and enhanced. Results indicate that it is feasible to address multiple forms of psychopathology during the treatment of BN symptoms in this age-group.

  17. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: an update on the empirical evidence.

    PubMed

    Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Foa, Edna B

    2015-09-01

    A large amount of research has accumulated on the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. The purpose of the current article is to provide an overview of two of the most commonly used CBT methods used to treat anxiety disorders (exposure and cognitive therapy) and to summarize and discuss the current empirical research regarding the usefulness of these techniques for each anxiety disorder. Additionally, we discuss the difficulties that arise when comparing active CBT treatments, and we suggest directions for future research. Overall, CBT appears to be both efficacious and effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, but dismantling studies are needed to determine which specific treatment components lead to beneficial outcomes and which patients are most likely to benefit from these treatment components.

  18. Time course of treatment dropout in cognitive-behavioral therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Gutner, Cassidy A; Gallagher, Matthew W; Baker, Aaron S; Sloan, Denise M; Resick, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    A substantial minority of people drop out of cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There has been considerable research investigating who drops out of PTSD treatment; however, the question of when dropout occurs has received far less attention. The purpose of the current study was to examine when individuals drop out of CBT for PTSD. Women participants (N = 321) were randomized to 1 of several PTSD treatment conditions. The conditions included prolonged exposure (PE), cognitive processing therapy (CPT), CPT-cognitive only (CPT-C), and written accounts (WA). Survival analysis was used to examine temporal pattern of treatment dropout. Thirty-nine percent of participants dropped out of treatment, and those who dropped out tended to do so by midtreatment. Moreover, the pattern of treatment dropout was consistent across CBT conditions. Additional research is needed to examine if treatment dropout patterns are consistent across treatment modalities and settings. PMID:26098737

  19. Developing a cognitive behavioral therapy manual for delayed sleep-wake phase disorder.

    PubMed

    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus; Danielsson, Katarina; Markström, Agneta; Broman, Jan-Erik

    2016-11-01

    This article reports the development of a treatment protocol, based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) principles, for delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD). The protocol consists of psycho-education, presenting a CBT model for DSWPD, case formulation, motivational interviewing, registering sleep in a diary, strategies to improve the rhythm of sleep and wakefulness, relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, strategies to cope with daytime symptoms, constructing an individualized CBT program, and learning how to deal with relapses. Qualitative data, focusing on how the patients perceived the protocol, were collected within the realm of a trial exploring the efficacy of the protocol. These findings highlighted several advantages but also disadvantages of the therapy. It is our hope that this paper might act as a platform for further clinical work and future research efforts in patients with DSWPD.

  20. Developing a cognitive behavioral therapy manual for delayed sleep-wake phase disorder.

    PubMed

    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus; Danielsson, Katarina; Markström, Agneta; Broman, Jan-Erik

    2016-11-01

    This article reports the development of a treatment protocol, based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) principles, for delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD). The protocol consists of psycho-education, presenting a CBT model for DSWPD, case formulation, motivational interviewing, registering sleep in a diary, strategies to improve the rhythm of sleep and wakefulness, relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, strategies to cope with daytime symptoms, constructing an individualized CBT program, and learning how to deal with relapses. Qualitative data, focusing on how the patients perceived the protocol, were collected within the realm of a trial exploring the efficacy of the protocol. These findings highlighted several advantages but also disadvantages of the therapy. It is our hope that this paper might act as a platform for further clinical work and future research efforts in patients with DSWPD. PMID:27454077

  1. Time course of treatment dropout in cognitive-behavioral therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Gutner, Cassidy A; Gallagher, Matthew W; Baker, Aaron S; Sloan, Denise M; Resick, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    A substantial minority of people drop out of cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There has been considerable research investigating who drops out of PTSD treatment; however, the question of when dropout occurs has received far less attention. The purpose of the current study was to examine when individuals drop out of CBT for PTSD. Women participants (N = 321) were randomized to 1 of several PTSD treatment conditions. The conditions included prolonged exposure (PE), cognitive processing therapy (CPT), CPT-cognitive only (CPT-C), and written accounts (WA). Survival analysis was used to examine temporal pattern of treatment dropout. Thirty-nine percent of participants dropped out of treatment, and those who dropped out tended to do so by midtreatment. Moreover, the pattern of treatment dropout was consistent across CBT conditions. Additional research is needed to examine if treatment dropout patterns are consistent across treatment modalities and settings.

  2. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: an update on the empirical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kaczkurkin, Antonia N.; Foa, Edna B.

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of research has accumulated on the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. The purpose of the current article is to provide an overview of two of the most commonly used CBT methods used to treat anxiety disorders (exposure and cognitive therapy) and to summarize and discuss the current empirical research regarding the usefulness of these techniques for each anxiety disorder. Additionally, we discuss the difficulties that arise when comparing active CBT treatments, and we suggest directions for future research. Overall, CBT appears to be both efficacious and effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, but dismantling studies are needed to determine which specific treatment components lead to beneficial outcomes and which patients are most likely to benefit from these treatment components. PMID:26487814

  3. A Behavior Analysis of the Promotion of Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Elder, J P; Pradesaba, M E; Pineda, O P; Enge, K I; Graeff, J A; Urban, D; Romero, J

    1988-01-01

    The present report presents the results and preliminary recommendations of a behavior analysis study of an oral rehydration therapy (ORT) promotion in four localities in San Marcos, Guatemala. In this study, we used behavioral observation techniques to look at one-to-one communication and health education efforts in health clinics as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of these health education efforts by observing mothers' behavioral skills in their own homes. Subsequently, we also observed canalizatión (outreach) strategies to see whether we could learn more from these health workers' activities, and conducted "behavioral focus group" research with teams of health workers to determine how best to promote effective health education activities to other health workers. Results of our study indicate that health workers already spent a substantial amount of time doing health education and primary prevention, and were fairly effective at doing so. Their communication, however, tended to be relatively unilateral and failed to involve some of the more progressive aspects of behavioral skills training.

  4. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Lisa S.; Maguen, Shira; Metzler, Thomas J.; Schmitz, Martha; McCaslin, Shannon E.; Richards, Anne; Perlis, Michael L.; Posner, Donn A.; Weiss, Brandon; Ruoff, Leslie; Varbel, Jonathan; Neylan, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Examine whether cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) improves sleep in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as nightmares, nonsleep PTSD symptoms, depression symptoms, and psychosocial functioning. Design: Randomized controlled trial with two arms: CBT-I and monitor-only waitlist control. Setting: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center. Participants: Forty-five adults (31 females: [mean age 37 y (22-59 y)] with PTSD meeting research diagnostic criteria for insomnia, randomly assigned to CBT-I (n = 29; 22 females) or monitor-only waitlist control (n = 16; nine females). Interventions: Eight-session weekly individual CBT-I delivered by a licensed clinical psychologist or a board-certified psychiatrist. Measurements and Results: Measures included continuous monitoring of sleep with diary and actigraphy; prepolysomnography and postpolysomnography and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS); and pre, mid, and post self-report questionnaires, with follow-up of CBT-I participants 6 mo later. CBT-I was superior to the waitlist control condition in all sleep diary outcomes and in polysomnography-measured total sleep time. Compared to waitlist participants, CBT-I participants reported improved subjective sleep (41% full remission versus 0%), disruptive nocturnal behaviors (based on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-Addendum), and overall work and interpersonal functioning. These effects were maintained at 6-mo follow-up. Both CBT-I and waitlist control participants reported reductions in PTSD symptoms and CAPS-measured nightmares. Conclusions: Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) improved sleep in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder, with durable gains at 6 mo. Overall psychosocial functioning improved following CBT-I. The initial evidence regarding CBT-I and nightmares is promising but further research is needed. Results suggest that a comprehensive approach to treatment of posttraumatic stress

  5. Sleep Disturbances in Individuals with Alcohol-Related Disorders: A Review of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) and Associated Non-Pharmacological Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Alyssa T; Wallen, Gwenyth R

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among alcohol-dependent individuals and are often associated with relapse. The utility of behavioral therapies for sleep disturbances, including cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), among those with alcohol-related disorders is not well understood. This review systematically evaluates the evidence of CBT-I and related behavioral therapies applied to those with alcohol-related disorders and accompanying sleep disturbances. A search of four research databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and CINAHL Plus) yielded six studies that met selection criteria. Articles were reviewed using Cochrane’s Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) scoring system. A majority of the studies demonstrated significant improvements in sleep efficiency among behavioral therapy treatment group(s), including but not limited to CBT-I. While behavioral sleep interventions have been successful in varied populations, they may not be utilized to their full potential among those with alcohol-related disorders as evidenced by the low number of studies found. These findings suggest a need for mixed-methods research on individuals’ sleep experience to inform interventions that are acceptable to the target population. PMID:25288884

  6. Positive effects of early androgen therapy on the behavioral phenotype of boys with 47,XXY.

    PubMed

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole; Stapleton, Emily J; Lawson, Patrick; Mitchell, Francie; Sadeghin, Teresa; Powell, Sherida; Gropman, Andrea L

    2015-06-01

    47, XXY occurs in up to 1 in 650 male births and is associated with androgen deficiency, neurodevelopmental delays, and atypical social-behaviors. Previously, we showed that young boys with 47, XXY who received early hormonal therapy (EHT) had significantly improved neurodevelopment. The objective of this follow-up study was to examine the effects of EHT on social behavior in boys with 47, XXY. The study consisted of boys prenatally diagnosed with 47, XXY who were referred for evaluations. Twenty-nine boys received three injections of 25 mg testosterone enanthate and 57 controls did not receive EHT. Behavioral functioning was assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Social Responsiveness Scale, 2nd Ed., and the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18. The hypothesis that EHT may affect behavior was formulated prior to data collection. Questionnaire data was prospectively obtained and analyzed to test for significance between two groups. Significant differences were identified between group's scores over time in Social Communication (P=0.007), Social Cognition (P=0.006), and Total T-score (P=0.001) on the SRS-2; Initiation (P=0.05) on the BRIEF; and Externalizing Problems (P=0.024), Affective Problems (P=0.05), and Aggressive Behaviors (P=0.031) on the CBCL. This is the third study revealing positive effects of EHT on boys with XXY. There was a significant improvements associated with the 47, XXY genotype in boys who received EHT. Research is underway on the neurobiological mechanisms, and later developmental effects of EHT.

  7. The use of restricted environmental stimulation therapy in treating addictive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Borrie, R A

    Successful treatment of addictive behaviors is difficult because of the complexity of relevant contributing variables. Restricted environmental stimulation therapy (REST) is offered as a useful, flexible tool that can facilitate change in addictive variables at each level of complexity, from habitual acts through attitudes to self-concept and spirituality. The nature of REST is discussed in terms of processes and effects. Basically two processes, refocusing and rebalancing, contribute to the various physical and mental effects of restricted environmental stimulation. These effects include profound relaxation, relief from pain, and a shift in consciousness to a state that is more introspective, less defensive, and more receptive. Research in treating addictive behaviors with REST is reviewed with smoking, overeating, alcohol consumption, and drug misuse. There is a substantial body of literature demonstrating the effectiveness of REST in modifying smoking behavior. Very little research has been done on REST and drug misuse. Each of the other areas has a small number of preliminary studies that suggest REST as a promising treatment. In general, chamber REST proves to be effective in facilitating attitudinal and behavioral change, and maintaining those changes. The scant research with flotation REST show it to be less effective in modifying behavior but more relaxing and pain alleviating than chamber REST. The characteristics of the REST experience that make it effective in treating addictions are discussed as follows: (1) the induction of a general relaxation response, (2) substance misusers find serenity and relief by nonchemical means, (3) internal refocusing to concentrate on personal problems, (4) disruption of habits through removal of trigger cues and response possibilities, (5) increased feelings of control over addictive behaviors, and (6) enhanced learning processes. REST is a versatile, cost-effective treatment modality with demonstrated effectiveness in

  8. Neurophysiological and behavioral responses to music therapy in vegetative and minimally conscious States.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, Julian; James, L; Palaniappan, R; Taborin, J; Fachner, J; Magee, W L

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of awareness for those with disorders of consciousness is a challenging undertaking, due to the complex presentation of the population. Debate surrounds whether behavioral assessments provide greatest accuracy in diagnosis compared to neuro-imaging methods, and despite developments in both, misdiagnosis rates remain high. Music therapy may be effective in the assessment and rehabilitation with this population due to effects of musical stimuli on arousal, attention, and emotion, irrespective of verbal or motor deficits. However, an evidence base is lacking as to which procedures are most effective. To address this, a neurophysiological and behavioral study was undertaken comparing electroencephalogram (EEG), heart rate variability, respiration, and behavioral responses of 20 healthy subjects with 21 individuals in vegetative or minimally conscious states (VS or MCS). Subjects were presented with live preferred music and improvised music entrained to respiration (procedures typically used in music therapy), recordings of disliked music, white noise, and silence. ANOVA tests indicated a range of significant responses (p ≤ 0.05) across healthy subjects corresponding to arousal and attention in response to preferred music including concurrent increases in respiration rate with globally enhanced EEG power spectra responses (p = 0.05-0.0001) across frequency bandwidths. Whilst physiological responses were heterogeneous across patient cohorts, significant post hoc EEG amplitude increases for stimuli associated with preferred music were found for frontal midline theta in six VS and four MCS subjects, and frontal alpha in three VS and four MCS subjects (p = 0.05-0.0001). Furthermore, behavioral data showed a significantly increased blink rate for preferred music (p = 0.029) within the VS cohort. Two VS cases are presented with concurrent changes (p ≤ 0.05) across measures indicative of discriminatory responses to both music therapy

  9. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth: The Inner Workings

    PubMed Central

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of the clinical application of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxious youth. A rationale for the development of BCBT is presented, followed by a description and discussion of the 8 sessions of the treatment. Mike, a 7-year-old youth with anxiety disorders, is used to illustrate the inner workings of implementing BCBT. Case conceptualization, session details, and pre-, post- and follow-up-treatment information are provided. Conclusions regarding clinical advantages and future directions are made. PMID:25083131

  10. Mindfulness-Action Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for concurrent Binge Eating Disorder and Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Courbasson, Christine M; Nishikawa, Yasunori; Shapira, Leah B

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) often evidence comorbid Substance Use Disorders (SUD), resulting in poor outcome. This study is the first to examine treatment outcome for this concurrent disordered population. In this pilot study, 38 individuals diagnosed with BED and SUD participated in a 16-week group Mindfulness-Action Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MACBT). Participants significantly improved on measures of objective binge eating episodes; disordered eating attitudes; alcohol and drug addiction severity; and depression. Taken together, MACBT appears to hold promise in treating individuals with co-existing BED-SUD.

  11. Alliance ruptures and rupture resolution in cognitive-behavior therapy: a preliminary task analysis.

    PubMed

    Aspland, Helen; Llewelyn, Susan; Hardy, Gillian E; Barkham, Michael; Stiles, William

    2008-11-01

    An initial ideal, rational model of alliance rupture and rupture resolution provided by cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) experts was assessed and compared with empirical observations of ruptures and their resolution in two cases of successful CBT. The initial rational model emphasized nondefensive acknowledgment and exploration of the rupture. Results indicated differences between what therapists think they should do to resolve ruptures and what they actually do and suggested that the rational model should be expanded to emphasize client validation and empowerment. Therapists' ability to attend to ruptures emerged as an important clinical skill.

  12. Outpatient Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents Engaged in Deliberate Self-Harm: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Kimberly R.; James, Sigrid; Klein, Keith P.; Mayo, Danessa; Montgomery, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The current review examines conceptual and methodological issues related to the use of dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents (DBT-A) in treating youth who engage in deliberate self-harm. A comprehensive review of the literature identified six studies appropriate for the review. Results indicated several inconsistencies and limitations across studies including the mixing of various forms of self-harm; variations in diagnostic inclusion/exclusion criteria, insufficient use of standardized self-harm outcome measures, variable lengths and intensity of provided treatment, and inadequate attention paid to DBT adherence. Each of these areas is reviewed along with a discussion of ways to improve the quality of future research. PMID:26985126

  13. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Olfactory Hallucinations and Associated Delusions: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kimhy, David

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory hallucinations (OH) are experienced by a substantial minority of people with schizophrenia, often leading to social anxiety, depression and suffering. Yet, despite their prevalence and clinical significance, OH in schizophrenia are under-researched and poorly understood, with scarce information about potential treatments. To address this gap in the literature, the author describes a case report of successfully using Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for psychosis (CBTp) to address OH, related delusions, as well as mood and social functioning difficulties in a male patient with schizophrenia. The results provide preliminary support for the feasibility and effectiveness of using CBTp to address OH and related delusions in individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:27052609

  14. OCD behavior therapy before and after gamma ventral capsulotomy: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Spofford, Christopher M.; McLaughlin, Nicole C. R.; Penzel, Fred; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a patient requiring gamma ventral capsulotomy (GVC), a neurosurgical intervention to address severe refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). GVC involves stereotactic lesions in the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule and adjacent ventral striatum. This study details the course of an extinction-based behavioral therapy, namely exposure and response prevention (ERP). The patient experienced significant changes in motivation and ability to tolerate ERP post-surgery. Furthermore, he was better able to absorb and remember exposure sessions. GVC surgery may affect the neural mechanisms involved in the extinction learning process, the same process implicated in ERP treatment. PMID:23057416

  15. Preliminary Evidence for Cognitive Mediation During Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy of Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Suvak, Michael K.; Barlow, David H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Meuret, Alicia E.; Rosenfield, David; Gorman, Jack M.; Woods, Scott W.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy are similarly effective for treating panic disorder with mild or no agoraphobia, but little is known about the mechanism through which these treatments work. The present study examined some of the criteria for cognitive mediation of treatment change in CBT alone, imipramine alone, CBT plus imipramine, and CBT plus placebo. Ninety-one individuals who received 1 of these interventions were assessed before and after acute treatment, and after a 6-month maintenance period. Multilevel moderated mediation analyses provided preliminary support for the notion that changes in panic-related cognitions mediate changes in panic severity only in treatments that include CBT. PMID:17563154

  16. Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses to Music Therapy in Vegetative and Minimally Conscious States

    PubMed Central

    O’Kelly, Julian; James, L.; Palaniappan, R.; Taborin, J.; Fachner, J.; Magee, W. L.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of awareness for those with disorders of consciousness is a challenging undertaking, due to the complex presentation of the population. Debate surrounds whether behavioral assessments provide greatest accuracy in diagnosis compared to neuro-imaging methods, and despite developments in both, misdiagnosis rates remain high. Music therapy may be effective in the assessment and rehabilitation with this population due to effects of musical stimuli on arousal, attention, and emotion, irrespective of verbal or motor deficits. However, an evidence base is lacking as to which procedures are most effective. To address this, a neurophysiological and behavioral study was undertaken comparing electroencephalogram (EEG), heart rate variability, respiration, and behavioral responses of 20 healthy subjects with 21 individuals in vegetative or minimally conscious states (VS or MCS). Subjects were presented with live preferred music and improvised music entrained to respiration (procedures typically used in music therapy), recordings of disliked music, white noise, and silence. ANOVA tests indicated a range of significant responses (p ≤ 0.05) across healthy subjects corresponding to arousal and attention in response to preferred music including concurrent increases in respiration rate with globally enhanced EEG power spectra responses (p = 0.05–0.0001) across frequency bandwidths. Whilst physiological responses were heterogeneous across patient cohorts, significant post hoc EEG amplitude increases for stimuli associated with preferred music were found for frontal midline theta in six VS and four MCS subjects, and frontal alpha in three VS and four MCS subjects (p = 0.05–0.0001). Furthermore, behavioral data showed a significantly increased blink rate for preferred music (p = 0.029) within the VS cohort. Two VS cases are presented with concurrent changes (p ≤ 0.05) across measures indicative of discriminatory responses to both music therapy

  17. D-cycloserine as an augmentation strategy for cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: an update.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Sawyer, Alice T; Asnaani, Anu

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective intervention for anxiety disorders. However, despite its proven efficacy, some patients fail to respond to an adequate course of treatment. In attempts to improve the efficacy of CBT, researchers have augmented the core learning processes of the intervention with d-cycloserine (DCS), an N-Methyl-D-Aspartate partial agonist. This article reviews the current literature on DCS as an augmentation strategy for CBT for anxiety disorders. We will describe the memory enhancing properties of DCS, review findings from randomized controlled studies of DCS in anxious populations and discuss mechanism, dosing and timing issues.

  18. Group Dialectical-Behavior Therapy Skills Training for Conversion Disorder With Seizures.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Kim D; Mirza, Nida; Forte, Craig; Trockel, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging evidence suggests deficits in affective regulation in conversion disorder (CD). Dialectical-behavior therapy skills training (DBT-ST) was developed to target emotion dysregulation. This study was aimed to test the feasibility of stand-alone DBT-ST for CD using Linehan's manual for borderline personality disorder. In a prospective naturalistic design, 19 adult outpatients diagnosed with video EEG-confirmed seizure type CD were recruited and received weekly group DBT. Seventeen out of 19 subjects finished an average of 20.5 weeks of treatment. The mean seizure rate decreased by 66%. Cessation of seizures occurred in 35% of the sample. Completion rates reached 90%.

  19. Group Dialectical-Behavior Therapy Skills Training for Conversion Disorder With Seizures.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Kim D; Mirza, Nida; Forte, Craig; Trockel, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging evidence suggests deficits in affective regulation in conversion disorder (CD). Dialectical-behavior therapy skills training (DBT-ST) was developed to target emotion dysregulation. This study was aimed to test the feasibility of stand-alone DBT-ST for CD using Linehan's manual for borderline personality disorder. In a prospective naturalistic design, 19 adult outpatients diagnosed with video EEG-confirmed seizure type CD were recruited and received weekly group DBT. Seventeen out of 19 subjects finished an average of 20.5 weeks of treatment. The mean seizure rate decreased by 66%. Cessation of seizures occurred in 35% of the sample. Completion rates reached 90%. PMID:25959039

  20. Feasibility of Using Video to Teach a Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skill to Clients with Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, Jennifer; Dimeff, Linda A.; Koerner, Kelly; Linehan, Marsha M.; Taylor, Laura; Miller, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the feasibility of using a psychoeducational video recording to teach a behavioral skill from the Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT; Linehan, 1993a, 1993b) skills training program to individuals meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder. A video presenting a DBT emotion-regulation skill was developed and the extent to…