Science.gov

Sample records for accepted risk factors

  1. Approaches to acceptable risk

    SciTech Connect

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  2. Investigation of risk factors of psychological acceptance and burnout syndrome among nurses in China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yongcheng; Yao, Wu; Wang, Wei; Li, Hong; Lan, Yajia

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine reliability of Chinese version of Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), the relationship between psychological acceptance (PA), and burnout syndrome and their risk factors among nurses in China. The reliability of AAQ-II in Chinese was evaluated first by testing on 111 doctors and 108 nurses in China. On the number of 845 nurses selected from nine city hospitals by using stratified cluster sampling method, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was administered to establish the presence of burnout, and the AAQ-II was used to measure their PA. Results showed that the AAQ-II in Chinese had a good test-retest reliability. PA was statistically significantly negatively correlated to the three dimensionalities of burnout among nurses in China. Male and female nurses had a significant difference in PA. Risk factors for burnout were age (25-44 years), marital status (married), gender (male), hospital department (emergency) and position (primary title) as well as PA. The findings provide insights into the risk factors of burnout in Chinese nurses and may have clinical implications in preventing burnout in Chinese nurses.

  3. Acceptability of human risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kasperson, R E

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates about risk levels are often at base debates over the adequacy of the institutions which manage the risks. Scientific information can contribute three broad types of analyses to risk-setting deliberations: contextual analysis, equity assessment, and public preference analysis. More effective risk-setting decisions will involve attention to the process used, particularly in regard to the requirements of procedural justice and democratic responsibility. PMID:6418541

  4. Risks and Mitigating Factors in Decisions to Accept Students with Criminal Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodersen, Miriam; Swick, Danielle; Richman, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Social work educators have few guidelines to help them evaluate master's of social work applicants with criminal records. This study surveyed 280 field supervisors and asked them to rate their likelihood of rejecting a student with a criminal record depending on crime type and mitigating factors. Results found that supervisors' perception of risk…

  5. Risk comparisons, conflict, and risk acceptability claims.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2004-02-01

    Despite many claims for and against the use of risk comparisons in risk communication, few empirical studies have explored their effect. Even fewer have examined the public's relative preferences among different kinds of risk comparisons. Two studies, published in this journal in 1990 and 2003, used seven measures of "acceptability" to examine public reaction to 14 examples of risk comparisons, as used by a hypothetical factory manager to explain risks of his ethylene oxide plant. This study examined the effect on preferences of scenarios involving low or high conflict between the factory manager and residents of the hypothetical town (as had the 2003 study), and inclusion of a claim that the comparison demonstrated the risks' acceptability. It also tested the Finucane et al. (2000) affect hypothesis that information emphasizing low risks-as in these risk comparisons-would raise benefits estimates without changing risk estimates. Using similar but revised scenarios, risk comparison examples (10 instead of 14), and evaluation measures, an opportunity sample of 303 New Jersey residents rated the comparisons, and the risks and benefits of the factory. On average, all comparisons received positive ratings on all evaluation measures in all conditions. Direct and indirect measures showed that the conflict manipulation worked; overall, No-Conflict and Conflict scenarios evoked scores that were not significantly different. The attachment to each risk comparison of a risk acceptability claim ("So our factory's risks should be acceptable to you.") did not worsen ratings relative to conditions lacking this claim. Readers who did or did not see this claim were equally likely to infer an attempt to persuade them to accept the risk from the comparison. As in the 2003 article, there was great individual variability in inferred rankings of the risk comparisons. However, exposure to the risk comparisons did not reduce risk estimates significantly (while raising benefit estimates

  6. Assessing Acceptability of Self-Sampling Kits, Prevalence, and Risk Factors for Human Papillomavirus Infection in American Indian Women.

    PubMed

    Winer, Rachel L; Gonzales, Angela A; Noonan, Carolyn J; Cherne, Stephen L; Buchwald, Dedra S

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and calculated the prevalence of and risk factors for high-risk (hr) HPV infections in a community-based sample of American Indian women. To this end, we recruited 329 Hopi women aged 21-65 years to self-collect vaginal samples for hrHPV testing. Samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction for 14 hrHPV genotypes. We used Chi square tests to identify correlates of preference for clinician Pap testing versus HPV self-sampling, and age-adjusted Poisson regression to evaluate correlates of hrHPV prevalence. We found that satisfaction with HPV self-sampling was high, with 96 % of women reporting that the sample was easy to collect and 87 % reporting no discomfort. The majority (62 %) indicated that they preferred HPV self-sampling to receiving a Pap test from a clinician. Preference for Pap testing over HPV self-sampling was positively associated with adherence to Pap screening and employment outside the home. All samples evaluated were satisfactory for HPV testing, and 22 % were positive for hrHPV. HrHPV prevalence peaked in the late 20 s and declined with increasing age. HrHPV positivity was inversely associated with having children living the household. In conclusion, HPV self-sampling is feasible and acceptable to Hopi women, and could be effective in increasing rates of cervical cancer screening in Hopi communities. HrHPV prevalence was similar to estimates in the general United States population.

  7. The design, implementation and acceptability of an integrated intervention to address multiple behavioral and psychosocial risk factors among pregnant African American women

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Kathy S; Blake, Susan M; Milligan, Renee A; Sharps, Phyllis W; White, Davene B; Rodan, Margaret F; Rossi, Maryann; Murray, Kennan B

    2008-01-01

    Background African American women are at increased risk for poor pregnancy outcomes compared to other racial-ethnic groups. Single or multiple psychosocial and behavioral factors may contribute to this risk. Most interventions focus on singular risks. This paper describes the design, implementation, challenges faced, and acceptability of a behavioral counseling intervention for low income, pregnant African American women which integrated multiple targeted risks into a multi-component format. Methods Six academic institutions in Washington, DC collaborated in the development of a community-wide, primary care research study, DC-HOPE, to improve pregnancy outcomes. Cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression and intimate partner violence were the four risks targeted because of their adverse impact on pregnancy. Evidence-based models for addressing each risk were adapted and integrated into a multiple risk behavior intervention format. Pregnant women attending six urban prenatal clinics were screened for eligibility and risks and randomized to intervention or usual care. The 10-session intervention was delivered in conjunction with prenatal and postpartum care visits. Descriptive statistics on risk factor distributions, intervention attendance and length (i.e., with < 4 sessions considered minimal adherence) for all enrolled women (n = 1,044), and perceptions of study participation from a sub-sample of those enrolled (n = 152) are reported. Results Forty-eight percent of women screened were eligible based on presence of targeted risks, 76% of those eligible were enrolled, and 79% of those enrolled were retained postpartum. Most women reported a single risk factor (61%); 39% had multiple risks. Eighty-four percent of intervention women attended at least one session (60% attended ≥ 4 sessions) without disruption of clinic scheduling. Specific risk factor content was delivered as prescribed in 80% or more of the sessions; 78% of sessions were

  8. Science and Safety: 'Acceptable' Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Stresses ways to answer questions related to widespread publicity - are nuclear reactors safe, will dangerous research in genetic manipulation be banned? - with emphasis on true meaning of safety as related to risks. (EB)

  9. Approaches to acceptable risk: a critical guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fischhoff, B.; Lichtenstein, S.; Slovic, P.; Keeney, R.; Derby, S.

    1980-12-01

    Acceptable-risk decisions are an essential step in the management of technological hazards. In many situations, they constitute the weak (or missing) link in the management process. The absence of an adequate decision-making methodology often produces indecision, inconsistency, and dissatisfaction. The result is neither good for hazard management nor good for society. This report offers a critical analysis of the viability of various approaches as guides to acceptable-risk decisions. This report seeks to define acceptable-risk decisions and to examine some frequently proposed, but inappropriate, solutions. 255 refs., 22 figs., 25 tabs.

  10. Development of quantitative risk acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmeyer, J. M.; Okrent, D.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the major considerations for effective management of risk are discussed, with particular emphasis on risks due to nuclear power plant operations. Although there are impacts associated with the rest of the fuel cycle, they are not addressed here. Several previously published proposals for quantitative risk criteria are reviewed. They range from a simple acceptance criterion on individual risk of death to a quantitative risk management framework. The final section discussed some of the problems in the establishment of a framework for the quantitative management of risk.

  11. Major psychological factors affecting acceptance of gene-recombination technology.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yutaka

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the validity of a causal model that was made to predict the acceptance of gene-recombination technology. A structural equation model was used as a causal model. First of all, based on preceding studies, the factors of perceived risk, perceived benefit, and trust were set up as important psychological factors determining acceptance of gene-recombination technology in the structural equation model. An additional factor, "sense of bioethics," which I consider to be important for acceptance of biotechnology, was added to the model. Based on previous studies, trust was set up to have an indirect influence on the acceptance of gene-recombination technology through perceived risk and perceived benefit in the model. Participants were 231 undergraduate students in Japan who answered a questionnaire with a 5-point bipolar scale. The results indicated that the proposed model fits the data well, and showed that acceptance of gene-recombination technology is explained largely by four factors, that is, perceived risk, perceived benefit, trust, and sense of bioethics, whether the technology is applied to plants, animals, or human beings. However, the relative importance of the four factors was found to vary depending on whether the gene-recombination technology was applied to plants, animals, or human beings. Specifically, the factor of sense of bioethics is the most important factor in acceptance of plant gene-recombination technology and animal gene-recombination technology, and the factors of trust and perceived risk are the most important factors in acceptance of human being gene-recombination technology.

  12. Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been linked to some cancers: Links between air pollution and cancer risk have been found. These include ... between lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large ...

  13. 14 CFR 415.35 - Acceptable flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptable flight risk. 415.35 Section 415... Launch Range § 415.35 Acceptable flight risk. (a) Flight risk through orbital insertion or impact. Acceptable flight risk through orbital insertion for an orbital launch vehicle, and through impact for...

  14. 14 CFR 415.35 - Acceptable flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptable flight risk. 415.35 Section 415... Launch Range § 415.35 Acceptable flight risk. (a) Flight risk through orbital insertion or impact. Acceptable flight risk through orbital insertion for an orbital launch vehicle, and through impact for...

  15. 14 CFR 415.35 - Acceptable flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptable flight risk. 415.35 Section 415... Launch Range § 415.35 Acceptable flight risk. (a) Flight risk through orbital insertion or impact. Acceptable flight risk through orbital insertion for an orbital launch vehicle, and through impact for...

  16. 14 CFR 415.35 - Acceptable flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptable flight risk. 415.35 Section 415... Launch Range § 415.35 Acceptable flight risk. (a) Flight risk through orbital insertion or impact. Acceptable flight risk through orbital insertion for an orbital launch vehicle, and through impact for...

  17. 14 CFR 415.35 - Acceptable flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptable flight risk. 415.35 Section 415... Launch Range § 415.35 Acceptable flight risk. (a) Flight risk through orbital insertion or impact. Acceptable flight risk through orbital insertion for an orbital launch vehicle, and through impact for...

  18. Risk acceptance criterion for tanker oil spill risk reduction measures.

    PubMed

    Psarros, George; Skjong, Rolf; Vanem, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper is aimed at investigating whether there is ample support for the view that the acceptance criterion for evaluating measures for prevention of oil spills from tankers should be based on cost-effectiveness considerations. One such criterion can be reflected by the Cost of Averting a Tonne of oil Spilt (CATS) whereas its target value is updated by elaborating the inherent uncertainties of oil spill costs and establishing a value for the criterion's assurance factor. To this end, a value of $80,000/t is proposed as a sensible CATS criterion and the proposed value for the assurance factor F=1.5 is supported by the retrieved Protection and Indemnity (P&I) Clubs' Annual Reports. It is envisaged that this criterion would allow the conversion of direct and indirect costs into a non-market value for the optimal allocation of resources between the various parties investing in shipping. A review of previous cost estimation models on oil spills is presented and a probability distribution (log-normal) is fitted on the available oil spill cost data, where it should be made abundantly clear that the mean value of the distribution is used for deriving the updated CATS criterion value. However, the difference between the initial and the updated CATS criterion in the percentiles of the distribution is small. It is found through the current analysis that results are partly lower than the predicted values from the published estimation models. The costs are also found to depend on the type of accident, which is in agreement with the results of previous studies. Other proposals on acceptance criteria are reviewed and it is asserted that the CATS criterion can be considered as the best candidate. Evidence is provided that the CATS approach is practical and meaningful by including examples of successful applications in actual risk assessments. Finally, it is suggested that the criterion may be refined subject to more readily available cost data and experience gained from future

  19. Launch Risk Acceptability: The Public Speaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, Jerold M.; Lamoreaux, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    The perspective of those assuming risk has become increasingly important to launch agencies. The IAASS white paper "An ICAO for Space?" proposed four ultimate goals of any international regulatory framework. The first of these was to "Ensure that citizens of all nations are equally protected from "unreasonable levels" of risk from overflight by missiles, launch vehicles and returning spacecraft". A key component of this concept is the issue of what is an "unreasonable level" of risk from the perspective of those assuming the risk.

  20. Comparative research on NIMBY risk acceptability between Chinese and Japanese college students.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunqing; Zhai, Guofang; Li, Shasha; Ren, Chongqiang; Tsuchida, Shoji

    2014-10-01

    Along with the progressive acceleration of urbanization, the need to identify potentially troublesome "Not In My Back Yard" (NIMBY) facilities in the city is inevitable. To resolve NIMBY conflict, it is important to know people's NIMBY risk acceptability for these facilities. A questionnaire survey was used among Chinese and Japanese college students to identify NIMBY risk acceptability. LISREL was used to construct a structural equation model to analyze the difference in NIMBY risk acceptability between the Chinese and Japanese college students. Factors that may affect NIMBY risk acceptability were analyzed: "perceiving utility," "perceiving risk," "trust in government," "reasonable compensation," and "procedural justice." The findings show that Japanese students' concerns were greater than Chinese students' concerns. Perceiving utility and perceiving risk were the most important factors that affect people's NIMBY risk acceptability, followed by procedural justice, trust in government, and reasonable compensation. There is a difference between the different cultural backgrounds in confronting the risk: Chinese students focus more on the reputation and value of real estate, while Japanese students pay more attention to environmental pollution and damage to health. Furthermore, cultural influences play a role in students' risk perception. To improve the risk acceptability for NIMBY facilities and provide a basis for resolving NIMBY conflicts, it is necessary to ensure the benefits of the NIMBY facility while reducing environmental pollution. The findings of this study may be of interest for policy makers and practitioners to devise future NIMBY strategies.

  1. Comparative research on NIMBY risk acceptability between Chinese and Japanese college students.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunqing; Zhai, Guofang; Li, Shasha; Ren, Chongqiang; Tsuchida, Shoji

    2014-10-01

    Along with the progressive acceleration of urbanization, the need to identify potentially troublesome "Not In My Back Yard" (NIMBY) facilities in the city is inevitable. To resolve NIMBY conflict, it is important to know people's NIMBY risk acceptability for these facilities. A questionnaire survey was used among Chinese and Japanese college students to identify NIMBY risk acceptability. LISREL was used to construct a structural equation model to analyze the difference in NIMBY risk acceptability between the Chinese and Japanese college students. Factors that may affect NIMBY risk acceptability were analyzed: "perceiving utility," "perceiving risk," "trust in government," "reasonable compensation," and "procedural justice." The findings show that Japanese students' concerns were greater than Chinese students' concerns. Perceiving utility and perceiving risk were the most important factors that affect people's NIMBY risk acceptability, followed by procedural justice, trust in government, and reasonable compensation. There is a difference between the different cultural backgrounds in confronting the risk: Chinese students focus more on the reputation and value of real estate, while Japanese students pay more attention to environmental pollution and damage to health. Furthermore, cultural influences play a role in students' risk perception. To improve the risk acceptability for NIMBY facilities and provide a basis for resolving NIMBY conflicts, it is necessary to ensure the benefits of the NIMBY facility while reducing environmental pollution. The findings of this study may be of interest for policy makers and practitioners to devise future NIMBY strategies. PMID:25004852

  2. Acceptance criteria for risk in offshore construction projects

    SciTech Connect

    Rettedal, W.; Gudmestad, O.T.

    1995-12-31

    The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) state in their Regulation for Risk Analysis that the Operator shall form the acceptance criteria for the risk analysis. This applies to both the construction and operating phases. The philosophy is that the risk should be kept as low as reasonable practicable (ALARP). This paper will discuss what form the criteria for an offshore construction project should have, what hazards the criteria should be measured against and how one should proceed to obtain acceptable risk levels. An application of the criteria for an offshore construction project will be discussed.

  3. Values, perceived risks and benefits, and acceptability of nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Judith I M; Steg, Linda; Poortinga, Wouter

    2013-02-01

    We examined how personal values and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with the acceptability of nuclear energy (NE). A theoretical model is tested in which beliefs about the risks and benefits of NE mediate the relationship between values and acceptability. The results showed that egoistic values are positively related to the perceived benefits and acceptability of NE. In contrast, altruistic and biospheric values were positively related to the perceived risks of NE. Although it has been argued that NE may help to combat climate change through lower CO(2) emissions, these environmental benefits were not acknowledged by people with strong biospheric values. Furthermore, results confirmed that the more risks respondents perceived, the less they were inclined to accept NE. In contrast, the more a person believed that NE has beneficial consequences, the more acceptable NE was. Finally, as expected, perceived risks and benefits were found to partly mediate the relationship between personal values and acceptability. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  4. [Risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis].

    PubMed

    Tapia-Rombo, C A; Velasco-Lavín, M R; Nieto-Caldelas, A

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) between two group: group A, newborns with the disease and group B, newborns with other diseases different from NEC, in order to know if these risk factors are more frequent or not in the first group. We assessed the clinical records of all the patients hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Neonatology Service of the La Raza General Hospital between 1987 and 1991 with the diagnosis of NEC. They were compared with 65 clinical records chosen at random of patients hospitalized in the same Unit with other diagnosis at the same time, and who were discharged by improvement or deceased. In all of them were look for known risk factors for NEC generally accepted such as: prematurity, neonatal asphyxia, poliglobulia, cyanotic congenital heart disease, patent ductus arteriosus, respiratory distress syndrome, catheterization of umbilical vessels, early feeding of elevated formula increases, exchange exchange transfusion, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, infection, etc. Just 25 records of the possible 50 with the diagnosis of NEC full filled inclusion criteria. There were no statistically significant difference in weight, sex, mortality and known risk factors of NEC between both groups. Were concluded that NEC is a disease of unknown etiology that should be studied more thoroughly. The known risk factors must be avoided because the patient susceptibility probably play an important role. PMID:8373546

  5. Factors in risk perception

    PubMed

    Sjoberg

    2000-02-01

    Risk perception is a phenomenon in search of an explanation. Several approaches are discussed in this paper. Technical risk estimates are sometimes a potent factor in accounting for perceived risk, but in many important applications it is not. Heuristics and biases, mainly availability, account for only a minor portion of risk perception, and media contents have not been clearly implicated in risk perception. The psychometric model is probably the leading contender in the field, but its explanatory value is only around 20% of the variance of raw data. Adding a factor of "unnatural risk" considerably improves the psychometric model. Cultural Theory, on the other hand, has not been able to explain more than 5-10% of the variance of perceived risk, and other value scales have similarly failed. A model is proposed in which attitude, risk sensitivity, and specific fear are used as explanatory variables; this model seems to explain well over 30-40% of the variance and is thus more promising than previous approaches. The model offers a different type of psychological explanation of risk perception, and it has many implications, e.g., a different approach to the relationship between attitude and perceived risk, as compared with the usual cognitive analysis of attitude. PMID:10795334

  6. Risk Factors for Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Padmanesan; Wood, James; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Mathai, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli. PMID:23476764

  7. Factors Affecting Acceptance of Smartphone Application for Management of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The factors affecting the acceptance of mobile obesity-management applications (apps) by the public were analyzed using a mobile healthcare system (MHS) technology acceptance model (TAM). Methods The subjects who participated in this study were Android smartphone users who had an intent to manage their weight. They used the obesity-management app for two weeks, and then completed an 18-item survey designed to determine the factors influencing the acceptance of the app. Three questions were asked pertaining to each of the following six factors: compatibility, self-efficacy, technical support and training, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavior regarding intention to use. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the reliability of the scales. Pathway analysis was also performed to evaluate the MHS acceptance model. Results A total of 94 subjects participated in this study. The results indicate that compatibility, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use significantly affected the behavioral intention to use the mobile obesity-management app. Technical support and training also significantly affected the perceived ease of use; however, the hypotheses that self-efficacy affects perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use were not supported in this study. Conclusions This is the first attempt to analyze the factors influencing mobile obesity-management app acceptance using a TAM. Further studies should cover not only obesity but also other chronic diseases and should analyze the factors affecting the acceptance of apps among healthcare consumers in general. PMID:25995959

  8. Acceptability of risk from radiation: Application to human space flight

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-30

    This one of NASA`s sponsored activities of the NCRP. In 1983, NASA asked NCRP to examine radiation risks in space and to make recommendations about career radiation limits for astronauts (with cancer considered as the principal risk). In conjunction with that effort, NCRP was asked to convene this symposium; objective is to examine the technical, strategic, and philosophical issues pertaining to acceptable risk and radiation in space. Nine papers are included together with panel discussions and a summary. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  10. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: Cognitive bases acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, T. C.; Lindell, M. K.; Rankin, W. L.; Nealey, S. M.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies; and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: short term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), long term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  11. Temperament and externalizing behavior: social preference and perceived acceptance as protective factors.

    PubMed

    Berdan, Louise E; Keane, Susan P; Calkins, Susan D

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of social preference and perceived acceptance as moderators of the relation between child temperament and externalizing behavior. Participants included 399 children evaluated at pre-kindergarten and kindergarten assessments. Pre-kindergarten children characterized by high temperamental Surgency/Extraversion were more likely to exhibit hyperactivity and aggression in the kindergarten classroom. In addition, kindergarten perceived acceptance and social preference moderated the relation between pre-kindergarten Surgency/Extraversion and kindergarten hyperactivity for girls only. Girls who were characterized by high temperamental Surgency/Extraversion, high perceived acceptance, and low social preference were at risk for higher levels of teacher-reported and peer-nominated hyperactivity. In contrast, accurately high perceived acceptance was a protective factor for high temperamental Surgency/Extraversion. Findings are discussed in terms of risk and protective factors for externalizing behavior. PMID:18605827

  12. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... and radiation fallout from power plant accidents or nuclear weapons. Having had head or neck radiation treatments in childhood is a risk factor for ... should be done using the lowest dose of radiation that still provides a clear ... from nuclear weapons or power plant accidents. For instance, thyroid ...

  13. Social acceptability of phytoremediation: The role of risk and values.

    PubMed

    Weir, Ellen; Doty, Sharon

    2016-10-01

    A former gas production site that was converted to a public park was chosen as the research location for the present study. Some of the contaminants at the site have been remediated; however, much of the soil is still contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are toxic pollutants that have been shown to have numerous negative health effects. The primary form of remediation at the site has been capping, which is usually considered a temporary remediation strategy since it does not remove contaminants from the site but simply covers them, and this requires repeated re-capping efforts. Endophyte-assisted phytoremediation using willow shrubs is an alternative remediation strategy that could improve soil quality and permanently reduce contaminant levels in the soil. The goal of the present study was to explore the social acceptability of utilizing phytoremediation strategies. Surveys were used to explore public perceptions of the park and of using phytoremediation to clean up existing contamination. Results indicated a high level of social acceptability of phytoremediation at the park. Additionally, ecocentrism was shown to be a significant predictor of phytoremediation acceptability. Risk and anthropocentrism were not significant predictors of acceptability. Results suggest that messages intended to encourage the use and acceptability of phytoremediation should focus on the environmental benefits of phytoremediation.

  14. Risk Perception and the Public Acceptance of Drones.

    PubMed

    Clothier, Reece A; Greer, Dominique A; Greer, Duncan G; Mehta, Amisha M

    2015-06-01

    Unmanned aircraft, or drones, are a rapidly emerging sector of the aviation industry. There has been limited substantive research, however, into the public perception and acceptance of drones. This article presents the results from two surveys of the Australian public designed to investigate (1) whether the public perceive drones to be riskier than existing manned aviation, (2) whether the terminology used to describe the technology influences public perception, and (3) what the broader concerns are that may influence public acceptance of the technology. We find that the Australian public currently hold a relatively neutral attitude toward drones. Respondents did not consider the technology to be overly unsafe, risky, beneficial, or threatening. Drones are largely viewed as being of comparable risk to that of existing manned aviation. Furthermore, terminology had a minimal effect on the perception of the risks or acceptability of the technology. The neutral response is likely due to a lack of knowledge about the technology, which was also identified as the most prevalent public concern as opposed to the risks associated with its use. Privacy, military use, and misuse (e.g., terrorism) were also significant public concerns. The results suggest that society is yet to form an opinion of drones. As public knowledge increases, the current position is likely to change. Industry communication and media coverage will likely influence the ultimate position adopted by the public, which can be difficult to change once established.

  15. Risk Perception and the Public Acceptance of Drones.

    PubMed

    Clothier, Reece A; Greer, Dominique A; Greer, Duncan G; Mehta, Amisha M

    2015-06-01

    Unmanned aircraft, or drones, are a rapidly emerging sector of the aviation industry. There has been limited substantive research, however, into the public perception and acceptance of drones. This article presents the results from two surveys of the Australian public designed to investigate (1) whether the public perceive drones to be riskier than existing manned aviation, (2) whether the terminology used to describe the technology influences public perception, and (3) what the broader concerns are that may influence public acceptance of the technology. We find that the Australian public currently hold a relatively neutral attitude toward drones. Respondents did not consider the technology to be overly unsafe, risky, beneficial, or threatening. Drones are largely viewed as being of comparable risk to that of existing manned aviation. Furthermore, terminology had a minimal effect on the perception of the risks or acceptability of the technology. The neutral response is likely due to a lack of knowledge about the technology, which was also identified as the most prevalent public concern as opposed to the risks associated with its use. Privacy, military use, and misuse (e.g., terrorism) were also significant public concerns. The results suggest that society is yet to form an opinion of drones. As public knowledge increases, the current position is likely to change. Industry communication and media coverage will likely influence the ultimate position adopted by the public, which can be difficult to change once established. PMID:25689883

  16. Perception and acceptance of risk from radiation exposure in space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Slovic, P.

    1997-04-30

    There are a number of factors that influence how a person views a particular risk. These include whether the risk is judged to be voluntary and/or controllable, whether the effects are immediate or delayed, and the magnitude of the benefits that are to be gained as a result of being exposed to the risk. An important aspect of the last factor is whether those who suffer the risks are also those who stand to reap the benefits. The manner in which risk is viewed is also significantly influenced by the manner in which it is framed and presented. In short, risk does not exist in the world independent of our minds and cultures, waiting to be measured. Assessments of risk are based on models whose structure is subjective and associated evaluations are laden with assumptions whose inputs are dependent on judgments. In fact, subjectivity permeates every aspect of risk assessment. The assessment of radiation risks in space is no exception. The structuring of the problem includes judgments related to the probability, magnitude, and effects of the various types of radiation likely to be encountered and assumptions related to the quantitative relationship between dose and a range of specific effects, all of which have associated uncertainties. For these reasons, there is no magic formula that will lead us to a precise level of acceptable risk from exposure to radiation in space. Acceptable risk levels must evolve through a process of negotiation that integrates a large number of social, technical, and economic factors. In the end, a risk that is deemed to be acceptable will be the outgrowth of the weighing of risks and benefits and the selection of the option that appears to be best.

  17. Risk perception and public acceptance toward a highly protested Waste-to-Energy facility.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiangyu; Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Tao, Yun

    2016-02-01

    The application of Waste-to-Energy treatment in Municipal Solid Waste faces strong protest by local communities, especially in cities with high population densities. This study introduces insight into the public awareness, acceptance and risk perception toward Waste-to-Energy through a structured questionnaire survey around a Waste-to-Energy facility in Shanghai, China. The Dichotomous-Choice contingent valuation method was applied to study the willingness to accept of residents as an indicator of risk perception and tolerance. The factors influencing risk perception and the protest response choice were analyzed. The geographical distributions of the acceptance of Waste-to-Energy facility and protest response were explored using geographical information systems. The findings of the research indicated an encouraging vision of promoting Waste-to-Energy, considering its benefits of renewable energy and the conservation of land. A high percentage of protest willingness to accept (50.94%) was highlighted with the effect of income, opinion about Waste-to-Energy, gender and perceived impact. The fuzzy classification among people with different opinions on compensation (valid 0, positive or protest willingness to accept) revealed the existing yet rejected demand of compensation among protesters. Geographical distribution in the public attitude can also be observed. Finally significant statistical relation between knowledge and risk perception indicates the need of risk communication, as well as involving public into whole management process. PMID:26577458

  18. Risk perception and public acceptance toward a highly protested Waste-to-Energy facility.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiangyu; Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Tao, Yun

    2016-02-01

    The application of Waste-to-Energy treatment in Municipal Solid Waste faces strong protest by local communities, especially in cities with high population densities. This study introduces insight into the public awareness, acceptance and risk perception toward Waste-to-Energy through a structured questionnaire survey around a Waste-to-Energy facility in Shanghai, China. The Dichotomous-Choice contingent valuation method was applied to study the willingness to accept of residents as an indicator of risk perception and tolerance. The factors influencing risk perception and the protest response choice were analyzed. The geographical distributions of the acceptance of Waste-to-Energy facility and protest response were explored using geographical information systems. The findings of the research indicated an encouraging vision of promoting Waste-to-Energy, considering its benefits of renewable energy and the conservation of land. A high percentage of protest willingness to accept (50.94%) was highlighted with the effect of income, opinion about Waste-to-Energy, gender and perceived impact. The fuzzy classification among people with different opinions on compensation (valid 0, positive or protest willingness to accept) revealed the existing yet rejected demand of compensation among protesters. Geographical distribution in the public attitude can also be observed. Finally significant statistical relation between knowledge and risk perception indicates the need of risk communication, as well as involving public into whole management process.

  19. Examining extrinsic factors that influence product acceptance: a review.

    PubMed

    Li, X E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2015-05-01

    Drivers of liking (DOL) studies are useful for product development to formulate acceptable products; however, DOL alone are insufficient for understanding why a product is purchased and repurchased, which is ultimately the indication of a successful product. Ultimately sensory attributes drive product success (that is, repeat and continued purchase). However, ignoring the importance of extrinsic factors may neglect the vital product attributes responsible for the initial purchase, which may in turn, affect repeat purchase. The perception of sensory attributes assessed by DOL is mitigated by external perceptions of quality. If the sensory attributes do not deliver based upon the quality cues, the product will not be acceptable. Four key extrinsic factors that affect DOL are the perceived satiety, brand and labeling, price, and the emotional impact to decision making. In order to more thoroughly understand what the DOL for a product is, these 4 product cues should be considered in conjunction with sensory attribute perception to gain a holistic understanding of product acceptance.

  20. Factors Affecting the Acceptability of Microforms as a Reading Medium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Herbert; Reynolds, Linda

    Based on visits to representative microform users and an extensive survey of relevant literature, a study was undertaken to assess the relative importance of factors affecting the acceptability of microforms as reading mediums. The following variables were considered: (1) microform characteristics; (2) equipment design; (3) work station design;…

  1. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  2. When Failure Means Success: Accepting Risk in Aerospace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Singer, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last three decades, NASA has been diligent in qualifying systems for human space flight. As the Agency transitions from operating the Space Shuttle, its employees must learn to accept higher risk levels to generate the data needed to certify its next human space flight system. The Marshall Center s Engineering workforce is developing the Ares I crew launch vehicle and designing the Ares V cargo launch vehicle for safety, reliability, and cost-effective operations. This presentation will provide a risk retrospective, using first-hand examples from the Delta Clipper-Experimental Advanced (DC-XA) and the X-33 single-stage-to-orbit flight demonstrators, while looking ahead to the upcoming Ares I-X uncrewed test flight. The DC-XA was successfully flown twice in 26 hours, setting a new turnaround-time record. Later, one of its 3 landing gears did not deploy, it tipped over, and was destroyed. During structural testing, the X-33 s advanced composite tanks were unable to withstand the forces to which it was subjected and the project was later cancelled. These are examples of successful failures, as the data generated are captured in databases used by vehicle designers today. More recently, the Ares I-X flight readiness review process was streamlined in keeping with the mission's objectives, since human lives are not at stake, which reflects the beginning of a cultural change. Failures are acceptable during testing, as they provide the lessons that actually lead to mission success. These and other examples will stimulate the discussion of when to accept risk in aerospace projects.

  3. Feasibility and Acceptability of Cell Phone Diaries to Measure HIV Risk Behavior Among Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Garfein, Richard S.; Gunn, Jayleen K. L.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Individual, social, and structural factors affecting HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) are difficult to assess using retrospective surveys methods. To test the feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to collect information about sexual events, we recruited 26 FSWs in Indianapolis, Indiana (US). Over 4 weeks, FSWs completed twice daily digital diaries about their mood, drug use, sexual interactions, and daily activities. Feasibility was assessed using repeated measures general linear modeling and descriptive statistics examined event-level contextual information and acceptability. Of 1,420 diaries expected, 90.3 % were completed by participants and compliance was stable over time (p > .05 for linear trend). Sexual behavior was captured in 22 % of diaries and participant satisfaction with diary data collection was high. These data provide insight into event-level factors impacting HIV risk among FSWs. We discuss implications for models of sexual behavior and individually tailored interventions to prevent HIV in this high-risk group. PMID:24643312

  4. Pain Intensity and Patients’ Acceptance of Surgical Complication Risks With Lumbar Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Bono, Christopher M.; Harris, Mitchel B.; Warholic, Natalie; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Carreras, Edward; White, Andrew; Schmitz, Miguel; Wood, Kirkham B.; Losina, Elena

    2014-01-01

    correlation (r=0.19, p=0.04). In bivariate analyses history of prior spinal injections was strongly associated with patients’ acceptance of surgical complication risks and willingness to proceed with surgery (54.5% of scenarios accepted for those who had injections versus 27.6% for those with no prior spinal injections, p=0.0001). White patients were more willing to accept surgery (45.9% of scenarios) than non-whites (28.4%, p=0.03). With the available numbers, age, gender, history of previous non-spinal surgery, education, and the duration of pain demonstrated no clear association with acceptance of surgical complication risks. While education overall was not influential, more educated men had greater risk tolerance than less educated men while more educated women had less risk tolerance than less educated women (p=.023). In multivariate analysis, LBP intensity remained a highly statistically significant correlate (p=0.001) of the proportion of scenarios accepted, as did a history of prior spinal injections (p=0.001) and white race (0.03). Conclusions The current investigation indicates that the intensity of LBP is the most influential factor affecting a patient’s decision to accept risk of complication and symptom persistence when considering lumbar fusion. This relationship has not been previously shown for any surgical procedure. These data could potentially change the manner in which patients are counseled to make informed choices about spinal surgery. With growing interest in adverse events and complications, these data could be important in establishing guidelines for patient-directed surgical decision-making. PMID:23124256

  5. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  6. Perception and acceptance of technological and environmental risks: why are poor countries less concerned?

    PubMed

    Sokolowska, J; Tyszka, T

    1995-12-01

    The research has been aimed at answering two questions: (1) What factors impact perception and acceptance of technological and environmental hazards? (2) Why are rich societies involved more in protecting their environment and health than poor societies? Data has been collected from representative samples of two countries--Poland and Sweden. The results indicate that (1) contrary to earlier findings, the inverse relations between perceived benefits and dangers of hazards has not been observed, (2) acceptance of a risk has been mostly influenced by perceived benefits, (3) rejection of a risk has been mostly influenced by its perceived harmful consequences. Concerning the second question, it has been found that: (1) perceived hazard's danger and benefit is not the only factor that impacts its acceptance, and (2) a broader economic context can impact acceptance (tolerance) of hazards. It has been found that being aware of high dangers and not very high benefits of hazardous activities, Poles still have accepted them. Thus, Poles seem to follow an old proverb: "When one does not have what one likes, one has to like what one has." PMID:8559983

  7. A proposed model of factors influencing hydrogen fuel cell vehicle acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanina, N. H. Noor; Kwe Lu, Tan; Fadhilah, A. R.

    2016-03-01

    Issues such as environmental problem and energy insecurity keep worsening as a result of energy use from household to huge industries including automotive industry. Recently, a new type of zero emission vehicle, hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (HFCV) has received attention. Although there are argues on the feasibility of hydrogen as the future fuel, there is another important issue, which is the acceptance of HFCV. The study of technology acceptance in the early stage is a vital key for a successful introduction and penetration of a technology. This paper proposes a model of factors influencing green vehicle acceptance, specifically HFCV. This model is built base on two technology acceptance theories and other empirical studies of vehicle acceptance. It aims to provide a base for finding the key factors influencing new sustainable energy fuelled vehicle, HFCV acceptance which is achieved by explaining intention to accept HFCV. Intention is influenced by attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control from Theory of Planned Behaviour and personal norm from Norm Activation Theory. In the framework, attitude is influenced by perceptions of benefits and risks, and social trust. Perceived behavioural control is influenced by government interventions. Personal norm is influenced by outcome efficacy and problem awareness.

  8. Formulation factors affecting acceptability of oral medicines in children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Ranmal, Sejal; Batchelor, Hannah K; Orlu-Gul, Mine; Ernest, Terry B; Thomas, Iwan W; Flanagan, Talia; Kendall, Richard; Tuleu, Catherine

    2015-08-15

    Acceptability of medicines in children and caregivers affects safety and effectiveness of medicinal treatments. The pharmaceutical industry is required to demonstrate acceptability of new paediatric formulations in target age groups as an integrated part of the development of these products (Kozarewicz, 2014). Two questions arise when trying to tackle this task: "which dosage form to choose for each target age group?" and "how to formulate it once the dosage form is decided?". Inevitably, both the regulator and the developer turn to scientific evidence for answers. Research has emerged in recent years to demonstrate age-appropriateness and patient acceptability of different dosage forms; however, such information is still fragmented and far from satisfactory to define efficient formulation development strategies for a diverse patient subset (Ranmal and Tuleu, 2013). This paper highlights how formulation factors affect the acceptability of different oral medicines in children (Table 1), and it is based on a more extensive review article by Liu et al. (Liu et al., 2014). Gaps in knowledge are highlighted in order to stimulate further research. In some areas, findings from studies conducted in adult populations may provide useful guidance for paediatric development and this is also discussed.

  9. Pediatric rhinitis risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yaofeng; Liu, Yin; Yang, Na

    2016-01-01

    Rhinitis is a common global disorder that impacts on the quality of life of the sufferer and caregivers. Treatment for pediatric rhinitis is empirical and does not include a detailed history of the allergy triggers or allergy testing. Thus, allergen avoidance advice is not tailored to the child's sensitivities, which may result in adenoid hypertrophy. However, infant onset rhinitis, especially its relationship with respiratory viruses, remains to be further clarified. Rhinitis basically involves inflammation of the upper nasal lining, presenting typically with symptoms of runny nose (rhinorrhea), nasal blockage, and/or sneezing. While not typically fatal, it does impose significant health, psychological, and monetary burden to its sufferers, and is thus considered a global health problem. Previous findings showed that immunotherapy had significant clinical efficacy in children with allergic rhinitis. The present review article aims to highlight recent perspectives pertaining to the rhinitis risk factors especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27698737

  10. Pediatric rhinitis risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yaofeng; Liu, Yin; Yang, Na

    2016-01-01

    Rhinitis is a common global disorder that impacts on the quality of life of the sufferer and caregivers. Treatment for pediatric rhinitis is empirical and does not include a detailed history of the allergy triggers or allergy testing. Thus, allergen avoidance advice is not tailored to the child's sensitivities, which may result in adenoid hypertrophy. However, infant onset rhinitis, especially its relationship with respiratory viruses, remains to be further clarified. Rhinitis basically involves inflammation of the upper nasal lining, presenting typically with symptoms of runny nose (rhinorrhea), nasal blockage, and/or sneezing. While not typically fatal, it does impose significant health, psychological, and monetary burden to its sufferers, and is thus considered a global health problem. Previous findings showed that immunotherapy had significant clinical efficacy in children with allergic rhinitis. The present review article aims to highlight recent perspectives pertaining to the rhinitis risk factors especially in pediatric patients.

  11. Examining extrinsic factors that influence product acceptance: a review.

    PubMed

    Li, X E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2015-05-01

    Drivers of liking (DOL) studies are useful for product development to formulate acceptable products; however, DOL alone are insufficient for understanding why a product is purchased and repurchased, which is ultimately the indication of a successful product. Ultimately sensory attributes drive product success (that is, repeat and continued purchase). However, ignoring the importance of extrinsic factors may neglect the vital product attributes responsible for the initial purchase, which may in turn, affect repeat purchase. The perception of sensory attributes assessed by DOL is mitigated by external perceptions of quality. If the sensory attributes do not deliver based upon the quality cues, the product will not be acceptable. Four key extrinsic factors that affect DOL are the perceived satiety, brand and labeling, price, and the emotional impact to decision making. In order to more thoroughly understand what the DOL for a product is, these 4 product cues should be considered in conjunction with sensory attribute perception to gain a holistic understanding of product acceptance. PMID:25959688

  12. Clinician acceptance is the key factor for sustainable telehealth services.

    PubMed

    Wade, Victoria A; Eliott, Jaklin A; Hiller, Janet E

    2014-05-01

    Telehealth, the delivery of health care services at a distance using information and communications technology, has been slow to be adopted and difficult to sustain. Researchers developing theories concerning the introduction of complex change into health care usually take a multifactorial approach; we intentionally sought a single point of intervention that would have maximum impact on implementation. We conducted a qualitative interview study of 36 Australian telehealth services, sampled for maximum variation, and used grounded theory methods to develop a model from which we chose the most important factor affecting the success of telehealth. We propose that clinician acceptance explains much of the variation in the uptake, expansion, and sustainability of Australian telehealth services, and that clinician acceptance could, in most circumstances, overcome low demand, technology problems, workforce pressure, and lack of resourcing. We conclude that our model offers practical advice to those seeking to implement change with limited resources.

  13. Examining the Factors Affecting PDA Acceptance among Physicians: An Extended Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Basak, Ecem; Gumussoy, Cigdem Altin; Calisir, Fethi

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the intention to use personal digital assistant (PDA) technology among physicians in Turkey using an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A structural equation-modeling approach was used to identify the variables that significantly affect the intention to use PDA technology. The data were collected from 339 physicians in Turkey. Results indicated that 71% of the physicians' intention to use PDA technology is explained by perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. On comparing both, the perceived ease of use has the strongest effect, whereas the effect of perceived enjoyment on behavioral intention to use is found to be insignificant. This study concludes with the recommendations for managers and possible future research.

  14. Social trust, risk perceptions and public acceptance of recycled water: testing a social-psychological model.

    PubMed

    Ross, Victoria L; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-05-01

    Faced with a severe drought, the residents of the regional city of Toowoomba, in South East Queensland, Australia were asked to consider a potable wastewater reuse scheme to supplement drinking water supplies. As public risk perceptions and trust have been shown to be key factors in acceptance of potable reuse projects, this research developed and tested a social-psychological model of trust, risk perceptions and acceptance. Participants (N = 380) were surveyed a few weeks before a referendum was held in which residents voted against the controversial scheme. Analysis using structural equation modelling showed that the more community members perceived that the water authority used fair procedures (e.g., consulting with the community and providing accurate information), the greater their sense of shared identity with the water authority. Shared social identity in turn influenced trust via increased source credibility, that is, perceptions that the water authority is competent and has the community's interest at heart. The findings also support past research showing that higher levels of trust in the water authority were associated with lower perceptions of risk, which in turn were associated with higher levels of acceptance, and vice versa. The findings have a practical application for improving public acceptance of potable recycled water schemes. PMID:24603028

  15. Social trust, risk perceptions and public acceptance of recycled water: testing a social-psychological model.

    PubMed

    Ross, Victoria L; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-05-01

    Faced with a severe drought, the residents of the regional city of Toowoomba, in South East Queensland, Australia were asked to consider a potable wastewater reuse scheme to supplement drinking water supplies. As public risk perceptions and trust have been shown to be key factors in acceptance of potable reuse projects, this research developed and tested a social-psychological model of trust, risk perceptions and acceptance. Participants (N = 380) were surveyed a few weeks before a referendum was held in which residents voted against the controversial scheme. Analysis using structural equation modelling showed that the more community members perceived that the water authority used fair procedures (e.g., consulting with the community and providing accurate information), the greater their sense of shared identity with the water authority. Shared social identity in turn influenced trust via increased source credibility, that is, perceptions that the water authority is competent and has the community's interest at heart. The findings also support past research showing that higher levels of trust in the water authority were associated with lower perceptions of risk, which in turn were associated with higher levels of acceptance, and vice versa. The findings have a practical application for improving public acceptance of potable recycled water schemes.

  16. [Causality: risk factors and interventions].

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Olaf M; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2013-01-01

    A risk factor has a causal effect on a disease when the disease would not have occurred in the absence of the risk factor. Analogous reasoning applies to the effect of a particular therapy. Thinking in terms of contrasts is fundamental to causal reasoning in medicine. The contrast determines the content of the causal claim; the most important assumption here is that the prognosis between groups is comparable. Causal effects of risk factors are not always the same as the causal effect of an intervention: removal of a risk factor (e.g. smoking) for a disease does not necessarily mean that the risk will subsequently normalize. A second problem is that risk factors cannot always easily be translated into interventions. This applies to factors that cannot be changed (e.g. gender) or that can have multiple causes themselves (e.g. obesity).

  17. Factors Affecting Acceptance & Use of ReWIND: Validating the Extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Pradeep Kumar; Ali, Faizan; Leong, Lim Chee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explain the factors affecting students' acceptance and usage of a lecture capture system (LCS)--ReWIND--in a Malaysian university based on the extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) model. Technological advances have become an important feature of universities' plans to improve the…

  18. Risk analysis for new nuclear waste sites: Will it generate public acceptance?

    SciTech Connect

    Inhaber, H.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses public acceptance of radioactive waste facilities and what seems to be increasingly militant stances against such facilities. The role of risk assessment in possibly enhancing public acceptance is investigated.

  19. The Mutable Nature of Risk and Acceptability: A Hybrid Risk Governance Framework.

    PubMed

    Wong, Catherine Mei Ling

    2015-11-01

    This article focuses on the fluid nature of risk problems and the challenges it presents to establishing acceptability in risk governance. It introduces an actor-network theory (ANT) perspective as a way to deal with the mutable nature of risk controversies and the configuration of stakeholders. To translate this into a practicable framework, the article proposes a hybrid risk governance framework that combines ANT with integrative risk governance, deliberative democracy, and responsive regulation. This addresses a number of the limitations in existing risk governance models, including: (1) the lack of more substantive public participation throughout the lifecycle of a project; (2) hijacking of deliberative forums by particular groups; and (3) the treatment of risk problems and their associated stakeholders as immutable entities. The framework constitutes a five-stage process of co-selection, co-design, co-planning, and co-regulation to facilitate the co-production of collective interests and knowledge, build capacities, and strengthen accountability in the process. The aims of this article are twofold: conceptually, it introduces a framework of risk governance that accounts for the mutable nature of risk problems and configuration of stakeholders. In practice, this article offers risk managers and practitioners of risk governance a set of procedures with which to operationalize this conceptual approach to risk and stakeholder engagement. PMID:26094547

  20. The Mutable Nature of Risk and Acceptability: A Hybrid Risk Governance Framework.

    PubMed

    Wong, Catherine Mei Ling

    2015-11-01

    This article focuses on the fluid nature of risk problems and the challenges it presents to establishing acceptability in risk governance. It introduces an actor-network theory (ANT) perspective as a way to deal with the mutable nature of risk controversies and the configuration of stakeholders. To translate this into a practicable framework, the article proposes a hybrid risk governance framework that combines ANT with integrative risk governance, deliberative democracy, and responsive regulation. This addresses a number of the limitations in existing risk governance models, including: (1) the lack of more substantive public participation throughout the lifecycle of a project; (2) hijacking of deliberative forums by particular groups; and (3) the treatment of risk problems and their associated stakeholders as immutable entities. The framework constitutes a five-stage process of co-selection, co-design, co-planning, and co-regulation to facilitate the co-production of collective interests and knowledge, build capacities, and strengthen accountability in the process. The aims of this article are twofold: conceptually, it introduces a framework of risk governance that accounts for the mutable nature of risk problems and configuration of stakeholders. In practice, this article offers risk managers and practitioners of risk governance a set of procedures with which to operationalize this conceptual approach to risk and stakeholder engagement.

  1. The effect of marriage and HIV risks on condom use acceptability in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Anglewicz, Philip; Clark, Shelley

    2013-11-01

    A large and increasing proportion of HIV transmissions in sub-Saharan Africa occur within marriage. Condom use within marriage could, therefore, be an important prevention strategy, but there is considerable debate about whether married couples would be willing to use condoms. This paper contributes to this debate by identifying key factors that affect the acceptability of condom use within marriage and actual condom use among men and women in rural Malawi, using three waves of longitudinal data from 2004, 2006 and 2008. Specifically, we focused on the effect of (1) entry into first marriage, (2) respondent's HIV status, HIV perceptions, and risk behaviors, and (3) spouse's HIV characteristics on condom use acceptability within marriage and actual condom use with a spouse or steady partner. Using fixed-effects regression, we found that getting married coincides with a pronounced attitudinal shift regarding the acceptability of condom use within marriage that cannot be explained by differences in fertility status or selection into marriage. In addition, we found that, for women, perceived HIV status of the respondent and spouse generally had greater influence than actual HIV status on the acceptability of condom use within marriage and actual condom use with a spouse or steady partner, even after HIV status is known; while actual HIV status and HIV risk behaviors are generally more important among men. Although condom use within marriage remained low, these findings suggest that attitudes about and use of condoms are susceptible to change and that both marital status and perceptions of risk are important influences on condom use.

  2. The Effect of Marriage and HIV Risks on Condom Use Acceptability in Rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Anglewicz, Philip; Clark, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    A large and increasing proportion of HIV transmissions in sub-Saharan Africa occur within marriage. Condom use within marriage could, therefore, be an important prevention strategy, but there is considerable debate about whether married couples would be willing to use condoms. This paper contributes to this debate by identifying key factors that affect the acceptability of condom use within marriage and actual condom use among men and women in rural Malawi, using three waves of longitudinal data from 2004, 2006 and 2008. Specifically, we focused on the effect of (1) entry into first marriage, (2) respondent’s HIV status, HIV perceptions, and risk behaviors, and (3) spouse’s HIV characteristics on condom use acceptability within marriage and actual condom use with a spouse or steady partner. Using fixed-effects regression, we found that getting married coincides with a pronounced attitudinal shift regarding the acceptability of condom use within marriage that cannot be explained by differences in fertility status or selection into marriage. In addition, we found that, for women, perceived HIV status of the respondent and spouse generally had greater influence than actual HIV status on the acceptability of condom use within marriage and actual condom use with a spouse or steady partner, even after HIV status is known; while actual HIV status and HIV risk behaviors are generally more important among men. Although condom use within marriage remained low, these findings suggest that attitudes about and use of condoms are susceptible to change and that both marital status and perceptions of risk are important influences on condom use. PMID:24161086

  3. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... high cholesterol. “Those are the most common risk factors,” according to Steven J. Kittner, M.D., director of the Maryland Stroke Center at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore. “But ...

  4. Factors affecting acceptability of radioactive metal recycling to the public and stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Burke, C.J.

    1995-08-01

    The perception of risk takes place within a cultural context that is affected by individual and societal values, risk information, personal experience, and the physical environment. Researchers have found that measures of {open_quotes}voluntariness of risk assumption,{close_quotes} of {open_quotes}disaster potential,{close_quotes} and of {open_quotes}benefit{close_quotes} are important in explaining risk acceptability. A review of cross-cultural studies of risk perception and risk acceptance, as well as an informal stakeholder survey, are used to assess the public acceptability of radioactive scrap metal recycling.

  5. Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk.

  6. Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Neerdael, Bernard

    2007-07-01

    The main objective of this paper is to identify conditions which affect public concern (either increase or decrease) and political acceptance for developing and implementing programmes for geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. It also looks how citizens and relevant actors can be associated in the decision making process in such a way that their input is enriching the outcome towards a more socially robust and sustainable solution. Finally, it aims at learning from the interaction how to optimise risk management addressing needs and expectations of the public and of other relevant stakeholders. In order to meet these objectives, factors of relevance for societal acceptance conditions are identified, described and analysed. Subsequently these factors are looked for in the real world of nuclear waste management through cases in several countries. The analysis is conducted for six stages of a repository programme and implementation process, from policy development to the realisation of the repository itself. The diversity of characteristics of such contexts increases insight in the way society and values of reference are influencing technological decision making. These interrelated factors need to be integrated in step by step decision making processes as emerging the last years in HLW disposal management. In the conclusions, the effect of each factor on acceptance is derived from the empirical record. In the course of carrying out this analysis, it became clear that acceptance had a different meaning in the first three stages of the process, more generic and therefore mainly discussed at policy level and the other stages, by nature more site-specific, and therefore requesting both public and political acceptance. Experience as clearly addressed in this report has shown that a feasible solution has its technical dimension but that 'an acceptable solution' always will have a combined technical and social dimension. If the paper provides tentative answers

  7. Factors Influencing the Acceptance of Web-Based Training in Malaysia: Applying the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Junaidah

    2008-01-01

    Companies in Malaysia are beginning to use web-based training to reduce the cost of training and to provide employees with greater access to instruction. However, some people are uncomfortable with technology and prefer person-to-person methods of training. This study examines the acceptance of web-based training among a convenience sample of 261…

  8. The assessment of the impact of socio-economic factors in accepting cancer using the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS)

    PubMed Central

    Bilińska, Magdalena; Deptała, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study The paper presents the results of examining the level of acceptance of the illness in cancer patients using the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS). Material and methods The study involved cancer patients treated at the Central Clinical Hospital of the Ministry the Interior in Warsaw in 2014. The questionnaire comprised basic demographic questions (socio-economic factors) and the AIS test estimating the level of illness acceptance in patients. Results For the group of patients in the research group, the arithmetic mean amounted to 27.56 points. The period of time that elapsed between the first cancer diagnosis and the start of the study did not influence the score of accepting illness. The acceptance of illness in patients diagnosed with metastases differed from the acceptance of illness by patients diagnosed with metastatic cancer. Females obtained the average of 29.59 in the AIS test, whereas the average in male patients was 26.17. The patients’ age did not impact the AIS test. There were no differences in the AIS test results between a group of people with secondary education and a group of people with higher education. There were no differences in the AIS test results between employed individuals versus pensioners. The inhabitants of cities were characterized by the highest degree of acceptance of their health condition. The lowest degree of acceptance of illness was observed in the group with the lowest average incomes. In the group of married individuals the average degree of acceptance of illness amounted to 27.37 points. The average degree of acceptance of illness in patients that declared themselves as single amounted to 25.75. Conclusions The average degree of acceptance of illness in the study group was 27.56 points, which is a relatively high level of acceptance of cancer. The main socio-economic factor, which influenced the AIS test results was whether metastases were diagnosed or not. There were no differences between patients in

  9. Factors Affecting the Quality of Life and the Illness Acceptance of Pregnant Women with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bień, Agnieszka; Rzońca, Ewa; Kańczugowska, Angelika; Iwanowicz-Palus, Grażyna

    2015-12-22

    The paper contains an analysis of the factors affecting the quality of life (QoL) and the illness acceptance of diabetic pregnant women. The study was performed between January and April, 2013. It included 114 pregnant women with diabetes, hospitalized in the High Risk Pregnancy Wards of several hospitals in Lublin, Poland. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instruments used were: The WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire and the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS). The women's general quality of life was slightly higher than their perceived general health. A higher quality of life was reported by women with a very good financial standing, very good perceived health, moderate self-reported knowledge of diabetes, and also by those only treated with diet and stating that the illness did not interfere with their lives (p < 0.05). Women with a very good financial standing (p < 0.009), high self-reported health (p < 0.002), and those treated with by means of a diet (p < 0.04) had a higher acceptance of illness. A higher acceptance of illness contributes to a higher general quality of life and a better perception of one's health.

  10. The identification of factors linked to the potential acceptance of transgenic biopharmaceuticals: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Duguay, Francois; Katsanis, Lea Prevel; Thakor, Mrugank V

    2003-01-01

    In this exploratory study, Rogers' diffusion of innovation theory was used to identify which factors are likely to contribute to the potential acceptance of transgenic biopharmaceuticals (TG-Bs). These products are not yet available to the general public. A scale was designed to assess three of five core attributes related to the potential adoption rate of innovations (Rogers 1995), as well as to measure potential acceptance characteristics for biotechnology products. These attributes were relative advantage, compatibility with existing values, and complexity. In addition, two other characteristics were included: knowledge (Gartrell and Gartrell 1979) and perceived risks (Bauer 1960). The survey was completed by 74 consumers (78% response rate) using convenience sampling. The research findings show that Rogers' three core attributes are supported, but that knowledge andperceived risks were excluded from the model. The model for transgenic biopharmaceuticals consists of: 1. Consumer-related benefits (positively correlated to potential adoption). 2. New types of animals (negatively correlated to potential 3. Perceived complexity (negatively correlated to potential adoption). All the scaled items developed for this study were highly significant, which indicates that they can be used successfully by other researchers working in this field. As TG-Bs are a discontinuous innovation, biotechnology companies may need to present the benefits of these products, as well as the ease of their use prior to their launch, in order to increase their potential acceptance by consumers. PMID:15271632

  11. [Risk factors for arterial disease].

    PubMed

    Madoery, Roberto; Rubin, Graciela; Luquez, Hugo; Luquez, Cecilia; Cravero, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    The risk factors of arterial disease (FREA) predict a future damage over the vascular system of the human body. Its detection are considered a key for the diagnostic as well as for the preventive and even curative strategies. For a long time, scientist considered those factors originated as a consecuence of large studies during the middle of the last century, with current validity up to our days. A simple classification spoke of them as traditionals. Further investigations described the so called new or emergents.factors that where joint together accordingly to their actions: coagulation factors, psicosocial, inflamatories and infectious. A recent classification, taking into account the type of impact, divided them into; causatives, predisposals and conditionals. Also, it was described a mechanism, the oxidative power, with consecuences over the endothelium, in the last part of the process. Before, another mechanism was described: the insulin resistance and the hiperinsulinism, bases for the Metabolic Syndrome, that includes a number of traditional risk factors.

  12. Which Factors Form Older Adults' Acceptance of Mobile Information and Communication Technologies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkowska, Wiktoria; Ziefle, Martina

    Technology acceptance has become a key concept for the successful rollout of technical devices. Though the concept is intensively studied for nearly 20 years now, still, many open questions remain. This especially applies to technology acceptance of older users, which are known to be very sensitive to suboptimal interfaces and show considerable reservations towards the usage of new technology. This study investigates long- und short-term effects on technology acceptance for a personal digital assistant (PDA) in older users. We examined the influence of users' personal factors (computer expertise, technical self-confidence) on acceptance (long-term effects). To assess short-term effects on acceptance, PDA acceptance was measured, after participants were given a PDA tutor training and interacted with a simulated PDA. According to the findings, individual factors largely determine people's acceptance showing that acceptance is mainly influenced by the individuals' learning history with technology. Though, also the tutorial training significantly affected acceptance outcomes, especially in the older group.

  13. Acceptance Factors Influencing Adoption of National Institute of Standards and Technology Information Security Standards: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiriakou, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of a comprehensive information security governance model and security controls is the best option organizations may have to protect their information assets and comply with regulatory requirements. Understanding acceptance factors of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Risk Management Framework (RMF) comprehensive…

  14. Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A.; Korach, K.S. ); Epstein, S. ); Bhattacharyya, M. ); Pounds, J. )

    1994-04-01

    Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis were reviewed at a conference held at the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences 8-9 November 1993. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease and the NIH Office of Research in Women's Health. The objective of the conference was to review what is known about risk factors for osteoporosis and to identify gaps in the present state of knowledge that might be addressed by future research. The conference was divided into two broad themes. The first session focused on current knowledge regarding etiology, risk factors, and approaches to clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This was followed by three sessions in which various environmental pollutants were discussed. Topics selected for review included environmental agents that interfere with bone and calcium metabolism, such as the toxic metals lead, cadmium, aluminum, and fluoride, natural and antiestrogens, calcium, and vitamin D.

  15. Acceptability of mobile health interventions to reduce inactivity-related health risk in central Pennsylvania adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Maher, Jaclyn P; Conroy, David E

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behavior elevate health risk. Mobile applications (apps) provide one mode for delivering interventions to modify these behaviors and reduce health risk. The purpose of this study was to characterize the need for and acceptability of health behavior interventions among rural adults and evaluate the interest in and the value of app-based interventions in this population. Central Pennsylvania adults with smartphones (N = 258) completed a brief web survey in October-November 2012. Most adults report one or both inactivity-related behavioral risk factors, would use a free app to modify those risk behaviors, and would pay a small amount for that app. Low-cost, efficacious apps to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior should be promoted in public health practice. User experience should be at the forefront of this process to increase value and minimize burden in the service of long-term engagement, behavior change, and health risk reduction. PMID:26844135

  16. Risk Factors For Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jin-Young; Tan, Bruce K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To review the recent literature on risk factors for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with an emphasis on genetic, comorbid diseases and environmental factors associated with CRS. Through identifying potential risk factors for CRS, we glean insights into the underlying pathogenic mechanisms and essential for developing effective therapeutic strategies. Recent findings Recent findings demonstrate that genetics, comorbid medical conditions including airway diseases, gastroesophageal reflux disease, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and various demographic and environmental factors are associated with having a CRS diagnosis. Limitations of current studies include, variable application of disease definitions, lack of prospective longitudinal studies and a disproportionate focus on tertiary care populations. Summary CRS has a broad spectrum of associations ranging from genetics to comorbid diseases and environmental factors. These predisposing factors provide valuable information for possible designing therapeutic and preventive interventions. However, to better understand whether these associations cause CRS, further studies are needed to independently replicate findings, establish temporal relationships between exposure and disease onset, evaluate the influence of exposure dose on disease severity, and to understand the biological effects of these risk factors in the context of CRS. PMID:25479315

  17. Space Reactor Launch Safety--An Acceptably Low Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzberg, Abraham; Wright, Steven

    2008-01-21

    Results from previous space reactor and radioisotope power source risk assessments were combined to provide a scoping assessment of the possible risks from the launch of a reactor power system for use on the surface of the moon or Mars. It is assumed that future reactor power system launches would be subject to the same rigorous safety analysis and launch approval process as past nuclear payload launches. Using the same methodology that has gained approval of past launches, it was determined that the mission risk would be 0.029 person-rem worldwide which translates to 1.5*10{sup -5} latent health effects. It is seen that the only significant sources of radiological risks from a non-operating reactor are possible inadvertent criticality accidents and the consequences of such events have been shown to be extremely low. Passive means such as spectral shift poisons or high reactor core length/diameter ratios have been shown to be able to reduce or eliminate the possibility of the more credible criticality accidents, such as flooding or sand burial. This paper advances the premise that, for design purposes, future space reactor surface-power designs should primarily address the credible accidents and not the hypothetical accidents. For launch accidents and other safety assessments, a probabilistic risk assessment approach will have to be used to assess the safety impact of all types of accidents, including the hypothetical accidents. With this approach, the design of the system will not be burdened with design features that are based on hypothetical criticality accidents having negligible risk. Moreover, there is little chance of convincingly demonstrating that these design features can substantially reduce or eliminated the risk associated with hypothetical criticality accidents.

  18. Factors relating to home telehealth acceptance and usage compliance

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Rachael; Cartwright, Colleen; Shaw, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Aim This paper investigates the acceptance of in-home telehealth by frail older adults and carers of the Transition Care Program (TCP), and evaluates telehealth acceptance as a predictor for usage compliance. Method A stratified random sample of participants was allocated to one of five groups: either a control group or to receive telehealth monitoring of their vital signs for a period of 12 or 24 weeks; with or without a medical alarm pendant. Results Before being trained in and using telehealth, the majority of participants and carers demonstrated acceptance of the technology by reporting that they perceived it would be “useful” and “easy to use.” This acceptance was also reported post-TCP (up to 12 weeks of usage). The “perceived ease of use” of the telehealth equipment increased significantly from pre-telehealth training and usage to post-TCP (up to 12 weeks of usage) (P = 0.001). There was no change, (pre-training and usage to post-TCP) in the “perceived usefulness” of the telehealth equipment. The telehealth acceptance constructs of “ease of use” and “usefulness,” at pre-telehealth training and usage, approached statistical significance as a predictor of future compliance (P = 0.06). “Perceived ease of use,” at pre-training and usage, had a positive relationship with future compliance (P = 0.02). Conclusion There is currently limited knowledge about the influences and determinants of home telehealth compliance in frail older people and their carers, potentially a significant user group for the technology into the future. This study’s finding that frail older people and their carers perceive that home telehealth is useful and easy to use demonstrates their acceptance of home telehealth as a therapeutic tool. Further, perceived ease of use of home telehealth is a significant predictor of compliance with frail older people and their carers’ use of home telehealth. Additional research is required in order to identify other

  19. Human Factors Process Task Analysis: Liquid Oxygen Pump Acceptance Test Procedure at the Advanced Technology Development Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diorio, Kimberly A.; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Human Factors Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (HF PFMEA). HF PFMEA includes the following 10 steps: Describe mission; Define System; Identify human-machine; List human actions; Identify potential errors; Identify factors that effect error; Determine likelihood of error; Determine potential effects of errors; Evaluate risk; Generate solutions (manage error). The presentation also describes how this analysis was applied to a liquid oxygen pump acceptance test.

  20. The First Rotavirus Vaccine and the Politics of Acceptable Risk

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jason L

    2012-01-01

    Context Vaccination in the United States is a frequent source of controversy, with critics alleging failures by public health officials to adequately identify, monitor, and respond to risks associated with vaccines. In response to these charges, the case of RotaShield, a vaccine withdrawn in 1999 following confirmation of a serious adverse event associated with its use, is regularly invoked as evidence of the effectiveness of current vaccine safety activities. Methods This article examines the history of RotaShield, with particular attention paid to decision making regarding its use in the United States and internationally. I reviewed and analyzed federal advisory committee meeting transcripts, international conference reports, government and scientific publications, media coverage, and other primary and secondary source materials. I also conducted six semistructured interviews with former senior officials and advisory committee members at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention who participated in decisions regarding the vaccine. Findings Decision making regarding RotaShield, including the ultimate withdrawal of its recommendation for use, was shaped significantly by government health officials’ concern for preserving public confidence in overall U.S. vaccination efforts amid several unrelated vaccine risk controversies ongoing at that time. This attention to public perception and external pressures occurred in tandem with the evaluation of the quantitative evidence regarding the magnitude and severity of the risk associated with the vaccine. The decisions made in the United States resulted in foreseen but unintended consequences for international use of the vaccine, including in nations where the profile of risks and potential benefits was dramatically different. Conclusions As enthusiasm for evidence-based decision making grows throughout medicine and public health, greater explicit attention should be directed to the processes by which decision

  1. Risk factors for postoperative ileus

    PubMed Central

    Kutun, Suat; Ulucanlar, Haluk; Tarcan, Oguz; Demir, Abdullah; Cetin, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to examine extended postoperative ileus and its risk factors in patients who have undergone abdominal surgery, and discuss the techniques of prevention and management thereof the light of related risk factors connected with our study. Methods This prospective study involved 103 patients who had undergone abdominal surgery. The effects of age, gender, diagnosis, surgical operation conducted, excessive small intestine manipulation, opioid analgesic usage time, and systemic inflammation on the time required for the restoration of intestinal motility were investigated. The parameters were investigated prospectively. Results Regarding the factors that affected the restoration of gastrointestinal motility, resection operation type, longer operation period, longer opioid analgesics use period, longer nasogastric catheter use period, and the presence of systemic inflammation were shown to retard bowel motility for 3 days or more. Conclusion Our study confirmed that unnecessary analgesics use in patients with pain tolerance with non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, excessive small bowel manipulation, prolonged nasogastric catheter use have a direct negative effect on gastrointestinal motility. Considering that an exact treatment for postoperative ileus has not yet been established, and in light of the risk factors mentioned above, we regard that prevention of postoperative ileus is the most effective way of coping with intestinal dysmotility. PMID:22111079

  2. PARALLELS OF RADIATION- AND FINANCIAL-RISK MANAGEMENT ON PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.

    2010-01-04

    The financial collapse of 2007 provides an opportunity for a cross-discipline comparison of risk assessments. Flaws in financial risk assessments bear part of the blame for the financial collapse. There may be a potential for similar flaws to be made in radiological risk assessments. Risk assessments in finance and health physics are discussed in the context of a broader view of the risk management environment. Flawed risk assessments can adversely influence public acceptance of radiological technologies, so the importance of quality is magnified.

  3. Factors affecting dry-cured ham consumer acceptability.

    PubMed

    Morales, R; Guerrero, L; Aguiar, A P S; Guàrdia, M D; Gou, P

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were (1) to compare the relative importance of price, processing time, texture and intramuscular fat in purchase intention of dry-cured ham through conjoint analysis, (2) to evaluate the effect of dry-cured ham appearance on consumer expectations, and (3) to describe the consumer sensory preferences of dry-cured ham using external preference mapping. Texture and processing time influenced the consumer preferences in conjoint analysis. Red colour intensity, colour uniformity, external fat and white film presence/absence influenced consumer expectations. The consumer disliked hams with bitter and metallic flavour and with excessive saltiness and piquantness. Differences between expected and experienced acceptability were found, which indicates that the visual preference of consumers does not allow them to select a dry-cured ham that satisfies their sensory preferences of flavour and texture. PMID:23816516

  4. Catastrophic injury in rugby union: is the level of risk acceptable?

    PubMed

    Fuller, Colin W

    2008-01-01

    Rugby union is a full contact sport with a relatively high overall risk of injury and a small specific risk of fatal and catastrophic spinal injury. Although catastrophic injuries in rugby union cause public concern and generate strong emotive reactions, the magnitude of society's concern about this type of injury is often dominated by people's perceptions rather than by actual levels of risk. This article assesses published values for the risk of catastrophic injuries in rugby union, evaluates these against the risk standards of the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and compares the values with the risks associated with other common sport and non-sport activities. The assessment showed that the risks of sustaining a catastrophic injury in rugby union in England (0.8/100,000 per year), Ireland (0.9/100,000 per year) and Argentina (1.9/100,000 per year) were within the HSE's 'acceptable' region of risk (0.1-2/100,000 per year), whilst the risks in New Zealand (4.2/100,000 per year), Australia (4.4/100,000 per year) and Fiji (13/100,000 per year) were within the 'tolerable' region of risk (2-100/100,000 per year). The risk of sustaining a catastrophic injury in rugby union was generally lower than or comparable with the levels reported for a wide range of other collision sports, such as ice hockey (4/100,000 per year), rugby league (2/100,000 per year) and American Football (2/100,000 per year). In addition, the risk of catastrophic injury in rugby union was comparable with that experienced by most people in work-based situations and lower than that experienced by motorcyclists, pedestrians and car occupants. Whilst ranking risks provides an effective way of assessing their acceptability, it is recognized that representing risks by a single risk value can be misleading, as account must also be taken of the public's perception of the risks and the inherent differences in the types of risk being considered. However, an acceptable level of risk is often regarded as

  5. Factors associated with acceptability of circumcision among male drug users in western China: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Jiang, J; Abdullah, A S; Yang, X; Wei, B; Deng, W; Qin, B; Upur, H; Zhong, C; Wang, Q; Wang, Q; Ruan, Y; Zou, Y; Ye, L; Xie, P; Wei, F; Xu, N; Liang, H

    2013-07-01

    This study is aimed to investigate whether male circumcision (MC) is feasible among IDUs in China. 1304 drug users who attended methadone maintenance therapy clinics in Guangxi, Chongqing and Xinjiang were selected for participation by using convenience sampling, and completed a self-administered questionnaire. The factors associated with the acceptability of MC were examined via multiple logistic regression models. 45.2% (589/1304) of the participants reported an acceptance of MC. Many of the participants who were initially not willing to accept MC (715/1304) had changed their mind when they were informed that MC would reduce the risk of HIV and STDs (43.4%; 310/715), that MC is associated with few surgery-related complications (23.1%; 165/715), that the surgical procedure could be arranged free of charge (20.1%, 144/715). In the multivariate analysis, higher acceptability of MC was associated with knowledge of the hazards of phimosis (OR=2.22), the presence of phimosis (OR=14.87), and knowledge that MC can prevent AIDS and STDs (OR=1.49); while lower acceptability was associated with residing in Chongqing province (OR=0.41) and an educational level of junior (OR=0.64) and senior high (OR=0.63) school. The MC policy targeting IDUs in China should take into account these factors associated with MC acceptability. PMID:23970769

  6. Modifications of coronary risk factors.

    PubMed

    Albu, Jeanine; Gottlieb, Sheldon H; August, Phyllis; Nesto, Richard W; Orchard, Trevor J

    2006-06-19

    In addition to the revascularization and glycemic management interventions assigned at random, the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) design includes the uniform control of major coronary artery disease risk factors, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, smoking, central obesity, and sedentary lifestyle. Target levels for risk factors were adjusted throughout the trial to comply with changes in recommended clinical practice guidelines. At present, the goals are low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <2.59 mmol/L (<100 mg/dL) with an optional goal of <1.81 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL); plasma triglyceride level <1.70 mmol/L (<150 mg/dL); blood pressure level <130 mm Hg systolic and <80 mm Hg diastolic; and smoking cessation treatment for all active smokers. Algorithms were developed for the pharmacologic management of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Dietary prescriptions for the management of glycemia, plasma lipid profiles, and blood pressure levels were adapted from existing clinical practice guidelines. Patients with a body mass index >25 were prescribed moderate caloric restriction; after the trial was under way, a lifestyle weight-management program was instituted. All patients were formally prescribed both endurance and resistance/flexibility exercises, individually adapted to their level of disability and fitness. Pedometers were distributed as a biofeedback strategy. Strategies to achieve the goals for risk factors were designed by BARI 2D working groups (lipid, cardiovascular and hypertension, and nonpharmacologic intervention) and the ongoing implementation of the strategies is monitored by lipid, hypertension, and lifestyle intervention management centers.

  7. [Deep vein thrombosis: epidemiology, risk factors and natural history].

    PubMed

    Coiteux, I; Mazzolai, L

    2006-03-22

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are major sources of morbidity and mortality. In young individuals the incidence of DVT is of 1/100,000 people; at middle age it is approximately 1/1000, which is also the overall incidence; thereafter, it increases steeply and in old age approaches 1%/year. DVT is a multifactorial disease involving a variety of risk factors, many of which are common. It is nowadays accepted that the interaction of multiple risk factors over time determines the risk of thrombosis.

  8. Environmental Risk Factors for ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Moazed, Farzad; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Over the past several decades, alcohol abuse and cigarette smoke exposure have been identified as risk factors for the development of ARDS. The mechanisms underlying these relationships are complex and remain under investigation but are thought to involve pulmonary immune impairment as well as alveolar epithelial and endothelial dysfunction. This review summarizes the epidemiologic data supporting links between these exposures and ARDS susceptibility and outcomes and highlights key mechanistic investigations that provide insight into the pathways by which each exposure is linked to ARDS. PMID:25453414

  9. Risk factors for surgical infection.

    PubMed

    Leaper, D J

    1995-06-01

    In the last century remarkable advances have been made in surgery, associated with the lowest recorded rates of infection or sepsis. Many surgical practices are time honoured but have little scientific basis to prevent postoperative infection whereas some local and systemic factors are well recognized and can be modified to lower infection risks. Surgical skill is not easily measurable but shorter operations in experienced hands leaving the minimum of tissue damage, haematoma or dead space have the lowest infection rates in general surgery: < 2% in clean and < 10% in contaminated operations. Adequate surgical scrub, appropriate suture materials and antibiotic prophylaxis, perioperative correction of dehydration and poor nutrition are examples of effective therapy which can be conformed to by all surgeons. Other factors, such as the use of wound guards, drains and surgical dressings are less easy to estimate for effectiveness or be sure that they could be changed or left out of surgical ritual.

  10. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Cancer.gov

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  11. Heart Risk Factors Rise Before Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160227.html Heart Risk Factors Rise Before Menopause 'Danger zone' for women earlier ... WEDNESDAY, Aug. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heart disease risk factors -- such as abnormal cholesterol levels and high blood ...

  12. Factors Influencing the Acceptance of Collaboration Technology within the Context of Virtual Teamwork Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godin, Joy J.; Leader, Lars F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that influence electronic collaboration technology acceptance and predicted usage for virtual team collaboration projects in higher education courses. The research combined the unified theory of acceptance and usage of technology (UTAUT) with a virtual team-training model. All 108 participants…

  13. A Quantitative Assessment of the Factors that Influence Technology Acceptance in Emergency Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional models for studying user acceptance and adoption of technology focused on the factors that identify and tested the relationships forged between the user and the technology in question. In emergency response, implementing technology without user acceptance may affect the safety of the responders and citizenry. Integrating the factors…

  14. Factors Influencing Pupils' Acceptance of an E-Learning System for Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Helmut Felix; Hron, Aemilian

    2010-01-01

    The present study aims at investigating which factors are significant for pupils' acceptance of an E-Learning system introduced into secondary schools. The E-Learning system consisted of interactive learning modules for several school subjects and a Learning Management System (LMS). Research on IT acceptance and attitudes guided the specification…

  15. Coronary risk factors in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Boreham, C; Savage, J M; Primrose, D; Cran, G; Strain, J

    1993-02-01

    Death rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) in Northern Ireland are among the highest in the world. However, no data have been available to test the hypothesis that the high prevalence of CHD is reflected by the risk status of the childhood population. A randomly selected 2% population sample of 1015 children aged 12 and 15 years was studied to obtain baseline information on blood pressure, lipid profile, cigarette smoking, family history, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and dietary fat intake. Using available criteria thresholds, 15-23% displayed increased blood pressure, 12-25% had unfavourable lipid profiles, and 18-34% were overfat. In 15 year old children, 16-21% admitted being regular smokers, 26-34% displayed poor cardiorespiratory fitness, and 24-29% reported little physical activity in the previous week. Dietary analysis revealed relatively low polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios and high mean fat intakes, accounting for approximately 40% total daily energy. Despite the exclusion of family history from the analysis, 16% of the older children exhibited three or more risk factors. These results justify major concern about the level of potential coronary risk in Northern Ireland schoolchildren. Broadly based primary prevention strategies aimed at children are essential if future adult CHD mortality is to be reduced.

  16. Towards internationally acceptable standards for food additives and contaminants based on the use of risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Huggett, A; Petersen, B J; Walker, R; Fisher, C E; Notermans, S H; Rombouts, F M; Abbott, P; Debackere, M; Hathaway, S C; Hecker, E F; Knaap, A G; Kuznesof, P M; Meyland, I; Moy, G; Narbonne, J F; Paakkanen, J; Smith, M R; Tennant, D; Wagstaffe, P; Wargo, J; Würtzen, G

    1998-06-01

    Internationally acceptable norms need to incorporate sound science and consistent risk management principles in an open and transparent manner, as set out in the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). The process of risk analysis provides a procedure to reach these goals. The interaction between risk assessors and risk managers is considered vital to this procedure. This paper reports the outcome of a meeting of risk assessors and risk managers on specific aspects of risk analysis and its application to international standard setting for food additives and contaminants. Case studies on aflatoxins and aspartame were used to identify the key steps of the interaction process which ensure scientific justification for risk management decisions. A series of recommendations were proposed in order to enhance the scientific transparency in these critical phases of the standard setting procedure.

  17. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  18. An analytical framework for flood water conservation considering forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wei; Zhang, Chi; Peng, Yong; Zeng, Ruijie; Zhou, Huicheng; Cai, Ximing

    2015-06-01

    This paper addresses how much flood water can be conserved for use after the flood season through the operation of reservoir by taking into account the residual flood control capacity (the difference between flood conveyance capacity and the expected inflow in a lead time). A two-stage model for dynamic control of the flood-limited water level (the maximum allowed water level during the flood season, DC-FLWL) is established considering forecast uncertainty and acceptable flood risk. It is found that DC-FLWL is applicable when the reservoir inflow ranges from small to medium levels of the historical records, while both forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk in the downstream affect the feasible space of DC-FLWL. As forecast uncertainty increases (under a given risk level) or as acceptable risk level decreases (under a given forecast uncertainty level), the minimum required safety margin for flood control increases, and the chance for DC-FLWL decreases. The derived hedging rules from the modeling framework illustrate either the dominant role of water conservation or flood control or the trade-off between the two objectives under different levels of forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk. These rules may provide useful guidelines for conserving water from flood, especially in the area with heavy water stress. The analysis is illustrated via a case study with a real-world reservoir in northeastern China.

  19. Understanding Acceptable Level of Risk: Incorporating the Economic Cost of Under-Managing Invasive Species

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Alisha D.; Hewitt, Chad L.; Kashian, Donna R.

    2015-01-01

    Management of nonindigenous species includes prevention, early detection and rapid response and control. Early detection and rapid response depend on prioritizing and monitoring sites at risk for arrival or secondary spread of nonindigenous species. Such monitoring efforts require sufficient biosecurity budgets to be effective and meet management or policy directives for reduced risk of introduction. Such consideration of risk reduction is rarely considered, however. Here, we review the concepts of acceptable level of risk (ALOR) and associated costs with respect to nonindigenous species and present a framework for aligning risk reduction priorities with available biosecurity resources. We conclude that available biosecurity resources may be insufficient to attain stated and desired risk reduction. This outcome highlights the need to consider policy and management directives when beginning a biosecurity program to determine the feasibility of risk reduction goals, given available resources. PMID:26536244

  20. Factors influencing the acceptance of nature conservation measures--a qualitative study in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Anita; Hunziker, Marcel; Kienast, Felix

    2007-04-01

    Landscapes fulfil a multitude of ecological and social functions. Due to the fact that both traditional and everyday landscapes today face many different threats, regulatory measures have been undertaken in many countries to protect and further sustainable landscape development. They include legislation as well as economic incentives. In recent years, however, it has become clear that just to have a few laws and to spend money on subsidies is not enough. Factors other than legislation are also essential to further the sustainable development of landscapes. One of the basic factors affecting the success or failure of landscape conservation measures is public acceptance of these measures. Our project took this as its starting point. The objective was to determine which conditions and factors influence acceptance positively or negatively. To this end 22 Swiss who are directly affected by nature conservation measures, in particular by mire landscape and dry meadow conservation measures, were interviewed using qualitative interview techniques. It is shown that perception, communication, and possibilities to participate are the most decisive driving factors influencing the formation of a long-lasting acceptance. Furthermore, acceptance may be based mainly on economic criteria, on usefulness, on ecological or even aesthetic aspects. It can be shown that not all of these motivations lead to a long-lasting acceptance. Ecologically based acceptance seems the most promising because it is founded on general convictions. Economic incentives--though important--seem to generate only superficial acceptance and do not seem to be as important as is usually assumed.

  1. Molecular Risk Factors for Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Modai, Shira; Shomron, Noam

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex and strongly heritable mental disorder, which is also associated with developmental-environmental triggers. As opposed to most diagnosable diseases (yet similar to other mental disorders), SZ diagnosis is commonly based on psychiatric evaluations. Recently, large-scale genetic and epigenetic approaches have been applied to SZ research with the goal of potentially improving diagnosis. Increased computational analyses and applied statistical algorithms may shed some light on the complex genetic and epigenetic pathways contributing to SZ pathogenesis. This review discusses the latest advances in molecular risk factors and diagnostics for SZ. Approaches such as these may lead to a more accurate definition of SZ and assist in creating extended and reliable clinical diagnoses with the potential for personalized treatment.

  2. Participation in Counseling Programs: High-Risk Participants Are Reluctant to Accept HIV-Prevention Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Earl, Allison; Albarracín, Dolores; Durantini, Marta R.; Gunnoe, Joann B.; Leeper, Josh; Levitt, Justin H.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-prevention intervention effectiveness depends on understanding whether clients with highest need for HIV-prevention counseling accept it. With this objective, a field study with a high-risk community sample from the southeastern United States (N = 350) investigated whether initial knowledge about HIV, motivation to use condoms, condom-use-relevant behavioral skills, and prior condom use correlate with subsequent acceptance of an HIV-prevention counseling session. Ironically, participants with high (vs. low) motivation to use condoms, high (vs. low) condom-use-relevant behavioral skills, and high (vs. low) prior condom use were more likely to accept the HIV-prevention counseling. Moreover, the influence of motivation to use condoms, condom-use-relevant behavioral skills, and prior condom use on acceptance of the counseling was mediated by expectations that the counseling session would be useful. Methods to reduce barriers to recruitment of clients for counseling programs are discussed. PMID:19634960

  3. 14 CFR 431.35 - Acceptable reusable launch vehicle mission risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... launch flight through orbital insertion of an RLV or vehicle stage or flight to outer space, whichever is... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptable reusable launch vehicle mission risk. 431.35 Section 431.35 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL...

  4. 14 CFR 431.35 - Acceptable reusable launch vehicle mission risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... launch flight through orbital insertion of an RLV or vehicle stage or flight to outer space, whichever is... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptable reusable launch vehicle mission risk. 431.35 Section 431.35 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL...

  5. 14 CFR 431.35 - Acceptable reusable launch vehicle mission risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... launch flight through orbital insertion of an RLV or vehicle stage or flight to outer space, whichever is... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptable reusable launch vehicle mission risk. 431.35 Section 431.35 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL...

  6. 14 CFR 431.35 - Acceptable reusable launch vehicle mission risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... launch flight through orbital insertion of an RLV or vehicle stage or flight to outer space, whichever is... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptable reusable launch vehicle mission risk. 431.35 Section 431.35 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL...

  7. Cognitive Processes Underlying Women's Risk Judgments: Associations with Sexual Victimization History and Rape Myth Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Treat, Teresa A.; Viken, Richard J.; McFall, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effects of sexual victimization history, rape myth acceptance, implicit attention, and recent learning on the cognitive processes underlying undergraduate women's explicit risk judgments. Method: Participants were 194 undergraduate women between 18 and 24 years of age. The sample was ethnically diverse and…

  8. Participation in Counseling Programs: High-Risk Participants are Reluctant to Accept HIV-Prevention Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, Allison; Albarracin, Dolores; Durantini, Marta R.; Gunnoe, Joann B.; Leeper, Josh; Levitt, Justin H.

    2009-01-01

    HIV-prevention intervention effectiveness depends on understanding whether clients with highest need for HIV-prevention counseling accept it. With this objective, a field study with a high-risk community sample from the southeastern United States (N = 350) investigated whether initial knowledge about HIV, motivation to use condoms,…

  9. Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

  10. End-To-End Risk Assesment: From Genes and Protein to Acceptable Radiation Risks for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Schimmerling, Walter

    2000-01-01

    The human exploration of Mars will impose unavoidable health risks from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and possibly solar particle events (SPE). It is the goal of NASA's Space Radiation Health Program to develop the capability to predict health risks with significant accuracy to ensure that risks are well below acceptable levels and to allow for mitigation approaches to be effective at reasonable costs. End-to-End risk assessment is the approach being followed to understand proton and heavy ion damage at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels in order to predict the probability of the major health risk including cancer, neurological disorders, hereditary effects, cataracts, and acute radiation sickness and to develop countermeasures for mitigating risks.

  11. End-To-End Risk Assesment: From Genes and Protein to Acceptable Radiation Risks for Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Schimmerling, Walter

    2000-07-01

    The human exploration of Mars will impose unavoidable health risks from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and possibly solar particle events (SPE). It is the goal of NASA's Space Radiation Health Program to develop the capability to predict health risks with significant accuracy to ensure that risks are well below acceptable levels and to allow for mitigation approaches to be effective at reasonable costs. End-to-End risk assessment is the approach being followed to understand proton and heavy ion damage at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels in order to predict the probability of the major health risk including cancer, neurological disorders, hereditary effects, cataracts, and acute radiation sickness and to develop countermeasures for mitigating risks.

  12. Occupational risk factors and voice disorders.

    PubMed

    Vilkman, E

    1996-01-01

    From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation. PMID:21275584

  13. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ... can increase your risk for developing high blood pressure. Age Blood pressure tends to rise with age. About 65 ...

  14. [General practitioner burnout: risk factors].

    PubMed

    Dagrada, H; Verbanck, P; Kornreich, C

    2011-09-01

    This paper aims to review current knowledge on risk factors leading to burn-out of general practitioners, who are particularly concerned by burn-out, as 50% of them are being more or less affected. This article is based on bibliographic research covering literature between 1975 and 2010, using PUB MED software, medical books and articles. 44 articles were selected as dealing well with the aspects of the burn-out reviewed here. It seems established that stress precedes burnout symptoms. Theories investigating relationships between stress and work are presented. Exogenic stress (load and organization of work, emotional interaction with the patient, constraints, lack of recognition, conflicts between private and professional life) interacts with endogenous stress (idealism, (too much) acute feeling of responsibility, mood disorder, difficulty in collaborating, character, personality). Burn-out symptoms would appear preferentially when these two stresses coexist. Despite the wealth of publications, there is still a lack of knowledge of the causes of burn-out, requiring therefore increased research efforts, in order to improve the implementation of preventive measures, beneficial to the doctors as well as to their patients. PMID:22034773

  15. Treatment of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women.

    PubMed

    Gouni-Berthold, I; Berthold, H K

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death for both women and men. Common traditional risk factors for CVD, such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and smoking have a high prevalence in women and in some cases a greater health impact compared with men. Nevertheless, risk factors are treated less often and less aggressively in women than in men, partly due to decreased awareness on the part of public health opinion makers, patients and physicians. About seventy five percent of all coronary heart disease deaths among women could be avoided if CVD risk factors like hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and smoking are adequately treated. This narrative review discusses the treatment of the 4 CVD risk factors, namely hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, smoking and diabetes. These risk factors were examined in the Framingham Heart study and years later they were found in the INTERHEART study to be the 4 most important risk factors for the development of CVD.

  16. An Analytical Framework for Flood Water Conservation Considering Forecast Uncertainty and Acceptable Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, W.; Zhang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir water levels are usually not allowed to exceed the flood limited water level (FLWL) during flood season, which neglects the meteorological and real-time forecast information and leads to the great waste of water resources. With the development of weather forecasting, hydrologic modeling, and hydro-climatic teleconnection, the streamflow forecast precision have improved a lot, which provides the technical support for the flood water utilization. This paper addresses how much flood water can be conserved for use after the flood season through the operation of reservoir based on uncertain forecast information by taking into account the residual flood control capacity (the difference between flood conveyance capacity and the expected inflow in a lead time). A two-stage model for dynamic control of the flood limited water level (the maximum allowed water level during the flood season, DC-FLWL) is established considering forecast uncertainty and acceptable flood risk. It is found that DC-FLWL is applicable when the reservoir inflow ranges from small to medium levels of the historical records, while both forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk in the downstream affect the feasible space of DC-FLWL. As forecast uncertainty increases (under a given risk level) or as acceptable risk level decreases (under a given forecast uncertainty level), the minimum required safety margin for flood control increases, and the chance for DC-FLWL decreases. The derived hedging rules from the modeling framework illustrate either the dominant role of water conservation or flood control or the tradeoff between the two objectives under different levels of forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk. These rules may provide useful guidelines for conserving water from flood, especially in the area with heavy water stress.

  17. Risk factors of uveitis in ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Wu, Rui; Xue, Qin; Wang, Feng; Lu, Peirong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Uveitis is the most common extra-articular manifestation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The prevalence and characteristics of uveitis in AS have been studied in previous literatures, whereas its associated risk factors have not been clarified. Therefore, this study analyzed the risk factors of uveitis in patients with AS. Methods: A total of 390 patients with AS who fulfilled the modified New York criteria were enrolled from January to December in 2015. The history of uveitis was accepted only if diagnosed by ophthalmologists. The medical records of the patients were retrospectively reviewed and associated information was collected, such as disease duration, HLA-B27, and the number of peripheral arthritis. Hip-joint lesion was identified by imaging examination. Meanwhile, biochemical examinations were performed to determine the patient's physical function. Results: Of 390 patients with AS (80.5% male, mean age 33.3 years), 38 (9.7%) had experienced 1 or more episodes of uveitis. The incidence rate for hip-joint lesion was obviously higher for patients with uveitis than the nonuveitis group (44.7% vs 22.2%; P < 0.01). The number of peripheral arthritis was also larger for the uveitis group than nonuveitis group (2.18 ± 0.23 vs 0.55 ± 0.04; P < 0.001). Meanwhile, patients with uveitis had a significantly higher level of antistreptolysin O (ASO) and circulating immune complex (CIC) than those without (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001, respectively). However, there were no significant differences in disease duration, HLA-B27, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) between the 2 groups. Binary logistic regression results showed that ASO (OR = 12.2, 95% CI:3.6–41.3, P < 0.01) and the number of peripheral arthritis (OR = 4.1, 95%CI:2.6–6.3, P < 0.01) are significantly associated with uveitis in AS. Conclustion: This study provides some evidence that hip-joint lesion, the number of

  18. Personal and other factors affecting acceptance of smartphone technology by older Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qi; Chan, Alan H S; Chen, Ke

    2016-05-01

    It has been well documented that in the 21st century, there will be relatively more older people around the world than in the past. Also, it seems that technology will expand in this era at an unprecedented rate. Therefore, it is of critical importance to understand the factors that influence the acceptance of technology by older people. The positive impact that the use of mobile applications can have for older people was confirmed by a previous study (Plaza et al., 2011). The study reported here aimed to explore and confirm, for older adults in China, the key influential factors of smartphone acceptance, and to describe the personal circumstances of Chinese older adults who use smartphone. A structured questionnaire and face to face individual interviews were used with 120 Chinese older adults (over 55). Structural Equation Modeling was used to confirm a proposed smartphone acceptance model based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The results showed that those who were younger, with higher education, non-widowed, with better economic condition related to salary or family support were more likely to use smartphone. Also, cost was found to be a critical factor influencing behavior intention. Self-satisfaction and facilitating conditions were proved to be important factors influencing perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use.

  19. Personal and other factors affecting acceptance of smartphone technology by older Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qi; Chan, Alan H S; Chen, Ke

    2016-05-01

    It has been well documented that in the 21st century, there will be relatively more older people around the world than in the past. Also, it seems that technology will expand in this era at an unprecedented rate. Therefore, it is of critical importance to understand the factors that influence the acceptance of technology by older people. The positive impact that the use of mobile applications can have for older people was confirmed by a previous study (Plaza et al., 2011). The study reported here aimed to explore and confirm, for older adults in China, the key influential factors of smartphone acceptance, and to describe the personal circumstances of Chinese older adults who use smartphone. A structured questionnaire and face to face individual interviews were used with 120 Chinese older adults (over 55). Structural Equation Modeling was used to confirm a proposed smartphone acceptance model based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The results showed that those who were younger, with higher education, non-widowed, with better economic condition related to salary or family support were more likely to use smartphone. Also, cost was found to be a critical factor influencing behavior intention. Self-satisfaction and facilitating conditions were proved to be important factors influencing perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. PMID:26851465

  20. Crucial Factors for the Acceptance of a Computerized National Medication List

    PubMed Central

    Hoerbst, A.; Duftschmid, G.; Gall, W.; Janzek-Hawlat, S.; Jung, M.; Woertz, K.; Dorda, W.; Ammenwerth, E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective The objective of this paper is to present crucial factors among registered doctors and pharmacists for acceptance of the Austrian ‘e-Medikation’ system which is aimed at providing, on a national level, complete and recent information on all the medication that were prescribed or dispensed to a patient. Methods As the accompanying formative evaluation study of the pilot project showed different overall acceptance rates among participating physicians and pharmacists, a decision tree analysis of 30 standardized survey items was performed to identify crucial acceptance factors. Results For the physicians’ group, only two items (fear of improper data use and satisfaction with software support) were crucial for overall e-Medikation acceptance. The analysis of the pharmacists’ data resulted in five crucial factors primarily focusing on functional aspects and the perceived benefits of e-Medikation. Conclusion The results indicate that the acceptance among physicians and pharmacists depends on quite different factors. This must be taken into account during the planned rollout of e-Medikation or of comparable products. PMID:25024766

  1. Influences on family planning acceptance: an analysis of background and program factors in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J T

    1979-01-01

    Which factors have the greater influence on family planning performance: fixed background variables such as racial composition, urbanization, and mortality, which are affected by level of development, or program inputs such as assignment of personnel and location of clinics, which are subject to manipulation by administrators? An analysis of differences in family planning acceptance among 70 districts of Malaysia shows that two main program-manipulable variables--level of personnel deployment and accessibility of clinics--have the largest direct effect upon acceptance levels. Variations in background factors explain a smaller proportion.

  2. Factors affecting acceptability to young cancer patients of a psychoeducational video game about cancer.

    PubMed

    Kato, Pamela M; Beale, Ivan L

    2006-01-01

    This study explored whether an action video game about cancer would be acceptable to adolescent and young adult cancer patients as a tool for learning about cancer and self-care during treatment. Interviews about a proposed video game were conducted with 43 young cancer patients, who also completed questionnaires measuring personality and adaptive style. Data were analyzed to assess the overall acceptability of the proposed video game and to reveal any factors associated with measures of acceptability. Most participants expressed willingness to play the game and a moderate degree of interest in it. Cancer content in the game was not a deterrent for most participants. Game acceptability was not affected by personality variables or adaptive style. It is concluded that an action video game using cancer themes could be useful to nurses as a tool to improve understanding and self care of adolescent and young adult cancer patients.

  3. Factors Associated with the Acceptability of Male Circumcision among Men in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Walcott, Melonie M.; Jolly, Pauline E.; Ehiri, John E.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Kempf, Mirjam C.; Hickman, Deborah; Aung, Maung; Zhang, Kui

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of male circumcision (MC) among men in the western region of Jamaica, and to identify factors associated with acceptability of MC for self, infants (<1 year) and older sons (1-17 years). Methods A cross-sectional, interviewer-administered questionnaire survey of 549 men aged 19-54 years was conducted in the western region of Jamaica. The survey included questions about the acceptance of MC for self, infants, and sons before and after an information session about the benefits of MC in preventing HIV/STI transmission. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors that were associated with acceptability of MC. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated from the models. Results Fourteen percent of the men reported that they were circumcised. In the multivariable model, which adjusted for age, education, religion and income, there were increased odds of accepting MC for infants/sons among uncircumcised men who accepted MC for self (AOR=8.1; 95% CI = 4.1-15.9), believed they would experience more pleasure during sex if circumcised (AOR=4.0; 95% CI = 2.0-8.2), and reported having no concerns regarding MC (AOR=3.0; 95% CI = 1.8-4.8). Similarly, uncircumcised men who reported no concerns about MC or who believed that they would experience more pleasure during sex if circumcised were more likely to accept MC for self. Conclusion Providing men with information about MC increased acceptance of MC for self, infants (<17 years) and sons (1-17 years). Since targeted education on the benefits of male circumcision for prevention of HIV/STI can be effective in increasing acceptability of MC, health professionals should be trained, and willing to discuss MC with men in healthcare facilities and in the community. PMID:24066164

  4. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  5. Risk factors across the eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Wilfley, Denise; Fairburn, Christopher; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, Timothy; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674

  6. Willingness-to-accept reductions in HIV risks: conditional economic incentives in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Galárraga, Omar; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Infante, César; Gertler, Paul J.; Bertozzi, Stefano M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure willingness-to-accept (WTA) reductions in risks for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) using conditional economic incentives (CEI) among men who have sex with men (MSM), including male sex workers (MSW) in Mexico City. A survey experiment was conducted with 1,745 MSM and MSW (18-25 years of age) who received incentive offers to decide first whether to accept monthly prevention talks and STI testing; and then a second set of offers to accept to stay free of STIs (verified by quarterly biological testing). The survey used random-starting-point and iterative offers. WTA was estimated with a maximum likelihood double-bounded dichotomous choice model. The average acceptance probabilities were: 73.9% for the monthly model, and 80.4% for the quarterly model. The incentive-elasticity of participation in the monthly model was 0.222, and it was 0.515 in the quarterly model. For a combination program with monthly prevention talks, and staying free of curable STI, the implied WTA was USD$288 per person per year, but it was lower for MSW: USD$156 per person per year. Thus, some of the populations at highest risk of HIV infection (MSM & MSW) seem well disposed to participate in a CEI program for HIV and STI prevention in Mexico. The average willingness-to-accept estimate is within the range of feasible allocations for prevention in the local context. Given the potential impact, Mexico, a leader in conditional cash transfers for human development and poverty reduction, could extend that successful model for targeted HIV/STI prevention. PMID:23377757

  7. Human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria for the safety parameter display

    SciTech Connect

    McGevna, V.; Peterson, L.R.

    1981-10-02

    This report contains human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria developed by the Human Factors Engineering Branch (HFEB) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to use in evaluating designs of the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS). These criteria were developed in response to the functional design criteria for the SPDS defined in NUREG-0696, Functional Criteria for Emergency Response Facilities. The purpose of this report is to identify design review acceptance criteria for the SPDS installed in the control room of a nuclear power plant. Use of computer driven cathode ray tube (CRT) displays is anticipated. General acceptance criteria for displays of plant safety status information by the SPDS are developed. In addition, specific SPDS review criteria corresponding to the SPDS functional criteria specified in NUREG-0696 are established.

  8. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee are immediately debilitating and can cause long-term consequences, including the early onset of osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 1 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unknown regarding anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors for injury to the ACL from the current peer-reviewed literature. Data Sources: Studies were identified from MEDLINE (1951–March 2011) using the MeSH terms anterior cruciate ligament, knee injury, and risk factors. The bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews were cross-referenced to complete the search. Study Selection: Prognostic studies that utilized the case-control and prospective cohort study designs to evaluate risk factors for ACL injury were included in this review. Results: A total of 50 case-control and prospective cohort articles were included in the review, and 30 of these studies focused on neuromuscular and anatomic risk factors. Conclusions: Several anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors are associated with increased risk of suffering ACL injury—such as female sex and specific measures of bony geometry of the knee joint, including decreased intercondylar femoral notch size, decreased depth of concavity of the medial tibial plateau, increased slope of the tibial plateaus, and increased anterior-posterior knee laxity. These risk factors most likely act in combination to influence the risk of ACL injury; however, multivariate risk models that consider all the aforementioned risk factors in combination have not been established to explore this interaction. PMID:23016072

  9. Ovarian cancer: etiology, risk factors, and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Hunn, Jessica; Rodriguez, Gustavo C

    2012-03-01

    Little is known regarding the early aspects of ovarian carcinogenesis. As a consequence, the identification of women at risk for the disease is based primarily on clinical grounds, with family history being the most important risk factor. In this review, we will discuss the various hypotheses regarding ovarian etiology and pathogenesis. In addition, we will discuss the epidemiology of ovarian cancer, including hereditary, reproductive, hormonal, inflammatory, dietary, surgical, and geographic factors that influence ovarian cancer risk.

  10. Factors Influencing Students' Acceptance of M-Learning: An Investigation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Al-Aish, Ahmad; Love, Steve

    2013-01-01

    M-learning will play an increasingly significant role in the development of teaching and learning methods for higher education. However, the successful implementation of m-learning in higher education will be based on users' acceptance of this technology. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to study the factors that affect university…

  11. Clinician Acceptance of Electronic Medical Records (EMRs): Relating Personality Factors to Continuance Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Molly Ann

    2011-01-01

    Many models currently exist for evaluating acceptance and continued use of technology. However, none of these models are healthcare specific, nor do they involve aspects of users' personality. Although the five-factor model (FFM) of personality has been effectively used in psychology and human resources and management research to predict…

  12. Factors Predicting Nurse Educators' Acceptance and Use of Educational Technology in Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Sandra D.

    2014-01-01

    Nurse educators may express a willingness to use educational technology, but they may not have the belief or ability to carry out the technology use in the classroom. The following non-experimental, quantitative study examined factors that predict nurse educators' willingness to accept and use educational technology in the classroom. The sample…

  13. Examining the Factors That Contribute to Successful Database Application Implementation Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nworji, Alexander O.

    2013-01-01

    Most organizations spend millions of dollars due to the impact of improperly implemented database application systems as evidenced by poor data quality problems. The purpose of this quantitative study was to use, and extend, the technology acceptance model (TAM) to assess the impact of information quality and technical quality factors on database…

  14. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO FACULTY AND STUDENT ACCEPTANCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION, TEMP II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SANFORD, FILLMORE H.

    PERTINENT FACTORS WERE DELINEATED IN THE ACCEPTANCE OR REJECTION OF TELEVISED INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS USED WITH THE TEXAS EDUCATIONAL MICROWAVE PROJECT (TEMP)--AN EFFORT LINKING 11 COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES BY MICROWAVE TRANSMITTERS TO PROVIDE AN INTEGRATED CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEVISION SYSTEM. DATA-GATHERING INSTRUMENTS WERE INTERVIEWS,…

  15. Background Noise Acceptance and Personality Factors Involved in Library Environment Choices by College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon-Hickey, Susan; Lemley, Trey

    2012-01-01

    For decades, academic libraries made efforts to provide study environments differing in acoustic environment. The present study aimed to provide an evidence basis for this practice by comparing background noise acceptance and personality factors of two groups of college-aged students self identified as preferring quiet or background noise when…

  16. Social Perception of Rape: How Rape Myth Acceptance Modulates the Influence of Situational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Bettina; Moya, Miguel; Megias, Jesus

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the role of rape myth acceptance (RMA) and situational factors in the perception of three different rape scenarios (date rape, marital rape, and stranger rape). One hundred and eighty-two psychology undergraduates were asked to emit four judgements about each rape situation: victim responsibility, perpetrator responsibility,…

  17. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  18. Accepting managed aquifer recharge of urban storm water reuse: The role of policy-related factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankad, Aditi; Walton, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    A between-groups experimental design examined public acceptance for managed aquifer recharge of storm water for indirect potable and nonpotable reuse; acceptance was based on five policy-related variables (fairness, effectiveness, trust, importance of safety assurances, and importance of communication activities). Results showed that public acceptance (N = 408) for managed aquifer recharge of storm water was higher for nonpotable applications, as was the importance of safety assurances. Analyses of variance also showed that perceptions of fairness and effectiveness were higher for a nonpotable scheme, but not trust. A three-step hierarchical regression (Step 1: age, gender, education, and income; Step 2: type of use; Step 3: fairness, effectiveness, trust, safety assurance, and communication activities) demonstrated that type of storm water use and the policy-related factors accounted for 73% of the variance in acceptance of storm water (R2 = 0.74, adjusted R2 = 0.74, F (10, 397) = 113.919, p < 0.001). Age, type of use, and three of the five policy-related factors were also significant individual predictors of acceptance. The most important predictors were perceptions of trust in water authorities, perceptions of effectiveness, and perceptions of fairness. Interestingly, while safety assurance was important in attitudinal acceptance of managed aquifer recharge based on type of use, safety assurance was not found to be significant predictor of acceptance. This research suggests that policy-makers should look to address matters of greater public importance and drive such as fairness, trust, and effectiveness of storm water programs and advocate these at the forefront of their policies, rather than solely on education campaigns.

  19. Acceptability of a Computerized Brief Intervention for Alcohol among Abstinent but at-Risk Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Pollick, Sarah A.; Beatty, Jessica R.; Sokol, Robert J.; Strickler, Ronald C.; Chang, Grace; Svikis, Dace S.; Tzilos, Golfo K.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Limitations in time and training have hindered widespread implementation of alcohol-based interventions in prenatal clinics. Also, despite the possibility of under-reporting or relapse, many at risk women report that they quit drinking after pregnancy confirmation so that interventions focusing on current drinking may seem unnecessary. The Computerized Brief Intervention for Alcohol Use in Pregnancy (C-BIAP) was designed to (a) be implemented via a handheld device in prenatal clinics, and (b) use a modified brief intervention strategy with women who screen at-risk but report no current drinking. Methods We administered the C-BIAP to 18 T-ACE (Tolerance, Annoyance, Cut Down, and Eye Opener) positive, pregnant African-American women who provided quantitative and qualitative feedback. Results The C-BIAP received high ratings of acceptability; qualitative feedback was also positive overall and suggested good acceptance of abstinence themes. Conclusions Technology may be a feasible and acceptable method for brief intervention delivery with pregnant women who do not report current drinking. PMID:24266770

  20. Effect of acculturation on the acceptability of potential microbicides and sexual risk-taking

    PubMed Central

    THURMAN, Andrea Ries; HOLDEN, Alan E C; SHAIN, Rochelle N; PERDUE, Sondra; PIPER, Jeanna M

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective was to determine the acceptability and use patterns of potential microbicides among African American (AA), Acculturated Hispanic (AH) and Less-Acculturated Hispanic (LAH) women. We measured baseline sexual risk-taking and the likelihood of behavioral change, given effective microbicides. Methods Interview of 506 Mexican American (MA) and AA women, all of whom have a sexually transmitted infection (STI) enrolled in Project Sexual Awareness for Everyone.. Results The 3 groups reported similarly high acceptance of potential microbicides (76 – 83% p = 0.24). LAHs were most likely to report they would use microbicides covertly (p = 0.03). Given the possibility of effective microbicides, AHs were consistently more likely to report risk disinhibition. AHs, as compared to LAHs and AAs respectively, were most likely to report that they would not use condoms, (53% vs. 33% vs. 30% p < 0.001), would have a one-night stand (18% vs. 8% vs. 6% p = 0.02), or would have sex with a man before they got to know him (18% vs. 8% vs. 6% p = 0.01). AHs were also most likely to say they would or probably would change from baseline safe sexual practices to unsafe sexual behaviors if potential microbicides were available. Age was controlled for in the analysis as AHs were younger than AAs and LAHs. Conclusions Future microbicides were acceptable among this at risk cohort. Acculturation was a predictor of risk disinhibition and should be considered when tailoring STI prevention messages, given the advent of effective microbicides. PMID:19556933

  1. Feasibility and acceptability of a bar-based sexual risk reduction intervention for bar patrons in Tshwane, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Morojele, Neo K.; Kitleli, Naledi; Ngako, Kgalabi; Kekwaletswe, Connie T.; Nkosi, Sebenzile; Fritz, Katherine; Parry, Charles D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol consumption is a recognised risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol serving establishments have been identified as appropriate venues in which to deliver HIV prevention interventions. This paper describes experiences and lessons learnt from implementing a combined HIV prevention intervention in bar settings in one city- and one township-based bar in Tshwane, South Africa. The intervention consisted of peer-led and brief intervention counselling sub-components. Thirty-nine bar patrons were recruited and trained, and delivered HIV and alcohol risk reduction activities to their peers as peer interventionists. At the same time, nine counsellors received training and visited the bars weekly to provide brief motivational interviewing counselling, advice, and referrals to the patrons of the bars. A responsible server sub-component that had also been planned was not delivered as it was not feasible to train the staff in the two participating bars. Over the eight-month period the counsellors were approached by and provided advice and counselling for alcohol and sexual risk-related problems to 111 bar patrons. The peer interventionists reported 1323 risk reduction interactions with their fellow bar patrons during the same period. The intervention was overall well received and suggests that bar patrons and servers can accept a myriad of intervention activities to reduce sexual risk behaviour within their drinking settings. However, HIV- and AIDS-related stigma hindered participation in certain intervention activities in some instances. The buy-in that we received from the relevant stakeholders (i.e. bar owners/managers and patrons, and the community at large) was an important contributor to the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. PMID:24750106

  2. Concussion risk factors and strategies for prevention.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Hamish A

    2014-12-01

    Concussion in children is frequently related to participation in sports. It requires a traumatic event to occur that transmits acceleration to the brain. Some children may have intrinsic risk factors that place them at greater risk for this type of injury. Comorbidities such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, migraine headaches, and mood disorders may place athletes at increased risk of more severe injury. A previous concussion is probably the most important influence on risk for future injury. Extrinsic risk factors include coaching techniques, officiating, and choice of sport. Helmet choice does not diminish concussion risk, nor does the use of mouth guards. Education of athletes, coaches, parents, and physicians is very important in improving recognition of potential concussive injury and helping child athletes and their parents understand the risks involved in sport participation. PMID:25486039

  3. HIV vaccine acceptability among high-risk drug users in Appalachia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A vaccine could substantially impact the HIV epidemic, but inadequate uptake is a serious concern. Unfortunately, people who use drugs, particularly those residing in rural communities, have been underrepresented in previous research on HIV vaccine acceptability. This study examined HIV vaccine acceptability among high-risk drug users in a rural community in the United States. Methods Interviewer-administered questionnaires included questions about risk behavior and attitudes toward HIV vaccination from 433 HIV-negative drug users (76% with history of injection) enrolled in a cohort study in Central Appalachia. HIV vaccine acceptability was measured on a 4-point Likert scale. Generalized linear mixed models were used to determine correlates to self-report of being “very likely” to receive a 90% effective HIV vaccine (i.e. “maximum vaccine acceptability”, or MVA). Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Results Most (91%) reported that they would accept a preventive HIV vaccine, but concerns about cost, dosing, transportation constraints, vaccine-induced seropositivity, and confidentiality were expressed. Cash incentives, oral-administration, and peer/partner encouragement were anticipated facilitators of uptake. In multivariate analysis, men were significantly less likely to report MVA (AOR: 0.33, CI: 0.21 – 0.52). MVA was more common among participants who believed that they were susceptible to HIV (AOR: 2.31, CI: 1.28 – 4.07), that an HIV vaccine would benefit them (AOR: 2.80, CI: 1.70 – 4.64), and who had positive experiential attitudes toward HIV vaccination (AOR: 1.85, CI: 1.08 – 3.17). MVA was also more common among participants who believed that others would encourage them to get vaccinated and anticipated that their behavior would be influenced by others' encouragement (AOR: 1.81, 95% 1.09 – 3.01). Conclusions To our knowledge, this study was among the first to explore and

  4. [Cardiovascular risk factors in young people].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Contreras, Mónica; Moreno-Gómez, Germán A; Marín-Grisales, Marta E; García-Ortiz, Luis H

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) involves several disorders related to the formation and development of atherosclerotic processes. Several risk factors are involved in CVD aetiology; some of them (i.e. age, hypertension, obesity, dislipidemia and diabetes) have been clearly associated, whereas others have a variable level of association. An increase in cardiovascular risk factors has been recently reported in the young population; studies of cardiovascular risk factors in this population have shown that its cardiovascular risk profile could be different from that presented by older populations. This review presents a summary of reported cardiovascular risk factors in the young population and their causes which have been released and indexed in different databases. Most factors discussed are life-habit risk factors and represent direct targets for clinical intervention. We propose that primary CVD prevention should include a more detailed knowledge of the nature of the risk factors concerning the young population and could have a positive impact on CVD prevalence during the next few years.

  5. Sudden cardiac death: epidemiology and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Adabag, A. Selcuk; Luepker, Russell V.; Roger, Véronique L.; Gersh, Bernard J.

    2016-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an important public-health problem with multiple etiologies, risk factors, and changing temporal trends. Substantial progress has been made over the past few decades in identifying markers that confer increased SCD risk at the population level. However, the quest for predicting the high-risk individual who could be a candidate for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, or other therapy, continues. In this article, we review the incidence, temporal trends, and triggers of SCD, and its demographic, clinical, and genetic risk factors. We also discuss the available evidence supporting the use of public-access defibrillators. PMID:20142817

  6. Risk Factors and Levels of Risk for High School Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Suh, Jingyo

    2007-01-01

    The study in this article identifies three major risk categories of high school dropouts and evaluates the impact of possible prevention strategies. As students accumulate these risks, they became more likely to drop out and prevention programs become less effective. Additionally, it was found that factors influencing the decision to drop out vary…

  7. Risk Factors for Complications of Traumatic Injuries.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar Júnior, Wagner; Saleh, Carmen Mohamad Rida; Whitaker, Iveth Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Complications in hospitalized trauma patients are major causes of morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to identify the in-hospital trauma patients' complications and identify the risk factors for complications in this population. A retrospective analysis was conducted in a sample from a Brazilian hospital. The sample consisted of 407 patients, 194 (47.66%) of whom had records of complications. The most common complications were infections (41.80%). The risk factors related to the complications were age, length of hospital stay, external causes, and injury severity. The complications were frequent in this sample, and the risk for complications was characterized by multiple factors. PMID:27618375

  8. [Risk factor calculator for medical underwriting of life insurers based on the PROCAM study].

    PubMed

    Geritse, A; Müller, G; Trompetter, T; Schulte, H; Assmann, G

    2008-06-01

    For its electronic manual GEM, used to perform medical risk assessment in life insurance, SCOR Global Life Germany has developed an innovative and evidence-based calculator of the mortality risk depending on cardiovascular risk factors. The calculator contains several new findings regarding medical underwriting, which were gained from the analysis of the PROCAM (Prospective Cardiovascular Münster) study. For instance, in the overall consideration of all risk factors of a medically examined applicant, BMI is not an independent risk factor. Further, given sufficient information, the total extra mortality of a person no longer results from adding up the ratings for the single risk factors. In fact, this new approach of risk assessment considers the interdependencies between the different risk factors. The new calculator is expected to improve risk selection and standard acceptances will probably increase.

  9. Factors affecting home care patients' acceptance of a web-based interactive self-management technology

    PubMed Central

    Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Severtson, Dolores J; Burke, Laura J; Brown, Roger L; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2010-01-01

    Objective With the advent of personal health records and other patient-focused health technologies, there is a growing need to better understand factors that contribute to acceptance and use of such innovations. In this study, we employed the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology as the basis for determining what predicts patients' acceptance (measured by behavioral intention) and perceived effective use of a web-based, interactive self-management innovation among home care patients. Design Cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from a randomized field study evaluating a technology-assisted home care nursing practice with adults with chronic cardiac disease. Measurement and analysis A questionnaire was designed based on validated measurement scales from prior research and was completed by 101 participants for measuring the acceptance constructs as part of the parent study protocol. Latent variable modeling with item parceling guided assessment of patients' acceptance. Results Perceived usefulness accounted for 53.9% of the variability in behavioral intention, the measure of acceptance. Together, perceived usefulness, health care knowledge, and behavioral intention accounted for 68.5% of the variance in perceived effective use. Perceived ease of use and subjective norm indirectly influenced behavioral intention, through perceived usefulness. Perceived ease of use and subjective norm explained 48% of the total variance in perceived usefulness. Conclusion The study demonstrates that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, subjective norm, and healthcare knowledge together predict most of the variance in patients' acceptance and self-reported use of the web-based self-management technology. PMID:21131605

  10. Changes in the Factors Influencing Public Acceptance of Nuclear Power Generation in Japan Since the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster.

    PubMed

    Tsujikawa, Norifumi; Tsuchida, Shoji; Shiotani, Takamasa

    2016-01-01

    Public support for nuclear power generation has decreased in Japan since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. This study examines how the factors influencing public acceptance of nuclear power changed after this event. The influence factors examined are perceived benefit, perceived risk, trust in the managing bodies, and pro-environmental orientation (i.e., new ecological paradigm). This study is based on cross-sectional data collected from two online nationwide surveys: one conducted in November 2009, before the nuclear accident, and the other in October 2011, after the accident. This study's target respondents were residents of Aomori, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures in the Tohoku region of Japan, as these areas were the epicenters of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the locations of nuclear power stations. After the accident, trust in the managing bodies was found to have a stronger influence on perceived risk, and pro-environmental orientation was found to have a stronger influence on trust in the managing bodies; however, perceived benefit had a weaker positive influence on public acceptance. We also discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:26224041

  11. Changes in the Factors Influencing Public Acceptance of Nuclear Power Generation in Japan Since the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster.

    PubMed

    Tsujikawa, Norifumi; Tsuchida, Shoji; Shiotani, Takamasa

    2016-01-01

    Public support for nuclear power generation has decreased in Japan since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. This study examines how the factors influencing public acceptance of nuclear power changed after this event. The influence factors examined are perceived benefit, perceived risk, trust in the managing bodies, and pro-environmental orientation (i.e., new ecological paradigm). This study is based on cross-sectional data collected from two online nationwide surveys: one conducted in November 2009, before the nuclear accident, and the other in October 2011, after the accident. This study's target respondents were residents of Aomori, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures in the Tohoku region of Japan, as these areas were the epicenters of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the locations of nuclear power stations. After the accident, trust in the managing bodies was found to have a stronger influence on perceived risk, and pro-environmental orientation was found to have a stronger influence on trust in the managing bodies; however, perceived benefit had a weaker positive influence on public acceptance. We also discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  12. [Psychosocial risk factors in cardiac practice].

    PubMed

    Giallauria, Francesco; Battimiello, Valentina; Veneziano, Mariagrazia; De Luca, Paolofabrizio; Cipollaro, Ilenia; Buonincontro, Maria; Vigorito, Carlo; Del Forno, Domenico

    2007-06-01

    A large number of studies investigated the link between psychosocial risk factors and atherosclerosis or cardiac events. They found that emotional factors and chronic stressors strongly influence the course of coronary artery disease, by promoting the same pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for atherosclerosis. Thus, cardiologists often find in cardiac practice patients that presents psychosocial risk factors, needing the development of interventions aimed to management of these factors. Some of these interventions are the same that are traditionally used in clinical practice, such as exercise training and nutritional counselling, while others are more specific, and require the presence of psychologists (behavioral strategies, relaxation training, social support, etc.). Behavioral cardiology is an emerging field of clinical practice based on the recognition that psychosocial risk factors can promote atherosclerosis and adverse cardiac events. It requires the development of practical solutions aimed at the management of adverse lifestyle behaviours, emotional factors, and chronic stress.

  13. Risk Factors in Adolescent Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, D. Rose; Haldeman, Lauren A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex and multifaceted disease, with many contributing factors. While diet and nutrition are important influences, the confounding effects of overweight and obesity, metabolic and genetic factors, racial and ethnic predispositions, socioeconomic status, cultural influences, growth rate, and pubertal stage have even more influence and make diagnosis quite challenging. The prevalence of hypertension in adolescents far exceeds the numbers who have been diagnosed; studies have found that 75% or more go undiagnosed. This literature review summarizes the challenges of blood pressure classification in adolescents, discusses the impact of these confounding influences, and identifies actions that will improve diagnosis and treatment outcomes. PMID:27335997

  14. Risk Factors in Adolescent Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ewald, D Rose; Haldeman PhD, Lauren A

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex and multifaceted disease, with many contributing factors. While diet and nutrition are important influences, the confounding effects of overweight and obesity, metabolic and genetic factors, racial and ethnic predispositions, socioeconomic status, cultural influences, growth rate, and pubertal stage have even more influence and make diagnosis quite challenging. The prevalence of hypertension in adolescents far exceeds the numbers who have been diagnosed; studies have found that 75% or more go undiagnosed. This literature review summarizes the challenges of blood pressure classification in adolescents, discusses the impact of these confounding influences, and identifies actions that will improve diagnosis and treatment outcomes. PMID:27335997

  15. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogério S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century. PMID:23515212

  16. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  17. Psychological Risk Factors in Headache

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by considering the role psychological (i.e., cognitive and affective) factors have in the development, course, and consequences of headache. The manuscript initially reviews evidence showing that neural circuits responsible for cognitive–affective phenomena are highly interconnected with the circuitry responsible for headache pain. The manuscript then reviews the influence cognitions (locus of control and self-efficacy) and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) have on the development of headache attacks, perception of headache pain, adherence to prescribed treatment, headache treatment outcome, and headache-related disability. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of considering psychological factors when treating headache. PMID:17371358

  18. Bleeding after endoscopic submucosal dissection: Risk factors and preventive methods

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Yosuke; Tsuji, Yosuke; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Asada-Hirayama, Itsuko; Niimi, Keiko; Ono, Satoshi; Kodashima, Shinya; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has become widely accepted as a standard method of treatment for superficial gastrointestinal neoplasms because it enables en block resection even for large lesions or fibrotic lesions with minimal invasiveness, and decreases the local recurrence rate. Moreover, specimens resected in an en block fashion enable accurate histological assessment. Taking these factors into consideration, ESD seems to be more advantageous than conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), but the associated risks of perioperative adverse events are higher than in EMR. Bleeding after ESD is the most frequent among these adverse events. Although post-ESD bleeding can be controlled by endoscopic hemostasis in most cases, it may lead to serious conditions including hemorrhagic shock. Even with preventive methods including administration of acid secretion inhibitors and preventive hemostasis, post-ESD bleeding cannot be completely prevented. In addition high-risk cases for post-ESD bleeding, which include cases with the use of antithrombotic agents or which require large resection, are increasing. Although there have been many reports about associated risk factors and methods of preventing post-ESD bleeding, many issues remain unsolved. Therefore, in this review, we have overviewed risk factors and methods of preventing post-ESD bleeding from previous studies. Endoscopists should have sufficient knowledge of these risk factors and preventive methods when performing ESD. PMID:27468187

  19. [The concept of acceptable risk is the key debatable issue of the assessment and management of a risk to the population's health].

    PubMed

    Katsnel'son, B A; Kuz'min, S V; Gurvich, V B

    2007-01-01

    The authors hold that an open discussion on the principles of and approaches to establishing the national standards of acceptable health risks should precede the official introduction of these standards into practice in taking decisions on risk management. They criticize the sociostatistical and socioeconomic concepts of risk acceptability as both amoral and impracticable and propose an approach based on the use of the Russian standards of permissible exposure levels (maximum permissible concentrations in particular) and on the exposure-response relationships established by epidemiological studies for the computation of responses (i.e. risk levels) corresponding to the permissible exposures. In some cases that such standards of an acceptable risk are too strict in existing technological or economic practice may be introduced in a stepwise fashion, but the risks that exceed the acceptable level should be compensated for.

  20. An ethical appraisal of hormesis: toward a rational discourse on the acceptability of risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Renn, O

    2008-08-01

    Hormesis has been defined as a dose-response relationship in which there is a stimulatory response at low doses but an inhibiting response at high doses, resulting in a U- or inverted U-shaped dose response. Until now, regulatory agencies have been reluctant to address this new insight or adjusted their routines for regulating such substances. Should regulators change their principles of decision making and standard setting in the light of the new insights from hormesis research? To answer this question, it is essential to review the ethical implications of hormesis in risk assessment and management. What kind of values should govern the regulation of substances and radiation that may cause positive and negative impacts at the same time (depending on dose and individual variability)? This article tries to address this problem. It deals with the basic ethical principles and foundations of risk management and introduces the essentials of ethics and the application of ethical principles to judging the acceptability of risks to humans and the environment. It will also discuss the merits of an analytic deliberative approach to evaluating complex risks and address the application of this discursive methods to risk management taking into account the hormesis challenge. PMID:19029259

  1. Factors influencing nursing students' acceptance of electronic health records for nursing education (EHRNE) software program.

    PubMed

    Kowitlawakul, Yanika; Chan, Sally Wai Chi; Pulcini, Joyce; Wang, Wenru

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the Health Information Technology Act (2009) in America had recommended that electronic health records (EHRs) should be fully adopted by 2014. This has urged educational institutions to prepare healthcare professionals to be competent in using electronic health records (EHRs) while they are in schools. To equip nursing students with competency in using EHRs, an electronic health record for nursing education (EHRNE) has been developed and integrated it into nursing curricula. The purposes of the study were to investigate the factors influencing nursing students' acceptance of the EHRs in nursing education using the extended Technology Acceptance Model with self-efficacy as a conceptual framework. The study is a descriptive study design using self-reported questionnaires with 212 student participants. The IBM SPSS and AMOS 22.0 were used to analyze the data. The results showed that attitude toward using the EHRNE was the most influential factor on students' acceptance. The preliminary findings suggested that to enhance the students' acceptance of the EHRNE, cultivation of a positive attitude toward using this EHR as well as increasing the perceived usefulness is very important. Also, the study's framework could be used in guiding learning health informatics and be applied to nursing students.

  2. [Midwives' perception of reproductive risk factors].

    PubMed

    García-Barrios, C; Castañeda-Camey, X; Romero-Guerrero, X; González-Hernández, D; Langer-Glas, A

    1993-01-01

    Midwives in rural areas of the State of Morelos are one of the most important resources used by rural women for health care of pregnancy, delivery and the puerperium. This work was aimed at identifying midwives perceptions of pregnant women's risk factors, in order to include this knowledge in reproductive health programs which articulate institutional and traditional health systems. We applied a questionnaire to all midwives in the Municipalities of Ocuituco, yecapixtla and Zacualpan, Morelos (n = 35). Four key informants were selected and interviewed. These instruments enabled us to measure variability in perception of risk factors. Knowledge of risk factors is defective among midwives. Previous training made a big difference. Sixty three per cent of midwives who attended training courses are better qualified from an academic medicine point of view. Only 28.7 per cent of non-trained midwives (43% for both groups), indicating that sociocultural aspects prevail over technical training in midwives perceptions of reproductive risk factors. PMID:8470023

  3. Pneumococcal Disease: Risk Factors and Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foundation for Infectious Diseases Sepsis Risk Factors and Transmission Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... the brain and spinal cord) Who smoke cigarettes Transmission Pneumococcal bacteria spread from person-to-person by ...

  4. [Midwives' perception of reproductive risk factors].

    PubMed

    García-Barrios, C; Castañeda-Camey, X; Romero-Guerrero, X; González-Hernández, D; Langer-Glas, A

    1993-01-01

    Midwives in rural areas of the State of Morelos are one of the most important resources used by rural women for health care of pregnancy, delivery and the puerperium. This work was aimed at identifying midwives perceptions of pregnant women's risk factors, in order to include this knowledge in reproductive health programs which articulate institutional and traditional health systems. We applied a questionnaire to all midwives in the Municipalities of Ocuituco, yecapixtla and Zacualpan, Morelos (n = 35). Four key informants were selected and interviewed. These instruments enabled us to measure variability in perception of risk factors. Knowledge of risk factors is defective among midwives. Previous training made a big difference. Sixty three per cent of midwives who attended training courses are better qualified from an academic medicine point of view. Only 28.7 per cent of non-trained midwives (43% for both groups), indicating that sociocultural aspects prevail over technical training in midwives perceptions of reproductive risk factors.

  5. Psychosocial Factors in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Ruth A; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that is increasing in prevalence globally. Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in diabetes, and lifestyle and clinical risk factors do not fully account for the link between the conditions. This article provides an overview of the evidence concerning the role of psychosocial stress factors in diabetes risk, as well as in cardiovascular complications in people with existing diabetes. Several types of psychosocial factors are discussed including depression, other types of emotional distress, exposure to stressful conditions, and personality traits. The potential behavioral and biological pathways linking psychosocial factors to diabetes are presented and implications for patient care are highlighted. PMID:27566328

  6. Osteoporosis Risk Factors in Eighth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors…

  7. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of people who have diabetes die of some type of cardiovascular disease. Diabetic women are at especially high risk for dying ... aware of my risk factors, such as being diabetic and having a family history of heart ... levels—you are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. But you can take steps to ...

  8. Behavioral Risk Factors for AIDS among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millstein, Susan G.

    This document examines the incidence of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among adolescents in the United States and identifies several risk factors for AIDS among this population. It classifies adolescents' risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by the degree to which adolescents engage in behaviors that are…

  9. Childhood myopia: epidemiology, risk factors, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Recko, Matthew; Stahl, Erin Durrie

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the dynamic interaction between the eye's growth and its ability to adapt to maintain vision has shown that childhood myopia is a significant prediction of progressive myopia and the potentially severe ocular comorbidities associated with it. It is important for us to better understand this process and its risk factors in order to better develop a prevention and treatment strategy. This article will discuss the epidemiology, risk factors and current therapeutic regimens for reducing myopic progression. PMID:25958656

  10. Modifiable risk factors for surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Moucha, Calin S; Clyburn, Terry A; Evans, Richard P; Prokuski, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Multiple risk factors for orthopaedic surgical site infection have been identified. Some of these factors directly affect the wound-healing process, whereas others can lead to blood-borne sepsis or relative immunosuppression. Modifying a patient's medications; screening for comorbidities, such as HIV or diabetes mellitus; and advising the patient on options to diminish or eliminate adverse behaviors, such as smoking, should lower the risk for surgical site infections.

  11. Cancer associated thrombosis: risk factors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Deep vein thrombosis of the leg and pulmonary embolism are frequent diseases and cancer is one of their most important risk factors. Patients with cancer also have a higher prevalence of venous thrombosis located in other parts than in the legs and/or in unusual sites including upper extremity, splanchnic or cerebral veins. Cancer also affects the risk of arterial thrombotic events particularly in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor recipients. Several risk factors need to interact to trigger thrombosis. In addition to common risk factors such as surgery, hospitalisation, infection and genetic coagulation disorders, the thrombotic risk is also driven and modified by cancer-specific factors including type, histology, and stage of the malignancy, cancer treatment and certain biomarkers. A venous thrombotic event in a cancer patient has serious consequences as the risk of recurrent thrombosis, the risk of bleeding during anticoagulation and hospitalisation rates are all increased. Survival of cancer patients with thrombosis is worse compared to that of cancer patients without thrombosis, and thrombosis is a leading direct cause of death in cancer patients. PMID:27067965

  12. Human Factors Process Task Analysis Liquid Oxygen Pump Acceptance Test Procedure for the Advanced Technology Development Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diorio, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    A process task analysis effort was undertaken by Dynacs Inc. commencing in June 2002 under contract from NASA YA-D6. Funding was provided through NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC), Code M/HQ, and Industrial Engineering and Safety (IES). The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Engineering Development Contract (EDC) Task Order was 5SMA768. The scope of the effort was to conduct a Human Factors Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (HF PFMEA) of a hazardous activity and provide recommendations to eliminate or reduce the effects of errors caused by human factors. The Liquid Oxygen (LOX) Pump Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) was selected for this analysis. The HF PFMEA table (see appendix A) provides an analysis of six major categories evaluated for this study. These categories include Personnel Certification, Test Procedure Format, Test Procedure Safety Controls, Test Article Data, Instrumentation, and Voice Communication. For each specific requirement listed in appendix A, the following topics were addressed: Requirement, Potential Human Error, Performance-Shaping Factors, Potential Effects of the Error, Barriers and Controls, Risk Priority Numbers, and Recommended Actions. This report summarizes findings and gives recommendations as determined by the data contained in appendix A. It also includes a discussion of technology barriers and challenges to performing task analyses, as well as lessons learned. The HF PFMEA table in appendix A recommends the use of accepted and required safety criteria in order to reduce the risk of human error. The items with the highest risk priority numbers should receive the greatest amount of consideration. Implementation of the recommendations will result in a safer operation for all personnel.

  13. Accepting risk in the acceleration of drug development for rare cancers.

    PubMed

    Ashley, David; Thomas, David; Gore, Lia; Carter, Rob; Zalcberg, John R; Otmar, Renée; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-04-01

    Rare cancers collectively contribute a disproportionate fraction of the total burden of cancer. The oncology community is increasingly facing small numbers of patients with each cancer subtype, requiring cooperation and collaboration to complete multicentre trials that advance knowledge and patient care. At the same time, new insights into the biology of rare cancers have led to an explosion in knowledge and development of targeted agents. These insights and techniques are set to revolutionise the care of patients with cancer. However, drug development strategies and the availability of new agents for rare cancers are at risk of stalling owing to the ever-increasing complexity and costs of clinical trials. Finding solutions to these problems is imperative to the future of cancer care. We propose that a greater degree of risk sharing is needed than is currently accepted to enable the use of new methods with confidence, and to keep pace with scientific advancement. PMID:25846099

  14. Risk factors for homelessness among US veterans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  15. Risk factors for homelessness among US veterans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans.

  16. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    PubMed Central

    Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. Methods: A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Results: Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Conclusions: Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD. PMID:21976868

  17. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    PubMed

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors.

  18. Adolescent risk factors for child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Thornberry, Terence P; Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L; Smith, Carolyn A; Ireland, Timothy O

    2014-04-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment.

  19. Adolescent Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment. PMID:24075569

  20. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Giacomin, Natalia T; Smadja, David; Bechara, Samir J

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient’s age), as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue). Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA) is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB) or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a helpful tool in the screening strategy. PMID:27143849

  1. Sunburn risk factors at Galveston beaches.

    PubMed

    Shoss-Glaich, Adrienne B; Uchida, Tatsuo; Wagner, Richard F

    2004-07-01

    Although the beach is a well-recognized environment for sunburn injury, specific risk factors for sunburn and their interactions are poorly understood. In this epidemiologic study, variables related to sunburn injury at the beach were analyzed. Beachgoers exposed to more than 4 hours of sun at the beach were significantly more likely to sunburn compared with those with less exposure. Other significant sunburn risk factors were lack of sunscreen use or use of sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor of 15 or less and Fitzpatrick Skin Types I and II. Reasonable sunburn avoidance strategies should include limiting duration of sun exposure to fewer than 4 hours per day.

  2. Critical Success Factors for E-Learning Acceptance: Confirmatory Factor Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selim, Hassan M.

    2007-01-01

    E-learning, one of the tools emerged from information technology, has been integrated in many university programs. There are several factors that need to be considered while developing or implementing university curriculums that offer e-learning based courses. This paper is intended to specify e-learning critical success factors (CSFs) as…

  3. Risk factors for and assessment of constipation.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sherree; Hungerford, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Constipation commonly occurs in older people, particularly in hospital or residential care settings, and leads to decreased quality of life and increased healthcare costs. Despite its frequency, however, nurses often overlook the condition. One possible reason for this may be the lack of appropriate tools or scales for nurses to assess risk factors for developing constipation. This article identifies, from the academic literature, 14 risk factors for developing constipation in older people. These factors are then considered in light of four common constipation assessment charts. The article concludes by arguing the need for more comprehensive assessment tools to, firstly, identify risk factors; and, secondly, support the implementation of appropriate preventative strategies that will enable better health outcomes for older people.

  4. Effects of an Educational Experience Incorporating an Inventory of Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Jason R.; Alters, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This investigation provides an extensive review of scientific, religious, and otherwise non-scientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution. We also measure the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following an educational experience designed to address an inclusive inventory of factors identified…

  5. Atrial fibrillation: relation between clinical risk factors and transoesophageal echocardiographic risk factors for thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Illien, S; Maroto-Järvinen, S; von der Recke, G; Hammerstingl, C; Schmidt, H; Kuntz-Hehner, S; Lüderitz, B; Omran, H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To correlate clinical risk factors for thromboembolism with transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) markers of a thrombogenic milieu. Design: Clinical risk factors for thromboembolism and TOE markers of a thrombogenic milieu were assessed in consecutive patients with non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation. The following TOE parameters were assessed: presence of spontaneous echo contrast, thrombi, and left atrial appendage blood flow velocities. A history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or thromboembolic events, patient age > 65 years, and chronic heart failure were considered to be clinical risk factors for thromboembolism. Setting: Tertiary cardiac care centre. Patients: 301 consecutive patients with non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation scheduled for TOE. Results: 255 patients presented with clinical risk factors. 158 patients had reduced left atrial blood flow velocities, dense spontaneous echo contrast, or both. Logistic regression analysis showed that a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and age > 65 years were the only independent predictors of a thrombogenic milieu (both p < 0.0001). The probability of having a thrombogenic milieu increased with the number of clinical risk factors present (p < 0.0001). 17.4% of the patients without clinical risk factors had a thrombogenic milieu whereas 41.2% of the patients presenting one or more clinical risk factors had none. Conclusion: There is a close relation between clinical risk factors and TOE markers of a thrombogenic milieu. In addition, TOE examination allows for the identification of patients with a thrombogenic milieu without clinical risk factors. PMID:12527668

  6. Postoperative respiratory morbidity: identification and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C; Garrahy, P; Peake, P

    1982-04-01

    Two hundred consecutive patients admitted for general surgery were studied prospectively to evaluate the contribution of risk factors to postoperative respiratory morbidity (PORM). PORM was expressed both in terms of individual clinical features present on the second postoperative day (when the incidence was greatest), and as an aggregate score incorporating many clinical features. The importance of recognised risk factors, such as previous respiratory disease, cigarette smoking, upper abdominal procedures and the duration of surgery was confirmed, in that these factors were associated with some of the individual clinical features of PORM. The relative importance and independent contribution of these risk factors were assessed by their association with the aggregate score. A naso-gastric tube (NGT) present for 24 hours postoperatively was the factor more associated with PORM. The NGT identified patients at risk more clearly than, and independently of, the next most important factor, upper abdominal surgery. The duration of surgery did not contribute to PORM after the influence of NGT and site of surgery had been considered. Previous respiratory disease predisposed to PORM, and was best identified by, in order of importance, an observed productive cough, a reduced one second forced expiratory volume, and purulent sputum. After the incidence of these factors had been considered, cigarette smoking and a history of a chronic productive cough did not contribute further to PORM. PMID:6952867

  7. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Bruna; Ferreira, Carina; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Silva, Sónia

    2016-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by Candida species that affects millions of women every year. Although Candida albicans is the main cause of VVC, the identification of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, especially Candida glabrata, as the cause of this infection, appears to be increasing. The development of VVC is usually attributed to the disturbance of the balance between Candida vaginal colonization and host environment by physiological or nonphysiological changes. Several host-related and behavioral risk factors have been proposed as predisposing factors for VVC. Host-related factors include pregnancy, hormone replacement, uncontrolled diabetes, immunosuppression, antibiotics, glucocorticoids use and genetic predispositions. Behavioral risk factors include use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine device, spermicides and condoms and some habits of hygiene, clothing and sexual practices. Despite a growing list of recognized risk factors, much remains to be elucidated as the role of host versus microorganisms, in inducing VVC and its recurrence. Thus, this review provides information about the current state of knowledge on the risk factors that predispose to VVC, also including a revision of the epidemiology and microbiology of VVC, as well as of Candida virulence factors associated with vaginal pathogenicity. PMID:26690853

  8. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Bruna; Ferreira, Carina; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Silva, Sónia

    2016-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by Candida species that affects millions of women every year. Although Candida albicans is the main cause of VVC, the identification of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, especially Candida glabrata, as the cause of this infection, appears to be increasing. The development of VVC is usually attributed to the disturbance of the balance between Candida vaginal colonization and host environment by physiological or nonphysiological changes. Several host-related and behavioral risk factors have been proposed as predisposing factors for VVC. Host-related factors include pregnancy, hormone replacement, uncontrolled diabetes, immunosuppression, antibiotics, glucocorticoids use and genetic predispositions. Behavioral risk factors include use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine device, spermicides and condoms and some habits of hygiene, clothing and sexual practices. Despite a growing list of recognized risk factors, much remains to be elucidated as the role of host versus microorganisms, in inducing VVC and its recurrence. Thus, this review provides information about the current state of knowledge on the risk factors that predispose to VVC, also including a revision of the epidemiology and microbiology of VVC, as well as of Candida virulence factors associated with vaginal pathogenicity.

  9. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references.

  10. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidney cancer? What are the risk factors for kidney cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... not cancer). Other risk factors Family history of kidney cancer People with a strong family history of ...

  11. Risk Factors for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weimin; Han, Zhiwei; Liu, Jiang; Yu, Lili; Yu, Xiuchun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent lumbar disc herniation (rLDH) is a common complication following primary discectomy. This systematic review aimed to investigate the current evidence on risk factors for rLDH. Cohort or case-control studies addressing risk factors for rLDH were identified by search in Pubmed (Medline), Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library from inception to June 2015. Relevant results were pooled to give overall estimates if possible. Heterogeneity among studies was examined and publication bias was also assessed. A total of 17 studies were included in this systematic review. Risk factors that had significant relation with rLDH were smoking (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.53–2.58), disc protrusion (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.15–2.79), and diabetes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.32). Gender, BMI, occupational work, level, and side of herniation did not correlate with rLDH significantly. Based on current evidence, smoking, disc protrusion, and diabetes were predictors for rLDH. Patients with these risk factors should be paid more attention for prevention of recurrence after primary surgery. More evidence provided by high-quality observational studies is still needed to further investigate risk factors for rLDH. PMID:26765413

  12. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed. PMID:27118278

  13. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jae Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed.

  14. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jae Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed. PMID:27118278

  15. Sensory acceptability and factors predicting the consumption of grain amaranth in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Macharia-Mutie, Catherine W; Van de Wiel, Anne M; Moreno-Londono, Ana M; Mwangi, Alice M; Brouwer, Inge D

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of adding grain amaranth flour on sensory acceptability of maize porridge in Kenya. Factors influencing the intention of mothers to feed their children on grain amaranth were identified. A significant difference between the various porridge ratios (50:50, 70:30, and 100:0 amaranth:maize) either in unfermented or fermented form could be detected. Preference for the unfermented amaranth enriched maize porridge was observed. Intention significantly correlated and predicted grain amaranth consumption (p < .001). Knowledge and health value significantly predicted health behavior identity. Interaction between barriers and intention negatively influenced behavior. Findings suggest that unfermented amaranth enriched maize porridge is acceptable. Unfermented porridge with 70% amaranth can be considered for use in a program aimed at increasing dietary iron intake among children. Increasing awareness about micronutrient deficiencies and nutritional benefits of grain amaranth could enhance its consumption.

  16. Recruiting faculty with clinical responsibilities: factors that influence a decision to accept an academic position.

    PubMed

    Grauer, Gregory F

    2005-01-01

    The current opportunities for veterinary clinical specialists in private practice and industry have made recruiting and retaining faculty a major focus for most clinical academic departments. To gain a better understanding of the importance of the various factors considered in accepting an academic position, an electronic survey was distributed to newly hired veterinary faculty with clinical responsibilities. The results suggest that the perceived climate and collegiality within the prospective hiring department is the most important factor influencing the decision to accept an academic position. Salary is the second most important factor. Institutional support for the newly hired faculty member and the reputation and quality of the prospective institution rank as more important than the perceived quality of the local community and the geographic location of the institution. The search process and administrative support are the least important factors. There were no differences between the responses of faculty hired into tenure-track positions and those of faculty hired into clinical-track positions. Focusing on the advantages of a collegial environment, enhancing compensation packages, and using creative and flexible appointments may improve faculty recruitment and retention in clinical academic departments.

  17. High risk factors of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Camara, Soriba Naby; Yin, Tao; Yang, Ming; Li, Xiang; Gong, Qiong; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Aroun, Tajoo; Kuete, Martin; Ramdany, Sonam; Camara, Alpha Kabinet; Diallo, Aissatou Taran; Feng, Zhen; Ning, Xin; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Tao, Jing; Qin, Qi; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Jing; Huang, Min; Guo, Yao; Gou, Shan-Miao; Wang, Bo; Liu, Tao; Olivier, Ohoya Etsaka Terence; Conde, Tenin; Cisse, Mohamed; Magassouba, Aboubacar Sidiki; Ballah, Sneha; Keita, Naby Laye Moussa; Souare, Ibrahima Sory; Toure, Aboubacar; Traore, Sadamoudou; Balde, Abdoulaye Korse; Keita, Namory; Camara, Naby Daouda; Emmanuel, Dusabe; Wu, He-Shui; Wang, Chun-You

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, cancer has become one of the toughest challenges for health professionals. The epidemiologists are increasingly directing their research efforts on various malignant tumor worldwide. Of note, incidence of cancers is on the rise more quickly in developed countries. Indeed, great endeavors have to be made in the control of the life-threatening disease. As we know it, pancreatic cancer (PC) is a malignant disease with the worst prognosis. While little is known about the etiology of the PC and measures to prevent the condition, so far, a number of risk factors have been identified. Genetic factors, pre-malignant lesions, predisposing diseases and exogenous factors have been found to be linked to PC. Genetic susceptibility was observed in 10% of PC cases, including inherited PC syndromes and familial PC. However, in the remaining 90%, their PC might be caused by genetic factors in combination with environmental factors. Nonetheless, the exact mechanism of the two kinds of factors, endogenous and exogenous, working together to cause PC remains poorly understood. The fact that most pancreatic neoplasms are diagnosed at an incurable stage of the disease highlights the need to identify risk factors and to understand their contribution to carcinogenesis. This article reviews the high risk factors contributing to the development of PC, to provide information for clinicians and epidemiologists.

  18. High risk factors of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Camara, Soriba Naby; Yin, Tao; Yang, Ming; Li, Xiang; Gong, Qiong; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Aroun, Tajoo; Kuete, Martin; Ramdany, Sonam; Camara, Alpha Kabinet; Diallo, Aissatou Taran; Feng, Zhen; Ning, Xin; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Tao, Jing; Qin, Qi; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Jing; Huang, Min; Guo, Yao; Gou, Shan-Miao; Wang, Bo; Liu, Tao; Olivier, Ohoya Etsaka Terence; Conde, Tenin; Cisse, Mohamed; Magassouba, Aboubacar Sidiki; Ballah, Sneha; Keita, Naby Laye Moussa; Souare, Ibrahima Sory; Toure, Aboubacar; Traore, Sadamoudou; Balde, Abdoulaye Korse; Keita, Namory; Camara, Naby Daouda; Emmanuel, Dusabe; Wu, He-Shui; Wang, Chun-You

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, cancer has become one of the toughest challenges for health professionals. The epidemiologists are increasingly directing their research efforts on various malignant tumor worldwide. Of note, incidence of cancers is on the rise more quickly in developed countries. Indeed, great endeavors have to be made in the control of the life-threatening disease. As we know it, pancreatic cancer (PC) is a malignant disease with the worst prognosis. While little is known about the etiology of the PC and measures to prevent the condition, so far, a number of risk factors have been identified. Genetic factors, pre-malignant lesions, predisposing diseases and exogenous factors have been found to be linked to PC. Genetic susceptibility was observed in 10% of PC cases, including inherited PC syndromes and familial PC. However, in the remaining 90%, their PC might be caused by genetic factors in combination with environmental factors. Nonetheless, the exact mechanism of the two kinds of factors, endogenous and exogenous, working together to cause PC remains poorly understood. The fact that most pancreatic neoplasms are diagnosed at an incurable stage of the disease highlights the need to identify risk factors and to understand their contribution to carcinogenesis. This article reviews the high risk factors contributing to the development of PC, to provide information for clinicians and epidemiologists. PMID:27376795

  19. Environmental risk factors for mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Wohl, Yonit; Tur, Ethel

    2007-01-01

    The rising incidence rates of mycosis fungoides (MF) call for an explanation. Thus, environmental and lifestyle factors were speculated to play a role in the development of lymphoproliferative diseases. It is thought that continuous activation of skin T helper lymphocytes leads to malignant transformation of a specific clone. Possible risk factors that have been implicated are occupational chemical exposure, radiation, drugs and infections. The carcinogenic process is probably multifactorial and multistep, combining the genetic predisposition of the individual and his immune status with various exogenous factors. Using advanced and accurate exposure assessment tools, recent epidemiological data indicate that occupational exposure to chemicals, primarily to aromatic halogenated hydrocarbons, is a major risk factor to develop MF in men (odds ratio 4.6), while exposure to pesticides, a subgroup of the aromatic halogenated hydrocarbons, is a risk factor in both genders (odds ratio 6.8 for men and 2.4 for women). Apparently, concomitant infection with Staphylococcus aureus or with Borrelia species and chronic exposure to UVR are minor risk factors for the development of MF. Further assessment of occupational and environmental exposures is essential for the evaluation of their contribution to the etiology of MF. This will allow the application of preventive and surveillance measures along with adjustment of existing health policies. PMID:17641490

  20. Coverage and acceptability of cholera vaccine among high-risk population of urban Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Jasim; Wahed, Tasnuva; Saha, Nirod Chandra; Kaukab, Sheikh Shah Tanvir; Khan, Iqbal Ansary; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Saha, Amit; Chowdhury, Fahima; Clemens, John David; Qadri, Firdausi

    2014-09-29

    The oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol), along with other interventions, is a potential new measure to prevent or control cholera. A mass cholera-vaccination programme was launched in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh, during February-April 2011 targeting about 173,041 people who are at high risk of cholera. This cross-sectional, descriptive study assessed the coverage and acceptability of the vaccine. The study used a quantitative household survey and qualitative data-collection techniques comprising focus-group discussions, in-depth interviews, and observations for assessment. The findings revealed that 88% of the target population received the first dose of the vaccine, and 79% received the second dose. Absence of persons at home was a prominent cause of not administering the first (71%) and the second dose (67%). Thirty-three percent of the respondents (n=9308) did not like the taste of the vaccine. Only 1.3% and 3% recipients of the first dose and the second dose of the vaccine respectively reported adverse effects within 28 days of vaccination, and the adverse effects included vomiting or vomiting tendency and diarrhoea. To improve the coverage of the cholera vaccine, exploration of effective solutions to reach the unvaccinated population is required. The vaccine may be more acceptable to the community through changing its taste.

  1. Risk Factors for Smoking in Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    Salsberry, Pamela J.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Ahijevych, Karen L.; Hood, Nancy E.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study examined the association between social, demographic, and psychologic factors and smoking status among Appalachian Ohio women. A secondary aim examined whether specific factors could be identified and segmented for future tailored treatment of tobacco dependence. Methods A cross-sectional survey (n=570) obtained information about social, demographic, and psychologic factors and smoking. Logistic regression described associations between these characteristics and smoking status. Chi-square automatic interaction detection (CHAID) analyses identified subgroups at risk for smoking. Results Fifty-two percent never smoked, with 20.5% and 27.5% categorized as former and current smokers, respectively. Women with low adult socioeconomic position (SEP) were more likely to smoke (odds ratio [OR] 3.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74-5.34) compared to high SEP women. Other factors associated with current smoking included age 31–50 (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.22-4.33), age 18–30 (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.72-5.34), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) score≥16 (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.31-3.05), and first pregnancy at age<20 (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.14-2.66). The prevalence of smoking was 50% among those with four or more risk factors compared to 10% for those reporting no risk factors. CHAID analyses identified low adult SEP and depressive symptoms as the combination of risk factors most strongly associated with smoking; 49.3% of women in this subgroup currently smoked. Conclusions Low SEP in adulthood, maternal circumstances, and depressive symptoms are associated with current smoking. Tailored cessation interventions that address these risk factors should be developed and further evaluated in an attempt to reduce disparities in smoking prevalence among this vulnerable group of women. PMID:22360694

  2. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  3. Risk factors for acquisition of endemic blastomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Choptiany, Maxym; Wiebe, Lyle; Limerick, Bill; Sarsfield, Pete; Cheang, Mary; Light, Bruce; Hammond, Greg; MacDonald, Kerry; Trepman, Elly; Pappas, Peter; Embil, John M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blastomycosis is potentially fatal, but environmental risk factors for acquiring blastomycosis are not well established. METHOD: Matched cross-sectional questionnaire of 112 patients with history of blastomycosis and 118 control subjects in Manitoba and northwestern Ontario. RESULTS: The most common tissues involved with blastomycosis were pulmonary, skin and soft tissues, and bone. A significantly greater proportion of patients with blastomycosis than control subjects were involved in outdoor occupations. A significantly greater percentage of patients with blastomycosis were immunosuppressed either from collagen vascular disease or immunosuppressive therapy, or had hypothyroidism. A significant association between canine and human blastomycosis was not observed. CONCLUSIONS: Independent risk factors for development of blastomycosis included immunosuppression for any reason (including drugs or disease), collagen vascular disease, being an outdoor worker, and having a coworker with blastomycosis. Canine blastomycosis was not a risk factor for human disease in dog owners. PMID:21119803

  4. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Felipe Freire; Levy, Roger Abramino; de Carvalho, Jozélio Freire

    2014-01-01

    A major cause of morbidity and mortality in the context of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is the occurrence of thrombotic events. Besides the pathogenic roles of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), other risk factors and medical conditions, which are conditions for traditional risk of an individual without the APS, can coexist in this patient, raising their risk of developing thrombosis. Therefore, the clinical and laboratory investigation of comorbidities known to increase cardiovascular risk in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is crucial for the adoption of a more complete and effective treatment. Experimental models and clinical studies show evidence of association between APS and premature formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis has major traditional risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle that may be implicated in vascular involvement in patients with APS. The influence of nontraditional risk factors as hyperhomocysteinemia, increased lipoprotein a, and anti-oxLDL in the development of thromboembolic events in APS patients has been studied in scientific literature. Metabolic syndrome with all its components also has been recently studied in antiphospholipid syndrome and is associated with arterial events. PMID:25133195

  5. Risk factors for infant developmental problems.

    PubMed

    Maria-Mengel, Margaret Rose Santa; Martins Linhares, Maria Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    This descriptive-correlational study aimed to detect risks for child developmental problems in the first four years of age, to identify the protective resources in the familiar environment, and to verify the best predictive variables of the development at risk. The non-clinical sample was composed by 120 children registered in a Family Health Program. The assessment instruments for global development, expressive language and familiar environment were used. The logistic regression analysis indicated that the lower the father's educational level, the higher the risk for developmental problems. Both the history of low nutritional state at six months of age and the psychosocial risk in the family environment increased the chances of having expressive language problems. It is concluded that screening tests of risk for developmental problems and the analysis of the psychosocial factors in the familiar context should be considered as preventive intervention procedure in the Family Health Programs.

  6. Identifying risk factors for uterine rupture.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer G; Mertz, Heather L; Merrill, David C

    2008-03-01

    Uterine rupture, whether in the setting of a prior uterine incision or in an unscarred uterus, is an obstetric emergency with potentially catastrophic consequences for both mother and child. Numerous studies have been published regarding various risk factors associated with uterine rupture. Despite the mounting data regarding both antepartum and intrapartum factors, it currently is impossible to predict in whom a uterine rupture will occur. This article reviews the data regarding these antepartum and intrapartum predictors for uterine rupture. The author hopes that the information presented in this article will help clinicians assess an individual's risk for uterine rupture.

  7. Chronic kidney disease - pediatric risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tasic, Velibor; Janchevska, Aleksandra; Emini, Nora; Sahpazova, Emilija; Gucev, Zoran; Polenakovic, Momir

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge about the progression of chronic kidney disease is an important issue for every pediatric nephrologist and pediatrician in order to implement appropriate measures to prevent wasting of renal function and the final consequence - end stage renal disease with the need for the dialysis and transplantation. Therefore it is important to know, treat or ameliorate the standard risk factors such as hypertension, proteinuria, anemia, hyperparathyroidism etc. In this review devoted to the World Kidney Day 2016 we will pay attention to the low birth parameters, obesity, hyperuricemia and smoking which emerged as particularly important risk factors for children and adolescent with chronic kidney disease. PMID:27442412

  8. Occupational Asthma: Etiologies and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to critically review the available evidence pertaining to occupational, environmental, and individual factors that can affect the development of occupational asthma (OA). Increasing evidence suggests that exploration of the intrinsic characteristics of OA-causing agents and associated structure-activity relationships offers promising avenues for quantifying the sensitizing potential of agents that are introduced in the workplace. The intensity of exposure to sensitizing agents has been identified as the most important environmental risk factor for OA and should remain the cornerstone for primary prevention strategies. The role of other environmental co-factors (e.g., non-respiratory routes of exposure and concomitant exposure to cigarette smoke and other pollutants) remains to be further delineated. There is convincing evidence that atopy is an important individual risk factor for OA induced by high-molecular-weight agents. There is some evidence that genetic factors, such as leukocyte antigen class II alleles, are associated with an increased risk of OA; however, the role of genetic susceptibility factors is likely to be obscured by complex gene-environment interactions. OA, as well as asthma in general, is a complex disease that results from multiple interactions between environmental factors and host susceptibilities. Determining these interactions is a crucial step towards implementing optimal prevention policies. PMID:21738881

  9. Acceptability of HIV vaccine trials in high-risk heterosexual cohorts in Mombasa, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D J; Martin, H L; Bwayo, J J; Nyange, P M; Rakwar, J P; Kashonga, F; Mandaliya, K; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Kreiss, J K

    1995-11-01

    The acceptability of a theoretical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine trial was investigated in HIV-negative commercial sex workers and trucking company employees in Mombasa, Kenya. The 206 women and 201 men who completed questionnaires were already enrolled in a prospective cohort study of high-risk heterosexuals. 95% of men and 98% of women surveyed agreed that acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major problem in Kenya; however, only 14% and 6%, respectively, considered themselves at personal risk of infection. Only 4% of male and 1% of female respondents stated they would refuse an HIV vaccine of proven safety and efficacy. However, 91% of women but only 67% of men indicated they would participate in a double-blind, placebo-controlled vaccine trial that involved vaccine-induced HIV seropositivity and prolonged follow-up. The main concerns about participation in such a trial were the positive HIV blood test result and fear of acquiring HIV from the vaccine. 9% of men and 6% of women anticipated they would decrease their condom use as a result of participation in such a trial, and 9% of men and 3% of women thought they would increase their number of sexual partners. Anticipated higher risk behavior was significantly associated with male gender, but not with age, education, history of prostitution or of sex with prostitutes, or current condom use. If and when vaccine trials become possible, this high-risk cohort would comprise an ideal target population; however, concurrent counseling about the need to continue preventive behavioral measures would be a necessity.

  10. [Risk factors for low birth weight].

    PubMed

    Bortman, M

    1998-05-01

    Low birthweight (LBW) is the main known determinant of infant mortality. In spite of the sharp decrease in infant mortality rates and of the rise in survival rates for children with LBW, no important decrease in LBW rates has been observed in Neuquen, Argentina. The purpose of this study was to try to understand the risk factors for LBW, the frequency of LBW in the population, and the role of prenatal care in its prevention, as well as to develop a risk factor scale that could be used to identify women at higher risk of giving birth to a child with LBW. With this in mind we performed a cross-sectional study based on 50% of the data entered into the Perinatal Information System for 1988-1995 by the 29 hospitals in Neuquen province (46,171 births). The distribution of birthweight and the frequency of potential risk factors for LBW were examined. The relationship between such factors and LBW was studied using a logistic regression model. On the basis of the results obtained, an additive scale was drawn up and validated with the remaining 50% of the data for registered births. The highest odds ratio (OR) was seen in women who had no prenatal care (OR = 8.78; 95%CI: 6.7 to 11.4). ORs for inadequate prenatal care, lateness in attending the first prenatal visit, preeclampsia or eclampsia, hemorrhage and anomalies of the placenta or placental membranes, and a history of a previous child with LBW were greater than 2.0. The risk of having children with LBW was also higher in women over the age of 40, women under 20, single women, smoking mothers, women with an intergenesic interval of less than 18 months, and women with a body mass index of less than 20. Finally, there was a direct linear relationship between points on the risk scale and the risk of having a LBW infant.

  11. Cardiovascular risk factors following renal transplant

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Jill; Smith, Alice C

    2015-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the gold-standard treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease. Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) remain at an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular (CV) events compared to the general population, although rates are lower than those patients on maintenance haemodialysis. Death with a functioning graft is most commonly due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and therefore this remains an important therapeutic target to prevent graft failure. Conventional CV risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension and renal dysfunction remain a major influence on CVD in RTRs. However it is now recognised that the morbidity and mortality from CVD are not entirely accounted for by these traditional risk-factors. Immunosuppression medications exert a deleterious effect on many of these well-recognised contributors to CVD and are known to exacerbate the probability of developing diabetes, graft dysfunction and hypertension which can all lead on to CVD. Non-traditional CV risk factors such as inflammation and anaemia have been strongly linked to increased CV events in RTRs and should be considered alongside those which are classified as conventional. This review summarises what is known about risk-factors for CVD in RTRs and how, through identification of those which are modifiable, outcomes can be improved. The overall CV risk in RTRs is likely to be multifactorial and a complex interaction between the multiple traditional and non-traditional factors; further studies are required to determine how these may be modified to enhance survival and quality of life in this unique population. PMID:26722646

  12. Risk factors affecting the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-neoplasia sequence

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Craig S; Ujiki, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma has the fastest growing incidence rate of any cancer in the United States, and currently carries a very poor prognosis with 5 years relative survival rates of less than 15%. Current curative treatment options are limited to esophagectomy, a procedure that suffers from high complication rates and high mortality rates. Metaplasia of the esophageal epithelium, a condition known as Barrett’s esophagus (BE), is widely accepted as the precursor lesion for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Recently, radio-frequency ablation has been shown to be an effective method to treat BE, although there is disagreement as to whether radio-frequency ablation should be used to treat all patients with BE or whether treatment should be reserved for those at high risk for progressing to esophageal adenocarcinoma while continuing to endoscopically survey those with low risk. Recent research has been targeted towards identifying those at greater risk for progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma so that radio-frequency ablation therapy can be used in a more targeted manner, decreasing the total health care cost as well as improving patient outcomes. This review discusses the current state of the literature regarding risk factors for progression from BE through dysplasia to esophageal adenocarcinoma, as well as the current need for an integrated scoring tool or risk stratification system capable of differentiating those patients at highest risk of progression in order to target these endoluminal therapies. PMID:25992184

  13. Factors influencing nurses' acceptance of hospital information systems in Iran: application of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology.

    PubMed

    Sharifian, Roxana; Askarian, Fatemeh; Nematolahi, Mohtaram; Farhadi, Payam

    2014-01-01

    User acceptance is a precondition for successful implementation of hospital information systems (HISs). Increasing investment in information technology by healthcare organisations internationally has made user acceptance an important issue in technology implementation and management. Despite the increased focus on hospital information systems, there continues to be user resistance. The present study aimed to investigate the factors affecting hospital information systems nurse-user acceptance of HISs, based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), in the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences teaching hospitals. A descriptive-analytical research design was employed to study nurses' adoption and use of HISs. Data collection was undertaken using a cross-sectional survey of nurses (n=303). The research model was examined using the LISREL path confirmatory modeling. The results demonstrated that the nurses' behavioural intention (BI) to use hospital information systems was predicted by Performance Expectancy (PE) (β= 2.34, p<0.01), Effort Expectancy (EE) (β= 2.21, p<0.01), Social Influence (SI) (β= 2.63, p<0.01) and Facilitating Conditions (FC) (β= 2.84, p<0.01). The effects of these antecedents of BI explained 72.8% of the variance in nurses' intention to use hospital information systems (R2 = 0.728). Application of the research model suggested that nurses' acceptance of HISs was influenced by performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions, with performance expectancy having the strongest effect on user intention.

  14. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Severely Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Michalsky, Marc P.; Inge, Thomas H.; Simmons, Mark; Jenkins, Todd M.; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Brandt, Mary L.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Courcoulas, Anita; Chen, Michael; Horlick, Mary; Daniels, Stephen R.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severe obesity is increasingly common in the adolescent population but, as of yet, very little information exists regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks in this group. OBJECTIVE To assess the baseline prevalence and predictors of CVD risks among severely obese adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study was conducted from February 28, 2007, to December 30, 2011, at the following 5 adolescent weight-loss surgery centers in the United States: Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio; Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio; Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston; University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Children’s Hospital of Alabama in Birmingham. Consecutive patients aged 19 years or younger were offered enrollment in a long-term outcome study; the final analysis cohort consisted of 242 participants. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This report examined the preoperative prevalence of CVD risk factors (ie, fasting hyperinsulinemia, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, impaired fasting glucose levels, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus) and associations between risk factors and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Preoperative data were collected within 30 days preceding bariatric surgery. RESULTS The mean (SD) age was 17 (1.6) years and median body mass index was 50.5. Cardiovascular disease risk factor prevalence was fasting hyperinsulinemia (74%), elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (75%), dyslipidemia (50%), elevated blood pressure (49%), impaired fasting glucose levels (26%), and diabetes mellitus (14%). The risk of impaired fasting glucose levels, elevated blood pressure, and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels increased by 15%, 10%, and 6%, respectively, per 5-unit

  15. Being Labeled "Nerd": Factors that Influence the Social Acceptance of High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzsch, Katrin; Schutz, Astrid; Schroder-Abe, Michela

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation addresses the question of whether certain factors can protect high-achieving students at risk for being labeled a nerd against devaluation. In 2 studies, 125 and 317 students from Grade 8 evaluated vignettes describing average students and students who were called "nerds." Results indicate that being modest about good…

  16. The Careful Puppet Master: Reducing risk and fortifying acceptance testing with Jenkins CI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jason A.; Richman, Gabriel; DeStefano, John; Pryor, James; Rao, Tejas; Strecker-Kellogg, William; Wong, Tony

    2015-12-01

    Centralized configuration management, including the use of automation tools such as Puppet, can greatly increase provisioning speed and efficiency when configuring new systems or making changes to existing systems, reduce duplication of work, and improve automated processes. However, centralized management also brings with it a level of inherent risk: a single change in just one file can quickly be pushed out to thousands of computers and, if that change is not properly and thoroughly tested and contains an error, could result in catastrophic damage to many services, potentially bringing an entire computer facility offline. Change management procedures can—and should—be formalized in order to prevent such accidents. However, like the configuration management process itself, if such procedures are not automated, they can be difficult to enforce strictly. Therefore, to reduce the risk of merging potentially harmful changes into our production Puppet environment, we have created an automated testing system, which includes the Jenkins CI tool, to manage our Puppet testing process. This system includes the proposed changes and runs Puppet on a pool of dozens of RedHat Enterprise Virtualization (RHEV) virtual machines (VMs) that replicate most of our important production services for the purpose of testing. This paper describes our automated test system and how it hooks into our production approval process for automatic acceptance testing. All pending changes that have been pushed to production must pass this validation process before they can be approved and merged into production.

  17. Biological risk factors for deep vein trombosis.

    PubMed

    Vayá, Amparo; Mira, Yolanda; Martínez, Marcial; Villa, Piedad; Ferrando, Fernando; Estellés, Amparo; Corella, Dolores; Aznar, Justo

    2002-01-01

    Hypercoagulable states due either to inherited or acquired thrombotic risk factors are only present in approximately half of cases of DVT, but the causes in the other half, remain unknown. The importance of biological risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypofibrinolysis and hemorheological alterations in the pathogenesis of DVT has not been well established. In order to ascertain whether the above mentioned biological factors are associated with DVT and could constitute independent risk factors, we carried out a case-control study in 109 first DVT patients in whom inherited or acquired thrombophilic risk factors had been ruled out and 121 healthy controls age (42+/-15 years) and sex matched. From all the biological variables analyzed (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation, hematocrit, plasma viscosity and PAI-1) only fibrinogen concentration reached a statistically significant difference on the comparison of means (290+/-73 mg/dl in cases vs 268+/-58 mg/dl in controls, p<0.05). After this continuous variables were dichotomized according to our reference values, the percentage of cases with cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl, hematocrit >45% and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl was higher in cases than in controls: 38% vs 22%; p<0.01; 43% vs 27%; p<0.05; 36% vs 23%; p<0.05, respectively. The percentage of cases with PAI-1 values >30 ng/ml, 37% vs 25% was borderline significant; p=0.055. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl constitute independent predictors of venous thrombotic risk. The adjusted OR's were 2.03 (95% CI; 1.12-3.70) for cholesterolemia and 1.94 (95% CI; 1.07-3.55) for fibrinogen. When these two variables combined DVT risk rose about fourfold (3.96; p<0.05). Our results suggest that hypercholesterolemia and hyperfibrinogenemia should be added to the list of known DVT risk factors and we recommend adopting measures to decrease these variables in the population with a

  18. Infants at Risk: Perinatal and Neonatal Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews studies of infant behavior and development. Delineates a behavioral hypothesis relating prenatal and neonatal risk factors in infancy to crib death. The mutual dependence of experience and neurostructural development suggests that infancy is a period of critical learning experiences. (Author/RH)

  19. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  20. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  1. Risk Factors for Rural Residential Fires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Zwerling, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural households report high fire-related mortality and injury rates, but few studies have examined the risk factors for fires. This study aims to identify occupant and household characteristics that are associated with residential fires in a rural cohort. Methods: Of 1,005 households contacted in a single rural county, 691…

  2. Epidemiology and risk factors for Barrett's oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Rameez, Mohammed H; Mayberry, John F

    2015-03-01

    The highest incidence and prevalence of Barrett's oesophagus is in western countries. Risk factors include smoking, obesity, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and hiatus hernia, increasing age and use of oral bisphosphonates. This article discusses the significance of these findings. PMID:25761802

  3. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  4. Environmental Risk Factors in Hospital Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Daniel Z.; Resnik, Harvey L.P.; Holder-Perkins, Vicenzio

    2004-01-01

    Suicide of hospitalized patients is the most common sentinel event reviewed by The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Shorter lengths of stay, sicker patients, and higher patient to staff ratios challenge the ability of the hospital to maintain safety. Risk factors associated with the physical environment of the…

  5. [Hepatitis caused by virus C. Risk factors].

    PubMed

    Garassini, M E; Pulgar, Y; Alvarado, M; Garassini, M A

    1995-01-01

    To establish the risk factors to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we studied 120 patients divided in 2 groups: A first group of 40 patients with HCV infection, 24 (60%) with past medical history of blood transfusion, 14 (35%) of them also had hemodialysis and 3 Kidney transplant. 10 patients (25%) had mayor surgery without transfusion, 3 had frequent visits to the dentist and 3 month baby whose mother was HCV positive. In 4 patients we found no risk factors. A second group of 80 patients who visit our clinic for the first time, 2 were found positive for HCV (1.6%). 13 of them had blood transfusion, one was HCV+ (OR: 5.5, P = 0.73). 41 had history of mayor surgery, one HCV+ (OR: 0.95, P = 1.000). The risk factors related to HCV infection in our population were blood transfusion, hemodialysis and mayor surgery. The use of EV drugs, tatoos, sexual behavior, interfamiliar or vertical transmission were not risk factor in our population. PMID:8598255

  6. Adolescence: A "Risk Factor" for Physical Inactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Thomas W.

    1999-01-01

    This publication examines influences on the present and future physical activity levels of adolescents, noting that the adolescents' physical activity habits, as well as other risk factors, are likely to track into the adult years. Section 1 discusses physical activity in adolescence, noting that adolescence is a time when physical activity tends…

  7. Risk Factors for Paternal Physical Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…

  8. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  9. [Sexual risk factors among European young people].

    PubMed

    Calatrava, María; López-Del Burgo, Cristina; de Irala, Jokin

    2012-05-01

    The sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Europe are still rising. In order to prioritize STI prevention strategies in Europe, it is important to describe the prevalence of different sexual risk factors for STIs among European young people. We carried out a systematic review of published articles and studies performed by European institutions. A total of 21 articles and 10 studies were identified. The data shows an increase in early sexual initiation and the number of sexual partners. Young people who use condoms inconsistently ranged from 15 to 20%. The observed risk factors are: unawareness about other STIs different from HIV, being in favour of casual sex, wrongly believing that some measures are effective in avoiding HIV, not being aware of the risks from having multiple sexual partners and unawareness about the sexual transmission of HIV. The data suggests the need to improve the information addressed to youth.

  10. Acceptance Factors of Mobile Apps for Diabetes by Patients Aged 50 or Older: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Reichelt, Julius; Bellmann, Maike; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile apps for people with diabetes offer great potential to support therapy management, increase therapy adherence, and reduce the probability of the occurrence of accompanying and secondary diseases. However, they are rarely used by elderly patients due to a lack of acceptance. Objective We investigated the question “Which factors influence the acceptance of diabetes apps among patients aged 50 or older?” Particular emphasis was placed on the current use of mobile devices/apps, acceptance-promoting/-inhibiting factors, features of a helpful diabetes app, and contact persons for technical questions. This qualitative study was the third of three substudies investigating factors influencing acceptance of diabetes apps among patients aged 50 or older. Methods Guided interviews were chosen in order to get a comprehensive insight into the subjective perspective of elderly diabetes patients. At the end of each interview, the patients tested two existing diabetes apps to reveal obstacles in (first) use. Results Altogether, 32 patients with diabetes were interviewed. The mean age was 68.8 years (SD 8.2). Of 32 participants, 15 (47%) knew apps, however only 2 (6%) had already used a diabetes app within their therapy. The reasons reported for being against the use of apps were a lack of additional benefits (4/8, 50%) compared to current therapy management, a lack of interoperability with other devices/apps (1/8, 12%), and no joy of use (1/8, 12%). The app test revealed the following main difficulties in use: nonintuitive understanding of the functionality of the apps (26/29, 90%), nonintuitive understanding of the menu navigation/labeling (19/29, 66%), font sizes and representations that were too small (14/29, 48%), and difficulties in recognizing and pressing touch-sensitive areas (14/29, 48%). Furthermore, the patients felt the apps lacked individually important functions (11/29, 38%), or felt the functions that were offered were unnecessary for their own

  11. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Taxi Drivers.

    PubMed

    Elshatarat, Rami Azmi; Burgel, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major leading cause of death. Despite the high mortality rate related to CVD, little is known about CVD risk factors among urban taxi drivers in the U.S. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the predictors of high cardiovascular risk factors among taxi drivers. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 130 taxi drivers. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The sample was male (94 %), age mean (45 ± 10.75) years, married (54 %), born outside of the USA (55 %), had some college or below (61.5 %), night drivers (50.8 %), and driving on average 9.7 years and 41 h/week. About 79 % of them were eligible for CVD prevention, and 35.4 % had high CVD risk factors (4-9 risk factors). A CVD high-risk profile had a significant relationship with the subjects who were ≥55 years old; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; were drinking alcohol ≥2 times/week; and had insufficient physical activity. Subjects who worked as a taxi driver for more than 10 years (OR 4.37; 95 % CI 1.82, 10.50) and had mental exertion from cab driving >5 out of 10 (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57) were more likely to have a CVD high-risk profile. As a conclusion, system-level or worksite interventions include offering healthy food at taxi dispatching locations, creating a work culture of frequent walking breaks, and interventions focusing on smoking, physical activity, and weight management. Improving health insurance coverage for this group of workers is recommended. PMID:27151321

  12. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers

    PubMed Central

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Aims: Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. Materials and Methods: The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. Statistical analysis used: The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as ‘outcome’ variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. Results: The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 – 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 – 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Conclusions: Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks PMID:27390474

  13. Prenatal and perinatal risk factors of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Meli, Giampiero; Ottl, Birgit; Paladini, Angela; Cataldi, Luigi

    2012-12-01

    Schizophrenia could be considered the most severe of all psychiatric disorders. It shows a heterogeneous clinical picture and presents an etiopathogenesis that is not cleared sufficiently. Even if the etiopathogenesis remains a puzzle, there is a scientific consensus that it is an expression of interaction between genotype and environmental factors. In the present article, following a study of literature and the accumulated evidence, the role of prenatal and perinatal factors in the development of schizophrenia will be revised and synthesized. We think that better knowledge of the risk factors could be helpful not only for better comprehension of the pathogenesis but especially to optimize interventions for prevention of the disorder. PMID:22646662

  14. Factors of adoption of mobile information technology by homecare nurses: a technology acceptance model 2 approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiying; Cocosila, Mihail; Archer, Norm

    2010-01-01

    Pervasive healthcare support through mobile information technology solutions is playing an increasing role in the attempt to improve healthcare and reduce costs. Despite the apparent attractiveness, many mobile applications have failed or have not been implemented as predicted. Among factors possibly leading to such outcomes, technology adoption is a key problem. This must be investigated early in the development process because healthcare is a particularly sensitive area with vital social implications. Moreover, it is important to investigate technology acceptance using the support of scientific tools validated for relevant information systems research. This article presents an empirical study based on the Technology Acceptance Model 2 in mobile homecare nursing. The study elicited the perceptions of 91 Canadian nurses who used personal digital assistants for 1 month in their daily activities. A partial least squares modeling data analysis revealed that nurse's perception of usefulness is the main factor in the adoption of mobile technology, having subjective norm and image within the organization as significant antecedents. Overall, this study was the first attempt at investigating scientifically, through a pertinent information systems research model, user adoption of mobile systems by homecare nursing personnel.

  15. Perceptions of the Acceptability of Parent Training among Chinese Immigrant Parents: Contributions of Cultural Factors and Clinical Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Judy; Yeh, May; McCabe, Kristen; Lau, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Parent training (PT) is well established for reducing child externalizing problems; however, lower rates of engagement in PT among ethnic minority/immigrant families have been found. We assessed PT acceptability among Chinese immigrant parents and explored clinical and cultural factors that may be associated with acceptability. Participants were a…

  16. Risk Acceptance Personality Paradigm: How We View What We Don't Know We Don't Know

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, Michael J.; Morris, A. Terry

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of integrated hazard analyses, probabilistic risk assessments, failure modes and effects analyses, fault trees and many other similar tools is to give managers of a program some idea of the risks associated with their program. All risk tools establish a set of undesired events and then try to evaluate the risk to the program by assessing the severity of the undesired event and the likelihood of that event occurring. Some tools provide qualitative results, some provide quantitative results and some do both. However, in the end the program manager and his/her team must decide which risks are acceptable and which are not. Even with a wide array of analysis tools available, risk acceptance is often a controversial and difficult decision making process. And yet, today's space exploration programs are moving toward more risk based design approaches. Thus, risk identification and good risk assessment is becoming even more vital to the engineering development process. This paper explores how known and unknown information influences risk-based decisions by looking at how the various parts of our personalities are affected by what they know and what they don't know. This paper then offers some criteria for consideration when making risk-based decisions.

  17. Complications in colorectal surgery: risk factors and preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Backround Open or laparoscopic colorectal surgery comprises of many different types of procedures for various diseases. Depending upon the operation and modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors the intra- and postoperative morbidity and mortality rate vary. In general, surgical complications can be divided into intraoperative and postoperative complications and usually occur while the patient is still in the hospital. Methods A literature search (1980-2009) was carried out, using MEDLINE, PubMed and the Cochrane library. Results This review provides an overview how to identify and minimize intra- and postoperative complications. The improvement of different treatment strategies and technical inventions in the recent decade has been enormous. This is mainly attributable to the increase in the laparoscopic approach, which is now well accepted for many procedures. Training of the surgeon, hospital volume and learning curves are becoming increasingly more important to maximize patient safety, surgeon expertise and cost effectiveness. In addition, standardization of perioperative care is essential to minimize postoperative complications. Conclusion This review summarizes the main perioperative complications of colorectal surgery and influencable and non-influencable risk factors which are important to the general surgeon and the relevant specialist as well. In order to minimize or even avoid complications it is crucial to know these risk factors and strategies to prevent, treat or reduce intra- and postoperative complications. PMID:20338045

  18. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in men? What are the risk factors for breast cancer in men? A risk factor is anything that ... old when they are diagnosed. Family history of breast cancer Breast cancer risk is increased if other members ...

  19. Drug and Alcohol Use -- A Significant Risk Factor for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Significant Risk Factor for HIV Drug and Alcohol Use - A Significant Risk Factor for HIV Email ... with HIV currently use drugs or binge on alcohol. Many people are unaware that the increased risk ...

  20. What Are the Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, unprotected exposure to strong sunlight is a risk factor ... in the stomach and intestine while they are teenagers. They also have a high risk of cancer, ...

  1. Chronic migraine: risk factors, mechanisms and treatment.

    PubMed

    May, Arne; Schulte, Laura H

    2016-08-01

    Chronic migraine has a great detrimental influence on a patient's life, with a severe impact on socioeconomic functioning and quality of life. Chronic migraine affects 1-2% of the general population, and about 8% of patients with migraine; it usually develops from episodic migraine at an annual conversion rate of about 3%. The chronification is reversible: about 26% of patients with chronic migraine go into remission within 2 years of chronification. The most important modifiable risk factors for chronic migraine include overuse of acute migraine medication, ineffective acute treatment, obesity, depression and stressful life events. Moreover, age, female sex and low educational status increase the risk of chronic migraine. The pathophysiology of migraine chronification can be understood as a threshold problem: certain predisposing factors, combined with frequent headache pain, lower the threshold of migraine attacks, thereby increasing the risk of chronic migraine. Treatment options include oral medications, nerve blockade with local anaesthetics or corticoids, and neuromodulation. Well-defined diagnostic criteria are crucial for the identification of chronic migraine. The International Headache Society classification of chronic migraine was recently updated, and now allows co-diagnosis of chronic migraine and medication overuse headache. This Review provides an up-to-date overview of the classification of chronic migraine, basic mechanisms and risk factors of migraine chronification, and the currently established treatment options. PMID:27389092

  2. Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  3. Factors affecting ejection risk in rollover crashes.

    PubMed

    Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Bain, Charles E; Wirth, Jeffrey L; Bonugli, Enrique B; Watson, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 - 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  4. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Broeders, M J; Verbeek, A L

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in our summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point in time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women. PMID:9274126

  5. Factors of accepting pain management decision support systems by nurse anesthetists

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pain management is a critical but complex issue for the relief of acute pain, particularly for postoperative pain and severe pain in cancer patients. It also plays important roles in promoting quality of care. The introduction of pain management decision support systems (PM-DSS) is considered a potential solution for addressing the complex problems encountered in pain management. This study aims to investigate factors affecting acceptance of PM-DSS from a nurse anesthetist perspective. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data from nurse anesthetists in a case hospital. A total of 113 questionnaires were distributed, and 101 complete copies were returned, indicating a valid response rate of 89.3%. Collected data were analyzed by structure equation modeling using the partial least square tool. Results The results show that perceived information quality (γ=.451, p<.001), computer self-efficacy (γ=.315, p<.01), and organizational structure (γ=.210, p<.05), both significantly impact nurse anesthetists’ perceived usefulness of PM-DSS. Information quality (γ=.267, p<.05) significantly impacts nurse anesthetists’ perceptions of PM-DSS ease of use. Furthermore, both perceived ease of use (β=.436, p<.001, R2=.487) and perceived usefulness (β=.443, p<.001, R2=.646) significantly affected nurse anesthetists’ PM-DSS acceptance (R2=.640). Thus, the critical role of information quality in the development of clinical decision support system is demonstrated. Conclusions The findings of this study enable hospital managers to understand the important considerations for nurse anesthetists in accepting PM-DSS, particularly for the issues related to the improvement of information quality, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of the system. In addition, the results also provide useful suggestions for designers and implementers of PM-DSS in improving system development. PMID:23360305

  6. The protective role of attachment to God against eating disorder risk factors: concurrent and prospective evidence.

    PubMed

    Homan, Kristin J; Boyatzis, Chris J

    2010-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study explored whether a secure relationship with God would protect young women (N = 231, M = 19.2) from the impact of four risk factors for eating disturbance: pressure to be thin; thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction; and dieting. Analyses showed that women with secure attachment to God experienced reduced levels of each risk factor. Prospective data showed that pressure to be thin and thin-ideal internalization predicted body dissatisfaction only for women with an anxious insecure attachment to God. The data indicate that women who feel loved and accepted by God are buffered from eating disorder risk factors.

  7. Planning replacement of natural gas distribution systems under constraints on acceptable risk from explosions.

    PubMed

    Noonan, F

    1991-12-01

    Natural gas distribution systems in the United States were developed primarily in the first half of this century, utilizing materials such as cast iron and then steel. Over time, cast iron and steel pipe sections became weak from corrosion and are subject to failure which in turn can lead to explosions and possible injury and loss of life. Gas utilities maintain system integrity through repair-replacement programs where pipe sections are prioritized for replacement in any given year through cost-benefit analysis; however, the total annual amount to be budgeted for replacement is left to engineering judgment. This approach has left some utilities vulnerable to criticism that their current replacement rate on cast iron pipe is not great enough and that public safety is being compromised. This paper addresses the problem situation by formulating a linear programming replacement decision model which augments cost-benefit analysis with explicit constraints on acceptable risk to human life from fire/explosion. The model is illustrated for a hypothetical utility.

  8. Risk Factors for Hemorrhoids on Screening Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Peery, Anne F.; Sandler, Robert S.; Galanko, Joseph A.; Bresalier, Robert S.; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Barry, Elizabeth L.; Baron, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Constipation, a low fiber diet, sedentary lifestyle and gravidity are commonly assumed to increase the risk of hemorrhoids. However, evidence regarding these factors is limited. We examined the association between commonly cited risk factors and the prevalence of hemorrhoids. Methods We performed a cross sectional study of participants who underwent a colonoscopy in a colorectal adenoma prevention trial and who had a detailed assessment of bowel habits, diet and activity. The presence of hemorrhoids was extracted from the subjects’ colonoscopy reports. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals while adjusting for age and sex. Results The study included 2,813 participants. Of these, 1,074 had hemorrhoids recorded. Constipation was associated with an increased prevalence of hemorrhoids (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.11, 1.86). Of the fiber subtypes, high grain fiber intake was associated with a reduced risk (OR for quartile 4 versus quartile 1 = 0.78, 95% CI 0.62, 0.98). We found no association when comparing gravid and nulligravida women (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.62–1.40). Sedentary behavior was associated with a reduced risk (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65–0.98), but not physical activity (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.66–1.03). Neither being overweight nor obese was associated with the presence of hemorrhoids (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.72–1.09 and OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.70–1.06). Conclusions Constipation is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhoids. Gravidity and physical activity do not appear to be associated. High grain fiber intake and sedentary behavior are associated with a decreased risk of hemorrhoids. PMID:26406337

  9. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Mona; Harpaz, Rafael; Zhang, John; Wollan, Peter C.; Bialek, Stephanie R.; Yawn, Barbara P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study. We established active surveillance in Olmsted County, Minnesota to identify HZ occurring among persons age ≥50 years during 2010–2011. Cases were confirmed by medical record review. Herpes zoster-free controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Risk factor data were obtained by telephone interview. Results. We enrolled 389 HZ case patients and 511 matched controls; the median age was 65 and 66 years, respectively. Herpes zoster was associated with family history of HZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65); association was highest with first-degree or multiple relatives (aOR = 1.87 and 3.08, respectively). Herpes zoster was also associated with prior HZ episodes (aOR = 1.82), sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.52), depression (aOR = 3.81), and recent weight loss (aOR = 1.95). Stress was a risk factor for HZ (aOR = 2.80), whereas a dose-response relationship was not noted. All associations indicated were statistically significant (P < .05). Herpes zoster was not associated with trauma, smoking, tonsillectomy, diet, or reported exposure to pesticides or herbicides (P > .1). Conclusions. We identified several important risk factors for HZ; however, the key attributable causes of HZ remain unknown. PMID:27382600

  10. Perinatal Risk Factors for Mild Motor Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Beth; Kendall, Garth; Larkin, Dawne; Parker, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of mild motor disability (MMD) is a complex issue and as yet is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of perinatal risk factors in a cohort of 10-year-old boys and girls with (n = 362) and without (n = 1193) MMD. Among the males with MMD there was a higher prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage,…

  11. Management of patients with risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Waldfahrer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses concomitant diseases and risk factors in patients treated for diseases of the ears, nose and throat in outpatient and hospital services. Besides heart disease, lung disease, liver disease and kidney disease, this article also covers disorders of coagulation (including therapy with new oral anticoagulants) and electrolyte imbalance. Special attention is paid to the prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of perioperative delirium. It is also intended to help optimise the preparation for surgical procedures and pharmacotherapy during the hospital stay. PMID:24403970

  12. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Marin, Mona; Harpaz, Rafael; Zhang, John; Wollan, Peter C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Yawn, Barbara P

    2016-09-01

    Background.  The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector. Methods.  We conducted a matched case-control study. We established active surveillance in Olmsted County, Minnesota to identify HZ occurring among persons age ≥50 years during 2010-2011. Cases were confirmed by medical record review. Herpes zoster-free controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Risk factor data were obtained by telephone interview. Results.  We enrolled 389 HZ case patients and 511 matched controls; the median age was 65 and 66 years, respectively. Herpes zoster was associated with family history of HZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65); association was highest with first-degree or multiple relatives (aOR = 1.87 and 3.08, respectively). Herpes zoster was also associated with prior HZ episodes (aOR = 1.82), sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.52), depression (aOR = 3.81), and recent weight loss (aOR = 1.95). Stress was a risk factor for HZ (aOR = 2.80), whereas a dose-response relationship was not noted. All associations indicated were statistically significant (P < .05). Herpes zoster was not associated with trauma, smoking, tonsillectomy, diet, or reported exposure to pesticides or herbicides (P > .1). Conclusions.  We identified several important risk factors for HZ; however, the key attributable causes of HZ remain unknown. PMID:27382600

  13. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Marin, Mona; Harpaz, Rafael; Zhang, John; Wollan, Peter C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Yawn, Barbara P

    2016-09-01

    Background.  The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector. Methods.  We conducted a matched case-control study. We established active surveillance in Olmsted County, Minnesota to identify HZ occurring among persons age ≥50 years during 2010-2011. Cases were confirmed by medical record review. Herpes zoster-free controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Risk factor data were obtained by telephone interview. Results.  We enrolled 389 HZ case patients and 511 matched controls; the median age was 65 and 66 years, respectively. Herpes zoster was associated with family history of HZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65); association was highest with first-degree or multiple relatives (aOR = 1.87 and 3.08, respectively). Herpes zoster was also associated with prior HZ episodes (aOR = 1.82), sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.52), depression (aOR = 3.81), and recent weight loss (aOR = 1.95). Stress was a risk factor for HZ (aOR = 2.80), whereas a dose-response relationship was not noted. All associations indicated were statistically significant (P < .05). Herpes zoster was not associated with trauma, smoking, tonsillectomy, diet, or reported exposure to pesticides or herbicides (P > .1). Conclusions.  We identified several important risk factors for HZ; however, the key attributable causes of HZ remain unknown.

  14. Risk factors associated with psychiatric readmission.

    PubMed

    Lorine, Kim; Goenjian, Haig; Kim, Soeun; Steinberg, Alan M; Schmidt, Kendall; Goenjian, Armen K

    2015-06-01

    The present study focused on identifying risk factors for early readmission of patients discharged from an urban community hospital. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted on 207 consecutive inpatient psychiatric admissions that included patients who were readmitted within 15 days, within 3 to 6 months, and not admitted for at least 12 months post-discharge. Findings indicated that a diagnosis of schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (OR = 18; 95% CI 2.70-117.7; p < 0.05), history of alcohol abuse (OR = 9; 95% CI 1.80-40.60; p < 0.05), number of previous psychiatric hospitalizations (OR = 2; 95% CI 1.28-3.73; p < 0.05), and type of residence at initial admission (e.g., homeless, OR = 29; 95% CI 3.99-217; p < 0.05) were significant risk factors for early readmission, where OR compares readmission group 1 versus group 3 in the multinomial logistic regression. Initial positive urine drug screen, history of drug abuse or incarceration, and legal status at initial admission did not predict early readmission. Reducing the risk factors associated with psychiatric readmissions has the potential to lead to the identification and development of preventative intervention strategies that can significantly improve patient safety, quality of care, well-being, and contain health care expenditures. PMID:25974053

  15. Risk factors for laryngeal cancer in Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Zvrko, Elvir; Gledović, Zorana; Ljaljević, Agima

    2008-03-01

    Laryngeal cancer is the most common head and neck cancer. There might be many risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Smoking, especially cigarette smoking and alcohol are indisputable risk factors. The authors of this paper assessed the presumed risk factors in order to identify possible aetiological agents of the disease.A hospital-based case-control study was conducted. The study group consisted of 108 histologically verified laryngeal cancer patients and 108 hospital controls matched by sex, age (+/-3 years) and place of residence. Laryngeal cancer patients and controls were interviewed during their hospital stay using a structured questionnaire. According to multiple logistic regression analysis six variables were independently related to laryngeal cancer: hard liquor consumption (Odd Ratio/OR/=2.93, Confidence Interval/CI/95% = 1.17 to 7.31), consumption more than 2 alcoholic drinks per day (OR=4.96, CI 95% = 2.04 to 12.04), cigarette smoking for more than 40 years (OR=4.32, CI 95% = 1.69 to 11.06), smoking more than 30 cigarettes per day (OR=4.24, CI 95% = 1.75 to 10.27), coffee consumption more than 5 cups per day (OR=4.52, CI 95% = 1.01 to 20.12) and carbonated beverage consumption (OR=0.38, CI 95%=0.16 to 0.92). The great majority of laryngeal cancers could be prevented by eliminating tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption.

  16. Associations and Risk Factors of Diabetic Maculopathy.

    PubMed

    Islam, M M; Ali, M; Naher, Z U; Akhanda, A H; Motaleb, M A; Uddin, M S; Islam, M R

    2016-04-01

    Diabetic maculopathy is characterised by increased capillary leakage in the main retinal vessels and by alterations in the microcirculation of the macula. Maculopathy occurs frequently in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. Prevalence is higher in type 2 than in type 1 diabetic patients. Factors associated with the development of maculopathy are mostly unknown. As maculopathy is the main cause of vision deprivation in diabetic patients it is essential to know the associations and risk factors of diabetic maculopathy so that appropriate measures can be taken to prevent as well as treat diabetic maculopathy. We started the research work to find out the relation between diabetic maculopathy and various associated factors and risk factors for patients with diabetic retinopathy with maculopathy. This cross-sectional observational study done at the Department of Ophthalmology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka & National Institute of Ophthalmology & Hospital (NIO & H), Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2006 to June 2006. In this study out of 50 patients, diabetes was controlled in 20(40%) patients and uncontrolled in 30(60%). A significant percentage of patients (40%) had elevated blood pressure. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy was observed in 24% cases and polyneuropathy was observed in 36% cases. It is evident that diabetic maculopathy has association with dyslipidaemia, abnormal renal function due to nephropathy. This study lighted on the association of diabetic maculopathy with diabetic nephropathy, cardiac abnormalities and diabetic neuropathy. PMID:27277354

  17. Perinatal risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Sieh, Weiva; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-12-01

    Infectious etiologies have been hypothesized for acute leukemias because of their high incidence in early childhood, but have seldom been examined for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We conducted the first large cohort study to examine perinatal factors including season of birth, a proxy for perinatal infectious exposures, and risk of AML in childhood through young adulthood. A national cohort of 3,569,333 persons without Down syndrome who were born in Sweden in 1973-2008 were followed up for AML incidence through 2010 (maximum age 38 years). There were 315 AML cases in 69.7 million person-years of follow-up. We found a sinusoidal pattern in AML risk by season of birth (P < 0.001), with peak risk among persons born in winter. Relative to persons born in summer (June-August), incidence rate ratios for AML were 1.72 (95 % CI 1.25-2.38; P = 0.001) for winter (December-February), 1.37 (95 % CI 0.99-1.90; P = 0.06) for spring (March-May), and 1.27 (95 % CI 0.90-1.80; P = 0.17) for fall (September-November). Other risk factors for AML included high fetal growth, high gestational age at birth, and low maternal education level. These findings did not vary by sex or age at diagnosis. Sex, birth order, parental age, and parental country of birth were not associated with AML. In this large cohort study, birth in winter was associated with increased risk of AML in childhood through young adulthood, possibly related to immunologic effects of early infectious exposures compared with summer birth. These findings warrant further investigation of the role of seasonally varying perinatal exposures in the etiology of AML.

  18. Risk Factors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in India

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Premashis

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of death all over the world, more so in Asia and Africa. The representative data on epidemiology of HCC in India is very scanty and cancer is not a reportable disease in India and the cancer registries in India are mostly urban. 45 million people who are suffering from chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and approximately 15 million people who are afflicted with chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in India. HBV and HCV infection is considered an important etiologic factor in HCC. Positive association between HCC and consumption of alcohol where alcohol contribute as a cofactor for hepatotoxins and hepatitis viruses. Aflatoxin contamination in the diets, Hepatitis B virus infection and liver cirrhosis in Andhra Pradesh, India and direct chronic exposure to aflatoxins was shown to cause liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis of liver of any cause lead to develop about 70%–90% of HCC. Aflatoxin interact synergistically with Hepatitis B virus (HBV)/Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection which increase the risk of HCC. HBV infection, HBV infection with Aflatoxin exposure, viral infection and alcohol consumption leading to overt cirrhosis of the liver, alcohol consumption leading to cirrhosis of the liver with viral infection are the predominant risk factor for the development of HCC. HCV and alcohol are also associated with HCC in India. Indians develop diabetes at younger age, Asians have strong genetic susceptibility for type II diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is identified as a risk factor for HCC. Prevention of viral infection by universal vaccination against hepatitis virus, HCC surveillance program, preventing alcoholic liver diseases, fungal contamination of grains and ground crops to prevent basically Aflatoxin exposure are important measures to prevent liver diseases and HCC among those at risk. PMID:25755609

  19. Risk factors for asthma: is prevention possible?

    PubMed

    Beasley, Richard; Semprini, Alex; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2015-09-12

    Asthma is one of the most common diseases in the world, resulting in a substantial burden of disease. Although rates of deaths due to asthma worldwide have reduced greatly over the past 25 years, no available therapeutic regimens can cure asthma, and the burden of asthma will continue to be driven by increasing prevalence. The reasons for the increase in asthma prevalence have not been defined, which limits the opportunities to develop targeted primary prevention measures. Although associations are reported between a wide range of risk factors and childhood asthma, substantiation of causality is inherently difficult from observational studies, and few risk factors have been assessed in primary prevention studies. Furthermore, none of the primary prevention intervention strategies that have undergone scrutiny in randomised controlled trials has provided sufficient evidence to lead to widespread implementation in clinical practice. A better understanding of the factors that cause asthma is urgently needed, and this knowledge could be used to develop public health and pharmacological primary prevention measures that are effective in reducing the prevalence of asthma worldwide. To achieve this it will be necessary to think outside the box, not only in terms of risk factors for the causation of asthma, but also the types of novel primary prevention strategies that are developed, and the research methods used to provide the evidence base for their implementation. In the interim, public health efforts should remain focused on measures with the potential to improve lung and general health, such as: reducing tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure; reducing indoor and outdoor air pollution and occupational exposures; reducing childhood obesity and encouraging a diet high in vegetables and fruit; improving feto-maternal health; encouraging breastfeeding; promoting childhood vaccinations; and reducing social inequalities. PMID:26382999

  20. Risk factors for asthma: is prevention possible?

    PubMed

    Beasley, Richard; Semprini, Alex; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2015-09-12

    Asthma is one of the most common diseases in the world, resulting in a substantial burden of disease. Although rates of deaths due to asthma worldwide have reduced greatly over the past 25 years, no available therapeutic regimens can cure asthma, and the burden of asthma will continue to be driven by increasing prevalence. The reasons for the increase in asthma prevalence have not been defined, which limits the opportunities to develop targeted primary prevention measures. Although associations are reported between a wide range of risk factors and childhood asthma, substantiation of causality is inherently difficult from observational studies, and few risk factors have been assessed in primary prevention studies. Furthermore, none of the primary prevention intervention strategies that have undergone scrutiny in randomised controlled trials has provided sufficient evidence to lead to widespread implementation in clinical practice. A better understanding of the factors that cause asthma is urgently needed, and this knowledge could be used to develop public health and pharmacological primary prevention measures that are effective in reducing the prevalence of asthma worldwide. To achieve this it will be necessary to think outside the box, not only in terms of risk factors for the causation of asthma, but also the types of novel primary prevention strategies that are developed, and the research methods used to provide the evidence base for their implementation. In the interim, public health efforts should remain focused on measures with the potential to improve lung and general health, such as: reducing tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure; reducing indoor and outdoor air pollution and occupational exposures; reducing childhood obesity and encouraging a diet high in vegetables and fruit; improving feto-maternal health; encouraging breastfeeding; promoting childhood vaccinations; and reducing social inequalities.

  1. Erosion—diagnosis and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Jaeggi, T.

    2008-01-01

    Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition: The interplay of chemical, biological and behavioural factors is crucial and helps explain why some individuals exhibit more erosion than others. The erosive potential of erosive agents like acidic drinks or foodstuffs depends on chemical factors, e.g. pH, titratable acidity, mineral content, clearance on tooth surface and on its calcium-chelation properties. Biological factors such as saliva, acquired pellicle, tooth structure and positioning in relation to soft tissues and tongue are related to the pathogenesis of dental erosion. Furthermore, behavioural factors like eating and drinking habits, regular exercise with dehydration and decrease of salivary flow, excessive oral hygiene and, on the other side, an unhealthy lifestyle, e.g. chronic alcoholism, are predisposing factors for dental erosion. There is some evidence that dental erosion is growing steadily. To prevent further progression, it is important to detect this condition as early as possible. Dentists have to know the clinical appearance and possible signs of progression of erosive lesions and their causes such that adequate preventive and, if necessary, therapeutic measures can be initiated. The clinical examination has to be done systematically, and a comprehensive case history should be undertaken such that all risk factors will be revealed. PMID:18228059

  2. 24 CFR 266.300 - HFAs accepting 50 percent or more of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... insurable mortgage and review plans and specifications for compliance with HFA standards; (3) Determine the acceptability of the proposed mortgagor and management agent; (4) Approve the Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan; and (5) Make any other determinations necessary to ensure acceptability of the proposed...

  3. 24 CFR 266.305 - HFAs accepting less than 50 percent of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... insured and assisted projects in the area; (2) Establish the maximum insurable mortgage, and review plans... acceptability of the proposed mortgagor and management agent; (4) Approve the Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan; and (5) Make any other determinations necessary to ensure acceptability of the proposed...

  4. Assessing Abuse Risk beyond Self-Report: Analog Task of Acceptability of Parent-Child Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Russa, Mary Bower; Harmon, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The present investigation reports on the development and initial validation of a new analog task, the Parent-Child Aggression Acceptability Movie Task (P-CAAM), intended to assess respondents' acceptance of parent-child aggression, including both physical discipline and physical abuse. Methods: Two independent samples were utilized to…

  5. Risk factors of peri-implant pathology.

    PubMed

    de Araújo Nobre, Miguel; Mano Azul, António; Rocha, Evangelista; Maló, Paulo

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to identify risk factors for the incidence of peri-implant pathology. One-thousand, two-hundred and seventy-fifty patients (255 cases and 1020 controls), rehabilitated with dental implants, were included. Peri-implant pathology was defined as the presence of peri-implant pockets ≥ 5 mm, bleeding on probing, vertical bone loss, and loss of attachment ≥ 2 mm. Cases and controls were matched for age, gender, and duration of follow-up. A logistic regression model was used, with estimation of the OR for each variable and interaction, with a level of significance of 5%. The risk factors for peri-implant pathology were: history of periodontitis (OR = 19), bacterial plaque (OR = 3.6), bleeding (OR = 2.9), bone level on the medium third of the implant (OR = 13.9), lack of prosthetic fit or non-optimal screw joint (OR = 5.9), metal-ceramic restorations (OR = 3.9), and the interaction between bacterial plaque and the proximity of other teeth or implants (PROXI) (OR = 4.3). PROXI (OR = 0.44) exerted a protective effect when independent. Based on the results, peri-implant pathology represents a group of multifactorial situations with interaction of biological and biomechanical components in its pathogenesis. It was possible to model the condition and to assess, with high precision, the risk profile of each patient. PMID:25894059

  6. Proposal of a risk-factor-based analytical approach for integrating occupational health and safety into project risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Badri, Adel; Nadeau, Sylvie; Gbodossou, André

    2012-09-01

    Excluding occupational health and safety (OHS) from project management is no longer acceptable. Numerous industrial accidents have exposed the ineffectiveness of conventional risk evaluation methods as well as negligence of risk factors having major impact on the health and safety of workers and nearby residents. Lack of reliable and complete evaluations from the beginning of a project generates bad decisions that could end up threatening the very existence of an organization. This article supports a systematic approach to the evaluation of OHS risks and proposes a new procedure based on the number of risk factors identified and their relative significance. A new concept called risk factor concentration along with weighting of risk factor categories as contributors to undesirable events are used in the analytical hierarchy process multi-criteria comparison model with Expert Choice(©) software. A case study is used to illustrate the various steps of the risk evaluation approach and the quick and simple integration of OHS at an early stage of a project. The approach allows continual reassessment of criteria over the course of the project or when new data are acquired. It was thus possible to differentiate the OHS risks from the risk of drop in quality in the case of the factory expansion project.

  7. Assessing risk factors for periodontitis using regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL≥4mm/≥25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.

  8. Internet Abuse Risk Factors among Spanish Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A

    2015-11-27

    Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.

  9. Perinatal epidemiological risk factors for preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Bobić, Mirna Vuković; Habek, Dubravko; Habek, Jasna Čerkez

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, the impact of the potential perinatal epidemiological factors on preeclampsia development was assessed. This clinical study included 55 pregnant women with preeclampsia and control group of 50 healthy pregnant women. Positive family history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus or thromboembolic disease was recorded in 50% of women with preeclampsia versus 28% of control group women. Positive personal history of this disease was recorded in 15% of women with preeclampsia, whereas all control group women had negative personal history of preeclampsia. Dietary habits, i.e. the intake of meat and meat products, fruit and vegetables, coffee and alcohol drinks were similar in the two groups, without statistically significant differences. The women with preeclampsia and control women reported comparable habits; there was no difference in the consumption of meat, fruit, vegetables, coffee and alcohol, smoking, use of folate and oral hormonal contraception before pregnancy, or in physical activity as the potential risk factors for preeclampsia in current pregnancy. However, personal and family history of vascular disease proved to be significant risk factors for the occurrence of preeclampsia, emphasizing the need of lifestyle and dietary modifications with healthy dietary habits, while avoiding adverse habits in pregnancy.

  10. Preventing delirium in dementia: Managing risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ford, Andrew H

    2016-10-01

    Delirium is a common, disabling medical condition that is associated with numerous adverse outcomes. A number of inter-related factors, including pre-existing cognitive impairment, usually contribute to the development of delirium in a particular susceptible individual. Non-pharmacological approaches to prevention typically target multiple risk factors in a systematic manner (multicomponent interventions). There is generally good evidence that multicomponent interventions reduce the incidence of delirium in hospital populations but there are limited data in people with dementia and those living in the community. It is likely that there is a differential effect of specific interventions in those with cognitive impairment (e.g. people with dementia may respond better to simpler, more pragmatic interventions rather than complex procedures) but this cannot be determined from the existing data. Targeted interventions focussed on hydration, medication rationalization and sleep promotion may also be effective in reducing the incidence of delirium, as well as the active involvement of family members in the care of the elderly hospitalized patient. Hospitalization itself is a potential risk factor for delirium and promising data are emerging of the benefits of home-based care as an alternative to hospitalization but this is restricted to specific sub-populations of patients and is reliant on these services being available.

  11. Preventing delirium in dementia: Managing risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ford, Andrew H

    2016-10-01

    Delirium is a common, disabling medical condition that is associated with numerous adverse outcomes. A number of inter-related factors, including pre-existing cognitive impairment, usually contribute to the development of delirium in a particular susceptible individual. Non-pharmacological approaches to prevention typically target multiple risk factors in a systematic manner (multicomponent interventions). There is generally good evidence that multicomponent interventions reduce the incidence of delirium in hospital populations but there are limited data in people with dementia and those living in the community. It is likely that there is a differential effect of specific interventions in those with cognitive impairment (e.g. people with dementia may respond better to simpler, more pragmatic interventions rather than complex procedures) but this cannot be determined from the existing data. Targeted interventions focussed on hydration, medication rationalization and sleep promotion may also be effective in reducing the incidence of delirium, as well as the active involvement of family members in the care of the elderly hospitalized patient. Hospitalization itself is a potential risk factor for delirium and promising data are emerging of the benefits of home-based care as an alternative to hospitalization but this is restricted to specific sub-populations of patients and is reliant on these services being available. PMID:27621236

  12. [Risk factors of ischemic heart disease in various occupational groups. II. Complex analysis of risk factors].

    PubMed

    Gałuszka, Z; Kolarzyk, E; Stepniewski, M; Salwińska-Ciećkiewicz, B; Szpak, D

    1991-01-01

    Four hundred four men aged 30 to 59 years, belonging to one of 4 occupational groups were investigated in a standard clinical conditions. Two from those groups were characteristic for steel mill professions: 121 blast furnace workers; exerting strenuous physical effort and working in hot microclimate. 131 operators (the second group) performed work in comfort microclimate conditions not demanding much effort. The third group comprised 73 executives of industry. The fourth group consisted of 79 monks. For all subjects of investigations 8 selected risk factors of ischemic heart disease were evaluated. They included: age, sex, family history, habit of smoking, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood cholesterol level, obesity index and professional physical activity. The level of each risk factor had numerical value in a span from "0" to "8". The sum of all points was decisive to which of 3 groups of risk given man should be accounted. Those 3 groups were arbitrary divided into "low, intermediate and high risk". The highest risk was found for the executives group, and the lowest for blast furnace workers. From the risk factors under investigation highest overall influence on incidence of ischemic heart disease had habit of smoking and obesity. Described here point classification system seems to be very simple and useful for estimation of risk of ischemic heart disease in a given population. PMID:1845321

  13. Are low wages risk factors for hypertension?

    PubMed Central

    Du, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Socio-economic status (SES) is strongly correlated with hypertension. But SES has several components, including income and correlations in cross-sectional data need not imply SES is a risk factor. This study investigates whether wages—the largest category within income—are risk factors. Methods: We analysed longitudinal, nationally representative US data from four waves (1999, 2001, 2003 and 2005) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The overall sample was restricted to employed persons age 25–65 years, n = 17 295. Separate subsamples were constructed of persons within two age groups (25–44 and 45–65 years) and genders. Hypertension incidence was self-reported based on physician diagnosis. Our study was prospective since data from three base years (1999, 2001, 2003) were used to predict newly diagnosed hypertension for three subsequent years (2001, 2003, 2005). In separate analyses, data from the first base year were used to predict time-to-reporting hypertension. Logistic regressions with random effects and Cox proportional hazards regressions were run. Results: Negative and strongly statistically significant correlations between wages and hypertension were found both in logistic and Cox regressions, especially for subsamples containing the younger age group (25–44 years) and women. Correlations were stronger when three health variables—obesity, subjective measures of health and number of co-morbidities—were excluded from regressions. Doubling the wage was associated with 25–30% lower chances of hypertension for persons aged 25–44 years. Conclusions: The strongest evidence for low wages being risk factors for hypertension among working people were for women and persons aged 25–44 years. PMID:22262559

  14. Childhood incontinence: risk factors and impact.

    PubMed

    Joinson, Carol

    Continence problems in children can persist into later childhood and have a serious effect on quality of life. Research into its causes and impact is scarce, and useful resources are limited. A Medical Research Council grant is funding a project at the University of Bristol, which aims to improve understanding of the risk factors and outcomes of continence problems in children and adolescents. This article outlines the initial findings, which could help in the production of resources for parents, children and young people. PMID:27386707

  15. [Patient's Risk Factors for Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews patient's own risk factors for perioperative aspiration pneumonia. Maintaining the function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the airway protective reflex, and the oral hygiene are the most important to prevent the pneumonia. The LES is adversely affected by excessive stomach distention, some medication given in perioperative periods, and habitual smoking, as well as pathological status such as esophageal hiatus hernia and achalasia. Postapoplectic patients may have insufficient airway protective reflex including swallowing and laryngeal reflex. It is emphasized that the perioperative oral care is increasing in its importance for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:27004381

  16. Cardiometabolic risk factors and atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Arthur R; Lavie, Carl J; Dinicolantonio, James J; O'Keefe, James; Morin, Daniel P; Khatib, Sammy; Abi-Samra, Freddy M; Messerli, Franz H; Milani, Richard V

    2013-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia worldwide; it is a significant risk factor for stroke and embolization, and has an impact on cardiac function. Despite its impact on morbidity and mortality, our understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of this disease process is still incomplete. Over the past several decades, there has been evidence to suggest that AF has a significant correlation with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Furthermore, AF appears to be more closely related to specific components of MetS compared with others. This article provides an overview of the various components of MetS and their impact on AF. PMID:24448257

  17. [Patient's Risk Factors for Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews patient's own risk factors for perioperative aspiration pneumonia. Maintaining the function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the airway protective reflex, and the oral hygiene are the most important to prevent the pneumonia. The LES is adversely affected by excessive stomach distention, some medication given in perioperative periods, and habitual smoking, as well as pathological status such as esophageal hiatus hernia and achalasia. Postapoplectic patients may have insufficient airway protective reflex including swallowing and laryngeal reflex. It is emphasized that the perioperative oral care is increasing in its importance for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia.

  18. Risk factors, health risks, and risk management for aircraft personnel and frequent flyers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeoum Nam; Lee, Byung Mu

    2007-01-01

    Health risks associated with long periods of time in flight are of concern to astronauts, crew members, and passengers. Many epidemiological studies showed that occupational and frequent flyers may be susceptible to ocular, cardiovascular, neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, sensory, immunological, physiological, and even developmental disorders. In addition, the incidences of cancer and food poisoning are expected to be higher in such individuals. This article reviews health risks and risk factors associated with air travel, and discusses risk management strategies. To reduce adverse health risks, risk factors such as radiation, infection, stress, temperature, pressure, and circadian rhythm need to be avoided or reduced to levels that are as low as technologically achievable to protect flight personnel and passengers.

  19. Risk factors, health risks, and risk management for aircraft personnel and frequent flyers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeoum Nam; Lee, Byung Mu

    2007-01-01

    Health risks associated with long periods of time in flight are of concern to astronauts, crew members, and passengers. Many epidemiological studies showed that occupational and frequent flyers may be susceptible to ocular, cardiovascular, neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, sensory, immunological, physiological, and even developmental disorders. In addition, the incidences of cancer and food poisoning are expected to be higher in such individuals. This article reviews health risks and risk factors associated with air travel, and discusses risk management strategies. To reduce adverse health risks, risk factors such as radiation, infection, stress, temperature, pressure, and circadian rhythm need to be avoided or reduced to levels that are as low as technologically achievable to protect flight personnel and passengers. PMID:17454553

  20. Effects of an Educational Experience Incorporating an Inventory of Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, Jason R.; Alters, Brian

    2011-12-01

    This investigation provides an extensive review of scientific, religious, and otherwise non-scientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution. We also measure the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following an educational experience designed to address an inclusive inventory of factors identified as potentially affecting student acceptance of evolution (n = 81, pre-test/post-test) n = 37, one-year longitudinal). Acceptance of evolution was measured using the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument among participants enrolled in a secondary-level academic programme during the summer prior to their final year of high school and as they transitioned to the post-secondary level. Student acceptance of evolution was measured to be significantly higher than initial levels both immediately following and over one year after the educational experience. Results reported herein carry implications for future quantitative and qualitative research as well as for cross-disciplinary instruction plans related to evolutionary science and non-scientific factors which may influence student understanding of evolution.

  1. The developmental 'risk factor' model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Murray, R M; Fearon, P

    1999-01-01

    There is no single cause for schizophrenia. We believe that, as with other common chronic diseases such as diabetes and coronary artery disease, the appropriate aetiological model is one involving multiple genes and environmental risk factors; the latter can be divided into (a) predisposing and (b) precipitating. Our model is that genetic and/or early environmental factors cause the development of anomalous neural networks. We postulate that these interact in the growing child with inherited schizotypal traits to establish a trajectory towards an increasingly solitary and deviant life style. This ultimately projects the individual across the threshold for expression of schizophrenia, sometimes by causing the drug abuse and social adversity that appear to precipitate the psychosis. PMID:10628525

  2. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M; Brown, Tim W C

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed. PMID:26229540

  3. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M.; Brown, Tim W. C.

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed. PMID:26229540

  4. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M; Brown, Tim W C

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed.

  5. What Are the Risk Factors for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... lymphocytic leukemia? What are the risk factors for acute lymphocytic leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects your ... this is unknown. Having an identical twin with ALL Someone who has an identical twin who develops ...

  6. What Are the Risk Factors for Bone Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone cancer? What are the risk factors for bone cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your ... are caused by defects (mutations) in certain genes. Osteosarcomas Children with certain rare inherited syndromes have an ...

  7. PCB contaminated dust on indoor surfaces--health risks and acceptable surface concentrations in residential and occupational settings.

    PubMed

    Kuusisto, Sari; Lindroos, Outi; Rantio, Tiina; Priha, Eero; Tuhkanen, Tuula

    2007-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been used in diverse purposes such as indoor paints. Removal of these paints with dust creating techniques, like sandblasting, will result in contamination of building surfaces with PCB-containing dust. Objectives of this study was to analyze the PCB concentrations on surfaces after sandblasting with silica using wipe samples and estimate the resulting health risks and further calculate the risk based acceptable PCB surface concentrations that do not cause incremental lifetime cancer risk higher that 10(-5) or does not cause immunosupression effects in residential use or in occupational settings. Both deterministic and probabilistic approaches were used. The total PCB concentrations on surfaces ranged from 10 to 1100 microg/m(2). Estimated cancer risk was 1.2 x 10(-4) for childhood exposure, 1.3 x 10(-5) for adult residents and 1.5 x 10(-5) for occupational exposure. Probabilistic risk assessment revealed that point estimates were quite reasonable and located between 45th and 79th percentiles on probabilistic distribution of risk. The noncancer risks were calculated as hazard quotients (HQ) which ranged from 3.3 to 35 depending on the exposure scenario. Acceptable surface concentrations based on noncancer effects that are protective for 95% of exposed population were 7 microg/m(2) for residential use, 65 microg/m(2) for residential use if only adults will be exposed and 140 microg/m(2) for occupational use. Preliminary cleanup experiment revealed that when contaminated dust was carefully removed with industrial vacuum cleaner and further washed with terpene containing liquid the surface concentration dropped below the acceptable levels calculated in this study.

  8. Epigenetic Risk Factors in PTSD and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Raabe, Florian Joachim; Spengler, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation. Translational studies in rodents showed that enduring sensitization of neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits in response to early life adversity are likely risk factors of life time vulnerability to stress. Hereby, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis integrates cognitive, behavioral, and emotional responses to early-life stress and can be epigenetically programed during sensitive windows of development. Epigenetic mechanisms, comprising reciprocal regulation of chromatin structure and DNA methylation, are important to establish and maintain sustained, yet potentially reversible, changes in gene transcription. The relevance of these findings for the development of PTSD requires further studies in humans where experience-dependent epigenetic programing can additionally depend on genetic variation in the underlying substrates which may protect from or advance disease development. Overall, identification of early-life stress-associated epigenetic risk markers informing on previous stress history can help to advance early diagnosis, personalized prevention, and timely therapeutic interventions, thus reducing long-term social and health costs. PMID:23966957

  9. Smoking: A risk factor for vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Phyllis; Flanagan, Patty

    2016-09-01

    Smoking in the United States includes at least 16% of the adults, 24% of high school students, nearly 8% of middle school students and is more prevalent in men than women; however, a decline in smoking has been documented in recent years. Cardiovascular disease continues to be a leading cause of death. Smoking is identified as a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, carotid disease, and peripheral artery disease with peripheral artery disease documented in 5%-10% of all Americans. Smoking is also a significant risk factor in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm in 7% of men aged 65-75 years with a smoking history. Toxic chemicals found in tobacco smoke are reported at 7,357 chemical compounds including the addictive chemical of nicotine. A substantial number of large studies and well-known trials have identified an increase in proinflammatory cells and cellular processes in the smoker diagnosed with atherosclerosis and in the mechanism attributed to abdominal aortic aneurysm development. The cost of smoking to health care is significant, and smoking cessation can demonstrate benefits to health improvement and the cost of health care. PMID:27568314

  10. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, K; Bross, D S; Kessler, I I

    1985-02-01

    To investigate risk factors in male breast cancer, a case-control study of 52 histologically diagnosed cases and 52 controls--matched for age, race, marital status, and hospital--was conducted in 5 U.S. metropolitan areas. Cases were significantly more likely to be Jewish than were the controls, supporting earlier suggestions of an increased risk in Jewish males. A significant association of male breast cancer with mumps infections at age 20 years or older, along with the possible association with antecedent testicular injury and the excess frequency of mumps orchitis among cases, suggests that testicular factors may be important in the development of breast cancer among males. An increased frequency of breast cancer among persons who have worked in blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills is of interest because of the possible testicular effect of high environmental temperatures. The observed association between breast cancer and a prior history of swollen breast is difficult to interpret because of potential recall bias, and a possible relationship with military service needs further confirmation. PMID:3856050

  11. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, K; Bross, D S; Kessler, I I

    1985-02-01

    To investigate risk factors in male breast cancer, a case-control study of 52 histologically diagnosed cases and 52 controls--matched for age, race, marital status, and hospital--was conducted in 5 U.S. metropolitan areas. Cases were significantly more likely to be Jewish than were the controls, supporting earlier suggestions of an increased risk in Jewish males. A significant association of male breast cancer with mumps infections at age 20 years or older, along with the possible association with antecedent testicular injury and the excess frequency of mumps orchitis among cases, suggests that testicular factors may be important in the development of breast cancer among males. An increased frequency of breast cancer among persons who have worked in blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills is of interest because of the possible testicular effect of high environmental temperatures. The observed association between breast cancer and a prior history of swollen breast is difficult to interpret because of potential recall bias, and a possible relationship with military service needs further confirmation.

  12. Smoking: A risk factor for vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Phyllis; Flanagan, Patty

    2016-09-01

    Smoking in the United States includes at least 16% of the adults, 24% of high school students, nearly 8% of middle school students and is more prevalent in men than women; however, a decline in smoking has been documented in recent years. Cardiovascular disease continues to be a leading cause of death. Smoking is identified as a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, carotid disease, and peripheral artery disease with peripheral artery disease documented in 5%-10% of all Americans. Smoking is also a significant risk factor in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm in 7% of men aged 65-75 years with a smoking history. Toxic chemicals found in tobacco smoke are reported at 7,357 chemical compounds including the addictive chemical of nicotine. A substantial number of large studies and well-known trials have identified an increase in proinflammatory cells and cellular processes in the smoker diagnosed with atherosclerosis and in the mechanism attributed to abdominal aortic aneurysm development. The cost of smoking to health care is significant, and smoking cessation can demonstrate benefits to health improvement and the cost of health care.

  13. Occupational risk factors for Wilms' tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Bunin, G.; Kramer, S.; Nass, C.; Meadows, A.

    1986-09-01

    A matched case-control study of Wilms' tumor investigated parental occupational risk factors. Cases diagnosed in 1970-1983 were identified through a population-based tumor registry and hospital registries in the Greater Philadelphia area. Controls were selected by random digit dialing and were matched to cases on race, birth date (+/- 3 years), and the area code and exchange of the case's telephone number at diagnosis. Parents of 100 matched pairs were interviewed by telephone. Parents of patients and controls were generally similar in demographic characteristics, except that mothers differed in religion. Published schemes were used to group jobs into clusters of similar exposures and to determine exposures from industry and job title. Analyses were done for preconception, pregnancy, and postnatal time periods. More case than control fathers had jobs in a cluster that includes machinists and welders (odds ratios (ORs) = 4.0-5.7, p less than or equal to 0.04). Paternal exposures to lead, silver, tin, and iron (some exposures of this cluster) were associated with Wilms' tumor in some analyses, with moderate odds ratios (ORs = 1.5-3.4). In general, the highest odds ratios were found for the preconception period among the genetic (prezygotic) cases. No maternal job clusters or exposures gave significantly elevated odds ratios. These results support a previous finding that lead is a risk factor, but not radiation, hydrocarbon, or boron exposures.

  14. Understanding the acceptance factors of an Hospital Information System: evidence from a French University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ologeanu-Taddei, R.; Morquin, D.; Domingo, H.; Bourret, R.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the perceived usefulness, the perceived ease of use and the perceived behavioral control of a Hospital Information System (HIS) for the care staff. We administrated a questionnaire composed of open-end and closed questions, based on the main concepts of Technology Acceptance Model. As results, the perceived usefulness, ease of use and behavioral control (self-efficacy and organizational support) are correlated with medical occupations. As an example, we found that a half of the medical secretaries consider the HIS is ease of use, at the opposite to the anesthesiologists, surgeons and physicians. Medical secretaries reported also the highest rate of PBC and a high rate of PU. Pharmacists reported the highest rate of PU but a low rate of PBC, which is similar to the rate of the surgeons and physicians. Content analysis of open questions highlights factors influencing these constructs: ergonomics, errors in the documenting process, insufficient compatibility with the medical department or the occupational group. Consequently, we suggest that the gap between the perceptions of the different occupational groups may be explained by the use of different modules and by interdependency of the care stare staff. PMID:26958237

  15. Understanding factors influencing vaccination acceptance during pregnancy globally: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rose J; Paterson, Pauline; Jarrett, Caitlin; Larson, Heidi J

    2015-11-25

    Maternal vaccination has been evaluated and found to be extremely effective at preventing illness in pregnant women and new-borns; however, uptake of such programmes has been low in some areas. To analyse factors contributing to uptake of vaccines globally, a systematic review on vaccine hesitancy was carried out by The Vaccine Confidence Project in 2012. In order to further analyse factors contributing to uptake of maternal immunisation, a further search within the broader systematic review was conducted using the terms 'Pregnan*' or 'Matern*'. Forty-two articles were identified. Pregnancy-related articles were further screened to identify those focused on concerns, trust and access issues regarding maternal vaccination reported by pregnant women and healthcare workers. Thirty-five relevant articles were included which were then searched using the snowballing technique to identify additional relevant references cited in these articles. A search alert was also conducted from February to April 2015 in PubMed to ensure that no new relevant articles were missed. A total of 155 relevant articles were included. Most of the literature which was identified on hesitancy surrounding vaccination during pregnancy reports on determinants of influenza vaccine uptake in North America. Research conducted in low-income countries focused primarily on tetanus vaccine acceptance. The main barriers cited were related to vaccine safety, belief that vaccine not needed or effective, not recommended by healthcare worker, low knowledge about vaacines, access issues, cost, conflicting advice. From the point of view of healthcare workers, barriers included inadequate training, inadequate reimbursement and increased workload. Twenty-seven out of 46 (59%) articles mentioning ethnicity reported lower rates of coverage among ethnic minorities. Barriers to vaccination in pregnancy are complex and vary depending on context and population. There are wide gaps in knowledge regarding the attitudes of

  16. Key systemic and environmental risk factors for implant failure.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Dolphus R; Jasper, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants are an important treatment option for patients interested in replacing lost or missing teeth. Although a robust body of literature has reviewed risk factors for tooth loss, the evidence for risk factors associated with dental implants is less well defined. This article focuses on key systemic risk factors relating to dental implant failure, as well as on perimucositis and peri-implantitis.

  17. Risk Factors for Drug Use in Rural Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Albert D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Tested relevance of risk-factor model for predicting drug use among rural seventh graders (n=235). Nineteen of 20 risk factors were significantly related to at least 1 category of drug use. Subset of 10 risk factors was significantly associated with prevalence and frequency of use of cigarettes, beer and wine, hard liquor, marijuana, and other…

  18. Acceptance of Spousal Death: The Factor of Time in Bereaved Older Adults' Search for Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Wallace Chi Ho; Chan, Cecilia L. W.

    2011-01-01

    Response to the death of a spouse was examined by focusing on acceptance, which was conceptualized as both a process and an outcome. Grounded theory was applied to analyze the experience of 15 bereaved Hong Kong Chinese older adults. The main theme that emerged was time. Acceptance of spousal death was found to be related to the search for meaning…

  19. Understanding the Factors Limiting the Acceptability of Online Courses and Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This study examines prior research conducted on the acceptability of online degrees in hiring situations. In a national survey, a questionnaire was developed for assessing the importance of objections to accepting job candidates with online degrees and sent to university search committee chairs in institutions advertising open faculty positions…

  20. Racial and Ethnic Cultural Factors in the Process of Acceptance of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizock, Lauren; Russinova, Zlatka

    2013-01-01

    Acceptance of mental illness is essential to promoting recovery and is uniquely impacted by issues of culture, race, and ethnicity. Qualitative case narrative methodology was used to identify themes related to the cultural facilitators and barriers in the acceptance process. Five participant narratives are presented to assist practitioners in…

  1. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    PubMed

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease.

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors in Tanzania: a revisit.

    PubMed

    Njelekela, M; Negishi, H; Nara, Y; Tomohiro, M; Kuga, S; Noguchi, T; Kanda, T; Yamori, M; Mashalla, Y; Jian Liu, L; Mtabaji, J; Ikeda, K; Yamori, Y

    2001-06-22

    In this assessment of cardiovascular risk factors, we examined the prevalence of selected risk factors according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) CARDIAC Study protocol and compared them with a similar study conducted more than a decade ago. The survey was carried out in Dar es Salaam (D, urban), Handeni (H, rural) and Monduli (Mo, semi-nomadic area). Subjects aged 47-57 were recruited randomly for blood pressure and anthropometrical measurements, 24 h urine collection and blood sampling. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain dietary information. The 1998 survey studied 446 subjects, while the 1987 survey included 496 men and women. The measured weight, body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2)) increased significantly among women in the 1998 survey in rural Handeni and urban Dar. The overall prevalence of obesity was higher for women in the most recent survey (22.8%, P < 0.0001). Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was higher in the most recent survey for women in Handeni. The overall prevalence of hypertension (blood pressure > 160/95 mmHg, or antihypertensive drug use), rose to 41.1% in 1998, (P < 0.001) for men and to 38.7% (P < 0.05) for women. The mean total serum cholesterol and prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia increased significantly in the most recent survey in the three studied areas. The overall prevalence of hypercholestrolaemia (serum cholesterol > 5.2 mmol/l) was higher in the 1998 survey for both men (21.8%, P < 0.0001) and women (54.0%, P < 0.0001). The mean HDL cholesterol increased significantly in the most recent survey, with a significant reduction in the mean atherogenic index, though these were still at higher levels (men 5.8, P < 0.0001; women 5.1, P < 0.0001 vs. 1987). A strong positive correlation was observed between blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and body mass index, total serum cholesterol and sodium to potassium ratio. These data suggest that for the past decade there has been an increase in the

  3. Risk Factors of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Risk Factors for Sleep Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…

  4. [Family environment risk factors of depression in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Greszta, Elzbieta

    2006-01-01

    General psychosocial theories of developmental psychopathology assert that family environment plays a significant role in forming both adaptive and maladaptive functioning of children. Also virtually all theories of depression assert that faulty parent-child relationships play a major role in the aetiology of this disorder. According these theoretical formulations familial risk factors have been the focus of most research on depression in adolescence. Several studies have shown that insecure attachment and parenting characterized by coldness, rejection, harsh discipline and unsupportive behaviour is positively related to adolescent depressive symptoms. Some research indicates that authoritative parenting, conceptualized as a composite of warmth, accept-involvement, firm control, and democratic discipline, is associated with the least depressive symptoms among adolescents. Pathogenetic factors within the family environment, such as parental depression, changes of family structure, violence or neglect, can also contribute to depression in adolescence. A causal relationship between anomalous parenting and depression is probably the interplay among genetic, cognitive, emotional, interpersonal and family environmental factors. PMID:17068944

  5. Birth defects: Risk factors and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Camila Ive Ferreira; Fett-Conte, Agnes Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Birth defects (BDs) or congenital anomalies include all structural and functional alterations in embryonic or fetal development resulting from genetic, environmental or unknown causes, which result in physical and/or mental impairment. BDs occur in about 3% of newborn babies and in most cases of pregnancy loss. BDs are a very complex and heterogeneous group of single or multiple changes that, in most cases, are of unknown etiology. Among the risk factors are advanced maternal and paternal ages, parental consanguinity, teratogenic agents such as infectious agents and drugs, and poor nutrition, in particular folic acid deficiency. One of the consequences of these defects is the high death rate within the first year of life. Information on BDs is becoming increasingly more important throughout the world so that preventive measures can be taken. Knowledge of BDs enables the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies besides adequate genetic counseling.

  6. Birth defects: Risk factors and consequences.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Camila Ive Ferreira; Fett-Conte, Agnes Cristina

    2013-06-01

    Birth defects (BDs) or congenital anomalies include all structural and functional alterations in embryonic or fetal development resulting from genetic, environmental or unknown causes, which result in physical and/or mental impairment. BDs occur in about 3% of newborn babies and in most cases of pregnancy loss. BDs are a very complex and heterogeneous group of single or multiple changes that, in most cases, are of unknown etiology. Among the risk factors are advanced maternal and paternal ages, parental consanguinity, teratogenic agents such as infectious agents and drugs, and poor nutrition, in particular folic acid deficiency. One of the consequences of these defects is the high death rate within the first year of life. Information on BDs is becoming increasingly more important throughout the world so that preventive measures can be taken. Knowledge of BDs enables the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies besides adequate genetic counseling. PMID:27625844

  7. [Prevention programs of risk factors for falls].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shuzo; Sakita, Masahiro

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 17% of Japanese older people fall for a year. The femoral neck fractures with falls caused by various functional problems make them depress remarkably activities of daily living and quality of life. In risk factors for falls in old people, muscle weakness, balance and gait disorders particularly increases to falls. The major results from recent systematic reviews have indicated that interventions of exercise, multifactorial, environmental modification and gradual withdrawal of psychotropic medication in community-dwelling elderly people were effective for preventing falls. Regarding the older people in hospitals and sanatoriums, it appeared that comprehensive multifactorial interventions and vitamin D supplementation could be effective in falls rather than exercises intervention only. However, the short period of the exercise intervention may affect ineffectiveness in preventing falls.

  8. Depression in athletes: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wolanin, Andrew; Gross, Michael; Hong, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Depression affects an estimated 6.7% of today's adult population in a 12-month period. The prevalence rates for certain age groups, such as young adults and older adults, are higher. There are approximately 400,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association student athletes competing each year and 5 to 7 million high school student athletes involved in competitive interscholastic sports. Given such a high prevalence rate in certain age groups and a large denominator pool of athletes, past notions that athletes are devoid of mental health issues have come under scrutiny by sports medicine providers. Initial data suggest that athletes are far from immune to depression. The purpose of this article was to review the current research on athletes and depression; particularly this article will provide an overview of studies, which have investigated the rate of depression among athletes, and discuss relevant risk factors, which may contribute to depression among athletes.

  9. Calciphylaxis: risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Nigwekar, Sagar U; Kroshinsky, Daniela; Nazarian, Rosalynn M; Goverman, Jeremy; Malhotra, Rajeev; Jackson, Vicki Ann; Kamdar, Mihir M; Steele, David J R; Thadhani, Ravi I

    2015-07-01

    Calciphylaxis is a rare but devastating condition that has continued to challenge the medical community since its early descriptions in the scientific literature many decades ago. It is predominantly seen in patients with chronic kidney failure treated with dialysis (uremic calciphylaxis) but is also described in patients with earlier stages of chronic kidney disease and with normal kidney function. In this review, we discuss the available medical literature regarding risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of both uremic and nonuremic calciphylaxis. High-quality evidence for the evaluation and management of calciphylaxis is lacking at this time due to its rare incidence and poorly understood pathogenesis and the relative paucity of collaborative research efforts. We hereby provide a summary of recommendations developed by a multidisciplinary team for patients with calciphylaxis. PMID:25960299

  10. [Burnout syndrome: a "true" cardiovascular risk factor].

    PubMed

    Cursoux, Pauline; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale; Marchetti, Hélène; Chaumet, Guillaume; Delliaux, Stéphane

    2012-11-01

    The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment in individuals professionally involved with others. The burnout syndrome is poorly recognized, particularly in France, as a distinct nosology from adaptation troubles, stress, depression, or anxiety. Several tools quantifying burnout and emotional exhaustion exist, the most spread is the questionnaire called Maslach Burnout Inventory. The burnout syndrome alters cardiovascular function and its neuroregulation by autonomic nervous system and is associated with: increased sympathetic tone to heart and vessels after mental stress, lowered physiological post-stress vagal rebound to heart, and lowered arterial baroreflex sensitivity. Job strain as burnout syndrome seems to be a real independent cardiovascular risk factor. Oppositely, training to manage emotions could increase vagal tone to heart and should be cardio-protective.

  11. Pancreatic cancer: epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Krejs, Guenter J

    2010-01-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas has an incidence of approximately 10 per 100,000 population per year. This number pertains to Europe, North America and parts of South America (Argentina). Men are more often afflicted than women (female:male ratio of about 1:1.5, though reports vary). There has been a very small but steady increase in the incidence over the last 50 years. Unfortunately, numbers for incidence and mortality are still practically identical for this cancer. The peak of incidence is between 60 and 80 years of age. In absolute numbers, there are 8,000 cases diagnosed annually in Germany, and 33,000 in the US. Pancreatic cancer at <40 years of age is extremely rare (2 cases per million per year), but among 80-year-olds, the incidence is about 200 new cases per 100,000 population per year. In men, carcinoma of the pancreas is the fourth most common cause of cancer death after lung, prostate and colorectal cancer. In women, it is the fifth most common cause of cancer death. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer include high-fat diet, smoking, chronic pancreatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, hereditary pancreatitis, family history of pancreatic cancer and diabetes mellitus. In chronic pancreatitis, the risk for pancreatic cancer is increased 20-fold, in hereditary pancreatitis it is 60-fold higher than in the general population. In a kindred with 2 first-degree relatives with pancreatic cancer, the risk for pancreatic cancer for other members of that kindred is 7-fold higher.

  12. Epidemiology and risk factors for kidney cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wong-Ho; Dong, Linda M.; Devesa, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    After over two decades of increasing rates, kidney cancer incidence trends worldwide show signs of plateauing or decreases in recent years. In the United States, rates for renal cell cancer, the predominant form of kidney cancer in adults, continue to rise but mainly for early stage tumors. Incidence rates for renal pelvis cancer have declined, while kidney cancer mortality rates overall have leveled. These patterns are consistent with reports of incidental diagnosis and downward shift of tumor stage and size in clinical series. The changing prevalence of known risk factors for renal cell cancer, including cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, may also be influencing the incidence trends, although their relative impact may differ in various populations,. Evidence is accumulating to suggest an etiologic role for physical activity, alcohol consumption, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, and high parity among women, but causal conclusions are not yet supported. Genetic susceptibility and its interaction with environmental exposures are believed to influence renal cell cancer risk, but limited studies based on candidate gene approaches have not produced conclusive results. Large consortium efforts employing genome-wide scanning technology are underway, which hold promise for novel discoveries in renal carcinogenesis. PMID:20448658

  13. Genetic risk factors for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pociot, Flemming; Lernmark, Åke

    2016-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed at the end of a prodrome of β-cell autoimmunity. The disease is most likely triggered at an early age by autoantibodies primarily directed against insulin or glutamic acid decarboxylase, or both, but rarely against islet antigen-2. After the initial appearance of one of these autoantibody biomarkers, a second, third, or fourth autoantibody against either islet antigen-2 or the ZnT8 transporter might also appear. The larger the number of β-cell autoantibody types, the greater the risk of rapid progression to clinical onset of diabetes. This association does not necessarily mean that the β-cell autoantibodies are pathogenic, but rather that they represent reproducible biomarkers of the pathogenesis. The primary risk factor for β-cell autoimmunity is genetic, mainly occurring in individuals with either HLA-DR3-DQ2 or HLA-DR4-DQ8 haplotypes, or both, but a trigger from the environment is generally needed. The pathogenesis can be divided into three stages: 1, appearance of β-cell autoimmunity, normoglycaemia, and no symptoms; 2, β-cell autoimmunity, dysglycaemia, and no symptoms; and 3, β-cell autoimmunity, dysglycaemia, and symptoms of diabetes. The genetic association with each one of the three stages can differ. Type 1 diabetes could serve as a disease model for organ-specific autoimmune disorders such as coeliac disease, thyroiditis, and Addison's disease, which show similar early markers of a prolonged disease process before clinical diagnosis. PMID:27302272

  14. Reassessment of risk factors for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Gangane, Nitin; Chawla, Shweta; Anshu; Subodh, Anshu; Gupta, Subodh Sharan; Sharma, Satish M

    2007-01-01

    A total of 140 cases of histologically confirmed oral cancer were evaluated for their demographic details, dietary habits and addiction to tobacco and alcohol using a pre-designed structured questionnaire at the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram in Central India. These cases were matched with three sets of age and sex matched controls. Oral cancer was predominant in the age group of 50-59 years. Individuals on a non-vegetarian diet appeared to be at greater risk of developing oral cancer. Cases were habituated to consuming hot beverages more frequently and milk less frequently than controls. Consumption of ghutka, a granular form of chewable tobacco and areca nut, was significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Cases had been using oral tobacco for longer duration than controls, and were habituated to sleeping with tobacco quid in their mouth. Most cases were also addicted to smoking tobacco and alcohol consumption. Bidi (a crude cigarette) smoking was most commonly associated with oral cancer. On stratified analysis, a combination of regular smoking and oral tobacco use, as well as a combination of regular alcohol intake and oral tobacco use were significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Synergistic effects of all three or even two of the risk factors - oral tobacco use, smoking and alcohol consumption- was more commonly seen in cases when compared to controls.

  15. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Kew, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the major malignant tumors in the world today. The number of new cases of the tumor increases year by year, and hepatocellular carcinoma almost always runs a fulminant course and carries an especially grave prognosis. It has a low resectability rate and a high recurrence rate after surgical intervention, and responds poorly to anticancer drugs and radiotherapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma does not have a uniform geographical distribution: rather, very high incidences occur in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In these regions and populations, the tumor shows a distinct shift in age distribution toward the younger ages, seen to greatest extent in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In all populations, males are more commonly affected. The most common risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-poor populations with a high incidence of the tumor are chronic hepatitis B virus infection and dietary exposure to the fungal hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1. These two causative agents act either singly or synergistically. Both the viral infection and exposure to the fungus occur from early childhood, and the tumor typically presents at an early age. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-rich countries with a low incidence of the tumor. The infection is acquired in adulthood and hepatocellular carcinoma occurs later than it does with hepatitis B virus-induced tumors. In recent years, obesity and the metabolic syndrome have increased markedly in incidence and importance as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in some resource-rich regions. Chronic alcohol abuse remains an important risk factor for malignant transformation of hepatocytes, frequently in association with alcohol-induced cirrhosis. Excessive iron accumulation in hereditary hemochromatosis and dietary iron overload in the Black African population and membranous obstruction of the inferior cava

  16. 77 FR 21277 - Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing Member Risk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... (``DCO'') level.\\3\\ \\3\\ Derivatives Clearing Organization General Provisions and Core Principles, 76 FR... Clearing Documentation and Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, 76 FR 45730 (Aug. 1, 2011). \\5\\ Requirements for Processing, Clearing, and Transfer of Customer Positions, 76 FR 13101 (Mar. 10, 2011)....

  17. From confounders to suspected risk factors: psychosocial factors and work-related upper extremity disorders.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, Michael; Shaw, William S; Nicholas, Rena A; Huang, Grant D

    2004-02-01

    Psychosocial variables have recently been more prominent among epidemiologic risk factors for work-related upper extremity disorders (WRUEDs), but bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying these associations have been elusive. One reason is that the psychosocial domain has included many broad and disparate variables (e.g. mood, coping skills, job control, job satisfaction, job stress, social support), and this lack of specificity in the conceptualization of psychosocial factors has produced limited hypothesis testing opportunities. Therefore, recent research efforts have focused on identifying and conceptualizing specific psychosocial factors that might more clearly delineate plausible bio-behavioral mechanisms linking psychosocial factors to WRUEDs. One such factor is workstyle, a strategy that workers may employ for completing, responding to, or coping with job demands that might affect musculoskeletal health. Preliminary studies have provided support for measurable differences in workstyle among individual workers and an association with upper extremity pain and discomfort. An initial self-report measure of workstyle has been pilot tested among office workers and shown acceptable reliability and validity. Future studies are needed to study this construct among other working populations and to determine its relationship with other clinical endpoints. Nevertheless, early findings suggest workstyle may be a potential focus of WRUED prevention efforts. PMID:14759762

  18. Differences in risk factors for recurrent versus incident preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Grantz, Katherine L; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Mendola, Pauline; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Leishear, Kira; Albert, Paul S

    2015-07-15

    Risk factors for preterm delivery have been described, but whether risk factors differ in the context of prior preterm delivery history is less understood. We assessed whether known risk factors were different in women with versus without prior preterm delivery using medical records of the first and second singleton deliveries in 25,820 Utah women (2002-2010). Longitudinal transition models with modified Poisson regression calculated adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, with multiplicative interactions between each preterm risk factor and prior preterm delivery status to explore whether risk factors varied between incident and recurrent preterm delivery at <37 weeks. Fewer second pregnancy factors were associated with recurrent preterm delivery, including alcohol, thyroid disease, and depression. Smoking was associated with increased risk for incident (relative risk (RR) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53, 2.49) but not recurrent (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.19) preterm delivery, whereas alcohol was associated with an increased risk for recurrent (RR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.53, 3.71) but not incident (RR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.43; Pinteraction = 0.02 and <0.01) preterm delivery, respectively. Prior term delivery did not necessarily confer protection from known second pregnancy preterm delivery risk factors. In the setting of a prior preterm delivery, many risk factors did not persist. Prior preterm delivery history is important when assessing subsequent preterm delivery risk factors. PMID:26033931

  19. Differences in risk factors for recurrent versus incident preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Grantz, Katherine L; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Mendola, Pauline; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Leishear, Kira; Albert, Paul S

    2015-07-15

    Risk factors for preterm delivery have been described, but whether risk factors differ in the context of prior preterm delivery history is less understood. We assessed whether known risk factors were different in women with versus without prior preterm delivery using medical records of the first and second singleton deliveries in 25,820 Utah women (2002-2010). Longitudinal transition models with modified Poisson regression calculated adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, with multiplicative interactions between each preterm risk factor and prior preterm delivery status to explore whether risk factors varied between incident and recurrent preterm delivery at <37 weeks. Fewer second pregnancy factors were associated with recurrent preterm delivery, including alcohol, thyroid disease, and depression. Smoking was associated with increased risk for incident (relative risk (RR) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53, 2.49) but not recurrent (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.19) preterm delivery, whereas alcohol was associated with an increased risk for recurrent (RR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.53, 3.71) but not incident (RR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.43; Pinteraction = 0.02 and <0.01) preterm delivery, respectively. Prior term delivery did not necessarily confer protection from known second pregnancy preterm delivery risk factors. In the setting of a prior preterm delivery, many risk factors did not persist. Prior preterm delivery history is important when assessing subsequent preterm delivery risk factors.

  20. Differences in Risk Factors for Recurrent Versus Incident Preterm Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Grantz, Katherine L.; Hinkle, Stefanie N.; Mendola, Pauline; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Leishear, Kira; Albert, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for preterm delivery have been described, but whether risk factors differ in the context of prior preterm delivery history is less understood. We assessed whether known risk factors were different in women with versus without prior preterm delivery using medical records of the first and second singleton deliveries in 25,820 Utah women (2002–2010). Longitudinal transition models with modified Poisson regression calculated adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, with multiplicative interactions between each preterm risk factor and prior preterm delivery status to explore whether risk factors varied between incident and recurrent preterm delivery at <37 weeks. Fewer second pregnancy factors were associated with recurrent preterm delivery, including alcohol, thyroid disease, and depression. Smoking was associated with increased risk for incident (relative risk (RR) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53, 2.49) but not recurrent (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.19) preterm delivery, whereas alcohol was associated with an increased risk for recurrent (RR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.53, 3.71) but not incident (RR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.43; Pinteraction = 0.02 and <0.01) preterm delivery, respectively. Prior term delivery did not necessarily confer protection from known second pregnancy preterm delivery risk factors. In the setting of a prior preterm delivery, many risk factors did not persist. Prior preterm delivery history is important when assessing subsequent preterm delivery risk factors. PMID:26033931

  1. Factors Influencing Information Communication Technology (ICT) Acceptance and Use in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyandoro, Cephus K.

    2016-01-01

    Research demonstrates that there is a gap in focusing understanding factors of information communication technology (ICT) acceptance and use in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). ICT is gaining popularity because it is a force in the economic growth equation. SMEs adopt ICT to promote their business strategy, performance, and growth. This study…

  2. Learning with Interactive Whiteboards: Determining the Factors on Promoting Interactive Whiteboards to Students by Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Eylem; Güler, Çetin; Çelik, H. Eray; Tatli, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors which might affect the intention to use interactive whiteboards (IWBs) by university students, using Technology Acceptance Model by the structural equation modeling approach. The following hypothesis guided the current study: H1. There is a positive relationship between IWB…

  3. [Epidemiology and risk factors of testicular tumours].

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, Piotr; Starosławska, Elżbieta; Szumiło, Justyna; Jankiewicz, Małgorzata; Kozłowska, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2016-04-01

    Testicular tumours are rare neoplasms, which most commonly affects men aged 25 to 35 years. Among young adult males it is the most common cause of testicular swelling. In recent decades, the number of cases of testicular tumours has greatly increased. The most significant predisposing factors are cryptorchidism and some endocrine disorders, especially increased levels of gonadotropins and female sex hormones. Testicular trauma, inguinal hernia, extreme values of body mass index (BMI), high-calorie diet rich in dairy products as well as high social status are also regarded as risk factors. Furthermore, some chromosomal abnormalities like increased number of chromosomes 7, 8. 12, 21 and X, loss of chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 13, 18, or Y, mutation in the gene Xq27; as well as multiplied copy of the gene i(12p) are associated with tumor development. It has been proven that high testosterone levels and regular physical activity may prevent testicular tumours. Since one of the first sign the lesion is often a lump or swelling of the testis and the appearance of abnormal structure in the scrotum routine testicular self-examination seems to be important in early detection. In all suspected cases an immediate ultrasound examination of both testicles is highly recommended. It is also advised to conduct a computerized tomography (CT) and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan for staging of the tumor to select the best mode of treatment. PMID:27137819

  4. Infantile esotropia: risk factors associated with reoperation

    PubMed Central

    Magli, Adriano; Rombetto, Luca; Matarazzo, Francesco; Carelli, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify clinical and demographic factors associated with misalignment after first surgery performed on children affected by infantile esotropia to evaluate the reoperation rate. A retrospective study was carried out, analyzing data from 525 children who underwent bilateral medial recti recession, bilateral lateral recti resection, and inferior oblique recession and anteroposition by the same surgeon (AM). Postoperative evaluation included assessment of motor alignment at approximately 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 5 years. Statistical analysis was performed with a logistical regression model in which the dependent variable was the presence/absence of reoperation. We found that late surgery (after 3 years of age) and a family history of strabismus are associated with a higher risk of reoperation, while some clinical factors, including some classically associated with worst motor outcome as preoperative angle, dissociated vertical deviation, and amblyopia, did not influence the incidence of reoperation in infantile esotropia. Male patients and patients with hyperopia in preoperative examinations have a significantly decreased reoperation rate.

  5. Hypothetical Rectal Microbicide Acceptability and Factors Influencing It among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Tianjin, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huifang; Yu, Hongxuyang; Zhao, Zheng; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Mianzhi; Zhang, Minying

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To measure potential acceptability of rectal microbicides and to explore factors likely to affect their acceptability among men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods Cross-sectional and retrospective surveys were conducted in this study. A questionnaire and a scale were used to measure the acceptability score for physical and functional characteristics of hypothetical rectal microbicides. We also evaluated the involvement of other factors such as sexual behaviors, social context, etc. Results MSMs we interviewed showed a high acceptability to rectal microbicides, indicated by the mean acceptability score of 2.92 (SD, 0.54, scale of 1–4). The results also suggested that microbicides were preferred in a cream form that can moisten and lubricate the rectum, prevent HIV infection and go unnoticed by their partners. Multivariate analysis showed that the microbicides acceptability varied significantly by education level (β = 0.135; P = 0.028), having casual partners (β = 0.174; P = 0.007), frequency of lubricant use (β = 0.134; P = 0.031), history of HIV test (β = 0.129; P = 0.036), willingness to use lubricant (β = 0.126; P = 0.045), locus of control by partners regarding STI infection (β = 0.168; P = 0.009). Conclusions A positive response to rectal microbicides among MSMs was found in our study, suggesting that rectal microbicides might have a potential market in MSMs and they might play an important role in HIV/STIs prevention as a supplement. Further studies may be considered to combine the acceptability study with clinical research together to understand the true feelings of MSMs when they use the products. PMID:27243457

  6. Whose reality counts? Factors affecting the perception of volcanic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Katharine; Barclay, Jenni; Pidgeon, Nick

    2008-05-01

    Understanding how people perceive risk has become increasingly important for improving risk communication and reducing risk associated conflicts. This paper builds upon findings, methodologies and lessons learned from other fields to help understand differences between scientists, authorities and the public. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyse underlying attitudes and judgements during an ongoing volcanic crisis on the Caribbean Island of Montserrat. Specific differences between the public, authorities and scientists were found to have been responsible for misunderstandings and misinterpretations of information and roles, resulting in differing perceptions of acceptable risk. Difficulties in the articulation and understanding of uncertainties pertaining to the volcanic risk led to a situation in which the roles of hazard monitoring, risk communication and public protection became confused. In addition, social, economic and political forces were found to have distorted risk messages, leading to a public reliance upon informal information networks. The implications of these findings for volcanic risk management and communication are discussed.

  7. [The risk analysis and strategy in medical equipment inspection and acceptance].

    PubMed

    Chen, Lixuan

    2011-09-01

    Inspection and acceptance is an important part of medical equipment management. It is a major measure to ensure that the medical equipment purchased is in accordance with the quality and quantity of the intended standards and can be used in clinical treatment timely and safely. It is also a key step to inspect the performance of the contract and the implementation of tender documents. The medical equipment inspection and acceptance is classified based on the standards of equipment validity and safety. Furthermore these problems are analyzed deeply and the solution strategies are suggested. The objectives of our study are to ensure the equipment's quality, improve woke efficiency and induce the effects on manufactures. PMID:22242391

  8. Risk factors of jet fuel combustion products.

    PubMed

    Tesseraux, Irene

    2004-04-01

    Air travel is increasing and airports are being newly built or enlarged. Concern is rising about the exposure to toxic combustion products in the population living in the vicinity of large airports. Jet fuels are well characterized regarding their physical and chemical properties. Health effects of fuel vapors and liquid fuel are described after occupational exposure and in animal studies. Rather less is known about combustion products of jet fuels and exposure to those. Aircraft emissions vary with the engine type, the engine load and the fuel. Among jet aircrafts there are differences between civil and military jet engines and their fuels. Combustion of jet fuel results in CO2, H2O, CO, C, NOx, particles and a great number of organic compounds. Among the emitted hydrocarbons (HCs), no compound (indicator) characteristic for jet engines could be detected so far. Jet engines do not seem to be a source of halogenated compounds or heavy metals. They contain, however, various toxicologically relevant compounds including carcinogenic substances. A comparison between organic compounds in the emissions of jet engines and diesel vehicle engines revealed no major differences in the composition. Risk factors of jet engine fuel exhaust can only be named in context of exposure data. Using available monitoring data, the possibilities and limitations for a risk assessment approach for the population living around large airports are presented. The analysis of such data shows that there is an impact on the air quality of the adjacent communities, but this impact does not result in levels higher than those in a typical urban environment.

  9. Risk factors of jet fuel combustion products.

    PubMed

    Tesseraux, Irene

    2004-04-01

    Air travel is increasing and airports are being newly built or enlarged. Concern is rising about the exposure to toxic combustion products in the population living in the vicinity of large airports. Jet fuels are well characterized regarding their physical and chemical properties. Health effects of fuel vapors and liquid fuel are described after occupational exposure and in animal studies. Rather less is known about combustion products of jet fuels and exposure to those. Aircraft emissions vary with the engine type, the engine load and the fuel. Among jet aircrafts there are differences between civil and military jet engines and their fuels. Combustion of jet fuel results in CO2, H2O, CO, C, NOx, particles and a great number of organic compounds. Among the emitted hydrocarbons (HCs), no compound (indicator) characteristic for jet engines could be detected so far. Jet engines do not seem to be a source of halogenated compounds or heavy metals. They contain, however, various toxicologically relevant compounds including carcinogenic substances. A comparison between organic compounds in the emissions of jet engines and diesel vehicle engines revealed no major differences in the composition. Risk factors of jet engine fuel exhaust can only be named in context of exposure data. Using available monitoring data, the possibilities and limitations for a risk assessment approach for the population living around large airports are presented. The analysis of such data shows that there is an impact on the air quality of the adjacent communities, but this impact does not result in levels higher than those in a typical urban environment. PMID:15093276

  10. Post Traumatic Endophthalmitis: Incidence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Ali Reza; Rezaei, Leila; Salam, Hasan; Mohammadi, Zahra; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Post traumatic endophthalmitis is an uncommon but severe complication of ocular trauma. We aimed to identify the incidence of post traumatic endophthalmitis and its contributing risk factors in Feiz hospital (Isfahan, Iran) from 2006 until 2010. Medical records of 1042 patients with open globe injury were analyzed and data were collected including age, sex, location of being injured, visual acuity (VA), time from injury to hospitalization and to repair, site of ophthalmic injury and the presence of foreign body. The frequency of post-traumatic endophthalmitis was about 2.1% (N = 22) of all patients. Nine of 22 cases with endophthalmitis were under 8 years. The visual acuity at the time of admission was seen to be contributed to high rate of endophthalmitis. Intraocular foreign body was detected in 139 patients; and the rate of endophthalmitis was 5% among these patients. Statistical analysis showed significant relationship between presence of foreign body and higher rate of endophthalmitis. Also, duration of hospitalization was significantly different between two study groups (P = 0.019). There were no significant differences between two groups in terms of other studied variables. Patients with low age, low visual acuity at admission, presence of intraocular foreign body and long duration of hospital stay had a higher risk of endophthalmitis after the repair of the globe. Compared to the reports of other large institutions, we can attribute the low incidence rate of endophthalmitis in our institution to the early use of systemic antibiotics such as gentamycin and cephalosporins in the first hour of hospitalization until discharge. PMID:25363107

  11. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  13. Vulnerability and social justice as factors in emergent U.S. nanotechnology risk perceptions.

    PubMed

    Conti, Joseph; Satterfield, Terre; Harthorn, Barbara Herr

    2011-11-01

    As an emerging domain of risk research, nanotechnologies engender novel research questions, including how new technologies are encountered given different framing and contextual detail. Using data from a recent U.S. national survey of perceived risks (N= 1,100), risk versus benefit framings and the specific social positions from which people encounter or perceive new technologies are explored. Results indicate that vulnerability and attitudes toward environmental justice significantly influenced risk perceptions of nanotechnology as a broad class, while controlling for demographic and affective factors. Comparative analyses of different examples of nanotechnology applications demonstrated heightened ambivalence across acceptability when risk versus benefit information was provided with application descriptions (described in short vignettes as compared to the general category "nanotechnology," absent of risk or benefit information). The acceptability of these nano-specific vignettes varied significantly in only some cases given indexes of vulnerability and attitudes toward environmental justice. However, experimental narrative analyses, using longer, more comprehensive descriptive passages, show how assessments of risks and benefits are tied to the systematically manipulated psychometric qualities of the application (its invasiveness and controllability), risk messaging from scientists, and the social implications of the technology with regard to justice. The article concludes with discussion of these findings for risk perception research and public policy related to nanotechnology and possibly other emerging technologies.

  14. The importance of cardiovascular risk factors for thrombosis prediction in patients with essential thrombocythemia.

    PubMed

    Lekovic, Danijela; Gotic, Mirjana; Milic, Natasa; Miljic, Predrag; Mitrovic, Mirjana; Cokic, Vladan; Elezovic, Ivo

    2014-10-01

    The current widely accepted stratification defined by age and previous thrombosis in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) probably deserves deeper analysis. The aim of our study was to identify additional factors at the time of diagnosis, which have an impact on the thrombosis prediction. We conducted a study of 244 consecutive ET patients with median follow-up of 83 months. We analyzed the influence of age, gender, laboratory parameters, history of previous thrombosis, spleen size, JAK2 mutation as well as cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including arterial hypertension, diabetes, active tobacco use and hyperlipidemia in the terms of thrombosis. The most important predictors of thrombosis in multivariate Cox regression model were the presence of CV risk factors (p=0.004) and previous thrombosis (p=0.038). Accordingly, we assigned risk scores based on multivariable analysis-derived hazard ratios (HR) to the presence of 1 CV risk factor (HR=3.5; 1 point), >1 CV risk factors (HR=8.3; 2 points) and previous thrombosis (HR=2.0; 1 point). A final three-tiered prognostic model for thrombosis prediction was developed as low (score 0), intermediate (score 1 or 2) and high risk (score 3) (p<0.001). The hazard of thrombosis was 3.8% in low-risk group, 16.7% in the intermediate-risk group and 60% in the high-risk group (p<0.001). Patients with thrombotic complications during the follow-up had a significantly shorter survival (p=0.018). The new score based on CV risk factors and previous thrombotic events allows a better patient selection within prognostic-risk groups and improved identification of the high-risk patients for thrombosis.

  15. On the public perception of the risks from nuclear weapons: Would oralloy be more acceptable than plutonium?

    SciTech Connect

    Kunsman, D.M.

    1993-03-01

    We technologists generally only address risk magnitudes in our analyses, although other studies have found nineteen additional dimensions for the way the public perceives risk. These include controllability, voluntariness, catastrophic potential, and trust in the institution putting forth the risk. We and the geneml public use two different languages, and to understand what their concerns are, we need to realize that the culture surrounding nuclear weapons is completely alien to the general public. Ultimately, the acceptability of a risk is a values question, not a technical question. For most of the risk dimensions, the public would perceive no significant difference between using oralloy and plutonium. This does not mean that the suggested design change should not be proposed, only that the case for, or against, it be made comprehensively using the best information available today. The world has changed: the ending of the cold war has decreased the benefit of nuclear weapons in the minds of the public and the specter of Chernobyl has increased the perceived risks of processes that use radioactive materials. Our analyses need to incorporate the lessons pertinent to this newer world.

  16. On the public perception of the risks from nuclear weapons: Would oralloy be more acceptable than plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Kunsman, D.M.

    1993-03-01

    We technologists generally only address risk magnitudes in our analyses, although other studies have found nineteen additional dimensions for the way the public perceives risk. These include controllability, voluntariness, catastrophic potential, and trust in the institution putting forth the risk. We and the geneml public use two different languages, and to understand what their concerns are, we need to realize that the culture surrounding nuclear weapons is completely alien to the general public. Ultimately, the acceptability of a risk is a values question, not a technical question. For most of the risk dimensions, the public would perceive no significant difference between using oralloy and plutonium. This does not mean that the suggested design change should not be proposed, only that the case for, or against, it be made comprehensively using the best information available today. The world has changed: the ending of the cold war has decreased the benefit of nuclear weapons in the minds of the public and the specter of Chernobyl has increased the perceived risks of processes that use radioactive materials. Our analyses need to incorporate the lessons pertinent to this newer world.

  17. Clinician Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Future Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegl, Christopher J.; Farrington, David P.; Augimeri, Leena K.

    2009-01-01

    We asked 176 mental health clinicians to list factors that place a child at risk for engaging in future antisocial behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to do this in relationship to boys and girls. Listed factors were then coded into broad item categories using the Early Assessment Risk Lists (EARL). Of the 1,695 factors listed, 1,476…

  18. Risk Factors Associated with Overdose among Bahraini Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ansari, Ahmed M.; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Matar, Ali M.; Marhoon, Huda; Buzaboon, Bana Y.; Raees, Ahmed G.

    2001-01-01

    Study aimed to identify risk factors, such as family pathology and psychosocial stress, of overdose suicide attempts among Bahraini youth. Stresses from living in a non-intact family; interpersonal relationships mainly with the opposite sex; unemployment; and school performance emerged as main risk factors. Previously identified factors, such as…

  19. What Are the Risk Factors for Myelodysplastic Syndromes?

    MedlinePlus

    ... surviving an atomic bomb blast or nuclear reactor accident) increases the risk of developing MDS. Long-term ... Myelodysplastic Syndrome? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Myelodysplastic Syndrome Talking With ...

  20. What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of an atomic bomb blast or nuclear reactor accident) increases the risk of getting CML Age : The ... Myeloid (CML)? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Leukemia - Chronic Myeloid (CML) ...

  1. [Initial symptoms and risk factors in Alzheimer's dementia].

    PubMed

    Bidzan, L

    1994-01-01

    The present paper summarizes recent data related to the risk factors for dementia of the Alzheimer type. More than 100 factors were reported in the literature but only two factors clearly implicated: age and family history of dementing illness. Among hypothesized environmental risk factors for dementia of the Alzheimer type, a previous head trauma was found significantly associated with the disease. Many other biological and psychosocial factors are discussed but the results are not consistent. PMID:8208865

  2. The Influence of Demographic Factor on Personal Innovativeness towards Technology Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Noraini Mohamed; Hamzah, Mahizer; Abdullah, Norazilawati

    2016-01-01

    Library and Media Teacher (LMT) readiness of accepting and using technology innovation earlier than their colleagues could expedite the technology innovation process into the school education system. The aim of this paper is to report on a study that explored the impact of experience in using computer and the level of ICT knowledge towards…

  3. Personality Factors Associated with the Decision to Accept or Reject Mobility Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Adventitiously blind adults (n=79) who had accepted mobility training were compared to 60 subjects who had rejected training. Personality profiles varied significantly between groups on seven scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: psychasthenia; schizophrenia; psychopathic deviate; depression; hypomania; paranoia; and…

  4. Temperament and Externalizing Behavior: Social Preference and Perceived Acceptance as Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdan, Louise E.; Keane, Susan P.; Calkins, Susan D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of social preference and perceived acceptance as moderators of the relation between child temperament and externalizing behavior. Participants included 399 children evaluated at pre-kindergarten and kindergarten assessments. Pre-kindergarten children characterized by high temperamental…

  5. Sex Differences in the Factor Structure of Berger's Expressed Acceptance of Others Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jandt, Fred E.

    Emanuel M. Berger's scale for testing the expressed acceptance of others is based on statements describing behavior, particularly verbal communicative behavior, of others, in a study of 561 subjects, Berger's scale evidenced need of modification in explaining small group interaction and especially the differing attitudinal responses of males' and…

  6. Evolution in the Southeastern USA: Factors Influencing Acceptance and Rejection in Pre-Service Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaze, Amanda L.; Goldston, M. Jenice; Dantzler, John

    2015-01-01

    Evolution continues to be a controversial topic around the world but nowhere is this more apparent locally than in the Southeastern region of the USA. In this study, we explored acceptance and rejection of evolution among pre-service science teachers in a teaching college in the rural Southeast and sought to determine (1) what relationships exist…

  7. Key systemic and environmental risk factors for implant failure.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Dolphus R; Jasper, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants are an important treatment option for patients interested in replacing lost or missing teeth. Although a robust body of literature has reviewed risk factors for tooth loss, the evidence for risk factors associated with dental implants is less well defined. This article focuses on key systemic risk factors relating to dental implant failure, as well as on perimucositis and peri-implantitis. PMID:25434557

  8. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  9. Variations in U.S. Consumers' Acceptability of Korean Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, with respect to Sensory Attributes and Nonsensory Factors.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungeun; Yoon, Suk Hoo; Min, Jieun; Lee, Suji; Tokar, Tonya; Lee, Sun-Ok; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Because the Korean rice cake, Seolgitteok, is mainly prepared with rice flour containing no gluten-protein associated with celiac disease, it can be considered for inclusion in a gluten-free diet. However, Western consumers may be unlikely to enjoy the plain flavor and chewy texture of Seolgitteok. This study aimed to determine both sensory and nonsensory factors that might affect U.S. consumers' acceptability of Seolgitteok. A total of 119 U.S. consumers rated 5 Seolgitteok samples, differentiated by descriptive sensory analysis, with respect to hedonic impression and just-about-right aspects of sensory attributes. Nonsensory factors such as demographic profile, innovativeness, social representation, sensation-seeking, and personality traits were also assessed. Addition levels of brown rice flour (0% to 100%) and sugar (5% to 20%) not only enriched flavor, but also lessened chewiness of Seolgitteok, thereby increasing an overall hedonic impression. Moreover, consumer acceptability of Seolgitteok varied with respect to nonsensory factors. Seolgitteok was more appreciated by males, sensation seekers, and individuals constrained by social desirability than by other groups. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that U.S. consumers' acceptability of Seolgitteok varies not only by sensory attributes such as rice flavor, sweetness, and chewiness, but also by nonsensory factors such as gender, sensation-seeking characteristics, and personality traits.

  10. Variations in U.S. Consumers' Acceptability of Korean Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, with respect to Sensory Attributes and Nonsensory Factors.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungeun; Yoon, Suk Hoo; Min, Jieun; Lee, Suji; Tokar, Tonya; Lee, Sun-Ok; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Because the Korean rice cake, Seolgitteok, is mainly prepared with rice flour containing no gluten-protein associated with celiac disease, it can be considered for inclusion in a gluten-free diet. However, Western consumers may be unlikely to enjoy the plain flavor and chewy texture of Seolgitteok. This study aimed to determine both sensory and nonsensory factors that might affect U.S. consumers' acceptability of Seolgitteok. A total of 119 U.S. consumers rated 5 Seolgitteok samples, differentiated by descriptive sensory analysis, with respect to hedonic impression and just-about-right aspects of sensory attributes. Nonsensory factors such as demographic profile, innovativeness, social representation, sensation-seeking, and personality traits were also assessed. Addition levels of brown rice flour (0% to 100%) and sugar (5% to 20%) not only enriched flavor, but also lessened chewiness of Seolgitteok, thereby increasing an overall hedonic impression. Moreover, consumer acceptability of Seolgitteok varied with respect to nonsensory factors. Seolgitteok was more appreciated by males, sensation seekers, and individuals constrained by social desirability than by other groups. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that U.S. consumers' acceptability of Seolgitteok varies not only by sensory attributes such as rice flavor, sweetness, and chewiness, but also by nonsensory factors such as gender, sensation-seeking characteristics, and personality traits. PMID:26641741

  11. Inferring the Interactions of Risk Factors from EHRs

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Travis; Harabagiu, Sanda M.

    2016-01-01

    The wealth of clinical information provided by the advent of electronic health records offers an exciting opportunity to improve the quality of patient care. Of particular importance are the risk factors, which indicate possible diagnoses, and the medications which treat them. By analysing which risk factors and medications were mentioned at different times in patients’ EHRs, we are able to construct a patient’s clinical chronology. This chronology enables us to not only predict how new patient’s risk factors may progress, but also to discover patterns of interactions between risk factors and medications. We present a novel probabilistic model of patients’ clinical chronologies and demonstrate how this model can be used to (1) predict the way a new patient’s risk factors may evolve over time, (2) identify patients with irregular chronologies, and (3) discovering the interactions between pairs of risk factors, and between risk factors and medications over time. Moreover, the model proposed in this paper does not rely on (nor specify) any prior knowledge about any interactions between the risk factors and medications it represents. Thus, our model can be easily applied to any arbitrary set of risk factors and medications derived from a new dataset.

  12. Inferring the Interactions of Risk Factors from EHRs

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Travis; Harabagiu, Sanda M.

    2016-01-01

    The wealth of clinical information provided by the advent of electronic health records offers an exciting opportunity to improve the quality of patient care. Of particular importance are the risk factors, which indicate possible diagnoses, and the medications which treat them. By analysing which risk factors and medications were mentioned at different times in patients’ EHRs, we are able to construct a patient’s clinical chronology. This chronology enables us to not only predict how new patient’s risk factors may progress, but also to discover patterns of interactions between risk factors and medications. We present a novel probabilistic model of patients’ clinical chronologies and demonstrate how this model can be used to (1) predict the way a new patient’s risk factors may evolve over time, (2) identify patients with irregular chronologies, and (3) discovering the interactions between pairs of risk factors, and between risk factors and medications over time. Moreover, the model proposed in this paper does not rely on (nor specify) any prior knowledge about any interactions between the risk factors and medications it represents. Thus, our model can be easily applied to any arbitrary set of risk factors and medications derived from a new dataset. PMID:27595044

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors encountered during medical examination in athletic children.

    PubMed

    Cis Spoturno, Adela C; Paz-Sauquillo, María T; López-Zea, Matilde; Fernández-Rostello, Eduardo A

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors can predispose to cardiovascular disease in adults or lead to cardiovascular events while practicing sports. The objectives of this study were: 1) to estimate the distribution of individual cardiovascular risk factors; 2) to establish a relationship between cardiovascular risk factors in parents or grandparents and the children's clinical condition. This was a retrospective study to assess overweight, obesity and hypertension in 1021 child athletes. The family history of obesity, type 2 diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and stroke was studied. Out of the studied children, 22.1% (n= 226) were obese and 2.1% (n= 21) had hypertension. Obesity was the most common family risk factor (30%).

  14. Inferring the Interactions of Risk Factors from EHRs.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Travis; Harabagiu, Sanda M

    2016-01-01

    The wealth of clinical information provided by the advent of electronic health records offers an exciting opportunity to improve the quality of patient care. Of particular importance are the risk factors, which indicate possible diagnoses, and the medications which treat them. By analysing which risk factors and medications were mentioned at different times in patients' EHRs, we are able to construct a patient's clinical chronology. This chronology enables us to not only predict how new patient's risk factors may progress, but also to discover patterns of interactions between risk factors and medications. We present a novel probabilistic model of patients' clinical chronologies and demonstrate how this model can be used to (1) predict the way a new patient's risk factors may evolve over time, (2) identify patients with irregular chronologies, and (3) discovering the interactions between pairs of risk factors, and between risk factors and medications over time. Moreover, the model proposed in this paper does not rely on (nor specify) any prior knowledge about any interactions between the risk factors and medications it represents. Thus, our model can be easily applied to any arbitrary set of risk factors and medications derived from a new dataset. PMID:27595044

  15. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  16. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  17. Apolipoprotein E: Risk factor for Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, M.S.; Thibodeau, S.N.; Tangalos, E.G.; Petersen, R.C.; Kokmen, E.; Smith, G.E.; Schaid, D.J.; Ivnik, R.J. )

    1994-04-01

    The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has three common alleles (E2, E3, and E4) that determine six genotypes in the general population. In this study, the authors examined 77 patients with late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD), along with an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls, for an association with the APOE-E4 allele. They show that the frequency of this allele among AD patients was significantly higher than that among the control population (.351 vs. .130, P = .000006). The genotype frequencies also differed between the two groups (P = .0002), with the APOE-E4/E3 genotype being the most common in the AD group and the APOE-E3/E3 being the most common in the control group. In the AD group, homozygosity for E4 was found in nine individuals, whereas none was found in the control group. The odds ratio for AD, when associated with one or two E4 alleles, was 4.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-12.3), while the odds ratio for AD, when associated with heterozygosity for APOE-E4, was 3.6 (05% CI 1.5-9.8). Finally, the median age at onset among the AD patients decreased from 83 to 78 to 74 years as the number of APOE-E4 alleles increased from 0 to 1 to 2, respectively (test for trend, P = .001). The data, which are in agreement with recent reports, suggest that the APOE-E4 allele is associated with AD and that this allelic variant may be an important risk factor for susceptibility to AD in the general population. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. Childhood risk factors for developing fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Patrick; Solitar, Bruce; Dubois, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia is a disease process without an obvious etiology. While some evidence suggests that adverse experiences in childhood contribute to its development, specific evidence has been equivocal. Methods A total of 36 patients with fibromyalgia from the greater New York area were recruited and surveyed using the Centers for Disease Control’s Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, and questions from the section on adverse childhood experiences were administered. The results were compared to those obtained from over 400,000 people surveyed by the Centers for Disease control each year, and were monitored for statistically significant differences. Results A statistically significant difference was noted among the control group, suggesting that individuals reported growing up with someone who was depressed when the respondents were between the ages of 0 and 18 years old. Moreover, respondents reported that they were hit by their parents in some way, were insulted or cursed at by their parents, and had been forced to have sex with someone at least 5 years older than them or with an adult. No correlation was found with the following variables and the development of fibromyalgia: growing up with divorced or separated parents; growing up with someone sentenced to serve time in jail; or having parents that abused each other. Additionally, statistically significant differences were found for the following categories: lack of emotional support; life dissatisfaction; fair or poor health; physical, mental or emotional disability; and being divorced or not married. Discussion Using this well-validated survey, it became clear that at least six specific adverse childhood experiences were correlated with the development of fibromyalgia. Data pertaining to disability, quality of life, life satisfaction, number of days of depression, emotional support, and marriage status illustrated the extent of subjective disability that these patients feel every day.

  19. Screening for lifestyle and mental health risk factors in the waiting room

    PubMed Central

    Elley, Carolyn Raina; Dawes, Diana; Dawes, Martin; Price, Morgan; Draper, Haeli; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the feasibility and acceptability of administering the validated Case-finding Health Assessment Tool (CHAT) in Canadian family practice waiting rooms to identify risk factors for depression, anxiety, anger control, smoking, drinking, other drug use, gambling, exposure to abuse, and physical inactivity. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting One urban academic family practice and one inner-city community health centre in British Columbia. Participants Convenience sample of consecutive adult patients (19 years of age or older) and their attending family physicians. Main outcome measures Rates of completion; positive responses to and wanting help with identified lifestyle and mental health risk factors; rates of objections to any questions; and positive and negative comments about the CHAT by participating physicians and patients. Results A total of 265 eligible adults presented in the waiting rooms over 5 full days and 3 half-days, 176 (66%) of whom enrolled in the study; 161 (91%) completed the CHAT, and 107 (66%) completed acceptability feedback forms. The prevalence of risk factors among patients in the academic and inner-city practice samples was different, with 20% and 63%, respectively, recording positive responses to both depression screening questions, 34% and 60% positive for anxiety, 11% and 71% currently smoking, 6% and 22% feeling they needed to cut down on alcohol, 1% and 48% having used recreational drugs in the past year, and 11% and 65% with problems controlling anger. While many requested help with reducing risk factors, such as smoking (20%) and mental health symptoms (25% to 27%), a total of 35% (57 of 161) wanted help with an identified issue that day. Patients and physicians found the CHAT acceptable, with no patients objecting to any question except the alcohol question (2 objected). Most comments were positive. Conclusion The CHAT allowed efficient identification of 9 risk factors, as well as identification of those

  20. Substantial contribution of extrinsic risk factors to cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Song; Powers, Scott; Zhu, Wei; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent research has highlighted a strong correlation between tissue-specific cancer risk and the lifetime number of tissue-specific stem cell divisions. Whether such correlation implies a high unavoidable intrinsic cancer risk has become a key public health debate with dissemination of the ‘bad luck’ hypothesis. Here we provide evidence that intrinsic risk factors contribute only modestly (<10~30%) to cancer development. First, we demonstrate that the correlation between stem-cell division and cancer risk does not distinguish between the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Next, we show that intrinsic risk is better estimated by the lower bound risk controlling for total stem cell divisions. Finally, we show that the rates of endogenous mutation accumulation by intrinsic processes are not sufficient to account for the observed cancer risks. Collectively, we conclude that cancer risk is heavily influenced by extrinsic factors. These results carry immense consequences for strategizing cancer prevention, research, and public health. PMID:26675728

  1. 78 FR 52998 - Waiver to Space Exploration Technologies Corporation of Acceptable Risk Limit for Launch

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... launch vehicle will launch from VAFB and place the Cassiope satellite into a near-polar orbit. The launch... anticipated time of launch increase the far field blast overpressure risk. The presence of inversion layers at... inversion layer. Chances of advantageous weather conditions during the day in September that would allow...

  2. 14 CFR 431.35 - Acceptable reusable launch vehicle mission risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-critical system failures during launch flight or reentry that could result in a casualty to the public. (d...) Identify and describe safety-critical systems; (4) Identify and describe all safety-critical failure modes... applicant shall employ a system safety process to identify the hazards and assess the risks to public...

  3. Progress toward regulatory acceptance of risk-informed inspection programs for nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedden, Owen F.; Cowfer, C. David

    1996-11-01

    This paper will describe work within the American Society of Mechanical Engineers committee responsible for rules for inservice inspection of nuclear power plants. Work is progressing with the objective of producing proposals for risk-informed inspection programs that will be incorporated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission into the Federal Regulations Governing the construction and inservice inspection of al domestic commercial power plants. The paper will describe in detail the two primary proposals now under development and review. Both are directed toward enhancing safety while reducing the expense of periodic examination of piping welds. The first proposal provides a sound technical basis for reducing the number of Class 1 piping weld examinations as much as 60 percent while improving or maintaining equivalent safety. This is accomplished by using risk-informed techniques to re-establish the most important areas to examine. The second is a broader approach addressing all piping systems considered to be important under risk-informed assessment techniques. Both proposals are based on recent insights into risk analysis techniques developed within the pressure vessel industry, and both require evaluation of theoretical analysis and inputs of practical experience related to a wide variety of detrimental conditions. These proposals are being supported by pilot programs in a number of operating nuclear power plants. The authors will also attempt to explain the institutional constraints inherent in the process of obtaining regulatory recognition of proposals developed cooperatively by industry and the regulatory agency.

  4. Selected Risk Factors in Adolescent Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adcock, Anthony G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined stress, depression, attempted suicide, and knowledge of common signs of potential suicide among 3,803 eighth and tenth graders. Found females at greater risk of suicide attempts than males. Both males and females who engaged in sexual intercourse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk than abstainers; such differences were more…

  5. Risk assessment of oil and gas well drilling activities in Iran - a case study: human factors.

    PubMed

    Amir-Heidari, Payam; Farahani, Hadi; Ebrahemzadih, Mehrzad

    2015-01-01

    Oil and gas well drilling activities are associated with numerous hazards which have the potential to cause injury or harm for people, property and the environment. These hazards are also a threat for the reputation of drilling companies. To prevent accidents and undesired events in drilling operations it is essential to identify, evaluate, assess and control the attendant risks. In this work, a structured methodology is proposed for risk assessment of drilling activities. A case study is performed to identify, analyze and assess the risks arising from human factors in one of the on shore drilling sites in southern Iran. A total of 17 major hazards were identified and analyzed using the proposed methodology. The results showed that the residual risks of 100% of these hazards were in the acceptable or transitional zone, and their levels were expected to be lowered further by proper controls. This structured methodology may also be used in other drilling sites and companies for assessing the risks.

  6. Changes in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial

    PubMed Central

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Sallis, James F; King, Abby C; Marcus, Bess H; Blair, Steven N

    2011-01-01

    Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT) on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity. Participants were 874 inactive men and women aged 35–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms that varied by level of counseling, intensity, and resource requirements. Because there were no significant differences in change over time between arms on any of the CVD risk factors examined, all arms were combined, and the effects of time, independent of arm, were examined separately for men and women. Time × Baseline risk factor status interactions examined whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status. Significant improvements in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and triglycerides were seen in both men and women who had high (or low for HDL-C) baseline levels of risk factors, whereas significant improvements in diastolic blood pressure were seen only in those men with high baseline levels. There were no improvements in any risk factors among participants with normal baseline levels. Changes in fitness were associated with changes in a number of CVD risk factors. However, most relationships disappeared after controlling for changes in body weight. Improvements in lipids from the ACT interventions could reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in people with already high levels of lipids by 16%–26% in men and 11%–16% in women

  7. A Human Factors Evaluation of a Methodology for Pressurized Crew Module Acceptability for Zero-Gravity Ingress of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Merri J.

    2000-01-01

    This project aimed to develop a methodology for evaluating performance and acceptability characteristics of the pressurized crew module volume suitability for zero-gravity (g) ingress of a spacecraft and to evaluate the operational acceptability of the NASA crew return vehicle (CRV) for zero-g ingress of astronaut crew, volume for crew tasks, and general crew module and seat layout. No standard or methodology has been established for evaluating volume acceptability in human spaceflight vehicles. Volume affects astronauts'ability to ingress and egress the vehicle, and to maneuver in and perform critical operational tasks inside the vehicle. Much research has been conducted on aircraft ingress, egress, and rescue in order to establish military and civil aircraft standards. However, due to the extremely limited number of human-rated spacecraft, this topic has been un-addressed. The NASA CRV was used for this study. The prototype vehicle can return a 7-member crew from the International Space Station in an emergency. The vehicle's internal arrangement must be designed to facilitate rapid zero-g ingress, zero-g maneuverability, ease of one-g egress and rescue, and ease of operational tasks in multiple acceleration environments. A full-scale crew module mockup was built and outfitted with representative adjustable seats, crew equipment, and a volumetrically equivalent hatch. Human factors testing was conducted in three acceleration environments using ground-based facilities and the KC-135 aircraft. Performance and acceptability measurements were collected. Data analysis was conducted using analysis of variance and nonparametric techniques.

  8. Childhood risk factors in dually diagnosed homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Blankertz, L E; Cnaan, R A; Freedman, E

    1993-09-01

    Although the negative long-term effects of specific childhood risk factors--sexual and physical abuse, parental mental illness and substance abuse, and out-of-home placement--have been recognized, most studies have focused on just one of these risks. This article examines the prevalence of these five childhood risk factors among dually diagnosed (mentally ill and substance abusing) homeless adults in rehabilitation programs. It further assesses the impact of each risk factor individually and in combinations of two on the social functioning skills and rehabilitation progress of these multiply disadvantaged clients.

  9. Childhood risk factors in dually diagnosed homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Blankertz, L E; Cnaan, R A; Freedman, E

    1993-09-01

    Although the negative long-term effects of specific childhood risk factors--sexual and physical abuse, parental mental illness and substance abuse, and out-of-home placement--have been recognized, most studies have focused on just one of these risks. This article examines the prevalence of these five childhood risk factors among dually diagnosed (mentally ill and substance abusing) homeless adults in rehabilitation programs. It further assesses the impact of each risk factor individually and in combinations of two on the social functioning skills and rehabilitation progress of these multiply disadvantaged clients. PMID:8211318

  10. Suicide Clusters: A Review of Risk Factors and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Niedzwiedz, Claire; Platt, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Suicide clusters, although uncommon, cause great concern in the communities in which they occur. We searched the world literature on suicide clusters and describe the risk factors and proposed psychological mechanisms underlying the spatio-temporal clustering of suicides (point clusters). Potential risk factors include male gender, being an…

  11. Traditional Risk Factors for Stroke in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Dae; Jung, Yo Han; Saposnik, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity worldwide. The occurrence of stroke is strongly dependent on well-known vascular risk factors. After rapid modernization, urbanization, and mechanization, East Asian countries have experienced growth in their aged populations, as well as changes in lifestyle and diet. This phenomenon has increased the prevalence of vascular risk factors among Asian populations, which are susceptible to developing cardiovascular risk factors. However, differing patterns of stroke risk factor profiles have been noted in East Asian countries over the past decades. Even though the prevalence of vascular risk factors has changed, hypertension is still prevalent and the burden of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia will continue to increase. Asia remains a high tobacco-consuming area. Although indicators of awareness and management of vascular risk factors have increased in many East Asian countries, their rates still remain low. Here we review the burdens of traditional risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking in East Asia. We will also discuss the different associations between these vascular risk factors and stroke in Asian and non-Asian populations. PMID:27733028

  12. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  13. Risk Factors for Different Dimensions of Adolescent Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes which risk factors in the family, school, and peer domains have an effect on the use of different types of drugs and on frequencies of drug use. Results of a study with adolescents (N=467) show that parental monitoring, time spent with friends, and peer deviance were the most important risk factors. (Author/MKA)

  14. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Christine E. F.; Vagi, Sara J.; Scott, Keith G.

    2007-01-01

    Statewide birth certificate and preschool exceptionality records were integrated to identify risk factors for developmental delay (DD). Epidemiological methods were used to investigate both individual-level and population-level risk for DD associated with a number of child and maternal factors. Infants born with very low birth weight were at the…

  15. Behaviour Problems and Adults with Down Syndrome: Childhood Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Studies of people with intellectual disability suggest that several individual characteristics and environmental factors are associated with behaviour disorder. To date there are few studies looking at risk factors within specific syndromes and the relationship between early risk markers and later behaviour disorder. The key aim of the…

  16. Suicide in Peacekeepers: Risk Factors for Suicide versus Accidental Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoresen, Siri; Mehlum, Lars

    2006-01-01

    To investigate risk factors for suicide in veterans of peacekeeping, 43 suicides and 41 fatal accidents in Norwegian peacekeepers (1978 to 1995) were compared in a psychological autopsy study. Mental health problems were the most important risk factor for suicide. Both living alone and the break-up of a love relationship contributed uniquely to…

  17. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

  18. Childhood Risk Factors in Dually Diagnosed Homeless Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankertz, Laura E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined prevalence of five childhood risk factors (sexual abuse, physical abuse, parental mental illness, substance abuse, out-of-home placement) among dually diagnosed (mentally ill and substance abusing) homeless adults (n=156) in rehabilitation programs. Findings suggest that childhood risk factors, whether single or multiple, are very…

  19. The risk factors of colistin methanesulfonate associated nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tigen, Elif Tükenmez; Koltka, E. Nursen; Dogru, Arzu; Gura, Melek; Vahabaoglu, Haluk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The risk factors of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) associated nephrotoxicity are important. Our study attempts look into the prevalence of CMS-associated nephrotoxicity in Intensive Care Units (ICUs), and related risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted between September 2010 and April 2012 on 55 patients who underwent CMS treatment. Nephrotoxicity risk was defined based on the Risk Injury Failure Loss End-stage kidney disease criteria. Results: Fifty-five patients included in the study. A total of 22 (40%) patients developed nephrotoxicity. The correlation was detected between nephrotoxicity and patients over 65 with a high Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score. APACHE II score was revealed an independent risk factor for nephrotoxicity. Conclusion: Advanced age and a high APACHE II score are significant risk factors in the development of nephrotoxicity at ICUs following CMS use. Patient selection and close monitoring are critical when starting CMS treatment. PMID:27390460

  20. Tourette Syndrome (TS): Risk Factors and Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... having TS. The causes of TS and other tic disorders are not well understood. Although the risk ... whether certain children are more likely to develop tics following a group A ß-hemolytic streptococcal (“strep”) ...

  1. Iron loading: a risk factor for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, E D

    2006-12-01

    Iron loaded persons are at increased risk for infection, neoplasia, arthropathy, cardiomyopathy and an array of endocrine and neurodegenerative diseases. This report summarizes evidence of increased risk of iron loading for osteoporosis. Iron suppresses bone remodeling apparently by decreasing osteoblast formation and new bone synthesis. Low molecular mass iron chelators as well as a natural protein iron chelator, lactoferrin, may be useful in prevention of osteoporosis.

  2. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Kragelund Nielsen, Karoline; Damm, Peter; Kapur, Anil; Balaji, Vijayam; Balaji, Madhuri S.; Seshiah, Veerasamy; Bygbjerg, Ib C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP), i.e. gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and diabetes in pregnancy (DIP), increases the risk of various short- and long-term adverse outcomes. However, much remains to be understood about the role of different risk factors in development of HIP. Objective The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s) could be used to predict HIP among women attending GDM screening at three centres in urban, semi-urban and rural Tamil Nadu, India. Methodology Pregnant women underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Data on potential risk factors was collected and analysed using logistical regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for significant risk factors and a risk factor scoring variable was constructed. Results HIP was prevalent in 18.9% of the study population (16.3% GDM; 2.6% DIP). Increasing age and BMI as well as having a mother only or both parents with diabetes were significant independent risk factors for HIP. Among women attending the rural health centre a doubling of income corresponded to an 80% increased risk of HIP (OR 1.80, 95%CI 1.10–2.93; p = 0.019), whereas it was not significantly associated with HIP among women attending the other health centres. The performance of the individual risk factors and the constructed scoring variable differed substantially between the three health centres, but none of them were good enough to discriminate between those with and without HIP. Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of socio-economic circumstances and intergenerational risk transmission in the occurrence of HIP as well as the need for universal screening. PMID:26991305

  3. Key factors in the acceptability of treatment as prevention (TasP) in Scotland: a qualitative study with communities affected by HIV

    PubMed Central

    Young, I; Flowers, P; McDaid, L M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There is a clear need to understand the factors that might prevent and/or facilitate the effective use of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) at an individual level. This paper reports on findings from the first qualitative study in the UK exploring the acceptability of TasP among gay, bisexual and/or men who have sex with men (MSM) and migrant African communities in Scotland. Methods We conducted seven exploratory focus group discussions (FGDs) with convenience samples of MSM (five FGDs, n=22) and mixed-gender African (two FGDs, n=11) participants. Of these, three FGDs were conducted with HIV-positive MSM (n=14) and one FGD with HIV-positive Africans (n=8). We then conducted 34 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with a purposive sample of MSM (n=20) and Africans (n=14, women=10). Half were HIV-positive (MSM, n=10; African, n=7). FGD and IDI data were analysed thematically drawing on predetermined and emergent themes. Results We found that inequalities in HIV literacy could be a barrier to TasP, as could social constraints, such as criminalisation of transmission, increased risk of sexually transmitted infection and increased burden of treatment. We also identified psychological barriers such as perceptions of risk. However, relationships and shared decision making were identified as potential facilitators for TasP. Conclusions Our results suggest that potential use and management of TasP may not be straightforward. It could be contingent on reducing inequalities in HIV literacy, minimising the perceived burden of treatment and other potential risks, and addressing the dynamics of existing and socially acceptable risk management strategies, especially in relation to long-term serodiscordant relationships. PMID:25482649

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-05-16

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients.

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-05-16

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients. PMID:25984516

  6. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-01-01

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients. PMID:25984516

  7. Job strain (demands and control model) as a predictor of cardiovascular risk factors among petrochemical personnel

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Poorabdian, Siamak; Shakerian, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the practical models for the assessment of stressful working conditions due to job strain is job demand and control model, which explains how physical and psychological adverse consequences, including cardiovascular risk factors can be established due to high work demands (the amount of workload, in addition to time limitations to complete that work) and low control of the worker on his/her work (lack of decision making) in the workplace. The aim of this study was to investigate how certain cardiovascular risk factors (including body mass index [BMI], heart rate, blood pressure, cholesterol and smoking) and the job demand and job control are related to each other. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 500 workers of the petrochemical industry in south of Iran, 2009. The study population was selected using simple random statistical method. They completed job demand and control questionnaire. The cardiovascular risk factors data was extracted from the workers hygiene profiles. Chi-square (χ2) test and hypothesis test (η) were used to assess the possible relationship between different quantified variables, individual demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: The results of this study revealed that a significant relationship can be found between job demand control model and cardiovascular risk factors. Chi-square test result for the heart rate showed the highest (χ2 = 145.078) relationship, the corresponding results for smoking and BMI were χ2 = 85.652 and χ2 = 30.941, respectively. Subsequently, hypothesis testing results for cholesterol and hypertension was 0.469 and 0.684, respectively. Discussion: Job strain is likely to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular risk factors among male staff in a petrochemical company in Iran. The parameters illustrated in the Job demands and control model can act as acceptable predictors for the probability of job stress occurrence followed by showing

  8. Immunogenetic Risk and Protective Factors for Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Mamyrova, Gulnara; O’Hanlon, Terrance P.; Monroe, Jason B.; Carrick, Danielle Mercatante; Malley, James D.; Adams, Sharon; Reed, Ann M.; Shamim, Ejaz A.; James‐Newton, Laura; Miller, Frederick W.; Rider, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To define the relative importance of MHC Class II alleles and peptide binding motifs as risk and protective factors for juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) and to compare these to HLA associations in adult DM. Methods DRB1 and DQA1 typing was performed in 142 Caucasian patients with juvenile DM, and compared to HLA typing from 193 patients with adult DM and 797 race‐matched controls. Random Forests classification and multiple logistic regression assessed the relative importance of the HLA associations. Results The HLA DRB1*0301 allele was a primary risk factor (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.9), while DQA1*0301 (OR 2.8), DQA1*0501 (OR 2.1), and homozygosity of DQA1*0501 (OR 3.2) were additional risk factors for juvenile DM. These risk factors were not present in adult DM without defined autoantibodies. DQA1 *0201 (OR 0.37), *0101 (OR 0.38), and *0102 (OR 0.51) were identified as novel protective factors for juvenile DM, the latter two being shared with adult DM. The peptide binding motif DRB1 9EYSTS13 was a risk factor and DQA1 motifs F25, S26 and 45(V/A) W (R/K)47 were protective. Random Forests classification analysis revealed DRB1*0301 (Relative Importance [RI] 100%) had higher relative importance than DQA1*0301 (RI 57%), DQA1*0501 (RI 42%), or the peptide binding motifs among risk factors for juvenile DM. In a logistic regression model, DRB1*0301 and DQA*0201 were the strongest risk and protective factors, respectively, for juvenile DM. Conclusion DRB1*0301 has higher relative importance than DQA1*0501 as a risk factor for juvenile DM. DQA1*0301 has been identified as a new HLA risk factor for juvenile DM. Three DQA1 alleles are newly identified protective factors for juvenile DM. PMID:17133612

  9. Risk factors for UK Plasmodium falciparum cases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing proportion of malaria cases diagnosed in UK residents with a history of travel to malaria endemic areas are due to Plasmodium falciparum. Methods In order to identify travellers at most risk of acquiring malaria a proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk of acquiring malaria stratified by purpose of travel and age whilst adjusting for entomological inoculation rate (EIR) and duration of stay in endemic countries. Results Travellers visiting friends and relatives and business travellers were found to have significantly higher hazard of acquiring malaria (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) relative to that of holiday makers 7.4, 95% CI 6.4–8.5, p < 0. 0001 and HR 3.4, 95% CI 2.9-3.8, p < 0. 0001, respectively). All age-groups were at lower risk than children aged 0–15 years. Conclusions These estimates of the increased risk for business travellers and those visiting friends and relatives should be used to inform programmes to improve awareness of the risks of malaria when travelling. PMID:25091803

  10. A Quantitative Study of Factors Affecting Learner Acceptance of a Computer-Based Training Support Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, G. Dale; Flannery, Daniele D.

    2004-01-01

    This study identifies and empirically tests factors that may influence learners' use of a computer-based training support system (TSS). The areas of research and theory were drawn from human-computer interaction, information and business management, and adult education. The factors suggested in the literature that may affect learner's use of a TSS…

  11. Risk factors for idiopathic dystonia in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Newman, Jeremy R B; Boyle, Richard S; O'Sullivan, John D; Silburn, Peter A; Mellick, George D

    2014-12-01

    It is currently hypothesised that a combination of genetic and environmental factors underlies the development of idiopathic isolated dystonia (IID). In this study, we examined several possible environmental or other non-genetic factors that may influence the risk for IID in Queensland, Australia. We surveyed several environmental exposures, lifestyle factors, medical and family histories to investigate potential risk factors for IID. Associations between putative risk factors and IID were assessed using a total of 184 dystonia patients and 1048 neurologically-normal control subjects sampled from Queensland between 2005 and 2012. Our analyses revealed that anxiety disorders, depression, tremor, cigarette smoking and head injuries with a loss of consciousness were associated with increased risk for IID (p<0.05), all of which remained statistically significant following an adjustment for multiple hypothesis testing except for depression. We also observed that the risk for dystonia increased with higher cigarette smoking pack-year quartiles in our analyses. Our results suggest possible environmental factors that influence the development of IID and complement the findings of similar dystonia risk factor studies. Further investigation defining the environmental and other non-genetic risk factors for IID may provide insight into the development of the disorder in genetically-susceptible individuals.

  12. Factors influencing insulin acceptance among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a primary care clinic: a qualitative exploration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients refuse insulin therapy even when they require this modality of treatment. However, some eventually accept insulin. This study aimed to explore the T2DM patients’ reasons for accepting insulin therapy and their initial barriers to use insulin. Methods This qualitative study interviewed twenty-one T2DM patients at a primary care clinic who had been on insulin for more than a year through three in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions. A semi structured interview protocol was used and the sessions were audio-recorded. Subsequently, thematic analysis was conducted to identify major themes. Results The participants’ acceptance of insulin was influenced by their concerns and beliefs about diabetes and insulin. Concerns about complications of poorly controlled diabetes and side effects of other treatment regime had resulted in insulin acceptance among the participants. They also had a strong belief in insulin benefits and effectiveness. These concerns and beliefs were the results of having good knowledge about the diabetes and insulin, experiential learning, as well as doctors’ practical and emotional support that helped them to accept insulin therapy and become efficient in self-care management. These factors also allayed their negative concerns and beliefs towards diabetes and insulin, which were their barriers for insulin acceptance as it caused fear to use insulin. These negative concerns were related to injection (self-injection, needle phobia, injection pain), and insulin use (inconvenience, embarrassment, lifestyle restriction, negative social stigma, and poor self-efficacy), whereas the negative beliefs were 'insulin could cause organ damage’, 'their diabetes was not serious enough’, 'insulin is for life-long’, and 'insulin is for more severe disease only’. Conclusions Exploring patients’ concerns and beliefs about diabetes and insulin is crucial to assist physicians in

  13. Intensive risk factor control in stroke prevention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Stroke prevention is an urgent priority because of the aging of the population and the steep association of age and risk of stroke. Direct costs of stroke are expected to more than double in the US between 2012 and 2030. By getting everything right, patients can reduce the risk of stroke by 80% or more; however, getting everything right is a tall order. Roughly in order of importance, this requires smoking cessation, maintenance of a healthy weight, a Cretan Mediterranean diet, blood pressure control, lipid-lowering drugs, appropriate use of antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants, and appropriate carotid endarterectomy and stenting. A new approach called “treating arteries instead of targeting risk factors” appears promising but requires validation in randomized trials. PMID:24167723

  14. Prioritizing risk factors to identify preventive interventions for economic assessment

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Tony; Foster, Rachel H; Hadorn, David; Vos, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore a risk factor approach for identifying preventive interventions that require more in-depth economic assessment, including cost-effectiveness analyses. Methods A three-step approach was employed to: (i) identify the risk factors that contribute most substantially to disability-adjusted life years (DALYs); (ii) re-rank these risk factors based on the availability of effective preventive interventions warranting further cost-effectiveness analysis (and in some instances on evidence from existing cost-effectiveness analyses); and (iii) re-rank these risk factors in accordance with their relative contribution to health inequalities. Health inequalities between the Māori and non-Māori populations in New Zealand were used by way of illustration. Findings Seven of the top 10 risk factors prioritized for research on preventive interventions in New Zealand were also among the 10 risk factors most highly ranked as contributing to DALYs in high-income countries of the World Health Organization’s Western Pacific Region. The final list of priority risk factors included tobacco use; alcohol use; high blood pressure; high blood cholesterol; overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity. All of these factors contributed to health inequalities. Effective interventions for preventing all of them are available, and for each risk factor there is at least one documented cost-saving preventive intervention. Conclusion The straightforward approach to prioritizing risk factors described in this paper may be applicable in many countries, and even in those countries that lack the capacity to perform additional cost-effectiveness analyses, this approach will still make it possible to determine which cost-effective interventions should be implemented in the short run. PMID:22423159

  15. The role of exogenous risk factors of antituberculosis treatment failure

    PubMed Central

    LESNIC, EVELINA; USTIAN, AURELIA; POP, CARMEN MONICA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim The Republic of Moldova reports the highest incidence of tuberculosis and the lowest treatment success rate among European region countries. In most of the patients the antituberculosis treatment failure is correlated with social risk factors (low socio-economical state, epidemiological danger characteristics) and biological factors (young age, male sex, physiological conditions, associated diseases). Clinical factors (advanced forms of tuberculosis, chronic evolution, immune disturbances), therapeutic factors (treatment errors and interruptions, individualized regimens) and administrative factors (drug interruption in supply, suboptimal treatment quality) prevail in regions with defficient in health care delivery. The association of risk factors has a higher impact than the severity of one risk factor. The risk factor assessment is very important before initiation of the treatment, for establishing the plan of risk reduction measures for increasing the success rate. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of exogenous risk factors on antituberculosis treatment failure. Methods The study was conducted on 201 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and treatment failure and 105 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who successfully finished the antituberculosis treatment. Selected cases were investigated according national standards. Results The treatment failure occurred in patients belonging to socially disadvantaged groups, patients with harmful habits (alcohol abuse, drug use, active smoking), patients from infectious clusters. Migration, homelessness and detention releasing imperil the quality of treatment, thus predisposing to the treatment failure. Social, educational support and the substitutive therapy and withdrawal techniques (tobacco, alcohol, psycho-active substances) must be implemented in the high risk groups in order to diminish the risk of treatment failure and to increase the treatment success rate. Conclusions The study of

  16. Risk factors for fracture in adult kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Kyla L; Zou, Guangyong; Leslie, William D; Hodsman, Anthony B; Lam, Ngan N; McArthur, Eric; Fraser, Lisa-Ann; Knoll, Gregory A; Adachi, Jonathan D; Kim, S Joseph; Garg, Amit X

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the general and transplant-specific risk factors for fractures in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of all adults who received a kidney-only transplant (n = 2723) in Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2009. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to determine general and transplant-specific risk factors for major fractures (proximal humerus, forearm, hip, and clinical vertebral). The final model was established using the backward elimination strategy, selecting risk factors with a P-value ≤ 0.2 and forcing recipient age and sex into the model. We also assessed risk factors for other fracture locations (excluding major fractures, and fractures involving the skull, hands or feet). RESULTS: There were 132 major fractures in the follow-up (8.1 fractures per 1000 person-years). General risk factors associated with a greater risk of major fracture were older recipient age [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) per 5-year increase 1.11, 95%CI: 1.03-1.19] and female sex (aHR = 1.81, 95%CI: 1.28-2.57). Transplant-specific risk factors associated with a greater risk of fracture included older donor age (5-year increase) (aHR = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.02-1.17) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) caused by diabetes (aHR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.09-2.72) or cystic kidney disease (aHR = 1.73, 95%CI: 1.08-2.78) (compared to glomerulonephritis as the reference cause). Risk factors across the two fracture locations were not consistent (major fracture locations vs other). Specifically, general risk factors associated with an increased risk of other fractures were diabetes and a fall with hospitalization prior to transplantation, while length of time on dialysis, and renal vascular disease and other causes of ESRD were the transplant-specific risk factors associated with a greater risk of other fractures. CONCLUSION: Both general and transplant-specific risk factors were associated with a higher risk of fractures in kidney transplant

  17. Wine and tobacco: risk factors for gastric cancer in France.

    PubMed

    Hoey, J; Montvernay, C; Lambert, R

    1981-06-01

    Cross-sectional studies in France have shown strong regional correlations between death rates from alcohol related diseases and death rates from gastric cancer. The present study involved 40 cases of newly diagnosed adenocarcinoma of the stomach and 168 control subjects with one of four other gastrointestinal diagnoses selected from the same hospital service during the same time period, 1978-1980. On the basis of a standard nutritional interview alcohol and particularly red wine were seen to be significant risk factors for this cancer (relative risks of 6.9 with 95% confidence limits (CL) of 3.3-14.3 for alcohol and 6.3 with CL 3.1-12.7 for wine). Smoking of one or more cigarettes per day was associated with a relative risk for gastric cancer of 4.8 with CL of 1.6-14.8. The presence of both risk factors was associated with a relative risk of 9.3 with 95% CL of 4.6-19.0. Possible confounding by age, smoking, and eating lettuce (a reported protective factor for gastric cancer in other studies) did not explain these results. The relative risks were consistently found and remained significant when each diagnostic group of control subjects was analyzed separately. These results suggest that alcohol, and particularly red wine, may be important risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the stomach in France. In addition, cigarette smoking, a risk factor in itself, when coupled with alcohol appears markedly to increase the risk.

  18. Dating violence among college students: the risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Kaukinen, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    The research review synthesizes the knowledge base on risk and protective factors for dating violence while highlighting its relevance to violence against college women. In particular, the review highlights the personal, family, relationship, and behavioral factors that heighten the risk of dating violence victimization and perpetration while also noting the methodological limitations of the current body of empirical research and identifying directions for future academic work. Researchers have identified the correlation between risky health and behavioral factors and dating violence, most often modeling these as part of the etiology of dating violence among college students. Less often have scholars explored these as co-occurring risk factors. This approach to dating violence may be used to develop meaningful and impactful interventions to reduce the incidence and prevalence of college dating violence while also addressing the other health risk behaviors that impact academic success and place students' well-being at risk.

  19. Brain health and shared risk factors for dementia and stroke.

    PubMed

    Gardener, Hannah; Wright, Clinton B; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L

    2015-11-01

    Impaired brain health encompasses a range of clinical outcomes, including stroke, dementia, vascular cognitive impairment, cognitive ageing, and vascular functional impairment. Conditions associated with poor brain health represent leading causes of global morbidity and mortality, with projected increases in public health burden as the population ages. Many vascular risk factors are shared predictors for poor brain health. Moreover, subclinical brain MRI markers of vascular damage are risk factors shared between stroke and dementia, and can be used for risk stratification and early intervention. The broad concept of brain health has resulted in a conceptual shift from vascular risk factors to determinants of brain health. Global campaigns to reduce cardiovascular diseases by targeting modifiable risk factors are necessary and will have a broad impact on brain health. Research is needed on the distinct and overlapping aetiologies of brain health conditions, and to define MRI markers to help clinicians identify patients who will benefit from aggressive prevention measures.

  20. Risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Wu, P C; Lang, J H; Ge, W J; Hartge, P; Brinton, L A

    1992-02-01

    A study in Beijing, China of 112 pathologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 224 age-matched community controls enabled evaluation of risk in relation to reproductive, medical, familial, and selected lifestyle factors. An inverse relationship was observed between the number of full-term pregnancies and ovarian cancer risk. Compared to nulliparous women, subjects with one, two, or three full-term pregnancies were at 50%, 70%, or 90% reduced risks, respectively (P for trend less than 0.01). A positive correlation was found between the number of ovulatory years and risk, with a 2.6-fold increased risk for women with 30 or more compared to less than 10 ovulatory years (P for trend less than 0.01). Infertility, as estimated in various ways, was also found to be an important risk factor. When parity was taken into account, age at first pregnancy was not related to ovarian cancer risk. No protective effect was associated with mumps virus infection. In contrast, risk increased significantly as serum mumps virus antibody titres increased (P for trend less than 0.01). An elevated risk was found in women with a history of long-term (greater than 3 months) application of talc-containing dusting powder to the lower abdomen and perineum (Relative risk 3.9, 95% confidence interval: 0.9-10.63). These findings suggest that Chinese women have risk factors similar to those of occidental women.

  1. Telomere shortening as genetic risk factor of liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Carulli, Lucia

    2015-01-14

    Cirrhosis is the main complication of chronic liver disease, leads to progressive liver function impairment and is the main risk factor for the development of liver cancer. Liver failure at endstage cirrhosis is associated with increased mortality with liver transplantation as the only possible treatment at this stage. The pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis is not completely elucidated. Although the common factors leading to liver injury, such as viral hepatitis, alcohol consume or fatty liver disease can be identified in the majority of patients a small percentage of patients have no apparent risk factors. Moreover given the same risk factors, some patients progress to cirrhosis whereas others have a benign course, the reason remains unclear. In order to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic tools, it is s essential to understand the pathogenesis of cirrhosis. The identification of genetic risk factors associated with cirrhosis is one of the possible approach to achieve these goal. In the past years several studies have supported the role of telomere shortening and cirrhosis. In the recent year several studies on the relation between several single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and cirrhosis have been published; it has been proposed also a cirrhosis risk score based on seven SNPs. Also epidemiological studies on identical twins and in different ethnic groups have been supporting the importance of the role of genetic risk factors. Finally in the very recent years it has been suggested that telomere shortening may represent a genetic risk factor for the development of cirrhosis. PMID:25593453

  2. Tobacco Road Finland - how did an accepted pleasure turn into an avoidable risk behaviour?

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Pekka

    2013-12-01

    Smoking was once defined as an appropriate recreational substance or life comfort, but is now understood as a serious health risk and a public health problem important enough to be controlled by society. In this article the changed social position and development of tobacco regulations in Finland are studied from a perspective of social constructionism. The emergence of recent tobacco controls can be seen as a process whereby tobacco came to be defined as a social problem. I will argue that there were three primary definitions which played a decisive role in this process. Put in historical order, these three definitions contained (1) claims about harms to smokers, (2) claims about harms to others, and (3) claims about tobacco as a highly addictive drug. These conceptions together drove a complementary and mutually reinforcing re-conception of tobacco harms. Consequently, the emergence of these definitions led to the founding of new institutions, practices, and treatments. The leading value in the claim-making process was public health, which transferred the state's interest away from fiscal revenues towards lowering the costs caused by tobacco diseases. Correspondingly, medical science and medical doctors gained a position as the leading authority in the defining the tobacco issue. The latest conceptual innovation is the idea of a tobacco-free Finland by 2040, representing a strategy of 'de-normalising' tobacco use. The reversal in the social and cultural position of tobacco, which in Finland went from one extreme to another, was not based on pressure created by any wider social movements or organised tobacco-specific citizens groups, as in some other countries, but rather by a state health administration supported by a relatively small network of tobacco control advocates. PMID:24331906

  3. Tobacco Road Finland - how did an accepted pleasure turn into an avoidable risk behaviour?

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Pekka

    2013-12-01

    Smoking was once defined as an appropriate recreational substance or life comfort, but is now understood as a serious health risk and a public health problem important enough to be controlled by society. In this article the changed social position and development of tobacco regulations in Finland are studied from a perspective of social constructionism. The emergence of recent tobacco controls can be seen as a process whereby tobacco came to be defined as a social problem. I will argue that there were three primary definitions which played a decisive role in this process. Put in historical order, these three definitions contained (1) claims about harms to smokers, (2) claims about harms to others, and (3) claims about tobacco as a highly addictive drug. These conceptions together drove a complementary and mutually reinforcing re-conception of tobacco harms. Consequently, the emergence of these definitions led to the founding of new institutions, practices, and treatments. The leading value in the claim-making process was public health, which transferred the state's interest away from fiscal revenues towards lowering the costs caused by tobacco diseases. Correspondingly, medical science and medical doctors gained a position as the leading authority in the defining the tobacco issue. The latest conceptual innovation is the idea of a tobacco-free Finland by 2040, representing a strategy of 'de-normalising' tobacco use. The reversal in the social and cultural position of tobacco, which in Finland went from one extreme to another, was not based on pressure created by any wider social movements or organised tobacco-specific citizens groups, as in some other countries, but rather by a state health administration supported by a relatively small network of tobacco control advocates.

  4. Ischemic Heart Disease in Women: A Focus on Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Puja K.; Wei, Janet; Wenger, Nanette K.

    2014-01-01

    Heart disease remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in women in the United States and worldwide. This review highlights known and emerging risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) in women. Traditional Framingham risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, as well as lifestyle habits such as unhealthy diet and sedentary lifestyle are all modifiable. Health care providers should be aware of emerging cardiac risk factors in women such as adverse pregnancy outcomes, systemic autoimmune disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, and radiation-induced heart disease; psychosocial factors such as mental stress, depression, anxiety, low socioeconomic status, and work and marital stress play an important role in IHD in women. Appropriate recognition and management of an array of risk factors is imperative given the growing burden of IHD and need to deliver cost-effective, quality care for women. PMID:25453985

  5. Family functioning and risk factors for disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Lyke, Jennifer; Matsen, Julie

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether any of seven factors of family dysfunction predicted five risk factors for developing eating disorders in young adult women. Participants completed demographic questions, the McMaster Family Assessment Device (Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and the Setting Conditions for Anorexia Nervosa Scale (Slade & Dewey, 1986) online. Five stepwise multiple regressions evaluated whether FAD scores predicted any of the eating disorder risk factors. Unhealthy affective responsiveness predicted general dissatisfaction and social and personal anxiety, and unhealthy general functioning predicted adolescent problems. No FAD factors predicted perfectionism or weight control. These results confirm the importance of families' affective responsiveness and general functioning to the risk of developing eating disorders. However, the lack of relationship among problem-solving, communication, roles, affective involvement, or behavior control with any of the risk factors for eating disorders warrants further investigation.

  6. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research. PMID:26775077

  7. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research.

  8. Stability across cohorts in divorce risk factors.

    PubMed

    Teachman, Jay D

    2002-05-01

    Over the past quarter-century, many covariates of divorce have been identified. However, the extent to which the effects of these covariates remain constant across time is not known. In this article, I examine the stability of the effects of a wide range of divorce covariates using a pooled sample of data taken from five rounds of the National Survey of Family Growth. This sample includes consistent measures of important predictors of divorce, covers marriages formed over 35 years (1950-1984), and spans substantial historical variation in the overall risk of marital dissolution. For the most part, the effects of the major sociodemographic predictors of divorce do not vary by historical period. The one exception is race. These results suggest that the effects associated with historical period have been pervasive, simultaneously altering the risk of divorce for most marriages.

  9. Tubal Factor Infertility and Perinatal Risk After Assisted Reproductive Technology

    PubMed Central

    Kawwass, Jennifer F.; Crawford, Sara; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Session, Donna R.; Boulet, Sheree; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess trends of tubal factor infertility and to evaluate risk of miscarriage and delivery of preterm or low birth weight (LBW) neonates among women with tubal factor infertility using assisted reproductive technology (ART). METHODS We assessed trends of tubal factor infertility among all fresh and frozen, donor, and nondonor ART cycles performed annually in the United States between 2000 and 2010 (N=1,418,774) using the National ART Surveillance System. The data set was then limited to fresh, nondonor in vitro fertilization cycles resulting in pregnancy to compare perinatal outcomes for cycles associated with tubal compared with male factor infertility. We performed bivariate and multivariable analyses controlling for maternal characteristics and calculated adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS The percentage of ART cycles associated with tubal factor infertility diagnoses decreased from 2000 to 2010 (26.02–14.81%). Compared with male factor infertility, tubal factor portended an increased risk of miscarriage (14.0% compared with 12.7%, adjusted RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04–1.12); risk was increased for both early and late miscarriage. Singleton neonates born to women with tubal factor infertility had an increased risk of pre-term birth (15.8% compared with 11.6%, adjusted RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.20–1.34) and LBW (10.9% compared with 8.5%, adjusted RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.20–1.36). Significant increases in risk persisted for early and late preterm delivery and very low and moderately LBW delivery. A significantly elevated risk was also detected for twin, but not triplet, pregnancies. CONCLUSION Tubal factor infertility, which is decreasing in prevalence in the United States, is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, preterm birth, and LBW delivery as compared with couples with male factor infertility using ART. PMID:23812461

  10. Capsaicinoids Modulating Cardiometabolic Syndrome Risk Factors: Current Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicinoids are bioactive nutrients present within red hot peppers reported to cut ad libitum food intake, to increase energy expenditure (thermogenesis) and lipolysis, and to result in weight loss over time. In addition it has shown more benefits such as improvement in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, improving vascular health, improving endothelial function, lowering blood pressure, reducing endothelial cytokines, cholesterol lowering effects, reducing blood glucose, improving insulin sensitivity, and reducing inflammatory risk factors. All these beneficial effects together help to modulate cardiometabolic syndrome risk factors. The early identification of cardiometabolic risk factors can help try to prevent obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:27313880

  11. Risk factors for ovarian cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Booth, M; Beral, V; Smith, P

    1989-10-01

    A hospital-based case-control study of ovarian cancer was conducted in London and Oxford between October 1978 and February 1983. Menstrual characteristics, reproductive and contraceptive history and history of exposure to various environmental factors were compared between 235 women with histologically diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer and 451 controls. High gravidity, hysterectomy, female sterilisation and oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer. Infertility and late age at menopause were associated with an increase in risk. While these factors were related, they were each found to be independently associated with ovarian cancer risk after adjusting for the effect of the other factors.

  12. Behavioral risk factor surveillance of aged Medicare beneficiaries, 1995.

    PubMed

    Arday, D R; Arday, S L; Bolen, J; Rhodes, L; Chin, J; Minor, P

    1997-01-01

    The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing State-based telephone survey of adults, administered through State health departments. The survey estimates health status and the prevalence of various risk factors among respondents, who include both fee-for-service and managed care Medicare beneficiaries. In this article the authors present an overview of the BRFSS and report 1995 regional results among respondents who were 65 years of age or over and who had health insurance. The advantages and disadvantages of using the BRFSS as a tool to monitor beneficiary health status and risk factors are also discussed.

  13. Suicide in peacekeepers: risk factors for suicide versus accidental death.

    PubMed

    Thoresen, Siri; Mehlum, Lars

    2006-08-01

    To investigate risk factors for suicide in veterans of peacekeeping, 43 suicides and 41 fatal accidents in Norwegian peacekeepers (1978 to 1995) were compared in a psychological autopsy study. Mental health problems were the most important risk factor for suicide. Both living alone and the break-up of a love relationship contributed uniquely to suicide risk, even when controlling for mental health problems. No peacekeeping-related factor was associated with suicide. Preventive measures should focus on firearms control, improved detection systems for mental health problems in the military, and peer support through veterans' associations. PMID:16978097

  14. Intimate Partner Violence: Associated Factors and Acceptability of Contraception Among the Women

    PubMed Central

    Mundhra, Rajlaxmi; Singh, Nilanchali; Kaushik, Somya; Mendiratta, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of various types of domestic violence and to find out the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on adoption of contraceptive measures among the women who are victim to this. Materials and Methods: This questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of obstetrics and gynecology of a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Four hundred and one postpartum females were randomly selected over a period of 5 months and were questioned about their age, parity, educational status, occupation, husband's education, monthly family income, and, if present, IPV in detail. These study participants were enquired about their contraceptive knowledge and use. Results: Sexual violence was seen in 38.4% of the cases, physical violence in 22.4% of the cases, and verbal abuse was seen in nearly 32.7% of the cases. In response to any of the three violence faced, only 23 women (11.79%) reacted by discussing with parents and friends. In 4.61% of the cases, the violence was so severe that she had to inform police. This study showed that higher percentage of women without IPV accepted immediate postpartum contraception methods as compared to those with IPV (35.9% vs. 25%, P = 0.023), but the overall frequency of using contraceptive methods was higher in those with IPV as compared to those without IPV (49% vs. 47%, P = 0.690). Conclusion: IPV is associated with increased contraceptive adoption. PMID:27385873

  15. Acceptability and factors associated with willingness to receive short messages for improving antiretroviral therapy adherence in China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yongkang; Ji, Guoping; Tian, Cuicui; Li, Hui; Biao, Wei; Hu, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the acceptability of short message service (SMS) as a reminder for improving antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and determine the factors associated with willingness to accept SMS among people living HIV (PLH) in China. A total of 801 adult patients were recruited in a cross-sectional survey. Factors associated with willingness in unadjusted analyses (α = 0.10) were included in a logistic regression model; 88.4% of the participants owned mobile phones, 49.6% read every short message and 16.2% read only if the phone number was familiar, 79.5% reported daily SMS to remind taking medicine would be helpful, and 68.9% were willing to receive them. In the final model, willingness to accept was positively associated with being young (odds ratio [OR] = 0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11-0.99; p = 0.048), living in the middle or north region (OR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.24-4.50; p = 0.009, OR = 71.79; 95% CI: 21.53-239.37; p < 0.001, respectively), having primary or "junior or higher" education (OR = 5.80; 95% CI: 2.13-15.86; p = 0.001, OR = 3.20; 95% CI: 1.20-8.58; p = 0.021, respectively), having serious disease condition of stage (OR = 10.01; 95% CI: 2.12-47.30; p = 0.004), being a rural resident (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.72-5.10; p < 0.001), having side effect (OR = 4.74; 95% CI: 1.24-18.03; p = 0.023), and taking a dose two or more hours late in the last 30 days (OR = 2.45; 95% CI: 1.26-4.78; p = 0.009). SMS as a reminder for improving ART adherence is acceptable. The survey results indicate that to be effective, messages need to be more acceptable to elderly patients, urban residents, individuals with earlier stage of HIV disease, and individuals not experiencing side effects. Nonetheless, these results suggest that for a high proportion of PLH in China, reminder messages through mobile phones would be useful for increasing compliance with HIV regimens.

  16. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Management

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Puja K.; Minissian, Margo; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to established risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman’s risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger women often use their obstetrician/gynecologist as their primary health provider, this is an opportune time to diagnose and treat CVD risk factors early. Embedding preventive care providers such as nurse practitioners or physician assistants within OB/GYN practices can be considered, with referral to family medicine or internist for ongoing risk assessment and management. The American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association (ASA) stroke prevention guidelines tailored to women recommend that women with a history of pre-eclampsia be evaluated for hypertension and other CVD risk factors within 6 months to 1 year post-partum. Given the burden and impact of CVD on women our society, the entire medical community must work to establish feasible practice and referral patterns for assessment and treatment of CVD risk factors. PMID:26159741

  17. Adverse pregnancy outcomes and cardiovascular risk factor management.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Puja K; Minissian, Margo; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to establish risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman's risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger women often use their obstetrician/gynecologist as their primary health provider, this is an opportune time to diagnose and treat CVD risk factors early. Embedding preventive care providers such as nurse practitioners or physician assistants within OB/GYN practices can be considered, with referral to family medicine or internist for ongoing risk assessment and management. The American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association (ASA) stroke prevention guidelines tailored to women recommend that women with a history of pre-eclampsia can be evaluated for hypertension and other CVD risk factors within 6 months to 1-year post-partum. Given the burden and impact of CVD on women in our society, the entire medical community must work to establish feasible practice and referral patterns for assessment and treatment of CVD risk factors. PMID:26159741

  18. Military risk factors for cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Veitch, Dallas P; Friedl, Karl E; Weiner, Michael W

    2013-11-01

    Delayed neurological health consequences of environmental exposures during military service have been generally underappreciated. The rapidly expanding understanding of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis now makes it possible to quantitate some of the likely long-term health risks associated with military service. Military risk factors for AD include both factors elevated in military personnel such as tobacco use, traumatic brain injury (TBI), depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other nonspecific risk factors for AD including, vascular risk factors such as obesity and obesity-related diseases (e.g., metabolic syndrome), education and physical fitness. The degree of combat exposure, Vietnam era Agent Orange exposure and Gulf War Illness may also influence risk for AD. Using available data on the association of AD and specific exposures and risk factors, the authors have conservatively estimated 423,000 new cases of AD in veterans by 2020, including 140,000 excess cases associated with specific military exposures. The cost associated with these excess cases is approximately $5.8 billion to $7.8 billion. Mitigation of the potential impact of military exposures on the cognitive function of veterans and management of modifiable risk factors through specifically designed programs will be instrumental in minimizing the impact of AD in veterans in the future decades. PMID:23906002

  19. Adverse pregnancy outcomes and cardiovascular risk factor management.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Puja K; Minissian, Margo; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to establish risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman's risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger women often use their obstetrician/gynecologist as their primary health provider, this is an opportune time to diagnose and treat CVD risk factors early. Embedding preventive care providers such as nurse practitioners or physician assistants within OB/GYN practices can be considered, with referral to family medicine or internist for ongoing risk assessment and management. The American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association (ASA) stroke prevention guidelines tailored to women recommend that women with a history of pre-eclampsia can be evaluated for hypertension and other CVD risk factors within 6 months to 1-year post-partum. Given the burden and impact of CVD on women in our society, the entire medical community must work to establish feasible practice and referral patterns for assessment and treatment of CVD risk factors.

  20. Vascular Risk Factors and Cognition in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Pilotto, Andrea; Turrone, Rosanna; Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Bianchi, Marta; Poli, Loris; Borroni, Barbara; Alberici, Antonella; Premi, Enrico; Formenti, Anna; Bigni, Barbara; Cosseddu, Maura; Cottini, Elisabetta; Berg, Daniela; Padovani, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Vascular risk factors have been associated with cognitive deficits and incident dementia in the general population, but their role on cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still unclear. The present study addresses the single and cumulative effect of vascular risk factors on cognition in PD patients, taking clinical confounders into account. Standardized neuropsychological assessment was performed in 238 consecutive PD patients. We evaluated the association of single and cumulative vascular risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and heart disease), with the diagnosis of PD normal cognition (PDNC, n = 94), mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI, n = 111), and dementia (PDD, n = 33). The association between single neuropsychological tests and vascular risk factors was evaluated with covariance analyses adjusted for age at onset, educational levels, gender, disease duration, and motor performance. Age, educational levels, disease duration, and motor function were significantly different between PDNC, PD-MCI, and PDD. Heart disease was the only vascular factor significantly more prevalent in PDD compared with PDNC in adjusted analyses. Performance of tests assessing executive and attention functions were significantly worse in patients with hypertension, heart disease, and/or diabetes (p <  0.05). Heart disease is associated with dementia in PD, suggesting a potential window of intervention. Vascular risk factors act especially on attention and executive functions in PD. Vascular risk stratification may be useful in order to identify PD patients with a greater risk of developing dementia. These findings need to be verified in longitudinal studies. PMID:26890741

  1. A Bayesian Approach to Identifying New Risk Factors for Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yen-Hsia; Wu, Shihn-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Chang, Yang-Pei; Tseng, Kuan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dementia is one of the most disabling and burdensome health conditions worldwide. In this study, we identified new potential risk factors for dementia from nationwide longitudinal population-based data by using Bayesian statistics. We first tested the consistency of the results obtained using Bayesian statistics with those obtained using classical frequentist probability for 4 recognized risk factors for dementia, namely severe head injury, depression, diabetes mellitus, and vascular diseases. Then, we used Bayesian statistics to verify 2 new potential risk factors for dementia, namely hearing loss and senile cataract, determined from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We included a total of 6546 (6.0%) patients diagnosed with dementia. We observed older age, female sex, and lower income as independent risk factors for dementia. Moreover, we verified the 4 recognized risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population; their odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 3.469 to 1.207. Furthermore, we observed that hearing loss (OR = 1.577) and senile cataract (OR = 1.549) were associated with an increased risk of dementia. We found that the results obtained using Bayesian statistics for assessing risk factors for dementia, such as head injury, depression, DM, and vascular diseases, were consistent with those obtained using classical frequentist probability. Moreover, hearing loss and senile cataract were found to be potential risk factors for dementia in the older Taiwanese population. Bayesian statistics could help clinicians explore other potential risk factors for dementia and for developing appropriate treatment strategies for these patients. PMID:27227925

  2. The Effects of Organizational Learning Environment Factors on E-Learning Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Bo; Wang, Minhong; Moormann, Jurgen; Olaniran, Bolanle A.; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2012-01-01

    Workplace learning is an important means of employees' continuous learning and professional development. E-learning is being recognized as an important supportive practice for learning at work. Current research on the success factors of e-learning in the workplace has emphasized on employees' characteristics, technological attributes, and training…

  3. Factors Influencing Adoption of Information Technology Infrastructure Library: Utilizing the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Din S. Z.

    2013-01-01

    There is a shortage of evidence based research that provides organizations with the necessary information in support of their technology adoption decisions in relation to ITSM technologies. As such, this research study attempted to bridge the gap by offering insight on possible factors that could influence such decisions. An examination of…

  4. Acceptance and Success Factors for M-Learning of ERP Systems Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholtz, Brenda; Kapeso, Mando

    2014-01-01

    The effective training of users is a key factor of the success of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system projects. This need for ERP system training is exacerbated by a demand for quality ERP consultants which is evident in Europe and in African countries, particularly in South Africa where science and technology education has been identified…

  5. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, inflammation and cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Katherine P; Solomon, Daniel H

    2013-01-01

    Multiple studies demonstrate an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk associated with RA compared with the general population. While part of this risk appears to be mediated by RA-specific factors, such as long-term inflammation, traditional CV comorbidities also play an important role. We review evidence from previous studies of the relationship between RA and traditional CV comorbidities such as dyslipidaemia, obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes, hypertension, cigarette smoking and physical inactivity. We examine the prevalence and consider the effect of inflammation and RA treatments on these risk factors. Finally, we discuss three widely used CV risk estimators, the Framingham Risk Score, Reynolds Risk Score and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation, and their performance in patients with RA. The traditional CV risk factors that appear to differ significantly between RA cases and controls include insulin resistance, abnormal fat distribution, cigarette smoking and lack of physical activity. Dyslipidaemia, diabetes and hypertension may also be elevated in RA; however, the evidence is conflicting. Overall, we found that the majority of information regarding CV risk factors in RA stems from data collected as covariates for studies on CV disease. A gap in knowledge exists regarding detailed information on individual risk factors in RA, their prevalence and modifications that occur as a result of inflammation or treatment. More studies are needed to develop methods for accurate CV risk estimation in RA. PMID:22986289

  6. A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence was conducted. Inclusion criteria included publication in a peer-reviewed journal, a representative community sample or a clinical sample with a control-group comparison, a response rate of at least 50%, use of a physical or sexual violence outcome measure, and control of confounding factors in the analyses. A total of 228 articles were included (170 articles with adult and 58 with adolescent samples). Organized by levels of a dynamic developmental systems perspective, risk factors included: (a) contextual characteristics of partners (demographic, neighborhood, community and school factors), (b) developmental characteristics and behaviors of the partners (e.g., family, peer, psychological/behavioral, and cognitive factors), and (c) relationship influences and interactional patterns. Comparisons to a prior review highlight developments in the field in the past 10 years. Recommendations for intervention and policy along with future directions for intimate partner violence (IPV) risk factor research are presented. PMID:22754606

  7. Residential Radon: The Neglected Risk Factor in Lung Cancer Risk Scores.

    PubMed

    Torres-Duran, María; Fernandez-Villar, Alberto; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    There are some published scores to estimate lung cancer risk of mortality or incidence. Nevertheless, no score has included residential radon as a variable to be considered when estimating lung cancer risk. In this commentary we discuss the importance of including residential radon as a factor to be taken into account when calculating lung cancer risk. PMID:27565403

  8. Residential Radon: The Neglected Risk Factor in Lung Cancer Risk Scores.

    PubMed

    Torres-Duran, María; Fernandez-Villar, Alberto; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    There are some published scores to estimate lung cancer risk of mortality or incidence. Nevertheless, no score has included residential radon as a variable to be considered when estimating lung cancer risk. In this commentary we discuss the importance of including residential radon as a factor to be taken into account when calculating lung cancer risk.

  9. Environmental risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Nitsche, Claudia; Simon, Peter; Weiss, F Ulrich; Fluhr, Gabriele; Weber, Eckhard; Gärtner, Simone; Behn, Claas O; Kraft, Matthias; Ringel, Jörg; Aghdassi, Ali; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis has long been thought to be mainly associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. The observation that only ∼10% of heavy drinkers develop chronic pancreatitis not only suggests that other environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, are potent additional risk factors, but also that the genetic component of pancreatitis is more common than previously presumed. Either disease-causing or protective traits have been indentified for mutations in different trypsinogen genes, the gene for the trypsin inhibitor SPINK1, chymotrypsinogen C, and the cystic fibrosis transmembane conductance regulator (CFTR). Other factors that have been proposed to contribute to pancreatitis are obesity, diets high in animal protein and fat, as well as antioxidant deficiencies. For the development of pancreatic cancer, preexisting chronic pancreatitis, more prominently hereditary pancreatitis, is a risk factor. The data on environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer are, with the notable exception of tobacco smoke, either sparse, unconfirmed or controversial. Obesity appears to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in the West but not in Japan. Diets high in processed or red meat, diets low in fruits and vegetables, phytochemicals such as lycopene and flavonols, have been proposed and refuted as risk or protective factors in different trials. The best established and single most important risk factor for cancer as well as pancreatitis and the one to clearly avoid is tobacco smoke.

  10. Risk factors for small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    McCowan, Lesley; Horgan, Richard P

    2009-12-01

    There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles (usually defined as <10th centile). The confirmed maternal risk factors include short stature, low weight, Indian or Asian ethnicity, nulliparity, mother born SGA, cigarette smoking and cocaine use. Maternal medical history of: chronic hypertension, renal disease, anti-phospholipid syndrome and malaria are associated with increased SGA. Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. Paternal factors including changed paternity, short stature and father born SGA also contribute. Factors associated with reduced risk of SGA or increased birth weight include high maternal milk consumption and high intakes of green leafy vegetables and fruit. Future studies need to investigate risk factors for babies SGA by customised centiles as these babies have greater morbidity and mortality than babies defined as SGA by population centiles.

  11. Risk factors for small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    McCowan, Lesley; Horgan, Richard P

    2009-12-01

    There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles (usually defined as <10th centile). The confirmed maternal risk factors include short stature, low weight, Indian or Asian ethnicity, nulliparity, mother born SGA, cigarette smoking and cocaine use. Maternal medical history of: chronic hypertension, renal disease, anti-phospholipid syndrome and malaria are associated with increased SGA. Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. Paternal factors including changed paternity, short stature and father born SGA also contribute. Factors associated with reduced risk of SGA or increased birth weight include high maternal milk consumption and high intakes of green leafy vegetables and fruit. Future studies need to investigate risk factors for babies SGA by customised centiles as these babies have greater morbidity and mortality than babies defined as SGA by population centiles. PMID:19604726

  12. Occupational risk factors for developing tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, K D; Hall, N

    1996-08-01

    We sought to assess whether there is an increased risk of tuberculosis among individuals who work in certain industries or occupations. A case-referent study of 149 male tuberculosis (TB) patients reported to the New Jersey Health Department from 1985 to 1987 and 290 referents was performed. Standardized interviews were conducted via the telephone or in person. Increased risk of TB was highest in heavy drinkers (OR = 3.33, 95% CL 1.99-5.59) and those who had a history of living with someone who had a history of TB (OR = 10.92, 95% CL 4.92-24.22). Occupations and industries associated with elevated risk for TB included: four silica-using industries-quarrying (OR = 3.96, 95% CL 0.36-44.02), pottery and related products (OR = 1.99, 95% CL 0.49-8.06), nonmetallic mineral and stone products (OR = 4.00, 95% CL 0.72-22.10), and ship and boat building and repair (OR = 1.84, 95% CL 0.76-4.43); hospitals (OR = 2.10, 95% CL 1.08-4.10); light truck drivers (OR = 2.49, 95% CL 1.30-4.77); agriculture (OR = 2.31, 95% CL 0.82-6.50); eating and drinking establishments (OR = 2.83, 95% CL 1.11-7.20); and janitors/cleaners (OR = 2.00, 95% CL 0.63-6.31). Except for janitors/cleaners, these elevated odds ratios remained for the above occupations/industries after controlling for alcohol or a history of having lived with someone with tuberculosis. Limitations of the study include a poor response rate (38%) and the exclusion of women from the study. PMID:8844044

  13. Strongyloides stercoralis: Global Distribution and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Schär, Fabian; Trostdorf, Ulf; Giardina, Federica; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Vounatsou, Penelope; Odermatt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background The soil-transmitted threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, is one of the most neglected among the so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). We reviewed studies of the last 20 years on S. stercoralis's global prevalence in general populations and risk groups. Methods/Principal Findings A literature search was performed in PubMed for articles published between January 1989 and October 2011. Articles presenting information on infection prevalence were included. A Bayesian meta-analysis was carried out to obtain country-specific prevalence estimates and to compare disease odds ratios in different risk groups taking into account the sensitivities of the diagnostic methods applied. A total of 354 studies from 78 countries were included for the prevalence calculations, 194 (62.4%) were community-based studies, 121 (34.2%) were hospital-based studies and 39 (11.0%) were studies on refugees and immigrants. World maps with country data are provided. In numerous African, Asian and South-American resource-poor countries, information on S. stercoralis is lacking. The meta-analysis showed an association between HIV-infection/alcoholism and S. stercoralis infection (OR: 2.17 BCI: 1.18–4.01; OR: 6.69; BCI: 1.47–33.8), respectively. Conclusions Our findings show high infection prevalence rates in the general population in selected countries and geographical regions. S. stercoralis infection is prominent in several risk groups. Adequate information on the prevalence is still lacking from many countries. However, current information underscore that S. stercoralis must not be neglected. Further assessments in socio-economic and ecological settings are needed and integration into global helminth control is warranted. PMID:23875033

  14. Occupational risk factors for developing tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, K D; Hall, N

    1996-08-01

    We sought to assess whether there is an increased risk of tuberculosis among individuals who work in certain industries or occupations. A case-referent study of 149 male tuberculosis (TB) patients reported to the New Jersey Health Department from 1985 to 1987 and 290 referents was performed. Standardized interviews were conducted via the telephone or in person. Increased risk of TB was highest in heavy drinkers (OR = 3.33, 95% CL 1.99-5.59) and those who had a history of living with someone who had a history of TB (OR = 10.92, 95% CL 4.92-24.22). Occupations and industries associated with elevated risk for TB included: four silica-using industries-quarrying (OR = 3.96, 95% CL 0.36-44.02), pottery and related products (OR = 1.99, 95% CL 0.49-8.06), nonmetallic mineral and stone products (OR = 4.00, 95% CL 0.72-22.10), and ship and boat building and repair (OR = 1.84, 95% CL 0.76-4.43); hospitals (OR = 2.10, 95% CL 1.08-4.10); light truck drivers (OR = 2.49, 95% CL 1.30-4.77); agriculture (OR = 2.31, 95% CL 0.82-6.50); eating and drinking establishments (OR = 2.83, 95% CL 1.11-7.20); and janitors/cleaners (OR = 2.00, 95% CL 0.63-6.31). Except for janitors/cleaners, these elevated odds ratios remained for the above occupations/industries after controlling for alcohol or a history of having lived with someone with tuberculosis. Limitations of the study include a poor response rate (38%) and the exclusion of women from the study.

  15. Occupational and environmental risk factors for falls among workers in the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    Drebit, Sharla; Shajari, Salomeh; Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng; Keen, Dave

    2010-04-01

    Falls are a leading cause of occupational injury for workers in healthcare, yet the risk factors of falls in this sector are understudied. Falls resulting in workers' compensation for time-loss from work from 2004-2007 for healthcare workers in British Columbia (BC) were extracted from a standardised incident-reporting database. Productive hours were derived from payroll data for the denominator to produce injury rates; relative risks were derived through Poisson regression modelling. A total of 411 falls were accepted for time-loss compensation. Compared to registered nurses, facility support workers (risk ratio (95% CI) = 6.29 (4.56-8.69)) and community health workers (6.58 (3.76-11.50)) were at high risk for falls. Falls predominantly occurred outdoors, in patients' rooms and kitchens depending on occupation and sub-sector. Slippery surfaces due to icy conditions or liquid contaminants were a leading contributing factor. Falls were more frequent in the colder months (January-March). The risk of falls varies by nature of work, location and worker demographics. The findings of this research will be useful for developing evidence-based interventions. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Falls are a major cause of occupational injury for healthcare workers. This study examined risk factors including occupation type, workplace design, work setting, work organisation and environmental conditions in a large healthcare worker population in BC, Canada. The findings of this research should contribute towards developing evidence-based interventions. PMID:20309748

  16. Risk factors for ovarian cancer: an overview with emphasis on hormonal factors.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Fariba; Dunfield, Lesley; Phillips, Karen P; Krewski, Daniel; Vanderhyden, Barbara C

    2008-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth most frequently occurring cancer among women and leading cause of gynecological cancer deaths in North America. Although the etiology of ovarian cancer is not clear, certain factors are implicated in the etiology of this disease, such as ovulation, gonadotropic and steroid hormones, germ cell depletion, oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, growth factors, cytokines, and environmental agents. Family history of breast or ovarian cancer is a prominent risk factor for ovarian cancer, with 5-10% of ovarian cancers due to heritable risk. Reproductive factors such as age at menopause and infertility contribute to greater risk of ovarian cancer, whereas pregnancy, tubal ligation, and hysterectomy reduce risk. Oral contraceptive (OC) use has clearly been shown to be protective against ovarian cancer. In contrast, large epidemiologic studies found hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to be a greater risk factor for ovarian cancer. The marked influence of hormones and reproductive factors on ovarian cancer suggests that endocrine disrupters may impact risk; however, there is a notable lack of research in this area. Lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, obesity, and diet may affect ovarian cancer risk. Exposure to certain environmental agents such as talc, pesticides, and herbicides may increase risk of ovarian cancer; however, these studies are limited. Further research is needed to strengthen the database of information from which an assessment of environmental and toxicological risk factors for ovarian cancer can be made.

  17. A social vaccine? Social and structural contexts of HIV vaccine acceptability among most-at-risk populations in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Newman, Peter A; Roungprakhon, Surachet; Tepjan, Suchon; Yim, Suzy; Walisser, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    A safe and efficacious preventive HIV vaccine would be a tremendous asset for low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings, which bear the greatest global impact of AIDS. Nevertheless, substantial gaps between clinical trial efficacy and real-world effectiveness of already licensed vaccines demonstrate that availability does not guarantee uptake. In order to advance an implementation science of HIV vaccines centred on LMIC settings, we explored sociocultural and structural contexts of HIV vaccine acceptability among most-at-risk populations in Thailand, the site of the largest HIV vaccine trial ever conducted. Cross-cutting challenges for HIV vaccine uptake - social stigma, discrimination in healthcare settings and out-of-pocket vaccine cost - emerged in addition to population-specific barriers and opportunities. A 'social vaccine' describes broad sociocultural and structural interventions - culturally relevant vaccine promotion galvanised by communitarian norms, mitigating anti-gay, anti-injecting drug user and HIV-related stigma, combating discrimination in healthcare, decriminalising adult sex work and injecting drug use and providing vaccine cost subsidies - that create an enabling environment for HIV vaccine uptake among most-at-risk populations. By approaching culturally relevant social and structural interventions as integral mechanisms to the success of new HIV prevention technologies, biomedical advances may be leveraged in renewed opportunities to promote and optimise combination prevention. PMID:22780324

  18. Assessing risk for sexual recidivism: some proposals on the nature of psychologically meaningful risk factors.

    PubMed

    Mann, Ruth E; Hanson, R Karl; Thornton, David

    2010-06-01

    Risk assessment and treatment for sexual offenders should focus on individual characteristics associated with recidivism risk. Although it is possible to conduct risk assessments based purely on empirical correlates, the most useful evaluations also explain the source of the risk. In this review, the authors propose that the basic requirements for a psychologically meaningful risk factor are (a) a plausible rationale that the factor is a cause of sexual offending and (b) strong evidence that it predicts sexual recidivism. Based on the second of these criteria, the authors categorize potential risk factors according to the strength of the evidence for their relationship with offending. The most strongly supported variables should be emphasized in both assessment and treatment of sexual offenders. Further research is required, however, to establish causal connections between these variables and recidivism and to examine the extent to which changes in these factors leads to reductions in recidivism potential. PMID:20363981

  19. Risk Factors among Adult Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cathy W.; Webster, Raymond E.

    2007-01-01

    Family patterns of dysfunction that often reinforce maladaptive behaviors and cognitions of children growing up in an alcoholic home environment are often difficult to overcome. Adjustment issues associated with being an adult child of an alcoholic (ACOA) are presented along with factors that have been identified as being important in developing…

  20. Risk factor assessment of endoscopically removed malignant colorectal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Netzer, P; Forster, C; Biral, R; Ruchti, C; Neuweiler, J; Stauffer, E; Schonegg, R; Maurer, C; Husler, J; Halter, F; Schmassmann, A

    1998-01-01

    Background—Malignant colorectal polyps are defined as endoscopically removed polyps with cancerous tissue which has invaded the submucosa. Various histological criteria exist for managing these patients. 
Aims—To determine the significance of histological findings of patients with malignant polyps. 
Methods—Five pathologists reviewed the specimens of 85 patients initially diagnosed with malignant polyps. High risk malignant polyps were defined as having one of the following: incomplete polypectomy, a margin not clearly cancer-free, lymphatic or venous invasion, or grade III carcinoma. Adverse outcome was defined as residual cancer in a resection specimen and local or metastatic recurrence in the follow up period (mean 67months). 
Results—Malignant polyps were confirmed in 70 cases. In the 32 low risk malignant polyps, no adverse outcomes occurred; 16(42%) of the 38 patients with high risk polyps had adverse outcomes (p<0.001). Independent adverse risk factors were incomplete polypectomy and a resected margin not clearly cancer-free; all other risk factors were only associated with adverse outcome when in combination. 
Conclusion—As no patients with low risk malignant polyps had adverse outcomes, polypectomy alone seems sufficient for these cases. In the high risk group, surgery is recommended when either of the two independent risk factors, incomplete polypectomy or a resection margin not clearly cancer-free, is present or if there is a combination of other risk factors. As lymphatic or venous invasion or grade III cancer did not have an adverse outcome when the sole risk factor, operations in such cases should be individually assessed on the basis of surgical risk. 

 Keywords: malignant polyps; colon cancer; colonoscopy; polypectomy; histology PMID:9824349

  1. Risk factors for hookah smoking among arabs and chaldeans.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Hikmet; Geeso, Sanabil G; Arnetz, Bengt B; Arnetz, Judith E

    2014-06-01

    Hookah smoking is more prevalent among individuals of Middle Eastern descent. This study examined general and ethnic-specific risk factors for hookah smoking among Arabs and Chaldeans. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was conducted among 801 adults residing in Southeast Michigan. Binary logistic regression modeling was used to predict risk factors for hookah smoking. Hookah smoking was significantly more prevalent among Arabs (32%) than Chaldeans (26%, p < 0.01) and being Arab was a risk factor for lifetime hookah use. Younger age (<25 years), being male, higher annual income, and having health insurance were significant risk factors for hookah use. Chaldeans believed to a greater extent than Arabs that smoking hookah is less harmful than cigarette smoking (75 vs. 52%, p < 0.001). Hookah smoking is prevalent in both ethnic groups, but significantly higher among Arabs. Results indicate that prevention efforts should target younger males with higher incomes.

  2. Workplace violence in healthcare settings: risk factors and protective strategies.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Gates, Donna M; Miller, Margaret; Howard, Patricia Kunz

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the risk factors and protective strategies associated with workplace violence perpetrated by patients and visitors against healthcare workers. Perpetrator risk factors for patients and visitors in healthcare settings include mental health disorders, drug or alcohol use, inability to deal with situational crises, possession of weapons, and being a victim of violence. Worker risk factors are gender, age, years of experience, hours worked, marital status, and previous workplace violence training. Setting and environmental risk factors for experiencing workplace violence include time of day and presence of security cameras. Protective strategies for combating the negative consequences of workplace violence include carrying a telephone, practicing self-defense, instructing perpetrators to stop being violent, self- and social support, and limiting interactions with potential or known perpetrators of violence. Workplace violence is a serious and growing problem that affects all healthcare professionals. Strategies are needed to prevent workplace violence and manage the negative consequences experienced by healthcare workers following violent events.

  3. What Are the Risk Factors for Hodgkin Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hodgkin disease, or some combination of these factors. Socioeconomic status The risk of Hodgkin disease is greater in people with a higher socioeconomic background. The reason for this is not clear. ...

  4. What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Lung Carcinoid Tumor » Detailed Guide » What are the risk factors for lung carcinoid tumors? Share this Page Close Push escape to close share window. Print ...

  5. Prenatal Factors May Raise Child's Risk for OCD

    MedlinePlus

    ... the researchers found. The study findings held after accounting for other family conditions, such as socioeconomic status ... believes a genetic risk for OCD coupled with environmental factors may trigger the condition. "Some of these ...

  6. What Are the Risk Factors for Anal Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... have few or no known risk factors. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection Most squamous cell anal cancers ... to be linked to infection by the human papilloma virus (HPV), the same virus that causes cervical ...

  7. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  8. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Risk factors, screening, and early detection

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Andrew E; Hernandez, Yasmin G; Frucht, Harold; Lucas, Aimee L

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, with over 38000 deaths in 2013. The opportunity to detect pancreatic cancer while it is still curable is dependent on our ability to identify and screen high-risk populations before their symptoms arise. Risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include multiple genetic syndromes as well as modifiable risk factors. Genetic conditions include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, Lynch Syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome, hereditary pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and ataxia-telangiectasia; having a genetic predisposition can raise the risk of developing pancreatic cancer up to 132-fold over the general population. Modifiable risk factors, which include tobacco exposure, alcohol use, chronic pancreatitis, diet, obesity, diabetes mellitus, as well as certain abdominal surgeries and infections, have also been shown to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer development. Several large-volume centers have initiated such screening protocols, and consensus-based guidelines for screening high-risk groups have recently been published. The focus of this review will be both the genetic and modifiable risk factors implicated in pancreatic cancer, as well as a review of screening strategies and their diagnostic yields. PMID:25170203

  9. Heart Disease Risk Factors | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... three times more likely to develop CHD than people who are not. Depression is twice as common in women as in men. Risk Factors You Can't Control Age and Menopause —As you get older, your risk for CHD and heart attack rises. ...

  10. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, obesity, and smoking) in 329 adults with mental retardation residing in various settings with subjects in the Framingham Offspring Study found that adults with mental retardation had cardiovascular risk profiles similar to those of individuals without mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  11. Familial and Temperamental Risk Factors for Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common disorder that can lead to significant impairment. In this chapter, the author provides background on the disorder and reviews hypothesized familial and temperamental risk factors. In particular, it highlights the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk for Anxiety, now…

  12. Risk Factors for Violence and Relational Aggression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Catalano, Richard F.; Abbott, Robert D.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Analyses examined risk factors for seventh- and ninth-grade youth categorized as nonoffenders, physically violent, relationally aggressive, and both violent and relationally aggressive. Bivariate and multivariate results showed that relationally aggressive youth were elevated on most risks above levels for nonoffenders but lower than those for…

  13. Risk Factors for Bereavement Outcome: A Multivariate Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Houwen, Karolijne; Stroebe, Margaret; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Schut, Henk; van den Bout, Jan; Wijngaards-De Meij, Leoniek

    2010-01-01

    Bereavement increases the risk of ill health, but only a minority of bereaved suffers lasting health impairment. Because only this group is likely to profit from bereavement intervention, early identification is important. Previous research is limited, because of cross sectional designs, small numbers of risk factors, and use of a single measure…

  14. Individual-Level Risk Factors of Incarcerated Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Nicole; Flower, Andrea; Fall, Anna Mari; Williams, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review sought to understand the individual characteristics of incarcerated youth within the major risk factor domains identified by the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). A comprehensive search of the literature from 1979 to 2013 identified 85 articles of individual-level risk characteristics that…

  15. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  16. Environmental and lifestyle risk factors of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Derakhshan, Mohammad H

    2013-06-01

    Effective prevention and early diagnostic strategies are the most important public health interventions in gastric cancer, which remains a common malignancy worldwide. Preventive strategies require identification and understanding of environmental risk factors that lead to carcinogenesis. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the primary carcinogen as this ancient bacterium has a complex ability to interact with its human host. Smoking and salt are strong independent risk factors for gastric cancer whereas alcohol is only a risk when it is heavily consumed. Red meat and high fat increase the risk of gastric cancer however fresh fruits, vegetables (allium family) and certain micronutrients (selenium, vitamin C) reduce the risk, with evidence lacking for fish, coffee and tea. Foods that inhibit H. pylori viability, colonization and infection may reduce cancer risk. Obesity is increasingly recognized as a contributory factor in gastric cardia carcinogenesis. Therefore, modest daily physical activities can be protective against cancer. Foundry workers are at risk for developing gastric cancer with dust iron being an important cause. Other risk factors include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), possibly JC virus and radiation but the effects of these are likely to remain small. PMID:23725070

  17. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Chapman, Derek A.; Bainbridge, Nicolette L.; Scott, Keith G.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated birth risk factors for school-identified specific language impairment among 244,619 students. Very low birth weight, low 5-min Apgar scores, late or no prenatal care, high birth order and low maternal education were associated with high individual-level risk, and low maternal education and unmarried mothers were associated…

  18. Identification of Early Risk Factors for Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 244,610 children (ages 6-8) investigated birth risk factors for learning disabilities. Very low birth weight, low 5- minute Apgar score, and low maternal education were associated with highest individual-level risk. Low maternal education, late or no prenatal care, and tobacco use were associated with highest population-level…

  19. Preterm Birth: An Overview of Risk Factors and Obstetrical Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Amanda; Graham, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and a major public health concern. Risk factors for preterm birth include a history of preterm birth, short cervix, infection, short interpregnancy interval, smoking, and African-American race. The use of progesterone therapy to treat mothers at risk for preterm delivery is becoming more…

  20. Risk Factors for Increased Severity of Paediatric Medication Administration Errors

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Kim; Goodman, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Patients' risks from medication errors are widely acknowledged. Yet not all errors, if they occur, have the same risks for severe consequences. Facing resource constraints, policy makers could prioritize factors having the greatest severe–outcome risks. This study assists such prioritization by identifying work-related risk factors most clearly associated with more severe consequences. Data from three Canadian paediatric centres were collected, without identifiers, on actual or potential errors that occurred. Three hundred seventy-two errors were reported, with outcome severities ranging from time delays up to fatalities. Four factors correlated significantly with increased risk for more severe outcomes: insufficient training; overtime; precepting a student; and off-service patient. Factors' impacts on severity also vary with error class: for wrong-time errors, the factors precepting a student or working overtime significantly increase severe-outcomes risk. For other types, caring for an off-service patient has greatest severity risk. To expand such research, better standardization is needed for categorizing outcome severities. PMID:23968607

  1. A Cross-Cultural Examination of the Impact of Social, Organisational and Individual Factors on Educational Technology Acceptance between British and Lebanese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarhini, Ali; Hone, Kate; Liu, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the social, organisational and individual factors that may affect students' acceptance of e-learning systems in higher education in a cross-cultural context. A questionnaire was developed based on an extended technology acceptance model (TAM). A total sample of 1173 university students from two private universities in Lebanon…

  2. Behavioral risk factors among women presenting for genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Emmons, K M; Kalkbrenner, K J; Klar, N; Light, T; Schneider, K A; Garber, J E

    2000-01-01

    Considerable research attention has been given to the impact of genetic testing on psychological outcomes. Participation in genetic testing also may impact on health behaviors that increase the risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this study is to describe behavioral cancer risk factors of women who requested genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility (BRCA1, BRCA2). Before participation in a genetic testing program, 119 women completed a series of questionnaires designed to assess their health behaviors, perception of risk, and depressive symptomatology. Eight percent of participants were current smokers, 27% did not engage in at least moderate exercise, 46% did not regularly protect themselves from the sun, 39% did not consume at least five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, and 9% drank at least one alcoholic beverage per day. Poisson regression analysis revealed that age was the only predictor of behavioral risk profiles, with older women having fewer cancer risk behaviors. These patients who presented for genetic testing generally had better health behaviors than the general population. However, given their possible high-risk status, these patients should consider further improving their preventable cancer risk factors and, in particular, their diet, sun protection, and physical activity levels. Inclusion of behavioral risk factor counseling in the context of the genetic testing process may be an important opportunity to reach this at-risk population.

  3. Juvenile myopia progression, risk factors and interventions

    PubMed Central

    Myrowitz, Elliott H.

    2011-01-01

    The development and progression of early onset myopia is actively being investigated. While myopia is often considered a benign condition it should be considered a public health problem for its visual, quality of life, and economic consequences. Nearly half of the visually impaired population in the world has uncorrected refractive errors, with myopia a high percent of that group. Uncorrected visual acuity should be screened for and treated in order to improve academic performance, career opportunities and socio-economic status. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the onset and progression of myopia. Twin studies have supported genetic factors and research continues to identify myopia genetic loci. While multiple myopia genetic loci have been identified establishing myopia as a common complex disorder, there is not yet a genetic model explaining myopia progression in populations. Environmental factors include near work, education levels, urban compared to rural location, and time spent outdoors. In this field of study where there continues to be etiology controversies, there is recent agreement that children who spend more time outdoors are less likely to become myopic. Worldwide population studies, some completed and some in progress, with a common protocol are gathering both genetic and environmental cohort data of great value. There have been rapid population changes in prevalence rates supporting an environmental influence. Interventions to prevent juvenile myopia progression include pharmacologic agents, glasses and contact lenses. Pharmacological interventions over 1–2 year trials have shown benefits. Peripheral vision defocus has been found to affect the emmetropization process and may be affected by wearing glasses or contacts. Accommodation accuracy also has been implicated in myopia progression. Further research will aim to assess both the role and interaction of environmental influences and genetic factors. PMID:23961008

  4. Shared Risk Factors for the Perpetration of Physical Dating Violence, Bullying, and Sexual Harassment Among Adolescents Exposed to Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T; Basile, Kathleen C; DeGue, Sarah; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael

    2016-04-01

    The high risk of perpetrating physical dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment by adolescents exposed to domestic violence points to the need for programs to prevent these types of aggression among this group. This study of adolescents exposed to domestic violence examined whether these forms of aggression share risk factors that could be targeted for change in single programs designed to prevent all three types of aggression. Analyses were conducted on 399 mother victims of domestic violence and their adolescents, recruited through community advertising. The adolescents ranged in age from 12 to 16 years; 64 % were female. Generalized estimating equations was used to control for the covariation among the aggression types when testing for shared risk factors. Approximately 70 % of the adolescents reported perpetrating at least one of the three forms of aggression. In models examining one risk factor at a time, but controlling for demographics, adolescent acceptance of sexual violence, mother-adolescent discord, family conflict, low maternal monitoring, low mother-adolescent closeness, low family cohesion, depressed affect, feelings of anger, and anger reactivity were shared across all three aggression types. In multivariable models, which included all of the risk factors examined and the demographic variables, low maternal monitoring, depressed affect and anger reactivity remained significant shared risk factors. Our findings suggest that programs targeting these risk factors for change have the potential to prevent all three forms of aggression. In multivariable models, poor conflict management skills was a risk for bullying and sexual harassment, but not dating violence; acceptance of dating violence was a risk for dating violence and bullying, but not sexual harassment; and none of the examined risk factors were unique to aggression type. The study's implications for the development of interventions and future research are discussed. PMID:26746242

  5. [Anemia as a surgical risk factor].

    PubMed

    Moral García, Victoria; Ángeles Gil de Bernabé Sala, M; Nadia Diana, Kinast; Pericas, Bartolomé Cantallops; Nebot, Alexia Galindo

    2013-07-01

    Perioperative anemia is common in patients undergoing surgery and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and a decreased quality of life. The main causes of anemia in the perioperative context are iron deficiency and chronic inflammation. Anemia can be aggravated by blood loss during surgery, and is most commonly treated with allogeneic transfusion. Moreover, blood transfusions are not without risks, once again increasing patient morbidity and mortality. Given these concerns, we propose to review the pathophysiology of anemia in the surgical environment, as well as its treatment through the consumption of iron-rich foods and by oral or intravenous iron therapy (iron sucrose and iron carboxymaltose). In chronic inflammatory anemia, we use erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (erythropoietin alpha) and, in cases of mixed anemia, the combination of both treatments. The objective is always to reduce the need for perioperative transfusions and speed the recovery from postoperative anemia, as well as decrease the patient morbidity and mortality rate.

  6. The major risk factors for delirium in a clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Harin; Chung, Seockhoon; Joo, Yeon Ho; Lee, Jung Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine the major risk factors for the development of delirium in patients at a single general hospital by comparison with a control group. Subjects and methods We reviewed the medical records of 260 delirium patients and 77 control patients. We investigated age, sex, and risk factors for delirium in the total delirium group (n=260), the delirium medical subgroup (n=142), and the delirium surgical subgroup (n=118). Logistic regression analysis adjusting for age and sex was performed to identify the odds ratio. Results The mean age and the percentage of males were significantly higher in the delirium group compared with the control group (68.9 vs 54.3 years and 70% vs 41.6%, respectively). Risk factors for the delirium group were lower plasma albumin, hypertension, mechanical ventilation, and antipsychotic drug use. Plasma sodium level and hypertension were important risk factors for the delirium medical subgroup. Stroke history, hypertension, ICU care, and medication were important risk factors for the delirium surgical subgroup. Conclusion Lower plasma albumin, hypertension, mechanical ventilation, and antipsychotic drug use are important risk factors for delirium. PMID:27499625

  7. RISK FACTORS OF THYROID PATHOLOGY FORMATION IN OUTPATIENT PREGNANT POPULATION.

    PubMed

    Morchiladze, N; Tkeshelashvili, B; Gagua, D; Gagua, T

    2016-06-01

    Several medical - biological and social - hygienic factors have been found to account for the definite increase in the incidence of thyroid gland disorders in reproductive age and pregnant women. Aim of our study was to identify the risk factors for development of thyroid gland pathology in outpatient pregnant women. Observational study - "case - control" study has been conducted at the base of David Gagua Hospital Ltd. Main (study) group involved 292 pregnant patients with established thyroid pathology. Control group included 58 conditionally healthy pregnant participants without any demonstrated thyroid pathology. Study of risk factors was performed by initial interviewing and specialized questionnaire recording process (so-called two-stage model of interviewing). Characteristics of diet, sleep, physical activity, including harmful habits, socio-economic and hereditary factors were studied; quantitative indices of risk for each component were calculated: odds ratio (OR) and attributable risk (AR), taking into account 95% confidence interval (CI). The Pearson's criterion χ2 with respective P value and the calculator developed by International Society of Evidence-based Medicine were used to obtain the final results. Statistically significant risk factors for development of thyroid pathology were identified, which included: Thyroid gland diseases and hereditary history of diabetes mellitus; low economic income, unfavorable living conditions, unhealthy dietary habits. Despite of the difficulty of assessment of causative relationship between above mentioned components, their strong correlation should be taken into account when defining the strategy of preventive measures, moreover the most part of identified risk factors are manageable. PMID:27441534

  8. Extinction risk depends strongly on factors contributing to stochasticity.

    PubMed

    Melbourne, Brett A; Hastings, Alan

    2008-07-01

    Extinction risk in natural populations depends on stochastic factors that affect individuals, and is estimated by incorporating such factors into stochastic models. Stochasticity can be divided into four categories, which include the probabilistic nature of birth and death at the level of individuals (demographic stochasticity), variation in population-level birth and death rates among times or locations (environmental stochasticity), the sex of individuals and variation in vital rates among individuals within a population (demographic heterogeneity). Mechanistic stochastic models that include all of these factors have not previously been developed to examine their combined effects on extinction risk. Here we derive a family of stochastic Ricker models using different combinations of all these stochastic factors, and show that extinction risk depends strongly on the combination of factors that contribute to stochasticity. Furthermore, we show that only with the full stochastic model can the relative importance of environmental and demographic variability, and therefore extinction risk, be correctly determined. Using the full model, we find that demographic sources of stochasticity are the prominent cause of variability in a laboratory population of Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle), whereas using only the standard simpler models would lead to the erroneous conclusion that environmental variability dominates. Our results demonstrate that current estimates of extinction risk for natural populations could be greatly underestimated because variability has been mistakenly attributed to the environment rather than the demographic factors described here that entail much higher extinction risk for the same variability level.

  9. Dietary Factors and the Risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wook Jin

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades, the incidence of thyroid cancer has rapidly increased worldwide. Thyroid cancer incidence is relatively high in regions where the population's daily iodine intake is insufficient. While low dietary iodine has been considered as a risk factor for thyroid cancer development, previous studies found controversial results across different food types. Among different ethnic groups, dietary factors are influenced by various dietary patterns, eating habits, life-styles, nutrition, and other environmental factors. This review reports the association between dietary factors and thyroid cancer risk among ethnic groups living in different geologic regions. Iodine-rich food such as fish and shellfish may provide a protective role in populations with insufficient daily iodine intake. The consumption of goitrogenic food, such as cruciferous vegetables, showed a positive association with risk. While considered to be a risk factor for other cancers, alcohol intake showed a protective role against thyroid cancer. High consumption of meat such as chicken, pork, and poultry showed a positive association with the risk, but dairy products showed no significant association. Regular use of multivitamins and dietary nitrate and nitrite also showed a positive association with thyroid cancer risk. However, the study results are inconsistent and investigations into the mechanism for how dietary factors change thyroid hormone levels and influence thyroid function are required. PMID:25136535

  10. Risk Factors for Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Amy; Wong, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of Review Provides an overview of the identified risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression emphasizing the pediatric population. Recent findings Over the past ten years, there have been significant changes to our understanding and study of pre-terminal kidney failure. Recent refinements in the measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and GFR estimating equations are important tools for identification and association of risk factors for CKD progression in children. In pediatric CKD, lower level of kidney function at presentation, higher levels of proteinuria, and hypertension are known markers for a more rapid decline in GFR. Anemia and other reported risk factors from the pre-genomic era have need for further study and validation. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic loci which have provided novel genetic risk factors for CKD progression. Summary With cohort studies of children with CKD becoming mature, they have started to yield important refinements to the assessment of CKD progression. While many of the traditional risk factors for renal progression will certainly be assessed, such cohorts will be important for evaluating novel risk factors identified by genome-wide studies. PMID:20090523

  11. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers.

  12. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers. PMID:27494790

  13. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors).

  14. Coming to Terms With Risk Factors for Eating Disorders: Application of Risk Terminology and Suggestions for a General Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobi, Corinna; Hayward, Chris; de Zwaan, Martina; Kraemer, Helena C.; Agras, W. Steward

    2004-01-01

    The aims of the present review are to apply a recent risk factor approach (H. C. Kraemer et al., 1997) to putative risk factors for eating disorders, to order these along a timeline, and to deduce general taxonomic questions. Putative risk factors were classified according to risk factor type, outcome (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

  15. Risk Factors for Endometritis Following Low Transverse Cesarean Section

    PubMed Central

    OLSEN, Margaret A.; BUTLER, Anne M.; WILLERS, Denise M.; GROSS, Gilad A.; DEVKOTA, Preetishma; FRASER, Victoria J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine independent risk factors for endometritis (EMM) following low transverse cesarean section (LTCS). Study design We performed a retrospective case-control study from July 1999 to June 2001 in a large tertiary-care academic hospital. EMM was defined as fever beginning > 24 hours or continuing for ≥ 24 hours after delivery plus fundal tenderness in the absence of other causes for fever. Independent risk factors for EMM were determined by multivariable logistic regression. A fractional polynomial method was used to examine risk of EMM associated with the continuous variable, duration of rupture of membranes. Results EMM was identified in 124/1605 (7.7%) women within 30 days after LTCS. Independent risk factors for EMM included age (odds ratio (OR) for each additional year 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90-0.97) and anemia/perioperative blood transfusion (OR 2.18; CI:1.30-3.68). Risk of EMM was marginally associated with a proxy for low socioeconomic status, lack of private health insurance (OR 1.72; CI: 0.99-3.00), amniotomy (OR 1.69; CI:0.97-2.95), and longer duration of rupture of membranes. Conclusion Risk of EMM was independently associated with younger age and anemia, and was marginally associated with lack of private health insurance, and amniotomy. Although duration of rupture of membranes was only marginally associated with increased risk of EMM, increased risk was observed very soon after rupture of membranes. Knowledge of these risk factors is important to guide selective use of prophylactic antibiotics during labor and heighten awareness of the risk in subgroups at highest risk of infection. PMID:19951198

  16. [Environmental and genetic risk factors for endometrial carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Sénéchal, Claire; Cottereau, Edouard; de Pauw, Antoine; Elan, Camille; Dagousset, Isabelle; Fourchotte, Virginie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lae, Marick; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    In France, endometrial cancer is at the first rank of gynecological cancers for cancer incidence, before ovarian and cervical cancers. In fact, the number of incident cases has been estimated to 7275 for the year 2012; the number of death due to endometrial cancer to 2025. This cancer is hormone-dependent and endogenous (reproductive factors) or exogenous (oral combined contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy) causes of exposition to estrogens are the major environmental risk factors for both types of endometrial cancers: type I or well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinomas; and type II including all other histological types: papillary serous adenocarcinomas, clear cell adenocarcinomas and carcinosarcomas, also known as malignant mixed Mullerian tumor, MMMT. Obesity, diabetes mellitus and adjuvant treatment of breast cancer with tamoxifen are also associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. Genetic factors may also be implicated in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer either as "minor genetic factors" (susceptibility factors), which remain largely unknown and are responsible for the increased observed risk in relatives of women affected with endometrial cancer; or as major genetic factors responsible for hereditary forms and namely for Lynch syndrome whose genetic transmission is of autosomic dominant type. The appropriate recognition of Lynch syndrome is of critical importance because affected patients and their relatives should benefit from specific care. The aims of this review is to describe major environmental and genetic risk factors for endometrial cancer with specific attention to most recent advances in this field and to describe recommendations for care of at-risk women.

  17. Environmental risk factors for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rewers, Marian; Ludvigsson, Johnny

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes has risen considerably in the past 30 years due to changes in the environment that have been only partially identified. In this Series paper, we critically discuss candidate triggers of islet autoimmunity and factors thought to promote progression from autoimmunity to overt type 1 diabetes. We revisit previously proposed hypotheses to explain the growth in the incidence of type 1 diabetes in light of current data. Finally, we suggest a unified model in which immune tolerance to β cells can be broken by several environmental exposures that induce generation of hybrid peptides acting as neoautoantigens. PMID:27302273

  18. DEPRESSION AS A RISK FACTOR FOR OSTEOPOROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Cizza, Giovanni; Primma, Svetlana; Csako, Gyorgy

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health threat. Multiple studies have reported an association between depression and low bone mineral density, but a causal link between these two conditions is disputed. Here we review the endocrine and immune alterations secondary to depression that might affect bone mass. We also discuss the possible role of poor lifestyle in the etiology of osteoporosis in subjects with depression and the potential effect of antidepressants on bone loss. We propose that depression induces bone loss and osteoporotic fractures, primarily via specific immune and endocrine mechanisms, with poor lifestyle habits and use of specific antidepressants also potential contributory factors. PMID:19747841

  19. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS IN ADOLESCENTS.

    PubMed

    do Prado Junior, Pedro Paulo; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: los cambios en el estilo de vida están relacionados con la exposición temprana de los adolescentes a las comorbilidades asociadas a la enfermedad cardiovascular. Estas condiciones pueden tener consecuencias en la edad adulta. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de riesgo cardiovascular y factores asociados en las tres fases de la adolescencia. Métodos: estudio transversal que incluye a adolescentes de 10-19 años en la ciudad de Viçosa, distribuidos en tres fases. Se evaluaron las pruebas de laboratorio, el índice de masa corporal clasificadas en Z-score, según el sexo y la edad, y el porcentaje de grasa corporal, clasificados por sexo. Se utilizó la prueba de chi-cuadrado, la partición de chi-cuadrado con corrección de Bonferroni y la regresión de Poisson. El nivel de significación fue < 0,05. El proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación de la UFV en humanos. Resultados: el sobrepeso, la grasa corporal, el perfil lipídico, el comportamiento sedentario y la historia de enfermedades cardiovasculares en la familia fueron los factores de riesgo cardiovascular más prevalentes entre los adolescentes. Los adolescentes tenían tasas más altas de sobrepeso y grasa. En cuanto a las etapas, la inicial mostró un mayor porcentaje de individuos con comportamiento sedentario, sobrepeso y colesterol total y LDL en comparación con otras fases. Los individuos con cambios en el estado nutricional eran más propensos a desarrollar hipertensión, cambios en el colesterol total, LDL, triglicéridos, insulina, HOMA y HDL bajo, en comparación con los individuos sanos. Conclusiones: los factores de riesgo cardiovascular se han observado en personas cada vez más jóvenes y son factores importantes para identificar una población en riesgo.

  20. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Manal M.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Wolff, Robert A.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Pisters, Peter W.; Evans, Douglas B.; Khan, Rabia; Chou, Ta-Hsu; Lenzi, Renato; Jiao, Li; Li, Donghui

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Although cigarette smoking is the most well-established environmental risk factor for pancreatic cancer, the interaction between smoking and other risk factors has not been assessed. We evaluated the independent effects of multiple risk factors for pancreatic cancer and determined whether the magnitude of cigarette smoking was modified by other risk factors in men and women. METHODS We conducted a hospital-based case-control study involving 808 patients with pathologically diagnosed pancreatic cancer and 808 healthy frequency-matched controls. Information on risk factors was collected by personal interview, and unconditional logistic regression was used to determine adjusted odds ratios (AORs) by the maximum-likelihood method. RESULTS Cigarette smoking, family history of pancreatic cancer, heavy alcohol consumption (>60 mL ethanol/day), diabetes mellitus, and history of pancreatitis were significant risk factors for pancreatic cancer. We found synergistic interactions between cigarette smoking and family history of pancreatic cancer (AOR 12.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6–108.9) and diabetes mellitus (AOR 9.3, 95% CI 2.0–44.1) in women, according to an additive model. Approximately 23%, 9%, 3%, and 5% of pancreatic cancer cases in this study were related to cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, heavy alcohol consumption, and family history of pancreatic cancer, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The significant synergy between these risk factors suggests a common pathway for carcinogenesis of the pancreas. Determining the underlying mechanisms for such synergies may lead to the development of pancreatic cancer prevention strategies for high-risk individuals. PMID:17764494

  1. [Occupational risk factors and medical prevention in corrections officers].

    PubMed

    Mennoial, Nunzio Valerio; Napoli, Paola; Battaglia, Andrea; Candura, Stefano M

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, the Law n. 395/1990 defines the tasks and attributions of prison officers. According to the article 25 of the Legislative Decree n. 81/2008, the occupational physician should participate to risk assessment, and carry out the sanitary surveillance. This report analyzes the various tasks of prison staff, identifies the risk factors, and discusses the preventive strategies, including workers formation and education. Biological agents and work-related stress are the main risk factors, as a consequence of prison overcrowding, personnel shortage and work organization complexity. In his preventive action, and particularly in formulating the judgment on work fitness, the occupational physician often clashes with inadequate ministerial funding.

  2. Traditional Risk Factors are Not Major Contributors to the Variance in Carotid Intima-Media Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Rundek, Tatjana; Blanton, Susan H.; Bartels, Susanne; Dong, Chuanhui; Raval, Ami; Demmer, Ryan T.; Cabral, Digna; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Desvarieux, Moise

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (cIMT) was a widely accepted ultrasound marker of subclinical atherosclerosis in the past. Although traditional risk factors may explain approximately 50% of the variance in plaque burden, they may not explain such a high proportion of the variance in IMT, especially when measured in plaque free-locations. We aimed this study to identify individuals with cIMT unexplained by traditional risk factors for future environmental and genetic research. Methods As part of the Northern Manhattan Study, 1,790 stroke-free individuals (mean age 69±9; 60% women; 61% Hispanic, 19% black, 18% white) were assessed for cIMT using B-mode carotid ultrasound. Multiple linear regression models were evaluated: (1) incorporating pre-specified traditional risk factors; and (2) including less traditional factors, such as inflammation biomarkers, adiponectin, homocysteine and kidney function. Standardized cIMT residual scores were constructed to select individuals with unexplained cIMT. Results Mean total cIMT was 0.92±0.09 mm. The traditional model explained 11% of the variance in cIMT. Age (7%), male sex (3%), glucose (<1%), pack years of smoking (<1%), and LDL-cholesterol (<1%) were significant contributing factors. The model including inflammatory biomarkers explained 16% of the variance in cIMT. Adiponectin was the only additional significant contributor to the variance in cIMT. We identified 358 (20%) individuals with cIMT unexplained by the investigated risk factors. Conclusions Vascular risk factors explain only a small proportion of variance in cIMT. Identification of novel genetic and environmental factors underlying unexplained subclinical atherosclerosis is of outmost importance for future effective prevention of vascular disease. PMID:23704105

  3. Domestic Environmental Risk Factors Associated with Falling in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    LÖK, Neslihan; AKIN, Belgin

    2013-01-01

    Background: This is a cross-sectional study aiming at analyzing the relation between falling and domestic environmental –risk factors in community-dwelling elderly. Methods: The study consisted of 243 randomly chosen community-dwelling elderly over 65 years of age living around a health care center in Central Selcuklu, Konya. Data were collected with a questionnaire form including socio-demographic and other characteristics, with the Rivermead Mobility Index for evaluating mobility condition and an Evaluation Form of Domestic Environmental Risk Factors of Falling (EFDERF), which is developed by the researcher to assess domestic environmental risk factors of falling. Results: Based on (EFDERF) high number of problems lived in bathroom/restroom, kitchen, bedroom, sitting room/saloon and in all other areas was a risk factor in terms of domestic falling characteristics while the number of problems lived in hall and stairs was not a significant risk factor. Conclusion: EFDERF may be used by the nurses and health professionals to evaluate risk of falling and collecting data after visits in primary-care of elderly. PMID:23515204

  4. Developmental and vascular risk factors for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Borenstein, Amy R; Wu, Yougui; Mortimer, James A; Schellenberg, Gerard D; McCormick, Wayne C; Bowen, James D; McCurry, Susan; Larson, Eric B

    2005-03-01

    To investigate developmental and vascular risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined 90 incident cases of probable AD in a cohort of 1859 individuals followed prospectively for six years. The presence of the APOE-epsilon4 allele was the strongest risk factor, and with increasing survival age, the effect of epsilon4 diminished. Among epsilon4 positives, developmental risk factors such as smaller head circumference (< or =54.4 cm) and having more than four children in the household at age 2-3 were independently associated with incident AD (hazard ratio (HR)=2.6 (95% CI 1.04-6.3) and 3.3 (1.2-9.2), respectively). Among epsilon4 negatives, vascular risk factors were related to AD risk (self-reported diagnoses of transient ischemic attack and diabetes (HR=5.1, 95% CI 1.7-15.5; HR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-8.1)). These findings indicate that clinical AD is a result of early life as well as later life risk factors, and that genetic predisposition to the disease may modify the constellation of predictors.

  5. Risk factors for neoplastic progression in Barrett’s esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Wiseman, Elizabeth F; Ang, Yeng S

    2011-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus (BE) confers a significant increased risk for development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), with the pathogenesis appearing to progress through a “metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma” (MDC) sequence. Many of the genetic insults driving this MDC sequence have recently been characterized, providing targets for candidate biomarkers with potential clinical utility to stratify risk in individual patients. Many clinical risk factors have been investigated, and associations with a variety of genetic, specific gastrointestinal and other modifiable factors have been proposed in the literature. This review summarizes the current understanding of the mechanisms involved in neoplastic progression of BE to EAC and critically appraises the relative roles and contributions of these putative risk factors from the published evidence currently available. PMID:21990948

  6. Adolescent risk behaviours and protective factors against peer influence.

    PubMed

    Cattelino, Elena; Glowacz, Fabienne; Born, Michel; Testa, Silvia; Bina, Manuela; Calandri, Emanuela

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the relationships between protective factors and involvement in risk behaviour of Italian adolescents with friends involved in risk. Protective factors were drawn from models of peers and from individual skills (perceived regulatory self-efficacy, intolerant attitudes about deviance) and orientation (to health, school, religion). The data are from two waves, 1 year apart, of a questionnaire survey of adolescents in northwestern Italy. Participants were 908 adolescents (42% boys) ages 14-16 years. Results of a hierarchical regression revealed that religiosity is a protective factor and that friends' models for conventional behaviours and positive attitude about health can mitigate the influence of deviant friends on adolescent risk behaviour 1 year later, even after controlling for prior levels of risk behaviour. Possible implications of this study suggest the importance of implementing preventive interventions by involving the peer group, especially at about 16 years, and working with heterogeneous (deviant and nondeviant) groups. PMID:25448830

  7. Shared Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Koene, Ryan J; Prizment, Anna E; Blaes, Anne; Konety, Suma H

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are the 2 leading causes of death worldwide. Although commonly thought of as 2 separate disease entities, CVD and cancer possess various similarities and possible interactions, including a number of similar risk factors (eg, obesity, diabetes mellitus), suggesting a shared biology for which there is emerging evidence. Although chronic inflammation is an indispensable feature of the pathogenesis and progression of both CVD and cancer, additional mechanisms can be found at their intersection. Therapeutic advances, despite improving longevity, have increased the overlap between these diseases, with millions of cancer survivors now at risk of developing CVD. Cardiac risk factors have a major impact on subsequent treatment-related cardiotoxicity. In this review, we explore the risk factors common to both CVD and cancer, highlighting the major epidemiological studies and potential biological mechanisms that account for them. PMID:26976915

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M

    2015-01-01

    This extensive literature review focuses on cardiovascular risk factors in young adults, with an emphasis on hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Multiple studies have confirmed that hyperlipidemia and hypertension during young adulthood are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in later decades, and CHD is one type of cardiovascular disease. The primary risk factors identified in the literature that are predictive of CHD are age; gender; race/ethnicity; smoking status; high blood pressure; and elevated lipid levels, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The current guidelines are insufficient to address screening and treatment in young adults with cardiovascular risk factors. Future studies are warranted to confirm the extent of cardiovascular risks in young adults, which can then be targeted to this population for prevention and intervention strategies.

  9. [Genetic risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Ikari, Katsunori

    2016-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most common autoimmune diseases, is a systemic, chronic inflammatory disease, which is primarily involves the joints affecting up to 1% of the population. RA is believed to be a complex, multifarious disease that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Disease susceptibility has been estimated to have a genetic component of 60% by data from twin studies. To date, more than 100 RA susceptibility loci, including HLA-DRB1, have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and GWAS meta-analyses. Through a big data approach using large amounts of comprehensive biologic data included GWAS, we identified important information, such as susceptible genes, pathways and cell types that contribute to RA pathogenesis. PMID:27311175

  10. UNRECOGNIZED OR POTENTIAL RISK FACTORS FOR CHILDHOOD CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional epidemiological studies suggest that the contribution of environmental agents to childhood cancer may be minor. However, epidemiological methods can only seldom identify causal factors associated with a relative risk of less than a factor of one and a half to two. App...

  11. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  12. The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and CV Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Quispe, Renato; Benziger, Catherine P.; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Howe, Laura D.; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Casas, Juan P.; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J. Jaime; Montori, Víctor M.; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Diette, Gregory B.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera, María; Wise, Robert A.; Checkley, William; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Sacksteder, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Variations in the distribution of cardiovascular disease and risk factors by socioeconomic status (SES) have been described in affluent societies, yet a better understanding of these patterns is needed for most low- and middle-income countries. Objective This study sought to describe the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and SES using monthly family income, educational attainment, and assets index, in 4 Peruvian sites. Methods Baseline data from an age- and sex-stratified random sample of participants, ages ≥35 years, from 4 Peruvian sites (CRONICAS Cohort Study, 2010) were used. The SES indicators considered were monthly family income (n = 3,220), educational attainment (n = 3,598), and assets index (n = 3,601). Behavioral risk factors included current tobacco use, alcohol drinking, physical activity, daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and no control of salt intake. Cardiometabolic risk factors included obesity, elevated waist circumference, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels. Results In the overall population, 41.6% reported a monthly family income risk of obesity, whereas higher levels of education were associated with lower risk of obesity. In contrast, higher SES according to all 3 indicators was associated with higher levels of triglycerides. Conclusions The association between SES and cardiometabolic risk factors varies depending on the SES indicator used. These results highlight the need to contextualize risk factors by socioeconomic groups in Latin American settings. PMID:27102029

  13. Risk factors for ganciclovir-induced thrombocytopenia and leukopenia.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Shigemi, Akari; Ikawa, Kazuro; Kanazawa, Naoko; Fujisaki, Yuko; Morikawa, Norifumi; Takeda, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Ganciclovir is a nucleoside guanosine analogue that exhibits therapeutic activity against human cytomegalovirus infection, and is primarily excreted via glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. The adverse effects induced by ganciclovir therapy are generally of a hematological nature and include thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Low marrow cellularity and elevated serum creatinine have been identified as risk factors for ganciclovir-induced neutropenia. However, the risk factors for thrombocytopenia have yet to be determined. Therefore, this study investigated patients administered ganciclovir to determine the risk factors for thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Thrombocytopenia occurred in 41 of these patients (30.6%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified three independent risk factors for thrombocytopenia: cancer chemotherapy (odds ratio (OR)=3.1), creatinine clearance (<20 mL/min) (OR=12.8), and the ganciclovir dose (≥12 mg/kg/d) (OR=15.1). Leukopenia occurred in 36 patients (28.6%), and white blood cell count (<6000 cells/mm(3)) (OR=3.7) and the ganciclovir dose (≥12 mg/kg/d) (OR=7.8) were identified as risk factors. These results demonstrated that several factors influenced the occurrence of ganciclovir-induced thrombocytopenia and leukopenia, and suggest that special attention should be paid to patients receiving cancer chemotherapy with a low creatinine clearance (<20 mL/min) and high dose (≥12 mg/kg/d) in order to avoid ganciclovir-induced thrombocytopenia. PMID:25747982

  14. Established and Suspected Risk Factors in Breast Cancer Aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Kluttig, Alexander; Schmidt-Pokrzywniak, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Summary Although a current decline in breast cancer incidence and mortality is being observed, the disease continues to be the most common malignancy among women. Breast cancer is a worldwide public health problem that causes substantial personal and social burdens. While we do not yet know exactly what causes the disease, we know a large number of risk factors that are linked to breast cancer. In particular, hormonal factors seem to play a key role in the causation of the disease. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge of established and suspected risk factors of breast cancer from an epidemiologic point of view. PMID:20847884

  15. Lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women: The ACCEPT – sub-study

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Long, Manhai; Pedersen, Henning S.; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    Background In the past decades, Greenland has changed from a hunter society to a more western lifestyle, causing less intake of traditional food, such as marine mammals, fish and seabirds. These changes in the living conditions and food habits might impact the maternal health in Greenland. Objectives To describe lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women, and to assess possible age and geographical differences. Design Cross-sectional study of 189 Greenlandic pregnant women. Inclusion criteria were ≥18 years and lived >50% of their life in Greenland. Data were collected in 2010–2011, and information was obtained from lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires. Two age groups for comparison were given for the pregnant women (<27 years vs. ≥27 years) with regard to the median age. Region groups for comparison were West, Disko Bay, South, North and East. Results Population characteristics showed that 43.3% had pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) >25.0 kg/m2, 46.3% were current smokers in the beginning of their pregnancy and few participants consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Women <27 years were more in doubt regarding planned breastfeeding period and consumed more dried fish and fast food. A trend for higher alcohol intake during pregnancy was found for women ≥27 years. The regional differences showed that women living >50% in North, South and West had a higher alcohol intake during pregnancy. Women in North had the fewest breastfeeding plans. Women in Disko Bay had the lowest intake of terrestrial species. No significant geographical differences were found for intake of marine mammals or seabirds. Conclusions The present study found relatively high BMI level and high smoking frequency in Greenlandic pregnant women. Age and region differences were found for alcohol consumption, breastfeeding plans and food intake profile. Further research is needed to implement relevant maternal health intervention programs in Greenland

  16. [Role of hormonal risk factors in oral cancer development].

    PubMed

    Suba, Zsuzsanna; Maksa, Györgyi; Mihályi, Szilvia; Takács, Dániel

    2009-04-26

    Male: female ratio of oral cancer cases (OC) is fairly high. Lower rate of female cases as compared with males suggests that some endocrine factors may play role in the development of tumors. The aim of the present study was to clarify the differences of risk factors for OC among male and female cases. In the Oral and Maxillofacial Department of Semmelweis University 2660 OC (2130 males and 530 females) patients were included into the study. Ratio of smoking, alcohol consumption, elevated serum glucose level and menopausal data of the female patients were registered. Concordant to the literary data, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption proved to be an important risk factor for OC both among male and female patients. However, moderate alcohol consumption was a weak risk factor among male and no risk factor among female cases. Elevated serum glucose level was not significant OC risk among male cases, but was a high risk factor among female patients, especially in gingival cancer cases. The female OC cases were near exclusively postmenopausal, and the term between the time of menopause and clinical OC diagnosis was fairly long (average: 17 year). These results suggest that estrogen-deficiency may play an important role in the initiation of OC. In the female OC cases menopause appeared in significantly younger age, and the rate of hysterectomy was also significantly higher as compared with the tumor-free control cases. These data also support the estrogen-deficiency theory of cancer initiation. In postmenopausal female patients both estrogen-deficiency and elevated fasting glucose proved to be risk factors for OC. These results reveal new aspects concerning the etiology of OC and give a possible explanation how smoking-associated tumors may develop even without smoking. PMID:19362935

  17. Genetic risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Maryam; Armstrong, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in individuals older than 65 years of age. It is a multifactorial disorder and identification of risk factors enables individuals to make lifestyle choices that may reduce the risk of disease. Collaboration between geneticists, ophthalmologists, and optometrists suggests that genetic risk factors play a more significant role in AMD than previously thought. The most important genes are associated with immune system modulation and the complement system, e.g., complement factor H (CFH), factor B (CFB), factor C3, and serpin peptidase inhibitor (SERPING1). Genes associated with membrane transport, e.g., ATP-binding cassette protein (ABCR) and voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma 3 (CACNG3), the vascular system, e.g., fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), fibulin-5, lysyl oxidase-like gene (LOXL1) and selectin-P (SELP), and with lipid metabolism, e.g., apolipoprotein E (APOE) and hepatic lipase (LIPC) have also been implicated. In addition, several other genes exhibit some statistical association with AMD, e.g., age-related maculopathy susceptibility protein 2 (ARMS2) and DNA excision repair protein gene (ERCC6) but more research is needed to establish their significance. Modifiable risk factors for AMD should be discussed with patients whose lifestyle and/or family history place them in an increased risk category. Furthermore, calculation of AMD risk using current models should be recommended as a tool for patient education. It is likely that AMD management in future will be increasingly influenced by assessment of genetic risk as such screening methods become more widely available.

  18. Mental illness, criminal risk factors and parole release decisions.

    PubMed

    Matejkowski, Jason; Draine, Jeffrey; Solomon, Phyllis; Salzer, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    Research has not examined whether higher rates of parole denial among inmates with mental illness (MI) are the result of the increased presence of criminal risk factors among this population. Employing a representative sample of inmates with (n  =  219) and without (n  =  184) MI receiving parole release decisions in 2007, this study tested whether the central eight risk factors for recidivism considered in parole release decisions intervened in the relationship between MI and parole release. MI was associated with possession of a substance use disorder, antisocial personality disorder and violent charges while incarcerated; however, these factors were not related to release decisions. MI was found to have neither a direct nor an indirect effect on release decisions. While results indicate that release decisions appear, to some extent, to be evidence-based, they also suggest considerable discretion is being implemented by parole board members in release decisions above and beyond consideration of criminal risk factors.

  19. Immigration disparities in cardiovascular disease risk factor awareness.

    PubMed

    Langellier, Brent A; Garza, Jeremiah R; Glik, Deborah; Prelip, Michael L; Brookmeyer, Ron; Roberts, Christian K; Peters, Anne; Ortega, Alexander N

    2012-12-01

    The association between immigration status and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor awareness is unknown. Using physical examination-based data and participants' self-report of prior diagnosis, we assessed immigration-based disparities in awareness of diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and overweight among 12,124 participants in the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Unawareness of CVD risk factors is high among all groups, but tends to be higher among foreign-born English and non-English speaking participants than among US-born participants. After adjusting for demographic factors and access to health care, foreign-born participants appear more likely to be unaware of their hypertension and overweight than US-born participants. Immigrants are more likely than those born in the US to be unaware of their CVD risk factors, and therefore may be less motivated to seek treatment and modify their behavior to prevent negative CVD outcomes.

  20. Behavioural inhibition: is it a risk factor for anxiety?

    PubMed

    Lahat, Ayelet; Hong, Melanie; Fox, Nathan A

    2011-06-01

    Behavioural inhibition is a stable temperamental trait that is identifiable during infancy and toddlerhood and is characterized by fearful reactivity to novelty. Children identified as behaviourally inhibited have been shown to be at increased risk for developing anxiety disorders such as social phobia. The current review addresses the link between behavioural inhibition and the risk for developing anxiety disorders. Research suggests that this risk may be modulated by a number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Extrinsic factors include particular parental beliefs, parenting styles, and childrearing contexts. Intrinsic factors include executive function capacities such as attention bias, attention shifting, inhibitory control, and self-monitoring. In the present paper we review the contribution of these factors to the development of anxiety in behaviourally inhibited children.