Science.gov

Sample records for accepted chemical engineering

  1. Chemical Engineering Division Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical Engineering Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The 1978 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division Lecturer was Theodore Vermeulen of the University of California at Berkeley. Other chemical engineers who received awards or special recognition at a recent ASEE annual conference are mentioned. (BB)

  2. Chemical Engineering Education Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodore, Louis

    1978-01-01

    The opinion is presented that chemical engineering education seems to emphasize the professor's research and/or professional interests with little regard for the real needs of the student who intends to become a practicing engineer. (BB)

  3. Chemical Engineering Education Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodore, Louis

    1978-01-01

    The opinion is presented that chemical engineering education seems to emphasize the professor's research and/or professional interests with little regard for the real needs of the student who intends to become a practicing engineer. (BB)

  4. Chemical Engineering in the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciance, C. T.

    1987-01-01

    Offers perspectives on the future of chemical engineering. Addresses concerns related to changes in the engineering industry, the role of chemical engineers, and changes in the education of engineers. Includes recommendations for curricular change. (ML)

  5. Chemical Engineering at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a review of the career paths for chemicals engineer at NASA (specifically NASA Johnson Space Center.) The author uses his personal experience and history as an example of the possible career options.

  6. Chemical Engineering in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobmeyer, Dennis A.; Meneghelli, Barry; Steinrock, Todd (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The aerospace industry has long been perceived as the domain of both physicists and mechanical engineers. This perception has endured even though the primary method of providing the thrust necessary to launch a rocket into space is chemical in nature. The chemical engineering and chemistry personnel behind the systems that provide access to space have labored in the shadows of the physicists and mechanical engineers. As exploration into the cosmos moves farther away from Earth, there is a very distinct need for new chemical processes to help provide the means for advanced space exploration. The state of the art in launch systems uses chemical propulsion systems, primarily liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, to provide the energy necessary to achieve orbit. As we move away from Earth, there are additional options for propulsion. Unfortunately, few of these options can compare to the speed or ease of use provided by the chemical propulsion agents. It is with great care and significant cost that gaseous compounds such as hydrogen and oxygen are liquefied and become dense enough to use for rocket fuel. These low-temperature liquids fall within a specialty area known as cryogenics. Cryogenics, the science and art of producing cold operating conditions for use on Earth, in orbit, or on some other nonterrestrial body, has become increasingly important to our ability to travel within our solar system. The production of cryogenic fuels and the long-term storage of these fluids are necessary for travel. As our explorations move farther away from Earth, we need to address how to produce the necessary fuels to make a round-trip. The cost and the size of these expeditions are extreme at best. If we take everything necessary for our survival for the round-trip, we invalidate any chance of travel in the near future. As with the early explorers on Earth, we need to harvest much of our energy and our life support from the celestial bodies. The in situ production of these energy

  7. Engineering Clostridium Strain to Accept Unmethylated DNA

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanping; Dai, Zongjie; Li, Yin

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult to genetically manipulate the medically and biotechnologically important genus Clostridium due to the existence of the restriction and modification (RM) systems. We identified and engineered the RM system of a model clostridial species, C. acetobutylicum, with the aim to allow the host to accept the unmethylated DNA efficiently. A gene CAC1502 putatively encoding the type II restriction endonuclease Cac824I was identified from the genome of C. acetobutylicum DSM1731, and disrupted using the ClosTron system based on group II intron insertion. The resulting strain SMB009 lost the type II restriction endonuclease activity, and can be transformed with unmethylated DNA as efficiently as with methylated DNA. The strategy reported here makes it easy to genetically modify the clostridial species using unmethylated DNA, which will help to advance the understanding of the clostridial physiology from the molecular level. PMID:20161730

  8. The Chemical Engineer in the Chemical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabicky, Jacob

    1986-01-01

    Describes a course for third- or fourth-year chemical engineering students designed to acquaint them with the chemical industry. The course deals with productivity, characteristics of the chemical industry, sources of information, industrial intelligence, research and development, patent law, technology transfer, and quality control. (TW)

  9. The Chemical Engineer in the Chemical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabicky, Jacob

    1986-01-01

    Describes a course for third- or fourth-year chemical engineering students designed to acquaint them with the chemical industry. The course deals with productivity, characteristics of the chemical industry, sources of information, industrial intelligence, research and development, patent law, technology transfer, and quality control. (TW)

  10. Job Prospects for Chemical Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    The job situation for new chemical engineers with bachelor's degrees is continuing to reflect the gradual improvement that began in 1983. However, companies are looking for graduates with technical expertise as well as marketing, sales, or communications skills. Smaller classes may lead to shortages of chemical engineering graduates in the future.…

  11. Teaching Chemical Engineers about Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Daniel E.; Hoy, Mary; Rathman, James F.; Rohdieck, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department at The Ohio State University in collaboration with the University Center for the Advancement of Teaching developed the Chemical Engineering Mentored Teaching Experience. The Mentored Teaching Experience is an elective for Ph.D. students interested in pursuing faculty careers. Participants are…

  12. Teaching Chemical Engineers about Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Daniel E.; Hoy, Mary; Rathman, James F.; Rohdieck, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department at The Ohio State University in collaboration with the University Center for the Advancement of Teaching developed the Chemical Engineering Mentored Teaching Experience. The Mentored Teaching Experience is an elective for Ph.D. students interested in pursuing faculty careers. Participants are…

  13. Job Prospects for Chemical Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    After several lean years, chemical engineering (a popular discipline among women) is witnessing a higher job demand for new graduates. Companies show a trend toward specialty chemicals with resultant needs for more engineering talent. Other opportunities in the field include agriculture and food processing, environmental control, biotechnology,…

  14. Job Prospects for Chemical Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    The job situation for new chemical engineers with bachelor's degrees is continuing to reflect the gradual improvement that began in 1983. However, companies are looking for graduates with technical expertise as well as marketing, sales, or communications skills. Smaller classes may lead to shortages of chemical engineering graduates in the future.…

  15. Chemical Engineering in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobmeyer, Dennis A.; Meneghelli, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The state of the art in launch systems uses chemical propulsion systems, primarily liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, to provide the energy necessary to achieve orbit and escape the bonds of Earth's gravity. In the future there may be other means available; however, currently few of these alternatives can compare to the speed or the ease of use provided by cryogenic chemical propulsion agents. Cryogenics, the science and art of producing cold operating conditions, has become increasingly important to our ability to travel within our solar system. The production and transport of cryogenic fuels as well as the long-term storage of these fluids are necessary for mankind to travel within our solar system. It is with great care and at a significant cost that gaseous compounds such as hydrogen and oxygen are liquified and become dense enough to use for rocket fuel. As our explorations move farther away from Earth, we need to address how to produce the necessary fuels to make a complete round-trip. The cost and the size of any expedition to another celestial body are extreme. If we are constrained by the need to take everything necessary (fuel, life support, etc.) for our survival and return, we greatly increase the risk of being able to go. As with the early explorers on Earth, we will need to harvest much of our energy and our life support from the celestial bodies. The in situ production of these energy sources is paramount to success. Due to the current propulsion system designs, the in-situ processes will require liquefaction and the application of cryogenics. The challenge we face for the near future is to increase our understanding of cryogenic long-term storage and off-world production of cryogenic fluids. We must do this all within the boundaries of very restricted size, weight, and robustness parameters so that we may launch these apparatus from Earth and utilize them elsewhere. Miniaturization, efficiency, and physically robust systems will all play a part in

  16. Sustainability in Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassey, Jarka; Haile, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a concentrated strategy to embed sustainability teaching into a (chemical) engineering undergraduate curriculum throughout the whole programme. Innovative teaching approaches in subject-specific context are described and their efficiency investigated. Design/methodology/approach: The activities in…

  17. Sustainability in Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassey, Jarka; Haile, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a concentrated strategy to embed sustainability teaching into a (chemical) engineering undergraduate curriculum throughout the whole programme. Innovative teaching approaches in subject-specific context are described and their efficiency investigated. Design/methodology/approach: The activities in…

  18. Doctoral Level Chemical Engineering Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culberson, Oran L.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a doctorate level elective course in chemical engineering economics offered at the University of Tennessee. Students, working in pairs as a project team, must apply their knowledge of basic economics to the solution of a research question or problem. (BT)

  19. Examining Engineering & Technology Students' Acceptance of Network Virtualization Technology Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousif, Wael K.

    2010-01-01

    This causal and correlational study was designed to extend the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and to test its applicability to Valencia Community College (VCC) Engineering and Technology students as the target user group when investigating the factors influencing their decision to adopt and to utilize VMware as the target technology. In…

  20. Examining Engineering & Technology Students' Acceptance of Network Virtualization Technology Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousif, Wael K.

    2010-01-01

    This causal and correlational study was designed to extend the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and to test its applicability to Valencia Community College (VCC) Engineering and Technology students as the target user group when investigating the factors influencing their decision to adopt and to utilize VMware as the target technology. In…

  1. Chemical engineering of molecular qubits.

    PubMed

    Wedge, C J; Timco, G A; Spielberg, E T; George, R E; Tuna, F; Rigby, S; McInnes, E J L; Winpenny, R E P; Blundell, S J; Ardavan, A

    2012-03-09

    We show that the electron spin phase memory time, the most important property of a molecular nanomagnet from the perspective of quantum information processing, can be improved dramatically by chemically engineering the molecular structure to optimize the environment of the spin. We vary systematically each structural component of the class of antiferromagnetic Cr(7)Ni rings to identify the sources of decoherence. The optimal structure exhibits a phase memory time exceeding 15  μs.

  2. Chemical Engineering Students: A Distinct Group among Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Allison; Potvin, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores differences between chemical engineering students and students of other engineering disciplines, as identified by their intended college major. The data used in this analysis was taken from the nationally representative Sustainability and Gender in Engineering (SaGE) survey. Chemical engineering students differ significantly…

  3. Chemical Engineering Students: A Distinct Group among Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Allison; Potvin, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores differences between chemical engineering students and students of other engineering disciplines, as identified by their intended college major. The data used in this analysis was taken from the nationally representative Sustainability and Gender in Engineering (SaGE) survey. Chemical engineering students differ significantly…

  4. Chemical Engineering in Education and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, James

    1986-01-01

    Provides an historical overview of the origins, developments, and contributions of chemical engineering. Reviews the roles of the university and industry in the education of chemical engineers. Includes a listing of the major advances of chemical engineering since World War II. (ML)

  5. Engineered enzymes for chemical production.

    PubMed

    Luetz, Stephan; Giver, Lori; Lalonde, James

    2008-11-01

    In order to enable competitive manufacturing routes, most biocatalysts must be tailor-made for their processes. Enzymes from nature rarely have the combined properties necessary for industrial chemical production such as high activity and selectivity on non-natural substrates and toleration of high concentrations of organic media over the wide range of conditions (decreasing substrate, increasing product concentrations, solvents, etc.,) that will be present over the course of a manufacturing process. With the advances in protein engineering technologies, a variety of enzyme properties can be altered simultaneously, if the appropriate screening parameters are employed. Here we discuss the process of directed evolution for the generation of commercially viable biocatalysts for the production of fine chemicals, and how novel approaches have helped to overcome some of the challenges.

  6. Chemical Engineering in the "BIO" World.

    PubMed

    Chiarappa, Gianluca; Grassi, Mario; Abrami, Michela; Abbiati, Roberto Andrea; Barba, Anna Angela; Boisen, Anja; Brucato, Valerio; Ghersi, Giulio; Caccavo, Diego; Cascone, Sara; Caserta, Sergio; Elvassore, Nicola; Giomo, Monica; Guido, Stefano; Lamberti, Gaetano; Larobina, Domenico; Manca, Davide; Marizza, Paolo; Tomaiuolo, Giovanna; Grassi, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Modern Chemical Engineering was born around the end of the 19th century in Great Britain, Germany, and the USA, the most industrialized countries at that time. Milton C. Whitaker, in 1914, affirmed that the difference between Chemistry and Chemical Engineering lies in the capability of chemical engineers to transfer laboratory findings to the industrial level. Since then, Chemical Engineering underwent huge transformations determining the detachment from the original Chemistry nest. The beginning of the sixties of the 20th century saw the development of a new branch of Chemical Engineering baptized Biomedical Engineering by Peppas and Langer and that now we can name Biological Engineering. Interestingly, although Biological Engineering focused on completely different topics from Chemical Engineering ones, it resorted to the same theoretical tools such as, for instance, mass, energy and momentum balances. Thus, the birth of Biological Engineering may be considered as a Darwinian evolution of Chemical Engineering similar to that experienced by mammals which, returning to water, used legs and arms to swim. From 1960 on, Biological Engineering underwent a considerable evolution as witnessed by the great variety of topics covered such as hemodialysis, release of synthetic drugs, artificial organs and, more recently, delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNA). This review, based on the activities developed in the frame of our PRIN 2010-11 (20109PLMH2) project, tries to recount origins and evolution of Chemical Engineering illustrating several examples of recent and successful applications in the biological field. This, in turn, may stimulate the discussion about the Chemical Engineering students curriculum studiorum update. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Chemical Engineering in the Spectrum of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutija, Davor P.; Prausnitz, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Provides three classroom examples showing students how chemical engineering techniques can supply partial answers to social questions, such as environmental issues. Examples are depletion of the ozone layer, nuclear winter, and air pollution by chemical solvents. (YP)

  8. Chemical Engineering in the Spectrum of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutija, Davor P.; Prausnitz, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Provides three classroom examples showing students how chemical engineering techniques can supply partial answers to social questions, such as environmental issues. Examples are depletion of the ozone layer, nuclear winter, and air pollution by chemical solvents. (YP)

  9. Heat Exchanger Lab for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajala, Jonathan W.; Evans, Edward A.; Chase, George G.

    2015-01-01

    Third year chemical engineering undergraduate students at The University of Akron designed and fabricated a heat exchanger for a stirred tank as part of a Chemical Engineering Laboratory course. The heat exchanger portion of this course was three weeks of the fifteen week long semester. Students applied concepts of scale-up and dimensional…

  10. Chemical Engineering Graduates Face Job Crunch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Steve

    1983-01-01

    Highlights a survey indicating that, of about 6500 chemical engineers graduating from U.S. schools in 1982-83, slightly fewer than half have job commitments or applications submitted to graduate schools in chemical engineering or other fields. Major reasons include recession and climbing enrollments. (JN)

  11. Career Opportunities in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Trienne

    This pamphlet discusses career and employment opportunities in chemical engineering. Necessary college preparation is described and median salaries by degree are tabulated. Nontraditional careers in chemistry are also described. Future demand for chemists and chemical engineers is projected to 1985 and the availability of jobs for women and…

  12. Heat Exchanger Lab for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajala, Jonathan W.; Evans, Edward A.; Chase, George G.

    2015-01-01

    Third year chemical engineering undergraduate students at The University of Akron designed and fabricated a heat exchanger for a stirred tank as part of a Chemical Engineering Laboratory course. The heat exchanger portion of this course was three weeks of the fifteen week long semester. Students applied concepts of scale-up and dimensional…

  13. Progress in reforming chemical engineering education.

    PubMed

    Wankat, Phillip C

    2013-01-01

    Three successful historical reforms of chemical engineering education were the triumph of chemical engineering over industrial chemistry, the engineering science revolution, and Engineering Criteria 2000. Current attempts to change teaching methods have relied heavily on dissemination of the results of engineering-education research that show superior student learning with active learning methods. Although slow dissemination of education research results is probably a contributing cause to the slowness of reform, two other causes are likely much more significant. First, teaching is the primary interest of only approximately one-half of engineering faculty. Second, the vast majority of engineering faculty have no training in teaching, but trained professors are on average better teachers. Significant progress in reform will occur if organizations with leverage-National Science Foundation, through CAREER grants, and the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET-use that leverage to require faculty to be trained in pedagogy.

  14. Systems metabolic engineering for chemicals and materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Wook; Kim, Tae Yong; Jang, Yu-Sin; Choi, Sol; Lee, Sang Yup

    2011-08-01

    Metabolic engineering has contributed significantly to the enhanced production of various value-added and commodity chemicals and materials from renewable resources in the past two decades. Recently, metabolic engineering has been upgraded to the systems level (thus, systems metabolic engineering) by the integrated use of global technologies of systems biology, fine design capabilities of synthetic biology, and rational-random mutagenesis through evolutionary engineering. By systems metabolic engineering, production of natural and unnatural chemicals and materials can be better optimized in a multiplexed way on a genome scale, with reduced time and effort. Here, we review the recent trends in systems metabolic engineering for the production of chemicals and materials by presenting general strategies and showcasing representative examples.

  15. Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoji, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical study evaluating thrust chamber cooling engine cycles and preliminary engine design for low thrust chemical rocket engines for orbit transfer vehicles is described. Oxygen/hydrogen, oxygen/methane, and oxygen/RP-1 engines with thrust levels from 444.8 N to 13345 N, and chamber pressures from 13.8 N/sq cm to 689.5 N/sq cm were evaluated. The physical and thermodynamic properties of the propellant theoretical performance data, and transport properties are documented. The thrust chamber cooling limits for regenerative/radiation and film/radiation cooling are defined and parametric heat transfer data presented. A conceptual evaluation of a number of engine cycles was performed and a 2224.1 N oxygen/hydrogen engine cycle configuration and a 2224.1 N oxygen/methane configuration chosen for preliminary engine design. Updated parametric engine data, engine design drawings, and an assessment of technology required are presented.

  16. Electrochemical energy engineering: a new frontier of chemical engineering innovation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuang; Xu, Bingjun; Yan, Yushan

    2014-01-01

    One of the grand challenges facing humanity today is a safe, clean, and sustainable energy system where combustion no longer dominates. This review proposes that electrochemical energy conversion could set the foundation for such an energy system. It further suggests that a simple switch from an acid to a base membrane coupled with innovative cell designs may lead to a new era of affordable electrochemical devices, including fuel cells, electrolyzers, solar hydrogen generators, and redox flow batteries, for which recent progress is discussed using the authors' work as examples. It also notes that electrochemical energy engineering will likely become a vibrant subdiscipline of chemical engineering and a fertile ground for chemical engineering innovation. To realize this vision, it is necessary to incorporate fundamental electrochemistry and electrochemical engineering principles into the chemical engineering curriculum.

  17. Protein engineering approaches to chemical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Zeng, An-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Protein engineering for the improvement of properties of biocatalysts and for the generation of novel metabolic pathways plays more and more important roles in chemical biotechnology aiming at the production of chemicals from biomass. Although widely used in single-enzyme catalysis process, protein engineering is only being increasingly explored in recent years to achieve more complex in vitro and in vivo biocatalytic processes. This review focuses on major contributions of protein engineering to chemical biotechnology in the field of multi-enzymatic cascade catalysis and metabolic engineering. Especially, we discuss and highlight recent strategies for combining pathway design and protein engineering for the production of novel products. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. General Education Requirements and Chemical Engineering Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laukhuf, Walden L. S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is the idea of increasing the humanities requirements for chemical engineers. Reported are the results of a survey to determine what other universities are doing about increased general education requirements. A copy of the survey is included. (MVL)

  19. 14 CFR 21.500 - Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... aircraft engine or propeller— (1) Conforms to its U.S. type certificate and is in condition for safe... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance of aircraft engines and... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Acceptance of Aircraft Engines...

  20. Ionic liquids in chemical engineering.

    PubMed

    Werner, Sebastian; Haumann, Marco; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The development of engineering applications with ionic liquids stretches back to the mid-1990s when the first examples of continuous catalytic processes using ionic liquids and the first studies of ionic liquid-based extractions were published. Ever since, the use of ionic liquids has seen tremendous progress in many fields of chemistry and engineering, and the first commercial applications have been reported. The main driver for ionic liquid engineering applications is to make practical use of their unique property profiles, which are the result of a complex interplay of coulombic, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. Remarkably, many ionic liquid properties can be tuned in a wide range by structural modifications at their cation and anion. This review highlights specific examples of ionic liquid applications in catalysis and in separation technologies. Additionally, the application of ionic liquids as working fluids in process machines is introduced.

  1. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: CHEMICAL OXIDATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidation destroys hazardous contaminants by chemically converting them to nonhazardous or less toxic compounds that are ideally more stable, less mobile, and/or inert. However, under some conditions, other hazardous compounds may be formed. The oxidizing agents most commonly use...

  2. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: CHEMICAL OXIDATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidation destroys hazardous contaminants by chemically converting them to nonhazardous or less toxic compounds that are ideally more stable, less mobile, and/or inert. However, under some conditions, other hazardous compounds may be formed. The oxidizing agents most commonly use...

  3. Engineering microbes for efficient production of chemicals

    DOEpatents

    Gong, Wei; Dole, Sudhanshu; Grabar, Tammy; Collard, Andrew Christopher; Pero, Janice G; Yocum, R Rogers

    2015-04-28

    This present invention relates to production of chemicals from microorganisms that have been genetically engineered and metabolically evolved. Improvements in chemical production have been established, and particular mutations that lead to those improvements have been identified. Specific examples are given in the identification of mutations that occurred during the metabolic evolution of a bacterial strain genetically engineered to produce succinic acid. This present invention also provides a method for evaluating the industrial applicability of mutations that were selected during the metabolic evolution for increased succinic acid production. This present invention further provides microorganisms engineered to have mutations that are selected during metabolic evolution and contribute to improved production of succinic acid, other organic acids and other chemicals of commercial interest.

  4. Chemical Kinetic Models for Advanced Engine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, William J.; Mehl, Marco; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2014-10-22

    The objectives for this project are as follows: Develop detailed chemical kinetic models for fuel components used in surrogate fuels for compression ignition (CI), homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engines; and Combine component models into surrogate fuel models to represent real transportation fuels. Use them to model low-temperature combustion strategies in HCCI, RCCI, and CI engines that lead to low emissions and high efficiency.

  5. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    SciTech Connect

    P. Dixon

    2004-04-26

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  6. Centrifugal Pump Experiment for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderslice, Nicholas; Oberto, Richard; Marrero, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a Centrifugal Pump Experiment that provided an experiential learning experience to chemical engineering undergraduates at the University of Missouri in the spring of 2010 in the Unit Operations Laboratory course. Lab equipment was used by senior students with computer-based data and control technology. In…

  7. Drug Transport and Pharmacokinetics for Chemical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Laurent; Kanneganti, Kumud; Kim, Kwang Seok

    2010-01-01

    Experiments in continuous-stirred vessels were proposed to introduce methods in pharmacokinetics and drug transport to chemical engineering students. The activities can be incorporated into the curriculum to illustrate fundamentals learned in the classroom. An appreciation for the role of pharmacokinetics in drug discovery will also be gained…

  8. Centrifugal Pump Experiment for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderslice, Nicholas; Oberto, Richard; Marrero, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a Centrifugal Pump Experiment that provided an experiential learning experience to chemical engineering undergraduates at the University of Missouri in the spring of 2010 in the Unit Operations Laboratory course. Lab equipment was used by senior students with computer-based data and control technology. In…

  9. Chemical engineering education: a gallimaufry of thoughts.

    PubMed

    Bird, R Byron

    2010-01-01

    To discuss various facets of chemical engineering education, I proceed step by step through my own education and career. In this way, I touch on various points concerning the operation of the educational system that may be of interest to others.

  10. Interactive Mathematica Simulations in Chemical Engineering Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconer, John L.; Nicodemus, Garret D.

    2014-01-01

    Interactive Mathematica simulations with graphical displays of system behavior are an excellent addition to chemical engineering courses. The Manipulate command in Mathematica creates on-screen controls that allow users to change system variables and see the graphical output almost instantaneously. They can be used both in and outside class. More…

  11. Conceptests for a Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconer, John L.

    2007-01-01

    Examples of conceptests and suggestions for preparing them for use in an undergraduate, chemical engineering thermodynamics course are presented. Conceptests, combined with hand-held transmitters (clickers), is an effective method to engage students in class. This method motivates students, improves their functional understanding of…

  12. A First Chemical Engineering Lab Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punzi, Vito L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a simple thermodynamics experiment recommended for use in beginning chemical engineering laboratory courses. Outlines the theory behind the experiment, which determines the specific heat of a liquid. Discusses the construction, operation, and maintenance of the apparatus involved, along with the experimental procedure. (TW)

  13. Interactive Mathematica Simulations in Chemical Engineering Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconer, John L.; Nicodemus, Garret D.

    2014-01-01

    Interactive Mathematica simulations with graphical displays of system behavior are an excellent addition to chemical engineering courses. The Manipulate command in Mathematica creates on-screen controls that allow users to change system variables and see the graphical output almost instantaneously. They can be used both in and outside class. More…

  14. Conceptests for a Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconer, John L.

    2007-01-01

    Examples of conceptests and suggestions for preparing them for use in an undergraduate, chemical engineering thermodynamics course are presented. Conceptests, combined with hand-held transmitters (clickers), is an effective method to engage students in class. This method motivates students, improves their functional understanding of…

  15. Drug Transport and Pharmacokinetics for Chemical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Laurent; Kanneganti, Kumud; Kim, Kwang Seok

    2010-01-01

    Experiments in continuous-stirred vessels were proposed to introduce methods in pharmacokinetics and drug transport to chemical engineering students. The activities can be incorporated into the curriculum to illustrate fundamentals learned in the classroom. An appreciation for the role of pharmacokinetics in drug discovery will also be gained…

  16. A First Chemical Engineering Lab Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punzi, Vito L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a simple thermodynamics experiment recommended for use in beginning chemical engineering laboratory courses. Outlines the theory behind the experiment, which determines the specific heat of a liquid. Discusses the construction, operation, and maintenance of the apparatus involved, along with the experimental procedure. (TW)

  17. CFD applications in chemical propulsion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    The present research is aimed at developing analytical procedures for predicting the performance and stability characteristics of chemical propulsion engines. Specific emphasis is being placed on understanding the physical and chemical processes in the small engines that are used for applications such as spacecraft attitude control and drag make-up. The small thrust sizes of these engines lead to low nozzle Reynolds numbers with thick boundary layers which may even meet at the nozzle centerline. For this reason, the classical high Reynolds number procedures that are commonly used in the industry are inaccurate and of questionable utility for design. A complete analysis capability for the combined viscous and inviscid regions as well as for the subsonic, transonic, and supersonic portions of the flowfield is necessary to estimate performance levels and to enable tradeoff studies during design procedures.

  18. Chemical-text hybrid search engines.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yingyao; Zhou, Bin; Jiang, Shumei; King, Frederick J

    2010-01-01

    As the amount of chemical literature increases, it is critical that researchers be enabled to accurately locate documents related to a particular aspect of a given compound. Existing solutions, based on text and chemical search engines alone, suffer from the inclusion of "false negative" and "false positive" results, and cannot accommodate diverse repertoire of formats currently available for chemical documents. To address these concerns, we developed an approach called Entity-Canonical Keyword Indexing (ECKI), which converts a chemical entity embedded in a data source into its canonical keyword representation prior to being indexed by text search engines. We implemented ECKI using Microsoft Office SharePoint Server Search, and the resultant hybrid search engine not only supported complex mixed chemical and keyword queries but also was applied to both intranet and Internet environments. We envision that the adoption of ECKI will empower researchers to pose more complex search questions that were not readily attainable previously and to obtain answers at much improved speed and accuracy.

  19. Big Data Analytics in Chemical Engineering.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Leo; Lu, Bo; Castillo, Ivan

    2017-02-27

    Big data analytics is the journey to turn data into insights for more informed business and operational decisions. As the chemical engineering community is collecting more data (volume) from different sources (variety), this journey becomes more challenging in terms of using the right data and the right tools (analytics) to make the right decisions in real time (velocity). This article highlights recent big data advancements in five industries, including chemicals, energy, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, and food, and then discusses technical, platform, and culture challenges. To reach the next milestone in multiplying successes to the enterprise level, government, academia, and industry need to collaboratively focus on workforce development and innovation. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Volume 8 is June 7, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  20. Engineering electrical properties of graphene: chemical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Yuna; Novoselov, Konstantin; Hong, Byung Hee

    2015-12-01

    To ensure the high performance of graphene-based devices, it is necessary to engineer the electrical properties of graphene with enhanced conductivity, controlled work function, opened or closed bandgaps, etc. This can be performed by various non-covalent chemical approaches, including molecular adsorption, substrate-induced doping, polymerization on graphene, deposition of metallic thin films or nanoparticles, etc. In addition, covalent approaches such as the substitution of carbon atoms with boron or nitrogen and the functionalization with hydrogen or fluorine are useful to tune the bandgaps more efficiently, with better uniformity and stability. In this review, representative examples of chemically engineered graphene and its device applications will be reviewed, and remaining challenges will be discussed.

  1. Amine Transaminase Engineering for Spatially Bulky Substrate Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Weiß, Martin S; Pavlidis, Ioannis V; Spurr, Paul; Hanlon, Steven P; Wirz, Beat; Iding, Hans; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2017-06-01

    Amine transaminase (ATA) catalyzing stereoselective amination of prochiral ketones is an attractive alternative to transition metal catalysis. As wild-type ATAs do not accept sterically hindered ketones, efforts to widen the substrate scope to more challenging targets are of general interest. We recently designed ATAs to accept aromatic and thus planar bulky amines, with a sequence-based motif that supports the identification of novel enzymes. However, these variants were not active against 2,2-dimethyl-1-phenyl-propan-1-one, which carries a bulky tert-butyl substituent adjacent to the carbonyl function. Here, we report a solution for this type of substrate. The evolved ATAs perform asymmetric synthesis of the respective R amine with high conversions by using either alanine or isopropylamine as amine donor. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-04-07

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  3. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    R. Jarek

    2004-11-23

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  4. Engineering cyanobacteria for fuels and chemicals production.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Li, Yin

    2010-03-01

    The world's energy and global warming crises call for sustainable, renewable, carbon-neutral alternatives to replace fossil fuel resources. Currently, most biofuels are produced from agricultural crops and residues, which lead to concerns about food security and land shortage. Compared to the current biofuel production system, cyanobacteria, as autotrophic prokaryotes, do not require arable land and can grow to high densities by efficiently using solar energy, CO(2), water, and inorganic nutrients. Moreover, powerful genetic techniques of cyanobacteria have been developed. For these reasons, cyanobacteria, which carry out oxygenic photosynthesis, are attractive hosts for production of fuels and chemicals. Recently, several chemicals including ethanol, isobutanol and isoprene have been produced by engineered cyanobacteria directly using solar energy, CO(2), and water. Cyanobacterium is therefore a potential novel cell factory for fuels and chemicals production to address global energy security and climate change issues.

  5. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    R. Jarek

    2005-08-29

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs documents. The updates

  6. Scholarship in the Chemical Sciences and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-11-01

    Literature Cited

    1. Moore, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 741. Moore, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1381. Moore, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 935.
    2. Boyer, Ernest L. Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate; Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching: Princeton, NJ, 1990.
    3. Advisory Committee to the National Science Foundation Directorate for Education and Human Resources. Shaping the Future: New Expectations for Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology; NSF 96-139, 1996 (accessed Sep 2000); Executive Summary, NSF 96-141, 1996.
    4. Task Force on Chemical Education Research. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 850.

  7. Chemically engineered extracts: source of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Ramallo, I Ayelen; Salazar, Mario O; Mendez, Luciana; Furlan, Ricardo L E

    2011-04-19

    Biological research and drug discovery critically depend on access to libraries of small molecules that have an affinity for biomacromolecules. By virtue of their sustained success as sources of lead compounds, natural products are recognized as "privileged" starting points in structural space for library development. Compared with synthetic compounds, natural products have distinguishing structural properties; indeed, researchers have begun to quantify and catalog the differences between the two classes of molecules. Measurable differences in the number of chiral centers, the degree of saturation, the presence of aromatic rings, and the number of the various heteroatoms are among the chief distinctions between natural and synthetic compounds. Natural products also include a significant proportion of recurring molecular scaffolds that are not present in currently marketed drugs: the bioactivity of these natural substructures has been refined over the long process of evolution. In this Account, we present our research aimed at preparing libraries of semisynthetic compounds, or chemically engineered extracts (CEEs), through chemical diversification of natural products mixtures. The approach relies on the power of numbers, that is, in the chemical alteration of a sizable fraction of the starting complex mixture. Major changes in composition can be achieved through the chemical transformation of reactive molecular fragments that are found in most natural products. If such fragments are common enough, their transformation represents an entry point for chemically altering a high proportion of the components of crude natural extracts. We have searched for common reactive fragments in the Dictionary of Natural Products (CRC Press) and identified several functional groups that are expected to be present in a large fraction of the components of an average natural crude extract. To date, we have used reactions that incorporate (i) nitrogen atoms through carbonyl groups, (ii

  8. Thermodynamics of chemical Marangoni-driven engines.

    PubMed

    Krechetnikov, Rouslan

    2017-07-19

    The goal of this paper is to perform a general thermodynamic study of Marangoni-driven engines in which chemical energy is directly transformed into mechanical motion. Given that this topic has not been discussed before, we will explore here the most basic and fundamental aspects of the phenomena at work, which leads to a number of interesting observations typical of controversies in classical thermodynamics. Starting with a discussion of a few key motivating examples of chemical Marangoni-driven phenomena - tears of wine, an oscillating pendant droplet, "beating" oil lens, and traveling waves in a circular container - and contrasting homogeneous versus inhomogeneous thermodynamic systems we naturally arrive at alternative ways of storing and generating energy with the help of inhomogeneities in the bulk and surface properties of the working media. Of particular interest here are systems with interfaces - hence, in this context we discuss the nature and efficiency of the corresponding thermodynamic cycles leading to work done as a result of a non-uniform distribution of surface tension, which is in turn induced by a non-uniform surface active substance (surfactant) distribution, for both soluble and insoluble surfactants. Based on the relevant physical parameters of the working medium we can also evaluate the isothermality, i.e. temperature variations, dissipative losses, energy output and efficiency, entropy generation, and the period of such cycles in real processes. The role of singularity formation at the interface for the existence of such thermodynamic cycles is unraveled as well. Finally the discussion is concluded with a few ideas for potential applications of Marangoni-driven engines.

  9. Human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria for the safety parameter display

    SciTech Connect

    McGevna, V.; Peterson, L.R.

    1981-10-02

    This report contains human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria developed by the Human Factors Engineering Branch (HFEB) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to use in evaluating designs of the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS). These criteria were developed in response to the functional design criteria for the SPDS defined in NUREG-0696, Functional Criteria for Emergency Response Facilities. The purpose of this report is to identify design review acceptance criteria for the SPDS installed in the control room of a nuclear power plant. Use of computer driven cathode ray tube (CRT) displays is anticipated. General acceptance criteria for displays of plant safety status information by the SPDS are developed. In addition, specific SPDS review criteria corresponding to the SPDS functional criteria specified in NUREG-0696 are established.

  10. Acceptance Criteria for Aerospace Structural Adhesives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ADHESIVES, *AIRFRAMES, PRIMERS, STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION , DATA ACQUISITION , PARTICLE SIZE, ACCEPTANCE TESTS, ELASTOMERS, BONDING, QUALITY CONTROL, .

  11. 2003 Chemical Engineering Division annual technical report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.; Graziano, D.; Miller, J. F.; Vandegrift, G.

    2004-04-26

    The Chemical Engineering Division is one of six divisions within the Engineering Research Directorate at Argonne National Laboratory, one of the U.S. government's oldest and largest research laboratories. The University of Chicago oversees the laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Argonne's mission is to conduct basic scientific research, to operate national scientific facilities, to enhance the nation's energy resources, to promote national security, and to develop better ways to manage environmental problems. Argonne has the further responsibility of strengthening the nation's technology base by developing innovative technology and transferring it to industry. The Division is a diverse early-stage engineering organization, specializing in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel, development of advanced electrochemical power sources, and management of both high- and low-level nuclear wastes. Additionally, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which provides a broad range of analytical services to Argonne and other organizations. The Division is multidisciplinary. Its people have formal training in chemistry; physics; materials science; and electrical, mechanical, chemical, and nuclear engineering. They are specialists in electrochemistry, ceramics, metallurgy, catalysis, materials characterization, nuclear magnetic resonance, repository science, and the nuclear fuel cycle. Our staff have experience working in and collaborating with university, industry and government research and development laboratories throughout the world. Our wide-ranging expertise finds ready application in solving energy, national security, and environmental problems. Division personnel are frequently called on by governmental and industrial organizations for advice and contributions to problem solving in areas that intersect present and past Division programs and activities. Currently, we are engaged in the development of several technologies of

  12. Selective Guide to Literature on Chemical Engineering. Engineering Literature Guides, Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Rosemary, Comp.

    The material in this guide covers areas important to the chemical industries. Topics such as heat and mass transfer, plastics, polymers, fluid flow, and process engineering are included. This document is a survey of information sources in chemical engineering and is intended to identify those core resources which can help engineers and librarians…

  13. Selective Guide to Literature on Chemical Engineering. Engineering Literature Guides, Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Rosemary, Comp.

    The material in this guide covers areas important to the chemical industries. Topics such as heat and mass transfer, plastics, polymers, fluid flow, and process engineering are included. This document is a survey of information sources in chemical engineering and is intended to identify those core resources which can help engineers and librarians…

  14. Brewing as a Comprehensive Learning Platform in Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Rudi P.; Sørensen, Jens L.; Simonsen, Morten E.; Madsen, Henrik T.; Muff, Jens; Strandgaard, Morten; Søgaard, Erik G.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical engineering is mostly taught using traditional classroom teaching and laboratory experiments when possible. Being a wide discipline encompassing topics such as analytical chemistry, process design, and microbiology, it may be argued that brewing of beer has many relations to chemical engineering topic-wise. This work illustrates how…

  15. Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and Photovoltaic Unit Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, T. W. F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the nature of semiconductor chemical reactor engineering, illustrating the application of this engineering with research in physical vapor deposition of cadmium sulfide at both the laboratory and unit operations scale and chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon at the laboratory scale. (JN)

  16. Brewing as a Comprehensive Learning Platform in Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Rudi P.; Sørensen, Jens L.; Simonsen, Morten E.; Madsen, Henrik T.; Muff, Jens; Strandgaard, Morten; Søgaard, Erik G.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical engineering is mostly taught using traditional classroom teaching and laboratory experiments when possible. Being a wide discipline encompassing topics such as analytical chemistry, process design, and microbiology, it may be argued that brewing of beer has many relations to chemical engineering topic-wise. This work illustrates how…

  17. Frontiers in Chemical Engineering. Research Needs and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

    Chemical engineers play a key role in industries such as petroleum, food, artificial fibers, petrochemicals, plastics and many others. They are needed to tailor manufacturing technology to the requirements of products and to integrate product and process design. This report discusses how chemical engineers are continuing to address technological…

  18. A Course in Chemical Engineering Practice: Graduate Plant Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marnell, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Describes a year-long graduate plant design course. The course provides students with an appreciation of the profit motive that drives business activity, the role of the chemical engineer in achieving this goal, and historical and contemporary perspectives on chemical engineering practice. (JN)

  19. Chemical Engineering Data Analysis Made Easy with DataFit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, James R.

    2006-01-01

    The outline for half of a one-credit-hour course in analysis of chemical engineering data is presented, along with a range of typical problems encountered later on in the chemical engineering curriculum that can be used to reinforce the data analysis skills learned in the course. This mini course allows students to be exposed to a variety of ChE…

  20. A Course in Chemical Engineering Practice: Graduate Plant Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marnell, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Describes a year-long graduate plant design course. The course provides students with an appreciation of the profit motive that drives business activity, the role of the chemical engineer in achieving this goal, and historical and contemporary perspectives on chemical engineering practice. (JN)

  1. Introducing DAE Systems in Undergraduate and Graduate Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandela, Ravi Kumar; Sridhar, L. N.; Rengaswamy, Raghunathan

    2010-01-01

    Models play an important role in understanding chemical engineering systems. While differential equation models are taught in standard modeling and control courses, Differential Algebraic Equation (DAE) system models are not usually introduced. These models appear naturally in several chemical engineering problems. In this paper, the introduction…

  2. Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and Photovoltaic Unit Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, T. W. F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the nature of semiconductor chemical reactor engineering, illustrating the application of this engineering with research in physical vapor deposition of cadmium sulfide at both the laboratory and unit operations scale and chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon at the laboratory scale. (JN)

  3. At Age 100, Chemical Engineering Education Faces Changing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, James

    1988-01-01

    Stresses the need for chemical engineering education to keep abreast of current needs. Explores the need for global economics, marketing strategy, product differentiation, and patent law in the curriculum. Questions the abilities of current chemical engineering graduate students in those areas. (MVL)

  4. Results of the 2010 Survey on Teaching Chemical Reaction Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, David L.; Vigeant, Margot A. S.

    2012-01-01

    A survey of faculty teaching the chemical reaction engineering course or sequence during the 2009-2010 academic year at chemical engineering programs in the United States and Canada reveals change in terms of content, timing, and approaches to teaching. The report consists of two parts: first, a statistical and demographic characterization of the…

  5. Introducing DAE Systems in Undergraduate and Graduate Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandela, Ravi Kumar; Sridhar, L. N.; Rengaswamy, Raghunathan

    2010-01-01

    Models play an important role in understanding chemical engineering systems. While differential equation models are taught in standard modeling and control courses, Differential Algebraic Equation (DAE) system models are not usually introduced. These models appear naturally in several chemical engineering problems. In this paper, the introduction…

  6. Results of the 2010 Survey on Teaching Chemical Reaction Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, David L.; Vigeant, Margot A. S.

    2012-01-01

    A survey of faculty teaching the chemical reaction engineering course or sequence during the 2009-2010 academic year at chemical engineering programs in the United States and Canada reveals change in terms of content, timing, and approaches to teaching. The report consists of two parts: first, a statistical and demographic characterization of the…

  7. Enhancing the Undergraduate Computing Experience in Chemical Engineering CACHE Corporation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Thomas F.

    2006-01-01

    This white paper focuses on the integration and enhancement of the computing experience for undergraduates throughout the chemical engineering curriculum. The computing experience for undergraduates in chemical engineering should have continuity and be coordinated from course to course, because a single software solution is difficult to achieve in…

  8. Chemical engineering design of CO oxidation catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herz, Richard K.

    1987-01-01

    How a chemical reaction engineer would approach the challenge of designing a CO oxidation catalyst for pulsed CO2 lasers is described. CO oxidation catalysts have a long history of application, of course, so it is instructive to first consider the special requirements of the laser application and then to compare them to the characteristics of existing processes which utilize CO oxidation catalysts. All CO2 laser applications require a CO oxidation catalyst with the following characteristics: (1) active at stoichiometric ratios of O2 and CO, (2) no inhibition by CO2 or other components of the laser environment, (3) releases no particulates during vibration or thermal cycling, and (4) long lifetime with a stable activity. In all applications, low consumption of power is desirable, a characteristic especially critical in aerospace applications and, thus, catalyst activity at low temperatures is highly desirable. High power lasers with high pulse repetition rates inherently require circulation of the gas mixture and this forced circulation is available for moving gas past the catalyst. Low repetition rate lasers, however, do not inherently require gas circulation, so a catalyst that did not require such circulation would be favorable from the standpoint of minimum power consumption. Lasers designed for atmospheric penetration of their infrared radiation utilize CO2 formed from rare isotopes of oxygen and this application has the additional constraint that normal abundance oxygen isotopes in the catalyst must not exchange with rare isotopes in the gas mixture.

  9. Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Engine data and information are presented to perform system studies on cargo orbit-transfer vehicles which would deliver large space structures to geosynchronous equatorial orbit. Low-thrust engine performance, weight, and envelope parametric data were established, preliminary design information was generated, and technologies for liquid rocket engines were identified. Two major engine design drivers were considered in the study: cooling and engine cycle options. Both film-cooled and regeneratively cooled engines were evaluated. The propellant combinations studied were hydrogen/oxygen, methane/oxygen, and kerosene/oxygen.

  10. Introducing High School Students and Science Teachers to Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayles, Taryn Melkus; Aguirre, Fernando J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a summer institute for science teachers and their students in which the main goal was to increase enrollment in engineering and to encourage women and minority groups to increase their representation in the engineering workforce. Includes a description of typical chemical engineering jobs and general instruction in material balances,…

  11. Introducing High School Students and Science Teachers to Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayles, Taryn Melkus; Aguirre, Fernando J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a summer institute for science teachers and their students in which the main goal was to increase enrollment in engineering and to encourage women and minority groups to increase their representation in the engineering workforce. Includes a description of typical chemical engineering jobs and general instruction in material balances,…

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disruptors are a class of chemicals of growing interest to the environmental community. USEPA's Risk Assessment Forum defined an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) as "an exogenous agent that interferes with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or elim...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disruptors are a class of chemicals of growing interest to the environmental community. USEPA's Risk Assessment Forum defined an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) as "an exogenous agent that interferes with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or elim...

  14. Microbial chemical factories: recent advances in pathway engineering for synthesis of value added chemicals.

    PubMed

    Dhamankar, Himanshu; Prather, Kristala L J

    2011-08-01

    The dwindling nature of petroleum and other fossil reserves has provided impetus towards microbial synthesis of fuels and value added chemicals from biomass-derived sugars as a renewable resource. Microbes have naturally evolved enzymes and pathways that can convert biomass into hundreds of unique chemical structures, a property that can be effectively exploited for their engineering into Microbial Chemical Factories (MCFs). De novo pathway engineering facilitates expansion of the repertoire of microbially synthesized compounds beyond natural products. In this review, we visit some recent successes in such novel pathway engineering and optimization, with particular emphasis on the selection and engineering of pathway enzymes and balancing of their accessory cofactors.

  15. Implementation of SI Units in Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngquist, Gordon R.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the results of a survey of U.S. Chemical Engineering Departments to determine established policy concerning the use of SI units in courses and plans for future implementation of the SI system of units. (MLH)

  16. Attitudes, values, and socio-demographic characteristics that predict acceptance of genetic engineering and applications of new technology in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Philip; Harrison, Adam; Wilson, Carlene; Baghurst, Katrine I; Syrette, Julie

    2007-09-01

    Studies of community reactions to biotechnology and genetic engineering (GE), in particular, have identified a number of correlates of acceptance, including the field of application of a technology and various characteristics of the perceiver. Factor analysis of acceptability ratings (N=686) of 12 applications of new technologies revealed three factors, denoting medical, societal, and indulgent applications. Acceptability ratings of each application and of GE in principle were regressed onto 18 demographic, attitudinal, trust, and value variables previously identified as potential correlates of acceptance. Predictive profiles for acceptance of medical and societal applications were largely similar. General receptiveness toward science and technology was the primary predictor of GE acceptance and a major predictor of acceptance for each application area. Environmental concern and self-transcendent (e.g., pro-nature) values did not predict acceptance in any instance. Findings clarify considerations associated with acceptance of biotechnological innovations and support arguments against knowledge- and trust-deficit explanations of resistance to technology.

  17. Laboratory Planning for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Harry F., Ed.

    This study is the result of a project of the Committee on Design, Construction and Equipment of Laboratories, Division of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, of the National Academy of Sciences. The problems and methods of planning, designing and constructing varying types of chemical laboratories for research and developmental buildings are…

  18. Laboratory Planning for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Harry F., Ed.

    This study is the result of a project of the Committee on Design, Construction and Equipment of Laboratories, Division of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, of the National Academy of Sciences. The problems and methods of planning, designing and constructing varying types of chemical laboratories for research and developmental buildings are…

  19. Incorporating Six Sigma Methodology Training into Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, Lenore L.

    2007-01-01

    Six Sigma is a buzz term in today's technology and business world and there has been increasing interest to initiate Six Sigma training in college education. We have successfully incorporated Six Sigma methodology training into a traditional chemical engineering course, Engineering Experimentation, at Texas Tech University. The students have…

  20. Incorporating Six Sigma Methodology Training into Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, Lenore L.

    2007-01-01

    Six Sigma is a buzz term in today's technology and business world and there has been increasing interest to initiate Six Sigma training in college education. We have successfully incorporated Six Sigma methodology training into a traditional chemical engineering course, Engineering Experimentation, at Texas Tech University. The students have…

  1. New Laboratory Course for Senior-Level Chemical Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Mark T.; Deitcher, Robert W.; Xi, Yuanzhou; Davis, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    A new laboratory course has been developed at the University of Virginia for senior- level chemical engineering students. The new course is based on three 4-week long experiments in bioprocess engineering, energy conversion and catalysis, and polymer synthesis and characterization. The emphasis is on the integration of process steps and the…

  2. Chemical Information in Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendig, Regina B.

    2009-01-01

    The author sought to determine to what extent the two search engines, Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engines), would be useful to first-year university students as the first point of searching for chemical information. Five topics were searched and the first ten records of each search result were evaluated with regard to the type of…

  3. New Laboratory Course for Senior-Level Chemical Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Mark T.; Deitcher, Robert W.; Xi, Yuanzhou; Davis, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    A new laboratory course has been developed at the University of Virginia for senior- level chemical engineering students. The new course is based on three 4-week long experiments in bioprocess engineering, energy conversion and catalysis, and polymer synthesis and characterization. The emphasis is on the integration of process steps and the…

  4. Chemical Information in Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendig, Regina B.

    2009-01-01

    The author sought to determine to what extent the two search engines, Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engines), would be useful to first-year university students as the first point of searching for chemical information. Five topics were searched and the first ten records of each search result were evaluated with regard to the type of…

  5. Performance deterioration due to acceptance testing and flight loads; JT90 jet engine diagnostic program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsson, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a flight loads test of the JT9D-7 engine are presented. The goals of this test program were to: measure aerodynamic and inertia loads on the engine during flight, explore the effects of airplane gross weight and typical maneuvers on these flight loads, simultaneously measure the changes in engine running clearances and performance resulting from the maneuvers, make refinements of engine performance deterioration prediction models based on analytical results of the tests, and make recommendations to improve propulsion system performance retention. The test program included a typical production airplane acceptance test plus additional flights and maneuvers to encompass the range of flight loads in revenue service. The test results indicated that aerodynamic loads, primarily at take-off, were the major cause of rub-indicated that aerodynamic loads, primarily at take-off, were the major cause of rub-induced deterioration in the cold sectin of the engine. Differential thermal expansion between rotating and static parts plus aerodynamic loads combined to cause blade-to-seal rubs in the turbine.

  6. Chemical Stimulation of Engineered Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Peter, E.

    2008-08-08

    The objective of this project is to design, develop and demonstrate methods for the chemical stimulation of candidate EGS reservoirs as well as the chemical treatment of mineral-scaled wellbores. First, a set of candidate chemical compounds capable of dissolving calcite was identified. A series of tests was then performed on each candidate in order to screen it for thermal stability and reactivity towards calcite. A detailed analysis was then performed on each compound that emerged from the screening tests in order to characterize its decay kinetics and reaction kinetics as functions of temperature and chemical composition. From among the compounds emerging from the laboratory studies, one compounds was chosen for a field experiment in order to verify the laboratory predictions.

  7. Discrete-Event Simulation in Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultheisz, Daniel; Sommerfeld, Jude T.

    1988-01-01

    Gives examples, descriptions, and uses for various types of simulation systems, including the Flowtran, Process, Aspen Plus, Design II, GPSS, Simula, and Simscript. Explains similarities in simulators, terminology, and a batch chemical process. Tables and diagrams are included. (RT)

  8. Acceptance Data Package: SXI Stepper Motor/Encoder. Aeroflex P/N 16187. A; Engineering Drawings and Associated Lists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Acceptance data package - engineering drawings and associated lists for fabrication, assembly and maintenance (cleaning, fluidized bed coating, bounding and staking) motor/encoded solar x-ray imager (SXI) (Aeroflex p/n 16187) were given.

  9. Challenges and opportunities in synthetic biology for chemical engineers

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yunzi; Lee, Jung-Kul; Zhao, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology provides numerous great opportunities for chemical engineers in the development of new processes for large-scale production of biofuels, value-added chemicals, and protein therapeutics. However, challenges across all scales abound. In particular, the modularization and standardization of the components in a biological system, so-called biological parts, remain the biggest obstacle in synthetic biology. In this perspective, we will discuss the main challenges and opportunities in the rapidly growing synthetic biology field and the important roles that chemical engineers can play in its advancement. PMID:24222925

  10. Challenges and opportunities in synthetic biology for chemical engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, YZ; Lee, JK; Zhao, HM

    2013-11-15

    Synthetic biology provides numerous great opportunities for chemical engineers in the development of new processes for large-scale production of biofuels, value-added chemicals, and protein therapeutics. However, challenges across all scales abound. In particular, the modularization and standardization of the components in a biological system, so-called biological parts, remain the biggest obstacle in synthetic biology. In this perspective, we will discuss the main challenges and opportunities in the rapidly growing synthetic biology field and the important roles that chemical engineers can play in its advancement. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cofactor engineering for more efficient production of chemicals and biofuels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Chen, Biqiang; Fang, Yunming; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-09-20

    Cofactors are involved in numerous intracellular reactions and critically influence redox balance and cellular metabolism. Cofactor engineering can support and promote the biocatalysis process, even help driving thermodynamically unfavorable reactions forwards. To achieve efficient production of chemicals and biofuels, cofactor engineering strategies such as altering cofactor supply or modifying reactants' cofactor preference have been developed to maintain redox balance. This review focuses primarily on the effects of cofactor engineering on carbon and energy metabolism. Coupling carbon metabolism with cofactor engineering can promote large-scale production, and even offer possibilities for producing new products or converting new materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The five-minute chemical engineer

    SciTech Connect

    Korchinski, W.J.; Turpin, L.E.

    1996-01-01

    Engineering offices are filled with computers and state-of-the-art software. Given the right set of circumstances, refinery engineers are delighted to use all of this stuff: technology is at their fingertips and, if time permits, one can grind out an answer to full machine precision. But, many really useful refinery calculations can be simplified using miscellaneous bits of information and a few rules. These calculation techniques provide a quick way to evaluate whether something is worth pursuing in more detail, or whether time would be better spent performing other activities. These estimates also provide reasonable answers in a timely manner, when engineers do not have access to all of the high-tech tools on their desktop. In most cases all that is required is an inexpensive calculator and five minutes of your time. Only a few really important constants are needed to do most quick-and-dirty refining calculations. These constants are summarized in four tables along with a set of commonly used equations. Examples are provided that illustrate use of the constants and equations. Some examples may be familiar: can a heat exchanger be used in a particular service; what size driver would be needed to compress a stream from one pressure to the next; how much fuel is being used by a boiler or process heater; how much energy can be saved by cutting reflux? The intent is to provide the tools to quickly estimate answers to these questions.

  13. Process Security in Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piluso, Cristina; Uygun, Korkut; Huang, Yinlun; Lou, Helen H.

    2005-01-01

    The threats of terrorism have greatly alerted the chemical process industries to assure plant security at all levels: infrastructure-improvement-focused physical security, information-protection-focused cyber security, and design-and-operation-improvement-focused process security. While developing effective plant security methods and technologies…

  14. Chemical engineering: Measurements for a competitive age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) activities supporting chemical research, environmental research, combustion and fuel research, and related industries are described in this video. Highlights include private sector involvement in the research and associated and guest scientist programs, the calibration of customers' instruments, and the direct funding for the NIST research projects by outside industries.

  15. Chemical engineering: Measurements for a competitive age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) activities supporting chemical research, environmental research, combustion and fuel research, and related industries are described in this video. Highlights include private sector involvement in the research and associated and guest scientist programs, the calibration of customers' instruments, and the direct funding for the NIST research projects by outside industries.

  16. Process Security in Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piluso, Cristina; Uygun, Korkut; Huang, Yinlun; Lou, Helen H.

    2005-01-01

    The threats of terrorism have greatly alerted the chemical process industries to assure plant security at all levels: infrastructure-improvement-focused physical security, information-protection-focused cyber security, and design-and-operation-improvement-focused process security. While developing effective plant security methods and technologies…

  17. Reverse engineering chemical structures from molecular descriptors : how many solutions?

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William Michael; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel

    2005-06-01

    Physical, chemical and biological properties are the ultimate information of interest for chemical compounds. Molecular descriptors that map structural information to activities and properties are obvious candidates for information sharing. In this paper, we consider the feasibility of using molecular descriptors to safely exchange chemical information in such a way that the original chemical structures cannot be reverse engineered. To investigate the safety of sharing such descriptors, we compute the degeneracy (the number of structure matching a descriptor value) of several 2D descriptors, and use various methods to search for and reverse engineer structures. We examine degeneracy in the entire chemical space taking descriptors values from the alkane isomer series and the PubChem database. We further use a stochastic search to retrieve structures matching specific topological index values. Finally, we investigate the safety of exchanging of fragmental descriptors using deterministic enumeration.

  18. Characterization of Chemicals on Engine Exhaust Particles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Chromatography /Mass Spectrometry (NCI GC/MS). The NCI on- column injection GC/MS method provides significant benefits for the analysis of nitro-aromatic...found is quite small. The two columns of data for tne TF33-P7 engine operated at 30 percent power were obtained on separate days, so that factors other...alkane 19 736 Long chain alkane 20 775 C1, fluorene 21 811 Fluorenone 22 834 Long chain alkane 23 844 Long chain alkane 24 859 Phenanthrene 25 869

  19. Chemically engineered persistent luminescence nanoprobes for bioimaging

    PubMed Central

    Lécuyer, Thomas; Teston, Eliott; Ramirez-Garcia, Gonzalo; Maldiney, Thomas; Viana, Bruno; Seguin, Johanne; Mignet, Nathalie; Scherman, Daniel; Richard, Cyrille

    2016-01-01

    Imaging nanoprobes are a group of nanosized agents developed for providing improved contrast for bioimaging. Among various imaging probes, optical sensors capable of following biological events or progresses at the cellular and molecular levels are actually actively developed for early detection, accurate diagnosis, and monitoring of the treatment of diseases. The optical activities of nanoprobes can be tuned on demand by chemists by engineering their composition, size and surface nature. This review will focus on researches devoted to the conception of nanoprobes with particular optical properties, called persistent luminescence, and their use as new powerful bioimaging agents in preclinical assays. PMID:27877248

  20. Chemical-oxidation treatment. Engineering bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Oxidation destroys hazardous contaminants by chemically converting them to nonhazardous or less toxic compounds that are ideally more stable, less mobile, and/or inert. However, under some conditions, other hazardous compounds may be formed. The oxidizing agents most commonly used for the treatment of hazardous contaminants are ozone, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorites, chlorine, and chlorine dioxide. Current research has shown the combination of these reagents or ultraviolet (UV) light and an oxidizing agent(s) makes the process more effective. Treatability studies are necessary to document the applicability and performance of chemical oxidation systems technology for a specific site. The bulletin provides information on the technology applicability, limitations, a technology description, the types of residuals produced, site requirements, current performance data, status of the technology, and sources of further information.

  1. Carbon cycle in advanced coal chemical engineering.

    PubMed

    Yi, Qun; Li, Wenying; Feng, Jie; Xie, Kechang

    2015-08-07

    This review summarizes how the carbon cycle occurs and how to reduce CO2 emissions in highly efficient carbon utilization from the most abundant carbon source, coal. Nowadays, more and more attention has been paid to CO2 emissions and its myriad of sources. Much research has been undertaken on fossil energy and renewable energy and current existing problems, challenges and opportunities in controlling and reducing CO2 emission with technologies of CO2 capture, utilization, and storage. The coal chemical industry is a crucial area in the (CO2 value chain) Carbon Cycle. The realization of clean and effective conversion of coal resources, improving the utilization and efficiency of resources, whilst reducing CO2 emissions is a key area for further development and investigation by the coal chemical industry. Under a weak carbon mitigation policy, the value and price of products from coal conversion are suggested in the carbon cycle.

  2. Engineering the prion protein using chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ball, H L; King, D S; Cohen, F E; Prusiner, S B; Baldwin, M A

    2001-11-01

    In recent years, the technology of solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) has improved to the extent that chemical synthesis of small proteins may be a viable complementary strategy to recombinant expression. We have prepared several modified and wild-type prion protein (PrP) polypeptides, of up to 112 residues, that demonstrate the flexibility of a chemical approach to protein synthesis. The principal event in prion disease is the conformational change of the normal, alpha-helical cellular protein (PrPc) into a beta-sheet-rich pathogenic isoform (PrP(Sc)). The ability to form PrP(Sc) in transgenic mice is retained by a 106 residue 'mini-prion' (PrP106), with the deletions 23-88 and 141-176. Synthetic PrP106 (sPrP106) and a His-tagged analog (sPrP106HT) have been prepared successfully using a highly optimized Fmoc chemical methodology involving DCC/HOBt activation and an efficient capping procedure with N-(2-chlorobenzyloxycarbonyloxy) succinimide. A single reversed-phase purification step gave homogeneous protein, in excellent yield. With respect to its conformational and aggregational properties and its response to proteinase digestion, sPrP106 was indistinguishable from its recombinant analog (rPrP106). Certain sequences that proved to be more difficult to synthesize using the Fmoc approach, such as bovine (Bo) PrP(90-200), were successfully prepared using a combination of the highly activated coupling reagent HATU and t-Boc chemistry. To mimic the glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor and target sPrP to cholesterol-rich domains on the cell surface, where the conversion of PrPc is believed to occur, a lipophilic group or biotin, was added to an orthogonally side-chain-protected Lys residue at the C-terminus of sPrP sequences. These groups enabled sPrP to be immobilized on either the cell surface or a streptavidin-coated ELISA plate, respectively, in an orientation analogous to that of membrane-bound, GPI-anchored PrPc. The chemical manipulation of such

  3. Cofactor engineering for advancing chemical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yipeng; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N

    2013-12-01

    Cofactors provide redox carriers for biosynthetic reactions, catabolic reactions and act as important agents in transfer of energy for the cell. Recent advances in manipulating cofactors include culture conditions or additive alterations, genetic modification of host pathways for increased availability of desired cofactor, changes in enzyme cofactor specificity, and introduction of novel redox partners to form effective circuits for biochemical processes and biocatalysts. Genetic strategies to employ ferredoxin, NADH and NADPH most effectively in natural or novel pathways have improved yield and efficiency of large-scale processes for fuels and chemicals and have been demonstrated with a variety of microbial organisms.

  4. My contribution to broadening the base of chemical engineering.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Roger W H

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a short account, from a personal viewpoint, of the various contributions I have made to expand the academic basis of chemical engineering from its origin in the unifying concept of unit operations, focussed on process design, to encompassing all the professional activities of industrial chemical engineers. This includes all aspects of planning and scheduling the operations as well as designing and controlling the process plant. The span of my career also happens to include the birth of the age of computing, with all the consequential implications.

  5. Automotive fuels and internal combustion engines: a chemical perspective.

    PubMed

    Wallington, T J; Kaiser, E W; Farrell, J T

    2006-04-01

    Commercial transportation fuels are complex mixtures containing hundreds or thousands of chemical components, whose composition has evolved considerably during the past 100 years. In conjunction with concurrent engine advancements, automotive fuel composition has been fine-tuned to balance efficiency and power demands while minimizing emissions. Pollutant emissions from internal combustion engines (ICE), which arise from non-ideal combustion, have been dramatically reduced in the past four decades. Emissions depend both on the engine operating parameters (e.g. engine temperature, speed, load, A/F ratio, and spark timing) and the fuel. These emissions result from complex processes involving interactions between the fuel and engine parameters. Vehicle emissions are comprised of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO, nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and particulate matter (PM). VOCs and NO(x) form photochemical smog in urban atmospheres, and CO and PM may have adverse health impacts. Engine hardware and operating conditions, after-treatment catalysts, and fuel composition all affect the amount and composition of emissions leaving the vehicle tailpipe. While engine and after-treatment effects are generally larger than fuel effects, engine and after-treatment hardware can require specific fuel properties. Consequently, the best prospects for achieving the highest efficiency and lowest emissions lie with optimizing the entire fuel-engine-after-treatment system. This review provides a chemical perspective on the production, combustion, and environmental aspects of automotive fuels. We hope this review will be of interest to workers in the fields of chemical kinetics, fluid dynamics of reacting flows, atmospheric chemistry, automotive catalysts, fuel science, and governmental regulations.

  6. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Jolley; R. Jarek; P. Mariner

    2004-02-09

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  7. The role of chemical engineering in medicinal research including Alzheimer's.

    PubMed

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M

    2015-01-01

    Various disciplines of chemical engineering, especially thermodynamics and kinetics, play an important role in medicinal research and this has been particularly recognized during the last 10-15 years (von Stockar and van der Wielen, J Biotechnol 59:25, 1997; Prausnitz, Fluid Phase Equilib 53:439, 1989; Prausnitz, Pure Appl Chem 79:1435, 2007; Dey and Prausnitz, Ind Eng Chem Res 50:3, 2011; Prausnitz, J Chem Thermodynamics 35:21, 2003; Tsivintzelis et al. AIChE J 55:756, 2009). It is expected that during the twenty-first century chemical engineering and especially thermodynamics can contribute as significantly to the life sciences development as it has been done with the oil and gas and chemical sectors in the twentieth century. Moreover, it has during the recent years recognized that thermodynamics can help in understanding diseases like human cataract, sickle-cell anemia, Creuzfeldt-Jacob ("mad cow" disease), and Alzheimer's which are connected to "protein aggregation." Several articles in the Perspectives section of prominent chemical engineering journals have addressed this issue (Hall, AIChE J 54:1956, 2008; Vekilov, AIChE J 54:2508, 2008). This work reviews recent applications of thermodynamics (and other areas of chemical engineering) first in drug development and then in the understanding of the mechanism of Alzheimer's and similar diseases.

  8. Cyanobacterial metabolic engineering for biofuel and chemical production.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Neal J; Rabinovitch-Deere, Christine A; Carroll, Austin L; Nozzi, Nicole E; Case, Anna E; Atsumi, Shota

    2016-12-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 are contributing to the global greenhouse effect. Large scale use of atmospheric CO2 may be a sustainable and renewable means of chemical and liquid fuel production to mitigate global climate change. Photosynthetic organisms are an ideal platform for efficient, natural CO2 conversion to a broad range of chemicals. Cyanobacteria are especially attractive for these purposes, due to their genetic malleability and relatively fast growth rate. Recent years have yielded a range of work in the metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria and have led to greater knowledge of the host metabolism. Understanding of endogenous and heterologous carbon regulation mechanisms leads to the expansion of productive capacity and chemical variety. This review discusses the recent progress in metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for biofuel and bulk chemical production since 2014.

  9. Cyanobacterial chassis engineering for enhancing production of biofuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xinyan; Sun, Tao; Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-04-01

    To reduce dependence on fossil fuels and curb greenhouse effect, cyanobacteria have emerged as an important chassis candidate for producing biofuels and chemicals due to their capability to directly utilize sunlight and CO2 as the sole energy and carbon sources, respectively. Recent progresses in developing and applying various synthetic biology tools have led to the successful constructions of novel pathways of several dozen green fuels and chemicals utilizing cyanobacterial chassis. Meanwhile, it is increasingly recognized that in order to enhance productivity of the synthetic cyanobacterial systems, optimizing and engineering more robust and high-efficient cyanobacterial chassis should not be omitted. In recent years, numerous research studies have been conducted to enhance production of green fuels and chemicals through cyanobacterial chassis modifications involving photosynthesis, CO2 uptake and fixation, products exporting, tolerance, and cellular regulation. In this article, we critically reviewed recent progresses and universal strategies in cyanobacterial chassis engineering to make it more robust and effective for bio-chemicals production.

  10. Synthesis of chemicals by metabolic engineering of microbes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xinxiao; Shen, Xiaolin; Jain, Rachit; Lin, Yuheng; Wang, Jian; Sun, Jing; Wang, Jia; Yan, Yajun; Yuan, Qipeng

    2015-06-07

    Metabolic engineering is a powerful tool for the sustainable production of chemicals. Over the years, the exploration of microbial, animal and plant metabolism has generated a wealth of valuable genetic information. The prudent application of this knowledge on cellular metabolism and biochemistry has enabled the construction of novel metabolic pathways that do not exist in nature or enhance existing ones. The hand in hand development of computational technology, protein science and genetic manipulation tools has formed the basis of powerful emerging technologies that make the production of green chemicals and fuels a reality. Microbial production of chemicals is more feasible compared to plant and animal systems, due to simpler genetic make-up and amenable growth rates. Here, we summarize the recent progress in the synthesis of biofuels, value added chemicals, pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals via metabolic engineering of microbes.

  11. Problem-based learning biotechnology courses in chemical engineering.

    PubMed

    Glatz, Charles E; Gonzalez, Ramon; Huba, Mary E; Mallapragada, Surya K; Narasimhan, Balaji; Reilly, Peter J; Saunders, Kevin P; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a series of upper undergraduate/graduate lecture and laboratory courses on biotechnological topics to supplement existing biochemical engineering, bioseparations, and biomedical engineering lecture courses. The laboratory courses are based on problem-based learning techniques, featuring two- and three-person teams, journaling, and performance rubrics for guidance and assessment. Participants initially have found them to be difficult, since they had little experience with problem-based learning. To increase enrollment, we are combining the laboratory courses into 2-credit groupings and allowing students to substitute one of them for the second of our 2-credit chemical engineering unit operations laboratory courses.

  12. A Chemical Engineer's Perspective on Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2014-12-04

    Chemical process systems engineering considers complex supply chains which are coupled networks of dynamically interacting systems. The quest to optimize the supply chain while meeting robustness and flexibility constraints in the face of ever changing environments necessitated the development of theoretical and computational tools for the analysis, synthesis and design of such complex engineered architectures. However, it was realized early on that optimality is a complex characteristic required to achieve proper balance between multiple, often competing, objectives. As we begin to unravel life's intricate complexities, we realize that that living systems share similar structural and dynamic characteristics; hence much can be learned about biological complexity from engineered systems. In this article, we draw analogies between concepts in process systems engineering and conceptual models of health and disease; establish connections between these concepts and physiologic modeling; and describe how these mirror onto the physiological counterparts of engineered systems.

  13. A Chemical Engineer's Perspective on Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Androulakis, Ioannis P.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical process systems engineering considers complex supply chains which are coupled networks of dynamically interacting systems. The quest to optimize the supply chain while meeting robustness and flexibility constraints in the face of ever changing environments necessitated the development of theoretical and computational tools for the analysis, synthesis and design of such complex engineered architectures. However, it was realized early on that optimality is a complex characteristic required to achieve proper balance between multiple, often competing, objectives. As we begin to unravel life's intricate complexities, we realize that that living systems share similar structural and dynamic characteristics; hence much can be learned about biological complexity from engineered systems. In this article, we draw analogies between concepts in process systems engineering and conceptual models of health and disease; establish connections between these concepts and physiologic modeling; and describe how these mirror onto the physiological counterparts of engineered systems. PMID:25506103

  14. Acceptance Testing of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Engineering Development Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Kliss, Mark; Tleimat, Maher; Quinn, Gregory; Fort, James; Nalette, Tim; Baker, Gale

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the results of acceptance testing of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) technology. The VPCAR technology is currently being developed by NASA as a Mars transit vehicle water recycling system. NASA has recently completed a grant to develop a next generation VPCAR system. This grant was peer reviewed and funded through the Advanced Life Support (ALS) National Research Announcement (NRA). The grant funded a contract with Water Reuse Technology Inc. to construct an engineering development unit. This contract concluded with the shipment of the final deliverable to NASA on 8/31/03. The objective of the acceptance testing was to characterize the performance of this new system. This paper presents the results of mass power, and volume measurements for the delivered system. In addition, product water purity analysis for a Mars transit mission and a planetary base wastewater ersatz are provided. Acoustic noise levels, interface specifications and system reliability results are also discussed. An assessment of the readiness of the technology for human testing and recommendations for future improvements are provided.

  15. Acceptance Testing of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Engineering Development Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Kliss, Mark; Tleimat, Maher; Quinn, Gregory; Fort, James; Nalette, Tim; Baker, Gale

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the results of acceptance testing of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) technology. The VPCAR technology is currently being developed by NASA as a Mars transit vehicle water recycling system. NASA has recently completed a grant to develop a next generation VPCAR system. This grant was peer reviewed and funded through the Advanced Life Support (ALS) National Research Announcement (NRA). The grant funded a contract with Water Reuse Technology Inc. to construct an engineering development unit. This contract concluded with the shipment of the final deliverable to NASA on 8/31/03. The objective of the acceptance testing was to characterize the performance of this new system. This paper presents the results of mass power, and volume measurements for the delivered system. In addition, product water purity analysis for a Mars transit mission and a planetary base wastewater ersatz are provided. Acoustic noise levels, interface specifications and system reliability results are also discussed. An assessment of the readiness of the technology for human testing and recommendations for future improvements are provided.

  16. Chemical Engineering Division research highlights, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, L.; Webster, D. S.; Barney, D. L.; Cafasso, F. A.; Steindler, M. J.

    1980-06-01

    In 1979, CEN conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) high-temperature, rechargeable lithium/iron sulfide batteries for electric vehicles and electric utility load leveling; (2) ambient-temperature batteries - improved lead-acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron - for electric vehicles; (3) molten carbonate fuel cells for use by electric utilities; (4) coal technology - mainly fluidized-bed combustion of coal in the presence of SO/sub 2/ sorbent of limestone; (5) heat- and seed- recovery technology for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic systems; (6) solar energy collectors and thermal energy storage; (7) fast breeder reactor chemistry research - chemical support of reactor safety studies, chemistry of irradiated fuels, and sodium technology; (8) fuel cycle technology - reprocessing of nuclear fuels, management of nuclear wastes, geologic migration studies, and proof-of-breeding studies for the Light Water Breeder Reactor; (9) magnetic fusion research - lithium processing technology and materials research; and (10) basic energy sciences - homogeneous catalysis, thermodynamics of inorganic and organic materials, environmental chemistry, electrochemistry, and physical properties of salt vapors. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of these areas.

  17. Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis.

  18. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

  19. Introducing Water-Treatment Subjects into Chemical Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caceres, L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Proposes that inclusion of waste water treatment subjects within the chemical engineering curriculum can provide students with direct access to environmental issues from both a biotechnological and an ethical perspective. The descriptive details of water recycling at a copper plant and waste water stabilization ponds exemplify this approach from…

  20. Problem-Based Learning for Large Classes in Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Donald R.

    1996-01-01

    Two McMaster University (Canada) chemical engineering courses enrolling 30-50 students incorporate problem-based learning (PBL). Issues addressed in implementation included overcoming faculty and student resistance, integrating PBL methods within a predominantly conventional curriculum, developing PBL problems and objectives, and using tutorless…

  1. Application of Plagiarism Screening Software in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Matthew E.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is an area of increasing concern for written ChE assignments, such as laboratory and design reports, due to ease of access to text and other materials via the internet. This study examines the application of plagiarism screening software to four courses in a university chemical engineering curriculum. The effectiveness of plagiarism…

  2. Application of Plagiarism Screening Software in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Matthew E.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is an area of increasing concern for written ChE assignments, such as laboratory and design reports, due to ease of access to text and other materials via the internet. This study examines the application of plagiarism screening software to four courses in a university chemical engineering curriculum. The effectiveness of plagiarism…

  3. Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudukovic, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) as the discipline that quantifies the interplay of transport phenomena and kinetics in relating reactor performance to operating conditions and input variables. Addresses the current status of CRE in both academic and industrial settings and outlines future trends. (TW)

  4. Exploring Simulator Use in the Preparation of Chemical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerrick, Randy; Lund, Carl; Lee, Yonghee

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript, we report the impact of students' usage of a simulator in the preparation of chemical engineers. This case study was conducted using content pretest and posttests, survey questionnaires, interviews, classroom observations, and an analysis of students' written response to design problems. Results showed the use of simulator was…

  5. Incorporating Computational Chemistry into the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    A graduate-level computational chemistry course was designed and developed and carried out in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Worcester Polytechnic Institute in the Fall of 2005. The thrust of the course was a reaction assignment that led students through a series of steps, beginning with energetic predictions based upon fundamental…

  6. TUTCHE - A Program Package for Tutoring Chemical Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainthorp, F. P.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Hardware, software, and operation of a computer package for tutoring chemical engineers is discussed. TUTCHE controls/records use of various student programs, organizing data/results in files on exit so they may be reliably retrieved on re-entry. TUTOR is a separate program allowing a tutor to examine/modify student records held in TUTCHE.…

  7. A Course in Linear Algebra for Chemical Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zygourakis, Kyriacos

    1984-01-01

    The organization and contents of a linear algebra course for chemical engineers are described. The course, which emphasizes both abstraction and application, meets twice a week for two hours and runs largely as a lecture, although active student participation is encouraged by frequent questions from the instructor. (JN)

  8. A Vision of the Chemical Engineering Curriculum of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    A dramatic shift in chemical engineering undergraduate education is envisioned, based on discipline-wide workshop discussions that have taken place over the last two years. Faculty from more than 53 universities and industry representatives from 19 companies participated. Through this process broad consensus has been developed regarding basic…

  9. Group Projects in Chemical Engineering Using a Wiki

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heys, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    Group projects are common in undergraduate chemical engineering course. Wikis are a new medium for group projects because they are Webpages that are edited using the same software used to view the Webpage. Advantages include the ability to record changes made by each individual (helpful for grading), ability to continuously monitor progress, and a…

  10. Teaching Technical Writing in a Lab Course in Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardo, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Techniques are presented for improving the technical writing of chemical engineering students enrolled in an undergraduate laboratory course. The principles of writing covered are adopted from the book, Style: Lessons in Clarity and Grace, by Joseph M. Williams: General examples of writing are taken from this book and then are recast into examples…

  11. Introducing Water-Treatment Subjects into Chemical Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caceres, L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Proposes that inclusion of waste water treatment subjects within the chemical engineering curriculum can provide students with direct access to environmental issues from both a biotechnological and an ethical perspective. The descriptive details of water recycling at a copper plant and waste water stabilization ponds exemplify this approach from…

  12. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

  13. Incorporating Computational Chemistry into the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    A graduate-level computational chemistry course was designed and developed and carried out in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Worcester Polytechnic Institute in the Fall of 2005. The thrust of the course was a reaction assignment that led students through a series of steps, beginning with energetic predictions based upon fundamental…

  14. Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudukovic, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) as the discipline that quantifies the interplay of transport phenomena and kinetics in relating reactor performance to operating conditions and input variables. Addresses the current status of CRE in both academic and industrial settings and outlines future trends. (TW)

  15. Topological engineering of glass for modulating chemical state of dopants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shifeng; Guo, Qiangbing; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Ye, Qun; Masuno, Atsunobu; Zheng, Binbin; Yu, Yongze; Qiu, Jianrong

    2014-12-17

    A novel approach to modulating the chemical state of dopants by engineering the topological features of a glass matrix is presented. The method allows selective stabilization of dopants on a wide range of length scales, from dispersed ions to aggregated clusters to nanoparticles, leading to various intriguing optical phenomena, such as great emission enhancement and ultra-broadband optical amplification.

  16. Approaches to Learning in a Second Year Chemical Engineering Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Jennifer M.; Gunstone, Richard F.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates student approaches to learning in a second year chemical engineering course by means of a qualitative research project which utilized interview and journal data from a group of 11 students. Identifies three approaches to learning: (1) conceptual; (2) algorithmic; and (3) information-based. Presents student responses to a series of…

  17. Hazardous Waste Processing in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorland, Dianne; Baria, Dorab N.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a sequence of two courses included in the chemical engineering program at the University of Minnesota, Duluth that deal with the processing of hazardous wastes. Covers course content and structure, and discusses developments in pollution prevention and waste management that led to the addition of these courses to the curriculum.…

  18. Microfluidics and Microfabrication in a Chemical Engineering Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Shivaun D.

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidics, the manipulation of fluids in channels with micron dimensions, has emerged as an exciting new field that impacts the broad area of nano/microtechnology. This is an important area to train the next generation of chemical engineers. This paper describes an experiment where students are given a problem to design a microfluidic mixer…

  19. Hazardous Waste Processing in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorland, Dianne; Baria, Dorab N.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a sequence of two courses included in the chemical engineering program at the University of Minnesota, Duluth that deal with the processing of hazardous wastes. Covers course content and structure, and discusses developments in pollution prevention and waste management that led to the addition of these courses to the curriculum.…

  20. Teaching Technical Writing in a Lab Course in Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardo, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Techniques are presented for improving the technical writing of chemical engineering students enrolled in an undergraduate laboratory course. The principles of writing covered are adopted from the book, Style: Lessons in Clarity and Grace, by Joseph M. Williams: General examples of writing are taken from this book and then are recast into examples…

  1. Exploring Simulator Use in the Preparation of Chemical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerrick, Randy; Lund, Carl; Lee, Yonghee

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript, we report the impact of students' usage of a simulator in the preparation of chemical engineers. This case study was conducted using content pretest and posttests, survey questionnaires, interviews, classroom observations, and an analysis of students' written response to design problems. Results showed the use of simulator was…

  2. A Course in Teaching Time Series to Chemical Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, B. P.; Jutan, A.

    1985-01-01

    A one-month graduate course on time series analysis is offered in the department of chemical engineering at the University of Queensland (Australia). Describes the course, which is based on an interactive graphics time series identification and modelling computer package (TSIM). Also describes time-series analysis procedure and the TSIM package.…

  3. Microfluidics and Microfabrication in a Chemical Engineering Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Shivaun D.

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidics, the manipulation of fluids in channels with micron dimensions, has emerged as an exciting new field that impacts the broad area of nano/microtechnology. This is an important area to train the next generation of chemical engineers. This paper describes an experiment where students are given a problem to design a microfluidic mixer…

  4. Pretest uncertainty analysis for chemical rocket engine tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1987-01-01

    A parametric pretest uncertainty analysis has been performed for a chemical rocket engine test at a unique 1000:1 area ratio altitude test facility. Results from the parametric study provide the error limits required in order to maintain a maximum uncertainty of 1 percent on specific impulse. Equations used in the uncertainty analysis are presented.

  5. Interactive Graphics in CAD/CAI in Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, D. R.

    This paper describes the development of a software program which incorporates interactive graphics techniques into a teaching and research environment at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Technion, Israel, and the experience of transferring the software from mainframe to personal computer (PC) operating systems at the California Institute of…

  6. A Vision of the Chemical Engineering Curriculum of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    A dramatic shift in chemical engineering undergraduate education is envisioned, based on discipline-wide workshop discussions that have taken place over the last two years. Faculty from more than 53 universities and industry representatives from 19 companies participated. Through this process broad consensus has been developed regarding basic…

  7. Metabolic engineering of yeast for production of fuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jens; Larsson, Christer; van Maris, Antonius; Pronk, Jack

    2013-06-01

    Microbial production of fuels and chemicals from renewable carbohydrate feedstocks offers sustainable and economically attractive alternatives to their petroleum-based production. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae offers many advantages as a platform cell factory for such applications. Already applied on a huge scale for bioethanol production, this yeast is easy to genetically engineer, its physiology, metabolism and genetics have been intensively studied and its robustness enables it to handle harsh industrial conditions. Introduction of novel pathways and optimization of its native cellular processes by metabolic engineering are rapidly expanding its range of cell-factory applications. Here we review recent scientific progress in metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for the production of bioethanol, advanced biofuels, and chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Curriculum Assessment as a Direct Tool in ABET Outcomes Assessment in a Chemical Engineering Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Attar, Hazim

    2010-01-01

    The chemical engineering programme at the United Arab Emirates University is designed to fulfil the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) (A-K) EC2000 criteria. The Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering has established a well-defined process for outcomes assessment for the chemical engineering programme in order to…

  9. The History of Chemical Engineering and Pedagogy: The Paradox of Tradition and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankat, Phillip C.

    2009-01-01

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology started the first US chemical engineering program six score years ago. Since that time, the chemical engineering curriculum has evolved. The latest versions of the curriculum are attempts to broaden chemical engineering to add product engineering, biology and nanotechnology to the traditional process…

  10. The History of Chemical Engineering and Pedagogy: The Paradox of Tradition and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankat, Phillip C.

    2009-01-01

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology started the first US chemical engineering program six score years ago. Since that time, the chemical engineering curriculum has evolved. The latest versions of the curriculum are attempts to broaden chemical engineering to add product engineering, biology and nanotechnology to the traditional process…

  11. Curriculum Assessment as a Direct Tool in ABET Outcomes Assessment in a Chemical Engineering Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Attar, Hazim

    2010-01-01

    The chemical engineering programme at the United Arab Emirates University is designed to fulfil the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) (A-K) EC2000 criteria. The Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering has established a well-defined process for outcomes assessment for the chemical engineering programme in order to…

  12. Helium Accepts Back-Donation In Highly Polar Complexes: New Insights into the Weak Chemical Bond.

    PubMed

    Nunzi, Francesca; Cesario, Diego; Pirani, Fernando; Belpassi, Leonardo; Frenking, Gernot; Grandinetti, Felice; Tarantelli, Francesco

    2017-07-20

    We studied the puzzling stability and short distances predicted by theory for helium adducts with some highly polar molecules, such as BeO or AuF. On the basis of high-level quantum-chemical calculations, we carried out a detailed analysis of the charge displacement occurring upon adduct formation. For the first time we have unambiguously ascertained that helium is able not only to donate electron density, but also, unexpectedly, to accept electron density in the formation of weakly bound adducts with highly polar substrates. The presence of a large dipole moment induces a large electric field at He, which lowers its 2p orbital energy and enables receipt of π electron density. These findings offer unprecedented important clues toward the design and synthesis of stable helium compounds.

  13. Researches on Preliminary Chemical Reactions in Spark-Ignition Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlner, E.

    1943-01-01

    Chemical reactions can demonstrably occur in a fuel-air mixture compressed in the working cylinder of an Otto-cycle (spark ignition) internal-combustion engine even before the charge is ignited by the flame proceeding from the sparking plug. These are the so-called "prelinminary reactions" ("pre-flame" combustion or oxidation), and an exact knowledge of their characteristic development is of great importance for a correct appreciation of the phenomena of engine-knock (detonation), and consequently for its avoidance. Such reactions can be studied either in a working engine cylinder or in a combustion bomb. The first method necessitates a complicated experimental technique, while the second has the disadvantage of enabling only a single reaction to be studied at one time. Consequently, a new series of experiments was inaugurated, conducted in a motored (externally-driven) experimental engine of mixture-compression type, without ignition, the resulting preliminary reactions being detectable and measurable thermometrically.

  14. Genetic engineering and chemical conjugation of potato virus X.

    PubMed

    Lee, Karin L; Uhde-Holzem, Kerstin; Fischer, Rainer; Commandeur, Ulrich; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the genetic engineering and chemical modification of potato virus X (PVX) for the presentation of various peptides, proteins, and fluorescent dyes, or other chemical modifiers. Three different ways of genetic engineering are described and by these means, peptides are successfully expressed not only when the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A sequence or a flexible glycine-serine linker is included, but also when the peptide is fused directly to the PVX coat protein. When larger proteins or unfavorable peptide sequences are presented, a partial fusion via the FMDV 2A sequence is preferable. When these PVX chimeras retain the ability to assemble into viral particles and are thus able to infect plants systemically, they can be utilized to inoculate susceptible plants for isolation of sufficient amounts of virus particles for subsequent chemical modification. Chemical modification is required for the display of nonbiological ligands such as fluorophores, polymers, and small drug compounds. We present three methods of chemical bioconjugation. For direct conjugation of small chemical modifiers to solvent exposed lysines, N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry can be applied. Bio-orthogonal reactions such as copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition or hydrazone ligation are alternatives to achieve more efficient conjugation (e.g., when working with high molecular weight or insoluble ligands). Furthermore, hydrazone ligation offers an attractive route for the introduction of pH-cleavable cargos (e.g., therapeutic molecules).

  15. Chemical engineering challenges and investment opportunities in sustainable energy.

    PubMed

    Heller, Adam

    2008-01-01

    The chemical and energy industries are transforming as they adjust to the new era of high-priced petroleum and severe global warming. As a result of the transformation, engineering challenges and investment opportunities abound. Rapid evolution and fast growth are expected in cathode and anode materials as well as polymeric electrolytes for vehicular batteries and in high-performance polymer-ceramic composites for wind turbines, fuel-efficient aircraft, and lighter and safer cars. Unique process-engineering opportunities exist in sand-oil, coal, and possibly also shale liquefaction to produce transportation fuel; and also in genetic engineering of photosynthesizing plants and other organisms for their processing into high-performance biodegradable polymers and high-value-added environmentally friendly chemicals. Also, research on the feasibility of mitigation of global warming through enhancement of CO(2) uptake by the southern oceans by fertilization with trace amounts of iron is progressing. Because chemical engineers are uniquely well trained in mathematical modeling of mass transport, flow, and mixing, and also in cost analysis, they are likely to join the oceanographers and marine biologists in this important endeavor.

  16. The applicability of chemical alternatives assessment for engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Rune; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Jacobs, Molly; Tickner, Joel; Ellenbecker, Michael; Baun, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The use of alternatives assessment to substitute hazardous chemicals with inherently safer options is gaining momentum worldwide as a legislative and corporate strategy to minimize consumer, occupational, and environmental risks. Engineered nanomaterials represent an interesting case for alternatives assessment approaches, because they can be considered both emerging "chemicals" of concern, as well as potentially safer alternatives to hazardous chemicals. However, comparing the hazards of nanomaterials to traditional chemicals or to other nanomaterials is challenging, and critical elements in chemical hazard and exposure assessment may have to be fundamentally altered to sufficiently address nanomaterials. The aim of this paper is to assess the overall applicability of alternatives assessment methods for nanomaterials and to outline recommendations to enhance their use in this context. The present paper focuses on the adaptability of existing hazard and exposure assessment approaches to engineered nanomaterials as well as strategies to design inherently safer nanomaterials. We argue that alternatives assessment for nanomaterials is complicated by the sheer number of nanomaterials possible. As a result, the inclusion of new data tools that can efficiently and effectively evaluate nanomaterials as substitutes is needed to strengthen the alternatives assessment process. However, we conclude that with additional tools to enhance traditional hazard and exposure assessment modules of alternatives assessment, such as the use of mechanistic toxicity screens and control banding tools, alternatives assessment can be adapted to evaluate engineered nanomaterials as potential substitutes for chemicals of concern and to ensure safer nanomaterials are incorporated in the design of new products. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:177-187. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. Quantum Chemical Studies on Electron-Accepting Overcrowded Ethylene with a Polarizable Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Tada, Tsukasa; Fukushima, Takanori; Hada, Masahiko; Majima, Yutaka

    2017-10-12

    We report the quantum chemical studies on the neutral and radical anion forms of an electron-accepting overcrowded ethylene (OCE1) featuring a highly polarizable skeleton based on the density functional theory (DFT) approach using the M06-2X hybrid functional. Calculated results indicate that OCE1 (bis{4H,8H-4-(dicyanomethylene)benzo[1,2-c:4,5-c']bis[1,2,5]thiadiazol-8-ylidene}) shows conformational behaviors and energetics similar to those of bianthrone (OCE2), a typical thermochromic overcrowded ethylene. Neutral OCE1 and its radical anion have antifolded (afOCE1) and twisted (tOCE1) isomers on their potential energy surfaces. The calculated isomerization barrier heights of OCE1 and its radical anion are considerably low, indicating that its conformation is susceptible to interactions with surrounding molecules. While two afOCE1 molecules can form a simple π-stacked dimer, tOCE1 tends to be converted to afOCE1 when the two tOCE1 molecules come close together, indicating the instability of tOCE1 in the homogeneous OCE1 solid state. The thermochromic behavior difference between OCE1 and OCE2 in solution is closely associated with the considerably small energy difference between the afOCE1 and the tOCE1 as compared with OCE2. The properties of OCE1 are also compared with other typical electron-accepting overcrowded ethylenes in terms of electronic structure, energetics, and conformational behaviors.

  18. Regulatory acceptability of the minipig in the development of pharmaceuticals, chemicals and other products.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, Jan Willem; Brightwell, John; McAnulty, Peter; Ratky, Joszef; Stark, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    As part of the RETHINK European FP6 Project an overview of the acceptability and usefulness of minipigs has been carried out in the regulatory arenas of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, food additives, cosmetics, biocides and agrochemicals, chemicals and medical devices. The safety of new pharmaceuticals for human use should be tested in non-rodents, but the regulatory world is not too prescriptive regarding the choice of species. The choice is most often dogs through long tradition. When dogs are not appropriate, in many cases non-human primates are chosen as an alternative. From information in the public domain as well as literature from the EMA and FDA, it is clear that minipigs have already been identified as suitable to take the role of non-rodent species in toxicity testing of pharmaceutical products. In the field of foodstuffs, the pig is used more extensively because of the apparent similarity in the omnivorous food pattern and digestive tract between humans and pigs. The extensive use of pigs in this field provides historical data. In the field of medical devices the ISO Guidelines indicate that the pig is regarded as a suitable animal model because of its haematological and cardiovascular similarities to man. The pig is also mentioned as suitable for testing local effects after implantation. Political and societal support for using nonhuman primates is decreasing, and it is an appropriate time to consider the role of the minipig. We have reviewed the costs of testing in minipigs, and these are not significantly higher than the costs for a study in dogs. Economical reasons should therefore not be used to argue against the use of minipigs instead of dogs or monkeys. For most purposes, minipigs may be considered an acceptable choice as non-rodent species, provided adequate justification for this choice is made. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. RH-TRU Waste Characterization by Acceptable Knowledge at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, C.; Givens, C.; Bhatt, R.; Whitworth, J.

    2003-02-24

    Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is conducting an effort to characterize approximately 620 drums of remote-handled (RH-) transuranic (TRU) waste currently in its inventory that were generated at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) Alpha Gamma Hot Cell Facility (AGHCF) between 1971 and 1995. The waste was generated at the AGHCF during the destructive examination of irradiated and unirradiated fuel pins, targets, and other materials from reactor programs at ANL-West (ANL-W) and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors. In support of this effort, Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure (formerly IT Corporation) developed an acceptable knowledge (AK) collection and management program based on existing contact-handled (CH)-TRU waste program requirements and proposed RH-TRU waste program requirements in effect in July 2001. Consistent with Attachments B-B6 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) and th e proposed Class 3 permit modification (Attachment R [RH-WAP] of this permit), the draft AK Summary Report prepared under the AK procedure describes the waste generating process and includes determinations in the following areas based on AK: physical form (currently identified at the Waste Matrix Code level); waste stream delineation; applicability of hazardous waste numbers for hazardous waste constituents; and prohibited items. In addition, the procedure requires and the draft summary report contains information supporting determinations in the areas of defense relationship and radiological characterization.

  20. Atomic layer engineering of perovskite oxides for chemically sharp heterointerfaces.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo Seok; Rouleau, Christopher M; Seo, Sung Seok A; Luo, Zhenlin; Zhou, Hua; Fister, Timothy T; Eastman, Jeffrey A; Fuoss, Paul H; Fong, Dillon D; Tischler, Jonathan Z; Eres, Gyula; Chisholm, Matthew F; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2012-12-18

    Atomic layer engineering enables fabrication of a chemically sharp oxide heterointerface. The interface formation and strain evolution during the initial growth of LaAlO(3) /SrTiO(3) heterostructures by pulsed laser deposition are investigated in search of a means for controlling the atomic-sharpness of the interface. This study shows that inserting a monolayer of LaAlO(3) grown at high oxygen pressure dramatically enhances interface abruptness.

  1. Sign control of magnetoresistance through chemically engineered interfaces.

    PubMed

    Ciudad, David; Gobbi, Marco; Kinane, Christy J; Eich, Marius; Moodera, Jagadeesh S; Hueso, Luis E

    2014-12-03

    Chemically engineered interfaces are shown to produce inversions of the magnetoresistance in spintronic devices including lithium fluoride interlayers. This behavior is explained by the formation of anti-ferromagnetic difluoride layers. By changing the order of deposition of the different materials, the sign of the magnetoresistance can be deterministically controlled both in organic spin valves and in inorganic magnetic tunnel junctions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Tracing insights into human metabolism using chemical engineering approaches.

    PubMed

    Cordes, Thekla; Metallo, Christian M

    2016-11-01

    Metabolism coordinates the conversion of available nutrients toward energy, biosynthetic intermediates, and signaling molecules to mediate virtually all biological functions. Dysregulation of metabolic pathways contributes to many diseases, so a detailed understanding of human metabolism has significant therapeutic implications. Over the last decade major technological advances in the areas of analytical chemistry, computational estimation of intracellular fluxes, and biological engineering have improved our ability to observe and engineer metabolic pathways. These approaches are reminiscent of the design, operation, and control of industrial chemical plants. Immune cells have emerged as an intriguing system in which metabolism influences diverse biological functions. Application of metabolic flux analysis and related approaches to macrophages and T cells offers great therapeutic opportunities to biochemical engineers.

  3. A New Venture in Graduate Education: Co-Op Ph.D. Programme in Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahidy, Thomas Z.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a cooperative Ph.D. program at the University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, in which industrial and governmental employers participate with the Department of Chemical Engineering in training chemical engineers. (CS)

  4. A New Venture in Graduate Education: Co-Op Ph.D. Programme in Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahidy, Thomas Z.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a cooperative Ph.D. program at the University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, in which industrial and governmental employers participate with the Department of Chemical Engineering in training chemical engineers. (CS)

  5. Transferring Knowledge: A Parallel between Teaching Chemical Engineering and Developing Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, P. R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are expert systems development and teaching, the representation and processing of knowledge, knowledge representation in chemical engineering, and expert systems in chemical engineering. The seven phases of expert system development are illustrated. (CW)

  6. Women in biomedical engineering and health informatics and its impact on gender representation for accepted publications at IEEE EMBC 2007.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Carolyn; Smith, Kathleen P; Percival, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The study of women within the professions of Engineering and Computer Science has consistently been found to demonstrate women as a minority within these professions. However none of that previous work has assessed publication behaviours based on gender. This paper presents research findings on gender distribution of authors of accepted papers for the IEEE Engineering and Medicine Society annual conference for 2007 (EMBC '07) held in Lyon, France. This information is used to present a position statement of the current state of gender representation for conference publication within the domain of biomedical engineering and health informatics. Issues in data preparation resulting from the lack of inclusion of gender in information gathered from accepted authors are presented and discussed.

  7. Engineering Education: Environmental and Chemical Engineering or Technology Curricula--A European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glavic, Peter; Lukman, Rebeka; Lozano, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Over recent years, universities have been incorporating sustainable development (SD) into their systems, including their curricula. This article analyses the incorporation of SD into the curricula of chemical and environmental engineering or technology bachelor degrees at universities in the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association…

  8. Engineering Education: Environmental and Chemical Engineering or Technology Curricula--A European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glavic, Peter; Lukman, Rebeka; Lozano, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Over recent years, universities have been incorporating sustainable development (SD) into their systems, including their curricula. This article analyses the incorporation of SD into the curricula of chemical and environmental engineering or technology bachelor degrees at universities in the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association…

  9. Metabolic engineering is key to a sustainable chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Annabel C

    2011-08-01

    The depletion of fossil fuel stocks will prohibit their use as the main feedstock of future industrial processes. Biocatalysis is being increasingly used to reduce fossil fuel reliance and to improve the sustainability, efficiency and cost of chemical production. Even with their current small market share, biocatalyzed processes already generate approximately US$50 billion and it has been estimated that they could be used to produce up to 20% of fine chemicals by 2020. Until the advent of molecular biological technologies, the compounds that were readily accessible from renewable biomass were restricted to naturally-occurring metabolites. However, metabolic engineering has considerably broadened the range of compounds now accessible, providing access to compounds that cannot be otherwise reliably sourced, as well as replacing established chemical processes. This review presents the case for continued efforts to promote the adoption of biocatalyzed processes, highlighting successful examples of industrial chemical production from biomass and/or via biocatalyzed processes. A selection of emerging technologies that may further extend the potential and sustainability of biocatalysis are also presented. As the field matures, metabolic engineering will be increasingly crucial in maintaining our quality of life into a future where our current resources and feedstocks cannot be relied upon.

  10. Developing acceptance limits for measured bearing wear of the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure oxidizer turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genge, Gary G.

    1991-01-01

    The probabilistic design approach currently receiving attention for structural failure modes has been adapted for obtaining measured bearing wear limits in the Space Shuttle Main Engine high-pressure oxidizer turbopump. With the development of the shaft microtravel measurements to determine bearing health, an acceptance limit was neeed that protects against all known faiure modes yet is not overly conservative. This acceptance criteria limit has been successfully determined using probabilistic descriptions of preflight hardware geometry, empirical bearing wear data, mission requirements, and measurement tool precision as an input for a Monte Carlo simulation. The result of the simulation is a frequency distribution of failures as a function of preflight acceptance limits. When the distribution is converted into a reliability curve, a conscious risk management decision is made concerning the acceptance limit.

  11. Total chemical synthesis of a 77-nucleotide-long RNA sequence having methionine-acceptance activity.

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie, K K; Usman, N; Nicoghosian, K; Cedergren, R J

    1988-01-01

    Chemical synthesis is described of a 77-nucleotide-long RNA molecule that has the sequence of an Escherichia coli Ado-47-containing tRNA(fMet) species in which the modified nucleosides have been substituted by their unmodified parent nucleosides. The sequence was assembled on a solid-phase, controlled-pore glass support in a stepwise manner with an automated DNA synthesizer. The ribonucleotide building blocks used were fully protected 5'-monomethoxytrityl-2'-silyl-3'-N,N-diisopropylaminophosphoram idites. p-Nitro-phenylethyl groups were used to protect the O6 of guanine residues. The fully deprotected tRNA analogue was characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sizing), terminal nucleotide analysis, sequencing, and total enzyme degradation, all of which indicated that the sequence was correct and contained only 3-5 linkages. The 77-mer was then assayed for amino acid acceptor activity by using E. coli methionyl-tRNA synthetase. The results indicated that the synthetic product, lacking modified bases, is a substrate for the enzyme and has an amino acid acceptance 11% of that of the major native species, tRNA(fMet) containing 7-methylguanosine at position 47. Images PMID:3413059

  12. Future of Chemical Engineering: Integrating Biology into the Undergraduate ChE Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosto, Patricia; Savelski, Mariano; Farrell, Stephanie H.; Hecht, Gregory B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrating biology in the chemical engineering curriculum seems to be the future for chemical engineering programs nation and worldwide. Rowan University's efforts to address this need include a unique chemical engineering curriculum with an intensive biology component integrated throughout from freshman to senior years. Freshman and Sophomore…

  13. Improving the Practical Education of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Engineering Majors in Chinese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Feng-qing; Yu, Yi-feng; Ren, Shao-feng; Liu, Shao-jie; Rong, Xin-yu

    2014-01-01

    Practical education in chemical engineering has drawn increasing attention in recent years. This paper discusses two approaches to teaching and learning about experiments among upper-level chemical and pharmaceutical engineering majors in China. On the basis of years of experience in teaching chemical and pharmaceutical engineering, we propose the…

  14. Improving the Practical Education of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Engineering Majors in Chinese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Feng-qing; Yu, Yi-feng; Ren, Shao-feng; Liu, Shao-jie; Rong, Xin-yu

    2014-01-01

    Practical education in chemical engineering has drawn increasing attention in recent years. This paper discusses two approaches to teaching and learning about experiments among upper-level chemical and pharmaceutical engineering majors in China. On the basis of years of experience in teaching chemical and pharmaceutical engineering, we propose the…

  15. Future of Chemical Engineering: Integrating Biology into the Undergraduate ChE Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosto, Patricia; Savelski, Mariano; Farrell, Stephanie H.; Hecht, Gregory B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrating biology in the chemical engineering curriculum seems to be the future for chemical engineering programs nation and worldwide. Rowan University's efforts to address this need include a unique chemical engineering curriculum with an intensive biology component integrated throughout from freshman to senior years. Freshman and Sophomore…

  16. Showcasing Chemical Engineering Principles through the Production of Biodiesel from Spent Coffee Grounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendall, Sophie; Birdsall-Wilson, Max; Jenkins, Rhodri; Chew, Y. M. John; Chuck, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical engineering is rarely encountered before higher-level education in the U.S. or in Europe, leaving prospective students unaware of what an applied chemistry or chemical engineering degree entails. In this lab experiment, we report the implementation of a three-day course to showcase chemical engineering principles for 16-17 year olds…

  17. Showcasing Chemical Engineering Principles through the Production of Biodiesel from Spent Coffee Grounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendall, Sophie; Birdsall-Wilson, Max; Jenkins, Rhodri; Chew, Y. M. John; Chuck, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical engineering is rarely encountered before higher-level education in the U.S. or in Europe, leaving prospective students unaware of what an applied chemistry or chemical engineering degree entails. In this lab experiment, we report the implementation of a three-day course to showcase chemical engineering principles for 16-17 year olds…

  18. Engineered ion channels as emerging tools for chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Michael; Yang, Jerry

    2013-12-17

    Over the last 25 years, researchers have developed exogenously expressed, genetically engineered, semi-synthetic, and entirely synthetic ion channels. These structures have sufficient fidelity to serve as unique tools that can reveal information about living organisms. One of the most exciting success stories is optogenetics: the use of light-gated channels to trigger action potentials in specific neurons combined with studies of the response from networks of cells or entire live animals. Despite this breakthrough, the use of molecularly engineered ion channels for studies of biological systems is still in its infancy. Historically, researchers studied ion channels in the context of their own function in single cells or in multicellular signaling and regulation. Only recently have researchers considered ion channels and pore-forming peptides as responsive tools to report on the chemical and physical changes produced by other biochemical processes and reactions. This emerging class of molecular probes has a number of useful characteristics. For instance, these structures can greatly amplify the signal of chemical changes: the binding of one molecule to a ligand-gated ion channel can result in flux of millions of ions across a cell membrane. In addition, gating occurs on sub-microsecond time scales, resulting in fast response times. Moreover, the signal is complementary to existing techniques because the output is ionic current rather than fluorescence or radioactivity. And finally, ion channels are also localized at the membrane of cells where essential processes such as signaling and regulation take place. This Account highlights examples, mostly from our own work, of uses of ion channels and pore-forming peptides such as gramicidin in chemical biology. We discuss various strategies for preparing synthetically tailored ion channels that range from de novo designed synthetic molecules to genetically engineered or simply exogenously expressed or reconstituted wild

  19. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering Programme in Ghana: Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering…

  20. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering Programme in Ghana: Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering…

  1. 78 FR 56692 - Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit... August 20, 2013, Albany Engineering Corporation (Albany Engineering) filed an application for a... surface area of 2,750 acres at a normal water surface elevation of 101.1 feet mean sea level by lowering...

  2. Holographic black hole engineering at finite baryon chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rougemont, Romulo

    2017-04-01

    This is a contribution for the Proceedings of the Conference Hot Quarks 2016, held at South Padre Island, Texas, USA, 12-17 September 2016. I briefly review some thermodynamic and baryon transport results obtained from a bottom-up Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton holographic model engineered to describe the physics of the quark-gluon plasma at finite temperature and baryon density. The results for the equation of state, baryon susceptibilities, and the curvature of the crossover band are in quantitative agreement with the corresponding lattice QCD results with 2 + 1 flavors and physical quark masses. Baryon diffusion is predicted to be suppressed by increasing the baryon chemical potential.

  3. Exploring Simulator Use in the Preparation of Chemical Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerrick, Randy; Lund, Carl; Lee, Yonghee

    2013-06-01

    In this manuscript, we report the impact of students' usage of a simulator in the preparation of chemical engineers. This case study was conducted using content pretest and posttests, survey questionnaires, interviews, classroom observations, and an analysis of students' written response to design problems. Results showed the use of simulator was associated with increases in students' scores, but the novelty of innovation was not the single explanation for increased achievement. Additional findings included the appropriation of argument norms from verbal class participation into written responses for design problems. Implications for teaching and future research are discussed.

  4. Chemical and Bandgap Engineering in Monolayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ba, Kun; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Jingxin; Bao, Jingxian; Xuan, Ningning; Sun, Yangye; Liu, Bing; Xie, Aozhen; Wu, Shiwei; Sun, Zhengzong

    2017-04-01

    Monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) possesses a wide bandgap of ~6 eV. Trimming down the bandgap is technically attractive, yet poses remarkable challenges in chemistry. One strategy is to topological reform the h-BN’s hexagonal structure, which involves defects or grain boundaries (GBs) engineering in the basal plane. The other way is to invite foreign atoms, such as carbon, to forge bizarre hybrid structures like hetero-junctions or semiconducting h-BNC materials. Here we successfully developed a general chemical method to synthesize these different h-BN derivatives, showcasing how the chemical structure can be manipulated with or without a graphene precursor, and the bandgap be tuned to ~2 eV, only one third of the pristine one’s.

  5. Chemical and Bandgap Engineering in Monolayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride.

    PubMed

    Ba, Kun; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Jingxin; Bao, Jingxian; Xuan, Ningning; Sun, Yangye; Liu, Bing; Xie, Aozhen; Wu, Shiwei; Sun, Zhengzong

    2017-04-03

    Monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) possesses a wide bandgap of ~6 eV. Trimming down the bandgap is technically attractive, yet poses remarkable challenges in chemistry. One strategy is to topological reform the h-BN's hexagonal structure, which involves defects or grain boundaries (GBs) engineering in the basal plane. The other way is to invite foreign atoms, such as carbon, to forge bizarre hybrid structures like hetero-junctions or semiconducting h-BNC materials. Here we successfully developed a general chemical method to synthesize these different h-BN derivatives, showcasing how the chemical structure can be manipulated with or without a graphene precursor, and the bandgap be tuned to ~2 eV, only one third of the pristine one's.

  6. Chemical and Bandgap Engineering in Monolayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Kun; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Jingxin; Bao, Jingxian; Xuan, Ningning; Sun, Yangye; Liu, Bing; Xie, Aozhen; Wu, Shiwei; Sun, Zhengzong

    2017-01-01

    Monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) possesses a wide bandgap of ~6 eV. Trimming down the bandgap is technically attractive, yet poses remarkable challenges in chemistry. One strategy is to topological reform the h-BN’s hexagonal structure, which involves defects or grain boundaries (GBs) engineering in the basal plane. The other way is to invite foreign atoms, such as carbon, to forge bizarre hybrid structures like hetero-junctions or semiconducting h-BNC materials. Here we successfully developed a general chemical method to synthesize these different h-BN derivatives, showcasing how the chemical structure can be manipulated with or without a graphene precursor, and the bandgap be tuned to ~2 eV, only one third of the pristine one’s. PMID:28367992

  7. Engineering small interfering RNAs by strategic chemical modification.

    PubMed

    Bramsen, Jesper B; Kjems, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have revolutionized functional genomics in mammalian cell cultures due to their reliability, efficiency, and ease of use. This success, however, has not fully translated into siRNA applications in vivo and in siRNA therapeutics where initial optimism has been dampened by a lack of efficient delivery strategies and reports of siRNA off-target effects and immunogenicity. Encouragingly, most aspects of siRNA behavior can be addressed by careful engineering of siRNAs incorporating beneficial chemical modifications into discrete nucleotide positions during siRNA synthesis. Here, we review the literature (Subheadings 1 -3) and provide a quick guide (Subheading 4) to how the performance of siRNA can be improved by chemical modification to suit specific applications in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Engineered Barrier Systems Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    W.E. Lowry

    2001-12-13

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M&O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01.

  9. Engineering microbial chemical factories to produce renewable “biomonomers”

    PubMed Central

    Adkins, Jake; Pugh, Shawn; McKenna, Rebekah; Nielsen, David R.

    2012-01-01

    By applying metabolic engineering tools and strategies to engineer synthetic enzyme pathways, the number and diversity of commodity and specialty chemicals that can be derived directly from renewable feedstocks is rapidly and continually expanding. This of course includes a number of monomer building-block chemicals that can be used to produce replacements to many conventional plastic materials. This review aims to highlight numerous recent and important advancements in the microbial production of these so-called “biomonomers.” Relative to naturally-occurring renewable bioplastics, biomonomers offer several important advantages, including improved control over the final polymer structure and purity, the ability to synthesize non-natural copolymers, and allowing products to be excreted from cells which ultimately streamlines downstream recovery and purification. To highlight these features, a handful of biomonomers have been selected as illustrative examples of recent works, including polyamide monomers, styrenic vinyls, hydroxyacids, and diols. Where appropriate, examples of their industrial penetration to date and end-product uses are also highlighted. Novel biomonomers such as these are ultimately paving the way toward new classes of renewable bioplastics that possess a broader diversity of properties than ever before possible. PMID:22969753

  10. Engineering microbial chemical factories to produce renewable "biomonomers".

    PubMed

    Adkins, Jake; Pugh, Shawn; McKenna, Rebekah; Nielsen, David R

    2012-01-01

    By applying metabolic engineering tools and strategies to engineer synthetic enzyme pathways, the number and diversity of commodity and specialty chemicals that can be derived directly from renewable feedstocks is rapidly and continually expanding. This of course includes a number of monomer building-block chemicals that can be used to produce replacements to many conventional plastic materials. This review aims to highlight numerous recent and important advancements in the microbial production of these so-called "biomonomers." Relative to naturally-occurring renewable bioplastics, biomonomers offer several important advantages, including improved control over the final polymer structure and purity, the ability to synthesize non-natural copolymers, and allowing products to be excreted from cells which ultimately streamlines downstream recovery and purification. To highlight these features, a handful of biomonomers have been selected as illustrative examples of recent works, including polyamide monomers, styrenic vinyls, hydroxyacids, and diols. Where appropriate, examples of their industrial penetration to date and end-product uses are also highlighted. Novel biomonomers such as these are ultimately paving the way toward new classes of renewable bioplastics that possess a broader diversity of properties than ever before possible.

  11. Applications of neural networks in chemical engineering: Hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.; Osborne-Lee, I.W. ); Grizzaffi, P.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Expert systems are known to be useful in capturing expertise and applying knowledge to chemical engineering problems such as diagnosis, process control, process simulation, and process advisory. However, expert system applications are traditionally limited to knowledge domains that are heuristic and involve only simple mathematics. Neural networks, on the other hand, represent an emerging technology capable of rapid recognition of patterned behavior without regard to mathematical complexity. Although useful in problem identification, neural networks are not very efficient in providing in-depth solutions and typically do not promote full understanding of the problem or the reasoning behind its solutions. Hence, applications of neural networks have certain limitations. This paper explores the potential for expanding the scope of chemical engineering areas where neural networks might be utilized by incorporating expert systems and neural networks into the same application, a process called hybridization. In addition, hybrid applications are compared with those using more traditional approaches, the results of the different applications are analyzed, and the feasibility of converting the preliminary prototypes described herein into useful final products is evaluated. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Report of the Polymer Core Course Committee: Polymer Principles for the Chemical Engineering Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Offers suggestions for introducing polymer topics into: (1) introductory chemical engineering; (2) transport phenomena and unit operations; (3) chemical engineering thermodynamics; and (4) reaction engineering. Also included for each area are examples of textbooks in current use and a few typical problems. (JN)

  13. Report of the Polymer Core Course Committee: Polymer Principles for the Chemical Engineering Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Offers suggestions for introducing polymer topics into: (1) introductory chemical engineering; (2) transport phenomena and unit operations; (3) chemical engineering thermodynamics; and (4) reaction engineering. Also included for each area are examples of textbooks in current use and a few typical problems. (JN)

  14. "Human Nature": Chemical Engineering Students' Ideas about Human Relationships with the Natural World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Daphne; Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-01-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The study was…

  15. "Human Nature": Chemical Engineering Students' Ideas about Human Relationships with the Natural World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Daphne; Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-01-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The study was…

  16. Fatigue strength testing employed for evaluation and acceptance of jet-engine instrumentation probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armentrout, E. C.

    1980-01-01

    The fatigue type testing performed on instrumentation rakes and probes intended for use in the air flow passages of jet engines during full scale engine tests is outlined. A discussion of each type of test performed, the results that may be derived and means of inspection is included.

  17. 77 FR 30523 - Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, Albany Engineering Corporation filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section... impoundment having a surface area of 400 acres and a storage capacity of 5,000 acre-feet at the spillway crest...

  18. Physico-chemical properties and acceptability of yam flour substituted with soy flour.

    PubMed

    Akingbala, J O; Oguntimein, G B; Sobande, A O

    1995-07-01

    Yam flour was substituted 10, 20 and 40% with defatted and full fat soy flour. The effect of the substitution on the proximate composition, swelling power, solubility, water binding capacity and Brabender visco amylograph cooking properties of the yam flour and acceptability of the cooked paste (amala), were evaluated. Protein contents of the mixtures were 23.0 and 25.5% on substituting 40% full-and defatted soy flours for yam flour, ash and crude fibre contents increased while carbohydrate content, swelling power, Brabender paste viscosities decreased with increase in soy flour substitution of yam flour. Colour, texture, taste and overall acceptability of pastes (amala) from the mixed flours were rated lower than that of yam flour. Up to 10% defatted and 20% full fat soy flour substitution for yam flour was acceptable for amala.

  19. Engineering an improved acellular nerve graft via optimized chemical processing.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Terry W; Liu, Stephen Y; Schmidt, Christine E

    2004-01-01

    The long-term goal of our research is to engineer an acellular nerve graft for clinical nerve repair and for use as a model system with which to study nerve-extracellular matrix interactions during nerve regeneration. To develop this model acellular nerve graft we (1) examined the effects of detergents on peripheral nerve tissue, and (2) used that knowledge to create a nerve graft devoid of cells with a well-preserved extracellular matrix. Using histochemistry and Western analysis, the impact of each detergent on cellular and extracellular tissue components was determined. An optimized protocol was created with the detergents Triton X-200, sulfobetaine-16, and sulfobetaine-10. This study represents the most comprehensive examination to date of the effects of detergents on peripheral nerve tissue morphology and protein composition. Also presented is an improved chemical decellularization protocol that preserves the internal structure of native nerve more than the predominant current protocol.

  20. Fatigue strength testing employed for evaluation and acceptance of jet-engine instrumentation probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armentrout, E. C.

    1980-03-01

    This report outlines the fatigue type testing performed on instrumentation rakes and probes intended for use in the air flow passages of jet-engines during full-scale engine tests at Lewis Research Center. Included is a discussion of each type of test performed, the results that may be derived and means of inspection. A design and testing sequence outlines the procedures and considerations involved in the generation of suitable instrument probes.

  1. Toxic chemical hazard classification and risk acceptance guidelines for use in DOE facilities. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, D.K.; Davis, J.S.; Prowse, J.; Hoffman, P.W.

    1995-03-24

    The concentration-limit guidelines presented in this document apply to airborne releases of chemicals evaluated with respect to human health effects for the purposes of hazard classification and categorization, risk assessment and safety analysis. They apply to all DOE facilities and operations involving the use of potentially hazardous chemicals. The guidelines do not address other nonradiological hazards such as fire, pressure releases (including explosions), and chemical reactivity, but the guidelines are applicable to hazardous chemical releases resulting from these events. This report presents the subcommittee`s evaluation and recommendations regarding analyses of accidentally released toxic chemicals. The premise upon which these recommendations are based is that the mechanism of action of toxic chemicals is fundamentally different from that associated with radionuclides, with the exception of carcinogens. The recommendations reported herein are restricted to the airborne pathway because in an accident scenario this typically represents the most immediately significant route of public exposure. However, the subcommittee recognizes that exposure to chemicals through other pathways, in particular waterborne, can have significant impacts on human health and the environment. Although there are a number of chemicals for which absorption through the skin can contribute measurably to the total dose in chronic (e.g., occupational) exposure situations, this pathway has not been considered for the acute exposure scenarios considered in this report. Later studies. will address these issues if it appears desirable.

  2. Nanostructure Engineered Chemical Sensors for Hazardous Gas and Vapor Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang

    2005-01-01

    A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and metal oxides nanowires or nanobelts, on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to hazardous gases and vapors, such as acetone, benzene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing in our sensor platform can be understood by electron modulation between the nanostructure engineered device and gas molecules. As a result of the electron modulation, the conductance of nanodevice will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost.

  3. [Generally accepted engineering standards and Legionella in drinking water : findings from Frankfurt am Main].

    PubMed

    Hentschel, W; Heudorf, U

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the association between the engineering standards of drinking water systems and the extent of the Legionella colonization, we subjected our 2006 published data of the drinking water monitoring of the city's public health services for Frankfurt on Main, Germany, to closer analysis. A total of 413 records were available, with both technical data and results of the Legionella colonization. When comparing the classes of technical deficiencies of the drinking water installations with the Legionella colonization results, 93% of the Legionella data "not dedectable in 100 ml" were found in the group of drinking water installations that were technically assessed as "free of deficiencies". Thus, "good" technical engineering is associated with low or lack of Legionella colonization with a high probability even with hints for a dose-effect phenomenon-the more engineering deficiencies that exist, the higher the Legionella contamination.

  4. 46 CFR 50.25-10 - Acceptance of piping components by specific letter or approved plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... manufacture, and complete chemical and mechanical test results with an accepted material specification. (3...) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Acceptance of Material and Piping Components § 50.25-10 Acceptance... approved plan must do the following: (1) Submit an engineering type catalog or representative drawings...

  5. 46 CFR 50.25-10 - Acceptance of piping components by specific letter or approved plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... manufacture, and complete chemical and mechanical test results with an accepted material specification. (3...) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Acceptance of Material and Piping Components § 50.25-10 Acceptance... approved plan must do the following: (1) Submit an engineering type catalog or representative drawings...

  6. Biotechnology for a renewable resources chemicals and fuels industry, biochemical engineering R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Villet, R.H.

    1980-04-01

    To establish an effective biotechnology of biomass processing for the production of fuels and chemicals, an integration of research in biochemical engineering, microbial genetics, and biochemistry is required. Reduction of the costs of producing chemicals and fuels from renewable resources will hinge on extensive research in biochemical engineering.

  7. Peer-Assisted Tutoring in a Chemical Engineering Curriculum: Tutee and Tutor Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieran, Patricia; O'Neill, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Peer-Assisted Tutorials (PATs), a form of Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL), were introduced to a conventional 4-year honours degree programme in Chemical Engineering. PATs were designed to support students in becoming more self-directed in their learning, to develop student confidence in tackling Chemical Engineering problems and to promote effective…

  8. An Introductory Course in Bioengineering and Biotechnology for Chemical Engineering Sophomores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kim C.

    2007-01-01

    Advances in the biological sciences necessitate the training of chemical engineers to translate these fundamental discoveries into applications that will benefit society. Accordingly, Tulane University revised its core chemical engineering curriculum in 2005 to include a new introductory course in bioengineering and biotechnology for sophomores.…

  9. Method of operating a thermal engine powered by a chemical reaction

    DOEpatents

    Ross, John; Escher, Claus

    1988-01-01

    The invention involves a novel method of increasing the efficiency of a thermal engine. Heat is generated by a non-linear chemical reaction of reactants, said heat being transferred to a thermal engine such as Rankine cycle power plant. The novel method includes externally perturbing one or more of the thermodynamic variables of said non-linear chemical reaction.

  10. An Introductory Course in Bioengineering and Biotechnology for Chemical Engineering Sophomores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kim C.

    2007-01-01

    Advances in the biological sciences necessitate the training of chemical engineers to translate these fundamental discoveries into applications that will benefit society. Accordingly, Tulane University revised its core chemical engineering curriculum in 2005 to include a new introductory course in bioengineering and biotechnology for sophomores.…

  11. Appropriate Programs for Foreign Students in U.S. Chemical Engineering Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findley, M. E.

    Chemical engineers in developing countries may need abilities in a number of diverse areas including management, planning, chemistry, equipment, processes, politics, and improvisation. Chemical engineering programs for foreign students can be arranged by informed advisers with student input for inclusion of some of these areas in addition to…

  12. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  13. Method of operating a thermal engine powered by a chemical reaction

    DOEpatents

    Ross, J.; Escher, C.

    1988-06-07

    The invention involves a novel method of increasing the efficiency of a thermal engine. Heat is generated by a non-linear chemical reaction of reactants, said heat being transferred to a thermal engine such as Rankine cycle power plant. The novel method includes externally perturbing one or more of the thermodynamic variables of said non-linear chemical reaction. 7 figs.

  14. Work-Based Higher Degrees: Responding to the Knowledge Needs of Chemical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winberg, Christine

    2007-01-01

    University-workplace partnerships are strategies increasingly called for in higher education. This article reports on collaborative knowledge production between employed professional chemical engineers (registered for higher degrees) and their university-based supervisors (researchers in the field of chemical engineering). The study draws on a…

  15. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  16. Work-Based Higher Degrees: Responding to the Knowledge Needs of Chemical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winberg, Christine

    2007-01-01

    University-workplace partnerships are strategies increasingly called for in higher education. This article reports on collaborative knowledge production between employed professional chemical engineers (registered for higher degrees) and their university-based supervisors (researchers in the field of chemical engineering). The study draws on a…

  17. Engineering Characteristics of Chemically Treated Water-Repellent Kaolin

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youngmin; Choo, Hyunwook; Yun, Tae Sup; Lee, Changho; Lee, Woojin

    2016-01-01

    Water-repellent soils have a potential as alternative construction materials that will improve conventional geotechnical structures. In this study, the potential of chemically treated water-repellent kaolin clay as a landfill cover material is explored by examining its characteristics including hydraulic and mechanical properties. In order to provide water repellency to the kaolin clay, the surface of clay particle is modified with organosilanes in concentrations (CO) ranging from 0.5% to 10% by weight. As the CO increases, the specific gravity of treated clay tends to decrease, whereas the total organic carbon content of the treated clay tends to increase. The soil-water contact angle increases with an increase in CO until CO = 2.5%, and then maintains an almost constant value (≈134.0°). Resistance to water infiltration is improved by organosilane treatment under low hydrostatic pressure. However, water infiltration resistance under high hydrostatic pressure is reduced or exacerbated to the level of untreated clay. The maximum compacted dry weight density decreases with increasing CO. As the CO increases, the small strain shear modulus increases, whereas the effect of organosilane treatment on the constrained modulus is minimal. The results indicate that water-repellent kaolin clay possesses excellent engineering characteristics for a landfill cover material. PMID:28774098

  18. Engineering Characteristics of Chemically Treated Water-Repellent Kaolin.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngmin; Choo, Hyunwook; Yun, Tae Sup; Lee, Changho; Lee, Woojin

    2016-12-02

    Water-repellent soils have a potential as alternative construction materials that will improve conventional geotechnical structures. In this study, the potential of chemically treated water-repellent kaolin clay as a landfill cover material is explored by examining its characteristics including hydraulic and mechanical properties. In order to provide water repellency to the kaolin clay, the surface of clay particle is modified with organosilanes in concentrations (CO) ranging from 0.5% to 10% by weight. As the CO increases, the specific gravity of treated clay tends to decrease, whereas the total organic carbon content of the treated clay tends to increase. The soil-water contact angle increases with an increase in CO until CO = 2.5%, and then maintains an almost constant value (≈134.0°). Resistance to water infiltration is improved by organosilane treatment under low hydrostatic pressure. However, water infiltration resistance under high hydrostatic pressure is reduced or exacerbated to the level of untreated clay. The maximum compacted dry weight density decreases with increasing CO. As the CO increases, the small strain shear modulus increases, whereas the effect of organosilane treatment on the constrained modulus is minimal. The results indicate that water-repellent kaolin clay possesses excellent engineering characteristics for a landfill cover material.

  19. Engineering chemical reactivity on cell surfaces through oligosaccharide biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mahal, L.K.; Yareme, K.J.; Bertozzi, C.R.

    1997-05-16

    Cell surface oligosaccharide can be engineered to display unusual functional groups for the selective chemical remodeling of cell surfaces. An unnatural derivative of N-acetyl-mannosamine, which has a ketone group, was converted to the corresponding sialic acid and incorporated into cell surface oligosaccharide metabolically, resulting in the cell surface display of ketone groups. The ketone group on the cell surface can then be covalently ligated under physiological conditions with molecules carrying a complementary reactive functional group such as the hydrazide. Cell surface reactions of this kind should prove useful in the introduction of new recognition epitopes, such as peptides, oligosaccharide, or small organic molecules, onto cell surfaces and in the subsequent modulation of cell-cell or cell-small molecule binding events. The versatility of this technology was demonstrated by an example of selective drug delivery. Cells were decorated with biotin through selective conjugation to ketone groups, and selectively killed in the presence of a ricin A chain-avidin conjugate. 30 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Online Data Resources in Chemical Engineering Education: Impact of the Uncertainty Concept for Thermophysical Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Kang, Jeong Won; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Magee, Joseph W.; Diky, Vladimir; Muzny, Chris D.; Kazakov, Andrei F.; Chirico, Robert D.; Frenkel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We review the concept of uncertainty for thermophysical properties and its critical impact for engineering applications in the core courses of chemical engineering education. To facilitate the translation of developments to engineering education, we employ NIST Web Thermo Tables to furnish properties data with their associated expanded…

  1. Building an Evaluation Strategy for an Integrated Curriculum in Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Joseph J.; Parker, Robert S.; Abatan, Adetola; Besterfield-Sacre, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Increasing knowledge integration has gained wide-spread support as an important goal in engineering education. The Chemical Engineering Pillars curriculum at the University of Pittsburgh, unique for its use of block scheduling, is one of the first four-year, integrated curricula in engineering, and is specifically designed to facilitate knowledge…

  2. The Use of the Software MATLAB To Improve Chemical Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damatto, T.; Maegava, L. M.; Filho, R. Maciel

    In all the Brazilian Universities involved with the project "Prodenge-Reenge", the main objective is to improve teaching and learning procedures for the engineering disciplines. The Chemical Engineering College of Campinas State University focused its effort on the use of engineering softwares. The work developed by this project has…

  3. Online Data Resources in Chemical Engineering Education: Impact of the Uncertainty Concept for Thermophysical Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Kang, Jeong Won; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Magee, Joseph W.; Diky, Vladimir; Muzny, Chris D.; Kazakov, Andrei F.; Chirico, Robert D.; Frenkel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We review the concept of uncertainty for thermophysical properties and its critical impact for engineering applications in the core courses of chemical engineering education. To facilitate the translation of developments to engineering education, we employ NIST Web Thermo Tables to furnish properties data with their associated expanded…

  4. A Summer Leadership Development Program for Chemical Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Annie E.; Evans, Greg J.; Reeve, Doug

    2012-01-01

    The Engineering Leaders of Tomorrow Program (LOT) is a comprehensive curricular, co-curricular, extra-curricular leadership development initiative for engineering students. LOT envisions: "an engineering education that is a life-long foundation for transformational leaders and outstanding citizens." Academic courses, co-curricular certificate…

  5. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering programme in Ghana: students' perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Cudjoe Bensah, Edem; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-05-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering programme is being migrated from a subject-based to a competency-based curriculum. This paper evaluates the programme from the point of view of students. Data were drawn from a survey conducted in the department and were analysed using SPSS. The survey involved administering questionnaires to students at all levels in the department. Analysis of the responses indicated that the majority of the students had decided to pursue chemical engineering due to the career opportunities available. Their knowledge of the programme learning outcomes was, however, poor. The study revealed that none of the students was interested in developing indigenous industries.

  6. Engineering microbial electrocatalysis for chemical and fuel production.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Miriam A; Henrich, Alexander W

    2014-10-01

    In many biotechnological areas, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have become core technologies for biocatalyst development. Microbial electrocatalysis for biochemical and fuel production is still in its infancy and reactions rates and the product spectrum are currently very low. Therefore, molecular engineering strategies will be crucial for the advancement and realization of many new bioproduction routes using electroactive microorganisms. The complex and unresolved biochemistry and physiology of extracellular electron transfer and the lack of molecular tools for these new non-model hosts for genetic engineering constitute the major challenges for this effort. This review is providing an insight into the current status, challenges and promising approaches of pathway engineering for microbial electrocatalysis.

  7. Chemical compound navigator: a web-based chem-BLAST, chemical taxonomy-based search engine for browsing compounds.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, M D; Vondrasek, Jiri; Wlodawer, Alexander; Rodriguez, H; Bhat, T N

    2006-06-01

    A novel technique to annotate, query, and analyze chemical compounds has been developed and is illustrated by using the inhibitor data on HIV protease-inhibitor complexes. In this method, all chemical compounds are annotated in terms of standard chemical structural fragments. These standard fragments are defined by using criteria, such as chemical classification; structural, chemical, or functional groups; and commercial, scientific or common names or synonyms. These fragments are then organized into a data tree based on their chemical substructures. Search engines have been developed to use this data tree to enable query on inhibitors of HIV protease (http://xpdb.nist.gov/hivsdb/hivsdb.html). These search engines use a new novel technique, Chemical Block Layered Alignment of Substructure Technique (Chem-BLAST) to search on the fragments of an inhibitor to look for its chemical structural neighbors. This novel technique to annotate and query compounds lays the foundation for the use of the Semantic Web concept on chemical compounds to allow end users to group, sort, and search structural neighbors accurately and efficiently. During annotation, it enables the attachment of "meaning" (i.e., semantics) to data in a manner that far exceeds the current practice of associating "metadata" with data by creating a knowledge base (or ontology) associated with compounds. Intended users of the technique are the research community and pharmaceutical industry, for which it will provide a new tool to better identify novel chemical structural neighbors to aid drug discovery.

  8. Integrating the protein and metabolic engineering toolkits for next-generation chemical biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pirie, Christopher M; De Mey, Marjan; Jones Prather, Kristala L; Ajikumar, Parayil Kumaran

    2013-04-19

    Through microbial engineering, biosynthesis has the potential to produce thousands of chemicals used in everyday life. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology are fields driven by the manipulation of genes, genetic regulatory systems, and enzymatic pathways for developing highly productive microbial strains. Fundamentally, it is the biochemical characteristics of the enzymes themselves that dictate flux through a biosynthetic pathway toward the product of interest. As metabolic engineers target sophisticated secondary metabolites, there has been little recognition of the reduced catalytic activity and increased substrate/product promiscuity of the corresponding enzymes compared to those of central metabolism. Thus, fine-tuning these enzymatic characteristics through protein engineering is paramount for developing high-productivity microbial strains for secondary metabolites. Here, we describe the importance of protein engineering for advancing metabolic engineering of secondary metabolism pathways. This pathway integrated enzyme optimization can enhance the collective toolkit of microbial engineering to shape the future of chemical manufacturing.

  9. JOURNEY TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A ROLE FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable engineering is the principal environmental focus topic for the 2002 AIChE Annual Meeting and this presentation will address key areas of technology in sustainable engineering and will focus on those areas of research and technology, which the federal government seeks ...

  10. Characterization of chemical and particulate emissions from aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Harshit; Sawant, Aniket A.; Jansen, Karel; Wayne Miller, J.; Cocker, David R.

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a series of measurements from four on-wing, commercial aircraft engines, including two newer CFM56-7 engines and two earlier CFM56-3 engines. Samples were collected from each engine using a probe positioned behind the exhaust nozzle of the aircraft, chocked on a concrete testing pad. The emission factors for particulate matter mass, elemental and organic carbon, carbonyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes, dioxins, metals and ions are reported for four different engine power setting modes. The emissions indices of particulate matter, elemental and organic carbon are highly power dependent for these engines. Particulate matter emission indices (g kg-1 fuel) are found to increase from 1.1E-02 to 2.05E-01 with increase in power from idle to 85%. The elemental carbon to organic carbon varies from 0.5 to 3.8 with change in power from idle to 85%. The carbonyl emissions are dominated by formaldehyde. The emission index of formaldehyde ranges from 2.3E-01 to 4.8E-01 g kg-1 fuel. The distribution of metals depends on the difference in the various engines. The dioxin emissions from the aircraft engines are observed to be below detection limit.

  11. Transcriptional Engineering of Microalgae: Prospects for High-Value Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bajhaiya, Amit K; Ziehe Moreira, Javiera; Pittman, Jon K

    2017-02-01

    Microalgae are diverse microorganisms that are of interest as novel sources of metabolites for various industrial, nutritional, and pharmaceutical applications. Recent studies have demonstrated transcriptional engineering of some metabolic pathways. We propose here that transcriptional engineering could be a viable means to manipulate the biosynthesis of specific high-value metabolic products.

  12. The Chemical Engineering behind How Carbonated Beverages Go Flat: A Hands-On Experiment for Freshmen Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohn, Keith L.

    2007-01-01

    A hands-on project was developed to educate new chemical engineering students about the types of problems chemical engineers solve and to improve student enthusiasm for studying chemical engineering. In this project, students studied the phenomenon of carbonated beverages going flat. The project was implemented in 2003 and 2004 at Kansas State…

  13. The Chemical Engineering behind How Carbonated Beverages Go Flat: A Hands-On Experiment for Freshmen Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohn, Keith L.

    2007-01-01

    A hands-on project was developed to educate new chemical engineering students about the types of problems chemical engineers solve and to improve student enthusiasm for studying chemical engineering. In this project, students studied the phenomenon of carbonated beverages going flat. The project was implemented in 2003 and 2004 at Kansas State…

  14. A 15-Month MS Chemical Engineering Degree Program for BS Chemists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanks, Richard W.; Oscarson, John L.

    1979-01-01

    The key to shortening the time-frame for this program is a special summer course in unit operations, and the replacement of the usual nine credits of minor courses with undergraduate chemical engineering courses. (BB)

  15. Metabolic engineering for production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals: contributions of synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Jarboe, Laura R; Zhang, Xueli; Wang, Xuan; Moore, Jonathan C; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2010-01-01

    Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemical-based production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibitors, and their target products. Traditional metabolic engineering has made great advances in this area, but synthetic biology has contributed and will continue to contribute to this field, particularly with next-generation biofuels. This work reviews the use of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in biocatalyst engineering for biorenewable fuels and chemicals production, such as ethanol, butanol, acetate, lactate, succinate, alanine, and xylitol. We also examine the existing challenges in this area and discuss strategies for improving biocatalyst tolerance to chemical inhibitors.

  16. Metabolic Engineering for Production of Biorenewable Fuels and Chemicals: Contributions of Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    Jarboe, Laura R.; Zhang, Xueli; Wang, Xuan; Moore, Jonathan C.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Ingram, Lonnie O.

    2010-01-01

    Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemical-based production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibitors, and their target products. Traditional metabolic engineering has made great advances in this area, but synthetic biology has contributed and will continue to contribute to this field, particularly with next-generation biofuels. This work reviews the use of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in biocatalyst engineering for biorenewable fuels and chemicals production, such as ethanol, butanol, acetate, lactate, succinate, alanine, and xylitol. We also examine the existing challenges in this area and discuss strategies for improving biocatalyst tolerance to chemical inhibitors. PMID:20414363

  17. A Course in Fundamentals of Chemical Engineering for High School Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Gordon A.; Tomkins, Reginald P. T.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a 16-week course on fundamentals of chemical engineering offered to high school science teachers by the New Jersey Institute of Technology. Discusses the course structure, including the topics addressed. Provides two material balance problems in the appendices. (TW)

  18. Using Green Chemistry and Engineering Principles to Design, Assess, and Retrofit Chemical Processes for Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concepts of green chemistry and engineering (GC&E) have been promoted as an effective qualitative framework for developing more sustainable chemical syntheses, processes, and material management techniques. This has been demonstrated by many theoretical and practical cases. I...

  19. Physico-chemical characteristics, nutrient composition and consumer acceptability of wheat varieties grown under organic and inorganic farming conditions.

    PubMed

    Nitika; Punia, Darshan; Khetarpaul, N

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the investigation was to analyse physico-chemical characteristics, nutrient composition and consumer acceptability of wheat varieties grown under organic and inorganic farming conditions. The seeds of five varieties of wheat (C-306, WH-283, WH-711, WH-896 and WH-912) grown under organic and inorganic farming conditions were ground in a Junior Mill to pass through 60-mesh sieves and were stored in air-tight containers until use. Standard methods were used to estimate the physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient composition. Consumer acceptability was studied by carrying out the organoleptic evaluation of wheat chapatis, a common item in diets of the Indian population. The results of study revealed that inorganically grown wheat varieties had significantly higher 1,000-grain weight and more grain hardness as compared with organically grown wheat varieties, and a non-significant difference was observed in their gluten content, water absorption capacity and hydration capacity. On average, wheat varieties grown under inorganic conditions contained significantly higher protein and crude fibre content as compared with varieties grown under organic conditions. WH-711 variety had maximum protein content. Protein fractions (i.e. albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin) were significantly higher in varieties grown under inorganic conditions than those of varieties grown under organic conditions. The variety WH-711 had the highest total soluble sugars and variety WH-912 had the highest starch content. Phytic acid and polyphenol contents were significantly higher in inorganically grown wheat varieties as compared with organically grown wheat varieties. The wheat varieties grown under organic conditions had significantly higher protein and starch digestibility than the wheat grown under inorganic conditions. The data revealed that there were significant differences in total calcium and phosphorus contents of wheat varieties grown under organic and inorganic

  20. IN-SITU CHEMICAL OXIDATION--ENGINEERING ISSUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Engineering Issue Papers are a series of technology transfer documents that summarize the latest available information on specific technical issues, including fate and transport, specific contaminants, selected treatment and site rem...

  1. IN-SITU CHEMICAL OXIDATION--ENGINEERING ISSUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Engineering Issue Papers are a series of technology transfer documents that summarize the latest available information on specific technical issues, including fate and transport, specific contaminants, selected treatment and site rem...

  2. Students' Metacognitive Development in an Innovative Second Year Chemical Engineering Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Jennifer; Gunstone, Richard; Lewis, Alison

    2001-06-01

    In this paper the metacognitive development of students in a second year chemical engineering course (which had such development as an explicit aim) is investigated. Journal data from the class were analysed and a framework comprising four different areas of metacognitive development was arrived at. Within each area, key shifts in approach were identified. The first area (category 1) concerns students' knowledge and awareness (conceptions) of learning, and the important development in this area was from a focus on solving problems towards a stronger valuing of conceptual understanding. The second and third areas deal with aspects of control. The second area (category 2a) is that of organising one's learning, and here students were seen to develop from an uninformed focus on discipline and time management, towards a more metacognitively informed use of resources. The third area (category 2b) is monitoring of learning, with the key shift here from naïvely accepting outside judgements, to using them strategically for purposes of self-assessment. The fourth area (category 3) involves students' sense of a purpose for learning beyond the subject. Important developments here were both in terms of a career goal, as well as personal growth. Data from interviews with five students largely confirmed the validity of these categories, as well as illustrating that different students showed development in different areas.

  3. Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source: An Illustration of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Marguerite A.; May, Nicole; Assaf-Anid, Nada M.; Castaldi, Marco J.

    2006-01-01

    The ever-increasing global demand for energy has sparked renewed interest within the engineering community in the study of sustainable alternative energy sources. This paper discusses a power generation system which uses biomass as "fuel" to illustrate the concepts taught to students taking a graduate level chemical engineering process…

  4. An Alternative Educational Approach for an Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course in Industrial and Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garces, Andres; Sanchez-Barba, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We describe an alternative educational approach for an inorganic chemistry laboratory module named "Experimentation in Chemistry", which is included in Industrial Engineering and Chemical Engineering courses. The main aims of the new approach were to reduce the high levels of failure and dropout on the module and to make the content match the…

  5. Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.…

  6. CURRICULUM: A Chemical Engineering Course for Liberal Arts Students--Indigo: A World of Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piergiovanni, Polly R.

    2012-01-01

    Sophomore liberal arts and engineering students enrolled in a course to learn and practice some basic chemical engineering side by side. The course was developed around the theme of indigo dyeing, which has an interesting history, fascinating chemistry and is accessible to all students. The students participated in a variety of active learning…

  7. Incorporating Molecular and Cellular Biology into a Chemical Engineering Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kim C.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing need for a workforce that can apply engineering principles to molecular based discovery and product development in the biological sciences. To this end, Tulane University established a degree program that incorporates molecular and cellular biology into the chemical engineering curriculum. In celebration of the tenth anniversary…

  8. Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source: An Illustration of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Marguerite A.; May, Nicole; Assaf-Anid, Nada M.; Castaldi, Marco J.

    2006-01-01

    The ever-increasing global demand for energy has sparked renewed interest within the engineering community in the study of sustainable alternative energy sources. This paper discusses a power generation system which uses biomass as "fuel" to illustrate the concepts taught to students taking a graduate level chemical engineering process…

  9. CURRICULUM: A Chemical Engineering Course for Liberal Arts Students--Indigo: A World of Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piergiovanni, Polly R.

    2012-01-01

    Sophomore liberal arts and engineering students enrolled in a course to learn and practice some basic chemical engineering side by side. The course was developed around the theme of indigo dyeing, which has an interesting history, fascinating chemistry and is accessible to all students. The students participated in a variety of active learning…

  10. Incorporating Molecular and Cellular Biology into a Chemical Engineering Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kim C.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing need for a workforce that can apply engineering principles to molecular based discovery and product development in the biological sciences. To this end, Tulane University established a degree program that incorporates molecular and cellular biology into the chemical engineering curriculum. In celebration of the tenth anniversary…

  11. An Alternative Educational Approach for an Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course in Industrial and Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garces, Andres; Sanchez-Barba, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We describe an alternative educational approach for an inorganic chemistry laboratory module named "Experimentation in Chemistry", which is included in Industrial Engineering and Chemical Engineering courses. The main aims of the new approach were to reduce the high levels of failure and dropout on the module and to make the content match the…

  12. Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.…

  13. An autonomous organic reaction search engine for chemical reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Dragone, Vincenza; Sans, Victor; Henson, Alon B.; Granda, Jaroslaw M.; Cronin, Leroy

    2017-01-01

    The exploration of chemical space for new reactivity, reactions and molecules is limited by the need for separate work-up-separation steps searching for molecules rather than reactivity. Herein we present a system that can autonomously evaluate chemical reactivity within a network of 64 possible reaction combinations and aims for new reactivity, rather than a predefined set of targets. The robotic system combines chemical handling, in-line spectroscopy and real-time feedback and analysis with an algorithm that is able to distinguish and select the most reactive pathways, generating a reaction selection index (RSI) without need for separate work-up or purification steps. This allows the automatic navigation of a chemical network, leading to previously unreported molecules while needing only to do a fraction of the total possible reactions without any prior knowledge of the chemistry. We show the RSI correlates with reactivity and is able to search chemical space using the most reactive pathways. PMID:28598440

  14. An autonomous organic reaction search engine for chemical reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragone, Vincenza; Sans, Victor; Henson, Alon B.; Granda, Jaroslaw M.; Cronin, Leroy

    2017-06-01

    The exploration of chemical space for new reactivity, reactions and molecules is limited by the need for separate work-up-separation steps searching for molecules rather than reactivity. Herein we present a system that can autonomously evaluate chemical reactivity within a network of 64 possible reaction combinations and aims for new reactivity, rather than a predefined set of targets. The robotic system combines chemical handling, in-line spectroscopy and real-time feedback and analysis with an algorithm that is able to distinguish and select the most reactive pathways, generating a reaction selection index (RSI) without need for separate work-up or purification steps. This allows the automatic navigation of a chemical network, leading to previously unreported molecules while needing only to do a fraction of the total possible reactions without any prior knowledge of the chemistry. We show the RSI correlates with reactivity and is able to search chemical space using the most reactive pathways.

  15. An autonomous organic reaction search engine for chemical reactivity.

    PubMed

    Dragone, Vincenza; Sans, Victor; Henson, Alon B; Granda, Jaroslaw M; Cronin, Leroy

    2017-06-09

    The exploration of chemical space for new reactivity, reactions and molecules is limited by the need for separate work-up-separation steps searching for molecules rather than reactivity. Herein we present a system that can autonomously evaluate chemical reactivity within a network of 64 possible reaction combinations and aims for new reactivity, rather than a predefined set of targets. The robotic system combines chemical handling, in-line spectroscopy and real-time feedback and analysis with an algorithm that is able to distinguish and select the most reactive pathways, generating a reaction selection index (RSI) without need for separate work-up or purification steps. This allows the automatic navigation of a chemical network, leading to previously unreported molecules while needing only to do a fraction of the total possible reactions without any prior knowledge of the chemistry. We show the RSI correlates with reactivity and is able to search chemical space using the most reactive pathways.

  16. Analyzing the Function of Cartilage Replacements: A Laboratory Activity to Teach High School Students Chemical and Tissue Engineering Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Julie N.; Emady, Heather N.; Galas, Richards J., Jr.; Zhange, Rong; Baertsch, Chelsey D.; Liu, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    A cartilage tissue engineering laboratory activity was developed as part of the Exciting Discoveries for Girls in Engineering (EDGE) Summer Camp sponsored by the Women In Engineering Program (WIEP) at Purdue University. Our goal was to increase awareness of chemical engineering and tissue engineering in female high school students through a…

  17. Analyzing the Function of Cartilage Replacements: A Laboratory Activity to Teach High School Students Chemical and Tissue Engineering Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Julie N.; Emady, Heather N.; Galas, Richards J., Jr.; Zhange, Rong; Baertsch, Chelsey D.; Liu, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    A cartilage tissue engineering laboratory activity was developed as part of the Exciting Discoveries for Girls in Engineering (EDGE) Summer Camp sponsored by the Women In Engineering Program (WIEP) at Purdue University. Our goal was to increase awareness of chemical engineering and tissue engineering in female high school students through a…

  18. Effects of chemical equilibrium on turbine engine performance for various fuels and combustor temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Donald H.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the differences in turbine engine performance with and without the chemical dissociation effects for various fuel types over a range of combustor temperatures. Both turbojet and turbofan engines were studied with hydrocarbon fuels and cryogenic, nonhydrocarbon fuels. Results of the study indicate that accuracy of engine performance decreases when nonhydrocarbon fuels are used, especially at high temperatures where chemical dissociation becomes more significant. For instance, the deviation in net thrust for liquid hydrogen fuel can become as high as 20 percent at 4160 R. This study reveals that computer central processing unit (CPU) time increases significantly when dissociation effects are included in the cycle analysis.

  19. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Reactor Analysis: A Web-Based Reactor Design Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbey, Nese; Clay, Molly; Russell, T.W. Fraser

    2014-01-01

    An approach to explain chemical engineering through a Web-based interactive game design was developed and used with college freshman and junior/senior high school students. The goal of this approach was to demonstrate how to model a lab-scale experiment, and use the results to design and operate a chemical reactor. The game incorporates both…

  20. Use of Research-Based Instructional Strategies in Core Chemical Engineering Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Michael; Borrego, Maura; Henderson, Charles; Cutler, Stephanie; Froyd, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Traditional lecturing remains the most prevalent mode of instruction despite overwhelming research showing the increased effectiveness of many alternate instructional strategies. This study examines chemical engineering instructors' awareness and use of 12 such instructional strategies. The study also examines how chemical engineering…

  1. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Reactor Analysis: A Web-Based Reactor Design Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbey, Nese; Clay, Molly; Russell, T.W. Fraser

    2014-01-01

    An approach to explain chemical engineering through a Web-based interactive game design was developed and used with college freshman and junior/senior high school students. The goal of this approach was to demonstrate how to model a lab-scale experiment, and use the results to design and operate a chemical reactor. The game incorporates both…

  2. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering: 1859-1959.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a description of the course "From Petroleum to Penicillin" which examines chemical engineering and the chemical industry from a scientific, social and symbolic view. Explains the goals, organization, and requirements of the course. Lists case study and lecture topics. (ML)

  3. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering: 1859-1959.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a description of the course "From Petroleum to Penicillin" which examines chemical engineering and the chemical industry from a scientific, social and symbolic view. Explains the goals, organization, and requirements of the course. Lists case study and lecture topics. (ML)

  4. Use of Research-Based Instructional Strategies in Core Chemical Engineering Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Michael; Borrego, Maura; Henderson, Charles; Cutler, Stephanie; Froyd, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Traditional lecturing remains the most prevalent mode of instruction despite overwhelming research showing the increased effectiveness of many alternate instructional strategies. This study examines chemical engineering instructors' awareness and use of 12 such instructional strategies. The study also examines how chemical engineering…

  5. Developing a Course in Chemical Engineering Ethics: One Class' Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, James C.; Zoeller, Dominic A.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses several options for the incorporation of minimal coursework involving engineering ethics into an already tightly packed curriculum. Topics include integration versus the stand-alone approach; timeliness of course addition; outline of course content and instructional format; students' reflections and instructor's musings; and an annotated…

  6. Chemical kinetics of octane sensitivity in a spark-ignition engine (Chemical Kinetics of Octane Sensitivity in a Spark Ignition Engine)

    DOE PAGES

    Westbrook, Charles K.; Mehl, Marco; Pitz, William J.; ...

    2016-07-11

    This article uses a chemical kinetic modeling approach to study the influences of fuel molecular structure on Octane Sensitivity (OS) in Spark Ignition (SI) engines. Octane Sensitivity has the potential to identify fuels that can be used in next-generation high compression, turbocharged SI engines to avoid unwanted knocking conditions and extend the range of operating conditions that can be used in such engines. While the concept of octane numbers of different fuels has been familiar for many years, the variations of their values and their role in determining Octane Sensitivity have not been addressed previously in terms of the basicmore » structures of the fuel molecules. In particular, the importance of electron delocalization on low temperature hydrocarbon reactivity and its role in determining OS in engine fuel is described here for the first time. Finally, the role of electron delocalization on fuel reactivity and Octane Sensitivity is illustrated for a very wide range of engine fuel types, including n-alkane, 1-olefin, n-alcohol, and n-alkyl benzenes, and the unifying features of these fuels and their common trends, using existing detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms that have been collected and unified to produce an overall model with unprecedented capabilities.« less

  7. Chemical kinetics of octane sensitivity in a spark-ignition engine (Chemical Kinetics of Octane Sensitivity in a Spark Ignition Engine)

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, Charles K.; Mehl, Marco; Pitz, William J.; Sjöberg, Magnus

    2016-07-11

    This article uses a chemical kinetic modeling approach to study the influences of fuel molecular structure on Octane Sensitivity (OS) in Spark Ignition (SI) engines. Octane Sensitivity has the potential to identify fuels that can be used in next-generation high compression, turbocharged SI engines to avoid unwanted knocking conditions and extend the range of operating conditions that can be used in such engines. While the concept of octane numbers of different fuels has been familiar for many years, the variations of their values and their role in determining Octane Sensitivity have not been addressed previously in terms of the basic structures of the fuel molecules. In particular, the importance of electron delocalization on low temperature hydrocarbon reactivity and its role in determining OS in engine fuel is described here for the first time. Finally, the role of electron delocalization on fuel reactivity and Octane Sensitivity is illustrated for a very wide range of engine fuel types, including n-alkane, 1-olefin, n-alcohol, and n-alkyl benzenes, and the unifying features of these fuels and their common trends, using existing detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms that have been collected and unified to produce an overall model with unprecedented capabilities.

  8. Chemical kinetics of octane sensitivity in a spark-ignition engine (Chemical Kinetics of Octane Sensitivity in a Spark Ignition Engine)

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, Charles K.; Mehl, Marco; Pitz, William J.; Sjöberg, Magnus

    2016-07-11

    This article uses a chemical kinetic modeling approach to study the influences of fuel molecular structure on Octane Sensitivity (OS) in Spark Ignition (SI) engines. Octane Sensitivity has the potential to identify fuels that can be used in next-generation high compression, turbocharged SI engines to avoid unwanted knocking conditions and extend the range of operating conditions that can be used in such engines. While the concept of octane numbers of different fuels has been familiar for many years, the variations of their values and their role in determining Octane Sensitivity have not been addressed previously in terms of the basic structures of the fuel molecules. In particular, the importance of electron delocalization on low temperature hydrocarbon reactivity and its role in determining OS in engine fuel is described here for the first time. Finally, the role of electron delocalization on fuel reactivity and Octane Sensitivity is illustrated for a very wide range of engine fuel types, including n-alkane, 1-olefin, n-alcohol, and n-alkyl benzenes, and the unifying features of these fuels and their common trends, using existing detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms that have been collected and unified to produce an overall model with unprecedented capabilities.

  9. Chemical Engineering Curricula for the Future: Synopsis of Proceedings of a U.S.-India Conference, January, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkrishna, D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This is a summary of a seminar for changing the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum in India. Identifies and describes biotechnology, materials for structural and microelectronic catalysis, and new separation processes as emerging areas. Evaluates the current curriculum, including basic science, engineering lore, chemical engineering,…

  10. Circumventing Graphical User Interfaces in Chemical Engineering Plant Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romey, Noel; Schwartz, Rachel M.; Behrend, Douglas; Miao, Peter; Cheung, H. Michael; Beitle, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) are pervasive elements of most modern technical software and represent a convenient tool for student instruction. For example, GUIs are used for [chemical] process design software (e.g., CHEMCAD, PRO/II and ASPEN) typically encountered in the senior capstone course. Drag and drop aspects of GUIs are challenging for…

  11. Combustion in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines: Experiments and Detailed Chemical Kinetic Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, Daniel L.

    2002-06-07

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are being considered as an alternative to diesel engines. The HCCI concept involves premixing fuel and air prior to induction into the cylinder (as is done in current spark-ignition engine) then igniting the fuel-air mixture through the compression process (as is done in current diesel engines). The combustion occurring in an HCCI engine is fundamentally different from a spark-ignition or Diesel engine in that the heat release occurs as a global autoignition process, as opposed to the turbulent flame propagation or mixing controlled combustion used in current engines. The advantage of this global autoignition is that the temperatures within the cylinder are uniformly low, yielding very low emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx, the chief precursors to photochemical smog). The inherent features of HCCI combustion allows for design of engines with efficiency comparable to, or potentially higher than, diesel engines. While HCCI engines have great potential, several technical barriers exist which currently prevent widespread commercialization of this technology. The most significant challenge is that the combustion timing cannot be controlled by typical in-cylinder means. Means of controlling combustion have been demonstrated, but a robust control methodology that is applicable to the entire range of operation has yet to be developed. This research focuses on understanding basic characteristics of controlling and operating HCCI engines. Experiments and detailed chemical kinetic simulations have been applied to the characterize some of the fundamental operational and design characteristics of HCCI engines. Experiments have been conducted on single and multi-cylinder engines to investigate general features of how combustion timing affects the performance and emissions of HCCI engines. Single-zone modeling has been used to characterize and compare the implementation of different control strategies. Multi

  12. GFO and JASON Altimeter Engineering Assessment Report. Update: GFO--Acceptance to December 27, 2007, JASON--Acceptance to December 26, 2007. Version 1: June 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conger, A. M.; Hancock, D. W.; Hayne, G. S.; Brooks, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present and document GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO) performance analyses and results. This is the eighth Assessment Report since the initial report. This report extends the performance assessment since acceptance to 27 December 2007. Since launch, a variety of GFO performance studies have been performed: Appendix A provides an accumulative index of those studies. We began the inclusion of analyses of the JASON altimeter after the end of the Topographic Experiment (TOPEX) mission. Prior to this, JASON and TOPEX were compared during our assessment of theTOPEX altimeter. With the end of the TOPEX mission, we developed methods to report on JASON as it relates to GFO.

  13. PREFACE: Selected papers from the Fourth Topical Conference on Nanoscale Science and Engineering of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Michael S.; Lee, Gil U.

    2005-07-01

    This special issue of Nanotechnology contains research papers contributed by the participants of the Fourth Topical Conference on Nanoscale Science and Engineering at the Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), which was held in Austin, Texas, USA, 7-12 November, 2004. This conference saw 284 oral presentations from institutions around the world, which is the highest number for this topical conference series to date. These presentations were organized into 64 sessions, covering the range of nanotechnology subject areas in which chemical engineers are currently engaged. These sessions included the following areas. • Fundamentals: thermodynamics at the nanoscale; applications of nanostructured fluids; transport properties in nanophase and nanoscale systems; molecular modelling methods; self and directed assembly at the nanoscale; nanofabrication and nanoscale processing; manipulation of nanophases by external fields; nanoscale systems; adsorption and transport in carbon nanotubes; nanotribology; making the transition from materials and phenomena to new technologies; operation of micro-and nano-systems. • Materials: nanoparticle synthesis and stabilization; nanoscale structure in polymers; nanotemplating of polymers; synthesis of carbon nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; nanowires; nanoparticle assemblies and superlattices; nanoelectronic materials; self-assembly of templated inorganic materials; nanostructured hybrid organic/inorganic materials; gas phase synthesis of nanoparticles; multicomponent structured particles; nano energetic materials; liquid-phase synthesis of nanoparticles. • Energy: synthesis and characterization of nanostructured catalytic materials; nanomaterials and devices for energy applications. • Biotechnology: nanobiotechnology; nanotechnology for the biotechnology and pharmaceuticals industries; nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology for sensors; advances in biomaterials, bionanotechnology, biomimetic

  14. 46 CFR 50.25-10 - Acceptance of piping components by specific letter or approved plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Acceptance of Material and Piping Components § 50.25-10 Acceptance... approved plan must do the following: (1) Submit an engineering type catalog or representative drawings of... specifications by comparing details of the materials' chemical composition, mechanical properties, method...

  15. Regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models for pharmaceuticals and chemicals: expert opinions on the state of affairs and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Schiffelers, Marie-Jeanne W A; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bakker, Wieger E; Beken, Sonja; Hendriksen, Coenraad F M; Koëter, Herman B W M; Krul, Cyrille

    2014-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals and chemicals are subjected to regulatory safety testing accounting for approximately 25% of laboratory animal use in Europe. This testing meets various objections and has led to the development of a range of 3R models to Replace, Reduce or Refine the animal models. However, these models must overcome many barriers before being accepted for regulatory risk management purposes. This paper describes the barriers and drivers and options to optimize this acceptance process as identified by two expert panels, one on pharmaceuticals and one on chemicals. To untangle the complex acceptance process, the multilevel perspective on technology transitions is applied. This perspective defines influences at the micro-, meso- and macro level which need alignment to induce regulatory acceptance of a 3R model. This paper displays that there are many similar mechanisms within both sectors that prevent 3R models from becoming accepted for regulatory risk assessment and management. Shared barriers include the uncertainty about the value of the new 3R models (micro level), the lack of harmonization of regulatory requirements and acceptance criteria (meso level) and the high levels of risk aversion (macro level). In optimizing the process commitment, communication, cooperation and coordination are identified as critical drivers.

  16. Molecular and chemical engineering of bacteriophages for potential medical applications.

    PubMed

    Hodyra, Katarzyna; Dąbrowska, Krystyna

    2015-04-01

    Recent progress in molecular engineering has contributed to the great progress of medicine. However, there are still difficult problems constituting a challenge for molecular biology and biotechnology, e.g. new generation of anticancer agents, alternative biosensors or vaccines. As a biotechnological tool, bacteriophages (phages) offer a promising alternative to traditional approaches. They can be applied as anticancer agents, novel platforms in vaccine design, or as target carriers in drug discovery. Phages also offer solutions for modern cell imaging, biosensor construction or food pathogen detection. Here we present a review of bacteriophage research as a dynamically developing field with promising prospects for further development of medicine and biotechnology.

  17. Recent advances in the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid as C3 platform chemical.

    PubMed

    Valdehuesa, Kris Niño G; Liu, Huaiwei; Nisola, Grace M; Chung, Wook-Jin; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Si Jae

    2013-04-01

    Development of sustainable technologies for the production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) as a platform chemical has recently been gaining much attention owing to its versatility in applications for the synthesis of other specialty chemicals. Several proposed biological synthesis routes and strategies for producing 3HP from glucose and glycerol are reviewed presently. Ten proposed routes for 3HP production from glucose are described and one of which was recently constructed successfully in Escherichia coli with malonyl-Coenzyme A as a precursor. This resulted in a yield still far from the required level for industrial application. On the other hand, strategies employing engineered E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae capable of producing 3HP from glycerol are also evaluated. The titers produced by these recombinant strains reached around 3 %. At its current state, it is evident that a bulk of engineering works is yet to be done to acquire a biosynthesis route for 3HP that is acceptable for industrial-scale production.

  18. Solar photochemical process engineering for production of fuels and chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddle, J. R.; Peterson, D. B.; Fujita, T.

    The engineering costs and performance of a nominal 25,000 scmd (883,000 scfd) photochemical plant to produce dihydrogen from water were studied. Two systems were considered, one based on flat-plate collector/reactors and the other on linear parabolic troughs. Engineering subsystems were specified including the collector/reactor, support hardware, field transport piping, gas compression equipment, and balance-of-plant (BOP) items. Overall plant efficiencies of 10.3 and 11.6 percent are estimated for the flat-plate and trough systems, respectively, based on assumed solar photochemical efficiencies of 12.9 and 14.6 percent. Because of the opposing effects of concentration ratio and operating temperature on efficiency, it was concluded that reactor cooling would be necessary with the trough system. Both active and passive cooling methods were considered. Capital costs and energy costs, for both concentrating and non-concentrating systems, were determined and their sensitivity to efficiency and economic parameters were analyzed. The overall plant efficiency is the single most important factor in determining the cost of the fuel.

  19. Solar photochemical process engineering for production of fuels and chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddle, J. R.; Peterson, D. B.; Fujita, T.

    1984-05-01

    The engineering costs and performance of a nominal 25,000 scmd (883,000 scfd) photochemical plant to produce dihydrogen from water were studied. Two systems were considered, one based on flat-plate collector/reactors and the other on linear parabolic troughs. Engineering subsystems were specified including the collector/reactor, support hardware, field transport piping, gas compression equipment, and balance-of-plant (BOP) items. Overall plant efficiencies of 10.3 and 11.6% are estimated for the flat-plate and trough systems, respectively, based on assumed solar photochemical efficiencies of 12.9 and 14.6%. Because of the opposing effects of concentration ratio and operating temperature on efficiency, it was concluded that reactor cooling would be necessary with the trough system. Both active and passive cooling methods were considered. Capital costs and energy costs, for both concentrating and non-concentrating systems, were determined and their sensitivity to efficiency and economic parameters were analyzed. The overall plant efficiency is the single most important factor in determining the cost of the fuel.

  20. Solar photochemical process engineering for production of fuels and chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, J. R.; Peterson, D. B.; Fujita, T.

    1985-01-01

    The engineering costs and performance of a nominal 25,000 scmd (883,000 scfd) photochemical plant to produce dihydrogen from water were studied. Two systems were considered, one based on flat-plate collector/reactors and the other on linear parabolic troughs. Engineering subsystems were specified including the collector/reactor, support hardware, field transport piping, gas compression equipment, and balance-of-plant (BOP) items. Overall plant efficiencies of 10.3 and 11.6 percent are estimated for the flat-plate and trough systems, respectively, based on assumed solar photochemical efficiencies of 12.9 and 14.6 percent. Because of the opposing effects of concentration ratio and operating temperature on efficiency, it was concluded that reactor cooling would be necessary with the trough system. Both active and passive cooling methods were considered. Capital costs and energy costs, for both concentrating and non-concentrating systems, were determined and their sensitivity to efficiency and economic parameters were analyzed. The overall plant efficiency is the single most important factor in determining the cost of the fuel.

  1. Solar photochemical process engineering for production of fuels and chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, J. R.; Peterson, D. B.; Fujita, T.

    1985-01-01

    The engineering costs and performance of a nominal 25,000 scmd (883,000 scfd) photochemical plant to produce dihydrogen from water were studied. Two systems were considered, one based on flat-plate collector/reactors and the other on linear parabolic troughs. Engineering subsystems were specified including the collector/reactor, support hardware, field transport piping, gas compression equipment, and balance-of-plant (BOP) items. Overall plant efficiencies of 10.3 and 11.6 percent are estimated for the flat-plate and trough systems, respectively, based on assumed solar photochemical efficiencies of 12.9 and 14.6 percent. Because of the opposing effects of concentration ratio and operating temperature on efficiency, it was concluded that reactor cooling would be necessary with the trough system. Both active and passive cooling methods were considered. Capital costs and energy costs, for both concentrating and non-concentrating systems, were determined and their sensitivity to efficiency and economic parameters were analyzed. The overall plant efficiency is the single most important factor in determining the cost of the fuel.

  2. Solar photochemical process engineering for production of fuels and chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, J. R.; Peterson, D. B.; Fujita, T.

    1984-01-01

    The engineering costs and performance of a nominal 25,000 scmd (883,000 scfd) photochemical plant to produce dihydrogen from water were studied. Two systems were considered, one based on flat-plate collector/reactors and the other on linear parabolic troughs. Engineering subsystems were specified including the collector/reactor, support hardware, field transport piping, gas compression equipment, and balance-of-plant (BOP) items. Overall plant efficiencies of 10.3 and 11.6% are estimated for the flat-plate and trough systems, respectively, based on assumed solar photochemical efficiencies of 12.9 and 14.6%. Because of the opposing effects of concentration ratio and operating temperature on efficiency, it was concluded that reactor cooling would be necessary with the trough system. Both active and passive cooling methods were considered. Capital costs and energy costs, for both concentrating and non-concentrating systems, were determined and their sensitivity to efficiency and economic parameters were analyzed. The overall plant efficiency is the single most important factor in determining the cost of the fuel.

  3. Efficiency at maximum power for an isothermal chemical engine with particle exchange at varying chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koning, Jesper; Koga, Kenichiro; Indekeu, Joseph. O.

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the efficiency at maximum power (EMP) of an isothermal chemical cycle in which particle uptake occurs at a fixed chemical potential but particle release takes place at varying chemical potential. We obtain the EMP as a function of Δμ/ kT, where Δμ is the difference between the highest and lowest reservoir chemical potentials and T is the absolute temperature. In the linear response limit, Δμ ≪ kT, the EMP tends to the expected universal value 1/2.

  4. Effectiveness of an Applied Microbiology Course Specifically Designed for Chemical Engineering Majors

    PubMed Central

    HECHT, GREGORY B.; MOSTO, PATRICIA; SLATER, C. STEWART

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, the disciplines of microbiology and chemical engineering have developed an increasing convergence. To meet the needs of their future employers, today’s chemical engineering students must receive some background in microbiology. This report describes the development and content of “Biological Systems and Applications,” a novel course specifically designed to provide basic biology and applied microbiology knowledge, skills, and experience to sophomore chemical engineering majors. Data collected from entrance and exit surveys of the students demonstrated that the course is successful. The importance of the “project-base” learning technique and of interdisciplinary faculty-student and faculty-faculty collaborations are proposed as elements essential to the success of this particular course. PMID:23653549

  5. An approach in building a chemical compound search engine in oracle database.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Volarath, P; Harrison, R

    2005-01-01

    A searching or identifying of chemical compounds is an important process in drug design and in chemistry research. An efficient search engine involves a close coupling of the search algorithm and database implementation. The database must process chemical structures, which demands the approaches to represent, store, and retrieve structures in a database system. In this paper, a general database framework for working as a chemical compound search engine in Oracle database is described. The framework is devoted to eliminate data type constrains for potential search algorithms, which is a crucial step toward building a domain specific query language on top of SQL. A search engine implementation based on the database framework is also demonstrated. The convenience of the implementation emphasizes the efficiency and simplicity of the framework.

  6. GFO and JASON Altimeter Engineering Assessment Report. Update: GFO-Acceptance to End of Mission on October 22, 2008, JASON-Acceptance to September 29, 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conger, A. M.; Hancock, D. W., III; Hayne, G. S.; Brooks, R. L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present and document GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO) performance analyses and results. This is the ninth Assessment Report since the initial report and is our final one. This report extends the performance assessment since acceptance on November 29, 2000 to the end of mission (EOM) on October 22, 2008. Since launch, February 10, 1998 to the EOM, we performed a variety of GFO performance studies; Appendix A provides an accumulative index of those studies. We began the inclusion of analyses of the JASON altimeter after the end of the Topographic Experiment (TOPEX) mission. Prior to this, JASON and TOPEX were compared during our assessment of the TOPEX altimeter. With the end of the TOPEX mission, we developed methods to report on JASON as it related to GFO. It should be noted the GFO altimeter, after operating for over 7 years, was power cycled off to on and on to off approximately 14 times a day for over 18 months in space with no failure. The GFO altimeter proved to be a remarkable instrument providing stable ocean surface measurements for nearly eight years. This report completes our GFO altimeter performance assessment.

  7. Paper-based chemical and biological sensors: Engineering aspects.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Snober; Bui, Minh-Phuong Ngoc; Abbas, Abdennour

    2016-03-15

    Remarkable efforts have been dedicated to paper-based chemosensors and biosensors over the last few years, mainly driven by the promise of reaching the best trade-off between performance, affordability and simplicity. Because of the low-cost and rapid prototyping of these sensors, recent research has been focused on providing affordable diagnostic devices to the developing world. The recent progress in sensitivity, multi-functionality and integration of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs), increasingly suggests that this technology is not only attractive in resource-limited environments but it also represents a serious challenger to silicon, glass and polymer-based biosensors. This review discusses the design, chemistry and engineering aspects of these developments, with a focus on the past few years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Solar photochemical process engineering for production of fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Biddle, J.R.; Peterson, D.B.; Fujita, T.

    1984-05-01

    The engineering costs and performance of a nominal 25,000 scmd (883,000 scfd) photochemical plant to produce dihydrogen from water have been studied. Two systems were considered, one based on flat-plate collector/reactors and the other on linear parabolic troughs. Engineering subsystems were specified including the collector/reactor, support hardware, field transport piping, gas compression equipment, and balance-of-plant (BOP) items. Overall plant efficiencies of 10.3 and 11.6% are estimated for the flat-plate and trough systems, respectively, based on assumed solar photochemical efficiencies of 12.9 and 14.6%. Because of the opposing effects of concentration ratio and operating temperature on efficiency, it was concluded that reactor cooling would be necessary with the trough system. Both active and passive cooling methods were considered. Capital costs and energy costs, for both concentrating and non-concentrating systems, were determined and their sensitivity to efficiency and economic parameters were analyzed. Results predict energy costs in the range of $34 to $55/10/sup 6/ kJ ($36 to $59/10/sup 6/ Btu) for the flat-plate system and $94 to $141/10/sup 6/ kJ ($99 to $149/10/sup 6/ Btu) for the trough system. The overall plant efficiency is the single most important factor in determining the cost of the fuel. Therefore, solar quantum conversion processes were reviewed for the purpose of identifying processes which promise better performance and lower costs. Operating and systems options, including operation at elevated temperatures and hybrid and coupled quantum-thermal conversion processes, were also briefly examined.

  9. Reversed Janus Micro/Nanomotors with Internal Chemical Engine

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Self-motile Janus colloids are important for enabling a wide variety of microtechnology applications as well as for improving our understanding of the mechanisms of motion of artificial micro- and nanoswimmers. We present here micro/nanomotors which possess a reversed Janus structure of an internal catalytic “chemical engine”. The catalytic material (here platinum (Pt)) is embedded within the interior of the mesoporous silica (mSiO2)-based hollow particles and triggers the decomposition of H2O2 when suspended in an aqueous peroxide (H2O2) solution. The pores/gaps at the noncatalytic (Pt) hemisphere allow the exchange of chemical species in solution between the exterior and the interior of the particle. By varying the diameter of the particles, we observed size-dependent motile behavior in the form of enhanced diffusion for 500 nm particles, and self-phoretic motion, toward the nonmetallic part, for 1.5 and 3 μm ones. The direction of motion was rationalized by a theoretical model based on self-phoresis. For the 3 μm particles, a change in the morphology of the porous part is observed, which is accompanied by a change in the mechanism of propulsion via bubble nucleation and ejection as well as a change in the direction of motion. PMID:27598543

  10. Recent advances in microbial production of fuels and chemicals using tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Cho, Changhee; Choi, So Young; Luo, Zi Wei; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-11-15

    The advent of various systems metabolic engineering tools and strategies has enabled more sophisticated engineering of microorganisms for the production of industrially useful fuels and chemicals. Advances in systems metabolic engineering have been made in overproducing natural chemicals and producing novel non-natural chemicals. In this paper, we review the tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering employed for the development of microorganisms for the production of various industrially useful chemicals belonging to fuels, building block chemicals, and specialty chemicals, in particular focusing on those reported in the last three years. It was aimed at providing the current landscape of systems metabolic engineering and suggesting directions to address future challenges towards successfully establishing processes for the bio-based production of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Runguphan, Weerawat; Keasling, Jay D

    2014-01-01

    As the serious effects of global climate change become apparent and access to fossil fuels becomes more limited, metabolic engineers and synthetic biologists are looking towards greener sources for transportation fuels. In recent years, microbial production of high-energy fuels by economically efficient bioprocesses has emerged as an attractive alternative to the traditional production of transportation fuels. Here, we engineered the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals from simple sugars. Specifically, we overexpressed all three fatty acid biosynthesis genes, namely acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1), fatty acid synthase 1 (FAS1) and fatty acid synthase 2 (FAS2), in S. cerevisiae. When coupled to triacylglycerol (TAG) production, the engineered strain accumulated lipid to more than 17% of its dry cell weight, a four-fold improvement over the control strain. Understanding that TAG cannot be used directly as fuels, we also engineered S. cerevisiae to produce drop-in fuels and chemicals. Altering the terminal "converting enzyme" in the engineered strain led to the production of free fatty acids at a titer of approximately 400 mg/L, fatty alcohols at approximately 100mg/L and fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel) at approximately 5 mg/L directly from simple sugars. We envision that our approach will provide a scalable, controllable and economic route to this important class of chemicals. Copyright © 2013 International Metabolic Engineering Society. All rights reserved.

  12. `Human nature': Chemical engineering students' ideas about human relationships with the natural world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Daphne; Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-05-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The study was conducted with 247 3rd-4th year chemical engineering students in Israeli Universities. It employed the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP)-questionnaire to which students added written explanations. Quantitative analysis of NEP-scale results shows that the students demonstrated moderately ecocentric orientation. Explanations to the NEP-items reveal diverse, ambivalent ideas regarding the notions embodied in the NEP, strong scientific orientation and reliance on technology for addressing environmental challenges. Endorsing sustainability implies that today's engineers be equipped with an ecological perspective. The capacity of Higher Education to enable engineers to develop dispositions about human-nature interrelationships requires adaptation of curricula towards multidisciplinary, integrative learning addressing social-political-economic-ethical perspectives, and implementing critical-thinking within the socio-scientific issues pedagogical approach.

  13. Engineering modular polyketide synthases for production of biofuels and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenlong; Zhang, Wenjun

    2017-09-22

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are one of the most profound biosynthetic factories for producing polyketides with diverse structures and biological activities. These enzymes have been historically studied and engineered to make un-natural polyketides for drug discovery, and have also recently been explored for synthesizing biofuels and industrial chemicals due to their versatility and customizability. Here, we review recent advances in the mechanistic understanding and engineering of modular PKSs for producing polyketide-derived chemicals, and provide perspectives on this relatively new application of PKSs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Advances in metabolic engineering of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Borodina, Irina; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industrial host for production of enzymes, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical ingredients and recently also commodity chemicals and biofuels. Here, we review the advances in modeling and synthetic biology tools and how these tools can speed up the development of yeast cell factories. We also present an overview of metabolic engineering strategies for developing yeast strains for production of polymer monomers: lactic, succinic, and cis,cis-muconic acids. S. cerevisiae has already firmly established itself as a cell factory in industrial biotechnology and the advances in yeast strain engineering will stimulate development of novel yeast-based processes for chemicals production.

  15. Engineering chemically modified viruses for prostate cancer cell recognition.

    PubMed

    Mohan, K; Weiss, G A

    2015-12-01

    Specific detection of circulating tumor cells and characterization of their aggressiveness could improve cancer diagnostics and treatment. Metastasis results from such tumor cells, and causes the majority of cancer deaths. Chemically modified viruses could provide an inexpensive and efficient approach to detect tumor cells and quantitate their cell surface biomarkers. However, non-specific adhesion between the cell surface receptors and the virus surface presents a challenge. This report describes wrapping the virus surface with different PEG architectures, including as fusions to oligolysine, linkers, spacers and scaffolded ligands. The reported PEG wrappers can reduce by >75% the non-specific adhesion of phage to cell surfaces. Dynamic light scattering verified the non-covalent attachment by the reported wrappers as increased sizes of the virus particles. Further modifications resulted in specific detection of prostate cancer cells expressing PSMA, a key prostate cancer biomarker. The approach allowed quantification of PSMA levels on the cell surface, and could distinguish more aggressive forms of the disease.

  16. Towards cleaner combustion engines through groundbreaking detailed chemical kinetic models

    PubMed Central

    Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Blurock, Edward; Bounaceur, Roda; Fournet, René; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Herbinet, Olivier; Sirjean, Baptiste; Warth, V.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of limiting the environmental impact of transportation, this paper reviews new directions which are being followed in the development of more predictive and more accurate detailed chemical kinetic models for the combustion of fuels. In the first part, the performance of current models, especially in terms of the prediction of pollutant formation, is evaluated. In the next parts, recent methods and ways to improve these models are described. An emphasis is given on the development of detailed models based on elementary reactions, on the production of the related thermochemical and kinetic parameters, and on the experimental techniques available to produce the data necessary to evaluate model predictions under well defined conditions. PMID:21597604

  17. The role of chemical engineering in space manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.; Erstfeld, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of factors involved in space manufacturing is presented. It is shown that it will be more economical to obtain the necessary raw materials from the moon than from earth due to earth's greater gravity and atmosphere. Discussion covers what resources can be mined and recovered from the moon and what ranges of industrial feedstock can be provided from lunar materials, noting that metallurgy will be different in space due to the lack of key elements such as H, C, Na, Cl, etc. Also covered are chemical plant design, space environmental factors such as vacuum and zero gravity, recycling requirments, reagent and equipment mass, and unit operations such as materials handling and phase separation. It is concluded that a pilot plant in space could be an economic boon to mankind.

  18. Engineering and Functional Analysis of Mitotic Kinases Through Chemical Genetics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Mathew J K; Jallepalli, Prasad V

    2016-01-01

    During mitosis, multiple protein kinases transform the cytoskeleton and chromosomes into new and highly dynamic structures that mediate the faithful transmission of genetic information and cell division. However, the large number and strong conservation of mammalian kinases in general pose significant obstacles to interrogating them with small molecules, due to the difficulty in identifying and validating those which are truly selective. To overcome this problem, a steric complementation strategy has been developed, in which a bulky "gatekeeper" residue within the active site of the kinase of interest is replaced with a smaller amino acid, such as glycine or alanine. The enlarged catalytic pocket can then be targeted in an allele-specific manner with bulky purine analogs. This strategy provides a general framework for dissecting kinase function with high selectivity, rapid kinetics, and reversibility. In this chapter we discuss the principles and techniques needed to implement this chemical genetic approach in mammalian cells.

  19. The role of chemical engineering in space manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.; Erstfeld, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of factors involved in space manufacturing is presented. It is shown that it will be more economical to obtain the necessary raw materials from the moon than from earth due to earth's greater gravity and atmosphere. Discussion covers what resources can be mined and recovered from the moon and what ranges of industrial feedstock can be provided from lunar materials, noting that metallurgy will be different in space due to the lack of key elements such as H, C, Na, Cl, etc. Also covered are chemical plant design, space environmental factors such as vacuum and zero gravity, recycling requirments, reagent and equipment mass, and unit operations such as materials handling and phase separation. It is concluded that a pilot plant in space could be an economic boon to mankind.

  20. Towards cleaner combustion engines through groundbreaking detailed chemical kinetic models.

    PubMed

    Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Blurock, Edward; Bounaceur, Roda; Fournet, René; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Herbinet, Olivier; Sirjean, Baptiste; Warth, V

    2011-09-01

    In the context of limiting the environmental impact of transportation, this critical review discusses new directions which are being followed in the development of more predictive and more accurate detailed chemical kinetic models for the combustion of fuels. In the first part, the performance of current models, especially in terms of the prediction of pollutant formation, is evaluated. In the next parts, recent methods and ways to improve these models are described. An emphasis is given on the development of detailed models based on elementary reactions, on the production of the related thermochemical and kinetic parameters, and on the experimental techniques available to produce the data necessary to evaluate model predictions under well defined conditions (212 references). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  1. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Jun-hyung

    2013-07-01

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  2. Systems metabolic engineering of microorganisms for natural and non-natural chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Wook; Na, Dokyun; Park, Jong Myoung; Lee, Joungmin; Choi, Sol; Lee, Sang Yup

    2012-05-17

    Growing concerns over limited fossil resources and associated environmental problems are motivating the development of sustainable processes for the production of chemicals, fuels and materials from renewable resources. Metabolic engineering is a key enabling technology for transforming microorganisms into efficient cell factories for these compounds. Systems metabolic engineering, which incorporates the concepts and techniques of systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering at the systems level, offers a conceptual and technological framework to speed the creation of new metabolic enzymes and pathways or the modification of existing pathways for the optimal production of desired products. Here we discuss the general strategies of systems metabolic engineering and examples of its application and offer insights as to when and how each of the different strategies should be used. Finally, we highlight the limitations and challenges to be overcome for the systems metabolic engineering of microorganisms at more advanced levels.

  3. Thermodynamic Modeling of the Chemical Composition of Calcine at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Frazee; J. D. Christian

    2004-02-01

    To send calcine produced at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Yucca Mountain Project for disposal, characterization information will be required. To sample calcine from its existing storage location would require extensive personnel exposure. Sufficient analyses of the chemical composition of the calcine would be extremely difficult and very expensive. In support of characterization development, the chemical composition of calcine from Bin 3 of Calcine Solid Storage Facility II was thermodynamic modeled. This calcine was produced in the Waste Calcination Facility during its second processing campaign, operating with indirect heating at 400 C and 0.744 bar (0.734 atm) during processing of aluminum high-level liquid waste (first cycle extraction raffinate from reprocessing aluminum-clad fuels) from tanks WM-180 and -182 from December 27, 1966 through August 26, 1967. The current modeling effort documents the input compositional data (liquid feed and calciner off-gas) for Batches 300 - 620 and a methodology for estimating the calcine chemical composition. The results, along with assumptions and limitations of the thermodynamic calculations, will serve as a basis for benchmarking subsequent calculations. This will be done by comparing the predictions against extensive analytical results that are currently being obtained on representative samples of the modeled calcine. A commercial free-energy minimization program and database, HSC 5.1, was used to perform the thermodynamic calculations. Currently available experimental data and process information on the calcine were used to make judgments about specific phases and compounds to include and eliminate in the thermodynamic calculations. Some off-gas species were eliminated based on kinetics restrictions evidenced by experimental data and other estimates, and some calcine components and off-gas compounds were eliminated as improbable species (unreliable thermodynamic data). The current Yucca

  4. The bioartificial pancreas (BAP): Biological, chemical and engineering challenges.

    PubMed

    Iacovacci, Veronica; Ricotti, Leonardo; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2016-01-15

    The bioartificial pancreas (BAP) represents a viable solution for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). By encapsulating pancreatic cells in a semipermeable membrane to allow nutrient, insulin and glucose exchange, the side effects produced by islets and whole organ transplantation-related immunosuppressive therapy can be circumvented. Several factors, mainly related to materials properties, capsule morphology and biological environment, play a key role in optimizing BAP systems. The BAP is an extremely complex delivery system for insulin. Despite considerable efforts, in some instances meeting with limited degree of success, a BAP capable of restoring physiological pancreas functions without the need for immunosuppressive drugs and of controlling blood glucose levels especially in large animal models and a few clinical trials, does not exist. The state of the art in terms of materials, fabrication techniques and cell sources, as well as the current status of commercial devices and clinical trials, are described in this overview from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. In addition, challenges to the creation of effective BAP systems are highlighted including future perspectives in terms of component integration from both a biological and an engineering viewpoint.

  5. Formulation of engineered particulate systems for chemical mechanical polishing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basim, Gul Bahar

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is widely used in the microelectronics industry to achieve planarization and patterning of metal and dielectric layers for microelectronic device manufacturing. Rapid advances in the microelectronics industry demand a decrease in the sizes of the devices, resulting in the requirement of a very thin layer of material removal with atomically flat and clean surface finish by CMP. Furthermore, new materials, such as copper and polymeric dielectrics, are introduced to build faster microprocessors, which are more vulnerable to defect formation and also demand more complicated chemistries. These trends necessitate improved control of the CMP that can be achieved by studying the slurry chemical and particulate properties to gain better fundamental understanding on the process. In this study, the impacts of slurry particle size distribution and stability on pad-particle-surface interactions during polishing are investigated. One of the main problems in CMP is the scratch or pit formation as a result of the presence of larger size particles in the slurries. Therefore, in this investigation, impacts of hard and soft (transient) agglomerates on polishing performance are quantified in terms of the material removal rate and the quality of the surface finish. It is shown that the presence of both types of agglomerates must be avoided in CMP slurries and robust stabilization schemes are needed to prevent the transient agglomerate formation. To stabilize the CMP slurries at extreme pH and ionic strength environments, under applied shear and normal forces, repulsive force barriers provided by the self-assembled surfactant structures at the solid/liquid interface are utilized. A major finding of this work is that slurry stabilization has to be achieved by controlling not only the particle-particle interactions, but also the pad-particle-substrate interactions. Perfect lubrication of surfaces by surfactants prevented polishing. Thus, effective

  6. Application of friction welding in petroleum and chemical engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhabarov, R.D.; Fataliev, N.S.; Tkachev, Yu.A.; Timofeev, V.I.; Abdullaev, V.G.

    1995-05-01

    Welding, as a technological process, is widely practiced in modern engineering. Resistance or arc welding is most common, but these techniques are increasingly giving way to friction welding which has several advantages, namely higher labor productivity and better quality, possibility of joining diverse and poorly weldable metals and alloys, dispensing with high-grade welding materials and highly skilled welders, ecological cleanness of the process, etc. The major criterion of efficient application of friction welding is its use in large-scale manufacture of a specific equipment, whereupon the cost of the machine is recovered in a short period. That is why friction welding with creation and fabrication of specific machines was adopted by the petroleum machinery manufacture (manufacture of geological prospecting and drill pipes, pump rods of the welded design, and gate valves of high-pressure Christmas trees). By applying friction welding for the manufacture of geological prospecting and drill pipes in place of resistance butt welding, accidents during drilling due to failure of the welded joints were prevented totally. Application of friction welding for making pump rods of the welded design (with welded nipples and heads) made it possible to save costly high-strength and corrosion-resistance alloy steel to the extent of 90%. Use of friction welding in the manufacture of high-pressure gate valves with welded flanges simplifies the valve-making technology and improves the reliability of the welded joints, even at temperatures as low as -60{degrees}C. In particular, cast gate valve bodies with friction-welded side flanges were tested before their breakdown. The welded joints of the branch pipes, even though they were sharpened to reduce wall thickness, did not fail, which shows high reliability of the gate valve bodies of the welded design.

  7. Chemical Strain Engineering of Magnetism in Oxide Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Copie, Olivier; Varignon, Julien; Rotella, Hélène; Steciuk, Gwladys; Boullay, Philippe; Pautrat, Alain; David, Adrian; Mercey, Bernard; Ghosez, Philippe; Prellier, Wilfrid

    2017-04-03

    Transition metal oxides having a perovskite structure form a wide and technologically important class of compounds. In these systems, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, ferroelastic, or even orbital and charge orderings can develop and eventually coexist. These orderings can be tuned by external electric, magnetic, or stress field, and the cross-couplings between them enable important multifunctional properties, such as piezoelectricity, magneto-electricity, or magneto-elasticity. Recently, it has been proposed that additional to typical fields, the chemical potential that controls the concentration of ion vacancies in these systems may reveal an efficient alternative parameter to further tune their properties and achieve new functionalities. In this study, concretizing this proposal, the authors show that the control of the content of oxygen vacancies in perovskite thin films can indeed be used to tune their magnetic properties. Growing PrVO3 thin films epitaxially on an SrTiO3 substrate, the authors reveal a concrete pathway to achieve this effect. The authors demonstrate that monitoring the concentration of oxygen vacancies through the oxygen partial pressure or the growth temperature can produce a substantial macroscopic tensile strain of a few percent. In turn, this strain affects the exchange interactions, producing a nontrivial evolution of Néel temperature in a range of 30 K.

  8. Chemical Engineering and Instructional Computing: Are They in Step? Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Warren D.

    1988-01-01

    Traces the evolution of instructional computing in the design and control courses. Discusses process design, process control, and expert systems. Concludes that the computing tools for undergraduate instruction are mostly in step with design and control practice in chemical engineering. (CW)

  9. Chemical Engineering Education in Japan and the United States: A Perspective (Part 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Sigmund

    1988-01-01

    Compares graduate chemical engineering education practices of the U.S. and Japan. States that Japanese universities have set time limits on degrees due to industrial hiring practices. Concludes that Japanese graduates are highly trained and uniform. They tend to stay in the same job throughout their career. (MVL)

  10. Interdisciplinary Learning for Chemical Engineering Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Matt; Comitz, Richard L.; Biaglow, Andrew; Lachance, Russ; Sloop, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach to the Chemical Engineering curriculum sequence of courses at West Point enabled our students to experience a much more realistic design process, which more closely replicated a real world scenario. Students conduct the synthesis in the organic chemistry lab, then conduct computer modeling of the reaction with ChemCad and…

  11. Teaching Population Balances for Chemical Engineering Students: Application to Granulation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucala, Veronica; Pina, Juliana

    2007-01-01

    The population balance equation (PBE) is a useful tool to predict particle size distributions in granulation processes. When PBE is taught to advanced chemical engineering students, the internal coordinates (particle properties) are particularly hard to understand. In this paper, the flow of particles along different coordinates is carefully…

  12. Teaching Population Balances for Chemical Engineering Students: Application to Granulation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucala, Veronica; Pina, Juliana

    2007-01-01

    The population balance equation (PBE) is a useful tool to predict particle size distributions in granulation processes. When PBE is taught to advanced chemical engineering students, the internal coordinates (particle properties) are particularly hard to understand. In this paper, the flow of particles along different coordinates is carefully…

  13. Mitigating the Mathematical Knowledge Gap between High School and First Year University Chemical Engineering Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basitere, Moses; Ivala, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out at a University of Technology, South Africa, aimed at identifying the existence of the mathematical knowledge gap and evaluating the intervention designed to bridge the knowledge gap amongst students studying first year mathematics at the Chemical Engineering Extended Curriculum Program (ECP). In this…

  14. Water--1970. Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series No. 107, Volume 67, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, Lawrence K., Ed.

    Due to the tremendous interest in all phases of environmental control, particularly with reference to water pollution control, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) is attempting to provide the lay public with accurate information about water resources so they may react with proper knowledge and constructive activity. This anthology…

  15. Incorporating Computer-Aided Software in the Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Core Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnaizy, Raafat; Abdel-Jabbar, Nabil; Ibrahim, Taleb H.; Husseini, Ghaleb A.

    2014-01-01

    Introductions of computer-aided software and simulators are implemented during the sophomore-year of the chemical engineering (ChE) curriculum at the American University of Sharjah (AUS). Our faculty concurs that software integration within the curriculum is beneficial to our students, as evidenced by the positive feedback received from industry…

  16. Incorporating Computer-Aided Software in the Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Core Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnaizy, Raafat; Abdel-Jabbar, Nabil; Ibrahim, Taleb H.; Husseini, Ghaleb A.

    2014-01-01

    Introductions of computer-aided software and simulators are implemented during the sophomore-year of the chemical engineering (ChE) curriculum at the American University of Sharjah (AUS). Our faculty concurs that software integration within the curriculum is beneficial to our students, as evidenced by the positive feedback received from industry…

  17. Conceptual Framework to Help Promote Retention and Transfer in the Introductory Chemical Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanyak, Michael E., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In an introductory chemical engineering course, the conceptual framework of a holistic problem-solving methodology in conjunction with a problem-based learning approach has been shown to create a learning environment that nurtures deep learning rather than surface learning. Based on exam scores, student grades are either the same or better than…

  18. Interdisciplinary Learning for Chemical Engineering Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Matt; Comitz, Richard L.; Biaglow, Andrew; Lachance, Russ; Sloop, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach to the Chemical Engineering curriculum sequence of courses at West Point enabled our students to experience a much more realistic design process, which more closely replicated a real world scenario. Students conduct the synthesis in the organic chemistry lab, then conduct computer modeling of the reaction with ChemCad and…

  19. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography in the Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Douglas D.; Guo, Hui; Karnik, Nikhila

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the assembly of a simple, low-cost, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system and its use in the undergraduate chemical engineering laboratory course to perform simple experiments. By interpreting the results from these experiments students are able to gain significant experience in the general method of…

  20. Finding Hidden Chemistry in Ancient Egyptian Artifacts: Pigment Degradation Taught in a Chemical Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gime´nez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to show the application of the study of ancient technology and science on teaching (and learning) chemistry in Chemical Engineering Undergraduate studies. Degradation patterns of pigments used in Ancient Egypt were incorporated in the syllabus of the course entitled "Technological and Scientific…

  1. Effect of Continuous Assessment on Learning Outcomes on Two Chemical Engineering Courses: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuunila, R.; Pulkkinen, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of continuous assessment on the learning outcomes of two chemical engineering courses is studied over a several-year period. Average grades and passing percentages of courses after the final examination are reported and also student feedback on the courses is collected. The results indicate significantly better learning…

  2. Class and Home Problems: Humidification, a True "Home" Problem for p. Chemical Engineer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condoret, Jean-Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The problem of maintaining hygrothermal comfort in a house is addressed using the chemical engineer's toolbox. A simple dynamic modelling proved to give a good description of the humidification of the house in winter, using a domestic humidifier. Parameters of the model were identified from a simple experiment. Surprising results, especially…

  3. A Multi-Institution Study of Student Demographics and Outcomes in Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Susan M.; Layton, Richard A.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Brawner, Catherine E.; Long, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Using a large multi-institutional dataset, we describe demographics and outcomes for students starting in and transferring into chemical engineering (ChE). In this dataset, men outnumber women in ChE except among black students. While ChE starters graduate in ChE at rates comparable to or above their racial/ethnic population average for…

  4. An Internet-Based Distributed Laboratory for Interactive Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Jing; Kettler, David J.; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna

    2007-01-01

    A common undergraduate chemical engineering experiment has been modified for on-line operation over the Internet. By adopting rapidly changing Internet and object component technologies, we developed a novel approach combining the Internet and regular laboratory equipment. The client-server applications use a Visual Basic and Labtech programming…

  5. Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer Design Practices into Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Jeffrey R.; Eden, Mario R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces, via case study example, the benefit of including risk assessment methodology and inherently safer design practices into the curriculum for chemical engineering students. This work illustrates how these tools can be applied during the earliest stages of conceptual process design. The impacts of decisions made during…

  6. Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer Design Practices into Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Jeffrey R.; Eden, Mario R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces, via case study example, the benefit of including risk assessment methodology and inherently safer design practices into the curriculum for chemical engineering students. This work illustrates how these tools can be applied during the earliest stages of conceptual process design. The impacts of decisions made during…

  7. Development of Chemical Engineering Course Methods Using Action Research: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virkki-Hatakka, Terhi; Tuunila, Ritva; Nurkka, Niina

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the systematic development of a teaching methodology for two chemical engineering courses. The aim was to improve the quality of teaching to achieve expected learning outcomes more effectively. The development was carried out over a period of several years based on an action research methodology with data systematically…

  8. A Multi-Institution Study of Student Demographics and Outcomes in Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Susan M.; Layton, Richard A.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Brawner, Catherine E.; Long, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Using a large multi-institutional dataset, we describe demographics and outcomes for students starting in and transferring into chemical engineering (ChE). In this dataset, men outnumber women in ChE except among black students. While ChE starters graduate in ChE at rates comparable to or above their racial/ethnic population average for…

  9. Effect of Continuous Assessment on Learning Outcomes on Two Chemical Engineering Courses: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuunila, R.; Pulkkinen, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of continuous assessment on the learning outcomes of two chemical engineering courses is studied over a several-year period. Average grades and passing percentages of courses after the final examination are reported and also student feedback on the courses is collected. The results indicate significantly better learning…

  10. Water--1970. Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series No. 107, Volume 67, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, Lawrence K., Ed.

    Due to the tremendous interest in all phases of environmental control, particularly with reference to water pollution control, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) is attempting to provide the lay public with accurate information about water resources so they may react with proper knowledge and constructive activity. This anthology…

  11. Ideas to Consider for New Chemical Engineering Educators: Part 1 (Courses Offered Earlier in the Curriculum)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Jason M.; Silverstein, David L.; Visco, Donald P., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical engineering faculty members are often asked to teach a core course that they have not taught before. The immediate thought is to come up with some new ideas to revolutionize that core course in ways that will engage students and maximize learning. This paper summarizes the authors' selection of the most effective, innovative approaches…

  12. Sustainability in the Design, Synthesis and Analysis of Chemical Engineering Processes 1st edition (Preface)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book preface explains the needs found by the book editors for assembling the state of the art of technical and scientific knowledge relevant to chemical engineering, sustainability, and sustainable uses of wastes and materials management, and to do so in an accessible and c...

  13. Design and Analysis of Questionnaires for Survey Skills in Chemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas Yagüe, Susana; Coca Sanz, Mónica; González Benito, Gerardo; Cartón López, Ángel; Urueña Alonso, Miguel Ángel; García Cubero, Mª Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The new reorganization of university education has involved relevant changes in teaching and learning methodologies in order to help students to learn more effectively and to develop important skills and competences demanded by the professional world. In this sense the new configuration of the degree in Chemical Engineering required the…

  14. Class and Home Problems: Humidification, a True "Home" Problem for p. Chemical Engineer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condoret, Jean-Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The problem of maintaining hygrothermal comfort in a house is addressed using the chemical engineer's toolbox. A simple dynamic modelling proved to give a good description of the humidification of the house in winter, using a domestic humidifier. Parameters of the model were identified from a simple experiment. Surprising results, especially…

  15. Chemical Engineering and Instructional Computing: Are They in Step? Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Warren D.

    1988-01-01

    Traces the evolution of instructional computing in the design and control courses. Discusses process design, process control, and expert systems. Concludes that the computing tools for undergraduate instruction are mostly in step with design and control practice in chemical engineering. (CW)

  16. Sustainability in the Design, Synthesis and Analysis of Chemical Engineering Processes 1st edition (Preface)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book preface explains the needs found by the book editors for assembling the state of the art of technical and scientific knowledge relevant to chemical engineering, sustainability, and sustainable uses of wastes and materials management, and to do so in an accessible and c...

  17. Molecular Modeling as a Self-Taught Component of a Conventional Undergraduate Chemical Reaction Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, Erhard W.; Zygmunt, William E.

    2016-01-01

    We inserted a self-taught molecular modeling project into an otherwise conventional undergraduate chemical-reaction-engineering course. Our objectives were that students should (a) learn with minimal instructor intervention, (b) gain an appreciation for the relationship between molecular structure and, first, macroscopic state functions in…

  18. Integrating Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering Education: The Application of an Environmental Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanes, M. T.; Palomares, A. E.; Sanchez-Tovar, R.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of sustainable development have been integrated in chemical engineering education by means of an environmental management system. These principles have been introduced in the teaching laboratories where students perform their practical classes. In this paper, the implementation of the environmental management system, the problems…

  19. Molecular Modeling as a Self-Taught Component of a Conventional Undergraduate Chemical Reaction Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, Erhard W.; Zygmunt, William E.

    2016-01-01

    We inserted a self-taught molecular modeling project into an otherwise conventional undergraduate chemical-reaction-engineering course. Our objectives were that students should (a) learn with minimal instructor intervention, (b) gain an appreciation for the relationship between molecular structure and, first, macroscopic state functions in…

  20. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering 1859-1959.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, J. Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Describes a chemical engineering course for liberal arts students that is taught from a scientific, social, and symbolic perspective. A summary of the early days of oil refining is included as representative of one of the major content segments of the course. (ML)

  1. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering 1859-1959.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, J. Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Describes a chemical engineering course for liberal arts students that is taught from a scientific, social, and symbolic perspective. A summary of the early days of oil refining is included as representative of one of the major content segments of the course. (ML)

  2. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography in the Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Douglas D.; Guo, Hui; Karnik, Nikhila

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the assembly of a simple, low-cost, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system and its use in the undergraduate chemical engineering laboratory course to perform simple experiments. By interpreting the results from these experiments students are able to gain significant experience in the general method of…

  3. Ideas to Consider for New Chemical Engineering Educators: Part 1 (Courses Offered Earlier in the Curriculum)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Jason M.; Silverstein, David L.; Visco, Donald P., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical engineering faculty members are often asked to teach a core course that they have not taught before. The immediate thought is to come up with some new ideas to revolutionize that core course in ways that will engage students and maximize learning. This paper summarizes the authors' selection of the most effective, innovative approaches…

  4. Using an On-Line Tool To Investigate Chemical Engineering Seniors' Concept of the Design Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streveler, Ruth A.; Miller, Ronald L.; Boyd, Thomas M.

    In this study, multidimensional scaling (MDS) was used to measure how 23 chemical engineering seniors categorized key design terms at the beginning and end of a capstone design course. An on-line method was developed to collect the MDS data. The results suggest that some important design concepts were not well understood, even at the end of the…

  5. Finding Hidden Chemistry in Ancient Egyptian Artifacts: Pigment Degradation Taught in a Chemical Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gime´nez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to show the application of the study of ancient technology and science on teaching (and learning) chemistry in Chemical Engineering Undergraduate studies. Degradation patterns of pigments used in Ancient Egypt were incorporated in the syllabus of the course entitled "Technological and Scientific…

  6. An Internet-Based Distributed Laboratory for Interactive Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Jing; Kettler, David J.; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna

    2007-01-01

    A common undergraduate chemical engineering experiment has been modified for on-line operation over the Internet. By adopting rapidly changing Internet and object component technologies, we developed a novel approach combining the Internet and regular laboratory equipment. The client-server applications use a Visual Basic and Labtech programming…

  7. Integrating Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering Education: The Application of an Environmental Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanes, M. T.; Palomares, A. E.; Sanchez-Tovar, R.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of sustainable development have been integrated in chemical engineering education by means of an environmental management system. These principles have been introduced in the teaching laboratories where students perform their practical classes. In this paper, the implementation of the environmental management system, the problems…

  8. Engineering the biological conversion of methanol to specialty chemicals in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, W Brian; Jones, J Andrew; Bennett, R Kyle; Gonzalez, Jacqueline E; Vernacchio, Victoria R; Collins, Shannon M; Palmer, Michael A; Schmidt, Samuel; Antoniewicz, Maciek R; Koffas, Mattheos A; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2017-01-01

    Methanol is an attractive substrate for biological production of chemicals and fuels. Engineering methylotrophic Escherichia coli as a platform organism for converting methanol to metabolites is desirable. Prior efforts to engineer methylotrophic E. coli were limited by methanol dehydrogenases (Mdhs) with unfavorable enzyme kinetics. We engineered E. coli to utilize methanol using a superior NAD-dependent Mdh from Bacillus stearothermophilus and ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway enzymes from B. methanolicus. Using (13)C-labeling, we demonstrate this E. coli strain converts methanol into biomass components. For example, the key TCA cycle intermediates, succinate and malate, exhibit labeling up to 39%, while the lower glycolytic intermediate, 3-phosphoglycerate, up to 53%. Multiple carbons are labeled for each compound, demonstrating a cycling RuMP pathway for methanol assimilation to support growth. By incorporating the pathway to synthesize the flavanone naringenin, we demonstrate the first example of in vivo conversion of methanol into a specialty chemical in E. coli.

  9. Engineering cell factories for producing building block chemicals for bio-polymer synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tsuge, Yota; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sasaki, Kengo; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-21

    Synthetic polymers are widely used in daily life. Due to increasing environmental concerns related to global warming and the depletion of oil reserves, the development of microbial-based fermentation processes for the production of polymer building block chemicals from renewable resources is desirable to replace current petroleum-based methods. To this end, strains that efficiently produce the target chemicals at high yields and productivity are needed. Recent advances in metabolic engineering have enabled the biosynthesis of polymer compounds at high yield and productivities by governing the carbon flux towards the target chemicals. Using these methods, microbial strains have been engineered to produce monomer chemicals for replacing traditional petroleum-derived aliphatic polymers. These developments also raise the possibility of microbial production of aromatic chemicals for synthesizing high-performance polymers with desirable properties, such as ultraviolet absorbance, high thermal resistance, and mechanical strength. In the present review, we summarize recent progress in metabolic engineering approaches to optimize microbial strains for producing building blocks to synthesize aliphatic and high-performance aromatic polymers.

  10. Development and testing of dry chemicals in advanced extinguishing systems for jet engine nacelle fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, R. L.; Ling, A. C. (Editor); Mayer, L. A.; Myronik, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of dry chemical in extinguishing and delaying reignition of fires resulting from hydrocarbon fuel leaking onto heated surfaces such as can occur in jet engine nacelles is studied. The commercial fire extinguishant dry chemical tried are sodium and potassium bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, carbamate (Monnex), metal halogen, and metal hydroxycarbonate compounds. Synthetic and preparative procedures for new materials developed, a new concept of fire control by dry chemical agents, descriptions of experiment assemblages to test dry chemical fire extinguishant efficiencies in controlling fuel fires initiated by hot surfaces, comparative testing data for more than 25 chemical systems in a 'static' assemblage with no air flow across the heated surface, and similar comparative data for more than ten compounds in a dynamic system with air flows up to 350 ft/sec are presented.

  11. Extinction of in-flight engine fuel-leak fires with dry chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The dry chemicals discussed here are seen as having a greater weight effectiveness than the halons in current use for controlling fuel-leak fires, especially in the presence of high airflow rates. The commercial dry chemicals K2CO3, KHCO3, and KC2N2H3O3 are found to be more effective than CF2ClBr and CF3Br in delaying the hot-surface reignition of fuel-leak fires after initial extinguishment. Experimental dry chemical formulations of potassium dawsonite, KAl(OH)2CO3, and of KCl and KI are seen as being even more weight effective than the above-mentioned commercial dry chemicals. It is noted, however, that the suitability and effectiveness of dry chemicals in controlling engine nacele fires has not yet been demonstrated in test aircraft.

  12. Extinction of in-flight engine fuel-leak fires with dry chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The dry chemicals discussed here are seen as having a greater weight effectiveness than the halons in current use for controlling fuel-leak fires, especially in the presence of high airflow rates. The commercial dry chemicals K2CO3, KHCO3, and KC2N2H3O3 are found to be more effective than CF2ClBr and CF3Br in delaying the hot-surface reignition of fuel-leak fires after initial extinguishment. Experimental dry chemical formulations of potassium dawsonite, KAl(OH)2CO3, and of KCl and KI are seen as being even more weight effective than the above-mentioned commercial dry chemicals. It is noted, however, that the suitability and effectiveness of dry chemicals in controlling engine nacele fires has not yet been demonstrated in test aircraft.

  13. Progressively Fostering Students' Chemical Information Skills in a Three-Year Chemical Engineering Program in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gozzi, Christel; Arnoux, Marie-Jose´; Breuzard, Jere´my; Marchal, Claire; Nikitine, Clémence; Renaudat, Alice; Toulgoat, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Literature searches are essential for scientists. Thus, courses on how to do a good literature search have been integrated in studies at CPE Lyon for many years. Recently, we modified our pedagogical approach in order to initiate students progressively in the search for chemical information. In addition, this new teaching organization is now based…

  14. Progressively Fostering Students' Chemical Information Skills in a Three-Year Chemical Engineering Program in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gozzi, Christel; Arnoux, Marie-Jose´; Breuzard, Jere´my; Marchal, Claire; Nikitine, Clémence; Renaudat, Alice; Toulgoat, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Literature searches are essential for scientists. Thus, courses on how to do a good literature search have been integrated in studies at CPE Lyon for many years. Recently, we modified our pedagogical approach in order to initiate students progressively in the search for chemical information. In addition, this new teaching organization is now based…

  15. Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicer, C. W.; Holdren, M. W.; Riggin, R. M.; Lyon, T. F.

    1994-10-01

    Assessment of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions is required by planners and policy makers. Seveal areas of concern are: 1. exposure of airport workers and urban residents to toxic chemicals emitted when the engines operate at low power (idle and taxi) on the ground; 2. contributions to urban photochemical air pollution of aircraft volatile organic and nitrogen oxides emissions from operations around airports; and 3. emissions of nitrogen oxides and particles during high-altitude operation. The environmental impact of chemicals emitted from jet aircraft turbine engines has not been firmly established due to lack of data regarding emission rates and identities of the compounds emitted. This paper describes an experimental study of two different aircraft turbine engines designed to determine detailed organic emissions, as well as emissions of inorganic gases. Emissions were measured at several engine power settings. Measurements were made of detailed organic composition from C1 through C17, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements were made using a multi-port sampling pro be positioned directly behind the engine in the exhaust exit plane. The emission measurements have been used to determine the organic distribution by carbon number and the distribution by compound class at each engine power level. The sum of the organic species was compared with an independent measurement of total organic carbon to assess the carbon mass balance. A portion of the exhaust was captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers to assess the photochemical reactivity of the emissions with respect to ozone formation. The reactivity of emissions from the two engines was apportioned by chemical compound class.

  16. Generation of chemically engineered ribosomes for atomic mutagenesis studies on protein biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Matthias D; Chirkova, Anna; Voegele, Paul; Polacek, Norbert

    2011-05-01

    The protocol describes the site-specific chemical modification of 23S rRNA of Thermus aquaticus ribosomes. The centerpiece of this 'atomic mutagenesis' approach is the site-specific incorporation of non-natural nucleoside analogs into 23S rRNA in the context of the entire 70S ribosome. This technique exhaustively makes use of the available crystallographic structures of the ribosome for designing detailed biochemical experiments aiming at unraveling molecular insights of ribosomal functions. The generation of chemically engineered ribosomes carrying a particular non-natural 23S rRNA residue at the site of interest, a procedure that typically takes less than 2 d, allows the study of translation at the molecular level and goes far beyond the limits of standard mutagenesis approaches. This methodology, in combination with the presented tests for ribosomal functions adapted to chemically engineered ribosomes, allows unprecedented molecular insight into the mechanisms of protein biosynthesis.

  17. Challenges and Promises of Overcoming Epistemological and Methodological Partiality: Advancing Engineering Education through Acceptance of Diverse Ways of Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Elliot P.; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Borrego, Maura

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore some challenges and promises when the epistemological diversity embedded in qualitative research traditions is introduced to research communities with one dominant research paradigm, such as engineering education. Literature is used from other fields and empirical data are used from engineering education,…

  18. Challenges and promises of overcoming epistemological and methodological partiality: Advancing engineering education through acceptance of diverse ways of knowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Elliot P.; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Borrego, Maura

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore some challenges and promises when the epistemological diversity embedded in qualitative research traditions is introduced to research communities with one dominant research paradigm, such as engineering education. Literature is used from other fields and empirical data are used from engineering education, including the practices of the European Journal of Engineering Education and the Journal of Engineering Education, with the expectation that the ideas that are presented are relevant to a broad range of education disciplines. A number of challenges are identified as the epistemological diversity of qualitative research is introduced to the primarily positivist field of engineering education. Ultimately, embracing epistemological diversity holds the promise of researchers being able to ask: 'What questions and answers become possible from these newly created positions and what can be learned from these alternative approaches?'.

  19. NNEPEQ: Chemical equilibrium version of the Navy/NASA Engine Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, Laurence H.; Gordon, Sanford

    1988-01-01

    The Navy NASA Engine Program, NNEP, currently is in use at a large number of government agencies, commercial companies and universities. This computer code has bee used extensively to calculate the design and off-design (matched) performance of a broad range of turbine engines, ranging from subsonic turboprops to variable cycle engines for supersonic transports. Recently, there has been increased interest in applications for which NNEP was not capable of simulating, namely, high Mach applications, alternate fuels including cryogenics, and cycles such as the gas generator air-turbo-rocker (ATR). In addition, there is interest in cycles employing ejectors such as for military fighters. New engine component models had to be created for incorporation into NNEP, and it was found necessary to include chemical dissociation effects of high temperature gases. The incorporation of these extended capabilities into NNEP is discussed and some of the effects of these changes are illustrated.

  20. Metabolic engineering of strains: from industrial-scale to lab-scale chemical production.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; Alper, Hal S

    2015-03-01

    A plethora of successful metabolic engineering case studies have been published over the past several decades. Here, we highlight a collection of microbially produced chemicals using a historical framework, starting with titers ranging from industrial scale (more than 50 g/L), to medium-scale (5-50 g/L), and lab-scale (0-5 g/L). Although engineered Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae emerge as prominent hosts in the literature as a result of well-developed genetic engineering tools, several novel native-producing strains are gaining attention. This review catalogs the current progress of metabolic engineering towards production of compounds such as acids, alcohols, amino acids, natural organic compounds, and others.

  1. NNEPEQ - Chemical equilibrium version of the Navy/NASA Engine Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.; Gordon, S.

    1989-01-01

    The Navy NASA Engine Program, NNEP, currently is in use at a large number of government agencies, commercial companies and universities. This computer code has been used extensively to calculate the design and off-design (matched) performance of a broad range of turbine engines, ranging from subsonic turboprops to variable cycle engines for supersonic transports. Recently, there has been increased interest in applications for which NNEP was not capable of simulating, namely, high Mach applications, alternate fuels including cryogenics, and cycles such as the gas generator air-turbo-rocker (ATR). In addition, there is interest in cycles employing ejectors such as for military fighters. New engine component models had to be created for incorporation into NNEP, and it was found necessary to include chemical dissociation effects of high temperature gases. The incorporation of these extended capabilities into NNEP is discussed and some of the effects of these changes are illustrated.

  2. Biofuels and bio-based chemicals from lignocellulose: metabolic engineering strategies in strain development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rachel; Dou, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Interest in developing a sustainable technology for fuels and chemicals has unleashed tremendous creativity in metabolic engineering for strain development over the last few years. This is driven by the exceptionally recalcitrant substrate, lignocellulose, and the necessity to keep the costs down for commodity products. Traditional methods of gene expression and evolutionary engineering are more effectively used with the help of synthetic biology and -omics techniques. Compared to the last biomass research peak during the 1980s oil crisis, a more diverse range of microorganisms are being engineered for a greater variety of products, reflecting the broad applicability and effectiveness of today's gene technology. We review here several prominent and successful metabolic engineering strategies with emphasis on the following four areas: xylose catabolism, inhibitor tolerance, synthetic microbial consortium, and cellulosic oligomer assimilation.

  3. Fueling Chemical Engineering Concepts with Biodiesel Production: A Professional Development Experience for High School Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Anju

    2015-01-01

    This one-day workshop for pre-service teachers was aimed at implementing a uniquely designed and ready-to-implement chemical engineering curriculum in high school coursework. This educational and professional development opportunity introduced: 1) chemical engineering curriculum and career opportunities, 2) basic industrial processes and flow…

  4. English Language Publishing in Chemical Engineering Journals from an Indian Academic's Point of View--A Broad Scientific Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palit, Sukanchan

    2016-01-01

    Scientific vision and scientific understanding in today's world are in the path of new glory. Chemical Engineering science is witnessing drastic and rapid changes. The metamorphosis of human civilization in this century is faced with vicious challenges. Progress of Chemical Engineering science, the vision of technology and the broad chemical…

  5. Fueling Chemical Engineering Concepts with Biodiesel Production: A Professional Development Experience for High School Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Anju

    2015-01-01

    This one-day workshop for pre-service teachers was aimed at implementing a uniquely designed and ready-to-implement chemical engineering curriculum in high school coursework. This educational and professional development opportunity introduced: 1) chemical engineering curriculum and career opportunities, 2) basic industrial processes and flow…

  6. Strategies and applications for incorporating physical and chemical signal gradients in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Singh, Milind; Berkland, Cory; Detamore, Michael S

    2008-12-01

    From embryonic development to wound repair, concentration gradients of bioactive signaling molecules guide tissue formation and regeneration. Moreover, gradients in cellular and extracellular architecture as well as in mechanical properties are readily apparent in native tissues. Perhaps tissue engineers can take a cue from nature in attempting to regenerate tissues by incorporating gradients into engineering design strategies. Indeed, gradient-based approaches are an emerging trend in tissue engineering, standing in contrast to traditional approaches of homogeneous delivery of cells and/or growth factors using isotropic scaffolds. Gradients in tissue engineering lie at the intersection of three major paradigms in the field-biomimetic, interfacial, and functional tissue engineering-by combining physical (via biomaterial design) and chemical (with growth/differentiation factors and cell adhesion molecules) signal delivery to achieve a continuous transition in both structure and function. This review consolidates several key methodologies to generate gradients, some of which have never been employed in a tissue engineering application, and discusses strategies for incorporating these methods into tissue engineering and implant design. A key finding of this review was that two-dimensional physicochemical gradient substrates, which serve as excellent high-throughput screening tools for optimizing desired biomaterial properties, can be enhanced in the future by transitioning from two dimensions to three dimensions, which would enable studies of cell-protein-biomaterial interactions in a more native tissue-like environment. In addition, biomimetic tissue regeneration via combined delivery of graded physical and chemical signals appears to be a promising strategy for the regeneration of heterogeneous tissues and tissue interfaces. In the future, in vivo applications will shed more light on the performance of gradient-based mechanical integrity and signal delivery

  7. Toward glycerol biorefinery: metabolic engineering for the production of biofuels and chemicals from glycerol.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Liu, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    As an inevitable by-product of the biofuel industry, glycerol is becoming an attractive feedstock for biorefinery due to its abundance, low price and high degree of reduction. Converting crude glycerol into value-added products is important to increase the economic viability of the biofuel industry. Metabolic engineering of industrial strains to improve its performance and to enlarge the product spectrum of glycerol biotransformation process is highly important toward glycerol biorefinery. This review focuses on recent metabolic engineering efforts as well as challenges involved in the utilization of glycerol as feedstock for the production of fuels and chemicals, especially for the production of diols, organic acids and biofuels.

  8. Strategies and Applications for Incorporating Physical and Chemical Signal Gradients in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Milind; Berkland, Cory

    2008-01-01

    From embryonic development to wound repair, concentration gradients of bioactive signaling molecules guide tissue formation and regeneration. Moreover, gradients in cellular and extracellular architecture as well as in mechanical properties are readily apparent in native tissues. Perhaps tissue engineers can take a cue from nature in attempting to regenerate tissues by incorporating gradients into engineering design strategies. Indeed, gradient-based approaches are an emerging trend in tissue engineering, standing in contrast to traditional approaches of homogeneous delivery of cells and/or growth factors using isotropic scaffolds. Gradients in tissue engineering lie at the intersection of three major paradigms in the field—biomimetic, interfacial, and functional tissue engineering—by combining physical (via biomaterial design) and chemical (with growth/differentiation factors and cell adhesion molecules) signal delivery to achieve a continuous transition in both structure and function. This review consolidates several key methodologies to generate gradients, some of which have never been employed in a tissue engineering application, and discusses strategies for incorporating these methods into tissue engineering and implant design. A key finding of this review was that two-dimensional physicochemical gradient substrates, which serve as excellent high-throughput screening tools for optimizing desired biomaterial properties, can be enhanced in the future by transitioning from two dimensions to three dimensions, which would enable studies of cell–protein–biomaterial interactions in a more native tissue–like environment. In addition, biomimetic tissue regeneration via combined delivery of graded physical and chemical signals appears to be a promising strategy for the regeneration of heterogeneous tissues and tissue interfaces. In the future, in vivo applications will shed more light on the performance of gradient-based mechanical integrity and signal

  9. The Role of Electronic Preprints in Chemical Communication: Analysis of Citation, Usage, and Acceptance in the Journal Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cecelia

    2003-01-01

    Characterizes the use and acceptance of electronic preprints in chemistry literature based on a survey of authors of preprints appearing in the Chemistry Preprint Server (CPS). Shows that preprints are convenient for disseminating research findings and for receiving feedback before submitting to a peer-review journal, but that reception of…

  10. The Role of Electronic Preprints in Chemical Communication: Analysis of Citation, Usage, and Acceptance in the Journal Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cecelia

    2003-01-01

    Characterizes the use and acceptance of electronic preprints in chemistry literature based on a survey of authors of preprints appearing in the Chemistry Preprint Server (CPS). Shows that preprints are convenient for disseminating research findings and for receiving feedback before submitting to a peer-review journal, but that reception of…

  11. Coagulation sensors based on magnetostrictive delay lines for biomedical and chemical engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliaritsi, E.; Zoumpoulakis, L.; Simitzis, J.; Vassiliou, P.; Hristoforou, E.

    2006-04-01

    Coagulation sensors based on the magnetostrictive delay line technique are presented in this paper. They are based on magnetostrictive ribbons and are used for measuring the coagulation, curing or solidification time of different liquids. Experimental results indicate that the presented sensing elements can determine the blood coagulation with remarkable repeatability, thus allowing their use as blood coagulation sensors. Additionally, results indicate that they can also measure curing time of resins, solidification of fluids and coagulation of chemical substances, therefore allowing their implementation in chemical engineering applications.

  12. On the value of CO2 cleaning operations: An engineering and chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L. L.; Durkee, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the chemical and engineering reasons why cleaning and particle-removal applications involving pressurized liquid and supercritical CO{sub 2} have been successful, and not. It is possible to predict which applications involving CO{sub 2} cleaning are likely to be successful, and which are not. The two key issues, which apply to use of any solvent for cleaning work, are: (1) How well the Hansen Solubility Parameters of the solvent match those of the soil - either chemical or polymer; and (2) How well the physical properties of the solvent augment the removal methods intended to liberate soil and particles from the substrate to be cleaned.

  13. Chemical Laser Systems: An Engineering Approach. Volume I. Chemical Laser Analysis Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-31

    P0T0I:wS9 OP LO ?,see 79.9047W S5,g PLOS -fees RS.g4OqO9tS.~S’LOS alo0 C LOS P140 C LOS Rs C* *!q’.9 2? 70 IPVILE.YS ISO TROP 110 NIO SLUA N*LOS #IS0 64C...T29’FAILURE IN SUBROUTINE CANS AS CALLED FROM SURROUTINLOS 3390 70 APPENDIX C CHEMICAL LASER ANALYSIS PROGRAM (CLAP) PROGRAM LOS OVERLAY LOS PAGE c...CPCA** 0) 70 C CPCALC 0100 C*oIoooOOOO.oo*oooo OOO.OOOooo eo**********oOooooOO*O**ooooooeoCPCALC

  14. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals.

    PubMed

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-15

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes.

  15. Mimicking Neurotransmitter Release in Chemical Synapses via Hysteresis Engineering in MoS2 Transistors.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Andrew J; Razavieh, Ali; Nasr, Joseph R; Schulman, Daniel S; Eichfeld, Chad M; Das, Saptarshi

    2017-03-28

    Neurotransmitter release in chemical synapses is fundamental to diverse brain functions such as motor action, learning, cognition, emotion, perception, and consciousness. Moreover, improper functioning or abnormal release of neurotransmitter is associated with numerous neurological disorders such as epilepsy, sclerosis, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. We have utilized hysteresis engineering in a back-gated MoS2 field effect transistor (FET) in order to mimic such neurotransmitter release dynamics in chemical synapses. All three essential features, i.e., quantal, stochastic, and excitatory or inhibitory nature of neurotransmitter release, were accurately captured in our experimental demonstration. We also mimicked an important phenomenon called long-term potentiation (LTP), which forms the basis of human memory. Finally, we demonstrated how to engineer the LTP time by operating the MoS2 FET in different regimes. Our findings could provide a critical component toward the design of next-generation smart and intelligent human-like machines and human-machine interfaces.

  16. Systems Engineering of Chemical Hydrogen Storage, Pressure Vessel and Balance of Plant for Onboard Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2014-09-02

    This is the annual report for the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence project as required by DOE EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office. We have been provided with a specific format. It describes the work that was done with cryo-sorbent based and chemical-based hydrogen storage materials. Balance of plant components were developed, proof-of-concept testing performed, system costs estimated, and transient models validated as part of this work.

  17. Chemical and Materials Information Management to Achieve Sustainable Engineering and Design for the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    Approved for Public Release ; Distribution Unlimited Chemical and Materials Information Management to Achieve Sustainable Engineering and Design for...Data Sources Solution – Distributed Information System Logistics Sustainability Approved for Public Release ; Distribution Unlimited • Single point...currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

  18. Extinguishing in-flight engine fuel-leak fires with dry chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The fire extinguishant storage temperature requirements were examined for several commercially available dry chemicals. Particular emphasis was placed on the development of dry powder extinguishant that, when discharged into a jet engine fuel leak fire, would stick to the hot surfaces. Moreover, after putting out the initial fire, these extinguishants would act as antireignition catalysts, even when the fuel continued to leak onto the heated surface.

  19. Chemical and Biophysical Modulation of Cas9 for Tunable Genome Engineering.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, James K; Harrington, Lucas B; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2016-03-18

    The application of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for genome engineering has revolutionized the ability to interrogate genomes of mammalian cells. Programming the Cas9 endonuclease to induce DNA breaks at specified sites is achieved by simply modifying the sequence of its cognate guide RNA. Although Cas9-mediated genome editing has been shown to be highly specific, cleavage events at off-target sites have also been reported. Minimizing, and eventually abolishing, unwanted off-target cleavage remains a major goal of the CRISPR-Cas9 technology before its implementation for therapeutic use. Recent efforts have turned to chemical biology and biophysical approaches to engineer inducible genome editing systems for controlling Cas9 activity at the transcriptional and protein levels. Here, we review recent advancements to modulate Cas9-mediated genome editing by engineering split-Cas9 constructs, inteins, small molecules, protein-based dimerizing domains, and light-inducible systems.

  20. Metabolic engineering in chemolithoautotrophic hosts for the production of fuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Nybo, S Eric; Khan, Nymul E; Woolston, Benjamin M; Curtis, Wayne R

    2015-07-01

    The ability of autotrophic organisms to fix CO2 presents an opportunity to utilize this 'greenhouse gas' as an inexpensive substrate for biochemical production. Unlike conventional heterotrophic microorganisms that consume carbohydrates and amino acids, prokaryotic chemolithoautotrophs have evolved the capacity to utilize reduced chemical compounds to fix CO2 and drive metabolic processes. The use of chemolithoautotrophic hosts as production platforms has been renewed by the prospect of metabolically engineered commodity chemicals and fuels. Efforts such as the ARPA-E electrofuels program highlight both the potential and obstacles that chemolithoautotrophic biosynthetic platforms provide. This review surveys the numerous advances that have been made in chemolithoautotrophic metabolic engineering with a focus on hydrogen oxidizing bacteria such as the model chemolithoautotrophic organism (Ralstonia), the purple photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodobacter), and anaerobic acetogens. Two alternative strategies of microbial chassis development are considered: (1) introducing or enhancing autotrophic capabilities (carbon fixation, hydrogen utilization) in model heterotrophic organisms, or (2) improving tools for pathway engineering (transformation methods, promoters, vectors etc.) in native autotrophic organisms. Unique characteristics of autotrophic growth as they relate to bioreactor design and process development are also discussed in the context of challenges and opportunities for genetic manipulation of organisms as production platforms. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Engineering and Evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Produce Biofuels and Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Turner, Timothy L; Kim, Heejin; Kong, In Iok; Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-12-03

    To mitigate global climate change caused partly by the use of fossil fuels, the production of fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass has been attempted. The conversion of various sugars from renewable biomass into biofuels by engineered baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is one major direction which has grown dramatically in recent years. As well as shifting away from fossil fuels, the production of commodity chemicals by engineered S. cerevisiae has also increased significantly. The traditional approaches of biochemical and metabolic engineering to develop economic bioconversion processes in laboratory and industrial settings have been accelerated by rapid advancements in the areas of yeast genomics, synthetic biology, and systems biology. Together, these innovations have resulted in rapid and efficient manipulation of S. cerevisiae to expand fermentable substrates and diversify value-added products. Here, we discuss recent and major advances in rational (relying on prior experimentally-derived knowledge) and combinatorial (relying on high-throughput screening and genomics) approaches to engineer S. cerevisiae for producing ethanol, butanol, 2,3-butanediol, fatty acid ethyl esters, isoprenoids, organic acids, rare sugars, antioxidants, and sugar alcohols from glucose, xylose, cellobiose, galactose, acetate, alginate, mannitol, arabinose, and lactose.

  2. Measuring adsorption, diffusion and flow in chemical engineering: applications of magnetic resonance to porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden, Lynn F.; Mitchell, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques are increasingly used to improve our understanding of the multi-component, multi-phase processes encountered in chemical engineering. This review brings together many of the MR techniques used, and often developed specifically, to study chemical engineering systems and, in particular, processes occurring within porous media. Pulse sequences for relaxometry, pulsed field gradient measurements of diffusion, imaging and velocimetry measurements are described. Recent applications of these MR pulse sequences to microporous, mesoporous and macroporous structures are then reviewed. Considering the microporous and mesoporous systems, we focus attention on studies of rock cores, manufactured materials such as cement and gypsum plaster, and catalysts. When considering macroporous structures, the transport through packed beds of particles typical of fixed-bed catalytic reactors is reviewed; a brief overview of the increasing research interest in gas-solid fluidized beds is also presented. We highlight the field of sparse k-space sampling as an area that is in its infancy and suggest that, combined with Bayesian methods, it will offer new opportunities in both extending the application of high-field MR techniques to chemical engineering and increasing the range of measurements that can be carried out using low-field hardware.

  3. Issues related to durability and protection affecting the acceptance and use of engineered wood composites in Europe

    Treesearch

    Mark Hughes; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2007-01-01

    Engineered wood composites (EWC) offer significant potential in applications in the built environment, ranging from domestic dwellings to bridges and public buildings. Nevertheless, EWCs, which include products such as glulam, laminated veneer lumber, oriented stand-board, and plywood enjoy a relatively small market share of total wood-based material production and...

  4. Earthworms and nutrient availability: the ecosystem engineer as (bio)chemical engineer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Ros, Mart; Vos, Hannah; De Deyn, Gerlinde; Hiemstra, Tjisse; Oenema, Oene; Koopmans, Gerwin

    2017-04-01

    The ability of earthworms to increase plant production has long been recognized. However, the pathways through which they do so, and the magnitude of this effect, have not been conclusively addressed. In two studies we address these issues for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability to plants. In the first study, a meta-analysis, we concluded that earthworm presence increases crop yield on average with 26% and aboveground biomass with 24%. The positive effects of earthworms increase when more residue is returned to the soil, but disappear when soil N availability is high. This suggests that earthworms stimulate plant growth predominantly through N mineralization from soil organic matter or crop residue. In a second study, we tested the effect of earthworms on plant P uptake from inorganic sources. In a greenhouse experiment on a soil with low P availability we showed that presence of the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris resulted in increased aboveground biomass (from 164 to 188 g dry matter m-2) and P uptake (from 0.21 to 0.27 g m-2). Concentrations of total dissolved P and dissolved inorganic P in water extractions of earthworm casts were 7-9 times higher than in those of bulk soil. Using advanced surface complexation modelling, we showed that these effects were primarily related to desorption of inorganic P due to competition with organic carbon for binding sites. We conclude that earthworms can alter nutrient cycling and increase N and P uptake by plants through a combination of biochemical and chemical pathways. Earthworms are most likely to stimulate N uptake in organic farming systems and tropical subsistence farming, which largely rely on nutrient mineralization. Additional benefits of earthworms might be expected in conventional farming systems with low levels of available P.

  5. World War I chemical weapons bunker engineering evaluation and cost analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, C.A.; Crotteau, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides a review of the US Army Corps of Engineers development and execution of a CERCLA chemical weapons and soil removal from two World War 1 underground test bunkers. The non-time critical removal action was completed from October 1994 to January 1995 in conjunction with Operation Safe Removal, Spring Valley, Washington, D.C. On January 5, 1993, a startled backhoe operator unearthed three 75mm artillery shells, exposing the legacy of a World War 1 (WWI) chemical weapons test facility in the midst of the nation`s capitol. That discovery, made in an exclusive residential neighborhood, prompted an intensive two year environmental cleanup. The Army immediately responded to the chemical ordnance threat, initiating Operation Safe Removal, a $20 million emergency response action and remedial investigation.

  6. Engineering an Obligate Photoautotrophic Cyanobacterium to Utilize Glycerol for Growth and Chemical Production.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Masahiro; Atsumi, Shota

    2017-01-20

    Cyanobacteria have attracted much attention as a means to directly recycle carbon dioxide into valuable chemicals that are currently produced from petroleum. However, the titers and productivities achieved are still far below the level required in industry. To make a more industrially applicable production scheme, glycerol, a byproduct of biodiesel production, can be used as an additional carbon source for photomixotrophic chemical production. Glycerol is an ideal candidate due to its availability and low cost. In this study, we found that a heterologous glycerol respiratory pathway enabled Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to utilize extracellular glycerol. The engineered strain produced 761 mg/L of 2,3-butanediol in 48 h with a 290% increase over the control strain under continuous light conditions. Glycerol supplementation also allowed for continuous cell growth and 2,3-butanediol production in diurnal light conditions. These results highlight the potential of glycerol as an additional carbon source for photomixotrophic chemical production in cyanobacteria.

  7. Engineering data transfer test with EDCARS using MIL-R-28002 (Raster). Laboratory Acceptance Test and User Application Test

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-17

    This paper documents the results of a sequence of tests conducted to evaluate the DoD Computer-aided Acquisition and Logistic Support (CALS) data interchange capability of the Air Force Engineering Data Computer-Assisted Retrieval System (EDCARS). The CALS initiative specifies a standard digital interface to streamline the interchange of technical data between the DoD and the commercial sector. The CALS Test Network (CTN) is tasked to conduct tests of military standards which specify this digital interface. The testing results outlined in this report are intended to evaluate the EDCARS systems`s ability to sport CALS data interchanges and establish the level of technical data interoperability implemented at this DoD engineering data repository.

  8. Physico-chemical changes during storage and sensory acceptance of low sodium probiotic Minas cheese added with arginine.

    PubMed

    Felicio, T L; Esmerino, E A; Vidal, V A S; Cappato, L P; Garcia, R K A; Cavalcanti, R N; Freitas, M Q; Conte Junior, C A; Padilha, M C; Silva, M C; Raices, R S L; Arellano, D B; Bollini, H M A; Pollonio, M A R; Cruz, A G

    2016-04-01

    The partial substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride (0%, 25%, and 50%) and addition of arginine (1% w/w) in probiotic Minas cheese was investigated. Microbiological (Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus counts, and functionality of the prebiotics L. acidophilus), physicochemical (pH, proteolysis, organic acids, fatty acids, and volatile profiles), rheological (uniaxial compression) and sensory (hedonic test with 100 consumers) characterizations were carried out. The sodium reduction and addition of arginine did not constitute a hurdle to lactic and probiotic bacteria survival, with presented values of about 9 log CFU/g, ranging from 7.11 to 9.21 log CFU/g, respectively. In addition, lower pH values, higher proteolysis, and a decrease in toughness, elasticity and firmness were observed, as well as an increase in lactic, citric, and acetic acid contents. In contrast, no change was observed in the fatty acid profile. With respect to the sensory acceptance, the probiotic low-sodium Minas cheese presented scores above 6.00 (liked slightly) for the attributes flavor and overall acceptance. The addition of arginine can be a potential alternative for the development of probiotic dairy products with reduced sodium content.

  9. Expanding the chemical palate of cells by combining systems biology and metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Curran, Kathleen A; Alper, Hal S

    2012-07-01

    The field of Metabolic Engineering has recently undergone a transformation that has led to a rapid expansion of the chemical palate of cells. Now, it is conceivable to produce nearly any organic molecule of interest using a cellular host. Significant advances have been made in the production of biofuels, biopolymers and precursors, pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, and commodity and specialty chemicals. Much of this rapid expansion in the field has been, in part, due to synergies and advances in the area of systems biology. Specifically, the availability of functional genomics, metabolomics and transcriptomics data has resulted in the potential to produce a wealth of new products, both natural and non-natural, in cellular factories. The sheer amount and diversity of this data however, means that uncovering and unlocking novel chemistries and insights is a non-obvious exercise. To address this issue, a number of computational tools and experimental approaches have been developed to help expedite the design process to create new cellular factories. This review will highlight many of the systems biology enabling technologies that have reduced the design cycle for engineered hosts, highlight major advances in the expanded diversity of products that can be synthesized, and conclude with future prospects in the field of metabolic engineering.

  10. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli: a sustainable industrial platform for bio-based chemical production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianzhong; Zhou, Li; Tian, Kangming; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Suren; Prior, Bernard A; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2013-12-01

    In order to decrease carbon emissions and negative environmental impacts of various pollutants, more bulk and/or fine chemicals are produced by bioprocesses, replacing the traditional energy and fossil based intensive route. The Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium, Escherichia coli has been studied extensively on a fundamental and applied level and has become a predominant host microorganism for industrial applications. Furthermore, metabolic engineering of E. coli for the enhanced biochemical production has been significantly promoted by the integrated use of recent developments in systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. In this review, we focus on recent efforts devoted to the use of genetically engineered E. coli as a sustainable platform for the production of industrially important biochemicals such as biofuels, organic acids, amino acids, sugar alcohols and biopolymers. In addition, representative secondary metabolites produced by E. coli will be systematically discussed and the successful strategies for strain improvements will be highlighted. Moreover, this review presents guidelines for future developments in the bio-based chemical production using E. coli as an industrial platform.

  11. Chemically Engineered Substrates for Patternable Growth of Two-Dimensional Chalcogenide Crystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingzhan; Wu, Jinxiong; Lin, Li; Liu, Yujing; Deng, Bing; Guo, Yunfan; Lin, Yuanwei; Xie, Tian; Dang, Wenhui; Zhou, Yubing; Peng, Hailin

    2016-11-22

    The key challenge of direct integration of two-dimensional (2D) chalcogenide crystals into functional modules is precise control of the nucleation sites of the building blocks. Herein, we exploit the chemical activities and surface engineering of the substrates to manipulate the nucleation energy barrier of 2D crystals and thereby realize the patternable growth of 2D crystals. The selective-region chemical modifications of the substrates are achieved via microcontact printing combined with the elegant self-assembly of octadecyltrichlorosilane molecules on the substrates. The patternable growth method is versatile and can be used as a general strategy for growing a broad class of high-quality 2D chalcogenide crystals with tailorable configurations on a variety of chemically engineered substrates. Moreover, we demonstrate flexible transparent electrodes based on large-scale patterned nanogrids of topological insulator Bi2Se3, which possess tailored trade-off between electric conductivity and optical transmittance across the visible to near-infrared regime. We hope this method may open an avenue to the efficient integration and batch production of 2D chalcogenide crystals and could inspire ongoing efforts of the fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures.

  12. Synthesis and Engineering Materials Properties of Fluid Phase Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Young Joon; Westman, Matthew P.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Chun, Jaehun; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Among candidates for chemical hydrogen storage in PEM fuel cell automotive applications, ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) is considered to be one of the most promising materials due to its high practical hydrogen content of 14-16 wt%. This material is selected as a surrogate chemical for a hydrogen storage system. For easier transition to the existing infrastructure, a fluid phase hydrogen storage material is very attractive and thus, we investigated the engineering materials properties of AB in liquid carriers for a chemical hydrogen storage slurry system. Slurries composed of AB and high temperature liquids were prepared by mechanical milling and sonication in order to obtain stable and fluidic properties. Volumetric gas burette system was adopted to observe the kinetics of the H2 release reactions of the AB slurry and neat AB. Viscometry and microscopy were employed to further characterize slurries engineering properties. Using a tip-sonication method we have produced AB/silicone fluid slurries at solid loadings up to 40wt% (6.5wt% H2) with viscosities less than 500cP at 25°C.

  13. Direct Measurement and Chemical Speciation of Top Ring Zone Liquid During Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Burrows, Barry Clay; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The present manuscript consists of proof of concept experiments involving direct measurements and detailed chemical speciation from the top ring zone of a running engine. The work uses a naturally aspirated single cylinder utility engine that has been modified to allow direct liquid sample acquisition from behind the top ring. Samples were analyzed and spectated using gas chromatographic techniques. Results show that the liquid mixture in the top ring zone is neither neat lubricant nor fuel but a combination of the two with unique chemical properties. At the tested steady state no-load operating condition, the chemical species of the top ring zone liquid were found to be highly dependent on boiling point, where both low reactivity higher boiling point fuel species and lubricant are observed to be the dominant constituents. The results show that at least for the tested condition, approximately 25% of the top ring zone is comprised of gasoline fuel like molecules, which are dominated by high octane number aromatic species, while the remainder of the liquid is comprised of lubricant like species.

  14. Implementing a Systematic Process for Rapidly Embedding Sustainability within Chemical Engineering Education: A Case Study of James Cook University, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Madoc; Schneider, Phil; Desha, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability has emerged as a primary context for engineering education in the 21st Century, particularly the sub-discipline of chemical engineering. However, there is confusion over how to go about integrating sustainability knowledge and skills systemically within bachelor degrees. This paper addresses this challenge, using a case study of an…

  15. HYPER-­TVT: Development and Implementation of an Interactive Learning Environment for Students of Chemical and Process Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Marina; Mazzotti, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Hyper-TVT is a computer-aided education system that has been developed at the Institute of Process Engineering at the ETH Zurich. The aim was to create an interactive learning environment for chemical and process engineering students. The topics covered are the most important multistage separation processes, i.e. fundamentals of separation…

  16. HYPER-­TVT: Development and Implementation of an Interactive Learning Environment for Students of Chemical and Process Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Marina; Mazzotti, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Hyper-TVT is a computer-aided education system that has been developed at the Institute of Process Engineering at the ETH Zurich. The aim was to create an interactive learning environment for chemical and process engineering students. The topics covered are the most important multistage separation processes, i.e. fundamentals of separation…

  17. Implementing a Systematic Process for Rapidly Embedding Sustainability within Chemical Engineering Education: A Case Study of James Cook University, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Madoc; Schneider, Phil; Desha, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability has emerged as a primary context for engineering education in the 21st Century, particularly the sub-discipline of chemical engineering. However, there is confusion over how to go about integrating sustainability knowledge and skills systemically within bachelor degrees. This paper addresses this challenge, using a case study of an…

  18. Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-Chemical Recuperation to Maximize In-Use Engine Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Nigel N. Clark; Francisco Posada; Clinton Bedick; John Pratapas; Aleksandr Kozlov; Martin Linck; Dmitri Boulanov

    2009-03-30

    The key to overcome Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) load range limitations in reciprocating engines is based on proper control over the thermo-chemical properties of the in-cylinder charge. The studied alternative to achieve the required control of LTC is the use of two separate fuel streams to regulate timing and heat release at specific operational points, where the secondary fuel is a reformed product of the primary fuel in the tank. It is proposed in this report that the secondary fuel can be produced using exhaust heat and Thermo-Chemical Recuperation (TCR). TCR for reciprocating engines is a system that employs high efficiency recovery of sensible heat from engine exhaust gas and uses this energy to transform fuel composition. The recuperated sensible heat is returned to the engine as chemical energy. Chemical conversions are accomplished through catalytic and endothermic reactions in a specially designed reforming reactor. An equilibrium model developed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI) for heptane steam reforming was applied to estimate reformed fuel composition at different reforming temperatures. Laboratory results, at a steam/heptane mole ratio less than 2:1, confirm that low temperature reforming reactions, in the range of 550 K to 650 K, can produce 10-30% hydrogen (by volume, wet) in the product stream. Also, the effect of trading low mean effective pressure for displacement to achieve power output and energy efficiency has been explored by WVU. A zerodimensional model of LTC using heptane as fuel and a diesel Compression Ignition (CI) combustion model were employed to estimate pressure, temperature and total heat release as inputs for a mechanical and thermal loss model. The model results show that the total cooling burden on an LTC engine with lower power density and higher displacement was 14.3% lower than the diesel engine for the same amount of energy addition in the case of high load (43.57mg fuel/cycle). These preliminary modeling and

  19. Wet chemical synthesis of chitosan hydrogel-hydroxyapatite composite membranes for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Madhumathi, K; Shalumon, K T; Rani, V V Divya; Tamura, H; Furuike, T; Selvamurugan, N; Nair, S V; Jayakumar, R

    2009-07-01

    Chitosan, a deacetylated derivative of chitin is a commonly studied biomaterial for tissue-engineering applications due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity, antibacterial activity, wound healing ability and haemostatic properties. However, chitosan has poor mechanical strength due to which its applications in orthopedics are limited. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a natural inorganic component of bone and teeth and has mechanical strength and osteoconductive property. In this work, HAp was deposited on the surface of chitosan hydrogel membranes by a wet chemical synthesis method by alternatively soaking the membranes in CaCl(2) (pH 7.4) and Na(2)HPO(4) solutions for different time intervals. These chitosan hydrogel-HAp membranes were characterized using SEM, AFM, EDS, FT-IR and XRD analyses. MTT assay was done to evaluate the biocompatibility of these membranes using MG-63 osteosarcoma cells. The biocompatibility studies suggest that chitosan hydrogel-HAp composite membranes can be useful for tissue-engineering applications.

  20. Tolerance engineering in bacteria for the production of advanced biofuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2015-08-01

    During microbial production of solvent-like compounds, such as advanced biofuels and bulk chemicals, accumulation of the final product can negatively impact the cultivation of the host microbe and limit the production levels. Consequently, improving solvent tolerance is becoming an essential aspect of engineering microbial production strains. Mechanisms ranging from chaperones to transcriptional factors have been used to obtain solvent-tolerant strains. However, alleviating growth inhibition does not invariably result in increased production. Transporters specifically have emerged as a powerful category of proteins that bestow tolerance and often improve production but are difficult targets for cellular expression. Here we review strain engineering, primarily as it pertains to bacterial solvent tolerance, and the benefits and challenges associated with the expression of membrane-localized transporters in improving solvent tolerance and production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Engineering of the xylose metabolic pathway for microbial production of bio-based chemicals].

    PubMed

    Liu, Weixi; Fu, Jing; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Tao

    2013-08-01

    As the rapid development of economy necessitates a large number of oil, the contradiction between energy supply and demand is further exacerbated by the dwindling reserves of petroleum resource. Therefore, the research of the renewable cellulosic biomass resources is gaining unprecedented momentum. Because xylose is the second most abundant monosaccharide after glucose in lignocellulose hydrolyzes, high-efficiency bioconversion of xylose becomes one of the vital factors that affect the industrial prospects of lignocellulose application. According to the research progresses in recent years, this review summarized the advances in bioconversion of xylose, which included identification and redesign of the xylose metabolic pathway, engineering the xylose transport pathway and bio-based chemicals production. In order to solve the energy crisis and environmental pollution issues, the development of advanced bio-fuel technology, especially engineering the microbe able to metabolize xylose and produce ethanol by synthetic biology, is environmentally benign and sustainable.

  2. Chemical disorder as an engineering tool for spin polarization in Mn3Ga -based Heusler systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadov, S.; D'Souza, S. W.; Wollmann, L.; Kiss, J.; Fecher, G. H.; Felser, C.

    2015-03-01

    Our study highlights spin-polarization mechanisms in metals by focusing on the mobilities of conducting electrons with different spins instead of their quantities. Here, we engineer electron mobility by applying chemical disorder induced by nonstoichiometric variations. As a practical example, we discuss the scheme that establishes such variations in tetragonal Mn3Ga Heusler material. We justify this approach using first-principles calculations of the spin-projected conductivity components based on the Kubo-Greenwood formalism. It follows that, in the majority of cases, even a small substitution of some other transition element instead of Mn may lead to a substantial increase in spin polarization along the tetragonal axis.

  3. Development of chemical engineering course methods using action research: case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virkki-Hatakka, Terhi; Tuunila, Ritva; Nurkka, Niina

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports on the systematic development of a teaching methodology for two chemical engineering courses. The aim was to improve the quality of teaching to achieve expected learning outcomes more effectively. The development was carried out over a period of several years based on an action research methodology with data systematically extracted from student feedback and teacher reflection. Two new development targets were set every year based on teacher reflection and analysis of the data. Using action research as a development tool is an approach that can also be adopted in many other teaching fields. The results show that persistent development work leads to better learning outcomes and positive course feedback.

  4. Effect of continuous assessment on learning outcomes on two chemical engineering courses: case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuunila, R.; Pulkkinen, M.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the effect of continuous assessment on the learning outcomes of two chemical engineering courses is studied over a several-year period. Average grades and passing percentages of courses after the final examination are reported and also student feedback on the courses is collected. The results indicate significantly better learning results after the adoption of continuous assessment in the courses. Also student feedback suggests higher quality in teaching after the adoption of more activating teaching methods which compel students to study effectively throughout the course.

  5. Chemical kinetic modeling study of the effects of oxygenated hydrocarbons on soot emissions from diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Charles K; Pitz, William J; Curran, Henry J

    2006-06-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic modeling approach is used to examine the phenomenon of suppression of sooting in diesel engines by the addition of oxygenated hydrocarbon species to the fuel. This suppression, which has been observed experimentally for a few years, is explained kinetically as a reduction in concentrations of soot precursors present in the hot products of a fuel-rich diesel ignition zone when oxygenates are included. The kinetic model is also used to show how different oxygenates, ester structures in particular, can have different soot-suppression efficiencies due to differences in the molecular structure of the oxygenated species.

  6. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of transuranic wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical and chemical characterization data for transuranic radioactive wastes and transuranic radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program (PSPI). Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 139 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 39,380{sup 3} corresponding to a total mass of approximately 19,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats Plant generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  7. Determination of Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solution using chemical engineering tools.

    PubMed

    Toure, Oumar; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    2016-08-01

    Standard Gibbs energies of formation are of primary importance in the field of biothermodynamics. In the absence of any directly measured values, thermodynamic calculations are required to determine the missing data. For several biochemical species, this study shows that the knowledge of the standard Gibbs energy of formation of the pure compounds (in the gaseous, solid or liquid states) enables to determine the corresponding standard Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solutions. To do so, using chemical engineering tools (thermodynamic tables and a model enabling to predict activity coefficients, solvation Gibbs energies and pKa data), it becomes possible to determine the partial chemical potential of neutral and charged components in real metabolic conditions, even in concentrated mixtures.

  8. Massachusetts Institute of Technology School of Chemical Engineering Practice, Brookhaven station: Summary of projects, 1983-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    The MIT Graduate School of Chemical Engineering Practice stresses engineering problem solving. The Practice School program, as it is commonly called, develops in a unique and particularly effective way the student's ability to apply fundamentals to problems in the chemical industry and thus accelerates one's professional development. The themes of atomization, emthanol production and utilization, hydrogen production and compression, localized electrochemical corrosion and biochemical engineering reflect some of the major programs at the Laboratory. The titles of all the projects are listed in chronological order in the index at the end of this document. Brief summaries are presented for each project with related projects grouped together.

  9. Chemical engineering and structural and pharmacological characterization of the α-scorpion toxin OD1.

    PubMed

    Durek, Thomas; Vetter, Irina; Wang, Ching-I Anderson; Motin, Leonid; Knapp, Oliver; Adams, David J; Lewis, Richard J; Alewood, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    Scorpion α-toxins are invaluable pharmacological tools for studying voltage-gated sodium channels, but few structure-function studies have been undertaken due to their challenging synthesis. To address this deficiency, we report a chemical engineering strategy based upon native chemical ligation. The chemical synthesis of α-toxin OD1 was achieved by chemical ligation of three unprotected peptide segments. A high resolution X-ray structure (1.8 Å) of synthetic OD1 showed the typical βαββ α-toxin fold and revealed important conformational differences in the pharmacophore region when compared with other α-toxin structures. Pharmacological analysis of synthetic OD1 revealed potent α-toxin activity (inhibition of fast inactivation) at Nav1.7, as well as Nav1.4 and Nav1.6. In addition, OD1 also produced potent β-toxin activity at Nav1.4 and Nav1.6 (shift of channel activation in the hyperpolarizing direction), indicating that OD1 might interact at more than one site with Nav1.4 and Nav1.6. Investigation of nine OD1 mutants revealed that three residues in the reverse turn contributed significantly to selectivity, with the triple OD1 mutant (D9K, D10P, K11H) being 40-fold more selective for Nav1.7 over Nav1.6, while OD1 K11V was 5-fold more selective for Nav1.6 than Nav1.7. This switch in selectivity highlights the importance of the reverse turn for engineering α-toxins with altered selectivity at Nav subtypes.

  10. A review of engineering aspects of intensification of chemical synthesis using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Sancheti, Sonam V; Gogate, Parag R

    2017-05-01

    Cavitation generated using ultrasound can enhance the rates of several chemical reactions giving better selectivity based on the physical and chemical effects. The present review focuses on overview of the different reactions that can be intensified using ultrasound followed by the discussion on the chemical kinetics for ultrasound assisted reactions, engineering aspects related to reactor designs and effect of operating parameters on the degree of intensification obtained for chemical synthesis. The cavitational effects in terms of magnitudes of collapse temperatures and collapse pressure, number of free radicals generated and extent of turbulence are strongly dependent on the operating parameters such as ultrasonic power, frequency, duty cycle, temperature as well as physicochemical parameters of liquid medium which controls the inception of cavitation. Guidelines have been presented for the optimum selection based on the critical analysis of the existing literature so that maximum process intensification benefits can be obtained. Different reactor designs have also been analyzed with guidelines for efficient scale up of the sonochemical reactor, which would be dependent on the type of reaction, controlling mechanism of reaction, catalyst and activation energy requirements. Overall, it has been established that sonochemistry offers considerable potential for green and sustainable processing and efficient scale up procedures are required so as to harness the effects at actual commercial level.

  11. Non-Natural Sugar Analogues: Chemical Probes for Metabolic Oligosaccharide Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aich, Udayanath; Yarema, Kevin J.

    Metabolic oligosaccharide engineering (MOE) is a rapidly growing technology emerging from the field of chemical biology that allows novel chemical functionalities to be biosynthetically installed into the carbohydrates of living cells and animals. Since pioneering efforts to modulate sialic acid display through the use of non-natural N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc) analogues were reported 15 years ago, monosaccharide probes have been developed to manipulate N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc), N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), and fucose-containing glycans. The 'first generation' of analogues, comprised of a series of ManNAc derivatives with elongated N-acyl chains, demonstrated pathway permissivity and the ability of this methodology to impinge on biological processes ranging from pathogen binding to gene expression and cell adhesion. Later analogues have incorporated chemical function groups including ketones, azides, thiols, and alkyne not normally found in carbohydrates. These groups serve as 'tags' for the subsequent use of chemoselective ligation reactions to further elaborate the chemical properties of the cell surface and thereby greatly expand the potential of MOE technology to offer control over biological processes.

  12. ["Two professions for a single task". The introduction of chemical engineering in Spain during the first Francoism].

    PubMed

    Toca, Angel

    2006-01-01

    Through the first half of the 20th century, chemical engineering was established as an academic option in the training of specialists for the North-American and European chemical industry, whereas it was not a special field of study in Spain until the 1990s. The reason for this delay was a battle of interests between chemist and industrial engineers to control this career during the first Francoism. This article will try to show the development and professionalization of specialists for the Spanish chemical industry.

  13. Administration of high school competency requirements for chemical and petroleum engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Rollins, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    Increased instructional demands on engineering schools for chemical and petroleum graduates, caused by variations in energy prices, has led to efforts to better define and assess the competencies of students entering these fields. The standard of measurement of these competencies is that of freshmen grade point average (GPA). Required competencies include problem-solving ability, computer literacy, a knowledge of mathematics, and communications skills. Correlations of GPA with other readily available high school transcript data of high school rank and SAT scores is the traditional predictor of success or nonsuccess, or degree of competency, for these students. This study was concerned with different combinations of predictors than the traditional ones presently in use. Data from 307 students enrolled in chemical and petroleum engineering at Texas Tech University between 1972 and 1977 were subjected to statistical analysis using the procedure of multiple linear regression. The following variables were found to be meaningful predictors of freshman GPA: (1) SAT scores; (2) high school rank relative to class size; (3) advanced placement status; (4) grades in high school science courses; (5) grades in high school mathematics courses. From these variables, five equations were developed for use by the counselor or advisor in placing or advising entering students. These predictive equations yielded an R/sup 2/ value of approximately 0.54.

  14. Characterizing aquifer hydrogeology and anthropogenic chemical influences on groundwater near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Fromm, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    A conceptual model of the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of monitoring well USGS-44, downgradient of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), was developed by synthesis and comparison of previous work (40 years) and new investigations into local natural hydrogeological conditions and anthropogenic influences. Quantitative tests of the model, and other recommendations are suggested. The ICPP recovered fissionable uranium from spent nuclear fuel rods and disposed of waste fluids by release to the regional aquifer and lithosphere. Environmental impacts were assessed by a monitoring well network. The conceptual model identifies multiple, highly variable, interacting, and transient components, including INEL facilities multiple operations and liquid waste handling, systems; the anisotropic, in homogeneous aquifer; the network of monitoring and production wells, and the intermittent flow of the Big Lost River. Pre anthropogenic natural conditions and early records of anthropogenic activities were sparsely or unreliably documented making reconstruction of natural conditions or early hydrologic impacts impossible or very broad characterizations.

  15. Characterization of chemicals on engine-exhaust particles. Final report, September 1986-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlman, M.R.; Chuang, J.C.

    1989-06-01

    The object of the work described in this report has been the characterization of particulate-bound chemicals emitted from military aircraft, both as they are emitted and as the exhaust ages. Three Air Force turbine engines (TF33-P3, TF33-P7, and J79C) were examined in this study, using engine test cells at Tinker AFB OK. Emissions were collected at power settings of idle, 30%, 75%, and injected into smog chambers for subsequent aging. Samples were collected from these chambers periodically during the photochemical experiments to permit measurements of the vapor phase and particle associated photochemical experiments to permit measurements of the vapor-phase and particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and derivatives under experimental conditions. Throughout the course of the experiments, measurements of the concentrations of total hydrocarbons, NO, NOx, and O{sub 3} were made. The samples collected on filter and sorbent media were returned to the laboratory for extraction and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to determine masses of specific target compounds collected. The time profiles of these compounds are presented for the various engines, operating powers, sunlight levels, and photochemical reactivities examines.

  16. Surface chemical-modification for engineering the intrinsic physical properties of inorganic two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuqiao; Xu, Kun; Wu, Changzheng; Zhao, Jiyin; Xie, Yi

    2015-02-07

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, especially the inorganic ultrathin nanosheets with single or few-atomic layers, have been extensively studied due to their special structures and rich physical properties coming from the quantum confinement of electrons. With atomic-scale thickness, 2D nanomaterials have an extremely high specific surface area enabling their surface phase to be as important as bulk counterparts, and therefore provide an alternative way of modifying the surface phase for engineering the intrinsic physical properties of inorganic 2D nanomaterials. In this review, we focus on recent research concerning surface chemical modification strategies to effectively engineer the intrinsic physical properties of inorganic 2D nanomaterials. We highlight the newly developed regulation strategies of surface incorporation, defect engineering, and structure modulation of inorganic 2D nanomaterials, which respectively influence the intrinsic conductivity, band structure, and magnetism while maintaining the primary 2D freestanding structures that are vital for 2D based ultrasensitive electronic response, enhanced catalytic and magnetocaloric capabilities.

  17. Toward systems metabolic engineering of Aspergillus and Pichia species for the production of chemicals and biofuels.

    PubMed

    Caspeta, Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-05-01

    Recently genome sequence data have become available for Aspergillus and Pichia species of industrial interest. This has stimulated the use of systems biology approaches for large-scale analysis of the molecular and metabolic responses of Aspergillus and Pichia under defined conditions, which has resulted in much new biological information. Case-specific contextualization of this information has been performed using comparative and functional genomic tools. Genomics data are also the basis for constructing genome-scale metabolic models, and these models have helped in the contextualization of knowledge on the fundamental biology of Aspergillus and Pichia species. Furthermore, with the availability of these models, the engineering of Aspergillus and Pichia is moving from traditional approaches, such as random mutagenesis, to a systems metabolic engineering approach. Here we review the recent trends in systems biology of Aspergillus and Pichia species, highlighting the relevance of these developments for systems metabolic engineering of these organisms for the production of hydrolytic enzymes, biofuels and chemicals from biomass. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Site-specific antibody-drug conjugation through an engineered glycotransferase and a chemically reactive sugar

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhongyu; Ramakrishnan, Boopathy; Li, Jinyu; Wang, Yanping; Feng, Yang; Prabakaran, Ponraj; Colantonio, Simona; Dyba, Marzena A; Qasba, Pradman K; Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2014-01-01

    Conjugation of small molecule drugs to specific sites on the antibody molecule has been increasingly used for the generation of relatively homogenous preparations of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) with physicochemical properties similar or identical to those of the naked antibody. Previously a method for conjugation of small molecules to glycoproteins through existing glycans by using an engineered glycotransferase and a chemically reactive sugar as a handle was developed. Here, for the first time, we report the use of this method with some modifications to generate an ADC from a monoclonal antibody, m860, which we identified from a human naïve phage display Fab library by panning against the extracellular domain of human HER2. M860 bound to cell surface-associated HER2 with affinity comparable to that of Trastuzumab (Herceptin®), but to a different epitope. The m860ADC was generated by enzymatically adding a reactive keto-galactose to m860 using an engineered glycotransferase and conjugating the reactive m860 to aminooxy auristatin F. It exhibited potent and specific cell-killing activity against HER2 positive cancer cells, including trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer cells. This unique ADC may have utility as a potential therapeutic for HER2 positive cancers alone or in combination with other drugs. Our results also validate the keto-galactose/engineered glycotransferase method for generation of functional ADCs, which could potentially also be used for preparation of ADCs targeting other disease markers. PMID:25517304

  19. Identification of sensory attributes, instrumental and chemical measurements important for consumer acceptability of grilled lamb Longissimus lumborum.

    PubMed

    Oltra, O R; Farmer, L J; Gordon, A W; Moss, B W; Birnie, J; Devlin, D J; Tolland, E L C; Tollerton, I J; Beattie, A M; Kennedy, J T; Farrell, D

    2015-02-01

    In this study, important eating quality attributes that influence consumer liking for grilled lamb loin have been identified using preference mapping techniques. The eating quality attributes identified as driving the consumer liking of lamb loin steaks were “tenderness”, “sweet flavour”, “meaty aftertaste”, “roast lamb flavour” and “roast lamb aftertaste”. In contrast, the texture attribute “rubbery” and the flavour attributes “bitter flavour” and "bitter aftertaste" had a negative influence on consumer perceptions. Associations were observed between eating quality and a number of instrumental and chemical measurements. Warner Bratzler Shear Force showed an association with “rubbery” texture and a negative association with “tenderness” and consumer liking scores. The compounds, glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, inosine, inosine monophosphate and adenosine monophosphate were associated with the attributes, “sweet flavour”,“meaty aftertaste”, “roast lamb flavour”, “roast lamb aftertaste” and with consumer scores for liking of lamb which is probably caused by the role some of these compounds play as precursors of flavour and as taste compounds.

  20. The criteria for establishing an acceptable range of chemical, physical and biological indicators for the purpose of ecological standards developing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evdokimova, Maria; Glazunov, Gennady; Yakovlev, Aleksandr

    2017-04-01

    The basis for development of standards for soil quality is based on the assessment of their resistance to external influences. The main criterion for assessing the environmental sustainability of soils and lands is the ability to perform their ecological functions (Nkonya et al, 2011, 2013; Costanza et al, 2014, Dobrovolsky and Nikitin, 1990; Yakovlev, Evdokimova, 2011). The limiting value of indicators of the state of the environment (physical, chemical, biological and other) corresponds to the value at which stability of environmental components is preserved (the ability to heal itself). Tht threshold for effect of stressor should be identified by the methods of bioindication and biotesting. The analysis obtained by these methods aimed to identify the highest indicator values of physical or chemical (concentration or dose of the stressor) effects, which have not yet fairly established negative changes in the organism, population of organisms or community. Using a theoretical model (Yakovlev et al, 2009, Gendugov., 2013) the problem of finding the threshold concentration is reduced to the finding of the singular points characterizing macroscopic "kinetics" of response in the phase space of dependence of the response rate upon the impact indicator. Singular points are determined by the analysis of derivatives. The theoretical model allows to calculate the singular points of the model (six of them), one of which, the maximum point corresponds to the highest concentration of the stressor at which it had no adverse effects on the test organisms. This point corresponds to the lowest concentration of the stressor at which it has no longer a stimulatory (hormesis) effect. Six singular points divide the whole range of stressors values (concentration) on seven bands with a unique range for each set of values of "macrokinetic" indicators of the living cells response to the impact of the stressor (concentration). Thus, the use of theoretical equations allowed us 1) to

  1. Prevention of Preharvest Sprouting through Hormone Engineering and Germination Recovery by Chemical Biology

    PubMed Central

    Nonogaki, Mariko; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Vivipary, germination of seeds on the maternal plant, is observed in nature and provides ecological advantages in certain wild species, such as mangroves. However, precocious seed germination in agricultural species, such as preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals, is a serious issue for food security. PHS reduces grain quality and causes economical losses to farmers. PHS can be prevented by translating the basic knowledge of hormone biology in seeds into technologies. Biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an essential hormone for seed dormancy, can be engineered to enhance dormancy and prevent PHS. Enhancing nine-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a rate-limiting enzyme of ABA biosynthesis, through a chemically induced gene expression system, has successfully been used to suppress germination of Arabidopsis seeds. The more advanced system NCED positive-feedback system, which amplifies ABA biosynthesis in a seed-specific manner without chemical induction, has also been developed. The proofs of concept established in the model species are now ready to be applied to crops. A potential problem is recovery of germination from hyperdormant crop grains. Hyperdormancy induced by the NCED systems can be reversed by inducing counteracting genes, such as NCED RNA interference or gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis genes. Alternatively, seed sensitivity to ABA can be modified to rescue germination using the knowledge of chemical biology. ABA antagonists, which were developed recently, have great potential to recover germination from the hyperdormant seeds. Combination of the dormancy-imposing and -releasing approaches will establish a comprehensive technology for PHS prevention and germination recovery. PMID:28197165

  2. Band Gap Engineering in a 2D Material for Solar-to-Chemical Energy Conversion.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Guo, Zhenkun; Mcwilliams, Peter E; Darges, John E; Druffel, Daniel L; Moran, Andrew M; Warren, Scott C

    2016-01-13

    The electronic structure of 2D semiconductors depends on their thickness, providing new opportunities to engineer semiconductors for energy conversion, electronics, and catalysis. Here we show how a 3D semiconductor, black phosphorus, becomes active for solar-to-chemical energy conversion when it is thinned to a 2D material. The increase in its band gap, from 0.3 eV (3D) to 2.1 eV (2D monolayer), is accompanied by a 40-fold enhancement in the formation of chemical products. Despite this enhancement, smaller flakes also have shorter excited state lifetimes. We deduce a mechanism in which recombination occurs at flake edges, while the "van der Waals" surface of black phosphorus bonds to chemical intermediates and facilitates electron transfer. The unique properties of black phosphorus highlight its potential as a customizable material for solar energy conversion and catalysis, while also allowing us to identify design rules for 2D photocatalysts that will enable further improvements in these materials.

  3. Prevention of Preharvest Sprouting through Hormone Engineering and Germination Recovery by Chemical Biology.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Mariko; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Vivipary, germination of seeds on the maternal plant, is observed in nature and provides ecological advantages in certain wild species, such as mangroves. However, precocious seed germination in agricultural species, such as preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals, is a serious issue for food security. PHS reduces grain quality and causes economical losses to farmers. PHS can be prevented by translating the basic knowledge of hormone biology in seeds into technologies. Biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an essential hormone for seed dormancy, can be engineered to enhance dormancy and prevent PHS. Enhancing nine-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a rate-limiting enzyme of ABA biosynthesis, through a chemically induced gene expression system, has successfully been used to suppress germination of Arabidopsis seeds. The more advanced system NCED positive-feedback system, which amplifies ABA biosynthesis in a seed-specific manner without chemical induction, has also been developed. The proofs of concept established in the model species are now ready to be applied to crops. A potential problem is recovery of germination from hyperdormant crop grains. Hyperdormancy induced by the NCED systems can be reversed by inducing counteracting genes, such as NCED RNA interference or gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis genes. Alternatively, seed sensitivity to ABA can be modified to rescue germination using the knowledge of chemical biology. ABA antagonists, which were developed recently, have great potential to recover germination from the hyperdormant seeds. Combination of the dormancy-imposing and -releasing approaches will establish a comprehensive technology for PHS prevention and germination recovery.

  4. Improving dry carbon nanotube actuators by chemical modifications, material hybridization, and proper engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biso, Maurizio; Ansaldo, Alberto; Ricci, Davide

    2013-04-01

    Low voltage, dry electrochemical actuators can be prepared by using a gel made of carbon nanotubes and ionic liquid.1 Their performance can be significantly improved by combining physical and chemical modifications with a proper engineering. We demonstrated that multi walled carbon nanotubes can be effectively used for actuators preparation;2 we achieved interesting performance improvements by chemically cross linking carbon nanotubes using both aromatic and aliphatic diamines;3 we introduced a novel hybrid material, made by in-situ chemical polymerization of pyrrole on carbon nanotubes, that further boosts actuation by taking advantage of the peculiar properties of both materials in terms of maximum strain and conductivity;4 we investigated the influence of actuator thickness showing that the generated strain at high frequency is strongly enhanced when thickness is reduced. To overcome limitations set by bimorphs, we designed a novel actuator in which a metal spring, embedded in the solid electrolyte of a bimorph device, is used as a non-actuating counter plate resulting in a three electrode device capable of both linear and bending motion. Finally, we propose a way to model actuators performance in terms of purely material-dependent parameters instead of geometry-dependent ones.5

  5. Using an operator training simulator in the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculim

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    An operator training simulator (OTS) is to the chemical engineer what a flight simulator is to the aerospace engineer. The basis of an OTS is a high-fidelity dynamic model of a chemical process that allows an engineer to simulate start-up, shut-down, and normal operation. It can also be used to test the skill and ability of an engineer or operator to respond and control some unforeseen situation(s) through the use of programmed malfunctions. West Virginia University (WVU) is a member of the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Regional University Alliance (NETL-RUA). Working through the NETL-RUA, the authors have spent the last four years collaborating on the development of a high-fidelity OTS for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture that is the cornerstone of the AVESTARTM (Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training And Research) Center with sister facilities at NETL and WVU in Morgantown, WV. This OTS is capable of real-time dynamic simulation of IGCC plant operation, including start-up, shut-down, and power demand load following. The dynamic simulator and its human machine interfaces (HMIs) are based on the DYNSIM and InTouch software, respectively, from Invensys Operations Management. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the authors’ experiences in using this sophisticated dynamic simulation-based OTS as a hands-on teaching tool in the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum. At present, the OTS has been used in two separate courses: a new process simulation course and a traditional process control course. In the process simulation course, concepts of steady-state and dynamic simulations were covered prior to exposing the students to the OTS. Moreover, digital logic and the concept of equipment requiring one or more permissive states to be enabled prior to successful operation were also covered. Students were briefed about start-up procedures and the importance of following a predetermined

  6. Advances in metabolic pathway and strain engineering paving the way for sustainable production of chemical building blocks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Bio-based production of chemical building blocks from renewable resources is an attractive alternative to petroleum-based platform chemicals. Metabolic pathway and strain engineering is the key element in constructing robust microbial chemical factories within the constraints of cost effective production. Here we discuss how the development of computational algorithms, novel modules and methods, omics-based techniques combined with modeling refinement are enabling reduction in development time and thus advance the field of industrial biotechnology. We further discuss how recent technological developments contribute to the development of novel cell factories for the production of the building block chemicals: adipic acid, succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid.

  7. Diesel Surrogate Fuels for Engine Testing and Chemical-Kinetic Modeling: Compositions and Properties

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Charles J.; Cannella, William J.; Bays, J. Timothy; Bruno, Thomas J.; DeFabio, Kathy; Dettman, Heather D.; Gieleciak, Rafal M.; Huber, Marcia L.; Kweon, Chol-Bum; McConnell, Steven S.; Pitz, William J.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    The primary objectives of this work were to formulate, blend, and characterize a set of four ultralow-sulfur diesel surrogate fuels in quantities sufficient to enable their study in single-cylinder-engine and combustion-vessel experiments. The surrogate fuels feature increasing levels of compositional accuracy (i.e., increasing exactness in matching hydrocarbon structural characteristics) relative to the single target diesel fuel upon which the surrogate fuels are based. This approach was taken to assist in determining the minimum level of surrogate-fuel compositional accuracy that is required to adequately emulate the performance characteristics of the target fuel under different combustion modes. For each of the four surrogate fuels, an approximately 30 L batch was blended, and a number of the physical and chemical properties were measured. This work documents the surrogate-fuel creation process and the results of the property measurements. PMID:27330248

  8. Chemical composition of selected core samples, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Knobel, L.L.; Cecil, L.D.; Wood, T.R.

    1995-11-01

    This report presents chemical compositions determined from 84 subsamples and 5 quality-assurance split subsamples of basalt core from the eastern Snake River Plain. The 84 subsamples were collected at selected depths from 5 coreholes located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. This report was jointly prepared by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company and the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. Ten major elements and as many as 32 trace elements were determined for each subsample either by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, or by both methods. Descriptive statistics for each element were calculated and tabulated by analytical method for each corehole.

  9. Monitoring of the Physical and Chemical Properties of a Gasoline Engine Oil during Its Usage.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Behnam; Semnani, Abolfazl; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza; Shakoori Langeroodi, Hamid; Hakim Davood, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of a mineral-based gasoline engine oil have been monitored at 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 3500, 6000, 8500, and 11500 kilometer of operation. Tracing has been performed by inductively coupled plasma and some other techniques. At each series of measurements, the concentrations of twenty four elements as well as physical properties such as: viscosity at 40 and 100°C; viscosity index; flash point; pour point; specific gravity; color; total acid and base numbers; water content have been determined. The results are indicative of the decreasing trend in concentration of additive elements and increasing in concentration for wear elements. Different trends have been observed for various physical properties. The possible reasons for variations in physical and chemical properties have been discussed.

  10. Implementation and student perceptions of e-assessment in a Chemical Engineering module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Eva

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes work carried out at the Department of Chemical Engineering at UCL into the use of e-assessment in a second year module and, in particular, the student perceptions of this mode of assessment. Three quizzes were implemented in Moodle, the first two as formative assessment and the final quiz as summative assessment. The results were very encouraging and practically all students engaged with the process. An online survey was delivered to all students after the module, which showed that the students felt that e-assessment added value to their learning and they would like to see it implemented in other modules. The quizzes were intended to be mainly beneficial to the weaker students as it gave them an opportunity to go over key aspects of the material in their own time. Interestingly, the stronger students were even more in favour of e-learning than the weaker students, for whom the quizzes were originally designed.

  11. Band gap engineering in polymers through chemical doping and applied mechanical strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzillo, Nicholas A.; Breneman, Curt M.

    2016-08-01

    We report simulations based on density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory exploring the band gaps of common crystalline polymers including polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene. Our reported band gaps of 8.6 eV for single-chain polyethylene and 9.1 eV for bulk crystalline polyethylene are in excellent agreement with experiment. The effects of chemical doping along the polymer backbone and side-groups are explored, and the use mechanical strain as a means to modify the band gaps of these polymers over a range of several eV while leaving the dielectric constant unchanged is discussed. This work highlights some of the opportunities available to engineer the electronic properties of polymers with wide-reaching implications for polymeric dielectric materials used for capacitive energy storage.

  12. Econophysics and bio-chemical engineering thermodynamics: The exergetic analysis of a municipality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2016-11-01

    Exergy is a fundamental quantity because it allows us to obtain information on the useful work obtainable in a process. The analyses of irreversibility are important not only in the design and development of the industrial devices, but also in fundamental thermodynamics and in the socio-economic analysis of municipality. Consequently, the link between entropy and exergy is discussed in order to link econophysics to the bio-chemical engineering thermodynamics. Last, this link holds to the fundamental role of fluxes and to the exergy exchanged in the interaction between the system and its environment. The result consists in a thermodynamic approach to the analysis of the unavailability of the economic, productive or social systems. The unavailability is what the system cannot use in relation to its internal processes. This quantity result is interesting also as a support to public manager for economic decisions. Here, the Alessandria Municipality is analyzed in order to highlight the application of the theoretical results.

  13. ThermoData engine (TDE): software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept. 4. Chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Diky, Vladimir; Chirico, Robert D; Kazakov, Andrei F; Muzny, Chris D; Frenkel, Michael

    2009-12-01

    ThermoData Engine (TDE) is the first full-scale software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept, as reported recently in this journal. This paper describes the first application of this concept to the evaluation of thermodynamic properties for chemical reactions. Reaction properties evaluated are the enthalpies, entropies, Gibbs energies, and thermodynamic equilibrium constants. Details of key considerations in the critical evaluation of enthalpies of formation and of standard entropies for organic compounds are discussed in relation to their application in the calculation of reaction properties. Extensions to the class structure of the program are described that allow close linkage between the derived reaction properties and the underlying pure-component properties. Derivation of pure-component enthalpies of formation and of standard entropies through the use of directly measured reaction properties (enthalpies of reaction and equilibrium constants) is described. Directions for future enhancements are outlined.

  14. Diesel Surrogate Fuels for Engine Testing and Chemical-Kinetic Modeling: Compositions and Properties.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Charles J; Cannella, William J; Bays, J Timothy; Bruno, Thomas J; DeFabio, Kathy; Dettman, Heather D; Gieleciak, Rafal M; Huber, Marcia L; Kweon, Chol-Bum; McConnell, Steven S; Pitz, William J; Ratcliff, Matthew A

    2016-02-18

    The primary objectives of this work were to formulate, blend, and characterize a set of four ultralow-sulfur diesel surrogate fuels in quantities sufficient to enable their study in single-cylinder-engine and combustion-vessel experiments. The surrogate fuels feature increasing levels of compositional accuracy (i.e., increasing exactness in matching hydrocarbon structural characteristics) relative to the single target diesel fuel upon which the surrogate fuels are based. This approach was taken to assist in determining the minimum level of surrogate-fuel compositional accuracy that is required to adequately emulate the performance characteristics of the target fuel under different combustion modes. For each of the four surrogate fuels, an approximately 30 L batch was blended, and a number of the physical and chemical properties were measured. This work documents the surrogate-fuel creation process and the results of the property measurements.

  15. Monitoring of the Physical and Chemical Properties of a Gasoline Engine Oil during Its Usage

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Behnam; Semnani, Abolfazl; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza; Shakoori Langeroodi, Hamid; Hakim Davood, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of a mineral-based gasoline engine oil have been monitored at 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 3500, 6000, 8500, and 11500 kilometer of operation. Tracing has been performed by inductively coupled plasma and some other techniques. At each series of measurements, the concentrations of twenty four elements as well as physical properties such as: viscosity at 40 and 100°C; viscosity index; flash point; pour point; specific gravity; color; total acid and base numbers; water content have been determined. The results are indicative of the decreasing trend in concentration of additive elements and increasing in concentration for wear elements. Different trends have been observed for various physical properties. The possible reasons for variations in physical and chemical properties have been discussed. PMID:22567569

  16. Band gap engineering in polymers through chemical doping and applied mechanical strain.

    PubMed

    Lanzillo, Nicholas A; Breneman, Curt M

    2016-08-17

    We report simulations based on density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory exploring the band gaps of common crystalline polymers including polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene. Our reported band gaps of 8.6 eV for single-chain polyethylene and 9.1 eV for bulk crystalline polyethylene are in excellent agreement with experiment. The effects of chemical doping along the polymer backbone and side-groups are explored, and the use mechanical strain as a means to modify the band gaps of these polymers over a range of several eV while leaving the dielectric constant unchanged is discussed. This work highlights some of the opportunities available to engineer the electronic properties of polymers with wide-reaching implications for polymeric dielectric materials used for capacitive energy storage.

  17. Total synthesis approaches to natural product derivatives based on the combination of chemical synthesis and metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Kirschning, Andreas; Taft, Florian; Knobloch, Tobias

    2007-10-21

    Secondary metabolites are an extremely diverse and important group of natural products with industrial and biomedical implications. Advances in metabolic engineering of both native and heterologous secondary metabolite producing organisms have allowed the directed synthesis of desired novel products by exploiting their biosynthetic potentials. Metabolic engineering utilises knowledge of cellular metabolism to alter biosynthetic pathways. An important technique that combines chemical synthesis with metabolic engineering is mutasynthesis (mutational biosynthesis; MBS), which advanced from precursor-directed biosynthesis (PDB). Both techniques are based on the cellular uptake of modified biosynthetic intermediates and their incorporation into complex secondary metabolites. Mutasynthesis utilises genetically engineered organisms in conjunction with feeding of chemically modified intermediates. From a synthetic chemist's point of view the concept of mutasynthesis is highly attractive, as the method combines chemical expertise with Nature's synthetic machinery and thus can be exploited to rapidly create small libraries of secondary metabolites. However, in each case, the method has to be critically compared with semi- and total synthesis in terms of practicability and efficiency. Recent developments in metabolic engineering promise to further broaden the scope of outsourcing chemically demanding steps to biological systems.

  18. Particle emissions from a marine engine: chemical composition and aromatic emission profiles under various operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Sippula, O; Stengel, B; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Rabe, R; Orasche, J; Lintelmann, J; Michalke, B; Abbaszade, G; Radischat, C; Gröger, T; Schnelle-Kreis, J; Harndorf, H; Zimmermann, R

    2014-10-07

    The chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a medium-speed four-stroke marine engine, operated on both heavy fuel oil (HFO) and distillate fuel (DF), was studied under various operating conditions. PM emission factors for organic matter, elemental carbon (soot), inorganic species and a variety of organic compounds were determined. In addition, the molecular composition of aromatic organic matter was analyzed using a novel coupling of a thermal-optical carbon analyzer with a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) mass spectrometer. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were predominantly present in an alkylated form, and the composition of the aromatic organic matter in emissions clearly resembled that of fuel. The emissions of species known to be hazardous to health (PAH, Oxy-PAH, N-PAH, transition metals) were significantly higher from HFO than from DF operation, at all engine loads. In contrast, DF usage generated higher elemental carbon emissions than HFO at typical load points (50% and 75%) for marine operation. Thus, according to this study, the sulfur emission regulations that force the usage of low-sulfur distillate fuels will also substantially decrease the emissions of currently unregulated hazardous species. However, the emissions of soot may even increase if the fuel injection system is optimized for HFO operation.

  19. ChemEngine: harvesting 3D chemical structures of supplementary data from PDF files.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Vyas, Renu

    2016-01-01

    Digital access to chemical journals resulted in a vast array of molecular information that is now available in the supplementary material files in PDF format. However, extracting this molecular information, generally from a PDF document format is a daunting task. Here we present an approach to harvest 3D molecular data from the supporting information of scientific research articles that are normally available from publisher's resources. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of extracting truly computable molecules from PDF file formats in a fast and efficient manner, we have developed a Java based application, namely ChemEngine. This program recognizes textual patterns from the supplementary data and generates standard molecular structure data (bond matrix, atomic coordinates) that can be subjected to a multitude of computational processes automatically. The methodology has been demonstrated via several case studies on different formats of coordinates data stored in supplementary information files, wherein ChemEngine selectively harvested the atomic coordinates and interpreted them as molecules with high accuracy. The reusability of extracted molecular coordinate data was demonstrated by computing Single Point Energies that were in close agreement with the original computed data provided with the articles. It is envisaged that the methodology will enable large scale conversion of molecular information from supplementary files available in the PDF format into a collection of ready- to- compute molecular data to create an automated workflow for advanced computational processes. Software along with source codes and instructions available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/chemengine/files/?source=navbar.Graphical abstract.

  20. Engineering Rugged Field Assays to Detect Hazardous Chemicals Using Spore-Based Bacterial Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Daniel; Deo, Sapna; Daunert, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial whole cell-based biosensors have been genetically engineered to achieve selective and reliable detection of a wide range of hazardous chemicals. Although whole-cell biosensors demonstrate many advantages for field-based detection of target analytes, there are still some challenges that need to be addressed. Most notably, their often modest shelf life and need for special handling and storage make them challenging to use in situations where access to reagents, instrumentation, and expertise are limited. These problems can be circumvented by developing biosensors in Bacillus spores, which can be engineered to address all of these concerns. In its sporulated state, a whole cell-based biosensor has a remarkably long life span and is exceptionally resistant to environmental insult. When these spores are germinated for use in analytical techniques, they show no loss in performance, even after long periods of storage under harsh conditions. In this chapter, we will discuss the development and use of whole cell-based sensors, their adaptation to spore-based biosensors, their current applications, and future directions in the field.

  1. Band gap engineering of chemical vapor deposited graphene by in situ BN doping.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Kai; Kataria, Satender; Kuo, Chun-Chiang; Ganguly, Abhijit; Wang, Bo-Yao; Hwang, Jeong-Yuan; Huang, Kay-Jay; Yang, Wei-Hsun; Wang, Sheng-Bo; Chuang, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Mi; Huang, Ching-I; Pong, Way-Faung; Song, Ker-Jar; Chang, Shoou-Jinn; Guo, Jing-Hua; Tai, Yian; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Isoda, Seiji; Chen, Chun-Wei; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2013-02-26

    Band gap opening and engineering is one of the high priority goals in the development of graphene electronics. Here, we report on the opening and scaling of band gap in BN doped graphene (BNG) films grown by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy is employed to resolve the graphene and h-BN domain formation in great detail. X-ray photoelectron, micro-Raman, and UV-vis spectroscopy studies revealed a distinct structural and phase evolution in BNG films at low BN concentration. Synchrotron radiation based XAS-XES measurements concluded a gap opening in BNG films, which is also confirmed by field effect transistor measurements. For the first time, a significant band gap as high as 600 meV is observed for low BN concentrations and is attributed to the opening of the π-π* band gap of graphene due to isoelectronic BN doping. As-grown films exhibit structural evolution from homogeneously dispersed small BN clusters to large sized BN domains with embedded diminutive graphene domains. The evolution is described in terms of competitive growth among h-BN and graphene domains with increasing BN concentration. The present results pave way for the development of band gap engineered BN doped graphene-based devices.

  2. A reduced chemical kinetic model for IC engine combustion simulations with primary reference fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ra, Youngchul; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2008-12-15

    A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of primary reference fuel (PRF) has been developed and applied to model internal combustion engines. Starting from an existing reduced reaction mechanism for n-heptane oxidation, a new reduced n-heptane mechanism was generated by including an additional five species and their relevant reactions, by updating the reaction rate constants of several reactions pertaining to oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, and by optimizing reaction rate constants of selected reactions. Using a similar approach, a reduced mechanism for iso-octane oxidation was built and combined with the n-heptane mechanism to form a PRF mechanism. The final version of the PRF mechanism consists of 41 species and 130 reactions. Validation of the present PRF mechanism was performed with measurements from shock tube tests, and HCCI and direct injection engine experiments available in the literature. The results show that the present PRF mechanism gives reliable performance for combustion predictions, as well as computational efficiency improvements for multidimensional CFD simulations. (author)

  3. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Zeldes, Benjamin M.; Keller, Matthew W.; Loder, Andrew J.; Straub, Christopher T.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus, and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye toward potential technological advantages for high

  4. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms for production of fuels and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Zeldes, Benjamin M; Keller, Matthew W; Loder, Andrew J; Straub, Christopher T; Adams, Michael W W; Kelly, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus, and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye toward potential technological advantages for high

  5. Surface chemical immobilization of bioactive peptides on synthetic polymers for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Rosellini, Elisabetta; Cristallini, Caterina; Guerra, Giulio D; Barbani, Niccoletta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was the development of new synthetic polymeric systems, functionalized by surface chemical modification with bioactive peptides, for myocardial tissue engineering. Polycaprolactone and a poly(ester-ether-ester) block copolymer synthesized in our lab, polycaprolactone-poly(ethylene oxide)-polycaprolactone (PCL-PEO-PCL), were used as the substrates to be modified. Two pentapeptides, H-Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-OH (GRGDS) from fibronectin and H-Tyr-Ile-Gly-Ser-Arg-OH (YIGSR) from laminin, were used for the functionalization. Polymeric membranes were obtained by casting from solutions and then functionalized by means of alkaline hydrolysis and subsequent coupling of the bioactive molecules through 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry. The hydrolysis conditions, in terms of hydrolysis time, temperature, and sodium hydroxide concentration, were optimized for the two materials. The occurrence of the coupling reaction was demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy, as the presence on the functionalized materials of the absorption peaks typical of the two peptides. The peptide surface density was determined by chromatographic analysis and the distribution was studied by infrared chemical imaging. The results showed a nearly homogeneous peptide distribution, with a density above the minimum value necessary to promote cell adhesion. Preliminary in vitro cell culture studies demonstrated that the introduction of the bioactive molecules had a positive effect on improving C2C12 myoblasts growth on the synthetic materials.

  6. Strategies for the chemical and biological functionalization of scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering: a review

    PubMed Central

    Tallawi, Marwa; Rosellini, Elisabetta; Barbani, Niccoletta; Cascone, Maria Grazia; Rai, Ranjana; Saint-Pierre, Guillaume; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2015-01-01

    The development of biomaterials for cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) is challenging, primarily owing to the requirement of achieving a surface with favourable characteristics that enhances cell attachment and maturation. The biomaterial surface plays a crucial role as it forms the interface between the scaffold (or cardiac patch) and the cells. In the field of CTE, synthetic polymers (polyglycerol sebacate, polyethylene glycol, polyglycolic acid, poly-l-lactide, polyvinyl alcohol, polycaprolactone, polyurethanes and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)) have been proven to exhibit suitable biodegradable and mechanical properties. Despite the fact that they show the required biocompatible behaviour, most synthetic polymers exhibit poor cell attachment capability. These synthetic polymers are mostly hydrophobic and lack cell recognition sites, limiting their application. Therefore, biofunctionalization of these biomaterials to enhance cell attachment and cell material interaction is being widely investigated. There are numerous approaches for functionalizing a material, which can be classified as mechanical, physical, chemical and biological. In this review, recent studies reported in the literature to functionalize scaffolds in the context of CTE, are discussed. Surface, morphological, chemical and biological modifications are introduced and the results of novel promising strategies and techniques are discussed. PMID:26109634

  7. Strategies for the chemical and biological functionalization of scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering: a review.

    PubMed

    Tallawi, Marwa; Rosellini, Elisabetta; Barbani, Niccoletta; Cascone, Maria Grazia; Rai, Ranjana; Saint-Pierre, Guillaume; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-07-06

    The development of biomaterials for cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) is challenging, primarily owing to the requirement of achieving a surface with favourable characteristics that enhances cell attachment and maturation. The biomaterial surface plays a crucial role as it forms the interface between the scaffold (or cardiac patch) and the cells. In the field of CTE, synthetic polymers (polyglycerol sebacate, polyethylene glycol, polyglycolic acid, poly-l-lactide, polyvinyl alcohol, polycaprolactone, polyurethanes and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)) have been proven to exhibit suitable biodegradable and mechanical properties. Despite the fact that they show the required biocompatible behaviour, most synthetic polymers exhibit poor cell attachment capability. These synthetic polymers are mostly hydrophobic and lack cell recognition sites, limiting their application. Therefore, biofunctionalization of these biomaterials to enhance cell attachment and cell material interaction is being widely investigated. There are numerous approaches for functionalizing a material, which can be classified as mechanical, physical, chemical and biological. In this review, recent studies reported in the literature to functionalize scaffolds in the context of CTE, are discussed. Surface, morphological, chemical and biological modifications are introduced and the results of novel promising strategies and techniques are discussed.

  8. Catalytically active polymers obtained by molecular imprinting and their application in chemical reaction engineering.

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, O

    2001-08-01

    Molecular imprinting is a way of creating polymers bearing artificial receptors. It allows the fabrication of highly selective plastics by polymerizing monomers in the presence of a template. This technique primarily had been developed for the generation of biomimetic materials to be used in chromatographic separation, in extraction approaches and in sensors and assays. Beyond these applications, in the past few years molecular imprinting has become a tool for producing new kinds of catalysts. For catalytic applications, the template must be chosen, so that it is structurally comparable with the transition state (a transition state analogue, TSA) of a reaction, or with the product or substrate. The advantage of using these polymeric catalysts is obvious: the backbone withstands more aggressive conditions than a bio material could ever survive. Results are presented showing the applicability of a molecularly imprinted catalyst in different kinds of chemical reactors. It is demonstrated that the catalysts can be utilized not only in batch but also in continuously driven reactors and that their performance can be improved by means of chemical reaction engineering.

  9. Towards efficient chemical synthesis via engineering enzyme catalysis in biomimetic nanoreactors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Yang, Qihua; Li, Can

    2015-09-18

    Biocatalysis with immobilized enzymes as catalysts holds enormous promise in developing more efficient and sustainable processes for the synthesis of fine chemicals, chiral pharmaceuticals and biomass feedstocks. Despite the appealing potentials, nowadays the industrial-scale application of biocatalysts is still quite modest in comparison with that of traditional chemical catalysts. A critical issue is that the catalytic performance of enzymes, the sophisticated and vulnerable catalytic machineries, strongly depends on their intracellular working environment; however the working circumstances provided by the support matrix are radically different from those in cells. This often leads to various adverse consequences on enzyme conformation and dynamic properties, consequently decreasing the overall performance of immobilized enzymes with regard to their activity, selectivity and stability. Engineering enzyme catalysis in support nanopores by mimicking the physiological milieu of enzymes in vivo and investigating how the interior microenvironment of nanopores imposes an influence on enzyme behaviors in vitro are of paramount significance to modify and improve the catalytic functions of immobilized enzymes. In this feature article, we have summarized the recent advances in mimicking the working environment and working patterns of intracellular enzymes in nanopores of mesoporous silica-based supports. Especially, we have demonstrated that incorporation of polymers into silica nanopores could be a valuable approach to create the biomimetic microenvironment for enzymes in the immobilized state.

  10. Thermal and Chemical Analyses of Silicone Polymers for Component Engineering Lifetime Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Balazs, B; Maxwell, R S

    2002-05-14

    Accurate predictions of a polymer component's functional lifetime at best arc tenuous when one has only relatively short term chemical or mechanical property data to extrapolate. We have analyzed a series of silica-filled siloxanes to determine the chemical and microstructural signatures of aging, and we are incorporating these data into rational methodologies for assessing a component's lifetime measured against as-designed engineering properties. We are monitoring changes in mechanical properties, crystallization kinetics, cross-link density changes, and motional dynamics with a variety of analysis methods: Modulated DSC, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, and Solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Previous work has shown that the addition of phenyl side groups to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer chains reduces the rate and extent of crystallization of the co-polymer compared to that of pure PDMS. Crystallization has been observed in copolymer systems up to 6.5 mol % phenyl composition by DSC and up to 8 mol % phenyl by XRD. The PDMS-PDPS-silica composite materials studied here are silica reinforced random block copolymers consisting of dimethyl and diphenyl monomer units with 11.2 mol. % polydiphenylsiloxane. Based on this previous work, it is not expected that this material would exhibit crystallization in the polymer network; however, these silicones do, in fact, exhibit crystallization phenomena. This report focuses primarily on our efforts to assess the information content of the crystallization phenomena with respect to aging signatures and mechanisms that may be limiting the functional lifetime of the composite materials.

  11. Strain engineering of selective chemical adsorption on monolayer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Liangzhi; Du, Aijun; Chen, Changfeng; Frauenheim, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Nanomaterials are prone to influence by chemical adsorption because of their large surface to volume ratios. This enables sensitive detection of adsorbed chemical species which, in turn, can tune the properties of the host material. Recent studies discovered that single and multi-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) films are ultra-sensitive to several important environmental molecules. Here we report new findings from ab inito calculations that reveal substantially enhanced adsorption of NO and NH3 on strained monolayer MoS2 with significant impact on the properties of the adsorbates and the MoS2 layer. The magnetic moment of adsorbed NO can be tuned between 0 and 1 μB strain also induces an electronic phase transition between the half-metal and the metal. Adsorption of NH3 weakens the MoS2 layer considerably, which explains the large discrepancy between the experimentally measured strength and breaking strain of MoS2 films and previous theoretical predictions. On the other hand, adsorption of NO2, CO, and CO2 is insensitive to the strain conditions in the MoS2 layer. This contrasting behavior allows sensitive strain engineering of selective chemical adsorption on MoS2 with effective tuning of mechanical, electronic, and magnetic properties. These results suggest new design strategies for constructing MoS2-based ultrahigh-sensitivity nanoscale sensors and electromechanical devices.Nanomaterials are prone to influence by chemical adsorption because of their large surface to volume ratios. This enables sensitive detection of adsorbed chemical species which, in turn, can tune the properties of the host material. Recent studies discovered that single and multi-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) films are ultra-sensitive to several important environmental molecules. Here we report new findings from ab inito calculations that reveal substantially enhanced adsorption of NO and NH3 on strained monolayer MoS2 with significant impact on the properties of the adsorbates and the

  12. Chemical mechanism for high temperature combustion of engine relevant fuels with emphasis on soot precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Blanquart, G.; Pepiot-Desjardins, P.; Pitsch, H.

    2009-03-15

    This article presents a chemical mechanism for the high temperature combustion of a wide range of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from methane to iso-octane. The emphasis is placed on developing an accurate model for the formation of soot precursors for realistic fuel surrogates for premixed and diffusion flames. Species like acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}), propyne (C{sub 3}H{sub 4}), propene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}), and butadiene (C{sub 4}H{sub 6}) play a major role in the formation of soot as their decomposition leads to the production of radicals involved in the formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and the further growth of soot particles. A chemical kinetic mechanism is developed to represent the combustion of these molecules and is validated against a series of experimental data sets including laminar burning velocities and ignition delay times. To correctly predict the formation of soot precursors from the combustion of engine relevant fuels, additional species should be considered. One normal alkane (n-heptane), one ramified alkane (iso-octane), and two aromatics (benzene and toluene) were chosen as chemical species representative of the components typically found in these fuels. A sub-mechanism for the combustion of these four species has been added, and the full mechanism has been further validated. Finally, the mechanism is supplemented with a sub-mechanism for the formation of larger PAH molecules up to cyclo[cd]pyrene. Laminar premixed and counterflow diffusion flames are simulated to assess the ability of the mechanism to predict the formation of soot precursors in flames. The final mechanism contains 149 species and 1651 reactions (forward and backward reactions counted separately). The mechanism is available with thermodynamic and transport properties as supplemental material. (author)

  13. Engineering chromatin states: chemical and synthetic biology approaches to investigate histone modification function.

    PubMed

    Pick, Horst; Kilic, Sinan; Fierz, Beat

    2014-08-01

    Patterns of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) and DNA modifications establish a landscape of chromatin states with regulatory impact on gene expression, cell differentiation and development. These diverse modifications are read out by effector protein complexes, which ultimately determine their functional outcome by modulating the activity state of underlying genes. From genome-wide studies employing high-throughput ChIP-Seq methods as well as proteomic mass spectrometry studies, a large number of PTMs are known and their coexistence patterns and associations with genomic regions have been mapped in a large number of different cell types. Conversely, the molecular interplay between chromatin effector proteins and modified chromatin regions as well as their resulting biological output is less well understood on a molecular level. Within the last decade a host of chemical approaches has been developed with the goal to produce synthetic chromatin with a defined arrangement of PTMs. These methods now permit systematic functional studies of individual histone and DNA modifications, and additionally provide a discovery platform to identify further interacting nuclear proteins. Complementary chemical- and synthetic-biology methods have emerged to directly observe and modulate the modification landscape in living cells and to readily probe the effect of altered PTM patterns on biological processes. Herein, we review current methodologies allowing chemical and synthetic biological engineering of distinct chromatin states in vitro and in vivo with the aim of obtaining a molecular understanding of histone and DNA modification function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular mechanisms of histone modification function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Programming chemical kinetics: engineering dynamic reaction networks with DNA strand displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Niranjan

    Over the last century, the silicon revolution has enabled us to build faster, smaller and more sophisticated computers. Today, these computers control phones, cars, satellites, assembly lines, and other electromechanical devices. Just as electrical wiring controls electromechanical devices, living organisms employ "chemical wiring" to make decisions about their environment and control physical processes. Currently, the big difference between these two substrates is that while we have the abstractions, design principles, verification and fabrication techniques in place for programming with silicon, we have no comparable understanding or expertise for programming chemistry. In this thesis we take a small step towards the goal of learning how to systematically engineer prescribed non-equilibrium dynamical behaviors in chemical systems. We use the formalism of chemical reaction networks (CRNs), combined with mass-action kinetics, as our programming language for specifying dynamical behaviors. Leveraging the tools of nucleic acid nanotechnology (introduced in Chapter 1), we employ synthetic DNA molecules as our molecular architecture and toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement as our reaction primitive. Abstraction, modular design and systematic fabrication can work only with well-understood and quantitatively characterized tools. Therefore, we embark on a detailed study of the "device physics" of DNA strand displacement (Chapter 2). We present a unified view of strand displacement biophysics and kinetics by studying the process at multiple levels of detail, using an intuitive model of a random walk on a 1-dimensional energy landscape, a secondary structure kinetics model with single base-pair steps, and a coarse-grained molecular model that incorporates three-dimensional geometric and steric effects. Further, we experimentally investigate the thermodynamics of three-way branch migration. Our findings are consistent with previously measured or inferred rates for

  15. A Survey of the Role of Thermodynamics and Transport Properties in Chemical Engineering University Education in Europe and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlstrom, Peter; Aim, Karel; Dohrn, Ralf; Elliott, J. Richard; Jackson, George; Jaubert, Jean-Noel; Macedo, Eugenia A.; Pokki, Juha-Pekka; Reczey, Kati; Victorov, Alexey; Zilnik, Ljudmila Fele; Economou, Ioannis G.

    2010-01-01

    A survey on the teaching of thermodynamics and transport phenomena in chemical engineering curricula in European and US Universities was performed and results are presented here. Overall, 136 universities and colleges responded to the survey, out of which 81 from Europe and 55 from the USA. In most of the institutions responding at least two…

  16. Specific and Optional Curriculum: An Experience in the Undergraduate Program of Chemical Engineering in Cienfuegos University, Cuba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, Yolanda García; Velázquez, Claudia Alvarado; Castillo, Rolando Delgado

    2016-01-01

    This paper pursues to define the pillars for designing the specific (SC) and optional curricula (OC) of Unit Operations and Processes (UOP) Discipline in the Chemical Engineering Program. To achieve this objective a methodology was developed, which was characterized by the participation of every member in the educational process: professors,…

  17. Pressure for Fun: A Course Module for Increasing Chemical Engineering Students' Excitement and Interest in Mechanical Parts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarbrough, Will J.; Case, Jennifer M.

    2006-01-01

    A new module in a first year mechanical drawing course was designed with the primary goal of exciting chemical engineering students about mechanical things. Other goals included increasing student ability and confidence to explain how things work. A variety of high intensity, hands-on, facilitated group activities using pumps and valves were…

  18. Distributive Learning in Introductory Chemical Engineering: University Students' Learning, Motivation, and Attitudes Using a CD-ROM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Barbara A.; Dillon, Connie; Crynes, Billy

    2003-01-01

    This article reports a study in which student performance and approaches to study in a CD-ROM version of a chemical engineering course were examined. The study consists of three phases. The purpose of phase 1 was to evaluate of the efficacy of CD-ROM for this content and student population. Therefore, we compared the performance of students who…

  19. Integrating Environmental Management in Chemical Engineering Education by Introducing an Environmental Management System in the Student's Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanes, Maria T.; Palomares, Antonio E.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we show how specific challenges related to sustainable development can be integrated into chemical engineering education by introducing an environmental management system in the laboratory where the students perform their experimental lessons. It is shown how the system has been developed and implemented in the laboratory, what role…

  20. Integrating Environmental Management in Chemical Engineering Education by Introducing an Environmental Management System in the Student's Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanes, Maria T.; Palomares, Antonio E.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we show how specific challenges related to sustainable development can be integrated into chemical engineering education by introducing an environmental management system in the laboratory where the students perform their experimental lessons. It is shown how the system has been developed and implemented in the laboratory, what role…

  1. Integrating Academic and Mentoring Support for the Development of First-Year Chemical Engineering Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Edmond I.; Chau, Ying

    2010-01-01

    An academic and professional development course has been introduced to help first-year chemical engineering students to deal proactively with the transition from secondary school to university and to develop professional skills. The course uses the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a personality model to facilitate skills development and many…

  2. Pilot-Scale Laboratory Instruction for Chemical Engineering: The Specific Case of the Pilot-Unit Leading Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billet, Anne-Marie; Camy, Severine; Coufort-Saudejaud, Carole

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an original approach for Chemical Engineering laboratory teaching that is currently applied at INP-ENSIACET (France). This approach, referred to as "pilot-unit leading group" is based on a partial management of the laboratories by the students themselves who become temporarily in charge of one specific laboratory. In…

  3. Converting STEM Doctoral Dissertations into Patent Applications: A Study of Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, and Chemical Engineering Dissertations from CIC Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butkovich, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral candidates may request short-term embargoes on the release of their dissertations in order to apply for patents. This study examines how often inventions described in dissertations in chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, and mathematics are converted into U.S. patent applications, as well as the relationship between dissertation…

  4. Distributive Learning in Introductory Chemical Engineering: University Students' Learning, Motivation, and Attitudes Using a CD-ROM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Barbara A.; Dillon, Connie; Crynes, Billy

    2003-01-01

    This article reports a study in which student performance and approaches to study in a CD-ROM version of a chemical engineering course were examined. The study consists of three phases. The purpose of phase 1 was to evaluate of the efficacy of CD-ROM for this content and student population. Therefore, we compared the performance of students who…

  5. A Survey of the Role of Thermodynamics and Transport Properties in Chemical Engineering University Education in Europe and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlstrom, Peter; Aim, Karel; Dohrn, Ralf; Elliott, J. Richard; Jackson, George; Jaubert, Jean-Noel; Macedo, Eugenia A.; Pokki, Juha-Pekka; Reczey, Kati; Victorov, Alexey; Zilnik, Ljudmila Fele; Economou, Ioannis G.

    2010-01-01

    A survey on the teaching of thermodynamics and transport phenomena in chemical engineering curricula in European and US Universities was performed and results are presented here. Overall, 136 universities and colleges responded to the survey, out of which 81 from Europe and 55 from the USA. In most of the institutions responding at least two…

  6. Converting STEM Doctoral Dissertations into Patent Applications: A Study of Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, and Chemical Engineering Dissertations from CIC Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butkovich, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral candidates may request short-term embargoes on the release of their dissertations in order to apply for patents. This study examines how often inventions described in dissertations in chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, and mathematics are converted into U.S. patent applications, as well as the relationship between dissertation…

  7. Integrating Academic and Mentoring Support for the Development of First-Year Chemical Engineering Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Edmond I.; Chau, Ying

    2010-01-01

    An academic and professional development course has been introduced to help first-year chemical engineering students to deal proactively with the transition from secondary school to university and to develop professional skills. The course uses the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a personality model to facilitate skills development and many…

  8. The Navy/NASA Engine Program (NNEP89): Interfacing the program for the calculation of complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions (CEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Sanford

    1991-01-01

    The NNEP is a general computer program for calculating aircraft engine performance. NNEP has been used extensively to calculate the design and off-design (matched) performance of a broad range of turbine engines, ranging from subsonic turboprops to variable cycle engines for supersonic transports. Recently, however, there has been increased interest in applications for which NNEP is not capable of simulating, such as the use of alternate fuels including cryogenic fuels and the inclusion of chemical dissociation effects at high temperatures. To overcome these limitations, NNEP was extended by including a general chemical equilibrium method. This permits consideration of any propellant system and the calculation of performance with dissociation effects. The new extended program is referred to as NNEP89.

  9. Pathway engineering for the production of heterologous aromatic chemicals and their derivatives in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: bioconversion from glucose.

    PubMed

    Gottardi, Manuela; Reifenrath, Mara; Boles, Eckhard; Tripp, Joanna

    2017-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively engineered for optimising its performance as a microbial cell factory to produce valuable aromatic compounds and their derivatives as bulk and fine chemicals. The production of heterologous aromatic molecules in yeast is achieved via engineering of the aromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathway. This pathway is connected to two pathways of the central carbon metabolism, and is highly regulated at the gene and protein level. These characteristics impose several challenges for tailoring it, and various modifications need to be applied in order to redirect the carbon flux towards the production of the desired compounds. This minireview addresses the metabolic engineering approaches targeting the central carbon metabolism, the shikimate pathway and the tyrosine and phenylalanine biosynthetic pathway of S. cerevisiae for biosynthesis of aromatic chemicals and their derivatives from glucose. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Recent developments on genetic engineering of microalgae for biofuels and bio-based chemicals.

    PubMed

    Ng, I-Son; Tan, Shi-I; Kao, Pei-Hsun; Chang, Yu-Kaung; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2017-08-08

    Microalgae serve as a promising source for the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals. Microalgae can help mitigate greenhouse effect. They are superior to terrestrial plants as feedstock in many aspects and their biomass is naturally rich in lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, pigments and other valuable compounds. However, there are still some obstacles in developing microalgae-based biofuels and chemicals in industry Due to the relatively slow growth rate and high cultivation cost of microalgae, Therefore, screening of to screen efficient and robust microalgal strains as well as genetic modifications of the available strains for further improvement are of urgent demand in the development of microalgae-based biorefinery. In genetic engineering of microalgae, transformation and selection methods are the key steps to accomplish the target gene modification. For a powerful genetic screening, the resistance gene used should be efficient. However, determination of the preferable type and dosage of antibiotics used for transformant selection is usually time-consuming and microalgal-strain-dependent. Therefore, more powerful and efficient techniques should be developed to meet this need. In this review, the conventional and emerging genome-editing tools (e.g., CRISPR-Cas9, TALEN and ZFN) used in editing the genomes of nuclear, mitochondria and chloroplast of microalgae are thoroughly surveyed. In the current scenario, insufficient genomic data will challenge the applications of such genome editing tools in microalgae. Although all the techniques mentioned above demonstrate their abilities to perform gene editing and desired phenotype screening, there still need to overcome higher production cost and lower biomass productivity, to achieve efficient production of the desired products in microalgal biorefineries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Load-Dependent Emission Factors and Chemical Characteristics of IVOCs from a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine.

    PubMed

    Cross, Eben S; Sappok, Alexander G; Wong, Victor W; Kroll, Jesse H

    2015-11-17

    A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of mobile-source emissions requires the characterization of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs), relatively-low-vapor-pressure gas-phase species that may generate secondary organic aerosol with high yields. Due to challenges associated with IVOC detection and quantification, IVOC emissions remain poorly understood at present. Here, we describe measurements of the magnitude and composition of IVOC emissions from a medium-duty diesel engine. Measurements are made on an engine dynamometer and utilize a new mass-spectrometric instrument to characterize the load dependence of the emissions in near-real-time. Results from steady-state engine operation indicate that IVOC emissions are highly dependent on engine power, with highest emissions at engine idle and low-load operation (≤25% maximum rated power) with a chemical composition dominated by saturated hydrocarbon species. Results suggest that unburned fuel components are the dominant IVOCs emitted at low loads. As engine load increases, IVOC emissions decline rapidly and become increasingly characterized by unsaturated hydrocarbons and oxygenated organics, newly formed from incomplete combustion processes at elevated engine temperatures and pressures. Engine transients, including a cold-start ignition and engine acceleration, show IVOC emission profiles that are different in amount or composition compared to steady-state combustion, underscoring the utility of characterizing IVOC emissions with high time resolution across realistic engine operating conditions. We find possible evidence for IVOC losses on unheated dilution and sampling surfaces, which need to be carefully accounted for in IVOC emission studies.

  12. Metabolic engineering of Yarrowia lipolytica to produce chemicals and fuels from xylose.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Lazar, Zbigniew; Rakicka, Magdalena; Guo, Zhongpeng; Fouchard, Florian; Coq, Anne-Marie Crutz-Le; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2016-11-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a biotechnological chassis for the production of a range of products, such as microbial oils and organic acids. However, it is unable to consume xylose, the major pentose in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, which are considered a preferred carbon source for bioprocesses due to their low cost, wide abundance and high sugar content. Here, we engineered Y. lipolytica to metabolize xylose to produce lipids or citric acid. The overexpression of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase from Scheffersomyces stipitis were necessary but not sufficient to permit growth. The additional overexpression of the endogenous xylulokinase enabled identical growth as the wild type strain in glucose. This mutant was able to produce up to 80g/L of citric acid from xylose. Transferring these modifications to a lipid-overproducing strain boosted the production of lipids from xylose. This is the first step towards a consolidated bioprocess to produce chemicals and fuels from lignocellulosic materials. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical and engineering properties of fired bricks containing 50 weight percent of class F fly ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Patel, V.; Laird, C.J.; Ho, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    The generation of fly ash during coal combustion represents a considerable solid waste disposal problem in the state of Illinois and nationwide. In fact, the majority of the three million tons of fly ash produced from burning Illinois bituminous coals is disposed of in landfills. The purpose of this study was to obtain a preliminary assessment of the technical feasibility of mitigating this solid waste problem by making fired bricks with the large volume of fly ash generated from burning Illinois coals. Test bricks were produced by the extrusion method with increasing amounts (20-50% by weight) of fly ash as a replacement for conventional raw materials. The chemical characteristics and engineering properties of the test bricks produced with and without 50 wt% of fly ash substitutions were analyzed and compared. The properties of the test bricks containing fly ash were at least comparable to, if not better than, those of standard test bricks made without fly ash and met the commercial specifications for fired bricks. The positive results of this study suggest that further study on test bricks with fly ash substitutions of greater than 50wt% is warranted. Successful results could have an important impact in reducing the waste disposal problem related to class F fly ash while providing the brick industry with a new low cost raw material. Copyright ?? 2001 Taylor & Francis.

  14. Adsorption laboratory experiment for undergraduate chemical engineering: Introducing kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muryanto, S.; Djatmiko Hadi, S.

    2016-11-01

    Adsorption laboratory experiment for undergraduate chemical engineering program is discussed. The experiment demonstrated adsorption of copper ions commonly found in wastewater using bio-sorbent, i.e. agricultural wastes. The adsorption was performed in a batch mode under various parameters: adsorption time (up to 120 min), initial pH (2 to 6), adsorbent dose (2.0 to 12.0 g L-1), adsorbent size (50 to 170 mesh), initial Cu2+ concentration (25 to 100 ppm) and temperatures (room temp to 40°C). The equilibrium and kinetic data of the experiments were calculated using the two commonly used isotherms: Langmuir and Lagergren pseudo-first-order kinetics. The maximum adsorption capacity for Cu2+ was found as 94.34 mg g-1. Thermodynamically, the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The calculated activation energy for the adsorption was observed as high as 127.94 kJ mol-1. Pedagogically, the experiment was assumed to be important in increasing student understanding of kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic concepts.

  15. Structure-Property Evaluation of Thermally and Chemically Gelling Injectable Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ekenseair, Adam K.; Boere, Kristel W. M.; Tzouanas, Stephanie N.; Vo, Tiffany N.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of synthesis and solution formulation parameters on the swelling and mechanical properties of a novel class of thermally and chemically gelling hydrogels combining poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based thermogelling macromers containing pendant epoxy rings with polyamidoamine-based hydrophilic and degradable diamine crosslinking macromers was evaluated. Through variation of network hydrophilicity and capacity for chain rearrangement, the often problematic tendency of thermogelling hydrogels to undergo significant syneresis was addressed. The demonstrated ability to easily tune post-formation dimensional stability at both the synthesis and formulation stages represents a significant novel contribution towards efforts to utilize poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based polymers as injectable biomaterials. Furthermore, the cytocompatibility of the hydrogel system under relevant conditions was established, while demonstrating time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity at high solution osmolality. Such injectable in situ forming degradable hydrogels with tunable water content are promising candidates for many tissue engineering applications, particularly for cell delivery to promote rapid tissue regeneration in non-load-bearing defects. PMID:22881074

  16. Manipulation of Optoelectronic Properties and Band Structure Engineering of Ultrathin Te Nanowires by Chemical Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ahin; Amin, Kazi Rafsanjani; Tripathi, Shalini; Biswas, Sangram; Singh, Abhishek K; Bid, Aveek; Ravishankar, N

    2017-01-13

    Band structure engineering is a powerful technique both for the design of new semiconductor materials and for imparting new functionalities to existing ones. In this article, we present a novel and versatile technique to achieve this by surface adsorption on low dimensional systems. As a specific example, we demonstrate, through detailed experiments and ab initio simulations, the controlled modification of band structure in ultrathin Te nanowires due to NO2 adsorption. Measurements of the temperature dependence of resistivity of single ultrathin Te nanowire field-effect transistor (FET) devices exposed to increasing amounts of NO2 reveal a gradual transition from a semiconducting to a metallic state. Gradual quenching of vibrational Raman modes of Te with increasing concentration of NO2 supports the appearance of a metallic state in NO2 adsorbed Te. Ab initio simulations attribute these observations to the appearance of midgap states in NO2 adsorbed Te nanowires. Our results provide fundamental insights into the effects of ambient on the electronic structures of low-dimensional materials and can be exploited for designing novel chemical sensors.

  17. Materials Engineering and Scale Up of Fluid Phase Chemical Hydrogen Storage for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Westman, Matthew P.; Chun, Jaehun; Choi, Young Joon; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2016-01-25

    Among candidates for chemical hydrogen storage in PEM fuel cell automotive applications, ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) is considered to be one of the most promising materials due to its high hydrogen content of 14-16 wt% below 200°C and high volumetric density. In our previous paper, we selected AB in silicone oil as a role model for a slurry hydrogen storage system. Materials engineering properties were optimized by increasing solid loading by using an ultra-sonic process. In this paper, we proceeded to scale up to liter size batches with solid loadings up to 50 wt% (8 wt% H2) with dynamic viscosities less than 1000cP at 25°C. The use of a non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-15, shows significant promise in controlling the level of foaming produced during the thermal dehydrogenation of the AB. Through the development of new and efficient processing techniques and the ability to adequately control the foaming, stable homogenous slurries of high solid loading have been demonstrated as a viable hydrogen delivery source.

  18. Terminal alkenes as versatile chemical reporter groups for metabolic oligosaccharide engineering.

    PubMed

    Späte, Anne-Katrin; Schart, Verena F; Schöllkopf, Sophie; Niederwieser, Andrea; Wittmann, Valentin

    2014-12-08

    The Diels-Alder reaction with inverse electron demand (DAinv reaction) of 1,2,4,5-tetrazines with electron rich or strained alkenes was proven to be a bioorthogonal ligation reaction that proceeds fast and with high yields. An important application of the DAinv reaction is metabolic oligosaccharide engineering (MOE) which allows the visualization of glycoconjugates in living cells. In this approach, a sugar derivative bearing a chemical reporter group is metabolically incorporated into cellular glycoconjugates and subsequently derivatized with a probe by means of a bioorthogonal ligation reaction. Here, we investigated a series of new mannosamine and glucosamine derivatives with carbamate-linked side chains of varying length terminated by alkene groups and their suitability for labeling cell-surface glycans. Kinetic investigations showed that the reactivity of the alkenes in DAinv reactions increases with growing chain length. When applied to MOE, one of the compounds, peracetylated N-butenyloxycarbonylmannosamine, was especially well suited for labeling cell-surface glycans. Obviously, the length of its side chain represents the optimal balance between incorporation efficiency and speed of the labeling reaction. Sialidase treatment of the cells before the bioorthogonal labeling reaction showed that this sugar derivative is attached to the glycans in form of the corresponding sialic acid derivative and not epimerized to another hexosamine derivative to a considerable extent. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Engineering furfural tolerance in Escherichia coli improves the fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars into renewable chemicals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Yomano, Lorraine P; Lee, James Y; York, Sean W; Zheng, Huabao; Mullinnix, Michael T; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2013-03-05

    Pretreatments such as dilute acid at elevated temperature are effective for the hydrolysis of pentose polymers in hemicellulose and also increase the access of enzymes to cellulose fibers. However, the fermentation of resulting syrups is hindered by minor reaction products such as furfural from pentose dehydration. To mitigate this problem, four genetic traits have been identified that increase furfural tolerance in ethanol-producing Escherichia coli LY180 (strain W derivative): increased expression of fucO, ucpA, or pntAB and deletion of yqhD. Plasmids and integrated strains were used to characterize epistatic interactions among traits and to identify the most effective combinations. Furfural resistance traits were subsequently integrated into the chromosome of LY180 to construct strain XW129 (LY180 ΔyqhD ackA::PyadC'fucO-ucpA) for ethanol. This same combination of traits was also constructed in succinate biocatalysts (Escherichia coli strain C derivatives) and found to increase furfural tolerance. Strains engineered for resistance to furfural were also more resistant to the mixture of inhibitors in hemicellulose hydrolysates, confirming the importance of furfural as an inhibitory component. With resistant biocatalysts, product yields (ethanol and succinate) from hemicellulose syrups were equal to control fermentations in laboratory media without inhibitors. The combination of genetic traits identified for the production of ethanol (strain W derivative) and succinate (strain C derivative) may prove useful for other renewable chemicals from lignocellulosic sugars.

  20. Engineering furfural tolerance in Escherichia coli improves the fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars into renewable chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuan; Yomano, Lorraine P.; Lee, James Y.; York, Sean W.; Zheng, Huabao; Mullinnix, Michael T.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Ingram, Lonnie O.

    2013-01-01

    Pretreatments such as dilute acid at elevated temperature are effective for the hydrolysis of pentose polymers in hemicellulose and also increase the access of enzymes to cellulose fibers. However, the fermentation of resulting syrups is hindered by minor reaction products such as furfural from pentose dehydration. To mitigate this problem, four genetic traits have been identified that increase furfural tolerance in ethanol-producing Escherichia coli LY180 (strain W derivative): increased expression of fucO, ucpA, or pntAB and deletion of yqhD. Plasmids and integrated strains were used to characterize epistatic interactions among traits and to identify the most effective combinations. Furfural resistance traits were subsequently integrated into the chromosome of LY180 to construct strain XW129 (LY180 ΔyqhD ackA::PyadC′fucO-ucpA) for ethanol. This same combination of traits was also constructed in succinate biocatalysts (Escherichia coli strain C derivatives) and found to increase furfural tolerance. Strains engineered for resistance to furfural were also more resistant to the mixture of inhibitors in hemicellulose hydrolysates, confirming the importance of furfural as an inhibitory component. With resistant biocatalysts, product yields (ethanol and succinate) from hemicellulose syrups were equal to control fermentations in laboratory media without inhibitors. The combination of genetic traits identified for the production of ethanol (strain W derivative) and succinate (strain C derivative) may prove useful for other renewable chemicals from lignocellulosic sugars. PMID:23431191